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Sample records for nbn infrared detector

  1. Carrier transport in nBn infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Hill, Cory J.; Fisher, Anita M.; Luong, Edward M.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Rafol, B., , Sir; Pepper, Brian J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2016-09-01

    The nBn photodetector architecture proposed and demonstrated by Maimon and Wicks provides an effective means for lowering generation-recombination dark current by suppressing Shockley-Read-Hall processes, and for reducing surface leakage dark current. This has been especially beneficial for III-V semiconductor based infrared photodiodes, which traditionally tend to suffer from excess depletion dark current and lack of good surface passivation. We examine how contact (n), barrier (B), and absorber (n) properties can affect carrier transport in nBn infrared detector. In an nBn detector the unipolar electron barrier should block only the electrons while allowing the un-impeded flow of holes, but improper barrier doping or barrier-absorber band offset could also block hole transport and result in higher turn-on bias. Contact doping has also been observed to result in higher turn-on bias at higher temperatures. In the case when the absorber is made from n-doped type-II superlattice (T2SL), although it is often assumed that the exceedingly large growth-direction band-edge curvature hole effective mass in n-type long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) T2SL would lead to low hole mobility and therefore low detector collection quantum efficiency, in practice mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) and LWIR nBn infrared detectors have demonstrated good optical response. We explore how hole mobility can be affected by band structure effects such as band mixing and subband splitting to gain better understanding of hole transport in T2SL.

  2. nBn Infrared Detector Containing Graded Absorption Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Bandara, Sumith V.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed to modify the basic structure of an nBn infrared photodetector so that a plain electron-donor- type (n-type) semiconductor contact layer would be replaced by a graded n-type III V alloy semiconductor layer (i.e., ternary or quarternary) with appropriate doping gradient. The abbreviation nBn refers to one aspect of the unmodified basic device structure: There is an electron-barrier ("B" ) layer between two n-type ("n" ) layers, as shown in the upper part of the figure. One of the n-type layers is the aforementioned photon-absorption layer; the other n-type layer, denoted the contact layer, collects the photocurrent. The basic unmodified device structure utilizes minority-charge-carrier conduction, such that, for reasons too complex to explain within the space available for this article, the dark current at a given temperature can be orders of magnitude lower (and, consequently, signal-to-noise ratios can be greater) than in infrared detectors of other types. Thus, to obtain a given level of performance, less cooling (and, consequently, less cooling equipment and less cooling power) is needed. [In principle, one could obtain the same advantages by means of a structure that would be called pBp because it would include a barrier layer between two electron-acceptor- type (p-type) layers.] The proposed modifications could make it practical to utilize nBn photodetectors in conjunction with readily available, compact thermoelectric coolers in diverse infrared- imaging applications that could include planetary exploration, industrial quality control, monitoring pollution, firefighting, law enforcement, and medical diagnosis.

  3. Room temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb nBn detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Hoglund, Linda; Rosenberg, Robert; Kowalczyk, Robert; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Fisher, Anita; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2014-07-14

    In this work, we investigate the high temperature performance of mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb-AlAsSb nBn detectors with cut-off wavelengths near 4.5 μm. The quantum efficiency of these devices is 35% without antireflection coatings and does not change with temperature in the 77–325 K temperature range, indicating potential for room temperature operation. The current generation of nBn detectors shows an increase of operational bias with temperature, which is attributed to a shift in the Fermi energy level in the absorber. Analysis of the device performance shows that operational bias and quantum efficiency of these detectors can be further improved. The device dark current stays diffusion limited in the 150 K–325 K temperature range and becomes dominated by generation-recombination processes at lower temperatures. Detector detectivities are D*(λ) = 1 × 10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T = 300 K and D*(λ) = 5 × 10{sup 9} (cm Hz{sup 0.5}/W) at T = 250 K, which is easily achievable with a one stage TE cooler.

  4. Design of NbN Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors with Enhanced Infrared Detection Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Renema, J. J.; Engel, A.; de Dood, M. J. A.

    2017-09-01

    We optimize the design of NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors using the recently discovered position-dependent detection efficiency in these devices. This optimized design of meandering wire NbN detectors maximizes absorption at positions where photon detection is most efficient by altering the field distribution across the wire. In order to calculate the response of the detectors with different geometries, we use a monotonic local detection efficiency from a nanowire and optical absorption distribution via finite-difference-time-domain simulations. The calculations predict a trade-off between average absorption and absorption at the edge, leading to a predicted optimal wire width close to 100 nm for a 1550-nm wavelength, which drops to a 50-nm wire width for a 600-nm wavelength. The absorption at the edges can be enhanced by depositing a silicon nanowire on top of the superconducting nanowire, which improves both the total absorption efficiency and the internal detection efficiency of meandering wire structures. The proposed structure can be integrated in a relatively simple cavity structure to reach absorption efficiencies of 97% for perpendicular and 85% for parallel polarization.

  5. Nanopillar optical antenna nBn detectors for subwavelength infrared pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chung Hong; Senanayake, Pradeep; Lee, Wook-Jae; Farrell, Alan; Hsieh, Nick; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2015-06-01

    The size, weight and power (SWaP) of state of the art infrared focal plane arrays are limited by the pixel size approaching the diffraction limit. We investigate a novel detector architecture which allows improvements in detectivity by shrinking the absorber volume while maintaining high quantum efficiency and wide field of view (FOV). It has been previously shown that the Nanopillar Optical Antenna (NOA) utilizes 3D plasmonic modes to funnel light into a subwavelength nanopillar absorber. We show detailed electro-optical simulations for the NOA-nBn architecture for overcoming generation recombination current with suitable surface passivation to achieve background limited infrared performance.

  6. Effects of epitaxial structure and processing on electrical characteristics of InAs-based nBn infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Savich, G. R.; Marozas, B. T.; Wicks, G. W.

    2017-02-01

    The conventional processing of the III-V nBn photodetectors defines mesa devices by etching the contact n-layer and stopping immediately above the barrier, i.e., a shallow etch. This processing enables great suppression of surface leakage currents without having to explore surface passivation techniques. However, devices that are made with this processing scheme are subject to lateral diffusion currents. To address the lateral diffusion current, we compare the effects of different processing approaches and epitaxial structures of nBn detectors. The conventional solution for eliminating lateral diffusion current, a deep etch through the barrier and the absorber, creates increased dark currents and an increased device failure rate. To avoid deep etch processing, a new device structure is proposed, the inverted-nBn structure. By comparing with the conventional nBn structure, the results show that the lateral diffusion current is effectively eliminated in the inverted-nBn structure without elevating the dark currents.

  7. Mid-wavelength infrared InAsSb/InSb nBn detector with extended cut-off wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Fisher, Anita M.; Hoglund, Linda; Keo, Sam. A.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2016-09-01

    We extended the cut-off wavelength λc of bulk InAsSb nBn detectors to λc = 4.6 μm at T = 200 K by incorporating series of single InSb monolayer into InAsSb absorber. Detectors with 2 μm thick absorber showed a temperature independent quantum efficiency QEm≈ 0.45 for back-side illumination without antireflection coating. The dark current density was jd = 5 × 10-6 A/cm2 at T = 150 K, and increased to jd = 2 × 10-3 A/cm2 at T = 200 K. At temperatures of T = 150 K and below, the demonstrated photodetectors operate in the background limited performance mode, with detectivity D*(λ) = 3-6 × 1011 cm Hz0.5/W for the background temperature of 300 K, and f/2 field of view.

  8. Effect of Defects on III-V MWIR nBn Detector Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    MWIR, nBn, photodiode, defects, irradiation, lattice mismatch, dark current REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10...rather than diffusion based processes. Keywords: infrared detectors, MWIR, nBn, photodiode, defects, irradiation, lattice mismatch, dark current...grown into the bulk crystal lattice , dislocations from growth on mismatched substrates, or layer interface defects in type-II strained layer

  9. 1/f Noise QWIPs and nBn detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Rafol, S. B.; Ting, D. Z.; Soibel, A.; Höglund, L.; Hill, C. J.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Keo, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    The low-frequency noise is a ubiquitous phenomenon and the spectral power density of this fluctuation process is inversely proportional to the frequency of the signal. We have measured the 1/f noise of a 640 × 512 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) with 6.2 μm peak wavelength. Our experimental observations show that this QWIP FPA's 1/f noise corner frequency is about 0.1 mHz. With this kind of low frequency stability, QWIPs could unveil a new class of infrared applications that have never been imagined before. Furthermore, we present the results from a similar 1/f noise measurement of bulk InAsSb absorber (lattice matched to GaSb substrate) nBn detector array with 4.0 μm cutoff wavelength.

  10. 1/f noise QWIPs, superlattice, and nBn detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Rafol, S. B.; Ting, D. Z.; Soibel, A.; Hill, C. J.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Nguyen, J.; Baker, L.; Fisher, A.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Keo, S. A.; Pepper, B.

    2016-09-01

    The low-frequency noise is a ubiquitous phenomenon and the spectral power density of this fluctuation process is inversely proportional to the frequency of the signal. We have measured the 1/f noise of a 640x512 pixel quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) focal plane array (FPA) with 6.2 μm peak wavelength. Our experimental observations show that this QWIP FPA's 1/f noise corner frequency is about 0.1 mHz. With this kind of low frequency stability, QWIPs could unveil a new class of infrared applications that have never been imagined before. Furthermore, we present the results from a similar 1/f noise measurement of bulk InAsSb absorber (lattice matched to GaSb substrate) nBn detector array with 4.0 μm cutoff wavelength.

  11. Recent advances in superconducting NbN single-photon detector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, Alexander; Divochiy, Alexander; Vachtomin, Yury; Korneeva, Yulia; Florya, Irina; Elezov, Michael; Manova, Nadezhda; Tarkhov, Michael; An, Pavel; Kardakova, Anna; Isupova, Anastasiya; Chulkova, Galina; Smirnov, Konstantin; Kaurova, Natalya; Seleznev, Vitaliy; Voronov, Boris; Goltsman, Gregory

    2011-06-01

    Superconducting single-photon detector (SSPD) is a planar nanostructure patterned from 4-nm-thick NbN film deposited on sapphire substrate. The sensitive element of the SSPD is 100-nm-wide NbN strip. The device is operated at liquid helium temperature. Absorption of a photon leads to a local suppression of superconductivity producing subnanosecond-long voltage pulse. In infrared (at 1550 nm and longer wavelengths) SSPD outperforms avalanche photodiodes in terms of detection efficiency (DE), dark counts rate, maximum counting rate and timing jitter. Efficient single-mode fibre coupling of the SSPD enabled its usage in many applications ranging from single-photon sources research to quantum cryptography. Recently we managed to improve the SSPD performance and measured 25% detection efficiency at 1550 nm wavelength and dark counts rate of 10 s-1. We also improved photon-number resolving SSPD (PNR-SSPD) which realizes a spatial multiplexing of incident photons enabling resolving of up to 4 simultaneously absorbed photons. Another improvement is the increase of the photon absorption using a λ/4 microcavity integrated with the SSPD. And finally in our strive to increase the DE at longer wavelengths we fabricated SSPD with the strip almost twice narrower compared to the standard 100 nm and demonstrated that in middle infrared (about 3 μm wavelength) these devices have DE several times higher compared to the traditional SSPDs.

  12. Comparison of Pre-and Post-Irradiation Low-Frequency Noise Spectra of Midwave Infrared nBn Detectors With Superlattice Absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garduño, Eli A.; Cowan, Vincent M.; Jenkins, Geoffrey D.; Morath, Christian P.; Steenbergen, Elizabeth H.

    2017-04-01

    Noise spectra of type-II strained layer superlattice midwave infrared photodetectors were compared preand postirradiation by a proton fluence of 7.5 × 1011 cm-2 [total ionizing dose equivalent of 100 krad (Si)] and related to the shot noise limit at biases ranging from +200 to -800 mV and temperatures of 130 and 160 K. Pre-irradiation dark current at 130 K was 7.5X Rule '07 and increased to 59X Rule '07 after irradiation. The pre-irradiation noise spectra were within one order of magnitude of the shot noise prediction, while post-irradiation noise spectra were close to two orders higher, indicating the introduction of nonshot-like noise sources.

  13. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Smirnov, K. V.; Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V.; Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  14. Probing the hotspot interaction length in NbN nanowire superconducting single photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renema, J. J.; Gaudio, R.; Wang, Q.; Gaggero, A.; Mattioli, F.; Leoni, R.; van Exter, M. P.; Fiore, A.; de Dood, M. J. A.

    2017-06-01

    We measure the maximal distance at which two absorbed photons can jointly trigger a detection event in NbN nanowire superconducting single photon detector microbridges by comparing the one-photon and two-photon efficiencies of bridges of different overall lengths, from 0 to 400 nm. We find a length of 23 ± 2 nm. This value is in good agreement with the size of the quasiparticle cloud at the time of the detection event.

  15. Fiber-coupled quantum-communications receiver based on two NbN superconducting single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slysz, W.; Wegrzecki, M.; Bar, J.; Grabiec, P.; Górska, M.; Latta, C.; Zwiller, V.; Pearlman, A.; Cross, A.; Korneev, A.; Kouminov, P.; Smirnov, K.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.; Verevkin, A.; Currie, M.; Sobolewski, R.

    2005-09-01

    We present the design and performance of a novel, two-channel single-photon receiver, based on two fiber-coupled NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). The SSPDs are nanostructured superconducting meanders covering an area of 100 μm2 and are known for ultrafast and efficient counting of single, visible-to-infrared photons. Their operation has been explained within a phenomenological hot-electron photoresponse model. Our receiver is intended for fiber-based quantum cryptography and communication systems, operational at near-infrared (NIR) telecommunication wavelengths, λ = 1.3 μm and λ = 1.55 μm. Coupling between the NbN detector and a single-mode optical fiber was achieved using a specially designed, micromechanical photoresist ring, positioned directly over the SSPD active area. The positioning accuracy of the ring was below 1 μm. The receiver with SSPDs was placed (immersed) in a standard liquid-helium transport Dewar and kept without interruption for over two months at 4.2 K. At the same time, the optical fiber inputs and electrical outputs were kept at room temperature. Our best system reached a system quantum efficiency of up to 0.3 % in the NIR radiation range, with the detector coupling efficiency of about 30 %. The response time was measured to be about 250 ps and was limited by our read-out electronics. The measured jitter was close to 35 ps. The presented performance parameters show that our NIR single photon detectors are suitable for practical quantum cryptography and for applications in quantum-correlation experiments.

  16. High performance dual-band InAs/GaSb SLS detectors with nBn and pBp architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plis, E.; Gautam, N.; Myers, S.; Krishna, S. S.; Smith, E. P.; Johnson, S.; Krishna, S.

    2011-06-01

    We report on dual-band (mid-/long-wave infrared) InAs/GaSb strained layer superlattice detector with nBn and pBp architectures. Two band response was registered with 50% cut-off wavelengths of 5μm (both nBn and pBp detectors) and 9μm (nBn)/10μm (pBp). The maximum peak responsivity of MWIR absorber equal to 1.6 A/W (at λ = 5 μm and Vb = +1 V) and LWIR absorber equal to 1.2 A/W (at λ = 10 μm and Vb = -1 V) for nBn detector, with the corresponding values of D* were 1.2 x 1011 Jones and 1.2 x 1010Jones for MWIR and LWIR absorbers, respectively (77 K). The maximum values of quantum efficiency were estimated to 36% (MWIR) and 15% (LWIR) at Vb = +1V and Vb = -1V. For pBp detector, the responsivity equal to 1.6 A/W (at λ = 5 μm and Vb = +0.4 V) and 1.8 A/W (at λ = 9 μm and Vb = -0.7 V) for MWIR and LWIR absorbers was achieved with corresponding values of specific detectivity 5 x 1011 Jones and 2.6 x 1010Jones, respectively. The maximum values of quantum efficiency were estimated to 41% (MWIR) and 25% (LWIR) at Vb = +0.4V and Vb = -0.7V. Moreover, the diffusion-limited behavior of dark current at higher temperatures was observed for MWIR absorber for pBp detector. The overall performance of the dual-band InAs/GaSb SLS detectors with investigated designs showed comparable (nBn design) and superior (pBp design) performance to the QWIP detectors both in MWIR and LWIR bands and comparable performance to MCT detectors in MWIR band (nBn and pBp detector designs).

  17. Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, D.; Dörner, S.; Hofherr, M.; Il'in, K.; Semenov, A.; Heintze, E.; Scheffler, M.; Dressel, M.; Siegel, M.

    2012-10-01

    The spectral detection efficiency and the dark count rate of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) have been studied systematically on detectors made from thin NbN films with different chemical compositions. Reduction of the nitrogen content in the 4 nm thick NbN films results in a decrease of the dark count rates more than two orders of magnitude and in a red shift of the cut-off wavelength of the hot-spot SNSPD response. The observed phenomena are explained by an improvement of uniformity of NbN films that has been confirmed by a decrease of resistivity and an increase of the ratio of the measured critical current to the depairing current. The latter factor is considered as the most crucial for both the cut-off wavelength and the dark count rates of SNSPD. Based on our results we propose a set of criteria for material properties to optimize SNSPD in the infrared spectral region.

  18. Characterization of NbN films for superconducting nanowire single photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Mcdonald, Ross D; Ayala - Valenzuela, Oscar E; Weisse - Bernstein, Nina R; Williamson, Todd L; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Graf, M. J.; Rabin, M. W.

    2011-01-14

    Nanoscopic superconducting meander patterns offer great promise as a new class of cryogenic radiation sensors capable of single photon detection. To realize this potential, control of the superconducting properties on the nanoscale is imperative. To this end, Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors (SNSPDs) are under development by means Energetic Neutral Atom Beam Lithography and Epitaxy, or ENABLE. ENABLE can growth highly-crystalline, epitaxial thin-film materials, like NbN, at low temperatures; such wide-ranging control of fabrication parameters is enabling the optimization of film properties for single photon detection. T{sub c}, H{sub c2}, {zeta}{sub GL} and J{sub c} of multiple thin films and devices have been studied as a function of growth conditions. The optimization of which has already produced devices with properties rivaling all reports in the existing literature.

  19. Study of the effect of NbN on microwave Niobium cavities for gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liccardo, V.; França, E. K.; Aguiar, O. D.; Oliveira, R. M.; Ribeiro, K. L.; Silva, M. M. N. F.

    2016-07-01

    Superconducting reentrant cavities may be used in parametric transducers for resonant-mass gravitational wave detectors. When coupled to a spherical resonant antenna, transducers will monitor its mechanical quadrupolar modes, working as a mass-spring system. In this paper we will investigate the effect of the Niobium Nitride (NbN), produced through plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), on the quality factor of reentrant Niobium (Nb) cavities. With the PIII surface treatment unloaded electrical Q-factors (Q0) of the order of 105 were obtained in cryogenic conditions. These results indicated a significant increase in the effect of superconductivity after the cavity surfaces have been heavily attacked by a concentrated acid mixture and after suffering successive PIII processes. Q0's ~ 3.0 × 105 at 4.2 K are expected to be obtained using Nb RRR399 with a suitable surface treatment. These cavities, with high Q0, are already installed and being tested in the Gravitational Wave Detector Mario Schenberg. The experimental tests have been carried out at the laboratories of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE).

  20. History of infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2012-09-01

    This paper overviews the history of infrared detector materials starting with Herschel's experiment with thermometer on February 11th, 1800. Infrared detectors are in general used to detect, image, and measure patterns of the thermal heat radiation which all objects emit. At the beginning, their development was connected with thermal detectors, such as thermocouples and bolometers, which are still used today and which are generally sensitive to all infrared wavelengths and operate at room temperature. The second kind of detectors, called the photon detectors, was mainly developed during the 20th Century to improve sensitivity and response time. These detectors have been extensively developed since the 1940's. Lead sulphide (PbS) was the first practical IR detector with sensitivity to infrared wavelengths up to ˜3 μm. After World War II infrared detector technology development was and continues to be primarily driven by military applications. Discovery of variable band gap HgCdTe ternary alloy by Lawson and co-workers in 1959 opened a new area in IR detector technology and has provided an unprecedented degree of freedom in infrared detector design. Many of these advances were transferred to IR astronomy from Departments of Defence research. Later on civilian applications of infrared technology are frequently called "dual-use technology applications." One should point out the growing utilisation of IR technologies in the civilian sphere based on the use of new materials and technologies, as well as the noticeable price decrease in these high cost technologies. In the last four decades different types of detectors are combined with electronic readouts to make detector focal plane arrays (FPAs). Development in FPA technology has revolutionized infrared imaging. Progress in integrated circuit design and fabrication techniques has resulted in continued rapid growth in the size and performance of these solid state arrays.

  1. Multi-channeled NbN superconducting single photon detectors (SSPDs) system with NbN meander nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Miki, Shigehito; Wang Zhen

    2009-04-13

    A superconducting single photon detector (SSPD) is promising candidate of the detector in a quantum key distribution (QKD) system, because of its low dark count and high speed repetition rate. We have developed the SSPD system cooled by a GM cryocooler. In this system, and the work surface can be cooled 2.95 K and up to 6 SSPDs can be installed. The active areas of SSPDs are 10x10 {mu}m{sup 2} or 20x20 {mu}m{sup 2}, and the system detection efficiency at dark count rate of 100 Hz reached 2.6% at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  2. High efficiency and rapid response superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector based on asymmetric split ring metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guanhai; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Shao-Wei Lu, Wei

    2014-06-09

    With asymmetric split ring metamaterial periodically placed on top of the niobium nitride (NbN) nanowire meander, we theoretically propose a kind of metal-insulator-metallic metamaterial nanocavity to enhance absorbing efficiency and shorten response time of the superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) operating at wavelength of 1550 nm. Up to 99.6% of the energy is absorbed and 96.5% dissipated in the nanowire. Meanwhile, taking advantage of this high efficiency absorbing cavity, we implement a more sparse arrangement of the NbN nanowire of the filling factor 0.2, which significantly lessens the nanowire and crucially boosts the response time to be only 40% of reset time in previous evenly spaced meander design. Together with trapped mode resonance, a standing wave oscillation mechanism is presented to explain the high efficiency and broad bandwidth properties. To further demonstrate the advantages of the nanocavity, a four-pixel SNSPD on 10 μm × 10 μm area is designed to further reduce 75% reset time while maintaining 70% absorbing efficiency. Utilizing the asymmetric split ring metamaterial, we show a higher efficiency and more rapid response SNSPD configuration to contribute to the development of single photon detectors.

  3. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) with Double Tunnel Junction Contact and Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.-Y; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Hill, Cory J.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice based complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) has already demonstrated very good performance in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. In this work, we describe results on a modified CBIRD device that incorporates a double tunnel junction contact designed for robust device and focal plane array processing. The new device also exhibited reduced turn-on voltage. We also report results on the quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD). By incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the InAsSb absorber of the standard nBn detector structure, the QD-BIRD extend the detector cutoff wavelength from approximately 4.2 micrometers to 6 micrometers, allowing the coverage of the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The device has been observed to show infrared response at 225 K.

  4. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) with Double Tunnel Junction Contact and Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.-Y; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Mumolo, Jason M.; Liu, John K.; Rafol, Sir B.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    The InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice based complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) has already demonstrated very good performance in long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detection. In this work, we describe results on a modified CBIRD device that incorporates a double tunnel junction contact designed for robust device and focal plane array processing. The new device also exhibited reduced turn-on voltage. We also report results on the quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD). By incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the InAsSb absorber of the standard nBn detector structure, the QD-BIRD extend the detector cutoff wavelength from approximately 4.2 micrometers to 6 micrometers, allowing the coverage of the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The device has been observed to show infrared response at 225 K.

  5. Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

  6. Photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Lu, S. S.-M.; Moriarty, J. A.; Crouch, R. K.; Miller, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    A new class of room-temperature infrared detectors has been developed through use of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) or metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal (MISIM) slabs. The detectors, which have been fabricated from Si, Ge and GaAs, rely for operation on the electrical capacitance variations induced by modulated incident radiation. The peak detectivity for a 1000-A Si MISIM detector is comparable to that of a conventional Si detector functioning in the photovoltaic mode. Optimization of the photocapacitive-mode detection sensitivity is discussed.

  7. An ultrafast NbN hot-electron single-photon detector for electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipatov, A.; Okunev, O.; Smirnov, K.; Chulkova, G.; Korneev, A.; Kouminov, P.; Gol'tsman, G.; Zhang, J.; Slysz, W.; Verevkin, A.; Sobolewski, R.

    2002-12-01

    We present the latest generation of our superconducting single-photon detector (SPD), which can work from ultraviolet to mid-infrared optical radiation wavelengths. The detector combines a high speed of operation and low jitter with high quantum efficiency (QE) and very low dark count level. The technology enhancement allows us to produce ultrathin (3.5 nm thick) structures that demonstrate QE hundreds of times better, at 1.55 μm, than previous 10 nm thick SPDs. The best, 10 × 10 μm2, SPDs demonstrate QE up to 5% at 1.55 μm and up to 11% at 0.86 μm. The intrinsic detector QE, normalized to the film absorption coefficient, reaches 100% at bias currents above 0.9 Ic for photons with wavelengths shorter than 1.3 μm.

  8. FOURTH SEMINAR TO THE MEMORY OF D.N. KLYSHKO: Superconducting single-photon ultrathin NbN film detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, A. A.; Minaeva, O. V.; Rubtsova, Inna A.; Milostnaya, I. I.; Chulkova, G. M.; Voronov, B. M.; Smirnov, K. V.; Seleznev, V. A.; Gol'tsman, G. N.; Pearlman, A.; Slysz, W.; Cross, A.; Alvarez, P.; Verevkin, A.; Sobolewski, R.

    2005-08-01

    Superconducting single-photon ultrathin NbN film detectors are studied. The development of manufacturing technology of detectors and the reduction of their operating temperature down to 2 K resulted in a considerable increase in their quantum efficiency, which reached in the visible region (at 0.56 μm) 30%—40%, i.e., achieved the limit determined by the absorption coefficient of the film. The quantum efficiency exponentially decreases with increasing wavelength, being equal to ~20% at 1.55 μm and ~0.02% at 5 μm. For the dark count rate of ~10-4s-1, the experimental equivalent noise power was 1.5×10-20 W Hz-1/2; it can be decreased in the future down to the record low value of 5×10-21 W Hz-1/2. The time resolution of the detector is 30 ps.

  9. HgCdTe barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytko, M.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-05-01

    In the last decade, new strategies to achieve high-operating temperature (HOT) detectors have been proposed, including barrier structures such as nBn devices, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage (cascade) infrared detectors. The ability to tune the positions of the conduction and valence band edges independently in a broken-gap type-II superlattices is especially helpful in the design of unipolar barriers. This idea has been also implemented in HgCdTe ternary material system. However, the implementation of this detector structure in HgCdTe material system is not straightforward due to the existence of a valence band discontinuity (barrier) at the absorber-barrier interface. In this paper we present status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with emphasis on technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown HgCdTe barrier detectors achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. From the perspective of device fabrication their important technological advantage results from less stringent surface passivation requirements and tolerance to threading dislocations.

  10. Minority carrier lifetime and dark current measurements in mid-wavelength infrared InAs0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetectors

    DOE PAGES

    Olson, B. V.; Kim, J. K.; Kadlec, E. A.; ...

    2015-11-03

    Carrier lifetime and dark current measurements are reported for a mid-wavelength infrared InAs 0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetector. Minority carrier lifetimes are measured using a non-contact time-resolved microwave technique on unprocessed portions of the nBn wafer and the Auger recombination Bloch function parameter is determined to be |F1F2|=0.292. Moreover, the measured lifetimes are also used to calculate the expected diffusion dark current of the nBn devices and are compared with the experimental dark current measured in processed photodetector pixels from the same wafer. As a result, excellent agreement is found between the two, highlighting the important relationship between lifetimes and diffusionmore » currents in nBn photodetectors.« less

  11. Heterostructure infrared photovoltaic detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, Antoni

    2000-08-01

    HgCdTe remains the most important material for infrared (IR) photodetectors despite numerous attempts to replace it with alternative materials such as closely related mercury alloys (HgZnTe, HgMnTe), Schottky barriers on silicon, SiGe heterojunctions, GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum wells, InAs/GaInSb strained layer superlattices, high temperature superconductors and especially two types of thermal detectors: pyroelectric detectors and silicon bolometers. It is interesting, however, that none of these competitors can compete in terms of fundamental properties. In addition, HgCdTe exhibits nearly constant lattice parameter which is of extreme importance for new devices based on complex heterostructures. The development of sophisticated controllable vapour phase epitaxial growth methods, such as MBE and MOCVD, has allowed fabrication of almost ideally designed heterojunction photodiodes. In this paper, examples of novel devices based on heterostructures operating in the long wavelength, middle wavelength and short wavelength spectral ranges are presented. Recently, more interest has been focused on p-n junction heterostructures. As infrared technology continues to advance, there is a growing demand for multispectral detectors for advanced IR systems with better target discrimination and identification. HgCdTe heterojunction detectors offer wavelength flexibility from medium wavelength to very long wavelength and multicolour capability in these regions. Recent progress in two-colour HgCdTe detectors is also reviewed.

  12. Long wavelength infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Long wavelength infrared detection is achieved by a detector made with layers of quantum well material bounded on each side by barrier material to form paired quantum wells, each quantum well having a single energy level. The width and depth of the paired quantum wells, and the spacing therebetween, are selected to split the single energy level with an upper energy level near the top of the energy wells. The spacing is selected for splitting the single energy level into two energy levels with a difference between levels sufficiently small for detection of infrared radiation of a desired wavelength.

  13. Barrier infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A superlattice-based infrared absorber and the matching electron-blocking and hole-blocking unipolar barriers, absorbers and barriers with graded band gaps, high-performance infrared detectors, and methods of manufacturing such devices are provided herein. The infrared absorber material is made from a superlattice (periodic structure) where each period consists of two or more layers of InAs, InSb, InSbAs, or InGaAs. The layer widths and alloy compositions are chosen to yield the desired energy band gap, absorption strength, and strain balance for the particular application. Furthermore, the periodicity of the superlattice can be "chirped" (varied) to create a material with a graded or varying energy band gap. The superlattice based barrier infrared detectors described and demonstrated herein have spectral ranges covering the entire 3-5 micron atmospheric transmission window, excellent dark current characteristics operating at least 150K, high yield, and have the potential for high-operability, high-uniformity focal plane arrays.

  14. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  15. High performance pyroelectric infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xu; Luo, Haosu; Ji, Yulong; Yang, Chunli

    2015-10-01

    Single infrared detector made with Relaxative ferroelectric crystal(PMNT) present excellence performance. In this paper include detector capacitance, characteristic of frequency--response, characteristic of detectivity. The measure result show that detectivity of detector made with relaxative ferroelectric crystal(PMNT) exceed three times than made with LT, the D*achieved than 1*109cmHz0.5W-1. The detector will be applied on NDIR spectrograph, FFT spectrograph and so on. The high performance pyroelectric infrared detector be developed that will be broadened application area of infrared detector.

  16. Active Pyroelectric Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Zalameda, Joseph N. (Inventor); Mina, Joseph M. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noncontact pyroelectric infrared detector is described. A pyroelectric film that also has piezoelectric properties is held in place so that it is free to vibrate. It is electrically stimulated to vibrate at a resonance frequency. The vibrating film forms part of a balanced bridge circuit. As thermal radiation impinges on the film the pyroelectric effect causes the resonance frequency to change, thereby unbalancing the bridge circuit. A differential amplifier tracks the change in voltage across the bridge. The resulting voltage signal is further processed by a bandpass filter and a precision rectifier. The device allows for DC or static temperature measurements without the use of a mechanical chopping device.

  17. Cadmium mercury telluride infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, C. T.

    Signal Processing In The Element (SPITE) detectors used in high performance thermal imaging systems are discussed. Developments to improve spatial and temperature resolution are outlined. Focal plane arrays of electronically scanned two-dimensional arrays of CMT detectors are treated. Use of photovoltaic CMT detectors hybridized with silicon addressing circuits is reported. Research to raise the operating temperature of infrared detectors is summarized.

  18. Resonant quantum efficiency enhancement of midwave infrared nBn photodetectors using one-dimensional plasmonic gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Nolde, Jill A. Kim, Chul Soo; Jackson, Eric M.; Ellis, Chase T.; Abell, Joshua; Glembocki, Orest J.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Tischler, Joseph G.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Aifer, Edward H.; Kim, Mijin

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate up to 39% resonant enhancement of the quantum efficiency (QE) of a low dark current nBn midwave infrared photodetector with a 0.5 μm InAsSb absorber layer. The enhancement was achieved by using a 1D plasmonic grating to couple incident light into plasmon modes propagating in the plane of the device. The plasmonic grating is composed of stripes of deposited amorphous germanium overlaid with gold. Devices with and without gratings were processed side-by-side for comparison of their QEs and dark currents. The peak external QE for a grating device was 29% compared to 22% for a mirror device when the illumination was polarized perpendicularly to the grating lines. Additional experiments determined the grating coupling efficiency by measuring the reflectance of analogous gratings deposited on bare GaSb substrates.

  19. Large-area NbN superconducting nanowire avalanche photon detectors with saturated detection efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Ryan P.; Grein, Matthew E.; Gudmundsen, Theodore J.; McCaughan, Adam; Najafi, Faraz; Berggren, Karl K.; Marsili, Francesco; Dauler, Eric A.

    2015-05-01

    Superconducting circuits comprising SNSPDs placed in parallel—superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors, or SNAPs—have previously been demonstrated to improve the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by increasing the critical current. In this work, we employ a 2-SNAP superconducting circuit with narrow (40 nm) niobium nitride (NbN) nanowires to improve the system detection efficiency to near-IR photons while maintaining high SNR. Additionally, while previous 2-SNAP demonstrations have added external choke inductance to stabilize the avalanching photocurrent, we show that the external inductance can be entirely folded into the active area by cascading 2-SNAP devices in series to produce a greatly increased active area. We fabricated series-2-SNAP (s2-SNAP) circuits with a nanowire length of 20 μm with cascades of 2-SNAPs providing the choke inductance necessary for SNAP operation. We observed that (1) the detection efficiency saturated at high bias currents, and (2) the 40 nm 2-SNAP circuit critical current was approximately twice that for a 40 nm non-SNAP configuration.

  20. Complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith V. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An infrared detector having a hole barrier region adjacent to one side of an absorber region, an electron barrier region adjacent to the other side of the absorber region, and a semiconductor adjacent to the electron barrier.

  1. Detector Arrays For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Paper describes status of program for developing integrated infrared detectors for astronomy. Program covers variety of detectors, including extrinsic silicon, extrinsic germanium, and indium antimonide devices with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Paper notes for arrays to reach background noise limit in cryogenic telescope, continued reductions in readout noise and dark current needed.

  2. Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Shigehito; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Wang Zhen; Baek, Burm; Nam, Sae Woo; Miller, Aaron J.; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2008-02-11

    We report on the performance of large area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). 20x20 {mu}m{sup 2} area SSPDs with 80 and 100 nm linewidths and 50% fill factor were fabricated in 4-nm-thick NbN films grown on single-crystal MgO substrates. The high quality of the devices was verified by electrical and optical testing and compares favorably to measurements of 10x10 {mu}m{sup 2} area SSPDs. Measurements of kinetic inductance versus bias current indicate that the constriction density is low. The fiber-coupled detection efficiency of the devices was 0.4%-3.5% at 100 Hz dark count rate.

  3. Defect Related Dark Currents in III-V MWIR nBn Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    detectors are found to be more tolerant of defects compared to pn-junction based devices. Defects more weakly increase dark currents, and cooling reduces...to pn-junction based devices. Defects more weakly increase dark currents, and cooling reduces the defect- produced dark currents more rapidly in nBn...Hawkinsc, T. R. Fortunec, A. Tauke-Pedrettic, G. W. Wicks*a aThe Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, 275 Hutchison Rd, Rochester, NY

  4. Advanced far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    Recent advances in photoconductive and bolometric semiconductor detectors for wavelength 1 mm > {lambda} > 50 {mu}m are reviewed. Progress in detector performance in this photon energy range has been stimulated by new and stringent requirements for ground based, high altitude and space-borne telescopes for astronomical and astrophysical observations. The paper consists of chapters dealing with the various types of detectors: Be and Ga doped Ge photoconductors, stressed Ge:Ga devices and neutron transmutation doped Ge thermistors. Advances in the understanding of basic detector physics and the introduction of modern semiconductor device technology have led to predictable and reliable fabrication techniques. Integration of detectors into functional arrays has become feasible and is vigorously pursued by groups worldwide.

  5. MBE growth of Sb-based bulk nBn infrared photodetector structures on 6-inch GaSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Amy W. K.; Lubyshev, Dmitri; Qiu, Yueming; Fastenau, Joel M.; Wu, Ying; Furlong, Mark J.; Tybjerg, Marius; Martinez, Rebecca J.; Mowbray, Andrew; Smith, Brian

    2015-06-01

    The GaSb-based 6.1 Å lattice constant family of materials and heterostructures provides rich bandgap engineering possibilities and have received considerable attention for their potential and demonstrated performance in infrared (IR) detection and imaging applications. Mid-wave and long-wave IR photodetectors are progressing toward commercial manufacturing applications. To succeed, they must move from research laboratory settings to general semiconductor production, and high-quality GaSb-based epitaxial wafers with diameter larger than the current standard 3-inch are highly desirable. 4-inch GaSb substrates have been in production for a couple of years and are now commercially available. Recently, epi-ready GaSb substrates with diameter in excess of 6-inch were successfully produced. In this work, we report on the MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) growth of generic MWIR bulk nBn photodetectors on 6-inch diameter GaSb substrates. The surface morphology, optical and structural quality of the epiwafers as evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Nomarski microscopy, low temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) will be discussed. Current density versus voltage (J-V) and photoresponsivity measurements from large-area mesa diode fabricated will also be reported. Material and device properties of these 6-inch epiwafers will be compared to similar structures grown on commercially available 4-inch diameter GaSb substrates.

  6. Near infrared detectors for SNAP

    SciTech Connect

    Schubnell, M.; Barron, N.; Bebek, C.; Brown, M.G.; Borysow, M.; Cole, D.; Figer, D.; Lorenzon, W.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Seshadri, S.; Smith, R.; Tarle, G.

    2006-05-23

    Large format (1k x 1k and 2k x 2k) near infrared detectors manufactured by Rockwell Scientific Center and Raytheon Vision Systems are characterized as part of the near infrared R&D effort for SNAP (the Super-Nova/Acceleration Probe). These are hybridized HgCdTe focal plane arrays with a sharp high wavelength cut-off at 1.7 um. This cut-off provides a sufficiently deep reach in redshift while it allows at the same time low dark current operation of the passively cooled detectors at 140 K. Here the baseline SNAP near infrared system is briefly described and the science driven requirements for the near infrared detectors are summarized. A few results obtained during the testing of engineering grade near infrared devices procured for the SNAP project are highlighted. In particular some recent measurements that target correlated noise between adjacent detector pixels due to capacitive coupling and the response uniformity within individual detector pixels are discussed.

  7. Infrared detectors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fick, Wolfgang; Gassmann, Kai Uwe; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Haiml, Markus; Hanna, Stefan; Hübner, Dominique; Höhnemann, Holger; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Thöt, Richard

    2013-12-01

    The motivation and intended benefits for the use of infrared (IR) detectors for space applications are highlighted. The actual status of state-of-the-art IR detectors for space applications is presented based on some of AIM's currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength IR (SWIR) to the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) and very long-wavelength IR (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength IR (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP and the IR detectors for the Sentinel 3 SLSTR will be elaborated. Additionally, dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC, will be addressed.

  8. Tunable quantum well infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A novel infrared detector (20, 20', 20), is provided, which is characterized by photon-assisted resonant tunneling between adjacent quantum wells (22a, 22b) separated by barrier layers (28) in an intrinsic semiconductor layer (24) formed on an n.sup.+ substrate (26), wherein the resonance is electrically tunable over a wide band of wavelengths in the near to long infrared region. An n.sup.+ contacting layer (34) is formed over the intrinsic layer and the substrate is n.sup.+ doped to provide contact to the quantum wells. The detector permits fabrication of arrays (30) (one-dimensional and two-dimensional) for use in imaging and spectroscopy applications.

  9. Thallium selenide infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Nayar, P S; Hamilton, W O

    1977-11-01

    The application of semiconducting thallium selenide for ir detection is described. A responsivity of 10(6) V/W and NEP of the order of 10(-15) W/ radicalHz with a response time of 3 msec can be obtained by operating the detector at 1.5 K.

  10. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  11. GaAs Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.

    1996-01-01

    It is customary to make infrared (IR) detectors in the long wavelength range (8-20 (micro)m) by utilizing the interband transition which promotes an electron across the band gap (E(sub g)) from the valence band to the conduction. These photo-electrons can be collected efficiently, thereby producing a photocurrent in the external circuit.

  12. Growing Crystals for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Unidirectional solidification yields bulk crystals with compositional homogeneity. Unidirectionaly crystal-growth furnace assembly travels vertically so crystal grows upward from bottom tapered end of ampoule. Separately controlled furnaces used for hot (upper) and cold (lower) zones. New process produces ingots with radial compositional homogeneity suitable for fabricating infrared detectors.

  13. Superlattices for Infrared Detectors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-30

    substrate 111-314 XRD, PC GalnSb/InAs superlattice on In-free substrate 111-322 XRD, PC, a Determine absorption coefficient 111-354 XRD, PC, Hall Gal.lnxSb...The tight-.binding transfer matrix elements superatticu it rIn t -lke (tub~ curves) and Ga. "in* nAs- are then determined from the local effective...p-on-n photojunctions to be grown. Superlattice energy gaps were shown to span the infrared, and a 10-pgm absorption coefficient comparable to that

  14. Minority carrier lifetime and dark current measurements in mid-wavelength infrared InAs0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, B. V.; Kim, J. K.; Kadlec, E. A.; Klem, J. F.; Hawkins, S. D.; Leonhardt, D.; Coon, W. T.; Fortune, T. R.; Cavaliere, M. A.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Shaner, E. A.

    2015-11-03

    Carrier lifetime and dark current measurements are reported for a mid-wavelength infrared InAs 0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetector. Minority carrier lifetimes are measured using a non-contact time-resolved microwave technique on unprocessed portions of the nBn wafer and the Auger recombination Bloch function parameter is determined to be |F1F2|=0.292. Moreover, the measured lifetimes are also used to calculate the expected diffusion dark current of the nBn devices and are compared with the experimental dark current measured in processed photodetector pixels from the same wafer. As a result, excellent agreement is found between the two, highlighting the important relationship between lifetimes and diffusion currents in nBn photodetectors.

  15. Amplitude distributions of dark counts and photon counts in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with the HEMT readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaygorsky, J.; Słysz, W.; Shouten, R.; Dorenbos, S.; Reiger, E.; Zwiller, V.; Sobolewski, Roman

    2017-01-01

    We present a new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) by integrating them with a low-noise cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor and a high-load resistor. The integrated sensors are designed to get a better understanding of the origin of dark counts triggered by the detector, as our scheme allows us to distinguish the origin of dark pulses from the actual photon pulses in SSPDs. The presented approach is based on a statistical analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded trains of the SSPD photoresponse transients. It also enables to obtain information on energy of the incident photons, as well as demonstrates some photon-number-resolving capability of meander-type SSPDs.

  16. Proceedings Of Infrared-Detector Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, Craig R.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in infrared imagers for astronomy reported. Proceedings of Third Infrared Detector Technology Workshop is 474-page volume containing 37 papers presented at scientific conference at Ames Research Center in February 1989. Focuses on infrared detectors, arrays of such detectors, and cryogenic electronics relevant to infrared astronomy. Emphasis on development of equipment to make low-background observations from platforms in outer space; also discusses observations from ground-based and airborne platforms.

  17. Infrared detectors for Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, K.; Davis, R. P.; Knowles, P.; Shorrocks, N.

    2016-05-01

    IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer), developed by CNES and launched since 2006 on the Metop satellites, is established as a major source of data for atmospheric science and weather prediction. The next generation - IASI NG - is a French national contribution to the Eumetsat Polar System Second Generation on board of the Metop second generation satellites and is under development by Airbus Defence and Space for CNES. The mission aim is to achieve twice the performance of the original IASI instrument in terms of sensitivity and spectral resolution. In turn, this places very demanding requirements on the infrared detectors for the new instrument. Selex ES in Southampton has been selected for the development of the infrared detector set for the IASI-NG instruments. The wide spectral range, 3.6 to 15.5 microns, is covered in four bands, each served by a dedicated detector design, with a common 4 x 4 array format of 1.3 mm square macropixels. Three of the bands up to 8.7 microns employ photovoltaic MCT (mercury cadmium telluride) technology and the very long wave band employs photoconductive MCT, in common with the approach taken between Airbus and Selex ES for the SEVIRI instrument on Second Generation Meteosat. For the photovoltaic detectors, the MCT crystal growth of heterojunction photodiodes is by the MOVPE technique (metal organic vapour phase epitaxy). Novel approaches have been taken to hardening the photovoltaic macropixels against localised crystal defects, and integrating transimpedance amplifiers for each macropixel into a full-custom silicon read out chip, which incorporates radiation hard design.

  18. Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gol'Tsman, G. N.; Korneev, A.; Rubtsova, I.; Milostnaya, I.; Chulkova, G.; Minaeva, O.; Smirnov, K.; Voronov, B.; Sysz, W.; Pearlman, A.; Verevkin, A.; Sobolewski, Roman

    2005-03-01

    We present our progress on the research and development of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPD's) for ultrafast counting of near-infrared photons for secure quantum communications. Our SSPD's operate in the quantum detection mode based on the photon-induced hotspot formation and subsequent development of a transient resistive barrier across an ultrathin and submicron-width superconducting stripe. The devices are fabricated from 4-nm-thick NbN films and kept in the 4.2- to 2-K temperature range. The detector experimental quantum efficiency in the photon-counting mode reaches above 40% for the visible light and up to 30% in the 1.3- to 1.55-μm wavelength range with dark counts below 0.01 per second. The experimental real-time counting rate is above 2 GHz and is limited by our readout electronics. The SSPD's timing jitter is below 18 ps, and the best-measured value of the noise-equivalent power (NEP) is 5 × 10-21 W/Hz1/2 at 1.3 μm. In terms of quantum efficiency, timing jitter, and maximum counting rate, our NbN SSPD's significantly outperform semiconductor avalanche photodiodes and photomultipliers in the 1.3- to 1.55-μm range.

  19. Field induced gap infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, C. Thomas (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A tunable infrared detector which employs a vanishing band gap semimetal material provided with an induced band gap by a magnetic field to allow intrinsic semiconductor type infrared detection capabilities is disclosed. The semimetal material may thus operate as a semiconductor type detector with a wavelength sensitivity corresponding to the induced band gap in a preferred embodiment of a diode structure. Preferred semimetal materials include Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te, x is less than 0.15, HgCdSe, BiSb, alpha-Sn, HgMgTe, HgMnTe, HgZnTe, HgMnSe, HgMgSe, and HgZnSe. The magnetic field induces a band gap in the semimetal material proportional to the strength of the magnetic field allowing tunable detection cutoff wavelengths. For an applied magnetic field from 5 to 10 tesla, the wavelength detection cutoff will be in the range of 20 to 50 micrometers for Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te alloys with x about 0.15. A similar approach may also be employed to generate infrared energy in a desired band gap and then operating the structure in a light emitting diode or semiconductor laser type of configuration.

  20. High Operating Temperature Midwave Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    The nBn or XBn barrier infrared detector has the advantage of reduced dark current resulting from suppressed Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination and surface leakage. High performance detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InAsSb absorber lattice matched to GaSb substrate, with a matching AlAsSb unipolar electron barrier, have been demonstrated. The band gap of lattice-matched InAsSb yields a detector cutoff wavelength of approximately 4.2 ??m when operating at 150K. We report results on extending the cutoff wavelength of midwave barrier infrared detectors by incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the active area of the detector. Using this approach, we were able to extend the detector cutoff wavelength to 6 ?m, allowing the coverage of the full midwave infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD) shows infrared response at temperatures up to 225 K.

  1. High Operating Temperature Midwave Quantum Dot Barrier Infrared Detector (QD-BIRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    The nBn or XBn barrier infrared detector has the advantage of reduced dark current resulting from suppressed Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination and surface leakage. High performance detectors and focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on InAsSb absorber lattice matched to GaSb substrate, with a matching AlAsSb unipolar electron barrier, have been demonstrated. The band gap of lattice-matched InAsSb yields a detector cutoff wavelength of approximately 4.2 ??m when operating at 150K. We report results on extending the cutoff wavelength of midwave barrier infrared detectors by incorporating self-assembled InSb quantum dots into the active area of the detector. Using this approach, we were able to extend the detector cutoff wavelength to 6 ?m, allowing the coverage of the full midwave infrared (MWIR) transmission window. The quantum dot barrier infrared detector (QD-BIRD) shows infrared response at temperatures up to 225 K.

  2. Reflections From Plasma Would Enhance Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    Quantum efficiency of proposed photoemission semiconductor detector of long-wavelength infrared radiation enhanced by multiple passes of radiation. Device has features of back-to-back heterojunction internal-photoemission (HIP) detector, and Fabry-Perot interferometer. Arrays of devices of this type incorporated into integrated-circuit infrared imaging devices.

  3. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rossington, C.S.

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the ''Star Wars'' nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  4. Germanium blocked impurity band far infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossington, Carolyn Sally

    1988-04-01

    The infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum has been of interest to scientist since the eighteenth century when Sir William Herschel discovered the infrared as he measured temperatures in the sun's spectrum and found that there was energy beyond the red. In the late nineteenth century, Thomas Edison established himself as the first infrared astronomer to look beyond the solar system when he observed the star Arcturus in the infrared. Significant advances in infrared technology and physics, long since Edison's time, have resulted in many scientific developments, such as the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) which was launched in 1983, semiconductor infrared detectors for materials characterization, military equipment such as night-vision goggles and infrared surveillance equipment. It is now planned that cooled semiconductor infrared detectors will play a major role in the Star Wars nuclear defense scheme proposed by the Reagan administration.

  5. Surface Conduction in III-V Semiconductor Infrared Detector Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidor, Daniel Evan

    III-V semiconductors are increasingly used to produce high performance infrared photodetectors; however a significant challenge inherent to working with these materials is presented by unintended electrical conduction pathways that form along their surfaces. Resulting leakage currents contribute to system noise and are ineffectively mitigated by device cooling, and therefore limit ultimate performance. When the mechanism of surface conduction is understood, the unipolar barrier device architecture offers a potential solution. III-V bulk unipolar barrier detectors that effectively suppress surface leakage have approached the performance of the best II-VI pn-based structures. This thesis begins with a review of empirically determined Schottky barrier heights and uses this information to present a simple model of semiconductor surface conductivity. The model is validated through measurements of degenerate n-type surface conductivity on InAs pn junctions, and non-degenerate surface conductivity on GaSb pn junctions. It is then extended, along with design principles inspired by the InAs-based nBn detector, to create a flat-band pn-based unipolar barrier detector possessing a conductive surface but free of detrimental surface leakage current. Consideration is then given to the relative success of these and related bulk detectors in suppressing surface leakage when compared to analogous superlattice-based designs, and general limitations of unipolar barriers in suppressing surface leakage are proposed. Finally, refinements to the molecular beam epitaxy crystal growth techniques used to produce InAs-based unipolar barrier heterostructure devices are discussed. Improvements leading to III-V device performance well within an order of magnitude of the state-of-the-art are demonstrated.

  6. Ultrafast superconducting single-photon detectors for near-infrared-wavelength quantum communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verevkin, A.; Pearlman, A.; Słysz, W.; Zhang, J.; Currie, M.; Korneev, A.; Chulkova, G.; Okunev, O.; Kouminov, P.; Smirnov, K.; Voronov, B.; Gol'Tsman, G. N.; Sobolewski, Roman

    2004-09-01

    The paper reports progress on the design and development of niobium-nitride, superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) for ultrafast counting of near-infrared photons for secure quantum communications. The SSPDs operate in the quantum detection mode, based on photon-induced hotspot formation and subsequent appearance of a transient resistive barrier across an ultrathin and submicron-width superconducting stripe. The devices are fabricated from 3.5 nm thick NbN films and kept at cryogenic (liquid helium) temperatures inside a cryostat. The detector experimental quantum efficiency in the photon-counting mode reaches above 20% in the visible radiation range and up to 10% at the 1.3-1.55 µm infrared range. The dark counts are below 0.01 per second. The measured real-time counting rate is above 2 GHz and is limited by readout electronics (the intrinsic response time is below 30 ps). The SSPD jitter is below 18 ps, and the best-measured value of the noise-equivalent power (NEP) is 2 × 10-18 W/Hz1/2 at 1.3 µm. In terms of photon-counting efficiency and speed, these NbN SSPDs significantly outperform semiconductor avalanche photodiodes and photomultipliers.

  7. Proceedings of the Second Infrared Detector Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    The workshop focused on infrared detector, detector array, and cryogenic electronic technologies relevant to low-background space astronomy. Papers are organized into the following categories: discrete infrared detectors and readout electronics; advanced bolometers; intrinsic integrated infrared arrays; and extrinsic integrated infrared arrays. Status reports on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) programs are also included.

  8. New infrared detectors and solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.

    1979-01-01

    The inventions and published papers related to the project are listed. The research with thin films of LaF3 deposited on GaAs substrates is reported along with improvements in photocapacitative MIS infrared detectors.

  9. Infrared array detectors. [for astronomical observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Arrays of detectors sensitive to infrared radiation will enable astronomical observations to be made with shorter observing times than with discrete detectors and with good relative spatial accuracy. Systems using such arrays are being developed for astronomy in several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. An example of an infrared system is given here consisting of a 32x32 element bismuth doped silicon charge injection device array that has been used in an astronomical camera.

  10. Infrared array detectors. [for astronomical observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Arrays of detectors sensitive to infrared radiation will enable astronomical observations to be made with shorter observing times than with discrete detectors and with good relative spatial accuracy. Systems using such arrays are being developed for astronomy in several regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. An example of an infrared system is given here consisting of a 32x32 element bismuth doped silicon charge injection device array that has been used in an astronomical camera.

  11. A novel electron tunneling infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, T. W.; Waltman, S. B.; Reynolds, J. K.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    The pneumatic infrared detector, originally developed by Golay in the late 1940s, uses the thermal expansion of one cm(exp 3) of xenon at room temperature to detect the heat deposited by infrared radiation. This detector was limited by thermal fluctuations within a 10 Hz bandwidth, but suffered from long thermal time constants and a fragile structure. Nevertheless, it represents the most sensitive room temperature detector currently available in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR). Fabrication of this type of detector on smaller scales has been limited by the lack of a suitably sensitive transducer. Researchers designed a detector based on this principle, but which is constructed entirely from micromachined silicon, and uses a vacuum tunneling transducer to detect the expansion of the trapped gas. Because this detector is fabricated using micromachining techniques, miniaturization and integration into one and two-dimensional arrays is feasible. The extreme sensitivity of vacuum tunneling to changes in electrode separation will allow a prototype of this detector to operate in the limit of thermal fluctuations over a 10 kHz bandwidth. A calculation of the predicted response and noise of the prototype is presented with the general formalism of thermal detectors. At present, most of the components of the prototype have been fabricated and tested independently. In particular, a characterization of the micromachined electron tunneling transducer has been carried out. The measured noise in the tunnel current is within a decade of the limit imposed by shot noise, and well below the requirements for the operation of an infrared detector with the predicted sensitivity. Assembly and characterization of the prototype infrared detector will be carried out promptly.

  12. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using uncooled thermal detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G. |; Rajic, S.; Datskou, I.; Egert, C.M.

    1997-10-01

    The authors have investigated a novel infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the infrared photothermal spectra of molecules absorbed on the surface of an uncooled thermal detector. Traditional gravimetric based chemical detectors (surface acoustic waves, quartz crystal microbalances) require highly selective coatings to achieve chemical specificity. In contrast, infrared microcalorimetric based detection requires only moderately specific coatings since the specificity is a consequence of the photothermal spectrum. They have obtained infrared photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of chemical analytes including diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), 2-mercaptoethanol and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m. They found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m DIMP exhibits two strong photothermal peaks. The photothermal spectra of 2-mercaptoethanol and TNT exhibit a number of peaks in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 {micro}m and the photothermal peaks for 2-mercaptoethanol are in excellent agreement with infrared absorption peaks present in its IR spectrum. The photothermal response of chemical detectors based on microcalorimetric spectroscopy has been found to vary reproducibly and sensitively as a consequence of adsorption of small number of molecules on a detector surface followed by photon irradiation and can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  13. Bias sputtered NbN and superconducting nanowire devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dane, Andrew E.; McCaughan, Adam N.; Zhu, Di; Zhao, Qingyuan; Kim, Chung-Soo; Calandri, Niccolo; Agarwal, Akshay; Bellei, Francesco; Berggren, Karl K.

    2017-09-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) promise to combine near-unity quantum efficiency with >100 megacounts per second rates, picosecond timing jitter, and sensitivity ranging from x-ray to mid-infrared wavelengths. However, this promise is not yet fulfilled, as superior performance in all metrics is yet to be combined into one device. The highest single-pixel detection efficiency and the widest bias windows for saturated quantum efficiency have been achieved in SNSPDs based on amorphous materials, while the lowest timing jitter and highest counting rates were demonstrated in devices made from polycrystalline materials. Broadly speaking, the amorphous superconductors that have been used to make SNSPDs have higher resistivities and lower critical temperature (Tc) values than typical polycrystalline materials. Here, we demonstrate a method of preparing niobium nitride (NbN) that has lower-than-typical superconducting transition temperature and higher-than-typical resistivity. As we will show, NbN deposited onto unheated SiO2 has a low Tc and high resistivity but is too rough for fabricating unconstricted nanowires, and Tc is too low to yield SNSPDs that can operate well at liquid helium temperatures. By adding a 50 W RF bias to the substrate holder during sputtering, the Tc of the unheated NbN films was increased by up to 73%, and the roughness was substantially reduced. After optimizing the deposition for nitrogen flow rates, we obtained 5 nm thick NbN films with a Tc of 7.8 K and a resistivity of 253 μΩ cm. We used this bias sputtered room temperature NbN to fabricate SNSPDs. Measurements were performed at 2.5 K using 1550 nm light. Photon count rates appeared to saturate at bias currents approaching the critical current, indicating that the device's quantum efficiency was approaching unity. We measured a single-ended timing jitter of 38 ps. The optical coupling to these devices was not optimized; however, integration with front-side optical

  14. Heterodyne detection at near-infrared wavelengths with a superconducting NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, Yury; Shcherbatenko, Michael; Shurakov, Alexander; Rodin, Alexander V.; Klimchuk, Artem; Nadezhdinsky, Alexander I.; Maslennikov, Sergey; Larionov, Pavel; Finkel, Matvey; Semenov, Alexander; Verevkin, Aleksandr A.; Voronov, Boris M.; Ponurovsky, Yakov; Klapwijk, Teunis M.; Gol'tsman, Gregory N.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development of a highly sensitive optical receiver for heterodyne IR spectroscopy at the communication wavelength of 1.5 μm (200 THz) by use of a superconducting hot-electron bolometer. The results are important for the resolution of narrow spectral molecular lines in the near-IR range for the study of astronomical objects, as well as for quantum optical tomography and fiber-optic sensing. Receiver configuration as well as fiber-to-detector light coupling designs are discussed. Light absorption of the superconducting detectors was enhanced by nano-optical antennas, which were coupled to optical fibers. An intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth of about 3 GHz was found in agreement with measurements at 300 GHz, and a noise figure of about 25 dB was obtained that was only 10 dB above the quantum limit.

  15. Heterodyne detection at near-infrared wavelengths with a superconducting NbN hot-electron bolometer mixer.

    PubMed

    Lobanov, Yury; Shcherbatenko, Michael; Shurakov, Alexander; Rodin, Alexander V; Klimchuk, Artem; Nadezhdinsky, Alexander I; Maslennikov, Sergey; Larionov, Pavel; Finkel, Matvey; Semenov, Alexander; Verevkin, Aleksandr A; Voronov, Boris M; Ponurovsky, Yakov; Klapwijk, Teunis M; Gol'tsman, Gregory N

    2014-03-15

    We report on the development of a highly sensitive optical receiver for heterodyne IR spectroscopy at the communication wavelength of 1.5 μm (200 THz) by use of a superconducting hot-electron bolometer. The results are important for the resolution of narrow spectral molecular lines in the near-IR range for the study of astronomical objects, as well as for quantum optical tomography and fiber-optic sensing. Receiver configuration as well as fiber-to-detector light coupling designs are discussed. Light absorption of the superconducting detectors was enhanced by nano-optical antennas, which were coupled to optical fibers. An intermediate frequency (IF) bandwidth of about 3 GHz was found in agreement with measurements at 300 GHz, and a noise figure of about 25 dB was obtained that was only 10 dB above the quantum limit.

  16. Ferroelectric infrared detector and method

    DOEpatents

    Lashley, Jason Charles; Opeil, Cyril P.; Smith, James Lawrence

    2010-03-30

    An apparatus and method are provided for sensing infrared radiation. The apparatus includes a sensor element that is positioned in a magnetic field during operation to ensure a .lamda. shaped relationship between specific heat and temperature adjacent the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric material comprising the sensor element. The apparatus is operated by inducing a magnetic field on the ferroelectric material to reduce surface charge on the element during its operation.

  17. Infrared Detectors in Precision Guided Munitions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    operatc.-, by v i,; tu . trast in emitted between the target and its surrounding background. Objects car ex- change energy by three means: conduction ... convection , and radiation. The basis for using infrared detectors is that all objects emitting a temperature , *, , soute z.,_ ,, ,-.n be detected

  18. Infrared diagnosis using liquid crystal detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hugenschmidt, M.; Vollrath, K.

    1986-01-01

    The possible uses of pulsed carbon dioxide lasers for analysis of plasmas and flows need appropriate infrared image converters. Emphasis was placed on liquid crystal detectors and their operational modes. Performance characterstics and selection criteria, such as high sensitivity, short reaction time, and high spatial resolution are discussed.

  19. Speech Recognition Using Visible and Infrared Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    AFIT/GEIENG/93M-01 D IAgu ELECTE AD-A262 490 1 APR5 1993.* SPEECH RECOGNITION USING VISIBLE AND INFRARED DETECTORS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of...30 IV. Speech Processing Algorithms ....................................................... 32 4.1 Audio...43 4.5 Speech Recognition: .......................................................... 47 4.5.1 Non-sensor fusion word

  20. Ge photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binari, S. C.; Miller, W. E.; Tsuo, Y. H.; Miller, W. E.

    1979-01-01

    An undoped Ge photocapacitive detector is reported which has peak normalized detectivities at wavelengh 1.4 microns and chopping frequencies 13-1000 Hz of 9 x 10 to the 12th, 4 x 10 to the 9th cm Hz to the 1/2th/W operating respectively at temperatures 77, 195, and 295 K. The observed temperature, spectral, and frequency response of the signal and noise are explained in terms of the measured space charge and interface state properties of the device.

  1. Infrared Detector System with Controlled Thermal Conductance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A thermal infrared detector system includes a heat sink, a support member, a connection support member connecting the support member to the heat sink and including a heater unit is reviewed. An infrared detector element is mounted on the support member and a temperature signal representative of the infrared energy contacting the support member can then be derived by comparing the temperature of the support member and the heat sink. The temperature signal from a support member and a temperature signal from the connection support member can then be used to drive a heater unit mounted on the connection support member to thereby control the thermal conductance of the support member. Thus, the thermal conductance can be controlled so that it can be actively increased or decreased as desired.

  2. QWIP infrared detector production line results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runtz, Michel; Perrier, Franck; Ricard, Nicolas; Costard, Eric; Nedelcu, Alexandru; Guériaux, Vincent

    2012-06-01

    Since 1997, Sofradir has been working with Thales Research & Technologies (TRT) to develop and produce Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors (QWIP) as a complementary offer with Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) Long Wave (LW) detectors, to provide large LW staring arrays. Thanks to the low dark current technology developed by TRT, the QWIP detectors can be operated at FPA temperature above 73K, enabling the production of compact Infrared (IR) cameras thanks to the use of compact microcoolers. The TV/2 VEGA-LW detector (25μm pitch 384×288 Integrated Detector Dewar Assembly (IDDCA)) is integrated in the Catherine-XP thermal imager from Thales Optronique SA (TOSA). To date, more than one thousand units have been manufactured. The TV SIRIUS-LW detector (20μm pitch 640×512 IDDCA) is integrated in the Catherine-MP thermal imager from Thales Optronics Ltd. (TOL). To date, several hundreds of units have been manufactured. We will discuss in this paper statistical results of these productions and our latest reliability study results, which highlight the stability of the TRT QWIP technology. Thanks to this mature technology, TRT and Sofradir have been able to increase the QWIP wafer size from 3 inches to 4 inches, without any impact on yields and FPA performances. A dual-band Mid Wave-Long Wave (MW-LW) QWIP detector (25μm pitch 384×288 IDDCA) is currently under development. We will present in this paper its latest results.

  3. Antimonide type-II superlattice barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Höglund, Linda; Keo, Sam A.; Rafol, B., , Sir; Hill, Cory J.; Fisher, Anita M.; Luong, Edward M.; Nguyen, Jean; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Pepper, Brian J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2017-02-01

    We provide a brief overview of recent progress in III-V semiconductor infrared photodetectors resulting from advances in infrared detector materials, including type-II superlattices (T2SL) and InAsSb alloy, and the unipolar detector architecture. We summarize T2SL unipolar barrier infrared detector and focal plane array development at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory in support of the Vital Infrared Sensor Technology Acceleration (VISTA) Program. We also comment on the connection of T2SL barrier infrared detector to MCT infrared detectors.

  4. Two-color infrared detector

    DOEpatents

    Klem, John F; Kim, Jin K

    2014-05-13

    A two-color detector includes a first absorber layer. The first absorber layer exhibits a first valence band energy characterized by a first valence band energy function. A barrier layer adjoins the first absorber layer at a first interface. The barrier layer exhibits a second valence band energy characterized by a second valence band energy function. The barrier layer also adjoins a second absorber layer at a second interface. The second absorber layer exhibits a third valence band energy characterized by a third valence band energy function. The first and second valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the first interface and the second and third valence band energy functions are substantially functionally or physically continuous at the second interface.

  5. Infrared detectors: Advances, challenges and new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Amir; Andersson, Jan Y.

    2013-12-01

    Human knowledge of infrared (IR) radiation is about 200 years old. However it was in the late 20th century that we developed a wide range of smart technologies for detection and started to take advantage for our benefit. Today IR detector technology is in its 3rd generation and comes with challenging demands. Based on the propagation of IR radiation through free space it is divided into different transmission windows. The most interesting for thermal imaging are the mid-wave IR (MWIR) and the long-wave IR (LW IR). Infrared detectors for thermal imaging have a number of applications in industry, security, search & rescue, surveillance, medicine, research, meteorology, climatology and astronomy. Currently high-performance IR imaging technology is mainly based on epitaxially grown structures of the small-bandgap bulk alloy mercury-cadmium-telluride (MCT), indium antimonide (InSb) and GaAs based quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs), depending on the application and wavelength range. However, they operate at low temperatures requiring costly and bulky cryogenic systems. In addition there is always a need for better performance, which generates possibilities for developing new technologies. Some emerging technologies are quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs), type-II strained layer super-lattice, and QDIPs with type-II band alignment. In this report a brief review of the current and new technologies for high performance IR detectors, will be presented.

  6. The SNAP near infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tarle, G.; Akerlof, C.; Aldering, G.; Amanullah, R.; Astier, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bebek, C.; Bergstrom, L.; Bercovitz, J.; Bernstein, G.; Bester, M.; Bonissent, A.; Bower, C.; Carithers, W.; Commins, E.D.; Day, C.; Deustua, S.; DiGennaro, R.; Ealet, Anne; Ellis, R.S.; Eriksson, M.; Fruchter, A.; Genat, J.-F.; Goldhaber, G.; Goobar, A.; Groom, D.; Harris, S.; Harvey, P.; Heetderks, H.; Holland, S.; Huterer, D.; Karcher, A.; Kim, A.; Kolbe, W.; Krieger, B.; Lafever, R.; Lamoureux, J.; Lampton, M.; Levi, M.E.; Levin, D.; Linder, E.; Loken, S.; Malina, R.; Massey, R.; Miguel, R.; McKay, T.; McKee, S.; Mortsell, E.; Mostek, N.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nugent, P.; Oluseyi, H.; Pain, R.; Palaio, N.; Pankow, D.; Perlmutter, S.; Pratt, R.; Prieto, E.; Refregier, A.; Rhodes, J.; Robinson, K.; Roe, N.; Sholl, M.; Schubnell, M.; Smadja, G.; Smoot, G.; Spadafora, A.; Tomasch, A.; von der Lippe, H.; Vincent, R.; Walder, J.; Wang, G.

    2002-07-29

    The SuperNova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will measure precisely the cosmological expansion history over both the acceleration and deceleration epochs and thereby constrain the nature of the dark energy that dominates our universe today. The SNAP focal plane contains equal areas of optical CCDs and NIR sensors and an integral field spectrograph. Having over 150 million pixels and a field-of-view of 0.34 square degrees, the SNAP NIR system will be the largest yet constructed. With sensitivity in the range 0.9-1.7 {micro}m, it will detect Type Ia supernovae between z = 1 and 1.7 and will provide follow-up precision photometry for all supernovae. HgCdTe technology, with a cut-off tuned to 1.7 {micro}m, will permit passive cooling at 140 K while maintaining noise below zodiacal levels. By dithering to remove the effects of intrapixel variations and by careful attention to other instrumental effects, we expect to control relative photometric accuracy below a few hundredths of a magnitude. Because SNAP continuously revisits the same fields we will be able to achieve outstanding statistical precision on the photometry of reference stars in these fields, allowing precise monitoring of our detectors. The capabilities of the NIR system for broadening the science reach of SNAP are discussed.

  7. Infrared detector performance in the Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility /SIRTF/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, S. G.; Autio, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    The limitations imposed on infrared detectors for SIRTF are quite different from those imposed on ground-based, balloon-borne, or aircraft-borne systems. The paper examines the limitations and provides performance predictions corresponding to SIRTF conditions. Detector parameters typical of an infrared camera are used. The detector size is taken to be of the order of the diffraction-limited spot, frequency response is taken to correspond to a fraction of a second or less time constant, and spectral definition is provided by multilayer dielectric filters, inductive or capacitive grids, intrinsic absorption, or a combination of these. A nominal 10-micron bandwidth is assumed. The discussion covers atmospheric absorption and emission, zodiacal dust radiance, Shuttle contaminants, telescope self-emission, charged particle radiation, clear environment detector performance, and trapped radiation effects. It is concluded that the SIRTF design and operating conditions will allow current and near-term state-of-the-art detectors to reach their performance limits with SIRTF at a temperature of 10-12 K.

  8. Advances in Detector Technology for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCreight, Craig; Cheng, P. L. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Progress in semiconductor materials and processing technology has allowed the development of infrared detector arrays with unprecedented sensitivity, for imaging and spectroscopic applications in astronomy. The earlier discrete-detector approach has been replaced by large-element (up to 1024 x 1024 pixel), multiplexed devices. Progress has been made against a number of key limiting factors, such as quantum efficiency, noise, spectral response, linearity, and dark current. Future developments will focus on the need for even larger arrays, which operate at higher temperatures.

  9. Development of an ultrahigh-performance infrared detector platform for advanced spectroscopic sensing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Manish; Wicks, Gary; Marshall, Andrew; Craig, Adam; Golding, Terry; Hossain, Khalid; McEwan, Ken; Howle, Chris

    2014-05-01

    Laser-based stand-off sensing of threat agents (e.g. explosives, toxic industrial chemicals or chemical warfare agents), by detection of distinct infrared spectral absorption signature of these materials, has made significant advances recently. This is due in part to the availability of infrared and terahertz laser sources with significantly improved power and tunability. However, there is a pressing need for a versatile, high performance infrared sensor that can complement and enhance the recent advances achieved in laser technology. This work presents new, high performance infrared detectors based on III-V barrier diodes. Unipolar barrier diodes, such as the nBn, have been very successful in the MWIR using InAs(Sb)-based materials, and in the MWIR and LWIR using type-II InAsSb/InAs superlattice-based materials. This work addresses the extension of the barrier diode architecture into the SWIR region, using GaSb-based and InAs-based materials. The program has resulted in detectors with unmatched performance in the 2-3 μm spectral range. Temperature dependent characterization has shown dark currents to be diffusion limited and equal to, or within a factor of 5, of the Rule 07 expression for Auger-limited HgCdTe detectors. Furthermore, D* values are superior to those of existing detectors in the 2-3 μm band. Of particular significance to spectroscopic sensing systems is the ability to have near-background limited performance at operation temperatures compatible with robust and reliable solid state thermoelectric coolers.

  10. Adiabatic Demagnetization Cooler For Far Infrared Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Akio; Yazawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Junya

    1988-11-01

    An small adiabatic demagnetization cooler for an astronomical far infrared detector has been built. Single crystals of manganese ammonium sulphate and chromium potassium alum, were prepared as magnetic substances. The superconducting magnet was indirectly cooled and operated by small current up to 13.3 A, the maximum field being 3.5 T. As a preliminary step, adiabatic demagnetization to zero field was implemented. The lowest temperature obtained was 0.5 K, for 5.0 K initial temperature.

  11. [Study on photographing experiment of infrared detector].

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Jiang; Zhang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Infrared detectors are widely used in multi spectral remote sensing systems, and in order to verify photographing principles of infrared time delay integration (TDI) detector, and make preparations for future research, a verification system for infrared TDI camera is proposed in the present paper. Experimental methods are explained thoroughly and two major factors which affect image quality are analyzed. First, the causes of image motion and their effects on the quality of image are studied, and a novel architecture using high precision DC-speed machine is presented, then the relationship between velocity of precision turntable and detectors line transfer frequency is determined by Kalman algorithm. Second, four focusing means are analyzed and compared, and video signal amplitude method is selected according to practical application. Finally, a genuine demo system is established in national supervision and test center for optics mechanics quality. 5.3, 6.4 and 9.2 mm drones are chosen for testing. Experimental results indicate that the obtained drone is vivid, and camera's resolution achieves 11.3 lines per mm, which satisfies preliminary aims.

  12. Radiation response issues for infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalma, Arne H.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers describe the most important radiation response issues for infrared detectors. In general, the two key degradation mechanisms in infrared detectors are the noise produced by exposure to a flux of ionizing particles (e.g.; trapped electronics and protons, debris gammas and electrons, radioactive decay of neutron-activated materials) and permanent damage produced by exposure to total dose. Total-dose-induced damage is most often the result of charge trapping in insulators or at interfaces. Exposure to short pulses of ionization (e.g.; prompt x rays or gammas, delayed gammas) will cause detector upset. However, this upset is not important to a sensor unless the recovery time is too long. A few detector technologies are vulnerable to neutron-induced displacement damage, but fortunately most are not. Researchers compare the responses of the new technologies with those of the mainstream technologies of PV HgCdTe and IBC Si:As. One important reason for this comparison is to note where some of the newer technologies have the potential to provide significantly improved radiation hardness compared with that of the mainstream technologies, and thus to provide greater motivation for the pursuit of these technologies.

  13. NbN A/D Conversion of IR Focal Plane Sensor Signal at 10 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L.; Durand, D.; Sandell, R.; Spargo, J.; Krabach, T.

    1994-01-01

    We are implementing a 12 bit SFQ counting ADC with parallel-to-serial readout using our established 10 K NbN capability. This circuit provides a key element of the analog signal processor (ASP) used in large infrared focal plane arrays. The circuit processes the signal data stream from a Si:As BIB detector array. A 10 mega samples per second (MSPS) pixel data stream flows from the chip at a 120 megabit bit rate in a format that is compatible with other superconductive time dependent processor (TDP) circuits being developed. We will discuss our planned ASP demonstration, the circuit design, and test results.

  14. NbN A/D Conversion of IR Focal Plane Sensor Signal at 10 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, L.; Durand, D.; Sandell, R.; Spargo, J.; Krabach, T.

    1994-01-01

    We are implementing a 12 bit SFQ counting ADC with parallel-to-serial readout using our established 10 K NbN capability. This circuit provides a key element of the analog signal processor (ASP) used in large infrared focal plane arrays. The circuit processes the signal data stream from a Si:As BIB detector array. A 10 mega samples per second (MSPS) pixel data stream flows from the chip at a 120 megabit bit rate in a format that is compatible with other superconductive time dependent processor (TDP) circuits being developed. We will discuss our planned ASP demonstration, the circuit design, and test results.

  15. Tunable-Quantum-Well Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Proposed detector of infrared photons based on photon-assisted, resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling between adjacent energy wells in its semiconductor structure. Wavelength adjusted by changing applied voltage. Device contains alternating layers of different seminconductors which form double-quantum-well electron-energy structure. Tunable-quantum-well detectors made on single chip constitutes line imager. Many such devices stacked to form two-dimensional imaging device. Signal-processing circuitry integrated into chip at its lower end. Potential barriers and wells produced by alternating layers of different semiconductor materials. Steepness of slope proportional to applied electric field. Electric field and thicknesses and heights of barriers selected to favor photon-assisted, resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling at chosen photon frequency.

  16. Infrared SWAP detectors: pushing the limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Yann; Taalat, R.; Brunner, A.; Rubaldo, L.; Augey, T.; Kerlain, A.; Péré-Laperne, N.; Manissadjian, A.; Gravrand, O.; Castelein, P.; Destéfanis, G.

    2015-06-01

    The growing demand for compact and low consumption infrared cooled detectors is driven by different products segments. Hand Held Thermal Imagers, UAV, small gimbals are some of them. End users are requiring devices easy to use with fast cool down time, excellent portability, low acoustic noise with no trade-offs in reliability and performance. These requirements are pushing the technology developments toward constant innovations on detectors, coolers, read out circuits and proximity electronic boards. In this paper we are discussing the different figures of merit and highlighting the challenges for the different components. An update on the developments of HOT technology for most advanced pixel pitch will be presented. Very compact products are driving the developments for innovative coolers and cryogenic solutions. A low power compact architecture is a must for electronic boards to optimize the overall system power consumption. Finally a look to the future requirements for further shrink will be addressed.

  17. Extended short-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices with an AlAsSb/GaSb superlattice barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddadi, A.; Chevallier, R.; Dehzangi, A.; Razeghi, M.

    2017-03-01

    Extended short-wavelength infrared nBn photodetectors based on type-II InAs/AlSb/GaSb superlattices on GaSb substrate have been demonstrated. An AlAs0.10Sb0.90/GaSb H-structure superlattice design was used as the large-bandgap electron-barrier in these photodetectors. The photodetector is designed to have a 100% cut-off wavelength of ˜2.8 μm at 300 K. The photodetector exhibited a room-temperature (300 K) peak responsivity of 0.65 A/W at 1.9 μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 41% at zero bias under front-side illumination, without any anti-reflection coating. With an R × A of 78 Ω.cm2 and a dark current density of 8 × 10-3 A/cm2 under -400 mV applied bias at 300 K, the nBn photodetector exhibited a specific detectivity of 1.51 × 1010 cm.Hz1/2/W. At 150 K, the photodetector exhibited a dark current density of 9.5 × 10-9 A/cm2 and a quantum efficiency of 50%, resulting in a detectivity of 1.12 × 1013 cm.Hz1/2/W.

  18. Single-Band and Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Nguyen, Jean (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Bias-switchable dual-band infrared detectors and methods of manufacturing such detectors are provided. The infrared detectors are based on a back-to-back heterojunction diode design, where the detector structure consists of, sequentially, a top contact layer, a unipolar hole barrier layer, an absorber layer, a unipolar electron barrier, a second absorber, a second unipolar hole barrier, and a bottom contact layer. In addition, by substantially reducing the width of one of the absorber layers, a single-band infrared detector can also be formed.

  19. Single-Band and Dual-Band Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor); Soibel, Alexander (Inventor); Nguyen, Jean (Inventor); Khoshakhlagh, Arezou (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Bias-switchable dual-band infrared detectors and methods of manufacturing such detectors are provided. The infrared detectors are based on a back-to-back heterojunction diode design, where the detector structure consists of, sequentially, a top contact layer, a unipolar hole barrier layer, an absorber layer, a unipolar electron barrier, a second absorber, a second unipolar hole barrier, and a bottom contact layer. In addition, by substantially reducing the width of one of the absorber layers, a single-band infrared detector can also be formed.

  20. Gerard Kuiper and the Infrared Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek

    2013-10-01

    The life and contributions of Gerard Kuiper have been documented by Dale Cruikshank in his National Academy of Sciences biography. I will argue that particularly important in this eventful life was Kuiper's war time experiences. Kuiper's wartime role evolved as the war unfolded, but towards the end he was charged by the US military with reporting German progress with war-related technologies and the activities of scientists under Nazi control. He interviewed a great many scientists, including his own PhD mentor (Ejnar Hertzsprung), and when Kuiper was the only person available, he interviewed concentration-camp victims. He carried briefing sheets that identified the technologies being sought by the allies and the major fraction of these involved infrared equipment. He sent back to the USA boxes of documents, and large amounts of equipment, and he stressed to the military his interest in these for his own research. It seems very likely that in this way an effective PbS infrared detector, so critical to Kuiper's career and the future of planetary science, came to the USA and to Robert Cashman's laboratory at Northwestern University. As the war was winding down, Cashman and Kuiper worked together to develop a practical infrared spectrometer for astronomical use. Within months, Kuiper discovered the C02 atmospheres on Mars and Venus.

  1. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  2. Proceedings of the Third Infrared Detector Technology Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, Craig R. (Compiler)

    1989-01-01

    This volume consists of 37 papers which summarize results presented at the Third Infrared Detector Technology Workshop, held February 7-9, 1989, at Ames Research Center. The workshop focused on infrared (IR) detector, detector array, and cryogenic electronic technologies relevant to low-background space astronomy. Papers on discrete IR detectors, cryogenic readouts, extrinsic and intrinsic IR arrays, and recent results from ground-based observations with integrated arrays were given. Recent developments in the second-generation Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared spectrometer and in detectors and arrays for the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) are also included, as are status reports on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) projects.

  3. Innovative mid-infrared detector concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höfling, Sven; Pfenning, Andreas; Weih, Robert; Ratajczak, Albert; Hartmann, Fabian; Knebl, Georg; Kamp, Martin; Worschech, Lukas

    2016-09-01

    Gas sensing is a key technology with applications in various industrial, medical and environmental areas. Optical detection mechanisms allow for a highly selective, contactless and fast detection. For this purpose, rotational-vibrational absorption bands within the mid infrared (MIR) spectral region are exploited and probed with appropriate light sources. During the past years, the development of novel laser concepts such as interband cascade lasers (ICLs) and quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) has driven a continuous optimization of MIR laser sources. On the other hand side, there has been relatively little progress on detectors in this wavelength range. Here, we study two novel and promising GaSb-based detector concepts: Interband cascade detectors (ICD) and resonant tunneling diode (RTD) photodetectors. ICDs are a promising approach towards highly sensitive room temperature detection of MIR radiation. They make use of the cascading scheme that is enabled by the broken gap alignment of the two binaries GaSb and InAs. The interband transition in GaSb/InAs-superlattices (SL) allows for normal incidence detection. The cut-off wavelength, which determines the low energy detection limit, can be engineered via the SL period. RTD photodetectors act as low noise and high speed amplifiers of small optically generated electrical signals. In contrast to avalanche photodiodes, where the gain originates from multiplication due to impact ionization, in RTD photodetectors a large tunneling current is modulated via Coulomb interaction by the presence of photogenerated minority charge carriers. For both detector concepts, first devices operational at room temperature have been realized.

  4. SAPHIRA detector for infrared wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finger, Gert; Baker, Ian; Alvarez, Domingo; Ives, Derek; Mehrgan, Leander; Meyer, Manfred; Stegmeier, Jörg; Weller, Harald J.

    2014-08-01

    fringe tracker of the VLT instrument GRAVITY. Initial results will be presented. An outlook will be given on the potential of APD technology to be employed in large format near infrared science detectors. Several of the results presented here have also been shown to a different audience at the Scientific Detector Workshop in October 2013 in Florence but this paper has been updated with new results [1].

  5. Very long wave infrared quantum cascade detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun-qi; Zhai, Shen-qiang; Liu, Feng-qi; Wang, Zhan-guo

    2014-11-01

    Quantum cascade detectors (QCDs) are photovoltaic devices: they have a built in asymmetric conduction band potential formed by energy band engineering design, which allows for biasless operation. In this work, we focus on the very long wave infrared (VLWIR) quantum cascade photodectors involving energy band engineering, material technology, and devices physics. Targeting the common applications, we demonstrate a series of VLWIR QCDs from 14 to 20μm. The dark current density under 1.1×10-11 Acm-2 and the detectivity above 1×1011 cmHz1/2W-1 is achieved. Many of them exhibit high performance and give a cheerful prospect for the practical application in the near future.

  6. Innovative Long Wavelength Infrared Detector Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunthaner, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    The focus of the workshop was on innovative long wavelength (lambda less than 17 microns) infrared (LWIR) detectors with the potential of meeting future NASA and DoD long-duration space application needs. Requirements are for focal plane arrays which operate near 65K using active refrigeration with mission lifetimes of five to ten years. The workshop addressed innovative concepts, new material systems, novel device physics, and current progress in relation to benchmark technology. It also provided a forum for discussion of performance characterization, producibility, reliability, and fundamental limitations of device physics. It covered the status of the incumbent HgCdTe technology, which shows encouraging progress towards LWIR arrays, and provided a snapshot of research and development in several new contender technologies.

  7. Novel infrared detector based on a tunneling displacement transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, T. W.; Kaiser, W. J.; Waltman, S. B.; Reynolds, J. K.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes the design, fabrication, and characteristics of a novel infrared detector based on the principle of Golay's (1947) pneumatic infrared detector, which uses the expansion of a gas to detect infrared radiation. The present detector is constructed entirely from micromachined silicon and uses an electron tunneling displacement transducer for the detection of gas expansion. The sensitivity of the new detector is competitive with the best commercial pyroelectric sensors and can be readily improved by an order of magnitude through the use of an optimized transducer.

  8. Quantum well photoconductors in infrared detector technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2003-04-01

    The paper compares the achievements of quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) technology with those of competitive technologies, with the emphasis on the material properties, device structure, and their impact on focal plane array (FPA) performance. Special attention is paid to two competitive technologies, QWIP and HgCdTe, in the long-wavelength IR (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength IR (VLWIR) spectral ranges. Because so far, the dialogue between the QWIP and HgCdTe communities is limited, the paper attempts to settle the main issues of both technologies. Such an approach, however, requires the presentation of fundamental limits to the different types of detectors, which is made at the beginning. To write the paper more clearly for readers, many details are included in the Appendix. In comparative studies both photon and thermal detectors are considered. Emphasis is placed on photon detectors. In this group one may distinguish HgCdTe photodiodes, InSb photodiodes, and doped silicon detectors. The potential performance of different materials as infrared detectors is examined utilizing the α/G ratio, where α is the absorption coefficient and G is the thermal generation rate. It is demonstrated that LWIR QWIP's cannot compete with HgCdTe photodiodes as single devices, especially at higher operating temperatures (>70 K). This is due to the fundamental limitations associated with intersubband transitions. The advantage of HgCdTe is, however, less distinct at temperatures lower than 50 K due to problems inherent in the HgCdTe material (p-type doping, Shockley-Read recombination, trap-assisted tunneling, surface and interface instabilities). Even though QWIP is a photoconductor, several of its properties, such as high impedance, fast response time, long integration time, and low power consumption, comply well with the requirements imposed on the fabrication of large FPA's. Due to a high material quality at low temperatures, QWIP has potential advantages over HgCdTe in

  9. Multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A multiwavelength focal plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y<1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

  10. Low frequency 1/f noise on QWIPs, nBn, and superlattice focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafol, S. B.; Gunapala, S. D.; Ting, D. Z.; Soibel, A.; Hill, C. J.; Khoshakhlagh, A.; Keo, S. A.; Fisher, A.; Liu, J. K.; Mumolo, J. M.; Pepper, B.

    2017-08-01

    Noise Equivalent Difference Temperature (NEΔT) is a standard performance metric for most infrared focal plane array (FPA) systems. The frequency bandwidth and range associated with NEΔT is normally at high frequency and it does not describe the long time noise behavior or the very low frequency noise of the FPA. Very low frequency noise measurement requires data capture that takes longer time duration and sampling interval. This study investigates low frequency noise in QWIP, nBn and LWIR n-type Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) FPAs. The corner frequencies are extracted from the power spectral density (PSD) as function of frequency. The peak wavelength, quantum efficiency of QWIP detector are 6.2 μm and 2%, respectively. QWIP FPA has a mean NEΔT ∼ 25 mK at an operating temperature of 65 K and an integration time of 16 ms. The mean QWIP PSD plot shows a corner frequency of <0.5 mHz. The nBn FPA with 4 μm cut off and quantum efficiency of 67 % has NEΔT ∼ 15.6 mK at an integration time ∼7.52 ms and an operating temperature of 120 K. The nBn has corner frequency of >50 mHz. Lastly the n-type CBIRD FPA with a 50% cutoff at 8.8 μm and quantum efficiency of ∼50 % has an NEΔT ∼ 18.6 mK at an integration time of 1.86 ms and operating temperature 120 K. The superlattice FPA has a corner frequency ∼10 mHz. The investigation of the tail on the NEΔT histogram reveals that its origin is not accounted for entirely by the high noise current, but also it needs the inclusion of lower responsivity for some pixels.

  11. Stacked Metal Silicide/Silicon Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Selective doping of silicon in proposed metal silicide/silicon Schottky-barrier infrared photodetector increases maximum detectable wavelength. Stacking layers to form multiple Schottky barriers increases quantum efficiency of detector. Detectors of new type enhance capabilities of far-infrared imaging arrays. Grows by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon waferscontaining very-large-scale integrated circuits. Imaging arrays of detectors made in monolithic units with image-preprocessing circuitry.

  12. Uncooled infrared photon detector and multicolor infrared detection using microoptomechanical sensors

    DOEpatents

    Datskos, Panagiotis G.; Rajic, Solobodan; Datskou, Irene C.

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods for infrared detection are described. An optomechanical photon detector includes a semiconductor material and is based on measurement of a photoinduced lattice strain. A multicolor infrared sensor includes a stack of frequency specific optomechanical detectors. The stack can include one, or more, of the optomechanical photon detectors that function based on the measurement of photoinduced lattice strain. The systems and methods provide advantages in that rapid, sensitive multicolor infrared imaging can be performed without the need for a cooling subsystem.

  13. Uncooled infrared photon detector and multicolor infrared detection using microoptomechanical sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P.G.; Rajic, S.; Datskou, I.C.

    1999-11-02

    Systems and methods for infrared detection are described. An optomechanical photon detector includes a semiconductor material and is based on measurement of a photoinduced lattice strain. A multicolor infrared sensor includes a stack of frequency specific optomechanical detectors. The stack can include one, or more, of the optomechanical photon detectors that function based on the measurement of photoinduced lattice strain. The systems and methods provide advantages in that rapid, sensitive multicolor infrared imaging can be performed without the need for a cooling subsystem.

  14. Advanced numerical modeling and hybridization techniques for third-generation infrared detector pixel arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Jonathan

    Infrared (IR) detectors are well established as a vital sensor technology for military, defense and commercial applications. Due to the expense and effort required to fabricate pixel arrays, it is imperative to develop numerical simulation models to perform predictive device simulations which assess device characteristics and design considerations. Towards this end, we have developed a robust three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation model for IR detector pixel arrays. We used the finite-difference time-domain technique to compute the optical characteristics including the reflectance and the carrier generation rate in the device. Subsequently, we employ the finite element method to solve the drift-diffusion equations to compute the electrical characteristics including the I(V) characteristics, quantum efficiency, crosstalk and modulation transfer function. We use our 3D numerical model to study a new class of detector based on the nBn-architecture. This detector is a unipolar unity-gain barrier device consisting of a narrow-gap absorber layer, a wide-gap barrier layer, and a narrow-gap collector layer. We use our model to study the underlying physics of these devices and to explain the anomalously long lateral collection lengths for photocarriers measured experimentally. Next, we investigate the crosstalk in HgCdTe photovoltaic pixel arrays employing a photon-trapping (PT) structure realized with a periodic array of pillars intended to provide broadband operation. The PT region drastically reduces the crosstalk; making the use of the PT structures not only useful to obtain broadband operation, but also desirable for reducing crosstalk, especially in small pitch detector arrays. Then, the power and flexibility of the nBn architecture is coupled with a PT structure to engineer spectrally filtering detectors. Last, we developed a technique to reduce the cost of large-format, high performance HgCdTe detectors by nondestructively screen-testing detector arrays prior

  15. Effect of space exposure on pyroelectric infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.; Clark, Ivan O.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty pyroelectric type infrared detectors were flown onboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The detector chips were of three different pyroelectric materials: lithium-tantalate, strontium-barium-niobate, and triglycine-sulfide. The experiment was passive; no measurements were taken during the flight. Performance of the detectors was measured before and after flight. Postflight measurements revealed that detectors made of lithium-tantalate and strontium-barium-niobate suffered no measureable loss in performance. Detectors made of triglycine-sulfide suffered complete loss of performance, but so did the control samples of the same material. Repoling of the triglycine-sulfide failed to revive the detectors.

  16. Infrared Detector Activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Refaat, T. F.; Sulima, O. V.; Amzajerdian, F.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared detector development and characterization at NASA Langley Research Center will be reviewed. These detectors were intended for ground, airborne, and space borne remote sensing applications. Discussion will be focused on recently developed single-element infrared detector and future development of near-infrared focal plane arrays (FPA). The FPA will be applied to next generation space-based instruments. These activities are based on phototransistor and avalanche photodiode technologies, which offer high internal gain and relatively low noise-equivalent-power. These novel devices will improve the sensitivity of active remote sensing instruments while eliminating the need for a high power laser transmitter.

  17. Uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang; Zhu, Xiaorong; Ma, Zhigang

    2015-06-01

    Zhejiang Dali Technology Co. Ltd. is one of the major players in the China Infrared industry. The company has been working on infrared imagers using uncooled FPAs for about 15 years. It started the research and development of uncooled microbolometer detectors since 2006, and has brought several uncooled detectors into mass production, including 35um 384x288, 25um 160x120, 384x288, 640x480, and 17um 384x288, 640x480. In this presentation, we will describe the uncooled infrared detector and imager development at DALI Technology.

  18. Multi-spectral black meta-infrared detectors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    There is an increased emphasis on obtaining imaging systems with on-demand spectro-polarimetric information at the pixel level. Meta-infrared detectors in which infrared detectors are combined with metamaterials are a promising way to realize this. The infrared region is appealing due to the low metallic loss, large penetration depth of the localized field and the larger feature sizes compared to the visible region. I will discuss approaches to realize multispectral detectors including our recent work on double metal meta-material design combined with Type II superlattices that have demonstrated enhanced quantum efficiency (collaboration with Padilla group at Duke University).

  19. Effect of space exposure on pyroelectric infrared detectors (A0135)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, J. B.; Clark, I. O.; Crouch, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of long-duration space exposure and launch environment on the performance of pyroelectric detectors which is important for the prediction of performance degradation, setting exposure limits, or determining shielding requirements was investigated. Air pollution monitoring and thermal mapping of the Earth, which includes the remote sensing of aerosols and limb scanning infrared radiometer projects, requires photodetection in the 6- to 20 micro m region of the spectrum. Pyroelectric detectors can detect radiation in the 1- to 100 micro m region while operating at room temperature. This makes tahe pyroelectric detector a prime candidate to fill the thermal infrared detector requirements.

  20. Mid-Infrared Tunable Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Quack, Niels; Blunier, Stefan; Dual, Jurg; Felder, Ferdinand; Arnold, Martin; Zogg, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Mid-infrared detectors that are sensitive only in a tunable narrow spectral band are presented. They are based on the Resonant Cavity Enhanced Detector (RCED) principle and employing a thin active region using IV-VI narrow gap semiconductor layers. A Fabry-Pérot cavity is formed by two mirrors. The active layer is grown onto one mirror, while the second mirror can be displaced. This changes the cavity length thus shifting the resonances where the detector is sensitive. Using electrostatically actuated MEMS micromirrors, a very compact tunable detector system has been fabricated. Mirror movements of more than 3 μm at 30V are obtained. With these mirrors, detectors with a wavelength tuning range of about 0.7 μm have been realized. Single detectors can be used in mid-infrared micro spectrometers, while a detector arrangement in an array makes it possible to realize Adaptive Focal Plane Arrays (AFPA). PMID:27873824

  1. Far-Infrared Blocked Impurity Band Detector Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, H. H.; Guptill, M. T.; Monson, J. C.; Stewart, J. W.; Huffman, J. E.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Abedin, M. N.

    2007-01-01

    DRS Sensors & Targeting Systems, supported by detector materials supplier Lawrence Semiconductor Research Laboratory, is developing far-infrared detectors jointly with NASA Langley under the Far-IR Detector Technology Advancement Partnership (FIDTAP). The detectors are intended for spectral characterization of the Earth's energy budget from space. During the first year of this effort we have designed, fabricated, and evaluated pilot Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors in both silicon and germanium, utilizing pre-existing customized detector materials and photolithographic masks. A second-year effort has prepared improved silicon materials, fabricated custom photolithographic masks for detector process, and begun detector processing. We report the characterization results from the pilot detectors and other progress.

  2. Infrared Detectors Overview in the Short Wave Infrared to Far Infrared for CLARREO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Refaat, Tamer F.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a considerable interest in the broadband detectors for CLARREO Mission, which can be used to detect CO2, O3, H2O, CH4, and other gases. Detection of these species is critical for understanding the Earth?s atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry, and systemic force driving climatic changes. Discussions are focused on current and the most recent detectors developed in SWIR-to-Far infrared range for CLARREO space-based instrument to measure the above-mentioned species. These detector components will make instruments designed for these critical detections more efficient while reducing complexity and associated electronics and weight. We will review the on-going detector technology efforts in the SWIR to Far-IR regions at different organizations in this study.

  3. Local detection efficiency of a NbN superconducting single photon detector explored by a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Renema, Jelmer J; Engel, Andreas; van Exter, Martin P; de Dood, Michiel J A

    2015-09-21

    We propose an experiment to directly probe the local response of a superconducting single photon detector using a sharp metal tip in a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope. The optical absorption is obtained by simulating the tip-detector system, where the tip-detector is illuminated from the side, with the tip functioning as an optical antenna. The local detection efficiency is calculated by considering the recently introduced position-dependent threshold current in the detector. The calculated response for a 150 nm wide detector shows a peak close to the edge that can be spatially resolved with an estimated resolution of ∼ 20 nm, using a tip with parameters that are experimentally accessible.

  4. LK39F1 S/N U-1 infrared detector. [performance tests, controllability, and equipment specifications of infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A multilayered (Hg,Cd)Te detector is described with three infrared bands. Nominal cut-off wavelengths for each band are as follows: (1) Channel 1 - 3 microns, (2) Channel 2 - 6 microns, and (3) Channel 3 - 11 microns. The multilayered detector is mounted in a Honeywell LK39 glass dewar. Accompanying the detector/dewar assembly is a three-channel preamplifier package capable of switching each detector to the single channel input of the HRB Singer Reconfax 4 Mark 4 Infrared Scanner.

  5. Characterization and Optimization of Hg sub 1-x Cd sub x Te Infrared Detector Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MERCURY , *INFRARED DETECTORS, *CADMIUM, *TELLURIUM, *INFRARED PHOTOCONDUCTORS, PROCESSING, SEMICONDUCTORS, TRANSPORT PROPERTIES, SURFACE PROPERTIES, NOISE, INFRARED OPTICAL MATERIALS, LOW FREQUENCY, ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS.

  6. Predictive modeling of infrared detectors and material systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkie, Benjamin

    Detectors sensitive to thermal and reflected infrared radiation are widely used for night-vision, communications, thermography, and object tracking among other military, industrial, and commercial applications. System requirements for the next generation of ultra-high-performance infrared detectors call for increased functionality such as large formats (> 4K HD) with wide field-of-view, multispectral sensitivity, and on-chip processing. Due to the low yield of infrared material processing, the development of these next-generation technologies has become prohibitively costly and time consuming. In this work, it will be shown that physics-based numerical models can be applied to predictively simulate infrared detector arrays of current technological interest. The models can be used to a priori estimate detector characteristics, intelligently design detector architectures, and assist in the analysis and interpretation of existing systems. This dissertation develops a multi-scale simulation model which evaluates the physics of infrared systems from the atomic (material properties and electronic structure) to systems level (modulation transfer function, dense array effects). The framework is used to determine the electronic structure of several infrared materials, optimize the design of a two-color back-to-back HgCdTe photodiode, investigate a predicted failure mechanism for next-generation arrays, and predict the systems-level measurables of a number of detector architectures.

  7. Detector arrays for low-background space infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The status of development and characterization tests of integrated infrared detector array technology for astronomy applications is described. The devices under development include intrinsic, extrinsic silicon, and extrinsic germanium detectors, with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Laboratory test results and successful astronomy imagery have established the usefulness of integrated arrays in low-background astronomy applications.

  8. Detector arrays for low-background space infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Goebel, J. H.; Anderson, G. M.; Lee, J. H.

    1986-01-01

    The status of development and characterization tests of integrated infrared detector array technology for astronomy applications is described. The devices under development include intrinsic, extrinsic silicon, and extrinsic germanium detectors, with hybrid silicon multiplexers. Laboratary test results and successful astronomy imagery have established the usefulness of integrated arrays in low-background astronomy applications.

  9. High field CdS detector for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, R. C.; Boer, K. W.; Hadley, H. C.; Robertson, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    New and highly sensitive method of detecting infrared irradiation makes possible solid state infrared detector which is more sensitive near room temperature than usual photoconductive low band gap semiconductor devices. Reconfiguration of high field domains in cadmium sulphide crystals provides basis for discovery.

  10. Heterojunction and superlattice detectors for infrared to ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, A. G. U.

    2016-07-01

    The interest in Infrared and Ultraviolet detectors has increased immensely due to the emergence of important applications over a wide range of activities. Detectors based on free carrier absorption known as Hetero-junction Interfacial Workfunction Internal Photoemission (HEIWIP) detectors and variations of these heterojunction structures to be used as intervalence band detectors for a wide wavelength region are presented. Although this internal photoemission concept is valid for all semiconductor materials systems, using a well-studied III-V system of GaAs/AlxGa1-x As to cover a wide wavelength range from UV to far-infrared (THz) is an important development in detector technology. Using the intervalence band (heavy hole, light hole and split off) transitions for high operating temperature detection of mid Infrared radiation is also discussed. A promising new way to extend the detection wavelength threshold beyond the standard threshold connected with the energy gap in a GaAs/AlxGa1-x As system is also presented. Superlattice detector technology, which is another promising detector architecture, can be optimized using both Type I and Type II heterostructures. Here the focus will be on Type II Strained Layer (T2SL) Superlattice detectors. T2SL Superlattices based on InAs/(In,GA)Sb have made significant improvements demonstrating focal plane arrays operating around 80 K and with multiple band detection capability. A novel spectroscopic method to evaluate the band offsets of both heterojunction and superlattice detectors is also discussed.

  11. Semiconductors for low energies: incoherent infrared/sub-millimetre detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Walfried

    Semiconductor-based detectors have been used to detect infrared radiation since the early days of space astronomy, and are now the workhorse of infrared space missions. Whilst their leading position in space applications is starting to be challenged by the promise of large-format, high-performance bolometer arrays, semiconductor devices are currently the most sensitive detector type at infrared wavelengths and will undoubtedly continue to play an important role. This chapter gives an overview of the state-of-the-art semiconductor-based detector types and the materials commonly used to cover the different wavelengths, providing insight into the key performance parameters and system trade-offs. Important considerations for the operation of semiconductor-based detectors and the most common read-out techniques and interconnection schemes used are also discussed. The chapter is rounded off by a brief overview of the most promising technologies currently under development in this waveband.

  12. Infrared focal plane detector modules for space applications at AIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Dominique; Hanna, Stefan; Thöt, Richard; Gassmann, Kai-Uwe; Haiml, Markus; Weber, Andreas; Haas, Luis-Dieter; Ziegler, Johann; Nothaft, Hans-Peter; Fick, Wolfgang

    2012-09-01

    In the framework of this paper, AIM presents the actual status of some of its currently ongoing focal plane detector module developments for space applications covering the spectral range from the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) to the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very-long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR), where both imaging and spectroscopy applications will be addressed. In particular, the integrated detector cooler assemblies for a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) push-broom imaging satellite mission, for the German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP will be elaborated. Additionally dedicated detector modules for LWIR/VLWIR sounding, providing the possibility to have two different PVs driven by one ROIC will be addressed.

  13. Effect of space exposure on pyroelectric infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Pyroelectric detectors are one of the many different types of infrared radiation detectors. Pyroelectric detectors are of interest for long-term space use because they do not require cooling during operation. Also, they can detect at very long wavelengths and they have a relatively flat spectral response. A disadvantage is that the radiation must be chopped in order to be detected by a pyroelectric detector. The objective of the experiment was to determine the effects of launch and space exposure on the performance of commercially available pyroelectric detectors. The approach was to measure performance parameters of the detectors before and after flight on the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and determine the loss of detector performance. The experiment was passive; no data was taken during flight.

  14. Effect of space exposure of pyroelectric infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Pyroelectric detectors are one of many different types of infrared radiation detectors. The pyroelectric detectors are of interest for long term space use because they do not require cooling during operation. Also, they can detect at very long wavelengths and they have a relatively flat spectral response. A disadvantage is that the radiation must be chopped in order to be detected by a pyroelectric detector. The objective was to determine the effects of launch and space exposure on the performance of commercially available pyroelectric detectors. The approach was to measure certain detector parameters before and after flight and try to determine the amount and cause of the degradation. The experiment was passive: no data was taken during flight. It is concluded that lithium-tantalate and strontium-barium-niobate are suitable materials for pyroelectric detectors for long term space applications.

  15. Infra-red signature neutron detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane William [Oak Ridge, TN; Boatner, Lynn Allen [Oak Ridge, TN

    2009-10-13

    A method of detecting an activator, the method including impinging with an activator a receptor material that includes a photoluminescent material that generates infrared radiation and generation a by-product of a nuclear reaction due to the activator impinging the receptor material. The method further includes generating light from the by-product via the Cherenkov effect, wherein the light activates the photoluminescent material so as to generate the infrared radiation. Identifying a characteristic of the activator based on the infrared radiation.

  16. New trends in semiconductor infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rogalski, A. . Inst. of Technical Physics)

    1994-05-01

    Recent efforts in semiconductor IR detector research have been directed toward improving the performance of single-element devices, large electronically scanned arrays, and higher operation temperature. Another important aim is to make IR detectors cheaper and more convenient to use. New trends in semiconductor IR detector technologies are discussed, including HgCdTe photodiodes, Schottky-barrier photoemissive devices, alternatives to HgCdTe ternary alloys, monolithic lead-chalcogenide photodiodes, GaAs/AlGaAs intersubband quantum well photoconductors, and ways to improve the performance of near-room-temperature detectors. A comparison of different types of detectors with the present stage of HgCdTe technology achievements is undertaken.

  17. Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector

    SciTech Connect

    Harrer, Andreas Schwarz, Benedikt; Gansch, Roman; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2014-10-27

    We demonstrate monolithic integrated quantum cascade detectors enhanced by plasmonic lenses. Surface normal incident mid-infrared radiation is coupled to surface plasmon polaritons guided to and detected by the active region of the detector. The lens extends the optical effective active area of the device up to a 5 times larger area than for standard mesa detectors or pixel devices while the electrical active region stays the same. The extended optical area increases the absorption efficiency of the presented device as well as the room temperature performance while it offers a flexible platform for various detector geometries. A photocurrent response increase at room temperature up to a factor of 6 was observed.

  18. Plasmonic lens enhanced mid-infrared quantum cascade detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrer, Andreas; Schwarz, Benedikt; Gansch, Roman; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate monolithic integrated quantum cascade detectors enhanced by plasmonic lenses. Surface normal incident mid-infrared radiation is coupled to surface plasmon polaritons guided to and detected by the active region of the detector. The lens extends the optical effective active area of the device up to a 5 times larger area than for standard mesa detectors or pixel devices while the electrical active region stays the same. The extended optical area increases the absorption efficiency of the presented device as well as the room temperature performance while it offers a flexible platform for various detector geometries. A photocurrent response increase at room temperature up to a factor of 6 was observed.

  19. Reprint of "Mid-infrared InAsSb-based nBn photodetectors with AlGaAsSb barrier layers - grown on GaAs, using an interfacial misfit array, and on native GaSb"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, A. P.; Marshall, A. R. J.; Tian, Z.-B.; Krishna, S.

    2015-05-01

    InAsSb-based nBn photodetectors were fabricated on GaAs, using the interfacial misfit (IMF) array growth mode, and on native GaSb. At -0.1 V operating bias, 200 K dark current densities of 1.4 × 10-5 A cm-2 (on GaAs) and 4.8 × 10-6 A cm-2 (on GaSb) were measured. At the same temperature, specific detectivity (D*) figures of 1.2 × 1010 Jones (on GaAs) and 7.2 × 1010 Jones (on GaSb) were calculated. Arrhenius plots of the dark current densities yielded activation energies of 0.37 eV (on GaAs) and 0.42 eV (on GaSb). These values are close to the 4 K bandgap of the absorption layers (0.32-0.35 eV) indicating diffusion limited dark currents and small valence band offsets. Significantly, these devices could be used for mid-infrared focal plane arrays operating within the temperature range of cost-effective thermoelectric coolers.

  20. Development of infrared detector with slot antenna-coupled microbolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Kosol; Kislov, Nikolai; Wang, Jing

    2010-04-01

    The current state-of-the-art infrared detection technology requires either exotic materials or cryogenic conditions to perform its duty. Implementing infrared detection by coupling infrared tuned antenna with a micro-bolometer offers a promising technological platform for mass production of un-cooled infrared detectors and imaging arrays. The design, fabrication, and characterization of a planar slotted antenna have been demonstrated on a thin silicon dioxide (SiO2) membrane for infrared detection. The planar slotted antenna was chosen due to its ease of fabrication and greater fabrication tolerance, higher gain and greater bandwidth coveted for the infrared applications. The employment of the SiO2 membrane technology mitigates the losses due to surface waves generated as the radiation coupling into the substrates. In addition, by retaining the membrane thickness to be less than a wavelength, the amount of interference is greatly reduced. A strategically designed planar slotted dipole antenna is implemented along with an integrated direct current (DC) block enabled by co-fabricated on-chip capacitors between the two DC patches to separate DC and high frequency signals without the need for sub-micron DC separation line. As a result of this revision, standard UV photolithography instead of e-beam lithography can be used to fabricate the infrared detectors for mass production. This research is considered as an important step toward our main goal, which is developing ultrafast infrared detector by coupling a planar slotted antenna with a metal insulator metal (MIM) tunneling diode.

  1. Monolithic short wave infrared (SWIR) detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A monolithic self-scanned linear detector array was developed for remote sensing in the 1.1- 2.4-micron spectral region. A high-density IRCCD test chip was fabricated to verify new design approaches required for the detector array. The driving factors in the Schottky barrier IRCCD (Pdsub2Si) process development are the attainment of detector yield, uniformity, adequate quantum efficiency, and lowest possible dark current consistent with radiometric accuracy. A dual-band module was designed that consists of two linear detector arrays. The sensor architecture places the floating diffusion output structure in the middle of the chip, away from the butt edges. A focal plane package was conceptualized and includes a polycrystalline silicon substrate carrying a two-layer, thick-film interconnecting conductor pattern and five epoxy-mounted modules. A polycrystalline silicon cover encloses the modules and bond wires, and serves as a radiation and EMI shield, thermal conductor, and contamination seal.

  2. Detector requirements for space infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements for background-limited (BLIP) detectors are discussed in terms of number of photons falling on each pixel, dark current, high detective quantum efficiencies, large numbers of pixels, and array size.

  3. Detector requirements for space infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Requirements for background-limited (BLIP) detectors are discussed in terms of number of photons falling on each pixel, dark current, high detective quantum efficiencies, large numbers of pixels, and array size.

  4. Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors and Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    I NFRARED DETEC TORS AND SOURC ES P. BHATTACHARYA and A. D. STIFF-RO BERTS Solid State Electron ics Laborotory, Department of Elect rical...dotsi i nfrared detectors; inf rar&d sources; lntersu b- band devices. 1. Introduction Two hundred years have pa.ssed since 18 00, when Sir William...also crucial for an abundance of oth er applications. Infra red detectors are nec essary for military targeting and trackin g, law enforcement, m

  5. InAs/Ga(In)Sb type-II superlattices short/middle dual color infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yanli; Hu, Rui; Deng, Gongrong; He, Wenjing; Feng, Jiangmin; Fang, Mingguo; Li, Xue; Deng, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Short wavelength and middle wavelength dual color infrared detector were designed and prepared with InAs/Ga(In)Sb type-II superlattices materials. The Crosslight software was used to calculate the relation between wavelength and material parameter such as thickness of InAs, GaSb, then energy strucutre of 100 periods 8ML/8ML InAs/GaSb and the absorption wavelength was calculated. After fixing InAs/GaSb thickness parameter, devices with nBn and pin structure were designed and prepared to compare performance of these two structures. Comparison results showed both structure devices were available for high temperature operation which black detectivity under 200K were 7.9×108cmHz1/2/W for nBn and 1.9×109cmHz1/2/W for pin respectively. Considering the simultaneous readout requirement for further FPAs application the NIP/PIN InAs/GaSb dual-color structure was grown by MBE method. Both two mesas and one mesa devices structure were designed and prepared to appreciate the short/middle dual color devices. Cl2-based ICP etching combined with phosphoric acid based chemicals were utilized to form mesas, silicon dioxide was deposited via PECVD as passivation layer. Ti/Au was used as metallization. Once the devices were finished, the electro-optical performance was measured. Measurement results showed that optical spectrum response with peak wavelength of 2.7μm and 4.3μm under 77K temperature was gained, the test results agree well with calculated results. Peak detectivity was measured as 2.08×1011cmHz1/2/W and 6.2×1010cmHz1/2/W for short and middle wavelength infrared detector respectively. Study results disclosed that InAs/Ga(In)Sb type-II SLs is available for both short and middle wavelength infrared detecting with good performance by simply altering the thickness of InAs layer and GaSb layer.

  6. High performance infrared fast cooled detectors for missile applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Yann; Espuno, Laurent; Taalat, Rachid; Sultan, Ahmad; Cassaigne, Pierre; Matallah, Noura

    2016-05-01

    SOFRADIR was selected in the late 90's for the production of 320×256 MW detectors for major European missile programs. This experience has established our company as a key player in the field of missile programs. SOFRADIR has since developed a vast portfolio of lightweight, compact and high performance JT-based solutions for missiles. ALTAN is a 384x288 Mid Wave infrared detector with 15μm pixel pitch, and is offered in a miniature ultra-fast Joule- Thomson cooled Dewar. Since Sofradir offers both Indium Antimonide (InSb) and Mercury Cadmium Telluride technologies (MCT), we are able to deliver the detectors best suited to customers' needs. In this paper we are discussing different figures of merit for very compact and innovative JT-cooled detectors and are highlighting the challenges for infrared detection technologies.

  7. Innovative Long Wavelength Infrared Detector Workshop Proceedings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    AMMONIA ICE FILTER wN.EL B - FAR IP#RARED, I80 K SOLOMETRIC DETECTOR ARRAY, 64 x 64 PIXELS 8I 570 - 630 16.7 BANDPASS FILTER B2 470 - 510 20.4...34* IMPROVED COOLING IS EXPENSIVE IN MASS AND POWER "* IMPROVED DETECTOR PERFORMANCE IS EXPENSIVE IN UP FRONT DEVELOPMENT COSTS 27 • • a !I I I SAFIRE...range from short wavelengths out to 30 gtm. Large arrays are required, and producibility and cost are major factors. The SDIO is pursuing several

  8. Computer-Aided Design Of Optimal Infrared Detector Preamplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodsham, D. Gary; Baker, Doran J.

    1980-11-01

    A mathematical model is given for a frequency-compensated detector/preamplifier appropriate for cryogenically-cooled infrared sensors operating under low background conditions. By use of a digital computer, this model is used to rapidly select the optimal combination of design values. These parameters include load resistance, compensation resistance, compensation capacitance, chopping frequency and detector area to meet desired specifications of noise equivalent power, frequency response, dynamic range, and level of output noise. This computer-aided optimal design approach is demonstrated using a contemporary infrared sensor application.

  9. Materials processing threshold report. 1: Semiconductor crystals for infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sager, E. V.; Thompson, T. R.; Nagler, R. G.

    1980-01-01

    An extensive search was performed of the open literature pertaining to infrared detectors to determine what constitutes a good detector and in what way performance is limited by specific material properties. Interviews were conducted with a number of experts in the field to assess their perceptions of the state of the art and of the utility of zero-gravity processing. Based on this information base and on a review of NASA programs in crystal growth and infrared sensors, NASA program goals were reassessed and suggestions are presented as to possible joint and divergent efforts between NASA and DOD.

  10. Pyroelectric Materials for Uncooled Infrared Detectors: Processing, Properties, and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, M. D.; Batra, A. K.; Guggilla, P.; Edwards, M. E.; Penn, B. G.; Currie, J. R., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Uncooled pyroelectric detectors find applications in diverse and wide areas such as industrial production; automotive; aerospace applications for satellite-borne ozone sensors assembled with an infrared spectrometer; health care; space exploration; imaging systems for ships, cars, and aircraft; and military and security surveillance systems. These detectors are the prime candidates for NASA s thermal infrared detector requirements. In this Technical Memorandum, the physical phenomena underlying the operation and advantages of pyroelectric infrared detectors is introduced. A list and applications of important ferroelectrics is given, which is a subclass of pyroelectrics. The basic concepts of processing of important pyroelectrics in various forms are described: single crystal growth, ceramic processing, polymer-composites preparation, and thin- and thick-film fabrications. The present status of materials and their characteristics and detectors figures-of-merit are presented in detail. In the end, the unique techniques demonstrated for improving/enhancing the performance of pyroelectric detectors are illustrated. Emphasis is placed on recent advances and emerging technologies such as thin-film array devices and novel single crystal sensors.

  11. Infrared microcalorimetric spectroscopy using uncooled thermal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datskos, Panos G.; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskou, Irene; Egert, Charles M.

    1997-10-01

    We have investigated a novel IR microcalorimetric spectroscopy technique that can be used to detect the presence of trace amounts of target molecules. The chemical detection is accomplished by obtaining the IR photothermal spectra of molecules absorbed on the surface of an uncooled thermal detector. Traditional gravimetric based chemical detectors require highly selective coatings to achieve chemical specificity. In contrast, IR microcalorimetric based detection requires only moderately specific coatings since the specificity is a consequence of the photothermal spectrum. We have obtained IR photothermal spectra for trace concentrations of chemical analytes including diisopropyl methylphosphonate (DIMP), 2-mercaptoethanol and trinitrotoluene (TNT) over the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 micrometers . We found that in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 micrometers DIMP exhibits two strong photothermal peaks. The photothermal spectra of 2-mercaptoethanol and TNT exhibit a number of peaks in the wavelength region 2.5 to 14.5 micrometers and the photothermal peaks for 2-mercaptoethanol are in excellent agreement with IR absorption peaks present in its IR spectrum. The photothermal response of chemical detectors based on microcalorimetric spectroscopy has been found to vary reproducibly and sensitively as a consequence of adsorption of small number of molecules on a detector surface followed by photon irradiation and can be used for improved chemical characterization.

  12. Dependence of superconducting properties of NbN thin films on sputtering parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaire, Trupti; Carter, Faustin; Ding, Junjia; Posada, Chrystian; Bender, Amy; Wang, Gensheng; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Pearson, John; Padin, Steve; Chang, Clarence; Hoffmann, Axel; Novosad, Valentyn; SPT3G Collaboration

    Recently, there has been growing interest in utilizing NbN, TiN, NbTiN thin films in superconducting device applications (e.g. detectors for CMB, mm and sub-mm astronomy). In this work, we have fabricated NbN superconducting thin films by DC reactive magnetron sputtering of Nb in the presence of argon and nitrogen gases. We found that the critical temperature of NbN films is sensitive to various deposition parameters like nitrogen flow rate, target voltage, base pressure, RF substrate bias, and the substrate temperature. By studying each of these factors we have been able to create highly reproducible NbN thin films. We obtained a Tc of 15.25 +/-0.25 K for 300 nm thick NbN film grown on silicon substrate at modest temperature of 250 C in the presence of RF substrate bias. We are also investigating the microwave properties of these NbN films at temperatures well below 50 mK by fabricating quarter wavelength CPW resonators out of NbN and characterizing their frequency shifts and quality factors as functions of temperature and power. In this work we present the results of these analyses. This work was supported by BES-DOE Grant DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  13. SDIO long wavelength infrared detector requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duston, Dwight

    1990-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) has a significant requirement for infrared sensors for surveillance, tracking and discrimination of objects in space. Projected SDIO needs cover the range from short wavelengths out to 30 microns. Large arrays are required, and producibility and cost are major factors. The SDIO is pursuing several approaches including innovative concepts based on semiconductors and superconductors.

  14. Status of LWIR HgCdTe infrared detector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reine, M. B.

    1990-01-01

    The performance requirements that today's advanced Long Wavelength Infrared (LWIR) focal plane arrays place on the HgCdTe photovoltaic detector array are summarized. The theoretical performance limits for intrinsic LWIR HgCdTe detectors are reviewed as functions of cutoff wavelength and operating temperature. The status of LWIR HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors is reviewed and compared to the focal plane array (FPA) requirements and to the theoretical limits. Emphasis is placed on recent data for two-layer HgCdTe PLE heterojunction photodiodes grown at Loral with cutoff wavelengths ranging between 10 and 19 microns at temperatures of 70 to 80 K. Development trends in LWIR HgCdTe detector technology are outlined, and conclusions are drawn about the ability for photovoltaic HgCdTe detector arrays to satisfy a wide variety of advanced FPA array applications.

  15. Issues Involving Infrared Detector Material Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-28

    on the ferroelectric properties of thin film ferroelectric (211) Si substrate 1 1 1 1 Area 2 CdTe SiOx (211) Si substrate (110) direction 7 PZT...to develop textured template for growth of epitaxial thin film ferroelectric (TFFE) IR detectors on polyimide coated Si. The commercial TFFE has a...due to limitation of characterization capability on small sample spot on our ARL collaborator side. This project also involved a strong educational

  16. Silicon-Germanium Alloys for Infrared Detectors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    crystals, aiming at improved crystallinity and higher resistivity and to extend the Czochralski growth method to indium-doped Si-Ge alloys. Our intention...of the disappointingly high boron concentrations achieved in Czochralski growth, we decided to explore a crucible-free method for preparing Si-Ge...material was not high enough to allow an adequately long depletion region in a p-i-n detector. It does not appear that any Czochralski -type growth method

  17. Non-dispersive infrared nitrous oxide detector

    SciTech Connect

    Lessure, H.; Simizu, S.; Denes, L.

    1996-12-31

    Governmental guidelines are being established for monitoring the anesthetic gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) in hospitals, dentistry and veterinary practice to guard against deleterious effects on personnel in the workplace. Yet traditional equipment for monitoring N{sub 2}O was too expensive for continuous monitoring at low concentrations. Thus, there has been a pressing need to develop low-cost high-sensitivity instruments that could be used to continuously monitor nitrous oxide in the relevant working environments. A nitrous oxide detector has been developed which is capable of detecting concentrations as low as a few ppm nitrous oxide in the presence of large changing backgrounds of 0-1,500 ppm carbon dioxide and water vapor in the range of 30-70% RH at normal room temperatures. The detector utilizes three channels to measure the IR absorption due to the N{sub 2}O relative to the CO{sub 2} background and a reference channel. The prototype devices have an LCD readout for continuous display of the readings. Additional features include an analog output for remote data acquisition and audiovisual alerts for two threshold levels. Data will be presented to show the sensitivity and performance of the detector and discuss some of the issues related to bringing it from research to its current state as a pre-production prototype.

  18. Counterdoped High Temperature, Silicon Array Infrared Detector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    Shockley’ and J. T. Last, Phy’s. Rev. 107 392 (1957). I [4-4]j. S. Blakemore , Semiconductor Statistics , (MacMillian, New York 1962.) U [4-5]David C...theoretical model postuldted by cllintt for counterdopi A theoretical analysis of multivalent statistics as applied to counterdoped det developed an extended...24 3.4 INFRARED ANALYSIS .. .. ................... I4.0 APPLICATION OF MULTIVALENT STATISTICS TO COUNTERDOPED DETEClORS

  19. Fundamental limits to performance of quantum well infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yariv, Amnon; Kinch, Michael; Borenstain, S.; Grave, I.

    1990-01-01

    Radiometric, density of states (material), and thermal considerations are used to obtain the figure of merit of the quantum-well GaAs/GaAlAs infrared detectors described by Smith et. al. The results are compared with HgCdTe, the present industry standard, as well as with recent experiments at other laboratories.

  20. Si:Bi switched photoconducttor infrared detector array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eakin, C. E.

    1983-01-01

    A multiplexed infrared detector array is described. The small demonstration prototype consisted of two cryogenically cooled, bismuth doped silicon, extrinsic photoconductor pixels multiplexed onto a single output channel using an on focal plane switch integration sampling technique. Noise levels of the order of 400 to 600 rms electrons per sample were demonstrated for this chip and wire hybrid version.

  1. Superlattice Barrier Infrared Detector Development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Rafol, Sir B.; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Keo, Sam A.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.

    2011-01-01

    We report recent efforts in achieving state-of-the-art performance in type-II superlattice based infrared photodetectors using the barrier infrared detector architecture. We used photoluminescence measurements for evaluating detector material and studied the influence of the material quality on the intensity of the photoluminescence. We performed direct noise measurements of the superlattice detectors and demonstrated that while intrinsic 1/f noise is absent in superlattice heterodiode, side-wall leakage current can become a source of strong frequency-dependent noise. We developed an effective dry etching process for these complex antimonide-based superlattices that enabled us to fabricate single pixel devices as well as large format focal plane arrays. We describe the demonstration of a 1024x1024 pixel long-wavelength infrared focal plane array based the complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) design. An 11.5 micron cutoff focal plane without anti-reflection coating has yielded noise equivalent differential temperature of 53 mK at operating temperature of 80 K, with 300 K background and cold-stop. Imaging results from a recent 10 ?m cutoff focal plane array are also presented.

  2. Challenges of small-pixel infrared detectors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.; Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.

    2016-04-01

    In the last two decades, several new concepts for improving the performance of infrared detectors have been proposed. These new concepts particularly address the drive towards the so-called high operating temperature focal plane arrays (FPAs), aiming to increase detector operating temperatures, and as a consequence reduce the cost of infrared systems. In imaging systems with the above megapixel formats, pixel dimension plays a crucial role in determining critical system attributes such as system size, weight and power consumption (SWaP). The advent of smaller pixels has also resulted in the superior spatial and temperature resolution of these systems. Optimum pixel dimensions are limited by diffraction effects from the aperture, and are in turn wavelength-dependent. In this paper, the key challenges in realizing optimum pixel dimensions in FPA design including dark current, pixel hybridization, pixel delineation, and unit cell readout capacity are outlined to achieve a sufficiently adequate modulation transfer function for the ultra-small pitches involved. Both photon and thermal detectors have been considered. Concerning infrared photon detectors, the trade-offs between two types of competing technology—HgCdTe material systems and III-V materials (mainly barrier detectors)—have been investigated.

  3. Development of Kinetic Inductance Detectors for Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, Alyssa; Aguirre, James E.; Stevenson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An instrument with high sensitivity and spectral resolution at far-infrared wavelengths could contribute significantly to several currently unanswered questions in astrophysics. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a spectroscopic experiment at far-infrared wavelengths using kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). KIDs have the potential to achieve high sensitivity and low noise levels. Specifically, the approach we take uses lumped-element KIDs, which consist of separate capacitive and inductive elements combined to form a microresonator. The inductive element serves as a direct radiation absorber. We describe the design considerations, fabrication process, and readout scheme for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels, along with results from a prototype detector array.

  4. Nonlinearity and pixel shifting effects in HXRG infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plazas, A. A.; Shapiro, C.; Smith, R.; Rhodes, J.; Huff, E.

    2017-04-01

    We study the nonlinearity (NL) in the conversion from charge to voltage in infrared detectors (HXRG) for use in precision astronomy. We present laboratory measurements of the NL function of a H2RG detector and discuss the accuracy to which it would need to be calibrated in future space missions to perform cosmological measurements through the weak gravitational lensing technique. In addition, we present an analysis of archival data from the infrared H1RG detector of the Wide Field Camera 3 in the Hubble Space Telescope that provides evidence consistent with the existence of a sensor effect analogous to the ``brighter-fatter'' effect found in Charge-Coupled Devices. We propose a model in which this effect could be understood as shifts in the effective pixel boundaries, and discuss prospects of laboratory measurements to fully characterize this effect.

  5. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector (CBIRD) Contact Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the CBIRD detector is enhanced by using new device contacting methods that have been developed. The detector structure features a narrow gap adsorber sandwiched between a pair of complementary, unipolar barriers that are, in turn, surrounded by contact layers. In this innovation, the contact adjacent to the hole barrier is doped n-type, while the contact adjacent to the electron barrier is doped p-type. The contact layers can have wider bandgaps than the adsorber layer, so long as good electrical contacts are made to them. If good electrical contacts are made to either (or both) of the barriers, then one could contact the barrier(s) directly, obviating the need for additional contact layers. Both the left and right contacts can be doped either n-type or ptype. Having an n-type contact layer next to the electron barrier creates a second p-n junction (the first being the one between the hole barrier and the adsorber) over which applied bias could drop. This reduces the voltage drop over the adsorber, thereby reducing dark current generation in the adsorber region.

  6. Competitive technologies of third generation infrared photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2006-03-01

    Hitherto, two families of multielement infrared (IR) detectors are used for principal military and civilian infrared applications; one is used for scanning systems (first generation) and the other is used for staring systems (second generation). Third generation systems are being developed nowadays. In the common understanding, third generation IR systems provide enhanced capabilities like larger number of pixels, higher frame rates, better thermal resolution as well as multicolour functionality and other on-chip functions. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of materials used in fabrication of third generation infrared photon detectors are discussed. In this class of detectors two main competitors, HgCdTe photodiodes and quantum well IR photoconductors (QWIPs) are considered. The performance figures of merit of state-of-the-art HgCdTe and QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs) are similar because the main limitations come from the readout circuits. However, the metallurgical issues of the epitaxial layers such as uniformity and number of defected elements are the serious problems in the case of long wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very LWIR (VLWIR) HgCdTe FPAs. It is predicted that superlattice based InAs/GaInSb system grown on GaSb substrate seems to be an attractive to HgCdTe with good spatial uniformity and an ability to span cutoff wavelength from 3 to 25 μm.

  7. Competitive technologies for third generation infrared photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2006-05-01

    Hitherto, two families of multielement infrared (IR) detectors are used for principal military and civilian infrared applications; one is used for scanning systems (first generation) and the other is used for staring systems (second generation). Third generation systems are being developed nowadays. In the common understanding, third generation IR systems provide enhanced capabilities like larger number of pixels, higher frame rates, better thermal resolution as well as multicolor functionality and other on-chip functions. In the paper, issues associated with the development and exploitation of materials used in fabrication of third generation infrared photon detectors are discussed. In this class of detectors two main competitors, HgCdTe photodiodes and quantum well photoconductors are considered. The performance figures of merit of state-of-the-art HgCdTe and QWIP focal plane arrays (FPAs) are similar because the main limitations come from the readout circuits. The metallurgical issues of the epitaxial layers such as uniformity and number of defected elements are the serious problems in the case of long wavelength infrared (LWIR) and very LWIR (VLWIR) HgCdTe FPAs. It is predicted that superlattice based InAs/GaInSb system grown on GaSb substrate seems to be an attractive to HgCdTe with good spatial uniformity and an ability to span cutoff wavelength from 3 to 25 μm. In this context the material properties of type II superlattices are considered more in detail.

  8. Performance overview of the Euclid infrared focal plane detector subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waczynski, A.; Barbier, R.; Cagiano, S.; Chen, J.; Cheung, S.; Cho, H.; Cillis, A.; Clémens, J.-C.; Dawson, O.; Delo, G.; Farris, M.; Feizi, A.; Foltz, R.; Hickey, M.; Holmes, W.; Hwang, T.; Israelsson, U.; Jhabvala, M.; Kahle, D.; Kan, Em.; Kan, Er.; Loose, M.; Lotkin, G.; Miko, L.; Nguyen, L.; Piquette, E.; Powers, T.; Pravdo, S.; Runkle, A.; Seiffert, M.; Strada, P.; Tucker, C.; Turck, K.; Wang, F.; Weber, C.; Williams, J.

    2016-07-01

    In support of the European space agency (ESA) Euclid mission, NASA is responsible for the evaluation of the H2RG mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors and electronics assemblies fabricated by Teledyne imaging systems. The detector evaluation is performed in the detector characterization laboratory (DCL) at the NASA Goddard space flight center (GSFC) in close collaboration with engineers and scientists from the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) and the Euclid project. The Euclid near infrared spectrometer and imaging photometer (NISP) will perform large area optical and spectroscopic sky surveys in the 0.9-2.02 μm infrared (IR) region. The NISP instrument will contain sixteen detector arrays each coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The focal plane will operate at 100K and the SIDECAR ASIC will be in close proximity operating at a slightly higher temperature of 137K. This paper will describe the test configuration, performance tests and results of the latest engineering run, also known as pilot run 3 (PR3), consisting of four H2RG detectors operating simultaneously. Performance data will be presented on; noise, spectral quantum efficiency, dark current, persistence, pixel yield, pixel to pixel uniformity, linearity, inter pixel crosstalk, full well and dynamic range, power dissipation, thermal response and unit cell input sensitivity.

  9. Enhancing the Responsivity of Uncooled Infrared Detectors Using Plasmonics for High-Performance Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Amr Shebl; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kim, Seonghwan

    2017-01-01

    A lead zirconate titanate (PZT;Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3) layer embedded infrared (IR) detector decorated with wavelength-selective plasmonic crystals has been investigated for high-performance non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy. A plasmonic IR detector with an enhanced IR absorption band has been designed based on numerical simulations, fabricated by conventional microfabrication techniques, and characterized with a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser. The enhanced responsivity of the plasmonic IR detector at specific wavelength band has improved the performance of NDIR spectroscopy and pushed the limit of detection (LOD) by an order of magnitude. In this paper, a 13-fold enhancement in the LOD of a methane gas sensing using NDIR spectroscopy is demonstrated with the plasmonic IR detector. PMID:28425964

  10. Enhancing the Responsivity of Uncooled Infrared Detectors Using Plasmonics for High-Performance Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Amr Shebl; Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kim, Seonghwan

    2017-04-20

    A lead zirconate titanate (PZT;Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O₃) layer embedded infrared (IR) detector decorated with wavelength-selective plasmonic crystals has been investigated for high-performance non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) spectroscopy. A plasmonic IR detector with an enhanced IR absorption band has been designed based on numerical simulations, fabricated by conventional microfabrication techniques, and characterized with a broadly tunable quantum cascade laser. The enhanced responsivity of the plasmonic IR detector at specific wavelength band has improved the performance of NDIR spectroscopy and pushed the limit of detection (LOD) by an order of magnitude. In this paper, a 13-fold enhancement in the LOD of a methane gas sensing using NDIR spectroscopy is demonstrated with the plasmonic IR detector.

  11. Computer-aided design of optimal infrared detector preamplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frodsham, D. G.; Baker, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a mathematical model for a frequency-compensated detector-preamplifier suitable for cryogenically cooled IR sensors operating under low background conditions. By the use of a digital computer, this model can rapidly select the optimal combination of design values. These parameters include load resistance, compensation resistance, compensation capacitance, chopping frequency, and detector area to meet desired specifications of noise equivalent power, frequency response, dynamic range, and level of output noise. This computer-assisted optimal design approach is demonstrated using a contemporary spaceborne infrared sensor application, i.e., a cryogenically cooled dual-channel radiometer.

  12. Long wavelength photoconductive detectors for airborne and orbital infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    Seven gallium doped germanium (Ge:Ga) photoconductive infrared detectors were fabricated and mounted in integrating cavities. In addition, a cold preamplifier package consisting of J230 junction field effect transistors (JFETs) was produced. Tests of the system under low photon background conditions indicated that sensitivity was limited by the Johnson noise of the load resistor. The detectors were mounted in the Ames cooled grating spectrometer, and flown on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Good quality astronomical data were obtained during the flight of 7 July 1983.

  13. Infrared reflectometry with a cavity-shaped pyroelectric detector.

    PubMed

    Blevin, W R; Geist, J

    1974-10-01

    A new type of reflectometer has been developed for measuring directional-hemispherical spectral reflectances in the infrared region. The instrument is based upon a cavity-shaped pyroelectric detector that itself collects the radiation reflected by the test sample, thereby obviating the need for an intermediate collector such as an integrating sphere or concave mirror. This detector is made from an electrically polarized plastic film of polyvinyl fluoride, coated with gold-black on its inner surface and backed with brass him on its outer surface in order to provide mechanical strength. The reflectometer has been used with Fourier spectrometer to measure spectral reflectances over the wavelength range 5-30 microm.

  14. A DSP-based infrared and optical bidimensional detectors controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriarte, Arturo; Martínez, Luis A.; Ángeles, Fernando; Bernal, Abel; Lara, Gerardo

    2008-07-01

    The Institute of Astronomy at the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México have developed and tested a CCD controller based on Texas Instruments Digital Signal Processor (DSP) TMS30C31@50MHz. Images are temporally stored in a 2MB static RAM attached to the DSP and transferred to the host computer running under Linux. Both tasks, acquisition and timing, are programmable so it can be conditioned to control any bidimensional detector. Analog voltage for bias, offsets and gains are fully programmable also. The system has been tested on an infrared Hawaii detector and fast Marconi 80x80 pixels CCD.

  15. Low-background detector arrays for infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C. R.; Estrada, J. A.; Goebel, J. H.; Mckelvey, M. E.; Mckibbin, D. D.; Mcmurray, R. E., Jr.; Weber, T. T.

    1989-01-01

    The status of a program which develops and characterizes integrated infrared (IR) detector array technology for space astronomical applications is described. The devices under development include intrinsic, extrinsic silicon, and extrinsic germanium detectors, coupled to silicon readout electronics. Low-background laboratory test results include measurements of responsivity, noise, dark current, temporal response, and the effects of gamma-radiation. In addition, successful astronomical imagery has been obtained on some arrays from this program. These two aspects of the development combine to demonstrate the strong potential for integrated array technology for IR space astronomy.

  16. JWST Near-Infrared Detectors: Latest Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Erin C.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Brambora, Clifford K.; Chiao, Meng; Clemons, Brian L.; Derro, Rebecca; Engler, Chuck; Fox, Ori; Garrison, Matthew B.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Henegar, Greg; Hill, Robert J.; Johnson, Thomas; Lavaque, Dodolfo J.; Lindler, Don J.; Manthripragada, Sridhar S.; Marshall, Cheryl; Mott, Brent; Parr, Thomas M.; Roher, Wayne D.; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin B.; Schnurr, Richard; Smith, Miles; Waczynski, Augustyn

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope, an infrared-optimized space telescope being developed by NASA for launch in 2013, will utilize cutting-edge detector technology in its investigation of fundamental questions in astrophysics. JWST's near infrared spectrograph, NIRSpec utilizes two 2048 x 2048 HdCdTe arrays with Sidecar ASIC readout electronics developed by Teledyne to provide spectral coverage from 0.6 microns to 5 microns. We present recent test and calibration results for the NIRSpec flight arrays as well as data processing routines for noise reduction and cosmic ray rejection.

  17. CNES detector development for scientific space missions: status and roadmap for infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffray, H.; Boulade, O.; Fièque, B.; Gravrand, O.; Rothmann, J.; Zanatta, J. P.; Tauziède, L.; Bardoux, A.

    2014-07-01

    CNES (French Space Agency) continuously drives the development of detectors for Space based Astronomy. Several promising infrared HgCdTe technologies are being developed at CEA and Sofradir. This paper gives a status on these developments as well as an overview of the associated roadmap.

  18. Kinetic inductance detectors for far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, A.; Aguirre, J.; Stevenson, T.

    2016-07-01

    The star formation mechanisms at work in the early universe remain one of the major unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. Many of the luminous galaxies present during the period of peak star formation (at redshift of about 2.5) were heavily enshrouded in dust, which makes observing their properties difficult at optical wavelengths. However, many spectral lines exist at far-infrared wavelengths that serve as tracers of star formation. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a balloon-borne spectroscopic intensity mapping experiment at far-infrared wavelengths. The system uses lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs), which have the potential to achieve high sensitivity and low noise levels. KIDs consist of separate capacitive and inductive elements, and use the inductive element as the radiation absorber. We describe the design considerations, fabrication process, and readout scheme for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels.

  19. Infrared detectors and test technology of cryogenic camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaole; Liu, Xingxin; Xing, Mailing; Ling, Long

    2016-10-01

    Cryogenic camera which is widely used in deep space detection cools down optical system and support structure by cryogenic refrigeration technology, thereby improving the sensitivity. Discussing the characteristics and design points of infrared detector combined with camera's characteristics. At the same time, cryogenic background test systems of chip and detector assembly are established. Chip test system is based on variable cryogenic and multilayer Dewar, and assembly test system is based on target and background simulator in the thermal vacuum environment. The core of test is to establish cryogenic background. Non-uniformity, ratio of dead pixels and noise of test result are given finally. The establishment of test system supports for the design and calculation of infrared systems.

  20. Cooled and uncooled infrared detectors for missile seekers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraenkel, Rami; Haski, Jacob; Mizrahi, Udi; Shkedy, Lior; Shtrichman, Itay; Pinsky, Ephi

    2014-06-01

    Electro-optical missile seekers pose exceptional requirements for infrared (IR) detectors. These requirements include: very short mission readiness (time-to-image), one-time and relatively short mission duration, extreme ambient conditions, high sensitivity, fast frame rate, and in some cases small size and cost. SCD is engaged in the development and production of IR detectors for missile seeker applications for many years. 0D, 1D and 2D InSb focal plane arrays (FPAs) are packaged in specially designed fast cool-down Dewars and integrated with Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers. These cooled MWIR detectors were integrated in numerous seekers of various missile types, for short and long range applications, and are combat proven. New technologies for the MWIR, such as epi-InSb and XBn-InAsSb, enable faster cool-down time and higher sensitivity for the next generation seekers. The uncooled micro-bolometer technology for IR detectors has advanced significantly over the last decade, and high resolution - high sensitivity FPAs are now available for different applications. Their much smaller size and cost with regard to the cooled detectors makes these uncooled LWIR detectors natural candidates for short and mid-range missile seekers. In this work we will present SCD's cooled and uncooled solutions for advanced electro-optical missile seekers.

  1. n-B-pi-p Superlattice Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2011-01-01

    A specially designed barrier (B) is inserted at the n-pi junction [where most GR (generation-recombination) processes take place] in the standard n-pi-p structure to substantially reduce generation-recombination dark currents. The resulting n-Bpi- p structure also has reduced tunneling dark currents, thereby solving some of the limitations to which current type II strained layer superlattice infrared detectors are prone. This innovation is compatible with common read-out integrated circuits (ROICs).

  2. Infrared negative luminescent devices and higher operating temperature detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, G. R.; Gordon, N. T.; Hall, D. J.; Ashby, M. K.; Little, J. C.; Masterton, G.; Hails, J. E.; Giess, J.; Haworth, L.; Emeny, M. T.; Ashley, T.

    2004-01-01

    Infrared LEDs and negative luminescent devices, where less light is emitted than in equilibrium, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest recently. They have a variety of applications, including as a ‘source’ of IR radiation for gas sensing; radiation shielding for, and non-uniformity correction of, high sensitivity staring infrared detectors; and dynamic infrared scene projection. Similarly, infrared (IR) detectors are used in arrays for thermal imaging and, discretely, in applications such as gas sensing. Multi-layer heterostructure epitaxy enables the growth of both types of device using designs in which the electronic processes can be precisely controlled and techniques such as carrier exclusion and extraction can be implemented. This enables detectors to be made which offer good performance at higher than normal operating temperatures, and efficient negative luminescent devices to be made which simulate a range of effective temperatures whilst operating uncooled. In both cases, however, additional performance benefits can be achieved by integrating optical concentrators around the diodes to reduce the volume of semiconductor material, and so minimise the thermally activated generation-recombination processes which compete with radiative mechanisms. The integrated concentrators are in the form of Winston cones, which can be formed using an iterative dry etch process involving methane/hydrogen and oxygen. We present results on negative luminescence in the mid- and long-IR wavebands, from devices made from indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride, where the aim is sizes greater than 1 cm×1 cm. We also discuss progress on, and the potential for, operating temperature and/or sensitivity improvement of detectors, where very high-performance imaging is anticipated from systems which require no mechanical cooling.

  3. Optical butting of linear infrared detector array for pushbroom imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Minpu; Ma, Wenpo

    2017-02-01

    High resolution and large FOV represents the developing trends of space optical imaging systems, Considering the characters of infrared optical systems, A low cost and low technical risk method of optical butting concept which offer the promise of butting smaller arrays into long linear detector assemblies is presented in this paper, the design method of optical butting is described, and a hypothetical system is demonstrated as well.

  4. Space applications of superconductivity - Microwave and infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth of a seven part series on the potential applications of superconductivity in space. The potential of superconducting microwave and infrared detectors for space applications is reviewed. The devices considered include bolometers, super-Schottky diodes and Josephson junctions operating as oscillators, mixers, and parametric amplifiers. In each case the description includes the physical mechanism, theoretical limits and the current state of the art for the superconducting device as well as its nonsuperconducting competitors.

  5. Space applications of superconductivity - Microwave and infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    This is the fifth of a seven part series on the potential applications of superconductivity in space. The potential of superconducting microwave and infrared detectors for space applications is reviewed. The devices considered include bolometers, super-Schottky diodes and Josephson junctions operating as oscillators, mixers, and parametric amplifiers. In each case the description includes the physical mechanism, theoretical limits and the current state of the art for the superconducting device as well as its nonsuperconducting competitors.

  6. Thin-film infrared absorber structures for advanced thermal detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. D.; Pedder, D. J.

    1988-06-01

    Imaging thermal detector technology is a rapidly advancing field in which the current emphasis is towards the development of very large arrays of very small pyroelectric detector elements. For maximum responsivity, each of the thin pyroelectric elements in an array must be provided with a thermal absorber to convert incoming infrared radiation into heat. This paper describes one such absorber structure, comprising a thin metal film, impedance matched to free space, and a quarter-wave polymer film which offers an acceptably low thermal mass. The structure and properties of this thin-film absorber are compared with those of an electroplated platinum black absorber commonly used in thermal detectors. The theory of the absorber is presented and good agreement is shown between calculated and experimentally derived absorption spectra.

  7. Optical Studies on Antimonide Superlattice Infrared Detector Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoglund, Linda; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Ting, David Z.; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Liao, Anna; Keo, Sam; Lee, Michael C.; Nguyen, Jean; Mumolo, Jason M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    In this study the material quality and optical properties of type II InAs/GaSb superlattices are investigated using transmission and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The influence of the material quality on the intensity of the luminescence and on the electrical properties of the detectors is studied and a good correlation between the photodetector current-voltage (IV) characteristics and the PL intensity is observed. Studies of the temperature dependence of the PL reveal that Shockley-Read-Hall processes are limiting the minority carrier lifetime in both the mid-IR wavelength and the long-IR wavelength detector material studied. These results demonstrate that PL spectroscopy is a valuable tool for optimization of infrared detectors.

  8. Performance of Ge:Ga far infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, M. R.; Richards, P. L.

    1983-01-01

    A systematic study was carried out of the properties of Ge:Ga photoconductive infrared detectors for wavelengths approx. 100 micron. The detectors studied were made from Ge:Ga with acceptor concentration N sub A approx. 2 x 10 exp 14/cu cm with both low compensation (10 exp -2) and ultralow compensation (10 exp -4). Noise measurements have been made as a function of background photon rate, bias voltage, and chopping frequency. Detective quantum efficiencies approaching unity have been observed over a side range of experimental parameters. Photocurrent has been measured as a function of voltage and temperature. Hall mobility and lifetime have been measured to determine their effect on detector properties. A small potential drop has been observed in nominally ohmic contacts produced by implantation of B ions.

  9. Photoacoustic-based detector for infrared laser spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Scholz, L.; Palzer, S.

    2016-07-25

    In this contribution, we present an alternative detector technology for use in direct absorption spectroscopy setups. Instead of a semiconductor based detector, we use the photoacoustic effect to gauge the light intensity. To this end, the target gas species is hermetically sealed under excess pressure inside a miniature cell along with a MEMS microphone. Optical access to the cell is provided by a quartz window. The approach is particularly suitable for tunable diode laser spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range, where numerous molecules exhibit large absorption cross sections. Moreover, a frequency standard is integrated into the method since the number density and pressure inside the cell are constant. We demonstrate that the information extracted by our method is at least equivalent to that achieved using a semiconductor-based photon detector. As exemplary and highly relevant target gas, we have performed direct spectroscopy of methane at the R3-line of the 2v{sub 3} band at 6046.95 cm{sup −1} using both detector technologies in parallel. The results may be transferred to other infrared-active transitions without loss of generality.

  10. Monolithically Integrated Mid-Infrared Quantum Cascade Laser and Detector

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Benedikt; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the monolithic integration of a mid-infrared laser and detector utilizing a bi-functional quantum cascade active region. When biased, this active region provides optical gain, while it can be used as a detector at zero bias. With our novel approach we can measure the light intensity of the laser on the same chip without the need of external lenses or detectors. Based on a bound-to-continuum design, the bi-functional active region has an inherent broad electro-luminescence spectrum of 200 cm−1, which indicate sits use for single mode laser arrays. We have measured a peak signal of 191.5 mV at theon-chip detector, without any amplification. The room-temperature pulsed emission with an averaged power consumption of 4 mW and the high-speed detection makes these devices ideal for low-power sensors. The combination of the on-chip detection functionality, the broad emission spectrum and the low average power consumption indicates the potential of our bi-functional quantum cascade structures to build a mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip based on quantum cascade laser technology. PMID:23389348

  11. Monolithically integrated mid-infrared quantum cascade laser and detector.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Benedikt; Reininger, Peter; Detz, Hermann; Zederbauer, Tobias; Andrews, Aaron Maxwell; Schrenk, Werner; Strasser, Gottfried

    2013-02-06

    We demonstrate the monolithic integration of a mid-infrared laser and detector utilizing a bi-functional quantum cascade active region. When biased, this active region provides optical gain, while it can be used as a detector at zero bias. With our novel approach we can measure the light intensity of the laser on the same chip without the need of external lenses or detectors. Based on a bound-to-continuum design, the bi-functional active region has an inherent broad electro-luminescence spectrum of 200 cm⁻¹, which indicates its use for single mode laser arrays. We have measured a peak signal of 191.5 mV at the on-chip detector, without any amplification. The room-temperature pulsed emission with an averaged power consumption of 4 mW and the high-speed detection makes these devices ideal for low-power sensors. The combination of the on-chip detection functionality, the broad emission spectrum and the low average power consumption indicates the potential of our bi-functional quantum cascade structures to build a mid-infrared lab-on-a-chip based on quantum cascade laser technology.

  12. Si and GaAs photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sher, A.; Tsuo, Y. H.; Moriarty, J. A.; Miller, W. E.; Crouch, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Improvement of the previously reported photocapacitive MIS infrared detectors has led to the development of exceptional room-temperature devices. Unoptimized peak detectivities on the order of 10 to the 13th cm sq rt Hz/W, a value which exceeds the best obtainable from existing solid-state detectors, have now been consistently obtained in Si and GaAs devices using high-capacitance LaF3 or composite LaF3/native-oxide insulating layers. The measured spectral response of representative samples is presented and discussed in detail together with a simple theory which accounts for the observed behavior. The response of an ideal MIS photocapacitor is also contrasted with that of both a conventional photoconductor and a p-i-n photodiode, and reasons for the superior performance of the MIS detectors are given. Finally, fundamental studies on the electrical, optical, and noise characteristics of the MIS structures are analyzed and discussed in the context of infrared-detector applications.

  13. High Operating Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector with Tailorable Cutoff Wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z. (Inventor); Hill, Cory J. (Inventor); Seibel, Alexander (Inventor); Bandara, Sumith Y. (Inventor); Gunapala, Sarath D. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A barrier infrared detector with absorber materials having selectable cutoff wavelengths and its method of manufacture is described. A GaInAsSb absorber layer may be grown on a GaSb substrate layer formed by mixing GaSb and InAsSb by an absorber mixing ratio. A GaAlAsSb barrier layer may then be grown on the barrier layer formed by mixing GaSb and AlSbAs by a barrier mixing ratio. The absorber mixing ratio may be selected to adjust a band gap of the absorber layer and thereby determine a cutoff wavelength for the barrier infrared detector. The absorber mixing ratio may vary along an absorber layer growth direction. Various contact layer architectures may be used. In addition, a top contact layer may be isolated into an array of elements electrically isolated as individual functional detectors that may be used in a detector array, imaging array, or focal plane array.

  14. Advanced infrared detectors for multimode active and passive imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Ian; Owton, Daniel; Trundle, Keith; Thorne, Peter; Storie, Kevin; Oakley, Philip; Copley, Jeremy

    2008-04-01

    Active systems, using a near-infrared pulse laser and a fast, gated detector, are now adopted for most long range imaging applications. This concept is often called laser-gated imaging (LGI) or burst-illumination LIDAR (BIL). The SELEX solid state detector is based on an array of HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes, and a custom-designed CMOS multiplexer to perform the fast gating and photon signal capture. This paper describes two recent developments. The first is aimed at reducing the size, weight, power and cost of steerable platforms which often have to contain a large number of electrooptic tools such as lasers, range finders, BIL, thermal imaging and visible cameras. A dual-mode infrared detector has been developed with the aim of shrinking the system to one camera. The detector can be switched to operate as a passive thermal imager, a laser-gated imager or a solar flux imager. The detector produces a sensitivity in the MW thermal band of 16-18mK and a sensitivity in the BIL mode as low as 10 photons rms, in other words close to the performance of dedicated imagers. A second development was to extend the current BIL capability to 3D. In complex scenes, with camouflage and concealment, the ability to generate 3D images provides a signal-to-clutter advantage. Also in airborne applications, especially, it is useful to have 3D information to provide agile, feedback control of the range gating in a dynamic environment. This report describes the development of the 3D detector and camera, and the results of field trials using a prototype system.

  15. Cooling and shielding systems for infrared detectors - requirements and limits.

    PubMed

    Wiecek, B

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents three main cooling systems used for infrared detectors. At first thermoelectric devices are discussed. They allow cooling down the detector with low efficiency and not to the very low temperature. They do not generate any vibrations and therefore are suitable for thermal detectors, where the microphone effect can decrease their performance. Photon detectors need to be cooled down even to 77K or better. The only way to have such deep cooling is to use the cooler based on thermodynamic cycle such as Stirling one. With the high efficiency one can easily obtain cryogenic temperature for a detector. The electromagnetic noise and vibration generation are the main disadvantages of using such devices. Joule-Thomson effect during gas expansion is 3rdcooling system discussed in the paper. It is highly effective process, used for gas liquefaction too. The working gas is being removed during cooling into the atmosphere, so the need of continuous supplying with compressed one, what makes this system very difficult for remote applications. In the paper, simple calculations are presented to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the different cooling systems.

  16. Infrared negative luminescent devices and higher operating temperature detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Geoff R.; Gordon, Neil T.; Hall, David J.; Little, J. Chris; Masterton, G.; Hails, J. E.; Giess, J.; Haworth, L.; Emeny, Martin T.; Ashley, Tim

    2004-02-01

    Infrared LEDs and negative luminescent devices, where less light is emitted than in equilibrium, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest recently. They have a variety of applications, including as a ‘source" of IR radiation for gas sensing; radiation shielding for and non-uniformity correction of high sensitivity starring infrared detectors; and dynamic infrared scene projection. Similarly, IR detectors are used in arrays for thermal imaging and, discretely, in applications such as gas sensing. Multi-layer heterostructure epitaxy enables the growth of both types of device using designs in which the electronic processes can be precisely controlled and techniques such as carrier exclusion and extraction can be implemented. This enables detectors to be made which offer good performance at higher than normal operating temperatures, and efficient negative luminescent devices to be made which simulate a range of effective temperatures whilst operating uncooled. In both cases, however, additional performance benefits can be achieved by integrating optical concentrators around the diodes to reduce the volume of semiconductor material, and so minimise the thermally activated generation-recombination processes which compete with radiative mechanisms. The integrated concentrators are in the form of Winston cones, which can be formed using an iterative dry etch process involving methane/hydrogen and oxygen. We will present results on negative luminescence in the mid and long IR wavebands, from devices made from indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride, where the aim is sizes greater than 1cm x 1cm. We will also discuss progress on, and the potential for, operating temperature and/or sensitivity improvement of detectors, where very higher performance imaging is anticipated from systems which require no mechanical cooling.

  17. Infrared Negative Luminescent Devices and Higher Operating Temperature Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashley, Tim

    2003-03-01

    Infrared LEDs and negative luminescent devices, where less light is emitted than in equilibrium, have been attracting an increasing amount of interest recently. They have a variety of applications, including as a source' of IR radiation for gas sensing; radiation shielding for and non-uniformity correction of high sensitivity starring infrared detectors; and dynamic infrared scene projection. Similarly, IR detectors are used in arrays for thermal imaging and, discretely, in applications such as gas sensing. Multi-layer heterostructure epitaxy enables the growth of both types of device using designs in which the electronic processes can be precisely controlled and techniques such as carrier exclusion and extraction can be implemented. This enables detectors to be made which offer good performance at higher than normal operating temperatures, and efficient negative luminescent devices to be made which simulate a range of effective temperatures whilst operating uncooled. In both cases, however, additional performance benefits can be achieved by integrating optical concentrators around the diodes to reduce the volume of semiconductor material, and so minimise the thermally activated generation-recombination processes which compete with radiative mechanisms. The integrated concentrators are in the form of Winston cones, which can be formed using an iterative dry etch process involving methane/hydrogen and oxygen. We will present results on negative luminescence in the mid and long IR wavebands, from devices made from indium antimonide and mercury cadmium telluride, where the aim is sizes greater than 1cm x 1cm. We will also discuss progress on, and the potential for, operating temperature and/or sensitivity improvement of detectors, where very high performance imaging is anticipated from systems which require no mechanical cooling.

  18. An aeronomical application of a germanium near infrared (NIR) detector

    SciTech Connect

    Noto, J.; Kerr, R.B.; Rudy, R.J.; Williams, R.; Hecht, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A collaboration between Boston University and the Aerospace corporation has resulted in a germanium based detector used in conjunction with an infrared optimized Fabry-Perot spectrometer. Gold plated mirrors were installed and the appropriate transmissive optics are used in the Fabry-Perot to optimize the NIR transmission. The detector is a germanium PIN diode coated with a layer of silicon-nitride. Current produced by the detector is measured by using a Capacitive Trans-Impedance Amplifier (CITA). An A/D converter samples the amplified capacitor voltage and outputs a 12 bit word that is then passed on to the controlling computer system. The detector, amplifier, and associated electronics are mounted inside a standard IR dewar and operated at 77 K. The authors have operated this detector and spectrometer system at Millstone Hill for about 6 months. Acceptable noise characteristics, a NEP of 10{sup {minus}17} watts, and a QE of 90% at 1.2 {micro}m, have been achieved with an amplifier gain of 200. The system is currently configured for observations of thermospheric helium, and has made the first measurement of the He 10,830 {angstrom} nightglow emission isolated from OH contamination. In an effort to both increase the sensitivity of the Fabry-Perot in the visible and to adapt it for planetary astronomy the authors have entered into a collaboration with CIDTEC. A Charge Injection Detector or CID has some unique capabilities that distinguish it from a CCD and the authors are evaluating it as a detector for the Hadinger fringe pattern produced by a Fabry-Perot. The CID allows non-destructive readout and random access of individual pixels with in the entire frame, this allows for both ``electronic masking`` of bright objects and allows each fringe to be observed without having to readout a large number of dark pixels.

  19. Bi-material resonant infrared thermal detector and array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Dacheng

    2014-10-01

    A resonant infrared thermal sensor with high sensitivity, whose sensing element is a bi-material structure with thermal expansion mismatch effect, is presented in this paper. The sensor detects infrared radiation by means of tracking the change in resonance frequency of the bi-material structure with temperature change attributed to the infrared radiation from targets. The bi-material structure can amplify the change in resonance frequency compared to a single material sensing structure. In accordance with the theory of vibration mechanics and design principle of infrared thermal detector, the bi-material resonant sensor by means of which an array can be achieved is designed. The simulation results, by ANSYS software analysis based on multi-layer shell finite element, demonstrate that the dependence of resonance frequency on temperature of the designed sensing structure achieves 1Hz/0.01°C. A microarray with 6×6 resonant infrared sensors is fabricated based on microelectronics processes being compatible with integrated circuit fabrication technology. The frequency variation corresponding to the temperature shift can be obtained by electrical measurement.

  20. Growth and characterization of In1-xGaxAs/InAs0.65Sb0.35 strained layer superlattice infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, G.; Duran, J. M.; Reyner, C. J.; Steenbergen, E. H.; Yoon, N.; Wasserman, D.; Scheihing, J. E.

    2017-02-01

    Type-II strained layer superlattices (SLS) are an active research topic in the infrared detector community and applications for SLS detectors continue to grow. SLS detector technology has already reached the commercial market due to improvements in material quality, device design, and device fabrication. Despite this progress, the optimal superlattice design has not been established, and at various times has been believed to be InAs/GaSb, InAs/InGaSb, or InAs/InAsSb. Building on these, we investigate the properties of a new mid-wave infrared SLS material: InGaAs/InAsSb SLS. The ternary InGaAs/InAsSb SLS has three main advantages over other SLS designs: greater support for strain compensation, enhanced absorption due to increased electron-hole wavefunction overlap, and improved vertical hole mobility due to reduced hole effective mass. Here, we compare three ternary SLSs, with approximately the same bandgap (0.240 eV at 150 K), comprised of Ga fractions of 5%, 10%, and 20% to a reference sample with 0% Ga. Enhanced absorption is both theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. Furthermore, the characteristics of ternary SLS infrared detectors based on an nBn architecture are reported and exhibit nearly state-of-the-art dark current performance with minimal growth optimization. We report standard material and device characterization information, including dark current and external quantum efficiency, and provide further analysis that indicates improved quantum efficiency and vertical hole mobility. Finally, a 320×256 focal plane array built based on the In0.8Ga0.2As/InAs0.65Sb0.35 SLS design is demonstrated with promising performance.

  1. Quantum Well and Quantum Dot Modeling for Advanced Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Hill, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of Quantum Well Infrared Detectors (QWIP) and Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors (QDIP) in the development of Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). The QWIP Detector being developed is a dual band detector. It is capable of running on two bands Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) and Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR). The same large-format dual-band FPA technology can be applied to Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) with no modification, once QDIP exceeds QWIP in single device performance. Details of the devices are reviewed.

  2. Quantum Well and Quantum Dot Modeling for Advanced Infrared Detectors and Focal Plane Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David; Gunapala, S. D.; Bandara, S. V.; Hill, C. J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of Quantum Well Infrared Detectors (QWIP) and Quantum Dot Infrared Detectors (QDIP) in the development of Focal Plane Arrays (FPA). The QWIP Detector being developed is a dual band detector. It is capable of running on two bands Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR) and Medium Wavelength Infrared (MWIR). The same large-format dual-band FPA technology can be applied to Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector (QDIP) with no modification, once QDIP exceeds QWIP in single device performance. Details of the devices are reviewed.

  3. Surface Leakage Mechanisms in III-V Infrared Barrier Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidor, D. E.; Savich, G. R.; Wicks, G. W.

    2016-09-01

    Infrared detector epitaxial structures employing unipolar barriers exhibit greatly reduced dark currents compared to simple pn-based structures. When correctly positioned within the structure, unipolar barriers are highly effective at blocking bulk dark current mechanisms. Unipolar barriers are also effective at suppressing surface leakage current in infrared detector structures employing absorbing layers that possess the same conductivity type in their bulk and at their surface. When an absorbing layer possesses opposite conductivity types in its bulk and at its surface, unipolar barriers are not solutions to surface leakage. This work reviews empirically determined surface band alignments of III-V semiconductor compounds and modeled surface band alignments of both gallium-free and gallium-containing type-II strained layer superlattice material systems. Surface band alignments are used to predict surface conductivity types in several detector structures, and the relationship between surface and bulk conductivity types in the absorbing layers of these structures is used as the basis for explaining observed surface leakage characteristics.

  4. High-performance bound-to-bound state QWIP detectors. [QWIP (quantum well infrared photoconductive detector)

    SciTech Connect

    Braddock, W.D. IV.

    1992-01-01

    The details of the design, growth, fabrication, and modeling of bound-to-bound state III-V quantum well infrared photoconductive (QWIP) detectors are described in this thesis. High performance is attainable in this class of QWIP for the first time. The steps necessary to realize the improved performance in this class of QWIP detector are discussed in detail. The materials growth of a detector with a relatively wide and high barrier is described. The material characterization issues important for high performance operation of these detectors are discussed. The dark current and photocurrent are examined from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The performance of these detectors is considered when the figures of merit of QWIP detectors are discussed. Electron scattering off of impurities in the wells is shown to affect both the dark current and the photocurrent. This scattering does not degrade the detectivity of these devices. A strong enhancement in the temperature dependence of the photocurrent is observed experimentally. The source of this enhancement is originates from electron scattering off of impurities in the quantum wells in bound-to-bound state QWIP detectors. A comprehensive model which includes the effects of this scattering is presented, and is shown to predict the voltage and temperature dependence of the dark current and the photocurrent. The consideration of the device performance of these detectors follows from the analysis of the dark current and photocurrent. The effect of elastic impurity scattering on the ultimate signal to noise ratio in this detector is of interest. The dark current and the noise is increased by this scattering. The enhancement in the signal compensates for noise. Record dark current limited detectivities at 50[degrees]K are observed. An adequate detectivity for many applications are attainable at temperatures as high as 90[degrees]K where the D[sub DL] exceed 1.8 [times] 10[sup 9] cm[radical]Hz/W.

  5. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882.1935 Section 882.1935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882.1935 Section 882.1935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma...

  7. 21 CFR 882.1935 - Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. 882.1935 Section 882.1935 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector. (a) Identification. A Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma...

  8. Equipment for Topographical Preparation and Analysis of Various Semiconductor Infrared Detector Samples

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-13

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Equipment for Topographical Preparation and Analysis of Various Semiconductor Infrared ...Final Report: Equipment for Topographical Preparation and Analysis of Various Semiconductor Infrared Detector Samples Report Title A used calibrated...P Wijewarnasuriya at the Army Research Lab to understand the bandd offsets of HgCdTe infrared detector structures. Especially when a sample is not

  9. The development of infrared detectors and mechanisms for use in future infrared space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, James R.

    1995-01-01

    The environment above earth's atmosphere offers significant advantages in sensitivity and wavelength coverage in infrared astronomy over ground-based observatories. In support of future infrared space missions, technology development efforts were undertaken to develop detectors sensitive to radiation between 2.5 micron and 200 micron. Additionally, work was undertaken to develop mechanisms supporting the imaging and spectroscopy requirements of infrared space missions. Arsenic-doped-Silicon and Antimony-doped-Silicon Blocked Impurity Band detectors, responsive to radiation between 4 micron and 45 micron, were produced in 128x128 picture element arrays with the low noise, high sensitivity performance needed for space environments. Technology development continued on Gallium-doped-Germanium detectors (for use between 80 micron and 200 micron), but were hampered by contamination during manufacture. Antimony-doped-Indium detectors (for use between 2.5 micron and 5 micron) were developed in a 256x256 pixel format with high responsive quantum efficiency and low dark current. Work began on adapting an existing cryogenic mechanism design for space-based missions; then was redirected towards an all-fixed optical design to improve reliability and lower projected mission costs.

  10. Megapixel digital InSb detector for midwave infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkedy, Lior; Markovitz, Tuvy; Calahorra, Zipi; Hirsh, Itay; Shtrichman, Itay

    2011-06-01

    Since the late 1990s Semiconductor devices (SCDs) has developed and manufactured a variety of InSb two-dimensional (2D) focal plane arrays (FPAs) that were implemented in many infrared (IR) systems and applications. SCD routinely manufactures both analog and digital InSb FPAs with array formats of 320×256, 480×384, and 640×512 elements, and pitch size in the range 15 to 30 μm. These FPAs are available in many packaging configurations, including fully integrated detector-Dewar-cooler-assembly, with either closed-cycle Stirling or open-loop Joule-Thomson coolers. In response to a need for very high resolution midwave IR (MWIR) detectors and systems, SCD has developed a large format 2D InSb detector with 1280×1024 elements and pixel size of 15 μm. A digital readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is coupled by flip-chip bonding to the megapixel InSb array. The ROIC is fabricated in CMOS 0.18-μm technology, that enables the small pixel circuitry and relatively low power generation at the focal plane. The digital ROIC has an analog to digital (A/D) converter per-channel and allows for full frame readout at a rate of 100 Hz. Such on-chip A/D conversion eliminates the need for several A/D converters with fairly high power consumption at the system level. The digital readout, together with the InSb detector technology, lead to a wide linear dynamic range and low residual nonuniformity, which is stable over a long period of time following a nonuniformity correction procedure. A special Dewar was designed to withstand harsh environmental conditions while minimizing the contribution to the heat load of the detector. The Dewar together with the low power ROIC, enable a megapixel detector with overall low size, weight, and power with respect to comparable large format detectors. A variety of applications with this detector make use of different cold shields with different f-number and spectral filters. In this paper we present actual performance characteristics of the

  11. Intra-pixel response of infrared detector arrays for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Tim; Baril, M. R.; Pazder, J.; Stilburn, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    The near-infrared instruments on the James Webb Space Telescope will use 5 micron cutoff HAWAII-2RG detector arrays. We have investigated the response of this type of detector at sub-pixel resolution to determine whether variations at this scale would affect the performance of the instruments. Using a simple experimental setup we were able to get measurements with a resolution of approximately 4 microns. We have measured an un-hybridized HAWAII-1RG multiplexer, a hybridized HAWAII-1RG device with a 5 micron cutoff HgCdTe detector layer, and a hybridized HAWAII-2RG device with a 5 micron cutoff substrate-removed HgCdTe detector layer. We found that the intra-pixel response functions of the hybrid devices are basically smooth and well behaved, and vary little from pixel to pixel. However, we did find numerous sub-pixel sized defects, notably some long straight thin features like scratches. We were not able to detect any significant variations with wavelength between 0.65 and 2.2 microns, but in the -1RG device there was a variation with temperature. When cooled from 80K to 40K, the pixel response became narrower, and some signal began to be lost at the edges of the pixel. We believe this reflects a reduction in charge diffusion at the lower temperature.

  12. Ultra fast combined bolometric and non-bolometric infrared detector

    SciTech Connect

    Ghis, A.; Villegier, J.C.; Nail, M.; Gilbert, P.; Sriby, S.

    1994-12-31

    Electrical photoresponse measurements on a Corbino type structure with thin epitaxial YBaCuO layer have been previously reported. They showed a very fast inductive reaction (rise time {<=}12ps, width 29ps), followed by the bolometric heating effect. New detector structures based on coplanar lines have been experimented with similar experimental apparatus. The performances of the different geometries of detector will be compared in terms of magnitude and sharpness of the inductive non-equilibrium voltage peek, and of bolometric relaxation constants. The influence of bias current, incident power, and operating temperature on the photoresponse mechanisms will be discussed. The feasibility of applying this type of fast superconducting detectors to far infrared radiation measurements has been demonstrated by using a Free Electron Laser pulses at a wavelength of 20{micro}m. The detector may be used as two simultaneous different sensors for describing very fast optical pulse: the fast part of the response voltage represents the envelope of the incident pulse, while the bolometric part is significant for the incident energy.

  13. InGaAs Detectors for Miniature Infrared Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, T. N.; Staller, C.; Dejewski, S.; Cunningham, T.; Herring, M.; Fossum, E. R.

    1993-01-01

    In the past year, there has been substantial impetus for NASA to consider missions that are of relatively low cost as a trade off for a higher new mission launch rate. To maintain low mission cost, these missions will be of short duration and will use smaller launch vehicles (e.g. Pegasus). Consequently, very low volume, very low mass instrument (a.k.a. miniature instrument) payloads will be required. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the number of instruments flown on a particular mission will also be highly constrained; consequently increased instrument capability will also be desired. In the case of infrared instruments, focal planes typically require cooling to ensure high performance of the detectors, especially in the case of spectrometers where high D* is necessary. In this paper, we discuss the InGaAs detector technology and its potential.

  14. Stressed photoconductive detector for far-infrared space applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, J Q; Richards, P L; Beeman, J W; Haller, E E

    1987-11-15

    An optimized leaf-spring apparatus for applying uniaxial stress to a Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor has been designed and tested. This design has significant advantages for space applications which require high quantum efficiency and stable operation over long periods of time. The important features include adequate spring deflection with relatively small overall size, torque-free stress, easy measurement of applied stress, and a detector configuration with high responsivity. One-dimensional arrays of stressed photoconductors can be constructed using this design. A peak responsivity of 38 A/W is achieved in a detector with a cutoff wavelength of 200 microm, which was operated at a temperature of 2.0 K and a bias voltage equal to one half of the breakdown voltage.

  15. Simultaneous characterization of detector and source imperfections in infrared ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Wormeester, Herbert; Kole, Pepijn R; Poelsema, Bene

    2009-05-20

    Optical components required for infrared (IR) ellipsometry have distinctly worse characteristics compared to those available for the visible spectrum. The calibration of the optical components used is therefore essential for obtaining reliable results. Here a powerful method is outlined to calibrate simultaneously the polarization characteristics of a source and detector through the synchronous rotation of two polarizers. The performance of this method is to a large degree independent of the quality of (commercially available) polarizers. This renders this method robust and highly suitable for the IR range. Moreover, it is also inherently insensitive toward a nonlinear response of the detector. This enables us to use this method as the first step in the quantification of component imperfections.

  16. Crosstalk study of near infrared InGaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue; Tang, Hengjing; Li, Tao; Fan, Cui; Shao, Xiumei; Li, Jianwei; Wei, Jun; Gong, Haimei

    2016-05-01

    Crosstalk characteristics of high density FPA detectors attract widespread attention in the application of electro-optical systems. Crosstalk characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) InGaAs photodiodes and focal plane arrays (FPAs) were studied in this paper. The mesa type detector was investigated by using laser beam induced current technique (LBIC) to measure the absorption outside the designed photosensitive area, and the results show that the excess absorption enlarges the crosstalk of the adjacent pixels. The structure optimization using the effective absorption layer between the pixels can effectively reduce the crosstalk to 2.5%. The major crosstalk components of the optimization photodiode come from the electronic signal caused by carrier lateral diffusion. For the planar type detectors, test structures were used to compare the crosstalk of different structures, and the guard ring structure shows good suppression of the crosstalk. Then the back-illuminated 32x32 InGaAs photodiodes with 30μm pitch were designed, and LBIC was used to measure its lateral diffusion of the effective carriers and fill factor of photosensitive area. The results indicate that the fill factor of detectors can reach up to 98% when the diffusion region is optimized, and the minimum response exists between two neighborhood pixels. Based on these crosstalk measurement results and optimizing structure designs, the linear InGaAs photodiodes were designed and thus the InGaAs FPA assembly was fabricated. The assembly shows higher electro-optical performance and good improvement on crosstalk. The assembly was applied in infrared imaging system and modulation transfer function (MTF) of FPA assembly was calculated to be above 0.50. The clear image based on FPA assembly was obtained.

  17. Kinetic inductance detectors for far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, Alyssa; Aguirre, James; Stevenson, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The star formation mechanisms at work in the early universe remain one of the major unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. Many of the luminous galaxies present during the period of peak star formation (between redshifts 1 and 3) were heavily enshrouded in dust, which makes observing their properties difficult at optical wavelengths. However, many spectral lines exist at far-infrared wavelengths that serve as tracers of star formation during that period, in particular fine structure lines of nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen, as well as the carbon monoxide molecule. Using an observation technique known as intensity mapping, it would be possible to observe the total line intensity for a given redshift range even without detecting individual sources. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a balloonborne spectroscopic intensity mapping experiment at far-infrared wavelengths. The experiment requires an "integralfield" type spectrograph, with modest spectral resolution (R 100) for each of a number of spatial pixels spanning several octaves in wavelength. The detector system uses lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs), which have the potential to achieve the high sensitivity, low noise, and high multiplexing factor required for this experiment. We detail the design requirements and considerations, and the fabrication process for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels. The pixel design is driven by the need for high responsivity, which requires a small physical volume for the LEKID inductor. In order to minimize two-level system noise, the resonators include large-area interdigitated capacitors. High quality factor resonances are required for a large frequency multiplexing factor. Detectors were fabricated using both trilayer TiN/Ti/TiN recipes and thin-film Al, and are operated at base temperatures near 250 mK.

  18. Fractional Brownian Motion, Wavelets, and Infrared Detector Noise

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    swale 3 of (a) FIGURE 31.54-Hertz Amber Camera Data and Daubechies 10 WaveleL 64 NAWCWPNS TP 8103 REFERENCES I. D. A. Scribner, K. A. Sarkady , M. R. Kruer...Arrays," SPIE Focal Plane Arrays: Technology and Applications, Vol. 865 (1987), pp. 185-202. 3. D. A. Scribner, K. A. Sarkady , M. R. Kruer, and J. C...Infrared Detectors and Arrays (1989), pp. 255-64. 4. D. A. Scribner, K. A. Sarkady , J. T. Caulfield, M. R. Kruer, G. Katz, J. C. Gridley, and Charles

  19. Physics and Applications of Unipolar Barriers in Infrared (IR) Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-23

    AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0120 AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2016-0120 PHYSICS AND APPLICATIONS OF UNIPOLAR BARRIERS IN INFRARED (IR) DETECTORS Gary Wicks University...YY) 23-08-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 1 Oct 2014 – 29 Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Physics and Applications of...InAs and GaSb. The electrical conductivity of the surfaces of these materials is important for understanding and controlling surface leakage currents

  20. High field CdS detector for infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyagi, R. C.; Robertson, J. B.; Boer, K. W.; Hadley, H. C., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An infrared radiation detector including a cadmium sulfide platelet having a cathode formed on one of its ends and an anode formed on its other end is presented. The platelet is suitably doped such that stationary high-field domains are formed adjacent the cathode when based in the negative differential conductivity region. A negative potential is applied to the cathode such that a high-field domain is formed adjacent to the cathode. A potential measuring probe is located between the cathode and the anode at the edge of the high-field domain and means are provided for measuring the potential at the probe whereby this measurement is indicative of the infrared radiation striking the platelet.

  1. Direct minority carrier transport characterization of InAs/InAsSb superlattice nBn photodetectors

    DOE PAGES

    Zuo, Daniel; Liu, Runyu; Wasserman, Daniel; ...

    2015-02-18

    We present an extensive characterization of the minority carrier transport properties in an nBn mid-wave infrared detector incorporating a Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice as the absorbing region. Using a modified electron beam induced current technique in conjunction with time-resolved photoluminescence, we were able to determine several important transport parameters of the absorber region in the device, which uses a barrier layer to reduce dark current. For a device at liquid He temperatures we report a minority carrier diffusion length of 750 nm and a minority carrier lifetime of 202 ns, with a vertical diffusivity of 2.78 x 10–2 cm2/s. Wemore » also report on the device's optical response characteristics at 78 K.« less

  2. Direct minority carrier transport characterization of InAs/InAsSb superlattice nBn photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Daniel; Liu, Runyu; Wasserman, Daniel; Mabon, James; He, Zhao -Yu; Liu, Shi; Zhang, Yong -Hang; Kadlec, Emil A.; Olson, Benjamin V.; Shaner, Eric A.

    2015-02-18

    We present an extensive characterization of the minority carrier transport properties in an nBn mid-wave infrared detector incorporating a Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice as the absorbing region. Using a modified electron beam induced current technique in conjunction with time-resolved photoluminescence, we were able to determine several important transport parameters of the absorber region in the device, which uses a barrier layer to reduce dark current. For a device at liquid He temperatures we report a minority carrier diffusion length of 750 nm and a minority carrier lifetime of 202 ns, with a vertical diffusivity of 2.78 x 10–2 cm2/s. We also report on the device's optical response characteristics at 78 K.

  3. Aeronomical application of a germanium near infrared (NIR) detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noto, John; Kerr, Robert B.; Rudy, R. J.; Williams, R.; Hecht, James H.

    1994-09-01

    The wavelength region surrounding 1.0 micrometers has traditionally been a difficult one to observe. GaAs and silicon both have very low quantum efficiency in the NIR, while some improvements can be made by pre-flashing and oxygen soaking a silicon CCD. Greater improvement can be realized by using a material other then silicon as a substrate. Recently, detector technology has improved to the point where NIR observations can be made almost routinely. Scientifically, the NIR region is ideal for the study of molecular line and band emission, as well as low energy atomic transitions. A collaboration between Boston University and the Aerospace Corporation has resulted in a germanium based detector used in conjunction with an infrared optimized Fabry-Perot spectrometer. Gold plated mirrors were installed and the appropriate transmissive optics are used in the Fabry-Perot to optimize the NIR transmission. The detector is a germanium PIN diode coated with a layer of silicon-nitride. Current produced by the detector is measured by using a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier (CITA). An A/D converter samples the amplified capacitor voltage and outputs a 12 bit word that is then passed on to the controlling computer system. The detector, amplifier, and associated electronics are mounted inside a standard IR dewar and operated at 77 degree(s)K. We have operated this detector and spectrometer system at Millstone Hill for about 6 months. Acceptable noise characteristics, a NEP of 10(superscript -17) watts, and a QE of 90% at 1.2 micrometers , have been achieved with an amplifier gain of 200. The system is currently configured for observations of thermospheric helium, and has made the first measurement of the He 10,830 angstrom nightglow emission isolated from OH contamination. In an effort to both increase the sensitivity of our Fabry-Perot in the visible and to adapt it for planetary astronomy we have entered into a collaboration with CIDTEC. A charge injection detector or CID

  4. A New Method for Growth and Analysis of Next-generation Infrared (IR) Detector Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    A New Method for Growth and Analysis of Next-generation Infrared (IR) Detector Materials by John D. Demaree and Stefan Svensson ARL-TR...5069 ARL-TR-4739 March 2009 A New Method for Growth and Analysis of Next-generation Infrared (IR) Detector Materials John D. Demaree...Analysis of Next-generation Infrared (IR) Detector Materials 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) John

  5. Type-II superlattice infrared detector technology at Fraunhofer IAF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Daumer, Volker; Hugger, Tsvetelina; Kohn, Norbert; Luppold, Wolfgang; Müller, Raphael; Niemasz, Jasmin; Schmidt, Johannes; Rutz, Frank; Stadelmann, Tim; Wauro, Matthias; Wörl, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    For more than two decades, Antimony-based type-II superlattice photodetectors for the infrared spectral range between 3-15 μm are under development at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF). Today, Fraunhofer IAF is Germany's only national foundry for InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice detectors and we cover a wide range of aspects from basic materials research to small series production in this field. We develop single-element photodetectors for sensing systems as well as two-dimensional detector arrays for high-performance imaging and threat warning systems in the mid-wavelength and long-wavelength region of the thermal infrared. We continuously enhance our production capabilities by extending our in-line process control facilities. As a recent example, we present a semiautomatic wafer probe station that has developed into an important tool for electrooptical characterization. A large amount of the basic materials research focuses on the reduction of the dark current by the development of bandgap engineered device designs on the basis of heterojunction concepts. Recently, we have successfully demonstrated Europe's first LWIR InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice imager with 640x512 pixels with 15 μm pitch. The demonstrator camera already delivers a good image quality and achieves a thermal resolution better than 30 mK.

  6. Infrared light field imaging using single carbon nanotube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Ning; Chen, Liangliang; Zhou, Zhanxin; Yang, Ruiguo; Song, Bo; Sun, Zhiyong

    2014-06-01

    The conventional photographs only record the sum total of light rays of each point on image plane so that they tell little about the amount of light traveling along individual rays. The focus and lens aberration problems have challenged photographers since the very beginning therefore light field photography was proposed to solve these problems. Lens array and multiple camera systems are used to capture 4D light rays, by reordering the different views of scene from multiple directions. The coded aperture is another method to encode the angular information in frequency domain. However, infrared light field sensing is still widely opening to research. In the paper, we will propose micro plane mirror optics together with compressive sensing algorithm to record light field in infrared spectrum. The micro mirror reflects objects irradiation and forms a virtual image behind the plane in which the mirror lies. The Digital Micromirror (DMD) consists of millions microscale mirrors which work as CCD array in the camera and it is controlled separately so as to project linear combination of object image onto lens. Coded aperture could be utilized to control angular resolution of infrared light rays. The carbon nanotube based infrared detector, which has ultra high signal to noise ratio and ultra fast responsibility, will sum up all image information on it without image distortion. Based on a number of measurements, compressive sensing algorithm was used to recover images from distinct angles, which could compute different views of scene to reconstruct infrared light field scence. Two innovative applications of full image recovery using nano scale photodetector and DMD based synthetic aperture photography will also be discussed in this paper.

  7. Curved infrared detectors: application to spectrometry and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumas, D.; Fendler, M.; Berger, F.; Marion, F.; Arnaud, A.; Vialle, C.; Goudon, V.; Primot, J.; Le Coarer, E.; Ribot, H.

    2010-07-01

    The traditional design of optical systems is severely complicated by the curved shape of the image surface which has to be recorded on a planar retina. This constraint decreases the image quality; optical elements are then added to avoid aberrations and lead to increase the dimensions of the system. However, miniaturization could be achieved, without decreasing resolution and sensibility, by recording the image surface on a curved retina. The optical advantages of curved sensors have been demonstrated; the simplification leads to scale down the entire system. Moreover, the hemispherical shape increases the field of view (FOV). In this paper the advantages of curved focal plane will be detailed through two applications: spectrometry and large FOV telescopes. In astronomy, large FOV and miniaturization with good resolution can only be achieved by curving the focal plane; the difficulty is to curve in a hemispherical shape large detectors. The advantages are highlighted by the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) project. Despite this high interest in curved detectors, only few articles are dedicated to this hemispherical shape technology. Some solutions exist, which mainly consist in structuring the die in sub-devices. We propose a solution to curve an IR sensor with a fill factor equal to 100%. To do so, we developed a dedicated bonding process which allows curving silicon using its mechanical properties. A curved uncooled infrared detector has been performed without mechanical and electrical damage.

  8. Compact dewar and electronics for large-format infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manissadjian, A.; Magli, S.; Mallet, E.; Cassaigne, P.

    2011-06-01

    Infrared systems cameras trend is to require higher performance (thanks to higher resolution) and in parallel higher compactness for easier integration in systems. The latest developments at SOFRADIR / France on HgCdTe (Mercury Cadmium Telluride / MCT) cooled IR staring detectors do show constant improvements regarding detector performances and compactness, by reducing the pixel pitch and optimizing their encapsulation. Among the latest introduced detectors, the 15μm pixel pitch JUPITER HD-TV format (1280×1024) has to deal with challenging specifications regarding dewar compactness, low power consumption and reliability. Initially introduced four years ago in a large dewar with a more than 2kg split Stirling cooler compressor, it is now available in a new versatile compact dewar that is vacuum-maintenance-free over typical 18 years mission profiles, and that can be integrated with the different available Stirling coolers: K548 microcooler for light solution (less than 0.7 kg), K549 or LSF9548 for split cooler and/or higher reliability solution. The IDDCAs are also required with simplified electrical interface enabling to shorten the system development time and to standardize the electronic boards definition with smaller volumes. Sofradir is therefore introducing MEGALINK, the new compact Command & Control Electronics compatible with most of the Sofradir IDDCAs. MEGALINK provides all necessary input biases and clocks to the FPAs, and digitizes and multiplexes the video outputs to provide a 14 bit output signal through a cameralink interface, in a surface smaller than a business card.

  9. Infrared dual-band detectors for next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Yann; Chabuel, Fabien; Vaz, Cedric; Billon-Lanfrey, David; Baylet, Jacques; Gravrand, Olivier; Ballet, Philippe; Destefanis, Gérard

    2011-06-01

    The development of DB (Dual-Band) infrared detectors has been the core of research and technological improvements for the last ten years at CEA-LETI and Sofradir: the semi planar structure uses a proven standard process with robust reproducibility, leading to low-risk and a facilitated ramp-up to production. This makes it the natural choice for the third generation detectors proposed by Sofradir. The fabrication of DB MCT detectors is reaching maturity: ALTAIR with 24μm-pixel pitch arrays in TV format are available, showing median NETD around 18mK with operability over 99.5%. A second structure, based on two back to back diodes, with a single contact per pixel translates the DB pixel into smaller cell therefore being more efficient in terms of pitch reduction. These new technologies widen perspectives and open new horizons of applications such as large DB FPA, dual mode capability providing both SAL (Semi Active Laser) and IR operations for more robust target engagement or compact dual color detection with wide-angle integrated optics for missile warning system.

  10. Local anodic oxidation of superconducting NbN thin films by an atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y Yang, X.; You, L. X.; Wang, X.; Zhang, L. B.; Kang, L.; Wu, P. H.

    2009-12-01

    A local anodic oxidation technique has been applied to create oxidized nanowires on superconducting NbN thin films using an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a conductive probe. The AFM surface topography shows that both the width and height of the oxidized nanowires increase with increasing applied probe voltage under a certain relative humidity and a probe scan rate. The resistances of the NbN microbridges with and without an oxidized nanowire crossing were measured, and the results indicate that the oxidized nanowires with height of more than 8 nm are fully oxidized. The R-T and I-V characteristics of the NbN microbridges with the oxide wire of less than 8 nm were also obtained and analyzed. Methods for fabricating devices such as superconducting single photon detectors and superconducting hot electron bolometer mixers using this technology are discussed.

  11. Modeling of LWIR nBn HgCdTe photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Z. H.; Chen, Y. Y.; Zhang, P.; Lin, C.; Hu, X. N.; Ding, R. J.; He, L.

    2014-06-01

    The nBn structure with an electron barrier sandwiched by n-type cap and absorber layers was predicted to suppress the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) generation-recombination processes and surface leakage. The MCT nBn structure has been studied by several groups to implement high operating temperature (HOT) device. In this report, the numerical analysis of the Hg1-xCdxTe nBn device in LWIR region (x=0.225) is performed utilizing Crosslight APSYS. The detector performance characterized by dark current, photo-current and detectivity is optimized by adjusting structural parameters such as Cd component and doping of each layer under various biases. Among the parameters, the trade-off between ΔEc and ΔEv is most intensively affected by Cd component of the barrier which was modified carefully and accomplished firstly. Furthermore, the effect of the trap density and trap energy level on the device performance is also investigated especially according to the processing techniques. At 110K, the optimized detectivity of the LWIR MCT nBn device reaches 7.5×1010 cmHz1/2/W in this report, comparable with that of the DLPH device (7.6×1010 cmHz1/2/W). The novel nBn HgCdTe structure is potentially valuable in LWIR region since the controllable p-doping issue is circumvented and passivation process is simplified.

  12. PbSe/CdTe single quantum well infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chusnutdinow, S.; Szot, M.; Wojtowicz, T.; Karczewski, G.

    2017-03-01

    We report on the fabrication and characterization of a new type of mid-infrared photodetector. The infrared sensitive element of the detector is a PbSe single quantum well (SQW) embedded in an intrinsic region of a CdTe p-i-n diode. Electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) measurements confirm the location of the PbSe SQW near the middle of the intrinsic CdTe layer. The measured diffusion length of minority carriers of about 0.5 μm allows effective collecting of the photoexcited carriers in the highly doped regions of the diodes. The PbSe/CdTe heterostructures exhibit a strong photosensitivity in the mid-infrared spectral region. Photo-response measurements show abnormal temperature dependence of the photosensitivity. The photo-response signal increases with decreasing temperature reaching a maximum at about 170 K and upon a further decrease in temperature the signal weakens and vanishes at about 100 K. Current-voltage measurements demonstrate very good junction characteristics with a rectifying ratio of 585 at ± 0.5 V and an ideality factor of 1.05 at room temperature. Possible mechanisms of carrier transport trough the junction are discussed.

  13. HOT infrared photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyniuk, P.; Rogalski, A.

    2013-06-01

    At present, uncooled thermal detector focal plane arrays are successfully used in staring thermal imagers. However, the performance of thermal detectors is modest, they suffer from slow response and they are not very useful in applications requiring multispectral detection. Infrared (IR) photon detectors are typically operated at cryogenic temperatures to decrease the noise of the detector arising from various mechanisms associated with the narrow band gap. There are considerable efforts to decrease system cost, size, weight, and power consumption to increase the operating temperature in so-called high-operating-temperature (HOT) detectors. Initial efforts were concentrated on photoconductors and photoelectromagnetic detectors. Next, several ways to achieve HOT detector operation have been elaborated including non-equilibrium detector design with Auger suppression and optical immersion. Recently, a new strategies used to achieve HOT detectors include barrier structures such as nBn, material improvement to lower generation-recombination leakage mechanisms, alternate materials such as superlattices and cascade infrared devices. Another method to reduce detector's dark current is reducing volume of detector material via a concept of photon trapping detector. In this paper, a number of concepts to improve performance of photon detectors operating at near room temperature are presented. Mostly three types of detector materials are considered — HgCdTe and InAsSb ternary alloys, and type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice. Recently, advanced heterojunction photovoltaic detectors have been developed. Novel HOT detector designs, so called interband cascade infrared detectors, have emerged as competitors of HgCdTe photodetectors.

  14. Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy and Energy-Resolving Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, Frank; Raab, Walfried

    2015-08-01

    Imaging spectroscopy has seen rapid progress over the past 25 years, leading to breakthroughs in many fields of astronomy that would not have been otherwise possible. This review overviews the visible/infrared imaging spectroscopy techniques as well as energy-resolving detectors. We introduce the working principle of scanning Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers and explain the most common integral field concepts based on mirror slicers, lenslet arrays, and fibers. The main advantage of integral field spectrographs is the simultaneous measurement of spatial and spectral information. Although Fabry-Perot and Fourier transform spectrometers can provide a larger field of view, it is ultimately the higher sensitivity of integral field units that make them the technique of choice. This is arguably the case for image slicers, which make the most efficient use of the available detector pixels and have equal or higher transmission than lenslet arrays and fiber integral field units, respectively. We also address the more specific issues of large étendue operation, focal ratio degradation, anamorphic magnification, and diffraction-limited operation. This review also covers the emerging technology of energy-resolving detectors, which promise very simple and efficient instrument designs. These energy-resolving detectors are based on superconducting thin film technology and exploit either the very small superconducting energy to count the number of quasi-particles excited in the absorption of the photon or the extremely steep phase transition between the normal- and superconducting phase to measure a temperature increase. We have put special emphasis on an overview of the underlying physical phenomena as well as on the recent technological progress and astronomical path finder experiments.

  15. Advances in detector technologies for visible and infrared wavefront sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Kolb, Johann; Rothman, Johan; Fusco, Thierry; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Destefanis, Gérard; Lhermet, Nicolas; Pacaud, Olivier; Vuillermet, Michel; Kerlain, Alexandre; Hubin, Norbert; Reyes, Javier; Kasper, Markus; Ivert, Olaf; Suske, Wolfgang; Walker, Andrew; Skegg, Michael; Derelle, Sophie; Deschamps, Joel; Robert, Clélia; Vedrenne, Nicolas; Chazalet, Frédéric; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Preis, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    detector with a readout noise of 3 e (goal 1e) at 700 Hz frame rate. The LGSD is a scaling of the NGSD with 1760x1680 pixels and 3 e readout noise (goal 1e) at 700 Hz (goal 1000 Hz) frame rate. New technologies will be developed for that purpose: advanced CMOS pixel architecture, CMOS back thinned and back illuminated device for very high QE, full digital outputs with signal digital conversion on chip. In addition, the CMOS technology is extremely robust in a telescope environment. Both detectors will be used on the European ELT but also interest potentially all giant telescopes under development. Additional developments also started for wavefront sensing in the infrared based on a new technological breakthrough using ultra low noise Avalanche Photodiode (APD) arrays within the RAPID project. Developed by the SOFRADIR and CEA/LETI manufacturers, the latter will offer a 320x240 8 outputs 30 microns IR array, sensitive from 0.4 to 3.2 microns, with 2 e readout noise at 1500 Hz frame rate. The high QE response is almost flat over this wavelength range. Advanced packaging with miniature cryostat using liquid nitrogen free pulse tube cryocoolers is currently developed for this programme in order to allow use on this detector in any type of environment. First results of this project are detailed here. These programs are held with several partners, among them are the French astronomical laboratories (LAM, OHP, IPAG), the detector manufacturers (e2v technologies, Sofradir, CEA/LETI) and other partners (ESO, ONERA, IAC, GTC). Funding is: Opticon FP6 and FP7 from European Commission, ESO, CNRS and Université de Provence, Sofradir, ONERA, CEA/LETI and the French FUI (DGCIS).

  16. Resonant detectors and focal plane arrays for infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. K.; Allen, S. C.; Sun, J. G.; DeCuir, E. A.

    2017-08-01

    We are developing resonator-QWIPs for narrowband and broadband long wavelength infrared detection. Detector pixels with 25 μm and 30 μm pitches were hybridized to fanout circuits and readout integrated electronics for radiometric measurements. With a low to moderate doping of 0.2-0.5 × 1018 cm-3 and a thin active layer thickness of 0.6-1.3 μm, we achieved a quantum efficiency between 25 and 37% and a conversion efficiency between of 15 and 20%. The temperature at which photocurrent equals dark current is about 65 K under F/2 optics for a cutoff wavelength up to 11 μm. The NEΔT of the FPAs is estimated to be 20 mK at 2 ms integration time and 60 K operating temperature. This good performance confirms the advantages of the resonator-QWIP approach.

  17. Application of fast infrared detectors to detonation science

    SciTech Connect

    Von Holle, W.G.; McWilliams, R.A.

    1982-07-28

    Infrared radiometers have been used to make time-resolved emission measurements of shocked explosives. Instruments of moderate time resolution were used to estimate temperatures in shocked but not detonated explosives. The heterogeneity of the shock-induced heating was discovered in pressed explosives by two-band techniques, and the time-resolved emittance or extent of hot spot coverage indicated a great dependence on shock pressures. Temperatures in moderately shocked organic liquids were also measured. Faster response radiometers with 5 ns rise times based on InSb and HgCdTe photovoltaic detectors were constructed and tested. Preliminary data on reactive shocks and detonations reveal a resolution of the heating in the shock wave and the following reaction.

  18. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  19. Method of fabricating multiwavelength infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, Stephen R. (Inventor); Olsen, Gregory H. (Inventor); Kim, Dong-Su (Inventor); Lange, Michael J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A multiwavelength local plane array infrared detector is included on a common substrate having formed on its top face a plurality of In.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x As (x.ltoreq.0.53) absorption layers, between each pair of which a plurality of InAs.sub.y P.sub.1-y (y.ltoreq.1) buffer layers are formed having substantially increasing lattice parameters, respectively, relative to said substrate, for preventing lattice mismatch dislocations from propagating through successive ones of the absorption layers of decreasing bandgap relative to said substrate, whereby a plurality of detectors for detecting different wavelengths of light for a given pixel are provided by removing material above given areas of successive ones of the absorption layers, which areas are doped to form a pn junction with the surrounding unexposed portions of associated absorption layers, respectively, with metal contacts being formed on a portion of each of the exposed areas, and on the bottom of the substrate for facilitating electrical connections thereto.

  20. Surface plasmon resonance based infrared photo-detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aytac, Yigit; Perera, Unil

    2012-03-01

    At present materials can be engineered to control propagation of light in certain directions at certain wavelengths. Such materials are called photonic crystals which contain a periodic arrangement of metals and dielectric materials on a wavelength scale. Surface Plasmon Resonances (SPR) in metallic and dielectric nano-arrays can be used to enhance the response of photo-detectors. There are variety of potential ways to increase the performance of infrared photo-detectors by using electromagnetic enhancement and dependence of the resonance wavelength on the arrays size, shape and the local dielectric environment integration of these apertures. A detailed analysis of the optical properties of the waveguides in two and three dimensions with periodically perforated array structures is presented. Transmission and reflection spectra, resonant modes and field patterns of photonic crystals were calculated and imaged with using FDTD (Finite-difference Time-domain) method by numerical analysis of the non-linear dispersion relation. Additionally, by varying the orientation of holes on the wave-guide, polarization sensitivity was achieved in the model.

  1. Infra-red detector and method of making and using same

    DOEpatents

    Craig, Richard A.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.

    2007-02-20

    A low-cost infra-red detector is disclosed including a method of making and using the same. The detector employs a substrate, a filtering layer, a converting layer, and a diverter to be responsive to wavelengths up to about 1600 nm. The detector is useful for a variety of applications including spectroscopy, imaging, and defect detection.

  2. Design philosophy of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory infrared detector test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R.; Blessinger, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    To support the development of advanced infrared remote sensing instrumentation using line and area arrays, a test facility has been developed to characterize the detectors. The necessary performance characteristics of the facility were defined by considering current and projected requirements for detector testing. The completed facility provides the desired level of detector testing capability as well as providing ease of human interaction.

  3. Design philosophy of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory infrared detector test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R.; Blessinger, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    To support the development of advanced infrared remote sensing instrumentation using line and area arrays, a test facility has been developed to characterize the detectors. The necessary performance characteristics of the facility were defined by considering current and projected requirements for detector testing. The completed facility provides the desired level of detector testing capability as well as providing ease of human interaction.

  4. Development of a Bolometer Detector System for the NIST High Accuracy Infrared Spectrophotometer

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Y.; Datla, R. U.

    1998-01-01

    A bolometer detector system was developed for the high accuracy infrared spectrophotometer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to provide maximum sensitivity, spatial uniformity, and linearity of response covering the entire infrared spectral range. The spatial response variation was measured to be within 0.1 %. The linearity of the detector output was measured over three decades of input power. After applying a simple correction procedure, the detector output was found to deviate less than 0.2 % from linear behavior over this range. The noise equivalent power (NEP) of the bolometer system was 6 × 10−12 W/Hz at the frequency of 80 Hz. The detector output 3 dB roll-off frequency was 200 Hz. The detector output was stable to within ± 0.05 % over a 15 min period. These results demonstrate that the bolometer detector system will serve as an excellent detector for the high accuracy infrared spectrophotometer. PMID:28009364

  5. Development of a Bolometer Detector System for the NIST High Accuracy Infrared Spectrophotometer.

    PubMed

    Zong, Y; Datla, R U

    1998-01-01

    A bolometer detector system was developed for the high accuracy infrared spectrophotometer at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to provide maximum sensitivity, spatial uniformity, and linearity of response covering the entire infrared spectral range. The spatial response variation was measured to be within 0.1 %. The linearity of the detector output was measured over three decades of input power. After applying a simple correction procedure, the detector output was found to deviate less than 0.2 % from linear behavior over this range. The noise equivalent power (NEP) of the bolometer system was 6 × 10(-12) [Formula: see text] at the frequency of 80 Hz. The detector output 3 dB roll-off frequency was 200 Hz. The detector output was stable to within ± 0.05 % over a 15 min period. These results demonstrate that the bolometer detector system will serve as an excellent detector for the high accuracy infrared spectrophotometer.

  6. Two-color detector: Mercury-cadmium-telluride as a terahertz and infrared detector

    SciTech Connect

    Sizov, F.; Zabudsky, V.; Petryakov, V.; Golenkov, A.; Andreyeva, K.; Tsybrii, Z.; Dvoretskii, S.

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, issues associated with the development of infrared (IR) and terahertz (THz) radiation detectors based on HgCdTe are discussed. Two-color un-cooled and cooled to 78 K narrow-gap mercury-cadmium-telluride semiconductor thin layers with antennas were considered both as sub-THz (sub-THz) direct detection bolometers and 3–10 μm IR photoconductors. The noise equivalent power (NEP) for one of the detectors studied at ν ≈ 140 GHz reaches NEP{sub 300 K} ≈ 4.5 × 10{sup −10} W/Hz{sup 1/2} and NEP{sub 78 K} ≈ 5 × 10{sup −9} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. The same detector used as an IR photoconductor showed the responsivity at temperatures T = 78 K and 300 K with signal-to-noise ratio S/N ≈ 750 and 50, respectively, under illumination by using IR monochromator and globar as a thermal source.

  7. Suppression of Lateral Diffusion and Surface Leakage Currents in nBn Photodetectors Using an Inverted Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Savich, G. R.; Marozas, B. T.; Wicks, G. W.

    2017-08-01

    Surface leakage and lateral diffusion currents in InAs-based nBn photodetectors have been investigated. Devices fabricated using a shallow etch processing scheme that etches through the top contact and stops at the barrier exhibited large lateral diffusion current but undetectably low surface leakage. Such large lateral diffusion current significantly increased the dark current, especially in small devices, and causes pixel-to-pixel crosstalk in detector arrays. To eliminate the lateral diffusion current, two different approaches were examined. The conventional solution utilized a deep etch process, which etches through the top contact, barrier, and absorber. This deep etch processing scheme eliminated lateral diffusion, but introduced high surface current along the device mesa sidewalls, increasing the dark current. High device failure rate was also observed in deep-etched nBn structures. An alternative approach to limit lateral diffusion used an inverted nBn structure that has its absorber grown above the barrier. Like the shallow etch process on conventional nBn structures, the inverted nBn devices were fabricated with a processing scheme that only etches the top layer (the absorber, in this case) but avoids etching through the barrier. The results show that inverted nBn devices have the advantage of eliminating the lateral diffusion current without introducing elevated surface current.

  8. Fluid flow and heat transfer in Joule-Thomson coolers coupled with infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bingyan; Jia, Weimin

    2011-08-01

    Joule-Thomson coolers have been widely used in infrared detectors with respect to compact, light and low cost. For self-regulating Joule-Thomson cooler, its performance is required to be improved with the development of higher mass and larger diameter of focal plane infrared detectors. Self-regulating Joule-Thomson coolers use a limited supply of high pressure gas to support the cooling of infrared detectors. In order to develop Joule-Thomson coolers with a given volume of stored gas, it is important to study on fluid flow and heat transfer of Joule-Thomson coolers coupled with infrared detectors, especially the starting time of Joule-Thomson coolers. A serial of experiments of Joule-Thomson coolers coupled with 128×128 focal plane infrared detectors have been carried out. The exchanger of coolers are made of a d=0.5mm capillary finned with a copper wire. The coolers are self-regulated by bellows and the diameters are about 8mm. Nitrogen is used as working gas. The effect of pressure of working gas has been studied. The relation between starting time and pressure of working gas is proved to fit exponential decay. Error analysis has also been carried. It is crucial to study the performance of Joule-Thomson coolers coupled with infrared detectors. Deeper research on Joule-Thomson coolers will be carried on to improve the Joule-Thomson coolers for infrared detectors.

  9. High operating temperature InAlSb infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mo; Chen, Gang; Li, Hao; Zhang, Zhaofan; Peng, Pan; Lv, Yanqiu

    2016-10-01

    The recent progresses of our research in InxAl1-xSb infrared detector based on molecular beam epitaxy are presented. Al composition with 0-0.3 is used for adjusting energy gaps of InSb and a p-i-n structure is utilized to decrease dark current. InxAl1-xSb ternary alloys are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InSb substrates, and the material quality is characterized using high resolution x-ray diffraction. In order to exploit this epitaxial material we have developed new mesa and passivation technology based on matured InSb fabrication process. The InAlSb diodes has a cut-off wavelength of around 4.8μm. The reverse bias dark current of InAlSb diodes have been measured. The dark current of the pin InAlSb diode is seen to smaller that of the bulk p+n InSb diodes by 4-5 times in 77K.

  10. A surface plasmonic coupled mid-long-infrared two-color quantum cascade detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Xiong, Dayuan; Wen, Jie; Li, Ning; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2016-11-01

    A novel mid-long-infrared two-color photodetector is proposed. It combines quantum cascade detector (QCD) and surface plasmonic coupling structure. The reflection spectrum and electric field are analyzed by algorithm of finite difference time domain method (FDTD). This QCD is sensitive to 4.4 μm and 9.0 μm infrared light. Mid-infrared and long-infrared pixels are interlaced arranged with specific plasmonic micro-cavity structures integrated. 7.1 and 7 times enhancement in optical absorption are obtained for mid-infrared and long-infrared pixels, respectively. Besides, a polarization-discriminating detection performance has been observed.

  11. Doping-Spike PtSi Schottky Infrared Detectors with Extended Cutoff Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Park, J. S.; Gunapala, S. D.; Jones, E. W.; Castillo, H. M. Del

    1994-01-01

    A technique incorporating a p+ doping spike at the silicide/Si interface to reduce the effective Schottky barrier of the silicide infrared detectors and thus extend the cutoff wavelength has been developed.

  12. Overview of alternative infrared detectors and focal plane arrays for LWIR applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, S.; Ribet-Mohamed, I.; Haïdar, R.; Maine, S.; Guérineau, N.; Vincent, G.; Derelle, S.; Druart, G.; Rommeluère, S.; Primot, J.; Deschamps, J.

    For a variety of scientific, space and defence applications, there is an increasing demand for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detector focal plane arrays and compact infrared instruments. In the first part, we present an overview of alternative detectors to standard mercury cadmium telluride photodiodes for LWIR detection, such as the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode, the quantum-well infrared photo-detectors, the superlattice detectors and the carbone nanotubes-based bolometers. In the second part, we focus on new concepts developed to meet the requirement of miniaturization of infrared instruments. Original IRFPA-based micro-optical assemblies have been achieved, demonstrating several optical functions such as imagery, spectral filtering, spectrometry and wavefront sensing.

  13. Stacked silicide/silicon mid- to long-wavelength infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The use of stacked Schottky barriers (16) with epitaxially grown thin silicides (10) combined with selective doping (22) of the barriers provides high quantum efficiency infrared detectors (30) at longer wavelengths that is compatible with existing silicon VLSI technology.

  14. Heterojunction Internal Photoemission SiO.7GeO.3/Si Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True Lon

    1994-01-01

    Silicon-compatible detectors are amoung the most promising infrared sensors for large focal plane array applications due to their advantages of uniformity, reliability, and easy integration with low-noise Si readout circuitry.

  15. Stacked silicide/silicon mid- to long-wavelength infrared detector

    DOEpatents

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1990-03-13

    The use of stacked Schottky barriers (16) with epitaxially grown thin silicides (10) combined with selective doping (22) of the barriers provides high quantum efficiency infrared detectors (30) at longer wavelengths that is compatible with existing silicon VLSI technology.

  16. Doping-Spike PtSi Schottky Infrared Detectors with Extended Cutoff Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Park, J. S.; Gunapala, S. D.; Jones, E. W.; Castillo, H. M. Del

    1994-01-01

    A technique incorporating a p+ doping spike at the silicide/Si interface to reduce the effective Schottky barrier of the silicide infrared detectors and thus extend the cutoff wavelength has been developed.

  17. Quantum structure based infrared detector research and development within Acreo’s centre of excellence IMAGIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, J. Y.; Höglund, L.; Noharet, B.; Wang, Q.; Ericsson, P.; Wissmar, S.; Asplund, C.; Malm, H.; Martijn, H.; Hammar, M.; Gustafsson, O.; Hellström, S.; Radamson, H.; Holtz, P. O.

    2010-07-01

    Acreo has a long tradition of working with quantum structure based infrared (IR) detectors and arrays. This includes QWIP (quantum well infrared photodetector), QDIP (quantum dot infrared photodetector), and InAs/GaInSb based photon detectors of different structure and composition. It also covers R&D on uncooled microbolometers. The integrated thermistor material of such detectors is advantageously based on quantum structures that are optimised for high temperature coefficient and low noise. Especially the SiGe material system is preferred due to the compatibility with silicon technology. The R&D work on IR detectors is a prominent part of Acreo's centre of excellence "IMAGIC" on imaging detectors and systems for non-visible wavelengths. IMAGIC is a collaboration between Acreo, several industry partners and universities like the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Linköping University.

  18. Trombay infrared pneumatic detector: theory of operational characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, R N; Gupta, J P; Vohra, K G

    1978-11-01

    This paper explains in a simple manner the mechanism of formation of pressure pulse inside a pneumatic detector due to incident ir radiation. The detector had been designed earlier at Trombay. Experimentally observed characteristics of the detector have been explained on the basis of the theory derived.

  19. Analysis of fluid flow in Joule-Thomson coolers coupled with infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Bingyan; Hu, Yin; Wang, Zhan; Li, Xiuqiang

    2014-11-01

    Joule-Thomson cooler have its unique advantages with respect to compact, light and low cost. Joule-Thomson coolers have been widely used in HgCdTe infrared detectors, InSb infrared detectors and InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared detectors. The performance of Joule-Thomson coolers is required to be improved with the development of higher mass and larger diameter focal plane infrared detectors. Joule-Thomson coolers use a limited supply of high pressure gas to support the cooling of infrared detectors. In order to maximize the usage time and minimize the cooling down time for a given volume of stored gas for Joule-Thomson coolers, it is important to study on fluid flow of Joule-Thomson coolers. Experiments were carried out to focus on the performance of Joule-Thomson coolers coupled with infrared detectors. The effect of ambient temperature, the state of supply gas pressure is considered. The relationship between volume rates and supply gas pressure was proved to fit some regulates while the other parameters are fixed. Moreover, the effects of ambient temperature are analyzed.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of a three-dimensional feed-horn infrared antenna for an infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kuntae; Han, Yong-Hee; Moon, Sung; Park, Jung-Ho; Shin, Hyun-Joon

    2004-10-20

    A three-dimensional feed-horn antenna for the 10-microm-wavelength infrared region has been suggested, characterized, and fabricated. It is applied to an infrared detector for efficient collection of infrared radiation and to reduce background noise. The optimum size of the horn antenna was designed for maximum antenna directivity. The three-dimensional feed-horn antenna mold was fabricated by rotating and tilting illumination, whereas the antenna plate was acquired through electroplating. Antenna characteristics were measured by coupling of the antenna with a microbolometer. Measurement results show that the directivity of the antenna is 16.1 dB and the background noise is reduced by a factor of approximately 2 compared with an open-structure infrared detector.

  1. Type-II indium arsenide/gallium antimonide superlattices for infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Hooman

    In this work, the unique properties of type-II InAs/GaSb heterojunctions were utilized for the realization of novel infrared photodetectors with higher operating temperature, detectivity and uniformity than the commonly available infrared detectors. This effort was concentrated on two major devices: uncooled infrared detectors in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) range, and cooled devices in the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) range. Uncooled infrared (IR) detectors are required for low-cost, lightweight sensor systems that have many industrial and medical applications. Commercially available uncooled IR sensors use ferroelectric or microbolometer detectors. These sensors are inherently slow and cannot detect rapid signal changes needed for high-speed infrared systems. Some of the applications which require a fast detector (tau < 30 msec) are: freespace communication, active infrared countermeasure, non-invasive medical monitoring, and LIDARs. Although photon detectors have frequency responses in the megahertz range, their high temperature detectivity is severely degraded due to high Auger recombination rates. Bandgap engineering was used in order to suppress Auger recombination at room temperature in type-II superlattices. Our experimental results demonstrated nearly one order of magnitude lower Auger recombination rate at room temperature in these type-II superlattices compared to typical intrinsic detectors, such as HgCdTe, with similar bandgap. Uncooled detectors based on the engineered superlattices showed a detectivity of 1.3 x 108g cmHz 1/2/W at 11 Et m, which is comparable to microbolometers. However, the measured response time of the detectors was more than five orders of magnitude faster than microbolometers. In parallel, devices for operation in the VLWIR were developed. High-performance infrared detectors with cutoff wavelength above 14 mum are highly needed for many space-based applications. Commonly used detectors are extrinsic silicon and Hg

  2. CNES detector developments from far-infrared to mm: status and roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geoffray, H.; Monfardini, A.; Marnieros, S.; Piat, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Bardoux, A.

    2014-07-01

    CNES (French Space Agency) continuously drives the development of detectors for Space based Astronomy. Several detector concepts are developped by French Laboratories, from far infrared to mm wavelength. This paper gives a status on these developments as well as an overview of the associated roadmap.

  3. Detector upgrade of Subaru's Multi-object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabricius, Maximilian; Walawender, Joshua; Arimoto, Nobuo; Cook, David; Elms, Brian; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Hattori, Takashi; Hu, Yen-Sang; Iwata, Ikuru; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Omata, Koji; Tait, Philip; Takato, Naruhisa; Tanaka, Ichi; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Weber, Mark; Wung, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    During the past year, the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph at Subaru has undergone an upgrade of its science detectors, the housekeeping electronics and the instrument control software. This overhaul aims at increasing MOIRCS' sensitivity, observing efficiency and stability. Here we present the installation and the alignment procedure of the two Hawaii 2RG detectors and the design of a cryogenic focus mechanism. The new detectors show significantly lower read noise, increased quantum efficiency, and lower the readout time.

  4. 77 FR 16925 - Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Classification of the Near Infrared Brain Hematoma Detector

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 882 Medical Devices; Neurological Devices; Classification of the Near Infrared Brain Hematoma Detector AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Near Infrared (NIR)...

  5. Infrared detectors and focal plane arrays; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 18, 19, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.; Sampson, Robert E.

    1990-09-01

    The papers contained in this volume provide an overview of recent advances and the current state of developments in the field of infrared detectors and focal plane arrays. Topics discussed include nickel silicide Schottky-barrier detectors for short-wavelength infrared applications; high performance PtSi linear and focal plane arrays; and multispectral band Schottky-barrier IRSSD for remote-sensing applications. Papers are also presented on the performance of an Insi hybrid focal array; characterization of IR focal plane test stations; GaAs CCD readout for engineered bandgap detectors; and fire detection system for aircraft cargo bays.

  6. Laboratory characterization of direct readout Si:Sb and Si:Ga infrared detector arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckelvey, Mark E.; Moss, Nicolas N.; Mcmurray, R. E., Jr.; Estrada, John A.; Goebel, John H.; Mccreight, Craig R.; Savage, Maureen L.; Junga, Frank; Whittemore, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    Highlights of recent results obtained at Ames Research Center in performance evaluations of infrared detector arrays are presented. Antimony- and gallium-doped silicon direct readout 58x62 element hybrid devices from Ames' ongoing detector technology development program are described. The observed characteristics meet most of the performance goals specified by the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) instrument teams and compare favorably with the best performance reported for discrete non-integrating extrinsic silicon detectors. Initial results of radiation environment testing are reported, and non-ideal behavior demonstrated by these test devices is discussed.

  7. A low radiation optical system with lens positioned inside of the infrared detector Dewar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jun; Zhen, Zheng; Wang, Yingrui; Li, Juan; Ou, Wen; Li, Ang; Xiong, Jian

    2016-10-01

    For the far distance and weak signal detecting, low background noise is essential. Because the spatial noise of infrared system is mostly determined by spontaneous thermal radiation, it is the most directly method to achieve low spatial noise by refrigerating optics. This paper introduced a low radiation optical system with lens positioned inside of the infrared detector Dewar. The system includes two parts: the two mirror Cassegrain system working at room temperature which images the intermediate focus (IF) and the lens positioned inside of infrared detector Dewar which image the IF to focal plane. The working temperature inside of the infrared detector Dewar is 80K, the cryogenic lens contain three pieces lens whose total weight is below 5g. In view of engineering application, the low radiation optical system, the stray light analysis, cryogenic optics mounting and system testing were discussed. Calculations indicate that the equivalent blackbody radiation temperature (EBRT) is less than 180K.

  8. Extraordinary photocurrent harvesting at type-II heterojunction interfaces: toward high detectivity carbon nanotube infrared detectors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rongtao; Christianson, Caleb; Kirkeminde, Alec; Ren, Shenqiang; Wu, Judy

    2012-12-12

    Despite the potentials and the efforts put in the development of uncooled carbon nanotube infrared detectors during the past two decades, their figure-of-merit detectivity remains orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional semiconductor counterparts due to the lack of efficient exciton dissociation schemes. In this paper, we report an extraordinary photocurrent harvesting configuration at a semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (s-SWCNT)/polymer type-II heterojunction interface, which provides highly efficient exciton dissociation through the intrinsic energy offset by designing the s-SWCNT/polymer interface band alignment. This results in significantly enhanced near-infrared detectivity of 2.3 × 10(8) cm·Hz(1/2)/W, comparable to that of the many conventional uncooled infrared detectors. With further optimization, the s-SWCNT/polymer nanohybrid uncooled infrared detectors could be highly competitive for practical applications.

  9. A high-speed and low-noise intelligent test system for infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Tianshi; Xue, Yulong; Cui, Kun; Kong, Fansheng

    2016-11-01

    With the development of infrared focal plane technology, the scale of the detector becomes larger and larger, and the pixel noise level is lower and lower. We designed and implemented a set of infrared high-speed low noise intelligent test system based on OPENVPX standard, which is used to test the index, long term monitoring and life test of infrared detector. The system is mainly composed of main control board, image acquisition board, temperature acquisition board and the high speed back board, which has high speed image acquisition, processing, temperature monitoring and alarm function. Through testing and simulation, the results show that the system noise is less than 100uV, the dynamic range reaches 100dB, and the data throughput rate reaches 4Gbps, which can meet the requirements of the infrared detector test currently.

  10. Progress on the characterization activities of new infrared detectors from Leonardo, UK at the UKATC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezawada, Naidu; Atkinson, David; Miller, Chris; Bryson, Ian; Hipwood, Les; Shorrocks, Nick; Weller, Harald; Jackson, Malcolm; Davis, Ray; Barnes, Keith; Baker, Ian

    2016-08-01

    ESA has been funding the industry in Europe to bring the technologies together to manufacture high performance infrared detectors from near infrared (NIR) to very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) detectors. The UK Astronomy Technology Centre (UKATC) has undertaken the tasks of test and characterizing the new detectors being manufactured by Leonardo, UK (Selex ES Ltd). Initial test results from these programs were presented at previous SPIE meetings in 2012 and 2014. The work since has much progressed to test and characterize the Large Format NIR, SWIR and LW and VLWIR detectors. This paper will present the custom built test facilities for evaluation of large format (currently 1280x1024, 15μm pixel format) near infrared detectors for astronomy applications, the characterization of 1Kx1K shortwave infrared detectors (cut off at 2.5μm on a 2Kx2K ROIC) for satellite based earth observation programs, long wavelength (8 to 11.5μm) and very long wavelength (10 to 14.5μm) 288 x 384 pixel infrared arrays for cosmos applications. Also being evaluated in at the UKATC is a SAPHIRA APD array (mark 5) for photon sensing and high speed AO applications. Custom test facilities have been setup at the UKATC and are being routinely used to test and characterize these detectors under conditions representative of the applications. The paper will discuss the requirements placed on testing in each of these programs along with the associated challenges to evaluate the performance of these detectors. The paper will also include some of the latest test results from the characterization programs, where appropriate.

  11. Overview of DRS uncooled VOx infrared detector development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George

    2011-06-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past decade on uncooled focal plane array technologies and production capabilities. The detector pixel dimensions have continually decreased with an increase in pixel performance making large format, high-density array products affordable. In turn, this has resulted in the proliferation of uncooled IR detectors in commercial and military markets. Presently, uncooled detectors are widely used in firefighting, surveillance, industrial process monitoring, machine vision, and medical applications. Within the military arena, uncooled detectors are ubiquitous in Army soldier systems such as weapon sights, driver's viewers, and helmet-mounted sights. Uncooled detectors are also employed in airborne and ground surveillance sensors including unmanned aerial vehicles and robot vehicles.

  12. CdTe nBn photodetectors with ZnTe barrier layer grown on InSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhao-Yu; Campbell, Calli M.; Lassise, Maxwell B.; Lin, Zhi-Yuan; Becker, Jacob J.; Zhao, Yuan; Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2016-09-01

    We have demonstrated an 820 nm cutoff CdTe nBn photodetector with ZnTe barrier layer grown on an InSb substrate. At room temperature, under a bias of -0.1 V, the photodetector shows Johnson and shot noise limited specific detectivity (D*) of 3 × 1013 cm Hz1/2/W at a wavelength of 800 nm and 2 × 1012 cm Hz1/2/W at 200 nm. The D* is optimized by using a top contact design of ITO/undoped-CdTe. This device not only possesses nBn advantageous characteristics, such as generation-recombination dark current suppression and voltage-bias-addressed two-color photodetection, but also offers features including responsivity enhancements by deep-depletion and by using a heterostructure ZnTe barrier layer. In addition, this device provides a platform to study nBn device physics at room temperature, which will help us to understand more sophisticated properties of infrared nBn photodetectors that may possess a large band-to-band tunneling current at a high voltage bias, because this current is greatly suppressed in the large-bandgap CdTe nBn photodetector.

  13. An automatic measuring system for the lifetime testing of infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Lan; Zhang, Haiyan; Zhu, Xianliang; Gong, Haimei

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, an automatic measuring system based on LABVIEW and PLC is introduced; it uses the mutual controls of Single-Chip computer (MCU) and LABVIEW to accomplish the electrical parameter measurements of infrared detectors. This system can realize the multiple parameter measurements of no less than 160 IR detectors, it can realize the collection and storage of results by the LABVIEW; and it can avoid the damage of the IR detector during the measurement. After thousands times of test, the results show that the system runs stably and it can meet the accurate parameter measurement of detector.

  14. Visible and infrared detector developments supported by the European Space Agency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelms, N.; Minoglou, K.; Voland, C.; Levillain, Y.; Meynart, R.; Bezy, J.-L.; Duvet, L.; Zahir, M.; Leone, B.; Ciapponi, A.; Crouzet, P.-E.

    2015-10-01

    Remote sensing is a priority activity for the European Space Agency and detector performance is a crucial factor in determining how well this role is performed. Consequently, the Agency has a strong interest in continuous improvement of both detector capabilities and availability within Europe. To this end, ESA maintains a number of strategic detector development plans combining both technology-push and technology-pull. The visible and infrared wavebands are of particular interest for remote sensing activities and this paper sets out the requirements for current and future missions and presents details of the Agency's current and planned detector developments.

  15. Polycrystalline lead selenide: the resurgence of an old infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, G.; Montojo, M. T.; Torquemada, M. C.; Rodrigo, M. T.; Sánchez, F. J.; Gómez, L. J.; Almazán, R. M.; Verdú, M.; Rodríguez, P.; Villamayor, V.; Álvarez, M.; Diezhandino, J.; Plaza, J.; Catalán, I.

    2007-06-01

    The existing technology for uncooled MWIR photon detectors based on polycrystalline lead salts is stigmatized for being a 50-year-old technology. It has been traditionally relegated to single-element detectors and relatively small linear arrays due to the limitations imposed by its standard manufacture process based on a chemical bath deposition technique (CBD) developed more than 40 years ago. Recently, an innovative method for processing detectors, based on a vapour phase deposition (VPD) technique, has allowed manufacturing the first 2D array of polycrystalline PbSe with good electro optical characteristics. The new method of processing PbSe is an all silicon technology and it is compatible with standard CMOS circuitry. In addition to its affordability, VPD PbSe constitutes a perfect candidate to fill the existing gap in the photonic and uncooled IR imaging detectors sensitive to the MWIR photons. The perspectives opened are numerous and very important, converting the old PbSe detector in a serious alternative to others uncooled technologies in the low cost IR detection market. The number of potential applications is huge, some of them with high commercial impact such as personal IR imagers, enhanced vision systems for automotive applications and other not less important in the security/defence domain such as sensors for active protection systems (APS) or low cost seekers. Despite the fact, unanimously accepted, that uncooled will dominate the majority of the future IR detection applications, today, thermal detectors are the unique plausible alternative. There is plenty of room for photonic uncooled and complementary alternatives are needed. This work allocates polycrystalline PbSe in the current panorama of the uncooled IR detectors, underlining its potentiality in two areas of interest, i.e., very low cost imaging IR detectors and MWIR fast uncooled detectors for security and defence applications. The new method of processing again converts PbSe into an

  16. Infrared detector circuits using monolithic CMOS Op-Amps with InSb detectors in a transimpedance configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David S.

    1992-09-01

    As the emphasis in infrared detector research shifts toward larger and more complicated arrays the amount of time spent on simple single-element and small arrays is decreasing. One set of applications where discrete detectors and arrays are still finding use is in satellites. In addition, scanned imaging arrays based on single element detectors and small arrays are still being manufactured. Discussion here is for small arrays and single element detectors. One of the aspects of detector operation that always needs to be addressed is amplification. Often detectors are attached to amplifiers through rather long leads. Such systems are subject to unwanted microphonic response as a result of the motion of the leads relative to each other or to the ground plane. This sort of microphonic response can many times be eliminated through careful wiring and routing techniques, however, in some severe environments it is not possible to eliminate all microphonic response. A commonly used solution to this problem is to hybridize the detector with a JFET front end to reduce the effective output resistance of the detector circuit relative to the amplifier input. The TIA in such configurations is completed off the focal plane at room temperature. This means that half the circuit is operating at cryogenic temperatures while the other part is operating at room temperature some distance away. Ideally it would be more convenient, if not better, to include the amplifier on the focal plane with the detector. (Of course this hybridization is necessary for large two-dimensional arrays.) Data have been acquired to show some of the limitations and opportunities for such an approach. Typical bipolar operational amplifiers (OP-27, OP-37, LM108) will not operate well at cryogenic temperatures. CMOS operational amplifiers generally will operate at cryogenic temperatures but suffer from high front-end voltage noise. The TLC2201 from Texas Instruments is a CMOS op-amp manufactured for low voltage

  17. Characteristics of AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janousek, Bruce K.; Rosenbluth, Mary L.; Oloughlin, Michael J.; Bloss, Walter L.; Deluccia, Frank J.; Kanter, Helmut; Perry, L. Elaine; Daugherty, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers fabricated and characterized several AlGaAs/GaAs multiple quantum well infrared detectors to evaluate the ultimate performance of these devices for low infrared background applications. The detectors were designed to have a single bound state in the quantum well and the first excited state in the continuum above the AlGaAs conduction band edge. The difference in energy between the two levels, as determined by the quantum well width and aluminum mole fraction in the barrier, was chosen such that peak absorption would occur near 8 microns. The initial structures studied comprised 50 periods with 40 A well widths and 300 A Al(0.28)Ga(0.72)As barriers. The performance of these detectors are summarized. To better interpret these results and design optimized detectors, researchers modeled both the detector noise and tunneling currents. The noise model correctly predicts that multiple quantum well detectors will, indeed, exhibit noise lower than full shot noise. The tunneling current model predicts the dark current versus bias for any choice of design parameters in a multiple quantum well detector. This model predicts a substantially reduced dark current (x 10(exp 04)) for samples with 400 A barriers. To evaluate structures with thicker barriers, researchers fabricated and characterized detectors with 400 A and 500 A barriers; a comparison of detector dark currents is shown. These results are consistent with the predictions of the dark current model.

  18. Measurement of thermal radiation using regular glass optics and short-wave infrared detectors.

    PubMed

    Yoon, H W; Eppeldauer, G P

    2008-01-21

    The measurement of thermal radiation from ambient-temperature objects using short-wave infrared detectors and regular glass optics is described. The detectors are chosen to operate in the 2.0 microm to 2.5 microm atmospheric window. Selection of detectors with high shunt resistance along with the 4-stage thermo-electric cooling of the detectors to -85 degrees C results in detectivity, D*, of 4 x 10(13) cm Hz(1/2)/W which is near the background limited performance at 295 K. Furthermore, the use of regular-glass commercial optics to collect the thermal radiation results in diffraction-limited imaging. The use of a radiation thermometer constructed with these elements for the measurement of a blackbody from 20 degrees C to 50 degrees C results in noise-equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of < 3 mK at 50 degrees C. The operation at shorter wavelengths than traditional thermal sensors also leads to lower sensitivity to the emissivity of the object in determining the temperature of the object. These elements are used to construct a calibrator for an infrared collimator, and such a system demonstrates noise-equivalent irradiances of < 5 fW/cm(2). These results indicate that radiometers using short-wave infrared sensors could be constructed utilizing commercial glass optics with possible better performance and lower NETD than existing radiometers using cryogenically-cooled mid-infrared or thermal infrared detectors.

  19. Evaluation of a pyroelectric detector with a carbon multiwalled nanotube black coating in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, E; Deshpande, R; Dillon, A C; Lehman, J

    2006-02-20

    The performance of a pyroelectric detector with a carbon multiwalled nanotube coating was evaluated in the 0.9-14 microm wavelength range. The relative spectral responsivity of this detector was shown to be flat over most of the wavelength range examined, and the spectral flatness was shown to be comparable to the best infrared black coatings currently available. This finding is promising because black coatings with spectrally flat absorbance profiles are usually associated with the highest absorbance values. The performance of the detector (in terms of noise equivalent power and specific detectivity) was limited by the very thick (250 microm thick) LiNbO3 pyroelectric crystal onto which the coating was deposited. The responsivity of this detector was shown to be linear in the 0.06-2.8 mW radiant power range, and its spatial uniformity was comparable to that of other pyroelectric detectors that use different types of black coating. The carbon nanotube coatings were reported to be much more durable than other infrared black coatings, such as metal blacks, that are commonly used to coat thermal detectors in the infrared. This, in combination with their excellent spectral flatness, suggests that carbon nanotube coatings appear extremely promising for thermal detection applications in the infrared.

  20. Uncooled Infrared Detector Arrays With Electrostatically Levitated Sensing Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-28

    detectors"" vout operating at room temperature . Their resistance changes V2 Ni l following a temperature rise from the absorption of incident radiation...advantages of this approach are: Although in recent times, uncooled microbolometer 1) The detector temperature is not disturbed by thermal arrays have seen...levels by performing the deposition at an elevated temperature . The technology developed here was applied to a new class of acoustic transducer, a

  1. Quantum cascade detectors for very long wave infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buffaz, A.; Carras, M.; Doyennette, L.; Nedelcu, A.; Marcadet, X.; Berger, V.

    2010-04-01

    A high responsivity GaAs/AlGaAs quantum cascade detector is demonstrated at a wavelength of 15 μm. The quantum design is optimized for negative bias operation, so that the capture of photoexcited electrons back to the fundamental level is minimized. The detectivity of the detector presented here reaches 1.1×1012 Jones at 25 K for an applied bias of -0.6 V.

  2. Heated Surface Temperatures Measured by Infrared Detector in a Cascade Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyle, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Investigators have used infrared devices to accurately measure heated surface temperatures. Several of these applications have been for turbine heat transfer studies involving film cooling and surface roughness, typically, these measurements use an infrared camera positioned externally to the test section. In cascade studies, where several blades are used to ensure periodic flow, adjacent blades block the externally positioned camera's views of the test blade. To obtain a more complete mapping of the surface temperatures, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center fabricated a probe with an infrared detector to sense the blade temperatures. The probe size was kept small to minimize the flow disturbance. By traversing and rotating the probe, using the same approach as for total pressure surveys, one can find the blade surface temperatures. Probe mounted infrared detectors are appropriate for measuring surface temperatures where an externally positioned infrared camera is unable to completely view the test object. This probe consists of a 8-mm gallium arsenide (GaAs) lens mounted in front of a mercury-cadmium-zinc-tellurium (HgCdZnTe) detector. This type of photovoltaic detector was chosen because of its high sensitivity to temperature when the detector is uncooled. The particular application is for relatively low surface temperatures, typically ambient to 100 C. This requires a detector sensitive at long wavelengths. The detector is a commercial product enclosed in a 9-mm-diameter package. The GaAs lens material was chosen because of its glass-like hardness and its good long-wavelength transmission characteristics. When assembled, the 6.4-mm probe stem is held in the traversing actuator. Since the entire probe is above the measurement plane, the flow field disturbance in the measurement plane is minimized. This particular probe body is somewhat wider than necessary, because it was designed to have replaceable detectors and lenses. The signal for the detector is

  3. The test of response sensitivity of infrared detector in the laser fuze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zuo-jun; Kang, Jing-ran; Gong, Wei; Chen, Hai-qing

    2008-02-01

    Analyze the theory of testing detector's response sensitivity. In accordance with the synthetical requisition of full-automatic testing of the laser fuze, the response sensitivity of infrared detector in the laser fuze were testing by the way of the double light route. The spectral optical system divided the light beam into two beams which were same size, shape and even after the laser light beam were collimated and reformed. The two light rayed the standard detector and unknown detector separately. After we adopted the technology of optical system resisting the stray light, the oscilloscope achieved the response output of two detectors simultaneously. The output data were transferred into the computer by GPIB. It realized the accurate measurement of the detector's response sensitivity. The repeatability of the testing was smaller than 5%. So it was in keeping with the technical target of the laser fuze.

  4. Cellular infrared detector appears to be contained in the centrosome.

    PubMed

    Albrecht-Buehler, G

    1994-01-01

    Previous experiments have suggested that 3T3 cells were able to extend pseudopodia toward latex particles up to 60 microns away from the cell body if the particles were irradiated by an infrared beam in the range of 700-900 nm [Albrecht-Buehler, 1991: J. Cell Biol. 114:493-502]. The present article reports that this response of cells to infrared light can be inhibited if the cell center is simultaneously irradiated with a beam of the same light. In marked contrast, the cells responded normally to the presence of infrared light scattering particles if the second beam irradiated other parts of the cell body. The results imply that the cellular mechanism of infrared detection is located at the cell center. The infrared sensing mechanism remains intact in enucleated cells and in cells which were incubated in monensin to vesiculate their Golgi apparatus and inhibit their Golgi functions. Accordingly, it is proposed that the centrosome which contains the centrioles is the only remaining candidate in the cell center for a cellular detection device for the direction of infrared signal sources. The results support an earlier suggestion that centrioles may be such detection devices [Albrecht-Buehler, 1981: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 1:237-245].

  5. De-polarization of a CdZnTe radiation detector by pulsed infrared light

    SciTech Connect

    Dědič, V. Franc, J.; Rejhon, M.; Grill, R.; Zázvorka, J.; Sellin, P. J.

    2015-07-20

    This work is focused on a detailed study of pulsed mode infrared light induced depolarization of CdZnTe detectors operating at high photon fluxes. This depolarizing effect is a result of the decrease of positive space charge that is caused by the trapping of photogenerated holes at a deep level. The reduction in positive space charge is due to the optical transition of electrons from a valence band to the deep level due to additional infrared illumination. In this paper, we present the results of pulse mode infrared depolarization, by which it is possible to keep the detector in the depolarized state during its operation. The demonstrated mechanism represents a promising way to increase the charge collection efficiency of CdZnTe X-ray detectors operating at high photon fluxes.

  6. Application and Design of Satellite Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometers with Uncooled Microbolometer Array Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James; Lancaster, Regie; Maschhoff, Kevin; Starr, David OC (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Uncooled infrared microbolometer array detectors have application for space borne spectral imaging radiometer of several types to lower size, power and cost and provide improved performance. Other advantages of eliminating cooling requirement are simplified systems, simplified satellite integration and improved reliability. A prototype microbolometer instrument for cloud observations was flown on the STS-85 space shuttle mission. Extensive data were acquired at_km resolution at four thermal infrared wavelength bands. From the 320x280 detector array both spectral and angular information can be used to advantage in cloud retrievals and has been demonstrated. An engineering model Compact Visible and Infrared Imaging Radiometer (COVIR) for small satellite missions has been developed. Application of advanced microbolometer array detectors for three axis stabilized GOES thermal imagers has been studied.

  7. Extension of long wavelength response by modulation doping in extrinsic germanium infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadek, V.; Farhoomand, J.; Beichman, C. A.; Watson, D. M.; Jack, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    A new concept for infrared detectors based on multilayer epitaxy and modulation doping has been investigated. This permits a high doping concentration and lower excitation energy in the photodetecting layer as is necessary for longer wavelength response, without incurring the detrimental effects of increased dark current and noise as would be the case with conventional detector designs. Germanium photodetectors using conventional materials and designs have a long wavelength cutoff in the infrared at 138 microns, which can only be extended through the inconvenient application of mechanical stress or magnetic fields. As a result of this approach which was arrived at from theoretical considerations and subsequently demonstrated experimentally, the long wavelength cutoff for germanium extrinsic detectors was extended beyond 200 microns, as determined by direct infrared optical measurements.

  8. Time-resolved step-scan infrared imaging system utilizing a linear array detector.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Koshoubu, Jun; Kashiwabara, Seiichi; Nagoshi, Toshiyuki; Larsen, Richard A; Akao, Kenichi

    2008-01-01

    A time-resolved infrared (IR) imaging system combined with a multichannel IR microscope, which utilizes a 16 channel linear array (LA) detector, and step-scan Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) microscope was developed. The LA detector integrates a readout circuit on each detector element, so the detected signals can be read simultaneously. Thus, this system can perform high speed imaging using the step-scan method, similar to a single channel detector. To verify the capabilities of this system, a reflective sample was examined whose position was altered using a piezo actuator activated by an alternating voltage. In addition, the localization of relaxation dynamics for the liquid crystal (LC) molecules in an LC cell under oscillating electric field conditions was detected by this system.

  9. Detectors for the James Webb Space Telescope near-infrared spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Figer, Donald F.; Regan, Michael W.; Boeker, Torsten; Garnett, James; Hill, Robert J.; Bagnasco, Giorgio; Balleza, Jesus; Barney, Richard; Bergeron, Louis E.; Brambora, Clifford; Connelly, Joe; Derro, Rebecca; DiPirro, Michael J.; Doria-Warner, Christina; Ericsson, Aprille; Glazer, Stuart D.; Greene, Charles; Hall, Donald N.; Jacobson, Shane; Jakobsen, Peter; Johnson, Eric; Johnson, Scott D.; Krebs, Carolyn; Krebs, Danny J.; Lambros, Scott D.; Likins, Blake; Manthripragada, Sridhar; Martineau, Robert J.; Morse, Ernie C.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Mott, D. Brent; Muench, Theo; Park, Hongwoo; Parker, Susan; Polidan, Elizabeth J.; Rashford, Robert; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin; Sharma, Rajeev; Strada, Paolo; Waczynski, Augustyn; Wen, Yiting; Wong, Selmer; Yagelowich, John; Zuray, Monica

    2004-10-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is the James Webb Space Telescope"s primary near-infrared spectrograph. NASA is providing the NIRSpec detector subsystem, which consists of the focal plane array, focal plane electronics, cable harnesses, and software. The focal plane array comprises two closely-butted λco ~ 5 μm Rockwell HAWAII-2RG sensor chip assemblies. After briefly describing the NIRSpec instrument, we summarize some of the driving requirements for the detector subsystem, discuss the baseline architecture (and alternatives), and presents some recent detector test results including a description of a newly identified noise component that we have found in some archival JWST test data. We dub this new noise component, which appears to be similar to classical two-state popcorn noise in many aspects, "popcorn mesa noise." We close with the current status of the detector subsystem development effort.

  10. Detectors for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Figer, Donald F.; Regan, Michael W.; Boeker, Torsten; Garnett, James; Hill, Robert J.; Bagnasco, Georgio; Balleza, Jesus; Barney, Richard; Bergeron, Louis E.

    2004-01-01

    The Near-Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) is the James Webb Space Telescope's primary near-infrared spectrograph. NASA is providing the NIRSpec detector subsystem, which consists of the focal plane array, focal plane electronics, cable harnesses, and software. The focal plane array comprises two closely-butted lambda (sub co) approximately 5 micrometer Rockwell HAWAII- 2RG sensor chip assemblies. After briefly describing the NIRSpec instrument, we summarize some of the driving requirements for the detector subsystem, discuss the baseline architecture (and alternatives), and presents some recent detector test results including a description of a newly identified noise component that we have found in some archival JWST test data. We dub this new noise component, which appears to be similar to classical two-state popcorn noise in many aspects, "popcorn mesa noise." We close with the current status of the detector subsystem development effort.

  11. Stress induced long wavelength photoconductivity in doped silicon infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    The long wavelength cutoff of a Si:P detector was extended to 34 microns by the application of a uniaxial stress. An unstressed Si:P photoconductive detector responds to photons of up to 28 microns wavelength. By applying a uniaxial stress to a detector along the /100/ crystal axis, the response was extended to approximately 34 microns. The /100/ axis was chosen as the stress direction because theoretical calculations predicted that such a stress extends the wavelength response more than one along the /110/ axis. These theoretical calculations were based upon fits to experimental data obtained at stresses of up to approximately kbar, and indicated that the extension in wavelength response continues to increase at much larger stresses.

  12. DRS uncooled VOx infrared detector development and production status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan; Han, C. J.; Skidmore, George D.; Hess, Cory

    2010-04-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past decade on uncooled focal plane array (UFPA) technology development and production capacity at DRS as well as other domestic and overseas suppliers. This resulted in the proliferation of uncooled IR detectors in commercial and military markets. The uncooled detectors are widely used in firefighting, surveillance, industrial process monitoring, machine vision, and medical applications. In the military arena, uncooled detectors are fielded among diverse systems such as weapon sights, driver enhancement viewers, helmet-mounted sights, airborne and ground surveillance sensors including UAVs and robot vehicles. Pixel dimensions have continually decreased with an increase in pixel performance. This paper presents an overview of the DRS 25- and 17-micron pixel pitch uncooled VOx detector technology development and production status. The DRS uncooled FPA products include 320x240 and 640x480 arrays while the larger 1024x768 17-micron pitch array is at engineering prototype quantities. Current production of the 25-micron pitch 320x240 and 640x480 arrays exceeds 5,000 units per month, supporting U.S. military systems such as Army thermal weapon sights (TWS) and driver vision enhancers (DVE). Next generation systems are moving towards the 17-micron pixel pitch detectors. Advancement in small pixel technology has enabled the 17-micron pitch detectors performance to surpass their 25-micron pitch counterparts. To meet future production demand of the 17-micron pitch UFPAs, DRS has made significant investment in production infrastructure to upgrade its tools. These investments include a new DUV stepper, coater, and plasma etcher plus improvements in its manufacturing techniques to enhance yield. These advanced tools reduce the minimum line width in production below 0.35μm and are now being used to manufacture the 17-micron 320x240 and 640x480 arrays. To further technology development, DRS continues to engage in R&D activities

  13. Electronic influences on an infrared detector signal: nonlinearity and amplification.

    PubMed

    Rahmelow, K

    1997-04-01

    For mercury-cadmium-telluride detectors, frequently used in Fourier transform IR spectroscopy, the recorded signal is a nonlinear function of the light intensity. This behavior depends on a series resistor in the electronic circuit and thus the illumination of the detector. This nonlinearity must be accounted for to avoid spectroscopic errors. The results of theoretically calculating the effect permit a correction that can be applied, with corresponding lower accuracy, even after a phase correction. Also the use of the amplification stages does influence the phase of the signal electronically. For an accurate nonlinearity correction, compensation of the amplification of the analog signal is advisable.

  14. Miniature Uncooled Infrared Sensitive Detectors for in Vivo Biomedical Imaging Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Datskos, P. G.; Demos, S. G.; Rajic, S.

    1998-06-01

    Broadband infrared (OR) radiation detectors have been developed using miniature, inexpensive, mass produced microcantilevers capable of detecting temperature differences as small as lea(-6) K. Microcantilevers made out of semiconductor materials can be used either as uncurled photon or thermal detectors. Mounted on a probe mm in diameter a number of microcantilevers can be accommodated in the working channel of existing endoscopes for in vivo proximity focus measurements inside the human body.

  15. Magnetotransport in very long wave infrared quantum cascade detectors: Analyzing the current with and without illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Jasnot, François-Régis; Maëro, Simon; Vaulchier, Louis-Anne de; Guldner, Yves; Carosella, Francesca; Ferreira, Robson; Delga, Alexandre; Doyennette, Laetitia; Berger, Vincent; Carras, Mathieu

    2013-12-04

    Current measurements of current have been performed on a very long wave infrared quantum cascade detector under magnetic field under both dark and light conditions. The analysis of dark current as a function of temperature highlights three regimes of transport. Under illumination, the model developed is in agreement with the oscillatory component of the experimental magnetophotocurrent. It allows to identify the key points controlling the electronic transport: crucial role of extraction, location of ionized impurities and scattering mechanisms involved in the structure. This work is valuable for the future conception of high-performance quantum cascade detectors in the infrared range.

  16. Ir/IrSi3/Si Schottky-Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon

    1991-01-01

    Quantum efficiency increased. Proposed Schottky-barrier infrared detector has double metallic layer of Ir and IrSi3 instead of single metallic layer of Ir, IrSi, or IrSi3. Offers advantages of both relatively high infrared absorption in thin film of Ir and stability and reproducibility of layer of IrSi3 in contact with Si. Also serves as barrier to chemical reactions between Ir overlayer and Si substrate. Detectors used to form focal-plane array integrated with charge-coupled-device-addressing and image-processing circuitry.

  17. Infrared photo-interrupter as an eyeblink detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsuki, Narisuke; Takeuchi, Yoshinori

    1990-06-01

    An infrared light-emitting diode (IR-LED) and a phototransistor were paired to make an easy-to-use equipment to record eyeblinking. Since reflecting power is different between the eyelid and the cornea, the amount of reflected light cab indicate whether the eyelid is closed or opened. The IR-LED was driven by a 1,200 Hz electric pulse so that the detected infrared light could be amplified as an alternative current, filtered, and recorded on a regular cassette tape recorder. The devices were attached to eyeglasses. The estimated infrared radiation level was 0.5 mW/sq cm on the surface of the cornea. The safety limit of the IR exposure is discussed.

  18. Low dark current photovoltaic multiquantum well long wavelength infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Wen, Cheng P.; Sato, R. N.; Hu, M.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have, for the first time, demonstrated photovoltaic detection for an multiple quantum well (MQW) detector. With a blocking layer, the MQW detector exhibits Schottky I-V characteristics with extremely low dark current and excellent ideality factor. The dark current is 5 times 10(exp -14) A for an 100x100 square micron 10 micron detector at 40 K, 8 to 9 orders of magnitude lower than that of a similar 10 micron MQW detector without blocking layer. The ideality factor is about 1.01 to 1.05 at T = 40 to 80 K. The measured barrier height is consistent with the energy difference between first excited states and ground states, or the peak of spectral response. The authors also, for the first time, report the measured effective Richardson constant (A asterisk asterisk) for the GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction using this blocking layer structure. The A asterisk asterisk is low approx. 2.3 A/sq cm/K(exp 2).

  19. AFRL Nanotechnology Initiative: Hybrid Nanomaterials in Photonic Crystal Cavities for Multi-Spectral Infrared Detector Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-31

    INITIATIVE) HYBRID NANOMATERIALS IN PHOTONIC CRYSTAL CAVITIES FOR MULTI -SPECTRAL INFRARED DETECTOR ARRAYS 5b. GRANT NUMBER F A9550-06-1-0482 5c...IR) photodetector using hybrid nanornaterials in photonic crystal (PC) cavities for enhanced absorption at selected wavelengths. The simultaneous...infrared photodetection, quantum dots, photonic crystal cavities, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF

  20. Assessment study of infrared detector arrays for low-background astronomical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ando, K. J.

    1978-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art of infrared detector arrays employing charge coupled devices (CCD) or charge injection devices (CID) readout are assessed. The applicability, limitations and potentials of such arrays under the low-background astronomical observing conditions of interest for SIRFT (Shuttle Infrared Telescope Facility) are determined. The following are reviewed: (1) monolithic extrinsic arrays; (2) monolithic intrinsic arrays; (3) charge injection devices; and (4) hybrid arrays.

  1. Infrared electro-optical detector to rescue humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ysi-Zarco, Paulo; Castro Ramos, Jorge; Gordiano-Alvarado, Gabriel

    2004-10-01

    We designed and built an electro-optical sensor to detect human bodies. The aim of this paper is to describe a device to make easier the localization of lost people in natural disasters or in dangerous environments. The detection is realized in base of the infrared radiation emitted by the human body. We employ point commercial pyloric quantum sensors, the electronic assembly integrates the captured infrared energy by using low noise chip. The optical device include a Cassegrain antenna, a diffraction grating which besides to choose in automatic way the correct wavelength emitted by the human body, it is useful as optical filter.

  2. Detector Arrays for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Brambora, Clifford K.; Derro, Rebecca; Engler, Chuck; Fox, Ori; Garrison, Matthew B.; Henegar, Greg; Hill, robert J.; Johnson, Thomas; hide

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) incorporates two 5 micron cutoff (lambda(sub co) = 5 microns) 2048x2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG sensor chip assemblies. These detector arrays, and the two Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuits that control them, are operated in space at T approx. 37 K. In this article, we provide a brief introduction to NIRSpec, its detector subsystem (DS), detector readout in the space radiation environment, and present a snapshot of the developmental status of the NIRSpec DS as integration and testing of the engineering test unit begins.

  3. Non-contact local temperature measurement inside an object using an infrared point detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisaka, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    Local temperature measurement in deep areas of objects is an important technique in biomedical measurement. We have investigated a non-contact method for measuring temperature inside an object using a point detector for infrared (IR) light. An IR point detector with a pinhole was constructed and the radiant IR light emitted from the local interior of the object is photodetected only at the position of pinhole located in imaging relation. We measured the thermal structure of the filament inside the miniature bulb using the IR point detector, and investigated the temperature dependence at approximately human body temperature using a glass plate positioned in front of the heat source.

  4. Radiation Effects on Stressed Ge:Ga Array Detector of Far-Infrared Surveyor on AKARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toyoaki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Matsuura, Shuji; Shirahata, Mai; Nakagawa, Takao; Doi, Yasuo; Onaka, Takashi; Hibi, Yasunori; Shibai Mitsunobu Kawada, Hiroshi

    2008-08-01

    AKARI, the Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, was launched on 2006 February 21 (UT) and put into a sun-synchronous polar orbit at an altitude of 700 km. Cosmic radiations, particularly protons in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), were expected to affect the performance of the stressed Ge:Ga array far-infrared detector on board AKARI. One of the influences is the radioactivation of the detector housing; γ -rays from the radioactivated detector housing interact with Ge:Ga elements, producing spikes (so-called glitches) in the electric outputs of the detector. Prior to the launch, we performed a 100 MeV proton-beam irradiation test for an engineering model of the stressed Ge:Ga array, which simulated the SAA passage. In the test, we observed glitches in the detector output that were due to the radioactivation of the detector housing. By investigating the test data, we have computed the glitch rate of the flight array detector expected in the AKARI orbit, including its change with time from the launch to the end of the AKARI mission. After the launch of AKARI, we have compared the performance observed in the orbit to that predicted by the proton-beam test. The glitch rate really changed with time after the launch; we have found that the in-orbit behavior is consistent with the prediction.

  5. JWST Near-Infrared Detector Degradation: Finding the Problem, Fixing the Problem, and Moving Forward

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Stahle, Carl; Hill, Bob; Greenhouse, Matt; Beletic, James; Babu, Sachidananda; Blake, Peter; Cleveland, Keith; Cofie, Emmanuel; Eegholm, Bente; hide

    2012-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. JWST will be an infrared optimized telescope, with an approximately 6.5 m diameter primary mirror, that is located at the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point. Three of JWST's four science instruments use Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) near infrared detector arrays. During 2010, the JWST Project noticed that a few of its 5 micron cutoff H2RG detectors were degrading during room temperature storage, and NASA chartered a "Detector Degradation Failure Review Board" (DD-FRB) to investigate. The DD-FRB determined that the root cause was a design flaw that allowed indium to interdiffuse with the gold contacts and migrate into the HgCdTe detector layer. Fortunately, Teledyne already had an improved design that eliminated this degradation mechanism. During early 2012, the improved H2RG design was qualified for flight and JWST began making additional H2RGs. In this article we present the two public DD-FRB "Executiye Summaries" that: (1) determined the root cause of the detector degradation and (2) defined tests to determine whether the existing detectors are qualified for flight. We supplement these with a brief introduction to H2RG detector arrays, and a discussion of how the JWST Project is using cryogenic storage to retard the degradation rate of the existing flight spare H2RGs.

  6. The Case for Moderately-Cooled, Far-Infrared Thermal Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasunas, John C.; Lakew, Brook

    2004-01-01

    There are moderately-cooled (around 77K) infrared detectors, for instance InSb (around 5 microns wavelength) and HgCdTe (around 15 to 20 microns wavelength). However for longer wavelengths there are either uncooled thermal-type detectors or highly cooled (about 4K and lower) quantum and thermal detectors, with the notable exception of high Tc superconductor detectors. We will describe certain long-wavelength applications in space where only moderate cooling is feasible, and where better sensitivity is required than possible with uncooled detectors. These requirements could be met with high Tc bolometers, but it may also be prudent to develop other technologies. Additionally, over the past 16 years a marketplace has not developed for the commercial production of high Tc bolometers, indicating their production may be a natural endeavor for government laboratories.

  7. Unipolar infrared detectors based on InGaAs/InAsSb ternary superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Reyner, Charles J.; Duran, Joshua M.; Reding, Joshua D.; Scheihing, John E.; Steenbergen, Elizabeth H.

    2016-07-01

    Growth and characteristics of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) InGaAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattice (SLS) detectors are reported. InGaAs/InAsSb SLSs, identified as ternary SLSs, not only provide an extra degree of freedom for superlattice strain compensation but also show enhanced absorption properties compared to InAs/InAsSb SLSs. Utilizing In1-yGayAs/InAs0.65Sb0.35 ternary SLSs (y = 0, 5, 10, and 20%) designed to have the same bandgap, a set of four unipolar detectors are investigated. These demonstrate an enhancement in the detector quantum efficiency due to the increased absorption coefficient. The detectors exhibit dark current performance within a factor of 10 of Rule 07 at temperatures above 120 K, and external quantum efficiencies in the 15%-25% range. This work demonstrates ternary SLSs are a potential absorber material for future high performance MWIR detectors.

  8. Multi-element double ring detector for dual band infrared counter-countermeasure.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Sun, Weiguo; Zhang, Liang; Zhu, Xubo

    2014-06-10

    A multi-element double ring detector which can track a target effectively under infrared (IR) countermeasure conditions is presented. Dual band IR counter-countermeasures can be performed by the detector to distinguish the target from target-flare mixed signals. Middle and short IR wavelengths are used for target and IR countermeasure detection, respectively. With a special design, unique dual band signals will be outputted by the detector when a target spot is located on the center of the detector. By comparison, the typical single element ring detector has a "dead spot" in this case, which is undesirable for target identification. Relatively high tracking accuracy and low cost indicate that the presented method has a potential application.

  9. Counter-countermeasure identification based on multi-element dual band infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Li, Mo; Sun, Weiguo; Chen, Hongxu; Si, Junjie

    2013-07-20

    An infrared (IR) dual band multi-element detector with the abilities of dual band IR counter-countermeasure (IRCCM) and spatial filtering is presented for effective target detection in a complex tactical environment. The detection elements of the detector are specially arranged like a conventional reticle pattern. With special design, the ratio of radiation intensity from two IR bands can be calculated to distinguish the target from the IR target-flare mixed signal and the two detection bands use a common aperture in the seeker. Without a reticle in the optical system of the IR seeker, the dual band detector can still perform spatial filtering to eliminate background noise effectively. The design details of the detector are presented. The performance of the detector's dual band IRCCM and spatial filtering are analyzed. Simulation results are presented verifying validity of the presented method.

  10. Arrays of SiO(2) Substrate-Free Micromechanical Uncooled THz and Infrared Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Grbovic, Dragoslav; Lavrik, Nickolay V; Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panos G

    2008-01-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of arrays of uncooled infrared and terahertz micromechanical detectors that utilize SiO2 as a main structural material. Materials with highly dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion, namely, Al and SiO2, were used to form folded bimaterial regions. This approach improved the detector sensitivity by 12 times compared to SiNx-based detectors of similar shape and size. Two types of structural SiO2 layers were investigated: thermally grown and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited SiO2. Fabrication of the detector arrays relied on a straightforward process flow that involved three photolithography steps and no wet etching. The noise equivalent temperature difference intrinsic to the detectors fabricated during this work can reach 3.8 mK when excluding any contribution from the optical readout used to interrogate the arrays.

  11. Arrays of SiO2 substrate-free micromechanical uncooled infrared and terahertz detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grbovic, D.; Lavrik, N. V.; Rajic, S.; Datskos, P. G.

    2008-09-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of arrays of uncooled infrared and terahertz micromechanical detectors that utilize SiO2 as a main structural material. Materials with highly dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion, namely, Al and SiO2, were used to form folded bimaterial regions. This approach improved the detector sensitivity by 12 times compared to SiNx-based detectors of similar shape and size. Two types of structural SiO2 layers were investigated: thermally grown and plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor-deposited SiO2. Fabrication of the detector arrays relied on a straightforward process flow that involved three photolithography steps and no wet etching. The noise equivalent temperature difference intrinsic to the detectors fabricated during this work can reach 3.8 mK when excluding any contribution from the optical readout used to interrogate the arrays.

  12. Counting near infrared photons with microwave kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, W.; Liu, X.; Wang, Y.; Wei, Q.; Wei, L. F.; Hubmayr, J.; Fowler, J.; Ullom, J.; Vale, L.; Vissers, M. R.; Gao, J.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate photon counting at 1550 nm wavelength using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) made from TiN/Ti/TiN trilayer films with superconducting transition temperature T c ≈ 1.4 K. The detectors have a lumped-element design with a large interdigitated capacitor covered by aluminum and inductive photon absorbers whose volume ranges from 0.4 μm3 to 20 μm3. The energy resolution improves as the absorber volume is reduced. We achieved an energy resolution of 0.22 eV and resolved up to 7 photons per optical pulse, both greatly improved from previously reported results at 1550 nm wavelength using MKIDs. Further improvements are possible by optimizing the optical coupling to maximize photon absorption into the inductive absorber.

  13. Novel Heterongineered Detectors for Multi-Color Infrared Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-30

    spectral regions; performance improvement of LWIR SLS detectors by application of effective passivation schemes; and actual demonstration of two- and...energy states within the forbidden energy band-gap region of semiconductor cause pinning of the surface Fermi level near the midgap and, as a...photoresist, which was developed by IBM. Presently, SU-8 is widely used in MEMs and optoelectronics applications . SU-8 consists of a bisphenol A novolak

  14. Infrared Responsivity of a Pyroelectric Detector with a Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharous, E.; Engtrakul, C.; Dillon, A. C.; Lehman, J.

    2008-08-01

    The performance of a 10 mm diameter pyroelectric detector coated with a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was evaluated in the 0.8 to 20 {micro}m wavelength range. The relative spectral responsivity of this detector exhibits significant fluctuations over the wavelength range examined. This is consistent with independent absorbance measurements, which show that SWCNTs exhibit selective absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared. The performance of the detector in terms of noise equivalent power and detectivity in wavelength regions of high coating absorptivity was comparable with gold-black-coated pyroelectric detectors based on 50 {micro}m thick LiTaO{sub 3} crystals. The response of this detector was shown to be nonlinear for DC equivalent photocurrents >10{sup -9} A, and its spatial uniformity of response was comparable with other pyroelectric detectors utilizing gold-black coatings. The nonuniform spectral responsivity exhibited by the SWCNT-coated detector is expected to severely restrict the use of SWCNTs as black coatings for thermal detectors. However, the deposition of SWCNT coatings on a pyroelectric crystal followed by the study of the prominence of the spectral features in the relative spectral responsivity of the resultant pyroelectric detectors is shown to provide an effective method for quantifying the impurity content in SWCNT samples.

  15. Infrared responsivity of a pyroelectric detector with a single-wall carbon nanotube coating.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, E; Engtrakul, C; Dillon, A C; Lehman, J

    2008-08-01

    The performance of a 10 mm diameter pyroelectric detector coated with a single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was evaluated in the 0.8 to 20 microm wavelength range. The relative spectral responsivity of this detector exhibits significant fluctuations over the wavelength range examined. This is consistent with independent absorbance measurements, which show that SWCNTs exhibit selective absorption bands in the visible and near-infrared. The performance of the detector in terms of noise equivalent power and detectivity in wavelength regions of high coating absorptivity was comparable with gold-black-coated pyroelectric detectors based on 50 microm thick LiTaO(3) crystals. The response of this detector was shown to be nonlinear for DC equivalent photocurrents >10(-9) A, and its spatial uniformity of response was comparable with other pyroelectric detectors utilizing gold-black coatings. The nonuniform spectral responsivity exhibited by the SWCNT-coated detector is expected to severely restrict the use of SWCNTs as black coatings for thermal detectors. However, the deposition of SWCNT coatings on a pyroelectric crystal followed by the study of the prominence of the spectral features in the relative spectral responsivity of the resultant pyroelectric detectors is shown to provide an effective method for quantifying the impurity content in SWCNT samples.

  16. A silicon homojunction infrared detector having an active metal film on an n[sup ++] layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tohyama, Shigeru; Tanabe, Akihito; Teranishi, Nobukazu . Microelectronics Research Labs.)

    1994-09-01

    A silicon n[sup ++]pn homojunction infrared detector, in which a degenerate n[sup ++] layer is backed by a metal film forming an ohmic contact, has been proposed and studied. The metal film is a photoelectric conversion region along with then[sup ++] layer. Although, for an n[sup ++]pn detector without the metal film, very poor rectifying properties are observed when the n[sup ++] layer thickness is extremely reduced, the new detector, employing a thin PtSi film as the metal film, shows normal diode I-V characteristics, since the PtSi film provides increased surface conductivity. The new detector has achieved an increase in operable temperature, or an extension of cutoff wavelength, and operated with cutoff wavelengths of 11.9 [mu]m, 18.7 [mu]m and about 30 [mu]m at 70 K, 50 K, and 30 K, respectively, because the saturation current density for the new detector has been reduced to about one tenth that for the previously reported n[sup ++]pn detector. The responsivity for the new detector has increased to 1.1--3.8 times as large as that for the previously reported n[sup ++]pn detector, when both detectors have the same cutoff wavelength.

  17. Infrared receivers for low background astronomy: Incoherent detectors and coherent devices from one micrometer to one millimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggess, N. W.; Greenberg, L. T.; Hauser, M. G.; Houck, J. R.; Low, F. J.; Mccreight, C. R.; Rank, D. M.; Richards, P. L.; Weiss, R.

    1979-01-01

    The status of incoherent detectors and coherent receivers over the infrared wavelength range from one micrometer to one millimeter is described. General principles of infrared receivers are included, and photon detectors, bolometers, coherent receivers, and important supporting technologies are discussed, with emphasis on their suitability for low background astronomical applications. Broad recommendations are presented and specific opportunities are identified for development of improved devices.

  18. Influence of infrared illumination on the characteristics of CdZnTe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V.; Dorogov, P.; Loutchanski, A.

    2011-07-01

    Infrared (IR) radiation of proper wavelength deep penetrating inside the CdZnTe detector may interact with trapping centers and has a significant influence on the trapping-detrapping processes of charge carriers from traps, thereby influencing charge collection efficiency in the detector. We studied the effect of infrared (IR) illumination on the characteristics of planar and quasi-hemispherical CdZnTe detectors. These results show that the near bandgap IR illumination significantly affects the detectors characteristics. By selecting a wavelength and intensity of illumination, detectors spectrometric characteristics can be significantly improved. Improvement of spectrometric characteristics is due to better uniformity of charge collection on the detector volume, as evidenced by the improvement in the total absorption peak symmetry and shape of the output pulses. The degree of improvement is different for various detectors depending on the characteristics of source material used for detector fabrication and theirs dimensions. For example, a detector of sizes 10 x 10 x 5 mm{sup 3} with an initial energy resolution (FWHM) of 20.6 keV at 662 keV under IR illumination was improved up to 9.1 keV, but a detector of sizes 5 x 5 x 2.5 mm{sup 3} with an initial energy resolution (FWHM) of 7.1 keV can be improved up to 4.8 keV. The IR illumination with a properly chosen intensity improves spectrometric characteristic in a wide range of energies without any losses of registration effectiveness. IR Illumination was practically performed using conventional GaAlAs IR LEDs with different peak wavelengths of emitted radiation. (authors)

  19. The Numerical-Experimental Enhanced Analysis of HOT MCT Barrier Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźwikowski, K.; Piotrowski, J.; Jóźwikowska, A.; Kopytko, M.; Martyniuk, P.; Gawron, W.; Madejczyk, P.; Kowalewski, A.; Markowska, O.; Martyniuk, A.; Rogalski, A.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results of numerical simulations and experimental data of band gap-engineered higher operating temperature mercury cadmium telluride barrier photodiodes working in a middle wavelength infrared radiation and a long wavelength infrared radiation range of an infrared radiation spectrum. Detailed numerical calculations of the detector performance were made with our own computer software taking into account Shockley Hall Read, Auger, band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling and dislocation-related currents. We have also simulated a fluctuation phenomena by using our Langevin-like numerical method to analyze shot, diffusion, generation-recombination and 1/ f noise.

  20. The Numerical-Experimental Enhanced Analysis of HOT MCT Barrier Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jóźwikowski, K.; Piotrowski, J.; Jóźwikowska, A.; Kopytko, M.; Martyniuk, P.; Gawron, W.; Madejczyk, P.; Kowalewski, A.; Markowska, O.; Martyniuk, A.; Rogalski, A.

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of numerical simulations and experimental data of band gap-engineered higher operating temperature mercury cadmium telluride barrier photodiodes working in a middle wavelength infrared radiation and a long wavelength infrared radiation range of an infrared radiation spectrum. Detailed numerical calculations of the detector performance were made with our own computer software taking into account Shockley Hall Read, Auger, band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling and dislocation-related currents. We have also simulated a fluctuation phenomena by using our Langevin-like numerical method to analyze shot, diffusion, generation-recombination and 1/f noise.

  1. Development of long wave infrared detectors for space astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Candice Marie

    This thesis details the research and development of 10[mu]m cutoff detector arrays conducted at the University of Rochester in conjunction with Rockwell Scientific. Through my data analysis and theoretical modeling of detector characteristics, processes which prevent the detector arrays from meeting low background astronomical specifications are determined and fed back to the manufacturer. The first set of deliveries were manufactured in a banded form at with multiple diode structures. Data analysis indicated that the smallest capacitance diode structure exhibited the lowest dark currents and the highest yield of pixels (28%) meeting the goal of less than 100 e - /s dark current with adequate (> 45mV) well depth. The mechanisms limiting dark current were found to be surface current at lower biases and tunneling (trap-to-band and band-to-band) at higher biases. In order to reduce stress at the junction during hybridization (a leading cause of the observed tunneling current), a proprietary bonding method was developed by Rockwell Scientific. New detector arrays, manufactured with the optimum diode structure and bonded with the new bonding technique to the HAWAII-1RG multiplexer, showed an impressive 75% of pixels exhibiting dark current less than 30 e - /s with sufficient (> 40mV) well depth. Most of these pixels exhibited extremely low dark currents, less than 0.3 e - /s. I found that the dark current limiting mechanism at lower biases was still surface current on the front-side, caused by passivation processing techniques. The limiting mechanism at high biases was dislocation- induced early breakdown which took the shape of a screw dislocation (or micropipe) on an I-V curve of dark current, manifesting as a sharp increase in trap-to-band tunneling current. Burst noise was also detected in the source follower unit cell FET of the multiplexer and was fully characterized and explored. It was discovered that the burst noise was a result of oxide trapping of a single

  2. Reduced graphene oxide film based highly responsive infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mustaque A.; Nanda, Karuna K.; Krupanidhi, Saluru B.

    2017-08-01

    Due to the unique optical properties, graphene can effectively be used for the detection of infrared light. In this regard, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has drawn considerable attention in scientific society because of simplicity of preparation and tunable properties. Here, we report the synthesis of RGO by solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide (GO) in ethanol and the detection of infrared light (1064 and 1550 nm) with metal—RGO—metal configuration. We have observed that photocurrent, responsivity as well as the external quantum efficiency increase with C/O ratio. The responsivity value in near-infrared region can be as high as 1.34 A · W-1 and the external quantum efficiency is more than 100%. Response times of these devices are in the order of few seconds. Overall, the responsivity of our device is found to be better than many of the already reported values where graphene or reduced graphene oxide is the only active material. The high value of quantum efficiency is due to strong light absorption and the presence of mid-gap states band in RGOs.

  3. Near-infrared Single-photon-counting Detectors for Free-space Laser Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William; Wu, Stewart; Waczynski, Augustyn; Miko, Laddawan

    2007-01-01

    We compare several photon-counting detector technologies for use as near-infrared timeresolved laser receivers in science instrument, communication and navigation systems. The key technologies are InGaAs(P) photocathode hybrid photomultiplier tubes and InGaAs(P) and HgCdTe avalanche photodiodes. We discuss recent experimental results and application.

  4. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, M. S. Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumor, D.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  5. Medical devices; neurological devices; classification of the Near Infrared Brain Hematoma Detector. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2012-03-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is classifying the Near Infrared (NIR) Brain Hematoma Detector into class II (special controls). The Agency is classifying the device into class II (special controls) in order to provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness of the device.

  6. Polymer-Ceramic Composite Materials for Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, M. D; Currie, J. R.; Penn, B. G.; Batra, A. K.; Lal, R. B.

    2007-01-01

    Ferroelectrics:Polymer composites can be considered an established substitute for conventional electroceramics and ferroelectric polymers. The composites have a unique blend of polymeric properties such as mechanical flexibility, high strength, formability, and low cost, with the high electro-active properties of ceramic materials. They have attracted considerable interest because of their potential use in pyroelectric infrared detecting devices and piezoelectric transducers. These flexible sensors and transducers may eventually be useful for their health monitoring applications for NASA crew launch vehicles and crew exploration vehicles being developed. In the light of many technologically important applications in this field, it is worthwhile to present an overview of the pyroelectric infrared detector theory, models to predict dielectric behavior and pyroelectric coefficient, and the concept of connectivity and fabrication techniques of biphasic composites. An elaborate review of Pyroelectric-Polymer composite materials investigated to date for their potential use in pyroelectric infrared detectors is presented.

  7. Interface engineered carbon nanotubes with SiO2 for flexible infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhenlong; Gao, Min; Pan, Taisong; Wei, Xianhua; Chen, Chonglin; Lin, Yuan

    2017-08-01

    Nitrogen-doped/non-doped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were integrated on SiO2/Si and PMMA substrates for understanding the infrared sensing mechanisms. The nanotube structures on SiO2 substrates exhibit a much shorter response time (about 40 ms) than those directly on PMMA substrates (about 1200 ms), indicating the interface effects between CNTs and the substrates. The infrared responses for both structures show a linear relationship with the light power density even at the radiation power as low as 0.1 mW/mm2. Moreover, a new concept flexible IR detector was designed and fabricated by transferring the CNTs/SiO2 structure onto the PMMA substrate, which exhibits both short response time (50 ms) and good flexibility. The successful detection of human finger movements indicates the practical applications of the CNT-based detectors for the detection of weak thermal or far infrared radiation.

  8. Thermophysics modeling of an infrared detector cryochamber for transient operational scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Mayank; Singhal, Gaurav; Verma, Avinash C.; Kumar, Sushil; Singh, Manmohan

    2016-05-01

    An infrared detector (IR) is essentially a transducer capable of converting radiant energy in the infrared regime into a measurable form. The benefit of infrared radiation is that it facilitates viewing objects in dark or through obscured conditions by detecting the infrared energy emitted by them. One of the most significant applications of IR detector systems is for target acquisition and tracking of projectile systems. IR detectors also find widespread applications in the industry and commercial market. The performance of infrared detector is sensitive to temperatures and performs best when cooled to cryogenic temperatures in the range of nearly 120 K. However, the necessity to operate in such cryogenic regimes increases the complexity in the application of IR detectors. This entails a need for detailed thermophysics analysis to be able to determine the actual cooling load specific to the application and also due to its interaction with the environment. This will enable design of most appropriate cooling methodologies suitable for specific scenarios. The focus of the present work is to develop a robust thermo-physical numerical methodology for predicting IR cryochamber behavior under transient conditions, which is the most critical scenario, taking into account all relevant heat loads including radiation in its original form. The advantage of the developed code against existing commercial software (COMSOL, ANSYS, etc.), is that it is capable of handling gas conduction together with radiation terms effectively, employing a ubiquitous software such as MATLAB. Also, it requires much smaller computational resources and is significantly less time intensive. It provides physically correct results enabling thermal characterization of cryochamber geometry in conjunction with appropriate cooling methodology. The code has been subsequently validated experimentally as the observed cooling characteristics are found to be in close agreement with the results predicted using

  9. Thermal cycling reliability of indirect hybrid HgCdTe infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xing; He, Kai; Wang, Jian-xin; Zhang, Qin-yao

    2013-09-01

    Thermal cycling reliability is one of the most important issues whether the HgCdTe infrared focal plane array detectors can be applied to both military and civil fields. In this paper, a 3D finite element model for indirect hybrid HgCdTe infrared detectors is established. The thermal stress distribution and thermally induced warpage of the detector assembly as a function of the distance between the detector chip and Si-ROIC, the thickness and the materials properties of electrical lead board in cryogenic temperature are analyzed. The results show that all these parameters have influences on the thermal stress distribution and warpage of the detector assembly, especially the coefficient of thermal expansion(CTE) of electrical lead board. The thermal stress and warpage in the assembly can be avoided or minimized by choosing the appropriate electrical lead board. Additionally, the warpage of some indirect hybrid detectors assembly samples is measured in experiment. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results, which verifies that the results are calculated by finite element method are reasonable.

  10. Infrared and visible detector electronics for the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, D. L.; Simmonds, J. J.; Ozawa, T.; Long, E. C.; Paris, R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the detectors, preamplifiers, and processing electronics; the system characterization test methods and results; and the performance of the detectors and electronics during the first month of on-orbit operation of the IRAS telescope. The Focal Plane Array (FPA) consists of 62 IR channels and 8 visible channels operating at 2.5 K. The IR detectors are grouped in eight 7 or 8 channel staggered linear subarrays with shared bias voltage; the visible detectors are grouped in two 4 channel skewed arrays, also with shared bias. Each channel detector is dc coupled to a TIA preamplifier through a very low power thermally isolated JFET source follower operating at about 65 K within the FPA housing. The visible channel detectors are ac coupled to TIA preamplifiers and signal chain electronics using MOSFET source followers operating at about 2.5 K within the FPA housing. The detectors, preamplifiers, analog electronics, and grounding are discussed as they evolved and were implemented during FPA retrofit, telescope integration, and preparation for launch.

  11. Infrared and visible detector electronics for the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langford, D. L.; Simmonds, J. J.; Ozawa, T.; Long, E. C.; Paris, R.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes the detectors, preamplifiers, and processing electronics; the system characterization test methods and results; and the performance of the detectors and electronics during the first month of on-orbit operation of the IRAS telescope. The Focal Plane Array (FPA) consists of 62 IR channels and 8 visible channels operating at 2.5 K. The IR detectors are grouped in eight 7 or 8 channel staggered linear subarrays with shared bias voltage; the visible detectors are grouped in two 4 channel skewed arrays, also with shared bias. Each channel detector is dc coupled to a TIA preamplifier through a very low power thermally isolated JFET source follower operating at about 65 K within the FPA housing. The visible channel detectors are ac coupled to TIA preamplifiers and signal chain electronics using MOSFET source followers operating at about 2.5 K within the FPA housing. The detectors, preamplifiers, analog electronics, and grounding are discussed as they evolved and were implemented during FPA retrofit, telescope integration, and preparation for launch.

  12. Absolute linearity measurements on a PbS detector in the infrared.

    PubMed

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2006-04-10

    The nonlinearity characteristics of a commercially available thin-film photoconductive PbS detector were experimentally investigated in the infrared using the National Physical Laboratory detector linearity characterization facility. The deviation from linearity of this detector was shown to be significant even for relatively low values of radiant power incident on the active area of the detector. For example, the linearity factor was approximately 0.8 when 0.6 microW of radiant power at a wavelength of 2.2 microm was illuminating a spot of 1 mm in diameter on the active area of the PbS detector. These figures demonstrate the poor linearity characteristics of this detector and provide a warning to other users of PbS detection systems. The deviation from linearity was shown to be a function of the size of the spot being illuminated on the detector active area, as well as the wavelength of the incident radiation. The deviation from linearity was shown to be a function of irradiance illuminating the detector for irradiance values lower than 1 microW mm(-2).

  13. Photoluminescence Study of Long Wavelength Superlattice Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoglund, Linda; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between the photoluminescence (PL) intensity and the PL peak wavelength was studied. A linear decrease of the PL intensity with increasing cut-off wavelength of long wavelength infrared CBIRDs was observed at 77 K and the trend remained unchanged in the temperature range 10 - 77 K. This relation between the PL intensity and the peak wavelength can be favorably used for comparison of the optical quality of samples with different PL peak wavelengths. A strong increase of the width of the PL spectrum in the studied temperature interval was observed, which was attributed to thermal broadening.

  14. Novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction internal photoemission long wavelength infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Maserjian, Joseph; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, Mark L.; Terhune, R.; Krabach, T. N.

    1990-01-01

    There is a major need for long-wavelength-infrared (LWIR) detector arrays in the range of 8 to 16 microns which operate with close-cycle cryocoolers above 65 K. In addition, it would be very attractive to have Si-based infrared (IR) detectors that can be easily integrated with Si readout circuitry and have good pixel-to-pixel uniformity, which is critical for focal plane array (FPA) applications. Here, researchers report a novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detector approach with a tailorable long wavelength infrared cutoff wavelength, based on internal photoemission over the Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction. The HIP detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), which allows one to optimize the device structure with precise control of doping profiles, layer thickness and composition. The feasibility of a novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si HIP detector has been demonstrated with tailorable cutoff wavelength in the LWIR region. Photoresponse at wavelengths 2 to 10 microns are obtained with quantum efficiency (QE) above approx. 1 percent in these non-optimized device structures. It should be possible to significantly improve the QE of the HIP detectors by optimizing the thickness, composition, and doping concentration of the Si(1-x)Ge(x) layers and by configuring the detector for maximum absorption such as the use of a cavity structure. With optimization of the QE and by matching the barrier energy to the desired wavelength cutoff to minimize the thermionic current, researchers predict near background limited performance in the LWIR region with operating temperatures above 65K. Finally, with mature Si processing, the relatively simple device structure offers potential for low-cost producible arrays with excellent uniformity.

  15. Novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction internal photoemission long wavelength infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, T. L.; Maserjian, Joseph; Ksendzov, A.; Huberman, Mark L.; Terhune, R.; Krabach, T. N.

    1990-07-01

    There is a major need for long-wavelength-infrared (LWIR) detector arrays in the range of 8 to 16 microns which operate with close-cycle cryocoolers above 65 K. In addition, it would be very attractive to have Si-based infrared (IR) detectors that can be easily integrated with Si readout circuitry and have good pixel-to-pixel uniformity, which is critical for focal plane array (FPA) applications. Here, researchers report a novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) detector approach with a tailorable long wavelength infrared cutoff wavelength, based on internal photoemission over the Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si heterojunction. The HIP detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), which allows one to optimize the device structure with precise control of doping profiles, layer thickness and composition. The feasibility of a novel Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si HIP detector has been demonstrated with tailorable cutoff wavelength in the LWIR region. Photoresponse at wavelengths 2 to 10 microns are obtained with quantum efficiency (QE) above approx. 1 percent in these non-optimized device structures. It should be possible to significantly improve the QE of the HIP detectors by optimizing the thickness, composition, and doping concentration of the Si(1-x)Ge(x) layers and by configuring the detector for maximum absorption such as the use of a cavity structure. With optimization of the QE and by matching the barrier energy to the desired wavelength cutoff to minimize the thermionic current, researchers predict near background limited performance in the LWIR region with operating temperatures above 65K. Finally, with mature Si processing, the relatively simple device structure offers potential for low-cost producible arrays with excellent uniformity.

  16. Modulation transfer function of antenna-coupled infrared detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Boreman, G D; Dogariu, A; Christodoulou, C; Kotter, D

    1996-11-01

    Individual antenna-coupled IR bolometers have recently been demonstrated at wavelengths near 10 μm. If focal-plane arrays (FPA's) of antenna-coupled detectors can be fabricated, enhancement of IR-imager performance is possible. A first step in the design process is to analyze the image-quality potential of antenna-coupled, FPA-based imagers in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF). The key step in our analysis is development of a cross-talk MTF that accounts for the electromagnetic coupling between adjacent antennas in the FPA. We find that electromagnetic cross talk will not be a significant image-quality factor in antenna-coupled IR FPA's.

  17. Fourier transform spectroscopic imaging using an infrared focal-plane array detector.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E N; Treado, P J; Reeder, R C; Story, G M; Dowrey, A E; Marcott, C; Levin, I W

    1995-10-01

    A powerful new mid-infrared spectroscopic chemical imaging technique combining step-scan Fourier transform Michelson interferometry with indium antimonide focal-plane array (FPA) image detection is described. The coupling of an infrared focal-plane array detector to an interferometer provides an instrumental multiplex/multichannel advantage. Specifically, the multiple detector elements enable spectra at all pixels to be collected simultaneously, while the interferometer portion of the system allows all the spectral frequencies to be measured concurrently. With this method of mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging, the fidelity of the generated spectral images is limited only by the number of pixels on the FPA detector, and only several seconds of starting time is required for spectral image acquisition. This novel, high-definition technique represents the future of infrared chemical imaging analysis, a new discipline within the chemical and material sciences, which combines the capability of spectroscopy for molecular analysis with the power of visualization. In particular, chemical imaging is broadly applicable for noninvasive, molecular characterization of heterogeneous materials, since all solid-state materials exhibit chemical nonuniformity that exists either by design or by development during the course of material preparation or fabrication. Imaging, employing Raman and infrared spectroscopy, allows the precise characterization of the chemical composition, domain structure, and chemical architecture of a variety of substances. This information is often crucial to a wide range of activities, extending from the fabrication of new materials to a basic understanding of biological samples. In this study, step-scan imaging principles, instrument design details, and infrared chemical imaging results are presented. Since the prospect of performing high-resolution and high-definition mid-infrared chemical imaging very rapidly has been achieved with the step-scan approach

  18. Infrared Optical Readout of a Gas-Based Recoil Tracking Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Katrina; Barbeau, Phillip; Rich, Grayson; Awe, Connor

    2016-03-01

    Gas-based recoil tracking detectors are used in a variety of nuclear and particle physics experiments to identify particles based on distinct interaction signatures. Past research shows that this technology, if further developed, may prove useful in the ongoing search for dark matter and coherent neutrino scattering observations. This research presents the original design and development of a tracking detector that uses gaseous argon as a scintillating material to measure infrared optical readout. The initial model of this detector, consisting of a wire chamber filled with P-10, has produced unambiguous ionization signals. Current studies are focused toward using pure gaseous argon to detect coincident scintillation signals, which will demonstrate the capability of the detector to image particle tracks using nonvisible radiation.

  19. 32 bin near-infrared time-multiplexing detector with attojoule single-shot energy resolution.

    PubMed

    Eraerds, Patrick; Pomarico, Enrico; Zhang, Jun; Sanguinetti, Bruno; Thew, Rob; Zbinden, Hugo

    2010-10-01

    We present two implementations of photon counting time-multiplexing detectors for near-infrared wavelengths, based on Peltier cooled InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiodes. A first implementation is motivated by practical considerations using only commercially available components. It features 16 bins, pulse repetition rates of up to 22 kHz, and a large range of applicable pulse widths of up to 100 ns. A second implementation is based on rapid gating detectors, permitting dead times below 10 ns. This allows one to realize a high dynamic-range 32 bin detector, able to process pulse repetition rates of up to 6 MHz for pulse widths of up to 200 ps. Analysis of the detector response at 16.5% detection efficiency reveals a single-shot energy resolution on the attojoule level.

  20. Low-Cost InGaAs Detectors for Near-Infrared Imaging and Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter; Croll, B.; Simcoe, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared detectors made from InGaAs should provide an alternative to HgCdTe that is particularly cost-effective for arrays of small telescopes or for covering large focal planes. Originally designed for night-vision equipment, these detectors can be suitable for astronomy if they support long, up-the-ramp exposures and are cooled sufficiently. We developed custom electronics to operate the FLIR APS640C detector in a camera with thermoelectric and chilled-water cooling. We achieved differential photometric precision of 500 ppm (0.5 mmag) hr^-1/2 observing J=7.7 stars with an effective telescope aperture of 0.25 m. Laboratory results from the latest generation of InGaAs detectors will be presented, and we discuss the limits to achieving background-limited performance in the Y, J, and H bands on 1 m - class telescopes.

  1. Calibration procedures and correction of detector signal relaxations for the CRISTA infrared satellite instrument.

    PubMed

    Ern, Manfred; Offermann, Dirk; Preusse, Peter; Grossmann, Klaus-Ulrich; Oberheide, Jens

    2003-03-20

    Remote sensing from space has become a common method for deriving geophysical parameters such as atmospheric temperature and composition. The Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere (CRISTA) instrument was designed to sound the middle and the upper atmosphere (10-180 km) with high spatial resolution. Atmospheric IR emissions were measured with Si:Ga bulk or Si:As blocked impurity band detectors for a wavelength interval of 4-17 microm and Ge:Ga bulk detectors for 56-71 microm. An overview of the calibration of the instrument and the correction of detector signal relaxations for the Si:Ga detectors are given, both of which are necessary to provide high-quality IR radiance data as input for the retrieval of atmospheric temperature and trace gas mixing ratios. Laboratory and flight data are shown to demonstrate the quality of the results.

  2. Infrared imaging using arrays of SiO2 micromechanical detectors.

    PubMed

    Datskos, P G; Lavrik, N V; Hunter, S R; Rajic, S; Grbovic, D

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we describe the fabrication of an array of bimaterial detectors for infrared (IR) imaging that utilize SiO(2) as a structural material. All the substrate material underneath the active area of each detector element was removed. Each detector element incorporates an optical resonant cavity layer in the IR-absorbing region of the sensing element. The simplified microfabrication process requires only four photolithographic steps with no wet etching or sacrificial layers. The thermomechanical deflection sensitivity was 7.9×10(-3) rad/K, which corresponds to a noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 2.9 mK. In the present work, the array was used to capture IR images while operating at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without the need for vacuum packaging. The average measured NETD of our IR detector system was approximately 200 mK, but some sensing elements exhibited an NETD of 50 mK.

  3. Proposal for strained type II superlattice infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. L.; Mailhiot, C.

    1987-09-01

    It is shown that strained type II superlattices made of InAs-Ga(1-x)In(x)Sb(x) about 0.4 have favorable optical properties for infrared detection. By adjusting the layer thicknesses and the alloy composition, a wide range of wavelengths can be reached. Optical absorption calculations for a case where the cutoff wavelength is about 10 microns show that, near threshold, the absorption is as good as for the HgCdTe alloy with the same band gap. The electron effective mass is nearly isotropic and equal to 0.04 m. This effective mass should give favorable electrical properties, such as small diode tunneling currents and good mobilities, and diffusion lengths.

  4. Human and Nonhuman Recognition Using Pyroelectric Infrared Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Weiguo; Wen, Ke; He, Lifang; Cheng, Lihua; Li, Yong

    2012-11-01

    The auto regressive (AR) model of time series is utilized in this paper to recognize a human and nonhuman from pyroelectric infrared (PIR) signals. Through the wavelet transform, the signals are reconstructed by removing the noise from the original signals. The coefficients of the AR model are selected as the features for human and nonhuman recognition and calculated by the Burg algorithm. The classification experiments of a human and nonhuman are performed with a support vector machine. The recognition results for different PIR signals using the proposed AR-based features show high performance with an optimal recognition rate, which is up to 94.6 % and higher than that of the traditional time domain feature and transform domain method, such as the wavelet entropy and wavelet entropy of the double-density dual-tree complex wavelet transform.

  5. High-resolution infrared detector and its electronic unit for space application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meftah, M.; Montmessin, F.; Korablev, O.; Trokhimovsky, A.; Poiet, G.; Bel, J.-B.

    2015-05-01

    High-resolution infrared detector is used extensively for military and civilian purposes. Military applications include target acquisition, surveillance, night vision, and tracking. Civilian applications include, among others, scientific observations. For our space systems, we want to use the products developed by SOFRADIR Company. Thus, we have developed a space electronic unit that is used to control the high-resolution SCORPIO-MW infrared detector, which has a format of 640×512 pixels with 15μm×15μm pixel pitch. The detector within microelectronics based on infrared mid-wave (MW) complementary metal oxide semiconductors (CMOS) uses a micro-cooler in order to keep its temperature around 100 K. The standard wavelength range (3 to 5μm) is adapted to the 2.2 to 4.3μm wavelength range thanks to adaptation of the optical interface of the detector and with an antireflection coating. With our electronic system, we can acquire 3 images per second. To increase the signal to noise ratio, we have the opportunity to make a summation of 15 frames per image. Through this article, we will describe the space electronic system that we have developed in order to achieve space observations (e.g. Atmospheric Chemistry Suite package for ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter).

  6. Research on infrared-image denoising algorithm based on the noise analysis of the detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Songtao; Zhou, Xiaodong; Shen, Tongsheng; Han, Yanli

    2005-01-01

    Since the conventional denoising algorithms have not considered the influence of certain concrete detector, they are not very effective to remove various noises contained in the low signal-to-noise ration infrared image. In this paper, a new thinking for infrared image denoising is proposed, which is based on the noise analyses of detector with an example of L model infrared multi-element detector. According to the noise analyses of this detector, the emphasis is placed on how to filter white noise and fractal noise in the preprocessing phase. Wavelet analysis is a good tool for analyzing 1/f process. 1/f process can be viewed as white noise approximately since its wavelet coefficients are stationary and uncorrelated. So if wavelet transform is adopted, the problem of removing white noise and fraction noise is simplified as the only one problem, i.e., removing white noise. To address this problem, a new wavelet domain adaptive wiener filtering algorithm is presented. From the viewpoint of quantitative and qualitative analyses, the filtering effect of our method is compared with those of traditional median filter, mean filter and wavelet thresholding algorithm in detail. The results show that our method can reduce various noises effectively and raise the ratio of signal-to-noise evidently.

  7. Characterization of liquid phase epitaxial GaAs forblocked-impurity-band far-infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, B.L.; Reichertz, L.A.; Beeman, J.W.; Haller, E.E.

    2004-04-07

    GaAs Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) photoconductor detectors have the potential to become the most sensitive, low noise detectors in the far-infrared below 45.5 cm{sup -1} (220 {micro}m). We have studied the characteristics of liquid phase epitaxial GaAs films relevant to BIB production, including impurity band formation and the infrared absorption of the active section of the device. Knowledge of the far-infrared absorption spectrum as a function of donor concentration combined with variable temperature Hall effect and resistivity studies leads us to conclude that the optimal concentration for the absorbing layer of a GaAs BIB detector lies between 1 x 10{sup 15} and 6.7 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. At these concentrations there is significant wavefunction overlap which in turn leads to absorption beyond the 1s ground to 2p bound excited state transition of 35.5 cm{sup -1} (282 {micro}m). There still remains a gap between the upper edge of the donor band and the bottom of the conduction band, a necessity for proper BIB detector operation.

  8. Two-color thermal detector with thermal chopping for infrared focal-plane arrays.

    PubMed

    Leonov, V N; Butler, D P

    2001-06-01

    Micromachined thermal infrared (IR) detectors are emerging into the marketplace to provide high-performance thermal (IR) imagery at low cost. Thermal detectors can be improved when a tunable wavelength response is provided and when a thermal chopper is incorporated into the detector by use of microelectromechanical (MEM) elements. Most thermal detectors require a chopper, continuous synchronous chopping in the case of pyroelectric detectors, or asynchronous chopping in the case of staring microbolometers. Mechanical choppers are bulky and costly. We present the fundamental principles of micromachined thermal detectors that possess tunable wavelength or color response and a technique for thermal chopping. A micromirror, switching between two spatial positions under the detector, provides a response to two wavelength windows by tuning the optical resonant cavity. The image can then be integrated at the readout level to achieve a multicolor IR picture. A thermal MEM chopper can be used instead of a mechanical chopper to maintain the same video frame rate and to allow for an interlaced resetting of staring thermal arrays. Unlike the second generation of uncooled IR arrays, the actual temperature of objects can be obtained by a comparison of the response in two wavelength windows, in addition to the direct measurement of IR power that they radiate in the entire 8-14-microm spectral region.

  9. Stability of the spectral responsivity of cryogenically cooled InSb infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Theocharous, Evangelos

    2005-10-10

    The spectral responsivity of two cryogenically cooled InSb detectors was observed to drift slowly with time. The origin of these drifts was investigated and was shown to occur due to a water-ice thin film that was deposited onto the active areas of the cold detectors. The presence of the ice film (which is itself a dielectric film) modifies the transmission characteristics of the antireflection coatings deposited on the active areas of the detectors, thus giving rise to the observed drifts. The magnitude of the drifts was drastically reduced by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 deg. C for approximately 48 h. All InSb detectors have antireflection coatings to reduce the Fresnel reflections and therefore enhance their spectral responsivity. This work demonstrates that InSb infrared detectors should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to InSb detectors mounted in dewars that use rubber O rings since the ingress of moisture was found to be particularly serious in this type of dewar.

  10. Synthesis arrangement and parity correction of linear array infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qun; Hong, Pu; Wang, Bo; Wang, Chensheng

    2010-11-01

    According to the configuration and technical specification of the detector, which has multiple channels, channels mixing, high speed outputs and separate columns between odd and even, a real time digital processing unit based on the CPLD, FPGA and DSP has been developed to achieve the data synthesis and arrangement function and the parity correction algorithm. A special interface circuit with 4 CPLDs is designed to complete the first synthesis step where the 16 channels of data are combined into 4 channels. The second step is finished in FPGA and ROM address encoder where the 4 channels of data are combined into 1 channel. For output data synchronization, FIFO is adopted to achieve the delay of even channels in the parity correction. Data of odd channels enters the columns synthesis unit without any processing and even channels shall be processed in the columns synthesis unit after entering the FIFO unit first and experiencing the delay process. Thereby the pre-processing before image processing of the linear array thermal imager is accomplished.

  11. Infrared responsivity enhancement for silicon detectors by non-mask reactive ion etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Naiman; Kou, Linlai; Luo, Chunlin; Li, Renhao

    2016-10-01

    Near Infrared responsivity of silicon-based detectors is low for weak light absorption in the wavelengths exceeding 1000nm. For 1064nm wavelength applications, it is necessary to use thick Si wafers to manufacturing devices for higher NIR responsivity performance. However, this leads to high applied voltage, long response time, imposing limitations on device characteristics and applications. Black silicon (BS) appears very high absorptance of light from the near-ultraviolet (250nm) to the near-infrared (2500nm) wavelength region. And the black silicon detectors are many times more responsivity than conventional silicon detectors in the near infrared. In this article, BS is prepared using non-mask reactive ion etching technique and PIN BS detectors are fabricated. It is indicated that there is a disordered layer that is 2.0μm -3.5μm thick and made up of pillars with 90nm-400nm in diameter and 200nm-600nm in spacing interval. The reflectance of BS is less than 7% in the wavelength from 400nm to 1100nm, and rises from 1040nm. The absorptance of BS sample prepared by non-mask reactive ion etching remains more than 93% from 400nm to 1040nm, and the absorptance of 60% is observed at the wavelengths longer than 1500nm. High temperature annealing does not deteriorate its light absorption performance. The front-illuminated and back-illuminated BS PIN detectors are structured. At the wavelength of 1064nm, the responsivities of front-illuminated and back-illuminated BS PIN detectors are improved from 0.30A/W to 0.43A/W and 0.58A/W respectively.

  12. A new generation of small pixel pitch/SWaP cooled infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espuno, L.; Pacaud, O.; Reibel, Y.; Rubaldo, L.; Kerlain, A.; Péré-Laperne, N.; Dariel, A.; Roumegoux, J.; Brunner, A.; Kessler, A.; Gravrand, O.; Castelein, P.

    2015-10-01

    Following clear technological trends, the cooled IR detectors market is now in demand for smaller, more efficient and higher performance products. This demand pushes products developments towards constant innovations on detectors, read-out circuits, proximity electronics boards, and coolers. Sofradir was first to show a 10μm focal plane array (FPA) at DSS 2012, and announced the DAPHNIS 10μm product line back in 2014. This pixel pitch is a key enabler for infrared detectors with increased resolution. Sofradir recently achieved outstanding products demonstrations at this pixel pitch, which clearly demonstrate the benefits of adopting 10μm pixel pitch focal plane array-based detectors. Both HD and XGA Daphnis 10μm products also benefit from a global video datapath efficiency improvement by transitioning to digital video interfaces. Moreover, innovative smart pixels functionalities drastically increase product versatility. In addition to this strong push towards a higher pixels density, Sofradir acknowledges the need for smaller and lower power cooled infrared detector. Together with straightforward system interfaces and better overall performances, latest technological advances on SWAP-C (Size, Weight, Power and Cost) Sofradir products enable the advent of a new generation of high performance portable and agile systems (handheld thermal imagers, unmanned aerial vehicles, light gimbals etc...). This paper focuses on those features and performances that can make an actual difference in the field.

  13. Performance characterization of the near infrared detector system for RSS-NIR on SALT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Marsha J.; Thielman, Donald J.; Mosby, Gregory; Smith, Michael P.; Jaehnig, Kurt P.; Indahl, Briana L.; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2012-07-01

    We report on the status of the detector system for the Robert Stobie Spectrograph Near Infrared Arm (RSS-NIR) for the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). The detector is a HAWAII-2RG array with a 1.7 μm cutoff wavelength. The controller incorporates a Teledyne cryogenic SIDECAR ASIC board inside the dewar and an FPGA interface card, developed by the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), outside the dewar. Data acquisition software written by IUCAA runs under a Linux operating system and communicates to the detector system through USB to fiber optic converters for electrical isolation on the telescope. System characterization is performed at the University of Wisconsin RSS-NIR Lab in a liquid nitrogen cooled test dewar. The test dewar contains a thermal control system that emulates operation of the cryocooler used in the instrument dewar and maintains a stable detector operating temperature of 120 K. Light is provided to the detector with near infrared LEDs mounted inside the dewar. We present preliminary data on system noise and plans for further characterization tests.

  14. Effect of irradiation on DNA synthesis, NBN gene expression and chromosomal stability in cells with NBN mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Jerzy; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Kałużna, Ewelina M.; Rembowska, Jolanta; Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Agnieszka; Zawada, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The NBN gene product is part of the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, which plays an essential role in genomic stability. In the study we try to answer the question what is the effect of irradiation on DNA synthesis, NBN gene expression and chromosomal stability in cells with homozygous c.657-661del, and heterozygous c.657-661del, p.I171V and p.R215W NBN gene mutations. Material and methods Immortalized B-lymphocytes with NBN gene mutations were X-ray irradiated at doses of 1, 2, 5 and 8 Gy/min. Radioresistant DNA synthesis rate and the percentage of cells in phase S was analyzed by 3H thymidine and BrdU incorporation assays. NBN gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR with TaqMan fluorescent probe. Results Increasing the irradiation dose resulted in gradual decrease of 3H thymidine incorporation in all cells, but significantly only in homo- and heterozygous c.657-661del cells (p-values < 0.0001). After irradiation the relative expression of NBN was significantly higher in homozygous c.657-661del and heterozygous p.R215W cells as compared to heterozygous c.657-661del, p.I171V and control cells (p < 0.01). All cells with NBN gene mutations showed significantly higher total number of chromosomal aberrations per metaphase as compared to control cells, with the highest number of aberrations in homozygous c.657-661del cells (p < 0.001). Conclusions The results obtained indicate that homozygous c.657-661del mutation affects cell sensitivity to irradiation. Moreover, homozygous variant is associated with disturbance in the activation of cell cycle checkpoints and with defects in DNA repair. In turn, heterozygous c.657-661del, p.R215W and p.I171V mutations do not substantially alter the radiosensitivity. PMID:28261280

  15. [Mathematical model of dispersive infrared gas analyzer based on pyroelectric detector].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong-huai; Liu, Jun-hua

    2004-03-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of the pyroelectric detector based on its working principle. The input andoutput mathematical model of DIGA (Dispersive Infrared Gas Analyzer) system with pyroelectric detector was established according to the design principle of DIGA. We have manufactured a novel multi-gas DIGA on the basis of this model, then pointed out several problems that should be taken into account in the design. Application indicates that this model is of considerable practical value for the design, study, performance analysis and further improvement of DIGA.

  16. Optical readout sensitivity of deformed microreflector for uncooled infrared detector: theoretical model and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Teng; Zhang, Qingchuan; Jiao, Binbin; Chen, Dapeng; Wu, Xiaoping

    2009-11-01

    The authors's group proposed an optical-readout uncooled infrared detector. Primarily because of the bilayer structure of the usual such detector, deformation of the reflector is often unavoidable and seriously degrades the optical readout sensitivity. According to the theoretical analysis and experimental validation, an optical solution to this problem was established, and it was found that for the specific curvature radius, there are many characteristic reflector lengths and filter positions corresponding to the sensitivity peaks. When employing this solution, the sensitivity loss induced by the deformed reflector would be reduced to a minimum level. The strategy of this solution may also be suitable for other micromechanical devices that experience the same problem.

  17. INAS hole-immobilized doping superlattice long-wave-infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An approach to long-wave-infrared (LWIR) technology is discussed. The approach is based on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of hole immobilized doping superlattices in narrow band gap 3-5 semiconductors, specifically, InAs and InSb. Such superlattices are incorporated into detector structures suitable for focal plane arrays. An LWIR detector that has high detectivity performance to wavelengths of about 16 microns at operating temperatures of 65K, where long-duration space refrigeration is plausible, is presented.

  18. Resonant and resistive dual-mode uncooled infrared detectors toward expanded dynamic range and high linearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xin; Liang, Ji; Zhang, Hongxiang; Yang, Xing; Zhang, Hao; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Menglun

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports an uncooled infrared (IR) detector based on a micromachined piezoelectric resonator operating in resonant and resistive dual-modes. The two sensing modes achieved IR responsivities of 2.5 Hz/nW and 900 μdB/nW, respectively. Compared with the single mode operation, the dual-mode measurement improves the limit of detection by two orders of magnitude and meanwhile maintains high linearity and responsivity in a higher IR intensity range. A combination of the two sensing modes compensates for its own shortcomings and provides a much larger dynamic range, and thus, a wider application field of the proposed detector is realized.

  19. Optimization of a cold preamplifier for infrared detectors of the highest sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, D.

    1985-07-01

    The cold preamplifier needed for the infrared camera in the German Infrared Laboratory (GIRL) is theoretically examined. An expression for the theoretically attainable lower noise level and for the SNR is derived which demonstrates the dependence of the SNR on the shunt capacity. A transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with GaAs FET prestep whose operation has some advantages over that of a TIA with operational amplifier is studied. This TIA is suitable for signal processing in IR detectors of highest sensitivity. First test results for a charge-dependent amplifier are also reported.

  20. Research overview on reliability of infrared focal plane array detector assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Meng; Yang, Wang; Jing, Peng

    2016-10-01

    Infrared Detector Dewar Cooler Assembly (IDDCA) is the key component of infrared system, and the reliability of IDDCA determines the reliability of the system and affects the application of the system to a great extent. Reliability research is of great significance for the engineering application of IDDCA. In this paper, research progress of reliability model, failure modes, acceleration factors, and reliability tests on the assemblies are introduced. Optimizing process and life cycle cost during the manufacturing, and evaluating reliability relying on database are described. In addition, the main thought of reliability research on the assemblies is briefly analyzed. This provides a reference for the domestic reliability research of the assemblies.

  1. A Hot-Electron Far-Infrared Direct Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers at millimeter, submillimeter and far-infrared wavelengths. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or super-conductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature (Nb, Pb etc.) then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10-100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant about 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) s at T approximately equals 0.1-0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and submillimeter range. The choice of the bolometer material is a tradeoff between a low electron heat capacity and fabrication. A state-of-the-art bolometer currently offers NEP = 10(exp -17) W(Square root of (Hz)) at 100 mK along with a approximately equals 2 msec time constant. The bolometer we propose will have a figure-of-merit, NEP(square root (r)), which is 10(exp 3) times smaller. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity. This device can significantly increase a science return and reduce the cost for future observational missions. This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was sponsored by NASA, Office of Space Science.

  2. A Hot-Electron Far-Infrared Direct Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers at millimeter, submillimeter and far-infrared wavelengths. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or super-conductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature (Nb, Pb etc.) then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10-100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant about 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) s at T approximately equals 0.1-0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and submillimeter range. The choice of the bolometer material is a tradeoff between a low electron heat capacity and fabrication. A state-of-the-art bolometer currently offers NEP = 10(exp -17) W(Square root of (Hz)) at 100 mK along with a approximately equals 2 msec time constant. The bolometer we propose will have a figure-of-merit, NEP(square root (r)), which is 10(exp 3) times smaller. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity. This device can significantly increase a science return and reduce the cost for future observational missions. This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was sponsored by NASA, Office of Space Science.

  3. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detector on dielectric optical films for visible and near infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Lixing; Li, Hao; Zhang, Weijun; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Sijing; Zhou, Hui; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-08-01

    The detection efficiency (DE) of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) at 1550 nm has been significantly improved in the past decades as a result of evolution of the optical structure, the materials, and the fabrication process. We discuss the general optical design for a high-efficiency SNSPD based on dielectric optical films that can detect wavelengths from visible to near infrared regions. This structure shows close-to-unity absorption and good insensitivity to the fine wavelength and the incident angle. We demonstrate an SNSPD specifically fabricated for the detection of 1064 nm wavelength with a maximal system DE of 87.4% ± 3.7%. The DEs of the SNSPDs for visible and near infrared wavelengths are also summarized and compared with those of semiconducting detectors.

  4. Enhanced infrared detectors using resonant structures combined with thin type-II superlattice absorbers

    DOE PAGES

    Goldflam, Michael D.; Kadlec, Emil Andrew; Olson, Ben V.; ...

    2016-12-22

    Here we examined the spectral responsivity of a 1.77μm thick type-II superlattice based long-wave infrared detector in combination with metallic nanoantennas. Coupling between the Fabry-Pérot cavity formed by the semiconductor layer and the resonant nanoantennas on its surface enables spectral selectivity, while also increasing peak quantum efficiency to over 50%. Electromagnetic simulations reveal that this high responsivity is a direct result of field-enhancement in the absorber layer, enabling significant absorption in spite of the absorber’s subwavelength thickness. Notably, thinning of the absorbing material could ultimately yield lower photodetector noise through a reduction in dark current while improving photocarrier collection efficiency.more » The temperature- and incident-angle-independent spectral response observed in these devices allows for operation over a wide range of temperatures and optical systems. This detector paradigm demonstrates potential benefits to device performance with applications throughout the infrared.« less

  5. Enhanced infrared detectors using resonant structures combined with thin type-II superlattice absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Goldflam, Michael D.; Kadlec, Emil Andrew; Olson, Ben V.; Klem, John F.; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Parameswaran, S.; Coon, Wesley Thomas; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Fortune, Torben Ray; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Wendt, Joel R.; Shaner, Eric A.; Davids, Paul S.; Kim, Jin K.; Peters, David W.

    2016-12-22

    Here we examined the spectral responsivity of a 1.77μm thick type-II superlattice based long-wave infrared detector in combination with metallic nanoantennas. Coupling between the Fabry-Pérot cavity formed by the semiconductor layer and the resonant nanoantennas on its surface enables spectral selectivity, while also increasing peak quantum efficiency to over 50%. Electromagnetic simulations reveal that this high responsivity is a direct result of field-enhancement in the absorber layer, enabling significant absorption in spite of the absorber’s subwavelength thickness. Notably, thinning of the absorbing material could ultimately yield lower photodetector noise through a reduction in dark current while improving photocarrier collection efficiency. The temperature- and incident-angle-independent spectral response observed in these devices allows for operation over a wide range of temperatures and optical systems. This detector paradigm demonstrates potential benefits to device performance with applications throughout the infrared.

  6. Development of sensitive long-wave infrared detector arrays for passively cooled space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtry, Craig; Lee, Donald; Beletic, James; Chen, Chi-Yi A.; Demers, Richard T.; Dorn, Meghan; Edwall, Dennis; Fazar, Candice Bacon; Forrest, William J.; Liu, Fengchuan; Mainzer, Amanda K.; Pipher, Judith L.; Yulius, Aristo

    2013-09-01

    The near-earth object camera (NEOCam) is a proposed infrared space mission designed to discover and characterize most of the potentially hazardous asteroids larger than 140 m in diameter that orbit near the Earth. NASA has funded technology development for NEOCam, including the development of long wavelength infrared detector arrays that will have excellent zodiacal background emission-limited performance at passively cooled focal plane temperatures. Teledyne Imaging Sensors has developed and delivered for test at the University of Rochester the first set of approximately 10 μm cutoff, 1024×1024 pixel HgCdTe detector arrays. Measurements of these arrays show the development to be extremely promising: noise, dark current, quantum efficiency, and well depth goals have been met by this technology at focal plane temperatures of 35 to 40 K, readily attainable with passive cooling. The next set of arrays to be developed will address changes suggested by the first set of deliverables.

  7. Specification and Design of the SBRC-190: A Cryogenic Multiplexer for Far Infrared Photoconductor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Young, E. T.; Wolf, J.; Asbrock, J. F.; Lum, N.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Arrays of far-infrared photoconductor detectors operate at a few degrees Kelvin and require electronic amplifiers in close proximity. For the electronics, a cryogenic multiplexer is ideal to avoid the large number of wires associated with individual amplifiers for each pixel, and to avoid adverse effects of thermal and radiative heat loads from the circuitry. For low background applications, the 32 channel CRC 696 CMOS device was previously developed for SIRTF, the cryogenic Space Infrared Telescope Facility. For higher background applications, we have developed a similar circuit, featuring several modifications: (a) an AC coupled, capacitive feedback transimpedence unit cell, to minimize input offset effects, thereby enabling low detector biases, (b) selectable feedback capacitors to enable operation over a wide range of backgrounds, and (c) clamp and sample & hold output circuits to improve sampling efficiency, which is a concern at the high readout rates required. We describe the requirements for and design of the new device.

  8. A polarized infrared thermal detector made from super-aligned multiwalled carbon nanotube films.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Zhang, Yuying; Wang, Yang; Liu, Kai; Wang, Zheng; Li, Tianyi; Jiang, Zhe; Shi, Junpeng; Liu, Liang; Li, QunQing; Zhao, Yonggang; Feng, Zhenghe; Fan, Shoushan; Jiang, Kaili

    2011-01-14

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) films, easily drawn from super-aligned CNT arrays with a large area and a good compatibility with semiconductor technology, have been used as light sensitive materials for infrared (IR) detection. A bolometric CNT detector made from one layer of super-aligned CNT film shows a 15.4% resistance change under 10 mW mm(-2) of IR illumination and a fast characteristic response time of 4.4 ms due to its ultra-small heat capacity per unit area in vacuum at room temperature. Besides the power intensity detection, the anisotropic property of the super-aligned CNT films makes them ideal materials to detect the polarization of IR light simultaneously, which provides great potential in infrared imaging polarimetry. Theoretical analyses have been carried out to investigate the influences of CNT film properties on the responsivity and response time of the detector.

  9. Al/Sb free InGaAs unipolar barrier infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzgur, Fatih; Karaca, Utku; Kizilkan, Ekin; Kocaman, Serdar

    2017-02-01

    It is numerically shown that Al/Sb free InGaAs unipolar barrier detectors with superior performance compared to the conventional heterojunction detectors can be constructed. Compositionally graded layers provide the transition between the high bandgap InGaAs barrier and the lattice matched InGaAs absorber layers. In addition, the delta doped layers remove the valence band offset in order to block only majority carriers and allow unimpeded flow of minority carriers. More than one order of magnitude reduction in the dark current is observed while photocurrent remains nearly unchanged. Proposed barrier structure utilized in this study is not limited to short wave infrared (SWIR) and can be applied to a variety of materials operating in various infrared regions.

  10. Enhanced infrared detectors using resonant structures combined with thin type-II superlattice absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldflam, M. D.; Kadlec, E. A.; Olson, B. V.; Klem, J. F.; Hawkins, S. D.; Parameswaran, S.; Coon, W. T.; Keeler, G. A.; Fortune, T. R.; Tauke-Pedretti, A.; Wendt, J. R.; Shaner, E. A.; Davids, P. S.; Kim, J. K.; Peters, D. W.

    2016-12-01

    We examined the spectral responsivity of a 1.77 μm thick type-II superlattice based long-wave infrared detector in combination with metallic nanoantennas. Coupling between the Fabry-Pérot cavity formed by the semiconductor layer and the resonant nanoantennas on its surface enables spectral selectivity, while also increasing peak quantum efficiency to over 50%. Electromagnetic simulations reveal that this high responsivity is a direct result of field-enhancement in the absorber layer, enabling significant absorption in spite of the absorber's subwavelength thickness. Notably, thinning of the absorbing material could ultimately yield lower photodetector noise through a reduction in dark current while improving photocarrier collection efficiency. The temperature- and incident-angle-independent spectral response observed in these devices allows for operation over a wide range of temperatures and optical systems. This detector paradigm demonstrates potential benefits to device performance with applications throughout the infrared.

  11. Analytical modeling and numerical simulation of the short-wave infrared electron-injection detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Movassaghi, Yashar; Fathipour, Morteza; Fathipour, Vala; Mohseni, Hooman

    2016-03-21

    This paper describes comprehensive analytical and simulation models for the design and optimization of the electron-injection based detectors. The electron-injection detectors evaluated here operate in the short-wave infrared range and utilize a type-II band alignment in InP/GaAsSb/InGaAs material system. The unique geometry of detectors along with an inherent negative-feedback mechanism in the device allows for achieving high internal avalanche-free amplifications without any excess noise. Physics-based closed-form analytical models are derived for the detector rise time and dark current. Our optical gain model takes into account the drop in the optical gain at high optical power levels. Furthermore, numerical simulation studies of the electrical characteristics of the device show good agreement with our analytical models as well experimental data. Performance comparison between devices with different injector sizes shows that enhancement in the gain and speed is anticipated by reducing the injector size. Sensitivity analysis for the key detector parameters shows the relative importance of each parameter. The results of this study may provide useful information and guidelines for development of future electron-injection based detectors as well as other heterojunction photodetectors.

  12. Modeling effects of common molecular contaminants on the Euclid infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, W.; McKenney, C.; Barbier, R.; Cho, H.; Cillis, A.; Clemens, J.-C.; Dawson, O.; Delo, G.; Ealet, A.; Feizi, A.; Ferraro, N.; Foltz, R.; Goodsall, T.; Hickey, M.; Hwang, T.; Israelsson, U.; Jhabvala, M.; Kahle, D.; Kan, Em.; Kan, Er.; Lotkin, G.; Maciaszek, T.; McClure, S.; Miko, L.; Nguyen, L.; Pravdo, S.; Prieto, E.; Powers, T.; Seiffert, M.; Strada, P.; Tucker, C.; Turck, K.; Waczynski, A.; Wang, F.; Weber, C.; Williams, J.

    2016-07-01

    Cleanliness specifications for infrared detector arrays are usually so stringent that effects are neglibile. However, the specifications determine only the level of particulates and areal density of molecular layer on the surface, but the chemical composition of these contaminants are not specified. Here, we use a model to assess the impact on system quantum efficiency from possible contaminants that could accidentally transfer or cryopump to the detector during instrument or spacecraft testing and on orbit operation. Contaminant layers thin enough to meet typical specifications, < 0.5μgram/cm2, have a negligible effect on the net quantum efficiency of the detector, provided that the contaminant does not react with the detector surface, Performance impacts from these contaminant plating onto the surface become important for thicknesses 5 - 50μgram/cm2. Importantly, detectable change in the "ripple" of the anti reflection coating occurs at these coverages and can enhance the system quantum efficiency. This is a factor 10 less coverage for which loss from molecular absorption lines is important. Thus, should contamination be suspected during instrument test or flight, detailed modelling of the layer on the detector and response to very well known calibrations sources would be useful to determine the impact on detector performance.

  13. Detection of trace materials with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy using a multi-channel detector.

    PubMed

    Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

    2006-01-01

    FTIR spectroscopy is one of the most powerful methods for material characterization. However, the sensitivity of this analytical tool is often very limited especially for materials with weak infrared absorption or when spectral bands of the targeted trace material overlap with the spectral bands of major components. Fortunately, for heterogeneous samples, there is an opportunity to improve the sensitivity of detection by using an imaging approach. This paper explores the opportunity of enhancing the sensitivity of FTIR spectroscopy to detect trace amounts of materials using the FTIR imaging approach based on a focal plane array (FPA) detector. Model sample tablets of ibuprofen in hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) have been used to exemplify the detection limits of FTIR spectroscopy using: (a) a conventional mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detector and (b) a FPA detector. The sensitivity level was compared and it has been found that for this particular set of samples, the lowest concentration of ibuprofen in HPMC that can be detected using attenuated total reflection (ATR) measuring mode with the single element MCT detector was 0.35 wt% while using the FPA detector, the presence of drug has been detected in a sample that contains as little as 0.075 wt% of drug. The application of using this enhanced sensitivity offered by the multi-channel detector to probe trace amounts of drug particles left on the surface of a finger after handling a small amount of the drug has also been demonstrated. These results have broad implications for forensic, biomedical and pharmaceutical research.

  14. LK21T1 S/N V-3 infrared detector. [photoconductivity, performance prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An infrared detector was fabricated to determine the feasibility of atmospheric sounding from synchronous orbit for water vapor and carbon dioxide. The device was extensively tested both before and after a 24-hour soak at 50 C and relative humidity of 95 percent. No degradation in performance as a result of the soak was observed. The device contains a single photoconductive HgCdTe element designed to operate in the six to fifteen micron region.

  15. [Study on spectra pretreatment in near infrared spectroscopy analysis using charger coupled device detector].

    PubMed

    Xu, G; Yuan, H; Lu, W

    2000-10-01

    The effects of spectra pretreatment method and parameters to signal noise ratio and calibration models quality in near-infrared spectroscopy analysis using charger coupled device(CCD) detector have been studied and discussed. To attain higher signal noise ratio, in the range of 700-1,100 nm, using 2048 pixels CCD, we suggest that the optimal gaps of smoothing first derivative treatment of spectra are 9 points, and the gap of second derivative treatment is 19 points.

  16. Performances Of Arrays Of Ge:Ga Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, C.; Farhoomand, J.

    1992-01-01

    Report presents evaluation of performances of two electronic modules containing few-element linear focal-plane arrays of Ge:Ga photodetectors and associated multiplexing readout circuitry. Tested to demonstrate feasibility of many-element, two-dimensional focal-plane arrays of far-infrared detectors and associated circuitry for use in astronomical and other low-background scientific observations. Revealed deficiencies that must be overcome in future designs.

  17. A new test facility for the E-ELT infrared detector program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizon, Jean Louis; Amico, Paola; Brinkmann, Martin; Delabre, Bernard; Finger, Gert; Guidolin, Ivan Maria; Guzman, Ronald; Hinterschuster, Renate; Ives, Derek; Klein, Barbara; Quattri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    During the development of the VLT instrumentation program, ESO acquired considerable expertise in the area of infrared detectors, their testing and optimizing their performance. This can mainly be attributed to a very competent team and most importantly to the availability of a very well suited test facility, namely, IRATEC. This test facility was designed more than 15 years ago, specifically for 1K × 1K detectors such as the Aladdin device, with a maximum field of only 30 mm square. Unfortunately, this facility is no longer suited for the testing of the new larger format detectors that are going to be used to equip the future E-ELT instruments. It is projected that over the next 20 years, there will be of the order of 50-100 very large format detectors to be procured and tested for use with E-ELT first and second generation instruments and VLT third generation instruments. For this reason ESO has initiated the in-house design and construction of a dedicated new IR detector arrays test facility: the Facility for Infrared Array Testing (FIAT). It will be possible to mount up to four 60 mm square detectors in the facility, as well as mosaics of smaller detectors. It is being designed to have a very low thermal background such that detectors with 5.3 μm cut-off material can routinely be tested. The paper introduces the most important use cases for which FIAT is designed: they range from performing routine performance measurements on acquired devices, optimization setups for custom applications (like spot scan intra-pixel response, persistence and surface reflectivity measurements), test of new complex operation modes (e.g. high speed subwindowing mode for low order sensing, flexure control, etc.) and the development of new tests and calibration procedures to support the scientific requirements of the E-ELT and to allow troubleshooting the unexpected challenges that arise when a new detector system is brought online. The facility is also being designed to minimize

  18. Spectral filtering using active metasurfaces compatible with narrow bandgap III-V infrared detectors

    DOE PAGES

    Wolf, Omri; Campione, Salvatore; Kim, Jin; ...

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandgap semiconductors such as alloys of InAsAlSb and their heterostructures are considered promising candidates for next generation infrared photodetectors and devices. The prospect of actively tuning the spectral responsivity of these detectors at the pixel level is very appealing. In principle, this could be achieved with a tunable metasurface fabricated monolithically on the detector pixel. Here, we present first steps towards that goal using a complementary metasurface strongly coupled to an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode operating in the long-wave region of the infrared spectrum. We fabricate such a coupled system using the same epitaxial layers used for infrared pixels in amore » focal plane array and demonstrate the existence of ENZ modes in high mobility layers of InAsSb. We confirm that the coupling strength between the ENZ mode and the metasurface depends on the ENZ layer thickness and demonstrate a transmission modulation on the order of 25%. Lastly, we further show numerically the expected tunable spectral behavior of such coupled system under reverse and forward bias, which could be used in future electrically tunable detectors.« less

  19. A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range

    PubMed

    Komiyama; Astafiev; Antonov; Kutsuwa; Hirai

    2000-01-27

    The far-infrared region (wavelengths in the range 10 microm-1 mm) is one of the richest areas of spectroscopic research, encompassing the rotational spectra of molecules and vibrational spectra of solids, liquids and gases. But studies in this spectral region are hampered by the absence of sensitive detectors--despite recent efforts to improve superconducting bolometers, attainable sensitivities are currently far below the level of single-photon detection. This is in marked contrast to the visible and near-infrared regions (wavelengths shorter than about 1.5 microm), in which single-photon counting is possible using photomultiplier tubes. Here we report the detection of single far-infrared photons in the wavelength range 175-210 microm (6.0-7.1 meV), using a single-electron transistor consisting of a semiconductor quantum dot in high magnetic field. We detect, with a time resolution of a millisecond, an incident flux of 0.1 photons per second on an effective detector area of 0.1 mm2--a sensitivity that exceeds previously reported values by a factor of more than 10(4). The sensitivity is a consequence of the unconventional detection mechanism, in which one absorbed photon leads to a current of 10(6)-10(12) electrons through the quantum dot. By contrast, mechanisms of conventional detectors or photon assisted tunnelling in single-electron transistors produce only a few electrons per incident photon.

  20. Plasmonic Enhanced Performance of an Infrared Detector Based on Carbon Nanotube Films.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huixin; Wang, Fanglin; Liu, Yang; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2017-04-12

    The carbon nanotube (CNT) has been proved to be a promising material in infrared detection, due to its many advantages of high mobility, strong infrared light absorption, and carrier collection efficiency. However, the absorption restriction from the single layer limits its effective utilization of incident light. In this paper, we introduce a plasmonic electrode structure in a CNT thin-film photodetector based on random deposited high-purity semiconducting CNTs, which can collect photoinduced carriers effectively and enhance light absorption at the same time. The largest enhancement of photocurrents can be achieved at 1650 nm wavelength with suitable plasmonic structure size. Especially, we further discuss the influence of plasmonic structures on the performance of devices. We demonstrate that the best performance improvement of the carbon nanotube detector with plasmonic structure can be enhanced by 13.7 times for photocurrent mode and 5.62 times for photovoltage mode compared to those devices without structure at 1650 nm resonant wavelength. At last, the plasmonic structures are applied on tandem photodetectors with nine virtual contacts, and both the photocurrent and photovoltage are increased. The application of plasmonic electrodes can improve detector performance and retain compact device structures, which shows great potential for optimizing infrared detectors based on nanomaterials.

  1. Spectral filtering using active metasurfaces compatible with narrow bandgap III-V infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Omri; Campione, Salvatore; Kim, Jin; Brener, Igal

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-bandgap semiconductors such as alloys of InAsAlSb and their heterostructures are considered promising candidates for next generation infrared photodetectors and devices. The prospect of actively tuning the spectral responsivity of these detectors at the pixel level is very appealing. In principle, this could be achieved with a tunable metasurface fabricated monolithically on the detector pixel. Here, we present first steps towards that goal using a complementary metasurface strongly coupled to an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode operating in the long-wave region of the infrared spectrum. We fabricate such a coupled system using the same epitaxial layers used for infrared pixels in a focal plane array and demonstrate the existence of ENZ modes in high mobility layers of InAsSb. We confirm that the coupling strength between the ENZ mode and the metasurface depends on the ENZ layer thickness and demonstrate a transmission modulation on the order of 25%. Lastly, we further show numerically the expected tunable spectral behavior of such coupled system under reverse and forward bias, which could be used in future electrically tunable detectors.

  2. Development status of Type-II superlattice infrared detector in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Michito; Murooka, Junpei; Kumeta, Ayaka; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Kimura, Toshiyoshi; Inada, Hiroshi; Iguchi, Yasuhiro; Hiroe, Yuta; Kimata, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    One of JAXA's future missions, using an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS), require the focal plane array (FPA) that has high sensitivity and a very long-wavelength infrared (VLWIR) cutoff wavelength. Since a Type-II superlattice (T2SL) is the only known infrared material to have a theoretically predicted performance superior to that of HgCdTe and the cutoff wavelength can be tailored in the wavelength region of 3-30 μm, we started the research and development of the T2SL detector in 2009. In order to confirm our final goal which is to realize an FPA with a cutoff wavelength of 15 μm, we fabricated InAs/GaInSb T2SL infrared detectors with a cutoff wavelength of 15 μm. We show the results of the dark current and responsivity measurement of single pixel detectors and the development status of FPAs including the image taken by a 320 × 256 InAs/GaInSb T2SL FPA with a cutoff wavelength of 15 μm.

  3. Numerical Device Modeling, Analysis, and Optimization of Extended-SWIR HgCdTe Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, J.; DeWames, R. E.; DeCuir, E. A.; Bellotti, E.; Dhar, N.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.

    2016-09-01

    Imaging in the extended short-wavelength infrared (eSWIR) spectral band (1.7-3.0 μm) for astronomy applications is an area of significant interest. However, these applications require infrared detectors with extremely low dark current (less than 0.01 electrons per pixel per second for certain applications). In these detectors, sources of dark current that may limit the overall system performance are fundamental and/or defect-related mechanisms. Non-optimized growth/device processing may present material point defects within the HgCdTe bandgap leading to Shockley-Read-Hall dominated dark current. While realizing contributions to the dark current from only fundamental mechanisms should be the goal for attaining optimal device performance, it may not be readily feasible with current technology and/or resources. In this regard, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory performed physics-based, two- and three-dimensional numerical modeling of HgCdTe photovoltaic infrared detectors designed for operation in the eSWIR spectral band. The underlying impetus for this capability and study originates with a desire to reach fundamental performance limits via intelligent device design.

  4. Bowtie nanoantenna integrated with indium gallium arsenide antimonide for uncooled infrared detector with enhanced sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sangjo; Sarabandi, Kamal

    2013-12-10

    A novel high-impedance nanoantenna with an embedded matching network is implemented to realize a highly sensitive infrared detector. A bowtie antenna is operated at its antiparallel resonance and loaded with a small low-bandgap (E(g)=0.52  eV) indium gallium arsenide antimonide (InGaAsSb) p-n junction. The structure is optimized for maximum power transfer and significant field enhancement at its terminals for a desired frequency band where the maximum quantum efficiency of InGaAsSb is observed. The sensitivity improvement of the proposed detector is evaluated against the traditional bulk detector and it is shown that the detectivity is improved by the field enhancement factor, which is approximately 20 for the case considered here.

  5. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, G; Endres, C P; Lewen, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2008-10-01

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

  6. Towards a life-time-limited 8-octave-infrared photoconductive germanium detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, S. G.; Deßmann, N.; Pohl, A.; Abrosimov, N. V.; Mittendorff, M.; Winnerl, S.; Zhukavin, R. Kh; Tsyplenkov, V. V.; Shengurov, D. V.; Shastin, V. N.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafast, ultra-broad-band photoconductive detector based on heavily doped and highly compensated germanium has been demonstrated. Such a material demonstrates optical sensitivity in the more than 8 octaves, in the infrared, from about 2 mm to about 8 μm. The spectral sensitivity peaks up between 2 THz and 2.5 THz and is slowly reduced towards lower and higher frequencies. The life times of free electrons/holes measured by a pump-probe technique approach a few tenths of picoseconds and remain almost independent on the optical input intensity and on the temperature of a detector in the operation range. During operation, a detector is cooled down to liquid helium temperature but has been approved to detect, with a reduced sensitivity, up to liquid nitrogen temperature. The response time is shorter than 200 ps that is significantly faster than previously reported times.

  7. Real-time human identification using a pyroelectric infrared detector array and hidden Markov models.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jian-Shuen; Hao, Qi; Brady, David J; Guenther, Bob D; Hsu, Ken Y

    2006-07-24

    This paper proposes a real-time human identification system using a pyroelectric infrared (PIR) detector array and hidden Markov models (HMMs). A PIR detector array with masked Fresnel lens arrays is used to generate digital sequential data that can represent a human motion feature. HMMs are trained to statistically model the motion features of individuals through an expectation-maximization (EM) learning process. Human subjects are recognized by evaluating a set of new feature data against the trained HMMs using the maximum-likelihood (ML) criterion. We have developed a prototype system to verify the proposed method. Sensor modules with different numbers of detectors and different sampling masks were tested to maximize the identification capability of the sensor system.

  8. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertschinger, G.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F.

    2008-10-15

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

  9. Design of near-infrared single photon detector at 1550nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiali

    2016-09-01

    Technology of near-infrared single photon detection is used in quantum communication, laser ranging and weak light detection. Present single photon detectors are usually expensive and bulky. To overcome their disadvantages, a hand-held single photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photo diode (APD) is developed. A circuit program for temperature control and bias voltage is offered. The gating signal is generated and the avalanche signal is extracted by FPGA. Experiment results show that, the single photon detector yields only 8.2×10-6/ns dark count rate (DCR) when photon detection efficiency is 12%, and the maximum photon detection efficiency of 16% is obtained at temperature of -55°C.

  10. Towards Background-Limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors for a Cryogenic Far-Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyhrie, A.; Glenn, J.; Wheeler, J.; Day, P.; Eom, B. H.; Leduc, H.; Skrutskie, M.

    2016-08-01

    Arrays of tens of thousands of sensitive far-infrared detectors coupled to a cryogenic 4-6 m class orbital telescope are needed to trace the assembly of galaxies over cosmic time. The sensitivity of a 4 Kelvin telescope observing in the far-infrared (30-300 \\upmu m) would be limited by zodiacal light and Galactic interstellar dust emission, and require broadband detector noise equivalent powers (NEPs) in the range of 3× 10^{-19} W/√{Hz}. We are fabricating and testing 96 element arrays of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to reach NEPs near this level in a low-background laboratory environment. The LEKIDs are fabricated with aluminum: the low normal-state resistivity of Al permits the use of very thin wire-grid absorber lines (150 nm) for efficient absorption of radiation, while the small volumes enable high sensitivities because quasiparticle densities are high. Such narrow absorption lines present a fabrication challenge, but we deposit TiN atop the Al to increase the robustness of the detectors and achieve a 95 % yield. We present the design of these Al/TiN bilayer LEKIDs and preliminary sensitivity measurements at 350 \\upmu m optically loaded by cold blackbody radiation.

  11. Characterization of the optical properties of an infrared blocked impurity band detector.

    PubMed

    Woods, S I; Kaplan, S G; Jung, T M; Carter, A C

    2011-08-20

    Si:As blocked impurity band detectors have been partially deprocessed and measured by Fourier transform spectroscopy to determine their transmittance and reflectance at cryogenic temperatures over the wavelength range 2 μm to 40 μm. A method is presented by which the propagation constants can be extracted from an inversion of the transmittance and reflectance data. The effective propagation constants for the active layer from 2 μm to 20 μm were calculated as well as the absorption cross section of arsenic in silicon, which agrees well with previous results from the literature. The infrared absorptance of the full detector was determined, and the analytical method also provides an estimate of absorption in the active layer alone. Infrared absorptance of the active layer is compared to the quantum yield measured by photoelectric means on similar detectors. The optical methods outlined here, in conjunction with standard electronic measurements, could be used to predict the performance of such detectors from measurements of the blanket films from which they are to be fabricated. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Development of low-noise kinetic inductance detectors for far-infrared astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, Alyssa; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Bradford, Charles M.; McKenney, Christopher; Le Duc, Henry G.; Aguirre, James

    2017-01-01

    The star formation mechanisms at work in the early universe remain one of the major unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. Many spectral lines at far-infrared wavelengths (10 μm < λ < 1 mm) are excellent tracers of star formation, but detecting them requires the next generation of sensitive detectors. We are working to develop a detector system for a far-infrared balloon-borne spectroscopic experiment using kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs), which have the potential to achieve high sensitivity, low noise levels, high multiplexing factor, and may enable future space missions. We describe the design, fabrication, and noise performance measurements of prototype detector devices targeting an optical noise equivalent power below 1 ×10-17 WHz - 1 / 2 with readout frequencies below 250 MHz. The devices consist of arrays of 45 lumped-element KID pixels patterned out of thin-film aluminum on silicon wafers. They are optically coupled to incident radiation with a set of feedhorns. We use an FPGA-based readout system to read out the response of all the pixels in the array simultaneously. This work was supported by a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  13. Evaluation of light detector surface area for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Ayaz, Hasan; Izzetoglu, Meltem; Onaral, Banu

    2017-07-29

    Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an emerging neuroimaging technique that utilizes near infrared light to detect cortical concentration changes of oxy-hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin non-invasively. Using light sources and detectors over the scalp, multi-wavelength light intensities are recorded as time series and converted to concentration changes of hemoglobin via modified Beer-Lambert law. Here, we describe a potential source for systematic error in the calculation of hemoglobin changes and light intensity measurements. Previous system characterization and analysis studies looked into various fNIRS parameters such as type of light source, number and selection of wavelengths, distance between light source and detector. In this study, we have analyzed the contribution of light detector surface area to the overall outcome. Results from Monte Carlo based digital phantoms indicated that selection of detector area is a critical system parameter in minimizing the error in concentration calculations. The findings here can guide the design of future fNIRS sensors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. LDEF (Prelaunch), AO135 : Effect of Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors, Tray E05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    LDEF (Prelaunch), AO135 : Effect of Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors, Tray E05 The prelaunch photograph was taken in SAEF II at KSC prior to installation of the integrated tray on the LDEF. The Space Exposure on Pyroelectric Infrared Detectors Experiment (AO135) consist of twenty detectors of three different types of materials, lithium-tantalate, strontium-barium-niobate and triglycine-sulfide. The Pyroelectric infrered detector experiment is an integral part of the Active Optical System Component Experiment (S0050) that contains 136 test specimen and is located in a six (6) inch deep LDEF peripheral experiment tray. The experiment tray is divided into six sections, each consisting of a 1/4 inch thick chromic anodized aluminum base plate and a 1/16th inch thick aluminum hat shaped structure for mounting the test specimen. The test specimen are typi- cally placed in fiberglass-epoxy retainer strip assemblies prior to installation on the hat shaped mounting structure. Five of the six sections are covered by a 1/8 inch thick anodized aluminum sun screen with openings that allowed 56 percent transmission over the central region. Two subexperiments, The Optical Materials and UV Detectors Experiment (S0050-01) consist of 15 optical windows, filters and detectors and occupies one of the trays six sub-sections and The Optical Substrates and Coatings Experiment (S0050-02 ) that includes 12 substrates and coatings and a secondary experiment, The Holographic Data Storage Crystal Experiment (AO044) with four crystals, are also mounted in the integrated tray. The experiment structure was assembled with non-magnetic stainless steel fasteners.

  15. Early detection of combustible gas leaks using open path infrared (IR) gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Edward; Baliga, Shankar

    2012-06-01

    Open path IR gas detectors are a mainstay in the oil and gas industry. They are used in a variety of instances to identify gas accumulations or monitor gas cloud migrations. In offshore installations, open path optical gas detectors are used to monitor drilling and production operations, crude oil separation, compression, and exhaust and ventilation systems. Because they can monitor a perimeter or fence line, they are ideally suited for detecting gas in open facilities, where point gas detectors would be difficult or expensive to deploy. Despite their widespread use, open path optical gas detectors are rarely employed to detect low level concentrations of combustible gases. Standard models are typically set to alarm at 50% LEL-m (50% LEL extended over one meter), providing sufficiently early warning when gas accumulations occur. Nevertheless, in cases in which a combustible gas is diluted quickly, such as ventilation exhaust ducting, it may be necessary to set the detector to alarm at the lowest predictable level. Further, interest in low level infrared gas detection has been growing as gases such as CH4 and CO2 are greenhouse gases. The present paper describes a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) open path system designed to detect combustible and carbon dioxide gas leaks in the parts-per-million-meter (ppm-m or mg/cm2). The detector has been installed in offshore platforms and large onshore facilities to detect a variety of flammable gases and vapors. Advantages and limitations of the system are presented. False alarm immunity and resilience to atmospheric interferences are also discussed.

  16. An instrumentation amplifier based readout circuit for a dual element microbolometer infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Waal, D. J.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    The infrared band is widely used in many applications to solve problems stretching over very diverse fields, ranging from medical applications like inflammation detection to military, security and safety applications employing thermal imaging in low light conditions. At the heart of these optoelectrical systems lies a sensor used to detect incident infrared radiation, and in the case of this work our focus is on uncooled microbolometers as thermal detectors. Microbolometer based thermal detectors are limited in sensitivity by various parameters, including the detector layout and design, operating temperature, air pressure and biasing that causes self heating. Traditional microbolometers use the entire membrane surface for a single detector material. This work presents the design of a readout circuit amplifier where a dual detector element microbolometer is used, rather than the traditional single element. The concept to be investigated is based on the principle that both elements will be stimulated with a similar incoming IR signal and experience the same resistive change, thus creating a common mode signal. However, such a common mode signal will be rejected by a differential amplifier, thus one element is placed within a negative resistance converter to create a differential mode signal that is twice the magnitude of the comparable single mode signal of traditional detector designs. An instrumentation amplifier is used for the final stage of the readout amplifier circuit, as it allows for very high common mode rejection with proper trimming of the Wheatstone bridge to compensate for manufacturing tolerance. It was found that by implementing the above, improved sensitivity can be achieved.

  17. A novel long-wave infrared high resolution continuous zoom lens with uncooled thermal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jiaqi; Yu, Kan; Ji, Zijuan

    2016-09-01

    Infrared imaging lens is one of the key components of a video security camera. A novel long-wave infrared continuous zoom lens is developed based on the 640×512 high resolution uncooled infrared thermal detector which can substitute the high cost cooled infrared detector. The zoom lens contains five germanium lens and one chalcogenide glass lens, which working in the wavelength range of 8 12 μm. Its F number range is in 1 1.1 while the focus length is changing from 20 to 120 mm. Based on the zoom lens design theory, the positive lens mechanical compensation structure is used to calculate the optical parameters and optimize the cam zoom curve, which can have a smooth continuous zoom in the range of all focus lengths. The image analysis show that the system has achieved the modulation transfer function (MTF) value above 0.45 which spatial frequency is 30 lp/mm. The spot diagrams RMS radius is less than 6.3μm which is near the diffraction limit. The real test photos indicate that the lens has the advantages of high resolution, large aperture, smooth zoom and stable image plane. Due to the high image quality and low cost, the continuous zoom lens is easily to be fabricated.

  18. Advances in HgTe Colloidal Quantum Dots for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurma, Christopher; Ciani, Anthony J.; Pimpinella, Richard E.; Feldman, Jered S.; Grein, Christoph H.; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    HgTe-based colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) fabricated between 10 nm and 20 nm in size readily lead to infrared cutoff wavelengths between 3 μm and 12 μm, due to their quantum confinement. In previous work, infrared photodetection using these films has been demonstrated to detect radiation out to a wavelength of 12 μm, and imaging in the mid-wave infrared region. In this work, a complete focal plane array and imager was fabricated and its performance measured for detecting radiation out to 12 μm. The photoconductive and optical properties of these HgTe CQD films are described, along with recent advancements in CQD detector technology. Anticipated improvements in the CQD synthesis and film deposition chemistries and techniques can raise the specific detectivity of these CQD films, bringing them closer to room-temperature operation.

  19. Bismuth Oxide Thin Films Deposited on Silicon Through Pulsed Laser Ablation, for Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condurache-Bota, Simona; Constantinescu, Catalin; Tigau, Nicolae; Praisler, Mirela

    2016-12-01

    Infrared detectors are used in many human activities, from industry to military, telecommunications, environmental studies and even medicine. Bismuth oxide thin films have proved their potential for optoelectronic applications, but their uses as infrared sensors have not been thoroughly studied so far. In this paper, pulsed laser ablation of pure bismuth targets within a controlled oxygen atmosphere is proposed for the deposition of bismuth oxide films on Si (100) substrates. Crystalline films were obtained, whose uniformity depends on the deposition conditions (number of laser pulses and the use of a radio-frequency (RF) discharge of the oxygen inside the deposition chamber). The optical analysis proved that the refractive index of the films is higher than 3 and that their optical bandgap is around 1eV, recommending them for infrared applications.

  20. Polarization-dependent photocurrent enhancement in metamaterial-coupled quantum dots-in-a-well infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Yagya D.; Jun, Young Chul; Kim, Jun Oh; Brener, Igal; Krishna, Sanjay

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate polarization-dependent photo-response enhancement in metamaterial-coupled quantum dots-in-a-well infrared detectors. A gold split-ring resonator metamaterial layer was patterned by electron-beam lithography in the detector aperture. In this integrated structure, the detector spectral response is given by the convolution of the metamaterial field enhancement and the original detector response. Our polarization-resolved measurement unambiguously shows that the spectral response can be strongly modified by metamaterial patterning. When the metamaterial resonance matches the QD absorption peak, we obtain a clear enhancement of generated photocurrent. Various metamaterial designs can be employed to implement multi-functional detector structures.

  1. Ge:Ga and Ge:Be photoconductive detectors for far infrared astronomy from a space platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratt, P. R.; Lewis, N. N.; Nielsen, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes some of the development work on gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) and beryllium-doped germanium (Ge:Be) photoconductive detectors for use in far-infrared astronomical observations from a space platform such as IRAS. The paper is concerned primarily with detector performance and is divided into two major parts. The first presents the operating principles of this type of detector, while the second presents measured performance data under low-background flux conditions. It is shown that high sensitivity can be obtained from Ge:Ga and Ge:Be detectors under low-background and low-temperature conditions of operation. These detectors are useful for astronomical observations in the far-infrared over the wavelength range 30-120 microns. Major conclusions of the research work done so far are mentioned, including that detectors cut from the same crystal show reasonably good reproducibility of operating characteristics.

  2. Optical response of laser-doped silicon carbide for an uncooled midwave infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Lim, Geunsik; Manzur, Tariq; Kar, Aravinda

    2011-06-10

    An uncooled mid-wave infrared (MWIR) detector is developed by doping an n-type 4H-SiC with Ga using a laser doping technique. 4H-SiC is one of the polytypes of crystalline silicon carbide and a wide bandgap semiconductor. The dopant creates an energy level of 0.30  eV, which was confirmed by optical spectroscopy of the doped sample. This energy level corresponds to the MWIR wavelength of 4.21  μm. The detection mechanism is based on the photoexcitation of electrons by the photons of this wavelength absorbed in the semiconductor. This process modifies the electron density, which changes the refractive index, and, therefore, the reflectance of the semiconductor is also changed. The change in the reflectance, which is the optical response of the detector, can be measured remotely with a laser beam, such as a He-Ne laser. This capability of measuring the detector response remotely makes it a wireless detector. The variation of refractive index was calculated as a function of absorbed irradiance based on the reflectance data for the as-received and doped samples. A distinct change was observed for the refractive index of the doped sample, indicating that the detector is suitable for applications at the 4.21  μm wavelength.

  3. Unipolar infrared detectors based on InGaAs/InAsSb ternary superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ariyawansa, Gamini Reyner, Charles J.; Duran, Joshua M.; Reding, Joshua D.; Scheihing, John E.; Steenbergen, Elizabeth H.

    2016-07-11

    Growth and characteristics of mid-wave infrared (MWIR) InGaAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattice (SLS) detectors are reported. InGaAs/InAsSb SLSs, identified as ternary SLSs, not only provide an extra degree of freedom for superlattice strain compensation but also show enhanced absorption properties compared to InAs/InAsSb SLSs. Utilizing In{sub 1-y}Ga{sub y}As/InAs{sub 0.65}Sb{sub 0.35} ternary SLSs (y = 0, 5, 10, and 20%) designed to have the same bandgap, a set of four unipolar detectors are investigated. These demonstrate an enhancement in the detector quantum efficiency due to the increased absorption coefficient. The detectors exhibit dark current performance within a factor of 10 of Rule 07 at temperatures above 120 K, and external quantum efficiencies in the 15%–25% range. This work demonstrates ternary SLSs are a potential absorber material for future high performance MWIR detectors.

  4. A Failure Mode in Dense Infrared Detector Arrays Resulting in Increased Dark Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkie, Benjamin; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate a failure mode that arises in dense infrared focal plane detector arrays as a consequence of the interactions of neighboring pixels through the minority carrier profiles in the common absorber layer. We consider the situation in which one pixel in a hexagonal array becomes de-biased relative to its neighbors and show that the dark current in the six neighboring pixels increases exponentially as a function of the difference between the nominal and anomalous biases. Moreover, we show that the current increase in the six nearest-neighbor pixels is in total larger than that by which the current in the affected pixel decreases, causing a net increase in the dark current. The physical origins of this effect are explained as being due to increased lateral diffusion currents that arise as a consequence of breaking the symmetry of the minority carrier profiles. We then perform a parametric study to quantify the magnitude of this effect for a number of detector geometric parameters, operating temperatures, and spectral bands. Particularly, numerical simulations are carried out for short-, mid-, and long-wavelength HgCdTe infrared detectors operating between 77 K and 210 K. We show that this effect is most prevalent in architectures for which the lateral diffusion current is the largest component of the total dark current—high operating temperature devices with narrow epitaxial absorber thicknesses and pitches small compared to the diffusion length of minority carriers. These results could prove significant particularly for short- and mid-wave infrared detectors, which are typically designed to fit these conditions.

  5. Characterization of Dual-Band Infrared Detectors for Application to Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. Nurul; Refaat, Tamer F.; Xiao, Yegao; Bhat, Ishwara

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), in partnership with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), developed photovoltaic infrared (IR) detectors suitable at two different wavelengths using Sb-based material systems. Using lattice-matched InGaAsSb grown on GaSb substrates, dual wavelength detectors operating at 1.7 and 2.5 micron wavelengths can be realized. P-N junction diodes are fabricated on both GaSb and InGaAsSb materials. The photodiode on GaSb detects wavelengths at 1.7 micron and the InGaAsSb detector detects wavelengths at 2.2 micron or longer depending on the composition. The films for these devices are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The cross section of the independently accessed back-to-back photodiode dual band detector consists of a p-type substrate on which n-on-p GaInAsSb junction is grown, followed by a p-on-n GaSb junction. There are three ohmic contacts in this structure, one to the p-GaSb top layer, one to the n-GaSb/n-GaInAsSb layer and one to the p-type GaSb substrate. The common terminal is the contact to the n-GaSb/n-GaInAsSb layer. The contact to the n-GaSb/p-GaInAsSb region of the photodiode in the dual band is electrically connected and is accessed at the edge of the photodiode. NASA LaRC acquired the fabricated dual band detector from RPI and characterized the detector at its Detector Characterization Laboratory. Characterization results, such as responsivity, noise, quantum efficiency, and detectivity will be presented.

  6. Characterization of Dual-Band Infrared Detectors for Application to Remote Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. Nurul; Refaat, Tamer F.; Xiao, Yegao; Bhat, Ishwara

    2005-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), in partnership with the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI), developed photovoltaic infrared (IR) detectors suitable at two different wavelengths using Sb-based material systems. Using lattice-matched InGaAsSb grown on GaSb substrates, dual wavelength detectors operating at 1.7 and 2.5 micron wavelengths can be realized. P-N junction diodes are fabricated on both GaSb and InGaAsSb materials. The photodiode on GaSb detects wavelengths at 1.7 micron and the InGaAsSb detector detects wavelengths at 2.2 micron or longer depending on the composition. The films for these devices are grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The cross section of the independently accessed back-to-back photodiode dual band detector consists of a p-type substrate on which n-on-p GaInAsSb junction is grown, followed by a p-on-n GaSb junction. There are three ohmic contacts in this structure, one to the p-GaSb top layer, one to the n-GaSb/n-GaInAsSb layer and one to the p-type GaSb substrate. The common terminal is the contact to the n-GaSb/n-GaInAsSb layer. The contact to the n-GaSb/p-GaInAsSb region of the photodiode in the dual band is electrically connected and is accessed at the edge of the photodiode. NASA LaRC acquired the fabricated dual band detector from RPI and characterized the detector at its Detector Characterization Laboratory. Characterization results, such as responsivity, noise, quantum efficiency, and detectivity will be presented.

  7. Parylene supported 20um*20um uncooled thermoelectric infrared detector with high fill factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres-Zadeh, Mohammad J.; Carpenter, Zachary S.; Rockley, Mark G.; Abdolvand, Reza

    2012-06-01

    Presented is a novel design for an uncooled surface-micromachined thermoelectric (TE) infrared (IR) detector. The detector features a P-doped polysilicon/Nichrome (Cr20-Ni80) thermocouple, which is embedded into a thin layer of Parylene-N to provide structural support. The low thermal conductivity (~0.1W/m.K), chemical resistance, and ease of deposition/patterning of Parylene-N make it an excellent choice of material for use in MEMS thermal detectors. This detector also features an umbrella-like IR absorber composed of a three layer stack of NiCr/SiN/NiCr to optimize IR absorption. The total device area is 20 um * 20 um per pixel with an absorber area of ~19 um * 19 um resulting in a fill factor of 90%. At room temperature, a DC responsivity of ~170V/W with a rise time of less than 8 ms is measured from the fabricated devices in vacuum when viewing a 500K blackbody without any concentrating optics. The dominant source of noise in thermoelectric IR detectors is typically Johnson noise when the detectors are operating in an open circuit condition. The fabricated detectors have resistances about 85KOhm which results in Johnson noise of about 38nV/Hz^0.5. The D* is calculated to be 9 * 106 cm*Hz0.5/ W. Preliminary finite element analysis indicates that the thermal conduction from the hot junction to the substrate through the TE wires is dominant ( GTE >> Gparylene) considering the fabricated dimensions of the parylene film and the TE wires. Thus, by further reducing the size of the TE wires, GTE can be decreased and hence, responsivity can be improved while the parylene film sustains the structural integrity of the cell.

  8. Examination of cotton fibers and common contaminants using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The chemical imaging of cotton fibers and common contaminants in fibers is presented. Chemical imaging was performed with an infrared microscope equipped with a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In a...

  9. 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Array for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, Sir B.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoskhlagh, Arezou; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared (CBIRD) focal plane array for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is reported. The arrays were grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) with a 300 period 1.9 um thick absorber. The mean dark current density of 2.2 x 10-4 A/cm2 was measured at an operating bias of 128 mV with a long wavelength cutoff of 8.8 ?m observed at 50% of the peak. The maximum quantum efficiency was 54% measured at 5.6 ?m. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded an 81% fill factor with 97% operability. Good imagery with a mean noise equivalent different temperature (NE?T) of 18.6 mK and a mean detectivity of D* = 1.3 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W was achieved. The substrate was thinned using mechanical lapping and neither an AR coating nor a passivation layer was applied. This article provides the details of the fabrication process for achieving low-dark current LWIR CBIRD arrays. Discussion for an effective hard mask for excellent pattern transfer is given and appropriate mounting techniques for good thermal contact during the dry etching process is described. The challenges and differences between etching large 200 ?m test diodes and small 28 ?m FPA pixels are given.

  10. 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector Focal Plane Array for Long-Wave Infrared Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Jean; Rafol, Sir B.; Soibel, Alexander; Khoskhlagh, Arezou; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Liu, John K.; Mumolo, Jason M.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2012-01-01

    A 320 x 256 Complementary Barrier Infrared (CBIRD) focal plane array for long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) imaging is reported. The arrays were grown by molecular beam expitaxy (MBE) with a 300 period 1.9 um thick absorber. The mean dark current density of 2.2 x 10-4 A/cm2 was measured at an operating bias of 128 mV with a long wavelength cutoff of 8.8 ?m observed at 50% of the peak. The maximum quantum efficiency was 54% measured at 5.6 ?m. Operating at T = 80K, the array yielded an 81% fill factor with 97% operability. Good imagery with a mean noise equivalent different temperature (NE?T) of 18.6 mK and a mean detectivity of D* = 1.3 x 1011 cm-Hz1/2/W was achieved. The substrate was thinned using mechanical lapping and neither an AR coating nor a passivation layer was applied. This article provides the details of the fabrication process for achieving low-dark current LWIR CBIRD arrays. Discussion for an effective hard mask for excellent pattern transfer is given and appropriate mounting techniques for good thermal contact during the dry etching process is described. The challenges and differences between etching large 200 ?m test diodes and small 28 ?m FPA pixels are given.

  11. Analysis and Suppression of Dark Currents in Mid-Wave Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savich, Gregory Robert

    Mid-wave infrared photodetectors have wide-ranging civilian and military applications but remain complicated and expensive to produce. Maximizing detector performance while also reducing costs is critical for furthering the efficacy of the technology. Understanding the causes of dark current generation in infrared detectors, the limitations defects impose on performance, and strategies for suppression of dark currents is important for maximizing performance and creating detector architectures that are more robust and cost effective. Ideal infrared detectors are expected to be limited by fundamental material properties rather than specific device architecture or material quality considerations. When defect concentrations are sufficiently low, a carefully engineered detector will exhibit the best possible performance; however, maintaining low defect concentrations is not always feasible. Detectors with elevated defect concentrations are subject to a series of defect-induced dark current mechanisms dependent on device architecture. Defect-dominated unipolar barrier detector architectures are typically subject to Shockley-Read-Hall generation and subsequent diffusion of carriers in quasi-neutral regions. Defect-dominated conventional photodiodes are also subject to neutral region Shockley-Read-Hall generation but Shockley-Read-Hall generation and trap-assisted-tunneling in the depletion layer will have a far greater effect on the overall dark current of a device. Unipolar barrier architecture detectors show greatly improved performance compared to conventional pn junction-based photodiodes. The performance of defect-limited nBn detectors is demonstrated, showing the effects of quasi-neutral region Shockley-Read-Hall in these devices and improved performance over conventional photodiodes. The unipolar barrier photodiode combines the advantages of the nBn with a pn junction architecture. A properly engineered unipolar barrier photodiode will suppress both surface leakage

  12. Design of InAs/GaSb superlattice infrared barrier detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmas, M.; Rossignol, R.; Rodriguez, J. B.; Christol, P.

    2017-04-01

    Design of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) infrared barrier detectors is theoretically investigated. Each part of the barrier structures is studied in order to achieve optimal device operation at 150 K and 77 K, in the midwave and longwave infrared domain, respectively. Whatever the spectral domain, nBp structure with a p-type absorbing zone and an n-type contact layer is found to be the most favourable detector architecture allowing a reduction of the dark-current associated with generation-recombination processes. The nBp structures are then compared to pin photodiodes. The MWIR nBp detector with 5 μm cut-off wavelength can operate up to 120 K, resulting in an improvement of 20 K on the operating temperature compared to the pin device. The dark-current density of the LWIR nBp device at 77 K is expected to be as low as 3.5 × 10-4 A/cm2 at 50 mV reverse bias, more than one decade lower than the usual T2SL photodiode. This result, for a device having cut-off wavelength at 12 μm, is at the state of the art compared to the well-known MCT 'rule 07'.

  13. Development of Passively Cooled Long Wave Infrared Detector Arrays for NEOCam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurtry, Craig W.; Lee, D.; Beletic, J.; Chen, C.; Demers, R.; Dorn, M.; Edwall, D.; Bacon Fazar, C.; Forrest, W. J.; Liu, F.; Mainzer, A. K.; Pipher, J.; Yulius, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Near Earth Object Camera (NEOCam) is a proposed space mission designed to discover and characterize most of the potentially hazardous asteroids that orbit near the Earth. NEOCam consists of an infrared telescope and a passively cooled wide-field camera operating at thermal infrared wavelengths. NASA has funded technology development for NEOCam, including the development of long wavelength infrared detector arrays that will have excellent performance at NEOCam’s zodiacal emission-limited background. Teledyne Imaging Sensors has developed and delivered for test at the University of Rochester the first set of approximately 10 micron cutoff, 1024 x 1024 HgCdTe detector arrays in accord with NEOCam requirements. The first measurements of these arrays show the development to be extremely promising: noise, dark current, quantum efficiency and well depth goals have been met by this technology at focal plane temperatures of 40K, readily attainable with passive cooling. The next set of arrays to be developed will address changes suggested by the first set of deliverables.

  14. Applications of the Infrared Measurement Analyzer: Hydrogenated LWIR HgCdTe Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurma, Christopher; Boieriu, Paul; Bommena, Ramana; Sivananthan, Sivalingam

    2013-11-01

    Low-cost silicon-based alternative substrates are an attractive choice for next-generation large-area high-resolution multicolor infrared (IR) detector arrays. However, the high density of dislocations formed during molecular-beam epitaxy growth of HgCdTe/CdTe/Si limits the performance of IR arrays, especially in the long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) region. Atomic hydrogen introduced by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) into HgCdTe is expected to passivate dislocations, bulk and surface defects, removing their contributions to dark current. Passivation using ICP hydrogenation can have different effects on HgCdTe photodiode performance, depending on which class of defects is being passivated. The infrared measurement analyzer (IRMA) was used to deconvolute the effects of hydrogenation on LWIR HgCdTe photodiodes through a reverse-modeling fit of the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristic. This approach results in a fit with fewer false minima, low parameter error and bias, and high confidence in extracted device parameters. A description of this tool and its application to hydrogenated HgCdTe LWIR detectors is presented. Lower dark currents have been observed after hydrogenation of fully fabricated devices. Model-fits performed on a wide variety of LWIR HgCdTe photodiodes suggest that hydrogenation provides both surface and bulk quality improvements. These benefits of ICP hydrogenation have been retained over several months.

  15. Very black infrared detector from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes and electric-field poling of lithium tantalate.

    PubMed

    Lehman, John; Sanders, Aric; Hanssen, Leonard; Wilthan, Boris; Zeng, Jinan; Jensen, Christopher

    2010-09-08

    Vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes were grown by water-assisted chemical vapor deposition on a large-area lithium tantalate pyroelectric detector. The processing parameters are nominally identical to those by which others have achieved the "world's darkest substance" on a silicon substrate. The pyroelectric detector material, though a good candidate for such a coating, presents additional challenges and outcomes. After coating, a cycle of heating, electric field poling, and cooling was employed to restore the spontaneous polarization perpendicular to the detector electrodes. The detector responsivity is reported along with imaging as well as visible and infrared reflectance measurements of the detector and a silicon witness sample. We find that the detector responsivity is slightly compromised by the heat of processing and the coating properties are substrate dependent. However, it is possible to achieve nearly ideal values of detector reflectance uniformly less than 0.1% from 400 nm to 4 microm and less than 1% from 4 to 14 microm.

  16. GaAs Blocked-Impurity-Band Detectors for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, Benjamin Lewin

    2004-01-01

    High-purity and doped GaAs films have been grown by Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) for development of a blocked impurity band (BIB) detector for far-infrared radiation. The film growth process developed has resulted in the capability to grow GaAs with a net active impurity concentration below 1 x 1013 cm-3, ideal for the blocking layer of the BIB detector. The growth of n-type LPE GaAs films with donor concentrations below the metal-insulator transition, as required for the absorbing layer of a BIB detector, has been achieved. The control of the donor concentration, however, was found to be insufficient for detector production. The growth by LPE of a high-purity film onto a commercially grown vapor-phase epitaxial (VPE) n-type GaAs doped absorbing layer resulted in a BIB device that showed a significant reduction in the low-temperature dark current compared to the absorbing layer only. Extended optical response was not detected, most likely due to the high compensation of the commercially grown GaAs absorbing layer, which restricts the depletion width of the device.

  17. Semiconductor detectors and focal plane arrays for far-infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.

    2013-12-01

    The detection of far-infrared (far-IR) and sub-mm-wave radiation is resistant to the commonly employed techniques in the neighbouring microwave and IR frequency bands. In this wavelength detection range the use of solid state detectors has been hampered for the reasons of transit time of charge carriers being larger than the time of one oscillation period of radiation. Also the energy of radiation quanta is substantially smaller than the thermal energy at room temperature and even liquid nitrogen temperature. The realization of terahertz (THz) emitters and receivers is a challenge because the frequencies are too high for conventional electronics and the photon energies are too small for classical optics. Development of semiconductor focal plane arrays started in seventies last century and has revolutionized imaging systems in the next decades. This paper presents progress in far-IR and sub-mm-wave semiconductor detector technology of focal plane arrays during the past twenty years. Special attention is given on recent progress in the detector technologies for real-time uncooled THz focal plane arrays such as Schottky barrier arrays, field-effect transistor detectors, and microbolometers. Also cryogenically cooled silicon and germanium extrinsic photoconductor arrays, and semiconductor bolometer arrays are considered.

  18. Near-infrared InGaAs detectors for background-limited imaging and photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Croll, Bryce; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    Originally designed for night-vision equipment, InGaAs detectors are beginning to achieve background-limited performance in broadband imaging from the ground. The lower cost of these detectors can enable multi-band instruments, arrays of small telescopes, and large focal planes that would be uneconomical with high-performance HgCdTe detectors. We developed a camera to operate the FLIR AP1121 sensor using deep thermoelectric cooling and up-the-ramp sampling to minimize noise. We measured a dark current of 163 e- s-1 pix-1, a read noise of 87 e- up-the-ramp, and a well depth of 80k e-. Laboratory photometric testing achieved a stability of 230 ppm hr-1/2, which would be required for detecting exoplanet transits. InGaAs detectors are also applicable to other branches of near-infrared time-domain astronomy, ranging from brown dwarf weather to gravitational wave follow-up.

  19. Fundamental Limits on the Imaging and Polarisation Properties of Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher N.; Withington, Stafford; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Far-infrared bolometric detectors are used extensively in ground-based and space-borne astronomy, and thus it is important to understand their optical behaviour precisely. We have studied the intensity and polarisation response of free-space bolometers, and shown that when the size of the absorber is reduced below a wavelength, the response changes from being that of a classical optical detector to that of a few-mode antenna. We have calculated the modal content of the reception patterns, and found that for any volumetric detector having a side length of less than a wavelength, three magnetic and three electric dipoles characterize the behaviour. The size of the absorber merely determines the relative strengths of the contributions. The same formalism can be applied to thin-film absorbers, where the induced current is forced to flow in a plane. In this case, one magnetic and two electric dipoles characterize the behaviour. The ability to model easily the intensity, polarisation, and straylight characteristics of electrically-small detectors will be of great value when designing high-performance polarimetric imaging arrays.

  20. True differential pyroelectric infrared detector with improved D* test results with analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doctor, Alan

    2016-10-01

    Pyroelectric infrared detectors are used in many commercial and industrial applications. Typically these devices have been "single ended" and thus any electronic perturbation from a non-detector related noise source such as line frequency interference or microprocessor clock and other sources of electronic noise can be coupled onto the detector's output signal. We have solved this problem by employing a rather unique connection which also provides an increase in the signal to noise of any pyroelectric detector by a factor of the square root of 2 or by about 1.41 times greater than devices not utilizing this connection. Many devices using this connection have been built, fully tested and the data analyzed which provide a true differential or double ended output and the increase in D* as predicted. This scheme will work with any pyroelectric material (LTO, DLATGS, PLZT, PVDF etc.) with current or voltage mode impedance conversion and configurations such as parallel or series with and without temperature fluctuation compensation and of course with standard single elements. This talk will present this data and conclusions regarding the approach.

  1. Designing graphene absorption in a multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared detector

    DOE PAGES

    Goldflam, Michael D.; Fei, Zhe; Ruiz, Isaac; ...

    2017-05-18

    Here, we have examined graphene absorption in a range of graphene-based infrared devices that combine either monolayer or bilayer graphene with three different gate dielectrics. Electromagnetic simulations show that the optical absorption in graphene in these devices, an important factor in a functional graphene-based detector, is strongly dielectric-dependent. Our simulations reveal that plasmonic excitation in graphene can significantly influence the percentage of light absorbed in the entire device, as well as the graphene layer itself, with graphene absorption exceeding 25% in regions where plasmonic excitation occurs. Notably, the dielectric environment of graphene has a dramatic influence on the strength andmore » wavelength range over which the plasmons can be excited, making dielectric choice paramount to final detector tunability and sensitivity.« less

  2. Room temperature absorption in laterally biased quantum infrared detectors fabricated by MBE regrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Álvaro; San-Román, Rocío; Hierro, Adrián

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, we show room temperature operation of a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP) using lateral conduction through ohmic contacts deposited at both sides of two n-doped quantum wells. To reduce the dark current due to direct conduction in the wells, we apply an electric field between the quantum wells and two pinch-off Schottky gates, in a fashion similar to a field effect device. Since the normal incidence absorption is strongly reduced in intersubband transitions in quantum wells, we first analyze the response of a detector based on quantum dots (QD). This QD device shows photocurrent signal up to 150 K when it is processed in conventional vertical detector. However, it is possible to observe room temperature signal when it is processed in a lateral structure. Finally, the room temperature photoresponse of the QWIP is demonstrated, and compared with theory. An excellent agreement between the estimated and measured characteristics of the device is found.

  3. Designing graphene absorption in a multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared detector.

    PubMed

    Goldflam, Michael D; Fei, Zhe; Ruiz, Isaac; Howell, Stephen W; Davids, Paul S; Peters, David W; Beechem, Thomas E

    2017-05-29

    We have examined graphene absorption in a range of graphene-based infrared devices that combine either monolayer or bilayer graphene with three different gate dielectrics. Electromagnetic simulations show that the optical absorption in graphene in these devices, an important factor in a functional graphene-based detector, is strongly dielectric-dependent. These simulations reveal that plasmonic excitation in graphene can significantly influence the percentage of light absorbed in the entire device, as well as the graphene layer itself, with graphene absorption exceeding 25% in regions where plasmonic excitation occurs. Notably, the dielectric environment of graphene has a dramatic influence on the strength and wavelength range over which the plasmons can be excited, making dielectric choice paramount to final detector tunability and sensitivity.

  4. Photoresponse Model for Si_(1-x)Ge_x/Si Heterojunction Internal Photoemission Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T.; Park, J. S.; Gunapala, S. D.; Jones, E. W.; Castillo, H. M. Del

    1993-01-01

    A photoresponse model has been developed for the Si_(1-x)Ge_x/Si heterojunction internalphotoemission (HIP) infrared detector at wavelengths corresponding to photon energies less than theFermi energy. A Si_(0.7)Ge_(0.3)/Si HIP detector with a cutoff wavelength of 23 micrometers andan emission coefficient of 0.4 eV^(-1) has been demonstrated. The model agrees with the measureddetector response at lambda greater than 8 micrometers. The potential barrier determined by themodel is in close agreement (difference similar to 4 meV) with the potential barrier determined by theRichardson plot, compared to the discrepancies of 20-50 meV usually observed for PtSi Schottkydetectors.

  5. Modeling of high-precision wavefront sensing with new generation of CMT avalanche photodiode infrared detectors.

    PubMed

    Gousset, Silvère; Petit, Cyril; Michau, Vincent; Fusco, Thierry; Robert, Clelia

    2015-12-01

    Near-infrared wavefront sensing allows for the enhancement of sky coverage with adaptive optics. The recently developed HgCdTe avalanche photodiode arrays are promising due to their very low detector noise, but still present an imperfect cosmetic that may directly impact real-time wavefront measurements for adaptive optics and thus degrade performance in astronomical applications. We propose here a model of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront measurement in the presence of residual fixed pattern noise and defective pixels. To adjust our models, a fine characterization of such an HgCdTe array, the RAPID sensor, is proposed. The impact of the cosmetic defects on the Shack-Hartmann measurement is assessed through numerical simulations. This study provides both a new insight on the applicability of cadmium mercury telluride (CMT) avalanche photodiodes detectors for astronomical applications and criteria to specify the cosmetic qualities of future arrays.

  6. Electronic transport in a long wavelength infrared quantum cascade detector under dark condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Zhou, X. H.; Lin, T.; Li, N.; Zhu, Z. Q.; Liu, F. Q.

    2016-09-01

    We present a joint experimental and theoretical investigation on a long wavelength infrared quantum cascade detector to reveal its dark current paths. The temperature dependence of the dark current is measured. It is shown that there are two different transport mechanisms, namely resonant tunneling at low temperatures and thermal excitation at higher temperature, dominate the carrier flow, respectively. Moreover, the experimental intersubband transition energies obtained by the magneto-transport measurements matches the theoretical predictions well. With the aid of the calculated band structures, we can explain the observed oscillation phenomena of the dark current under the magnetic field very well. The obtained results provide insight into the transport properties of quantum cascade detectors thus providing a useful tool for device optimization.

  7. Reticulated shallow etch mesa isolation for controlling surface leakage in GaSb-based infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolde, J. A.; Jackson, E. M.; Bennett, M. F.; Affouda, C. A.; Cleveland, E. R.; Canedy, C. L.; Vurgaftman, I.; Jernigan, G. G.; Meyer, J. R.; Aifer, E. H.

    2017-07-01

    Longwave infrared detectors using p-type absorbers composed of InAs-rich type-II superlattices (T2SLs) nearly always suffer from high surface currents due to carrier inversion on the etched sidewalls. Here, we demonstrate reticulated shallow etch mesa isolation (RSEMI): a structural method of reducing surface currents in longwave single-band and midwave/longwave dual-band detectors with p-type T2SL absorbers. By introducing a lateral shoulder to increase the separation between the n+ cathode and the inverted absorber surface, a substantial barrier to surface electron flow is formed. We demonstrate experimentally that the RSEMI process results in lower surface current, lower net dark current, much weaker dependence of the current on bias, and higher uniformity compared to mesas processed with a single deep etch. For the structure used, a shoulder width of 2 μm is sufficient to block surface currents.

  8. Limiting dark current mechanisms in antimony-based superlattice infrared detectors for the long-wavelength infrared regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Robert; Lemke, Florian; Schmitz, Johannes; Wauro, Matthias; Walther, Martin

    2015-06-01

    A detailed understanding of limiting dark current mechanisms in InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) infrared detectors is key to improve the electrooptical performance of these devices. We present a six-component dark current analysis which, for the first time, takes account of sidewall-related dark current contributions in mesa-etched T2SL photodiodes. In a wide temperature range from 30K to 130K, the paper compares limiting mechanisms in two homojunction T2SL photodiode wafers for the long-wavelength infrared regime. While the two epi wafers were fabricated with nominally the same frontside process they were grown on different molecular beam epitaxy systems. In the available literature a limitation by Shockley-Read-Hall processes in the space charge region giving rise to generation-recombination (GR) dark current is the prevailing verdict on the bulk dark current mechanism in T2SL homojunction photodiodes around 77K. In contrast, we find that investigated photodiode wafers are instead limited by the diffusion mechanism and the ohmic shunt component, respectively. Furthermore, our in-depth analysis of the various dark current components has led to an interesting observation on the temperature dependence of the shunt resistance in T2SL homojunction photodiodes. Our results indicate that the GR and the shunt mechanism share the same dependence on bandgap and temperature, i.e., a proportionality to exp(-Eg/2kT).

  9. New and Better Near-Infrared Detectors for JWST Near Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Mott, D. Brent; Wen, Yiting; Linder, Don; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Hill, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    ESA and NASA recently selected two 5 m cutoff Teledyne H2RG sensor chip assemblies (SCA) for flight on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). These HgCdTe SCAs incorporate Teledynes improved barrier layer design that eliminates the degradation that affected earlier JWST H2RGs(Rauscher et al. 2012a). The better indium barrier, together with other design changes, has improved the performance and reliability of JWSTs SCAs. In this article, we describe the measured performance characteristics that most directly affect scientific observations including read noise, total noise, dark current, quantum efficiency (QE), and image persistence. As part of measuring QE, we measured the quantum yield as a function of photon energy,, and found that it exceeds unity for photon energies E (2.65.2) Eg, where Eg is the HgCdTe bandgap energy. This corresponds to. 2 m for NIRSpecs 5 m cutoff HgCdTe. Our measurements agree well with a previous measurement by McCullough et al. (2008) for. 1.3. For 1.3, we find a slower increase in with photon energy than McCullough et al. did. However, and as McCullough et al. note, their two state model of the yield process is not valid for large 1.

  10. Growth and study of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals in low-G for infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.; Batra, A. K.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Wilcox, W. R.; Trolinger, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments on growth of TGS crystals using (010) and (001) oriented disc shape seeds in the low gravity environment aboard Spacelab-3 are presented. The holographic interferograms reconstructed on the ground demonstrated diffusion limited growth. The morphology of the crystals grown was similar to that of crystals grown on earth, except the faces were not fully developed and planar. The device quality of these crytals is considered to be comparable with the best crystals grown on earth. Better infrared detector characteristics were obtained by doping TGS with Cs and L-alanine simultaneously on the ground. Crystals grown on (010) poled seeds show improved morphology and pyroelectric properties.

  11. Growth and study of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals in low-G for infrared detector applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.; Batra, A. K.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Wilcox, W. R.; Trolinger, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments on growth of TGS crystals using (010) and (001) oriented disc shape seeds in the low gravity environment aboard Spacelab-3 are presented. The holographic interferograms reconstructed on the ground demonstrated diffusion limited growth. The morphology of the crystals grown was similar to that of crystals grown on earth, except the faces were not fully developed and planar. The device quality of these crytals is considered to be comparable with the best crystals grown on earth. Better infrared detector characteristics were obtained by doping TGS with Cs and L-alanine simultaneously on the ground. Crystals grown on (010) poled seeds show improved morphology and pyroelectric properties.

  12. Infrared limb sounding of Titan with the Cassini Composite InfraRed Spectrometer: effects of the mid-IR detector spatial responses.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Conor A; Teanby, Nicholas A; Calcutt, Simon B; Aslam, Shahid; Jennings, Donald E; Kunde, Virgil G; Flasar, F Michael; Irwin, Patrick G; Taylor, Fredric W; Glenar, David A; Smith, Michael D

    2009-04-01

    The composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) instrument on board the Cassini Saturn orbiter employs two 1x10 HgCdTe detector arrays for mid-infrared remote sensing of Titan's and Saturn's atmospheres. In this paper we show that the real detector spatial response functions, as measured in ground testing before launch, differ significantly from idealized "boxcar" responses. We further show that neglecting this true spatial response function when modeling CIRS spectra can have a significant effect on interpretation of the data, especially in limb-sounding mode, which is frequently used for Titan science. This result has implications not just for CIRS data analysis but for other similar instrumental applications.

  13. High-Operating-Temperature Barrier Infrared Detector with Tailorable Cutoff Wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory, J.; Soibel, Alexander; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2011-01-01

    A mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) barrier photodetector is capable of operating at higher temperature than the prevailing MWIR detectors based on InSb. The standard high-operating-temperature barrier infrared detector (HOT-BIRD) is made with an InAsSb infrared absorber that is lattice-matched to a GaSb substrate, and has a cutoff wavelength of approximately 4 microns. To increase the versatility and utility of the HOT-BIRD, it is implemented with IR absorber materials with customizable cutoff wavelengths. The HOT-BIRD can be built with the quaternary alloy GaInAsSb as the absorber, GaAlSbAs as the barrier, on a lattice-matching GaSb substrate. The cutoff wavelength of the GaInAsSb can be tailored by adjusting the alloy composition. To build a HOT-BIRD requires a matching pair of absorber and barrier materials with the following properties: (1) their valence band edges must be approximately the same to allow unimpeded hole flow, while their conduction band edges should have a large difference to form an electron barrier; and (2) the absorber and the barrier must be respectively lattice-matched and closely lattice-matched to the substrate to ensure high material quality and low defect density. To make a HOT-BIRD with cutoff wavelength shorter than 4 microns, a GaInAsSb quaternary alloy was used as the absorber, and a matching GaAlSbAs quaternary alloy as the barrier. By changing the alloy composition, the band gap of the quaternary alloy absorber can be continuously adjusted with cutoff wavelength ranging from 4 microns down to the short wavelength infrared (SWIR). By carefully choosing the alloy composition of the barrier, a HOT-BIRD structure can be formed. With this method, a HOT-BIRD can be made with continuously tailorable cutoff wavelengths from 4 microns down to the SWIR. The HOT-BIRD detector technology is suitable for making very-large-format MWIR/SWIR focal plane arrays that can be operated by passive cooling from low Earth orbit. High-operating temperature

  14. The growth and characterization of Group IV alloys for near to mid-infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, John Thomas

    Near infrared and mid infrared optoelectronic devices have become increasingly important for the telecommunications, security, and medical imaging industries. An infrared system fully integrated in a silicon chip manufactured in a high-volume CMOS foundry is therefore a much desired technology. Such a technology would allow the integration of mid-IR technology with new functionality, lower costs, smaller size, weight and power, and higher reliability. The focus of this dissertation is on the advancement of low temperature Group IV epitaxy of tin containing alloys for use in near to mid- infrared technologies. To that end, various epitaxial techniques and improvements were made and several detector device structures were characterized. Low temperature epitaxy is vital to achieve Sn containing Group IV films, and both ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition (UHV-CVD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) were utilized to this end. New precursors are needed in CVD to maintain film growth at reduced temperatures. The novel precursors tetrasilane and digermane were studied for their low temperature compatibility. Crystalline silicon and silicon germanium alloys were deposited and characterized, finding high quality, bulk-like films. Tin-chloride was investigated as a possible Sn precursor, but was found to etch Ge. Multiple innovations in GeSn epitaxy in MBE were made, including both n- and p-type doping and higher Sn concentrations than those previously achieved for devices. While careful consideration needed to be taken into account for the growth of GeSn, normal clean room processing was not found to have any adverse effect on the material. Photoconductive and photodiode type detectors of GeSn films on Si substrates were fabricated. The wavelength response of the material was measured to continually increase into the mid-infrared as the Sn content was increased, reaching almost 4microm for a 15.6% Sn device at room temperature. The responsivity of the detectors was

  15. NBN Gene Polymorphisms and Cancer Susceptibility: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berardinelli, Francesco; di Masi, Alessandra; Antoccia, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between DNA repair failure and cancer is well established as in the case of rare, high penetrant genes in high cancer risk families. Beside this, in the last two decades, several studies have investigated a possible association between low penetrant polymorphic variants in genes devoted to DNA repair pathways and risk for developing cancer. This relationship would be also supported by the observation that DNA repair processes may be modulated by sequence variants in DNA repair genes, leading to susceptibility to environmental carcinogens. In this framework, the aim of this review is to provide the reader with the state of the art on the association between common genetic variants and cancer risk, limiting the attention to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NBN gene and providing the various odd ratios (ORs). In this respect, the NBN protein, together with MRE11 and RAD50, is part of the MRN complex which is a central player in the very early steps of sensing and processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), in telomere maintenance, in cell cycle control, and in genomic integrity in general. So far, many papers were devoted to ascertain possible association between common synonymous and non-synonymous NBN gene polymorphisms and increased cancer risk. However, the results still remain inconsistent and inconclusive also in meta-analysis studies for the most investigated E185Q NBN miscoding variant. PMID:24396275

  16. Uncooled Thermopile Infrared Detector Linear Arrays with Detectivity Greater Than 10(super script9) cmHZ(super script 1/2)/W

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, Marc C.; Jones, Eric W.; Caillat, Thierry

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated 63-element linear arrays of micromachined thermopile infrared detectors on silicon substrates. Each detector consists of a suspended silicon nitride membrane with 11 thermocouples of sputtered Bi-Te and Bi-Sb-Te films.

  17. Photoelectronic studies of an asymmetric step quantum-well middle wavelength infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen-Gang; Chen, Zhibin

    2001-10-01

    Photoelectronic characteristics of the fabricated InxGa1-xAs/AlyGa1- yAs/AlzGa1-zAs asymmetric step quantum-well middle wavelength (3 to approximately 5 micrometers ) infrared detectors are studied. The components display photovoltaic-type photocurrent response as well as the bias- controlled modulation of the peak wavelength of the main response, which is ascribed to the Stark shifts of the intersubband transitions from the local ground states to the extended first excited states in the quantum wells, at the 3 to approximately 5.3 micrometers infrared atmospheric transmission window. The blackbody detectivity (Dbb*) of the detectors reaches to about 1.0 X 1010 cm(DOT)Hz1/2/W at 77 K under bias of +/- 7 V. By expanding the electron wave function in terms of normalized plane wave basis withn the framwork of the effective-mass envelope-function theory, the linear Stark effects of the intersubband tansitions between the ground and first excited states in the asymmetric step well are calculated. The obtained results agree well with the corresponding experimental measurements.

  18. Hole effective masses and subband splitting in type-II superlattice infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2016-05-01

    We explore band structure effects to help determine the suitability of n-type type-II superlattice (T2SL) absorbers for infrared detectors. It is often assumed that the exceedingly large growth-direction band-edge curvature hole effective mass in n-type long wavelength infrared (LWIR) T2SL would lead to low hole mobility and therefore low detector collection quantum efficiency. We computed the thermally averaged conductivity effective mass and show that the LWIR T2SL hole conductivity effective mass along the growth direction can be orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding band-edge effective mass. LWIR InAs/GaSb T2SL can have significantly smaller growth-direction hole conductivity effective mass than its InAs/InAsSb counterpart. For the InAs/InAsSb T2SL, higher Sb fraction is more favorable for hole transport. Achieving long hole diffusion length becomes progressively more difficult for the InAs/InAsSb T2SL as the cutoff wavelength increases, since its growth-direction hole conductivity effective mass increases significantly with decreasing band gap. However, this is mitigated by the fact that the splitting between the top valence subbands also increases with the cutoff wavelength, leading to reduced inter-subband scattering and increased relaxation time.

  19. Optimum design of infrared detector's micro-cooler with entropy generation minimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaelahi, Mojtaba; Mosavi Nejad, S. Meisam

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, an optimization of Joule-Thomson micro coolers, used in the infrared detector is performed based on minimization of irreversibility. These types of coolers have various applications in many industrial and non-industrial devices. One of the major applications of these coolers is the micro cooling system in infrared detectors. In this paper, the considerable cooling system is divided into some layer, include of the hot gas layer, cold gas layer, the buffer layer, top layer and upper layer and each layer divided into some cell. Then the energy balance (include of convective heat transfer and enthalpy flow) was applied to each cell and set of governed equations was solved with the suitable method. The comparison of the current study with experimental results shows the good accuracy of performing modeling. In the next section, irreversibility analysis was performed and the total entropy generation rate was evaluated. In the last section, optimization of the considered system is performed for minimizing of entropy generation and volume.

  20. Thermal properties of a pyroelectric-ceramic infrared detector with metallic intermediate layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Moon H.; Bae, Seong H.; Bhalla, Amar S.

    1998-06-01

    Infrared thermal detectors were prepared with pyroelectric PSN-PT-PZ (1/47/52) ceramics, where a signal electrode had a structure Au/metallic buffer/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramic. The effect of a metallic buffer layer on the voltage responsivity was investigated with a response to a step signal, made by a dynamic pyroelectric measurement. A pyroelectric ceramic wafer was prepared by a mixed-oxide technique. The Au layer (thickness 50 nm) and the metallic buffers (thickness 0 to 20 nm) of Cr, NiCr (80:20), and Ti were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. In order to improve the light absorptivity, Au black was coated on the Au signal electrode by thermal evaporation. A detector without a buffer layer showed a noisy and fluctuating output signal. Among the three kinds of buffer materials, NiCr (80:20) and Ti adhered well with ceramics and showed good electrical and thermal contact, whereas Cr resulted in bad contacts. Considering the output voltage and thermal properties, the optimum thickness of the buffer layer was about 15 to 20 nm, and sensors with a Ti buffer 15 to 20 nm in thickness showed good detectivity. Thus, the stability and reliability of the infrared thermal sensors could be improved by using an appropriate buffer layer.

  1. An Inexpensive Infrared Detector to Verify The Delivery of Food Pellets

    PubMed Central

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ratzlaff, Kenneth L; Madden, Gregory J; Fowler, Stephen C

    2008-01-01

    The reproducibility of experimental outcomes depends on consistent control of independent variables. In food-maintained operant performance, it is of utmost importance that the quantity of food delivered is reliable. To that end, some commercial food pellet dispensers have add-on attachments to sense the delivery of pellets. Not all companies, however, offer such add-ons. Aside from availability, cost and temporary reduction in throughput may be a problem for smaller labs. The present paper outlines our recent development of a simple, inexpensive infrared device to detect and confirm the delivery of pellets. The in-line construction of the detector routes the falling pellet through a barrel so that it passes between an infrared emitter and receiver. The circuitry was designed to be compatible with all commercially available behavioral measurement systems, and so may be retrofit to any existing system. Our tests with the detector so far have shown that it is 100% accurate in detecting pellet delivery. The individual unit cost is approximately 25 dollars. The low cost and versatility of the device offer an easy method to ensure the integrity of food delivery in operant settings. PMID:18831128

  2. An inexpensive infrared detector to verify the delivery of food pellets.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; Ratzlaff, Kenneth L; Madden, Gregory J; Fowler, Stephen C

    2008-09-01

    The reproducibility of experimental outcomes depends on consistent control of independent variables. In food-maintained operant performance, it is of utmost importance that the quantity of food delivered is reliable. To that end, some commercial food pellet dispensers have add-on attachments to sense the delivery of pellets. Not all companies, however, offer such add-ons. Aside from availability, cost and temporary reduction in throughput may be a problem for smaller labs. The present paper outlines our recent development of a simple, inexpensive infrared device to detect and confirm the delivery of pellets. The in-line construction of the detector routes the falling pellet through a barrel so that it passes between an infrared emitter and receiver. The circuitry was designed to be compatible with all commercially available behavioral measurement systems, and so may be retrofit to any existing system. Our tests with the detector so far have shown that it is 100% accurate in detecting pellet delivery. The individual unit cost is approximately 25 dollars. The low cost and versatility of the device offer an easy method to ensure the integrity of food delivery in operant settings.

  3. Hole effective masses and subband splitting in type-II superlattice infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, David Z. Soibel, Alexander; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2016-05-02

    We explore band structure effects to help determine the suitability of n-type type-II superlattice (T2SL) absorbers for infrared detectors. It is often assumed that the exceedingly large growth-direction band-edge curvature hole effective mass in n-type long wavelength infrared (LWIR) T2SL would lead to low hole mobility and therefore low detector collection quantum efficiency. We computed the thermally averaged conductivity effective mass and show that the LWIR T2SL hole conductivity effective mass along the growth direction can be orders of magnitude smaller than the corresponding band-edge effective mass. LWIR InAs/GaSb T2SL can have significantly smaller growth-direction hole conductivity effective mass than its InAs/InAsSb counterpart. For the InAs/InAsSb T2SL, higher Sb fraction is more favorable for hole transport. Achieving long hole diffusion length becomes progressively more difficult for the InAs/InAsSb T2SL as the cutoff wavelength increases, since its growth-direction hole conductivity effective mass increases significantly with decreasing band gap. However, this is mitigated by the fact that the splitting between the top valence subbands also increases with the cutoff wavelength, leading to reduced inter-subband scattering and increased relaxation time.

  4. Development of a new readout system for the near-infrared detector of HONIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ui, Takahiro; Sako, Shigeyuki; Yamashita, Takuya; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Koji S.; Nakaya, Hidehiko; Moritani, Yuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Urano, Takeshi; Ueno, Issei; Ohsugi, Takashi; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Nakao, Hikaru; Hashiba, Yasuhito

    2014-08-01

    We developed a new readout system for the near-infrared detector VIRGO-2K (2kx2k HgCdTe array) installed in the optical-infrared simultaneous camera, HONIR, for the 1.5 m Kanata telescope at Higashi-Hiroshima observatory. The main goal of this development is to read out one frame within ~ 1 second through 16 output readout mode of the detector, in order to reduce the overhead time per exposure. The system is based on a CCD controller, Kiso Array Controller (KAC). We redesigned the analog part of KAC to fit VIRGO-2K. We employed a fully differential input circuit and a third order Bessel low-pass filter for noise reduction and a constant current system to improve the linearity of the detector. We set the cutoff frequency of the Bessel low-pass filter at the readout clock rate (120 kHz). We also set the constant current at 200 μA according to the data sheet of VIRGO-2K. We tested the new readout system at room temperature and confirmed that the low-pass filter works well as designed. The fluctuation of the current level of the constant current system is less than 2% for the typical output voltage range of VIRGO-2K (3.2-4.4 V). We measured the readout noise caused by the new readout system (connected to cooled multiplexer) and found that it is 30-40 μV rms, being comparable to or slightly higher than the typical readout noise of VIRGO-2K, ˜ 37 μV rms.

  5. Development and application of InAsP/InP quantum well infrared detector

    SciTech Connect

    Geetanjali, Porwal, S.; Kumar, R.; Dixit, V. K.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.

    2016-05-23

    InAs{sub x}P{sub 1-x}/InP quantum wells grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy are investigated for infrared detector applications. The structural parameters of the QWs are evaluated from high resolution x-ray diffraction. The electronic transition energies measured from surface photo voltage and photoconductivity confirms that these QWs can be used for fabricating IR detectors in the wide wavelength range, i.e. 0.9–1.46 µm by inter-band transitions and 7–18 µm by inter-sub-band transitions. Subsequently the functionality of one such fabricated InAs{sub x}P{sub 1-x}/InPQW detector is verified by measuring the photoluminescence of suitable semiconductor quantum well structure. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 24 June 2016. The original version supplied to AIP Publishing contained an error in the Figures 1 and 2 where the right side of the images were cutoff. The error has been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  6. Progress in MOCVD growth of HgCdTe epilayers for HOT infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebłowski, A.; Gawron, W.; Martyniuk, P.; Stepień, D.; Kolwas, K.; Piotrowski, J.; Madejczyk, P.; Kopytko, M.; Piotrowski, A.; Rogalski, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we present progress in MOCVD growth of (100) HgCdTe epilayers achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology and Vigo System S.A. It is shown that MOCVD technology is an excellent tool in fabrication of different HgCdTe detector structures with a wide range of composition, donor/acceptor doping and without post grown annealing. Particular progress has been achieved in the growth of (100) HgCdTe epilayers for long wavelength infrared photoconductors operated in HOT conditions. The (100) HgCdTe photoconductor optimized for 13-μm attain detectivity equal to 6.5x109 Jones and therefore outperform its (111) counterpart. The paper also presents technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown (111) HgCdTe barrier detectors. The barrier device performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. The detectivity of HgCdTe detectors is close to the value marked HgCdTe photodiodes. Dark current densities are close to the values given by "Rule 07".

  7. Development and application of InAsP/InP quantum well infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geetanjali, Porwal, S.; Kumar, R.; Dixit, V. K.; Sharma, T. K.; Oak, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    InAsxP1-x/InP quantum wells grown using metal organic vapor phase epitaxy are investigated for infrared detector applications. The structural parameters of the QWs are evaluated from high resolution x-ray diffraction. The electronic transition energies measured from surface photo voltage and photoconductivity confirms that these QWs can be used for fabricating IR detectors in the wide wavelength range, i.e. 0.9-1.46 µm by inter-band transitions and 7-18 µm by inter-sub-band transitions. Subsequently the functionality of one such fabricated InAsxP1-x/InPQW detector is verified by measuring the photoluminescence of suitable semiconductor quantum well structure. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 24 June 2016. The original version supplied to AIP Publishing contained an error in the Figures 1 and 2 where the right side of the images were cutoff. The error has been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  8. Free-space-coupled superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for infrared optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellei, Francesco; Cartwright, Alyssa P.; McCaughan, Adam N.; Dane, Andrew E.; Najafi, Faraz; Zhao, Qingyuan; Berggren, Karl K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper describes the construction of a cryostat and an optical system with a free-space coupling efficiency of 56.5% +/- 3.4% to a superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) for infrared quantum communication and spectrum analysis. A 1K pot decreases the base temperature to T = 1.7 K from the 2.9 K reached by the cold head cooled by a pulse-tube cryocooler. The minimum spot size coupled to the detector chip was 6.6 +/- 0.11 {\\mu}m starting from a fiber source at wavelength, {\\lambda} = 1.55 {\\mu}m. We demonstrated efficient photon counting on a detector with an 8 x 7.3 {\\mu}m^2 area. We measured a dark count rate of 95 +/- 3.35 kcps and a system detection efficiency of 1.64% +/- 0.13%. We explain the key steps that are required to further improve the coupling efficiency.

  9. An infrared motion detector system for lossless real-time monitoring of animal preference tests.

    PubMed

    Pogány, A; Heszberger, J; Szurovecz, Zita; Vincze, E; Székely, T

    2014-12-01

    Automated behavioural observations are routinely used in many fields of biology, including ethology, behavioural ecology and physiology. When preferences for certain resources are investigated, the focus is often on simple response variables, such as duration and frequency of visits to choice chambers. Here we present an automated motion detector system that use passive infrared sensors to eliminate many drawbacks of currently existing methods. Signals from the sensors are processed by a custom-built interface, and after unnecessary data is filtered by a computer software, the total time and frequency of the subject's visits to each of the choice chambers are calculated. We validate the detector system by monitoring (using the system) and in the same time video recording mating preferences of zebra finches in a four-way choice apparatus. Manual scoring of the video recordings showed very high consistency with data from the detector system both for time and for frequency of visits. Furthermore, the validation revealed that if we used micro-switches or light barriers, the most commonly applied automatic detection techniques, this would have resulted in approximately 22% less information compared to our lossless system. The system provides a low-cost alternative for monitoring animal movements, and we discuss its further applicability.

  10. An opto-electro-mechanical infrared photon detector with high internal gain at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Kohoutek, John; Wan, Ivy Yoke Leng; Memis, Omer Gokalp; Mohseni, Hooman

    2009-08-17

    Many applications require detectors with both high sensitivity and linearity, such as low light level imaging and quantum computing. Here we present an opto-electro-mechanical detector based on nano-injection and lateral charge compression that operates at the short infrared (SWIR) range. Electrical signal is generated by photo-induced changes in a nano-injector gap, and subsequent change of tunneling current. We present a theoretical model developed for the OEM detector, and it shows good agreement with the measured experimental results for both the mechanical and electrical properties of the device. The device shows a measured responsivity of 276 A/W, equivalent to 220 electrons per incoming photon, and an NEP of 3.53 x 10(-14) W/Hz(0.5) at room temperature. Although these results are already competing with common APDs in linear mode, we believe replacing the AFM tip with a dedicated nano-injector can improve the sensitivity significantly. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  11. Midwave infrared type-II InAs/GaSb superlattice detectors with mixed interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Plis, E.; Annamalai, S.; Posani, K. T.; Krishna, S.; Rupani, R. A.; Ghosh, S.

    2006-07-01

    We report the growth and fabrication of midwave infrared InAs/GaSb strain layer superlattice (SLS) detectors. Growth of alternate interfaces leads to a reduced strain between the GaSb buffer and SLS ({delta}a{sub parallel}/a=-5x10{sup -4}), enabling the growth of active regions up to 3 {mu}m (625 periods). The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the active region were characterized using x-ray crystallography and photoluminescence, respectively. p-i-n detectors were grown using 625 periods of 8 ML (monolayer) InAs/8 ML GaSb as the active region. The {lambda}{sub cutoff} for the detectors was 4.6 {mu}m with a conversion efficiency of 32% at V{sub b}=-0.2 V. Detectivity was obtained using noise power spectral density measurements under 300 K 2{pi} field of view illumination and was equal to 5.2x10{sup 10} and 3x10{sup 10} cm Hz{sup 1/2}/W (V{sub b}=-0.02 V, T=80 K) in the white noise and 1/f noise limit (at 50 Hz)

  12. Physics-based simulation of the modulation transfer function in HgCdTe infrared detector arrays.

    PubMed

    Pinkie, Benjamin; Schuster, Jonathan; Bellotti, Enrico

    2013-07-15

    We have developed a numerical technique for performing physics-based simulations of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of infrared detector focal plane arrays. The finite-difference time-domain and finite element methods are employed to determine the electromagnetic and electrical response, respectively. We show how the total MTF can be decomposed to analyze the effect of lateral diffusion of charge carriers and present several methods for mitigation of such effects. We employ our numerical technique to analyze the MTF of a HgCdTe two-color bias-selectable infrared detector array.

  13. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of biomineralized tissues using a mercury-cadmium-telluride focal-plane array detector.

    PubMed

    Marcott, C; Reeder, R C; Paschalis, E P; Tatakis, D N; Boskey, A L; Mendelsohn, R

    1998-02-01

    A 64 x 64 mercury-cadmium-telluride focal-plane array detector attached to a Fourier transform infrared microscope was used to spectroscopically image 5 microm sections of canine alveolar bone tissue in the fingerprint region of the infrared spectrum. By ratioing the relative intensities of specific bands across the images, it is possible to obtain spatial distributions of the mineral-to-matrix ratio and mineral maturity as a function of distance from an osteon.

  14. Measuring Io's Lava Eruption Temperatures with a Novel Infrared Detector and Digital Readout Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Ashley; Gunapala, Sarath; Rafol, B., Sir; Soibel, Alexander; Ting, David Z.

    2016-10-01

    One method of determining lava eruption temperature of Io's dominant silicate lavas is by measuring radiant flux at two or more wavelengths and fitting a black-body thermal emission function. Only certain styles of volcanic activity are suitable, those where thermal emission is from a restricted range of surface temperatures close to eruption temperature. Such processes include [1] large lava fountains; [2] fountaining in lava lakes; and [3] lava tube skylights. Problems that must be overcome are (1) the cooling of the lava between data acquisitions at different wavelengths; (2) the unknown magnitude of thermal emission, which often led to detector saturation; and (3) thermal emission changing on a shorter timescale than the observation integration time. We can overcome these problems by using the HOT-BIRD detector [4] and an advanced digital readout circuit [5]. We have created an instrument model that allows different instrument parameters (including mirror diameter, number of signal splits, exposure duration, filter band pass, and optics transmissivity) to be tested so as to determine eruption detectability. We find that a short-wavelength infrared instrument on an Io flyby mission can achieve simultaneity of observations by splitting the incoming signal for all relevant eruption processes and obtain data fast enough to remove uncertainties in accurate determination of the highest lava surface temperatures exposed. Observations at 1 and 1.5 μm are sufficient to do this. Lava temperature determinations are also possible with a visible wavelength detector [3] so long as data at different wavelengths are obtained simultaneously and integration time is very short. This is especially important for examining the thermal emission from lava tube skylights [3] due to rapidly-changing viewing geometry during close flybys. References: [1] Davies et al., 2001, JGR, 106, 33079-33104. [2] Davies et al., 2011, GRL, 38, L21308. [3] Davies et al., 2016, Icarus, in press. [4

  15. Near-Infrared Single-Photon-Counting Detectors for Laser Instrument Applications at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Xiaoli, Sun; Abshire, James B.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss single-photon-counting detectors requirements for NASA remote sensing and communications systems. We present experimental measurements on several different near-infrared single-photon-counting detectors including InGaAs/InP and InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes (APD), an InGaAsP photocathode hybrid photomultiplier (PMT) and an InGaAs photomultiplier. We present the experimental performance of prototype instruments for laser ranging, communication, and trace-gas detection that use these detectors.

  16. HgCdTe avalanche photodiode detectors for airborne and spaceborne lidar at infrared wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B; Beck, Jeffrey D; Mitra, Pradip; Reiff, Kirk; Yang, Guangning

    2017-07-10

    We report results from characterizing the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays developed for lidar at infrared wavelengths by using the high density vertically integrated photodiodes (HDVIP(®)) technique. The results show >90% quantum efficiencies between 0.8 μm and the cut-off wavelength, >600 APD gain, near unity excess noise factor, 6-10 MHz electrical bandwidth and <0.5 fW/Hz(1/2) noise equivalent power (NEP). The detectors provide linear analog output with a dynamic range of 2-3 orders of magnitude at a fixed APD gain without averaging, and over 5 orders of magnitude by adjusting the APD gain settings. They have been used successfully in airborne CO2 and CH4 integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar as precursors for use in space lidar.

  17. Symmetric Absorber-Coupled Far-Infrared Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Brown, Ari D. (Inventor); Stevenson, Thomas R. (Inventor); Patel, Amil A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a symmetric absorber-coupled far-infrared microwave kinetic inductance detector including: a membrane having an absorber disposed thereon in a symmetric cross bar pattern; and a microstrip including a plurality of conductor microstrip lines disposed along all edges of the membrane, and separated from a ground plane by the membrane. The conducting microstrip lines are made from niobium, and the pattern is made from a superconducting material with a transition temperature below niobium, including one of aluminum, titanium nitride, or molybdenum nitride. The pattern is disposed on both a top and a bottom of the membrane, and creates a parallel-plate coupled transmission line on the membrane that acts as a half-wavelength resonator at readout frequencies. The parallel-plate coupled transmission line and the conductor microstrip lines form a stepped impedance resonator. The pattern provides identical power absorption for both horizontal and vertical polarization signals.

  18. Performance of charge-injection-device infrared detector arrays at low and moderate backgrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckelvey, M. E.; Mccreight, C. R.; Goebel, J. H.; Reeves, A. A.

    1985-01-01

    Three 2 x 64 element charge injection device infrared detector arrays were tested at low and moderate background to evaluate their usefulness for space based astronomical observations. Testing was conducted both in the laboratory and in ground based telescope observations. The devices showed an average readout noise level below 200 equivalent electrons, a peak responsivity of 4 A/W, and a noise equivalent power of 3x10 sq root of W/Hz. Array well capacity was measured to be significantly smaller than predicted. The measured sensitivity, which compares well with that of nonintegrating discrete extrinsic silicon photoconductors, shows these arrays to be useful for certain astronomical observations. However, the measured readout efficiency and frequency response represent serious limitations in low background applications.

  19. Mid/far-infrared photo-detectors based on graphene asymmetric quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Salem, E.; Chaabani, R.; Jaziri, S.

    2016-09-01

    We conducted a theoretical study on the electronic properties of a single-layer graphene asymmetric quantum well. Quantification of energy levels is limited by electron-hole conversion at the barrier interfaces and free-electron continuum. Electron-hole conversion at the barrier interfaces can be controlled by introducing an asymmetry between barriers and taking into account the effect of the interactions of the graphene sheet with the substrate. The interaction with the substrate induces an effective mass to carriers, allowing observation of Fabry-Pérot resonances under normal incidence and extinction of Klein tunneling. The asymmetry, between barriers creates a transmission gap between confined states and free-electron continuum, allowing the large graphene asymmetric quantum well to be exploited as a photo-detector operating at mid- and far-infrared frequency regimes.

  20. How to align a new detector and micro shutter inside JWST's Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    te Plate, Maurice; Rumler, Peter; Jensen, Peter; Eder, Robert; Ehrenwinkler, Ralf; Merkle, Frank; Roedel, Andreas; Speckmaier, Max; Johnson, Thomas E.; Mott, Brent; Snodgrass, Stephen; Gunn, Chris; Ward, Justin

    2016-09-01

    JWST will be the biggest space telescope ever built and it will lead to astounding scientific breakthroughs. The mission will be launched in October 2018 from Kourou, French Guyana by an ESA provided Ariane 5 rocket. NIRSpec, one of the four instruments on board of the mission, recently underwent a major upgrade. New infrared detectors were installed and the Micro Shutter Assembly (MSA) was replaced as well. The rework was necessary because both systems were found to be degrading beyond a level that could be accepted. The installation and "in situ" alignment of these new systems required special techniques and alignment jigs that will be described in this paper. Some first results will be presented as well.

  1. Experimental study of high sensitivity infrared spectrometer with waveguide-based up-conversion detector(1).

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijun; Slattery, Oliver; Tang, Xiao

    2009-08-03

    We have developed an up-conversion spectrometer for signals at single photon levels near the infrared region based on a tunable up-conversion detector that uses a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide as the conversion medium. We also experimentally studied its characteristics including sensitivity, dark count rate, spectral scan speed, signal transfer function of the waveguide, and polarization sensitivity. The overall single photon detection efficiency of the up-conversion spectrometer is about 32%. With its ultra high sensitivity the spectrometer can measure spectra for signals at a level as low as -126 dBm. We have demonstrated the spectrometers high sensitivity by measuring the spectrum of a greatly attenuated multimode emission from a laser diode at the 1310 nm band.

  2. HgCdTe Avalanche Photodiode Detectors for Airborne and Spaceborne Lidar at Infrared Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.; Beck, Jeffrey D.; Mitra, Pradip; Reiff, Kirk; Yang, Guangning

    2017-01-01

    We report results from characterizing the HgCdTe avalanche photodiode (APD) sensorchip assemblies (SCA) developed for lidar at infrared wavelength using the high density vertically integrated photodiodes (HDVIP) technique. These devices demonstrated high quantum efficiency, typically greater than 90 between 0.8 micrometers and the cut-off wavelength, greater than 600 APD gain, near unity excess noise factor, 6-10 MHz electrical bandwidth and less than 0.5 fW/Hz(exp.1/2) noise equivalent power (NEP). The detectors provide linear analog output with a dynamic range of 2-3 orders of magnitude at a fixed APD gain without averaging, and over 5 orders of magnitude by adjusting the APD and preamplifier gain settings. They have been successfully used in airborne CO2 and CH4 integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar as a precursor for space lidar applications.

  3. CdS/PbSe heterojunction for high temperature mid-infrared photovoltaic detector applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Binbin E-mail: shi@ou.edu; Qiu, Jijun; Zhao, Lihua; Chang, Caleb; Shi, Zhisheng E-mail: shi@ou.edu

    2014-03-24

    n-CdS/p-PbSe heterojunction is investigated. A thin CdS film is deposited by chemical bath deposition on top of epitaxial PbSe film by molecular beam epitaxy on Silicon. Current-voltage measurements demonstrate very good junction characteristics with rectifying ratio of ∼178 and ideality factor of 1.79 at 300 K. Detectors made with such structure exhibit mid-infrared spectral photoresponse at room temperature. The peak responsivity R{sub λ} and specific detectivity D{sup *} are 0.055 A/W and 5.482 × 10{sup 8} cm·Hz{sup 1/2}/W at λ = 4.7 μm under zero-bias photovoltaic mode. Temperature-dependent photoresponse measurements show abnormal intensity variation below ∼200 K. Possible reasons for this phenomenon are also discussed.

  4. Extended short wavelength infrared HgCdTe detectors on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Hansel, D.; Mukhortova, A.; Chang, Y.; Kodama, R.; Zhao, J.; Velicu, S.; Aqariden, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report high-quality n-type extended short wavelength infrared (eSWIR) HgCdTe (cutoff wavelength 2.59 μm at 77 K) layers grown on three-inch diameter CdTe/Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). This material is used to fabricate test diodes and arrays with a planar device architecture using arsenic implantation to achieve p-type doping. We use different variations of a test structure with a guarded design to compensate for the lateral leakage current of traditional test diodes. These test diodes with guarded arrays characterize the electrical performance of the active 640 × 512 format, 15 μm pitch detector array.

  5. Detectors of Infrared Radiation Based on High T(c) Superconducting YBCO Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    d4 . mvuAT.OATS 3. AIPOST ’l ’ TE ’OEE FINAL REPORT 1 Dec 87-30 Apr 90 Detectors of Infrared Radiation Based on High T(c) Superconducting YBCO Films...YBa2CU3O7 film on LaAlO3 at 6.8 K biased with 20.6 mA. > .11 --- . I’ M e nsq FW m.. E\\pe of th .5.i.=nl 3(0wnN n UA*. ). l=btototpte vCV ra. dt mdm lenmo ,5,25 ind 9W nj/pu- 4=5mAT=8s’

  6. NGP: a new large format infrared detector for observation, hyperspectral and spectroscopic space missions in VISIR, SWIR and MWIR wavebands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delannoy, Anne; Fièque, Bruno; Chorier, Philippe; Riuné, Céline

    2015-10-01

    SOFRADIR is one of the leading companies involved in the development and manufacturing of infrared detectors for space applications. As a matter of fact, SOFRADIR is present in many space programs in visible and SWIR spectral ranges. Most of these programs concern hyperspectral imagery observation of the earth but also some scientific applications. For more than 10 years, the Saturn generation detector (VISIR or SWIR) of Sofradir was the basis of numerous space missions. In order to answer future mission needs which require larger detector for better spatial and spectral resolutions while complying with all specifications reflecting the state of requirements for space detectors, SOFRADIR has developed a new detector in a frame of an ESA R and T program, named Next Generation Panchromatic Detector (NGP). While designed for VISIR and SWIR spectral ranges, this detector is also studied to be extended in MWIR spectral range. In this paper, NGP detector will be described as well as its performances. Space applications using this detector will be presented also showing appropriateness of its use to answer space programs specifications, as for example those of Sentinel-5.

  7. Design of monocrystalline Si/SiGe multi-quantum well microbolometer detector for infrared imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafique, Atia; Durmaz, Emre C.; Cetindogan, Barbaros; Yazici, Melik; Kaynak, Mehmet; Kaynak, Canan B.; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the design, modelling and simulation results of silicon/silicon-germanium (Si/SiGe) multi-quantum well based bolometer detector for uncooled infrared imaging system. The microbolometer is designed to detect light in the long wave length infrared (LWIR) range from 8 to 14 μm with pixel size of 25 x 25 μm. The design optimization strategy leads to achieve the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) 4.5%/K with maximum germanium (Ge) concentration of 50%. The design of microbolometer entirely relies on standard CMOS and MEMS processes which makes it suitable candidate for commercial infrared imaging systems.

  8. Study of a Vuilleumier cycle cryogenic refrigerator for detector cooling on the limb scanning infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, S. C.

    1976-01-01

    A program to detect and monitor the presence of trace constituents in the earth's atmosphere by using the Limb Scanning Infrared Radiometer (LSIR) is reported. The LSIR, which makes radiometric measurements of the earth's limb radiance profile from a space platform, contains a detector assembly that must be cooled to a temperature of 65 + or - 2 K. The feasibility of cooling the NASA-type detector package with Vuilleumier (VM) cryogenic refrigerator was investigated to develop a preliminary conceptual design of a VM refrigerator that is compatible with a flight-type LSIR instrument. The scope of the LSIR program consists of analytical and design work to establish the size, weight, power consumption, interface requirements, and other important characteristics of a cryogenic cooler that would meet the requirements of the LSIR. The cryogenic cooling requirements under the conditions that NASA specified were defined. Following this, a parametric performance analysis was performed to define the interrelationships between refrigeration characteristics and mission requirements. This effort led to the selection of an optimum refrigerator design for the LSIR mission.

  9. Intersubband absorption in Si(1-x)Ge(x/Si superlattices for long wavelength infrared detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajakarunanayake, Yasantha; Mcgill, Tom C.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers calculated the absorption strengths for intersubband transitions in n-type Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si superlattices. These transitions can be used for the detection of long-wavelength infrared radiation. A significant advantage in Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si supperlattice detectors is the ability to detect normally incident light; in Ga(1-x)Al(x)As/GaAs superlattices, intersubband absorption is possible only if the incident light contains a polarization component in the growth direction of the superlattice. Researchers present detailed calculation of absorption coefficients, and peak absorption wavelengths for (100), (111) and (110) Si(1-x)Ge(x)/Si superlattices. Peak absorption strengths of about 2000 to 6000 cm(exp -1) were obtained for typical sheet doping concentrations (approx. equals 10(exp 12)cm(exp -2)). Absorption comparable to that in Ga(1-x)Al(x)As/GaAs superlattice detectors, compatibility with existing Si technology, and the ability to detect normally incident light make these devices promising for future applications.

  10. Cerebral near infrared spectroscopy: emitter-detector separation must be increased.

    PubMed

    Germon, T J; Evans, P D; Barnett, N J; Wall, P; Manara, A R; Nelson, R J

    1999-06-01

    We have compared the effect of increasing optode separation (range 0.7-5.5 cm) on the sensitivity of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to discrete reductions in scalp and cerebral oxygenation in 10 healthy men (mean age 32, range 26-39 yr) using multichannel NIRS. During cerebral oligaemia (a mean reduction in middle cerebral artery flow velocity of 47%) induced by a mean reduction in end-tidal PCO2 of 2.4 kPa, the decrease in oxyhaemoglobin detected by NIRS became significantly greater with increasing optode separation (P < 0.0001). In response to scalp hyperaemia induced by inflation and release of a pneumatic scalp tourniquet, increases in oxyhaemoglobin became significantly smaller with increasing optode separation (P < 0.0002). These results are consistent with theoretical models of the behaviour of NIR light in the adult head and support the concept of using multi-detector NIRS to separate intra- and extracranial NIR signal changes. However, the emitter-detector separation used by currently available cerebral oximeters is not large enough to provide optimal spatial resolution.

  11. SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission long-wavelength infrared detectors fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, True-Lon; Ksendzov, A.; Dejewski, Suzan M.; Jones, Eric W.; Fathauer, Robert W.; Krabach, Timothy N.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    A new SiGe/Si heterojunction internal photoemission (HIP) long-wavelength infrared (LWIR) detector has been fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The detection mechanism of the SiGe/Si HIP detector is infrared absorption in the degenerately doped p+-SiGe layer followed by internal photoemission of photoexcited holes over a heterojunction barrier. By adjusting the Ge concentration in the SiGe layer, and, consequently, the valence band offset between SiGe and Si, the cutoff wavelength of SiGe HIP detectors can be extended into the LWIR (8-17-micron) regime. Detectors were fabricated by growing p+-SiGe layers using MBE on patterned p-type Si substrates. The SiGe layers were boron-doped, with concentrations ranging from 10 to the 19th/cu cm to 4 x 10 to the 20th/cu cm. Infrared absorption of 5-25 percent in a 30-nm-thick p+-SiGe layer was measured in the 3-20-micron range using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Quantum efficiencies of 3-5 percent have been obtained from test devices in the 8-12-micron range.

  12. Detector-level spectral characterization of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite long-wave infrared bands M15 and M16.

    PubMed

    Padula, Francis; Cao, Changyong

    2015-06-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor data record (SDR) product achieved validated maturity status in March 2014 after roughly two years of on-orbit characterization (S-NPP spacecraft launched on 28 October 2011). During post-launch analysis the VIIRS Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Environmental Data Record (EDR) team observed an anomalous striping pattern in the daytime SST data. Daytime SST retrievals use the two VIIRS long-wave infrared bands: M15 (10.7 μm) and M16 (11.8 μm). To assess possible root causes due to detector-level spectral response function (SRF) effects, a study was conducted to compare the radiometric response of the detector-level and operational-band averaged SRFs of VIIRS bands M15 and M16. The study used simulated hyperspectral blackbody radiance data and clear-sky ocean hyperspectral radiances under different atmospheric conditions. It was concluded that the SST product is likely impacted by small differences in detector-level SRFs and that if users require optimal radiometric performance, detector-level processing is recommended for both SDR and EDR products. Future work should investigate potential SDR product improvements through detector-level processing in support of the generation of Suomi NPP VIIRS climate quality SDRs.

  13. Measurement of the excited-state position of bound-to-bound quantum-well infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Chee, Y. H.; Karunasiri, G.

    2001-08-15

    The energy of the first excited state of quantum-well infrared detectors plays an important role in determining performance. The uncertainties in material and growth parameters make it difficult to design quantum-well detectors with a precise control of the location of energy states. Such uncertainties will cause detectors to be either bound to continuum or bound to bound. In this article, we present a technique to locate the excited-state position in bound-to-bound quantum-well infrared detectors by measuring the bias dependence of the photoresponse. We have employed an InGaAs/AlGaAs quantum-well detector operating near 5 {mu}m for this study. The photocurrent was found to have a strong bias dependence indicating the infrared transition in the quantum well is bound to bound in nature. The bias dependence of the photoresponse was compared with theoretical estimates including the tunneling of photoexcited electrons through the barrier. The results showed a good agreement and this allowed us to determine the location of the excited state from the barrier edge. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  14. Proton radiation effect on performance of InAs/GaSb complementary barrier infrared detector

    SciTech Connect

    Soibel, Alexander; Rafol, Sir B.; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Nguyen, Jean; Hoglund, Linda; Fisher, Anita M.; Keo, Sam. A.; Ting, David Z.-Y.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2015-12-28

    In this work, we investigated the effect of proton irradiation on the performance of long wavelength infrared InAs/GaSb photodiodes (λ{sub c} = 10.2 μm), based on the complementary barrier infrared detector design. We found that irradiation with 68 MeV protons causes a significant increase of the dark current from j{sub d} = 5 × 10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2} to j{sub d} = 6 × 10{sup −3} A/cm{sup 2}, at V{sub b} = 0.1 V, T = 80 K and fluence 19.2 × 10{sup 11 }H{sup +}/cm{sup 2}. Analysis of the dark current as a function of temperature and bias showed that the dominant contributor to the dark current in these devices changes from diffusion current to tunneling current after proton irradiation. This change in the dark current mechanism can be attributed to the onset of surface leakage current, generated by trap-assisted tunneling processes in proton displacement damage areas located near the device sidewalls.

  15. Ruggedizing infrared integrated Dewar-detector assemblies for harsh environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veprik, Alexander; Ashush, Nataniel; Shlomovich, Baruch; Oppenhaim, Yaakov; Gridish, Yaakov; Kahanov, Ezra; Koifman, Alina; Tuito, Avi

    2014-06-01

    Cryogenically cooled infrared electro-optical payloads have to operate and survive frequent exposure to harsh vibrational and shock conditions typical of the modern battlefield. This necessitates the development of special approaches to ruggedizing their sensitive components. The ruggedization requirement holds true specifically for Integrated Dewar-Detector Assemblies (IDDA), where the infrared Focal Plane Array (FPA) is usually supported by a thin-walled cold finger enveloped by an evacuated tubular Dewar. Without sufficient ruggedization, harsh environmental vibration may give rise to structural resonance responses resulting in spoiled image quality and even mechanical fractures due to material fatigue. The authors present their approach for the ruggedization of the IDDA by attaching the FPA to a semi-rigid support extending from the dynamically damped Dewar envelope. A mathematical model relies on an experimentally evaluated set of frequency response functions for a reference system and a lumped model of a wideband dynamic absorber. By adding only 2% to the weight of the IDDA, the authors have managed to attenuate the relative deflection and absolute acceleration of the FPA by a factor of 3. The analytical predictions are in full agreement with experiment.

  16. A long-range, wide field-of-view infrared eyeblink detector.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Steven B; Detweiler, Krystal L; Holland, Kyle H; Hord, Michael A; Bracha, Vlastislav

    2006-04-15

    Classical conditioning of the eyeblink response in the rabbit is one of the most advanced models of learning and memory in the mammalian brain. Successful use of the eyeblink conditioning paradigm requires precise measurements of the eyeblink response. One common technique of eyelid movement detection utilizes measurements of infrared (IR) light reflected from the surface of the eye. The performance of current IR sensors, however, is limited by their sensitivity to ambient infrared noise, by their small field-of-view and by short working distances. To address these limitations, we developed an IR eyeblink detector consisting of a pulsing (62.5 kHz) IR light emitting diode (LED) paired with a silicon IR photodiode and circuit that synchronously demodulates the recorded signal and rejects background IR noise. The working distance of the sensor exceeds 20 mm, and the field-of-view is larger than the area of a rabbit's eye. Due to its superior characteristics, the new sensor is ideally suited for both standard eyeblink conditioning and for studies that utilize IR-containing visual stimuli and/or that are conducted in an environment contaminated with IR noise.

  17. Near-Infrared Image Reconstruction of Newborns' Brains: Robustness to Perturbations of the Source/Detector Location.

    PubMed

    Ahnen, L; Wolf, M; Hagmann, C; Sanchez, S

    2016-01-01

    The brain of preterm infants is the most vulnerable organ and can be severely injured by cerebral ischemia. We are working on a near-infrared imager to early detect cerebral ischemia. During imaging of the brain, movements of the newborn infants are inevitable and the near-infrared sensor has to be able to function on irregular geometries. Our aim is to determine the robustness of the near-infrared image reconstruction to small variations of the source and detector locations. In analytical and numerical simulations, the error estimations for a homogeneous medium agree well. The worst case estimates of errors in reduced scattering and absorption coefficient for distances of r=40 mm are acceptable for a single source-detector pair. The optical properties of an inhomogeneity representing an ischemia are reconstructed correctly within a homogeneous medium, if the error in placement is random.

  18. Description of transport mechanisms in a very long wave infrared quantum cascade detector under strong magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasnot, François-Régis; Maëro, Simon; Péré-Laperne, Nicolas; de Vaulchier, Louis-Anne; Guldner, Yves; Carosella, Francesca; Ferreira, Robson; Delga, Alexandre; Doyennette, Laetitia; Berger, Vincent; Trinité, Virginie; Carras, Mathieu

    2012-12-01

    Measurements of current have been performed on a very long wave infrared quantum cascade detector under strong magnetic field applied parallel to the growth axis, both under dark and light conditions. The analysis of dark current as a function of temperature highlights three regimes of transport involving the different energy levels of the structure. For photocurrent analysis, we developed a model based on a rate equation approach taking into account all the electronic levels of the structure. This model is in agreement with the oscillatory component of the experimental magnetophotocurrent. It allows to identify the key points controlling the electronic transport such as extraction from the upper level of the optically active quantum well, location of ionized impurities, and scattering mechanisms involved in the structure. This work is valuable for the future conception of high-performance quantum cascade detectors in infrared and far infrared range.

  19. Revolutionary visible and infrared sensor detectors for the most advanced astronomical AO systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feautrier, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Guieu, Sylvain; Downing, Mark; Jorden, Paul; Rothman, Johan; de Borniol, Eric D.; Balard, Philippe; Stadler, Eric; Guillaume, Christian; Boutolleau, David; Coussement, Jérome; Kolb, Johann; Hubin, Norbert; Derelle, Sophie; Robert, Clélia; Tanchon, Julien; Trollier, Thierry; Ravex, Alain; Zins, Gérard; Kern, Pierre; Moulin, Thibaut; Rochat, Sylvain; Delpoulbé, Alain; Lebouqun, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-07-01

    cooled device without liquid nitrogen in very demanding environmental conditions. A successful test of this device was performed on sky on the PIONIER 4 telescopes beam combiner on the VLTi at ESOParanal in June 2014. First Light Imaging, which will commercialize a camera system using also APD infrared arrays in its proprietary wavefront sensor camera platform. These programs are held with several partners, among them are the French astronomical laboratories (LAM, OHP, IPAG), the detector manufacturers (e2v technologies, Sofradir, CEA/LETI) and other partners (ESO, ONERA, IAC, GTC, First Light Imaging). Funding is: Opticon FP7 from European Commission, ESO, CNRS and Université de Provence, Sofradir, ONERA, CEA/LETI the French FUI (DGCIS), the FOCUS Labex and OSEO.

  20. Optical-absorption model for molecular-beam epitaxy HgCdTe and application to infrared detector photoresponse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moazzami, K.; Phillips, J.; Lee, D.; Edwall, D.; Carmody, M.; Piquette, E.; Zandian, M.; Arias, J.

    2004-06-01

    Accurate knowledge of the optical-absorption coefficient in HgCdTe is important for infrared (IR) detector design, production process (layer screening), and interpretation of detector performance. Measurements of the optical-absorption coefficient of HgCdTe layers with uniform composition are presented with the goal of developing a revised model in the interest of IR detector technology. Existing methods of determining HgCdTe alloy composition from IR transmission measurements are compared, where one self-consistent method is suggested and shown to agree with experimental detector data. An exponential Urbach and hyperbolic model are presented to represent band tail and above-bandgap absorption regions, respectively. Parameters associated with these models are extracted for Hg1-xCdxTe compositions of x=0.22-0.60 and temperatures of T=40-300 K using samples of varying thickness to obtain accurate data for varying spectral regions of the absorption coefficient. An initial analytical expression for the absorption coefficient is presented and compared to experimental detector-response data. Detector-response simulations indicate that accurate optical-absorption models are needed, where detector structures with thin layers and arbitrary composition profiles in current and future IR detectors will be the most demanding.

  1. Design, fabrication and testing of 17um pitch 640x480 uncooled infrared focal plane array detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lijun; Liu, Haitao; Chi, Jiguang; Qian, Liangshan; Pan, Feng; Liu, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    Uncooled infrared focal plane array (UIRFPA) detectors are widely used in industrial thermography cameras, night vision goggles, thermal weapon sights, as well as automotive night vision systems. To meet the market requirement for smaller pixel pitch and higher resolution, we have developed a 17um pitch 640x480 UIRFPA detector. The detector is based on amorphous silicon (a-Si) microbolometer technology, the readout integrated circuit (ROIC) is designed and manufactured with 0.35um standard CMOS technology on 8 inch wafer, the microbolometer is fabricated monolithically on the ROIC using an unique surface micromachining process developed inside the company, the fabricated detector is vacuum packaged with hermetic metal package and tested. In this paper we present the design, fabrication and testing of the 17um 640x480 detector. The design trade-off of the detector ROIC and pixel micro-bridge structure will be discussed, by comparison the calculation and simulation to the testing results. The novel surface micromachining process using silicon sacrificial layer will be presented, which is more compatible with the CMOS process than the traditional process with polyimide sacrificial layer, and resulted in good processing stability and high fabrication yield. The performance of the detector is tested, with temperature equivalent temperature difference (NETD) less than 60mK at F/1 aperture, operability better than 99.5%. The results demonstrate that the detector can meet the requirements of most thermography and night vision applications.

  2. Influence of infrared stimulation on spectroscopy characteristics of co-planar grid CdZnTe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Fjodorov, V.; Ivanov, V.; Loutchanski, A.

    2015-07-01

    It was previously found that illumination with monochromatic infrared (IR) light with wavelengths close to the absorption edge of the CdZnTe exert significant positive influence on the spectrometric characteristics of quasi-hemispherical CdZnTe detectors at room temperature. In this paper, preliminary results of IR stimulation on the spectrometric characteristics of coplanar-grid CdZnTe detectors as well as results of further studies of planar and quasi-hemispherical detectors are presented. Coplanar-grid detectors of 10 mm x 10 mm x 10 mm from Redlen Technologies and commercial available IR LEDs with different wavelengths of 800-1000 nm were used in the experiments. Influence of intensity and direction of IR illumination on the detector's characteristics was studied. Analysis of signals shapes from the preamplifiers outputs at registration of alpha particles showed that IR illumination leads to a change in the shapes of these signals. This may indicate changes in electric fields distributions. An improvement in energy resolution at gamma-energy of 662 keV was observed with quasi-hemispherical and co-planar detectors at the certain levels of IR illumination intensity. The most noticeable effect of IR stimulation was observed with quasi-hemispherical detectors. It is due with optimization of charge collection conditions in the quasi-hemispherical detectors under IT stimulation. (authors)

  3. Detectors

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore; Bounds, John Alan; Allander, Krag

    2002-01-01

    The apparatus and method provide techniques through which both alpha and beta emission determinations can be made simultaneously using a simple detector structure. The technique uses a beta detector covered in an electrically conducting material, the electrically conducting material discharging ions generated by alpha emissions, and as a consequence providing a measure of those alpha emissions. The technique also offers improved mountings for alpha detectors and other forms of detectors against vibration and the consequential effects vibration has on measurement accuracy.

  4. Evaluation of detectable angle of mid-infrared slot antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, R.; Horikawa, J.; Shimakage, H.; Kawakami, A.

    2017-07-01

    For evaluations of a mid-infrared (MIR) detectors with antenna, we constructed an angular dependence measurement system of the antenna properties. The fabricated MIR detector consisted of twin slot antennas and a bolometer. The area of the slot antennas was designed to be 2.6 × 0.2 μm2 as to resonate at 61 THz, and they were located parallel and separated 1.6 μm each other. The bolometer was fabricated using by a 7.0-nm thick NbN thin film, and located at the center of the twin antennas. We measured polarization angle dependence and directivity, and showed that the MIR antennas have polarization dependence and directivity like radiofrequency antennas.

  5. The effect of infrared laser on the activation energy of CR-39 polymeric detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffarini, G.; Dwaikat, Nidal; El-Hasan, Mousa; Sato, Fuminobu; Kato, Yushi; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-07-01

    The effect of infrared laser of wavelength (λ=1064 nm), pulse energy of 40 mJ/pulse at a repetition rate of 10 Hz, on the activation energy of CR-39 polymer, solid state nuclear track detector, has been investigated. Fifteen detectors were divided into three sets of equal numbers. The first set (un-exposed to laser beam), used as a reference set, was irradiated in close contact with an alpha source (241Am). The second set (post-exposed) was first exposed to alpha radiation in close contact to the same 241Am source and then treated in air with laser at energy intensity 8 J/cm2. For the third set (pre-exposed), the process was reversed (laser+alpha) under the same conditions. The activation energies of bulk etch (EB) for unexposed, post-exposed and pre-exposed are found to be equal to 0.98, 0.91, and 1.0 eV, respectively. The respective activation energies of track etch (ET) for unexposed, post-exposed and pre-exposed are found to be equal to 0.71, 0.75, and 0.97 eV. These results show that EB for post-exposed and pre-exposed samples remain, to within the experimental uncertainty, comparable to that of un-exposed sample which indicates that laser irradiation has a small effect on EB. Also, the results of ET for post-exposed and un-exposed samples are in close proximity with a slight increase for the former. The increase in ET of pre-exposed CR-39 polymer due to IR exposure is discussed on the basis of cross linking processes occurring during the exposure. This increase in ET leads to the hardening of the detector material of the pre-exposed sample. The hardening of the detector material is crucial in applications of CR-39 polymer such as in cosmic ray and cold fusion research.

  6. Design of non-dispersion Infrared detector's data processor on measurement of automobile emission CO and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guohua; Zhang, Yujun; Chen, Chen; Lu, Yibing; He, Chungui; Gao, Yanwei; You, Kun; He, Ying; Zhang, Kai; Liu, Wenqing

    2016-10-01

    For the technical requirements of automobile emission CO and CO2 detector's data processor, the scheme is based on the detection principle of NDIR method and the implementation of the data processor software as well as hardware is discussed. High-speed, high-precision DSP is selected as the core of the detector's data acquisition and processing, while four-channel thermoelectricity sensor TPS4339 as infrared detector, digital-analog data acquisition circuit of NDIR is designed and simulated. Then Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is adopted for signal processing. Automobile emission CO and CO2 concentration can be accurately obtained by appropriately adjusting sampling period and the light source modulation frequencies, the system SNR is improved and the detection limit is reduced. The experimental results show that the detector's data processor has 3% accuracy and stability which can meet the measurement and analysis of automobile emission CO and CO2 concentration.

  7. Multi-Band and Broad-Band Infrared Detectors Based on III-V Materials for Spectral Imaging Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandara, S. V.; Gunapala, S. D.; Liu, J. K.; Rafol, S. B.; Hill, C. J.; Ting, D. Z.; Mumolo, J. M.; Trinh, T. Q.

    2005-01-01

    Quantum well infrared photodetector technology has shown remarkable success by realizing large-format focal plane arrays in both broad-bands and in multi-bands. The spectral response of these detectors based on the III-V material system are tailorable within the mid and long wavelength IR bands (similar to 3-25 mu m) and possibly beyond. Multi-band and broad-band detector arrays have been developed by vertically integrating stacks of multi quantum wells tailored for response in different wavelengths bands. Each detector stack absorbs photons within the specified wavelength band while allowing the transmission other photons, thus efficiently permitting multiband detection. Flexibility in many design parameters of these detectors allows for tuning and tailoring the spectral shape according to application requirements, specifically for spectral imaging instruments.

  8. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    'Infrared' is a very wide field in physics and the natural sciences which has evolved enormously in recent decades. It all started in 1800 with Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel's discovery of infrared (IR) radiation within the spectrum of the Sun. Thereafter a few important milestones towards widespread use of IR were the quantitative description of the laws of blackbody radiation by Max Planck in 1900; the application of quantum mechanics to understand the rotational-vibrational spectra of molecules starting in the first half of the 20th century; and the revolution in source and detector technologies due to micro-technological breakthroughs towards the end of the 20th century. This has led to much high-quality and sophisticated equipment in terms of detectors, sources and instruments in the IR spectral range, with a multitude of different applications in science and technology. This special issue tries to focus on a few aspects of the astonishing variety of different disciplines, techniques and applications concerning the general topic of infrared radiation. Part of the content is based upon an interdisciplinary international conference on the topic held in 2012 in Bad Honnef, Germany. It is hoped that the information provided here may be useful for teaching the general topic of electromagnetic radiation in the IR spectral range in advanced university courses for postgraduate students. In the most general terms, the infrared spectral range is defined to extend from wavelengths of 780 nm (upper range of the VIS spectral range) up to wavelengths of 1 mm (lower end of the microwave range). Various definitions of near, middle and far infrared or thermal infrared, and lately terahertz frequencies, are used, which all fall in this range. These special definitions often depend on the scientific field of research. Unfortunately, many of these fields seem to have developed independently from neighbouring disciplines, although they deal with very similar topics in respect of the

  9. Development of automatic target recognition for infrared sensor-based close-range land mine detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Peter; Garcia, Sigberto A.; Cloud, Eugene L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Long, Daniel T.; Hackett, Jay K.

    1995-06-01

    Infrared imagery scenes change continuously with environmental conditions. Strategic targets embedded in them are often difficult to be identified with the naked eye. An IR sensor-based mine detector must include Automatic Target Recognition (ATR) to detect and extract land mines from IR scenes. In the course of the ATR development process, mine signature data were collected using a commercial 8-12 (mu) spectral range FLIR, model Inframetrics 445L, and a commercial 3-5 (mu) starting focal planar array FLIR, model Infracam. These sensors were customized to the required field-of-view for short range operation. These baseline data were then input into a specialized parallel processor on which the mine detection algorithm is developed and trained. The ATR is feature-based and consists of several subprocesses to progress from raw input IR imagery to a neural network classifier for final nomination of the targets. Initially, image enhancement is used to remove noise and sensor artifact. Three preprocessing techniques, namely model-based segmentation, multi-element prescreener, and geon detector are then applied to extract specific features of the targets and to reject all objects that do not resemble mines. Finally, to further reduce the false alarm rate, the extracted features are presented to the neural network classifier. Depending on the operational circumstances, one of three neural network techniques will be adopted; back propagation, supervised real-time learning, or unsupervised real-time learning. The Close Range IR Mine Detection System is an Army program currently being experimentally developed to be demonstrated in the Army's Advanced Technology Demonstration in FY95. The ATR resulting from this program will be integrated in the 21st Century Land Warrior program in which the mine avoidance capability is its primary interest.

  10. Liquid phase epitaxial growth and characterization of germanium far infrared blocked impurity band detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaru, Jordana

    2001-01-01

    Germanium Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors require a high purity blocking layer (< 1013 cm-3) approximately 1 mm thick grown on a heavily doped active layer (~ 1016cm-3) approximately 20 mm thick. Epilayers were grown using liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of germanium out of lead solution. The effects of the crystallographic orientation of the germanium substrate on LPE growth modes were explored. Growth was studied on substrates oriented by Laue x-ray diffraction between 0.02° and 10° from the {111} toward the {100}. Terrace growth was observed, with increasing terrace height for larger misorientation angles. It was found that the purity of the blocking layer was limited by the presence of phosphorus in the lead solvent. Unintentionally doped Ge layers contained ~1015 cm-3 phosphorus as determined by Hall effect measurements and Photothermal Ionization Spectroscopy (PTIS). Lead purification by vacuum distillation and dilution reduced the phosphorus concentration in the layers to ~ 1014 cm-3 but further reduction was not observed with successive distillation runs. The graphite distillation and growth components as an additional phosphorus source cannot be ruled out. Antimony (~1016 cm-3) was used as a dopant for the active BIB layer. A reduction in the donor binding energy due to impurity banding was observed by variable temperature Hall effect measurements. A BIB detector fabricated from an Sb-doped Ge layer grown on a pure substrate showed a low energy photoconductive onset (~6 meV). Spreading resistance measurements on doped layers revealed a nonuniform dopant distribution with Sb pile-up at the layer surface, which must be removed by chemomechanical polishing. Sb diffusion into the pure substrate was observed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) for epilayers grown at 650 C. The Sb concentration at the interface dropped by an order of magnitude

  11. InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice infrared detectors: Future prospect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, A.; Martyniuk, P.; Kopytko, M.

    2017-09-01

    Investigations of antimonide-based materials began at about the same time as HgCdTe ternary alloys—in the 1950s, and the apparent rapid success of their technology, especially low-dimensional solids, depends on the previous five decades of III-V materials and device research. However, the sophisticated physics associated with the antimonide-based bandgap engineering concept started at the beginning of 1990s gave a new impact and interest in development of infrared detector structures within academic and national laboratories. The development of InAs/GaSb type-II superlattices (T2SLs) results from two primary motivations: the perceived challenges of reproducibly fabricating high-operability HgCdTe focal plane arrays (FPAs) at reasonable cost and the theoretical predictions of lower Auger recombination for type T2SL detectors compared with HgCdTe. Second motivation—lower Auger recombination should be translated into a fundamental advantage for T2SL over HgCdTe in terms of lower dark current and/or higher operating temperature, provided other parameters such as Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) lifetime are equal. InAs/GaSb T2SL photodetectors offer similar performance to HgCdTe at an equivalent cut-off wavelength, but with a sizeable penalty in operating temperature, due to the inherent difference in SRH lifetimes. It is predicted that since the future infrared (IR) systems will be based on the room temperature operation of depletion-current limited arrays with pixel densities that are fully consistent with background- and diffraction-limited performance due to the system optics, the material system with long SRH lifetime will be required. Since T2SLs are very much resisted in attempts to improve its SRH lifetime, currently the only material that meets this requirement is HgCdTe. Due to less ionic chemical bonding, III-V semiconductors are more robust than their II-VI counterparts. As a result, III-V-based FPAs excel in operability, spatial uniformity, temporal stability

  12. Non-invasive characterization and quality assurance of silicon micro-strip detectors using pulsed infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, P.

    2016-01-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR is composed of 8 tracking stations consisting of roughly 1300 double sided silicon micro-strip detectors of 3 different dimensions. For the quality assurance of prototype micro-strip detectors a non-invasive detector charaterization is developed. The test system is using a pulsed infrared laser for charge injection and characterization, called Laser Test System (LTS). The system is aimed to develop a set of characterization procedures which are non-invasive (non-destructive) in nature and could be used for quality assurances of several silicon micro-strip detectors in an efficient, reliable and reproducible way. The procedures developed (as reported here) uses the LTS to scan sensors with a pulsed infra-red laser driven by step motor to determine the charge sharing in-between strips and to measure qualitative uniformity of the sensor response over the whole active area. The prototype detector modules which are tested with the LTS so far have 1024 strips with a pitch of 58 μm on each side. They are read-out using a self-triggering prototype read-out electronic ASIC called n-XYTER. The LTS is designed to measure sensor response in an automatized procedure at several thousand positions across the sensor with focused infra-red laser light (spot size ≈ 12 μm, wavelength = 1060 nm). The pulse with a duration of ≈ 10 ns and power ≈ 5 mW of the laser pulse is selected such, that the absorption of the laser light in the 300 μm thick silicon sensor produces ≈ 24000 electrons, which is similar to the charge created by minimum ionizing particles (MIP) in these sensors. The laser scans different prototype sensors and various non-invasive techniques to determine characteristics of the detector modules for the quality assurance is reported.

  13. Simulation and analysis of grating-integrated quantum dot infrared detectors for spectral response control and performance enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh Kim, Jun; Ku, Zahyun; Krishna, Sanjay; Kang, Sang-Woo; Jun Lee, Sang; Chul Jun, Young; Urbas, Augustine

    2014-04-01

    We propose and analyze a novel detector structure for pixel-level multispectral infrared imaging. More specifically, we investigate the device performance of a grating-integrated quantum dots-in-a-well photodetector under backside illumination. Our design uses 1-dimensional grating patterns fabricated directly on a semiconductor contact layer and, thus, adds a minimal amount of additional effort to conventional detector fabrication flows. We show that we can gain wide-range control of spectral response as well as large overall detection enhancement by adjusting grating parameters. For small grating periods, the spectral responsivity gradually changes with parameters. We explain this spectral tuning using the Fabry-Perot resonance and effective medium theory. For larger grating periods, the responsivity spectra get complicated due to increased diffraction into the active region, but we find that we can obtain large enhancement of the overall detector performance. In our design, the spectral tuning range can be larger than 1 μm, and, compared to the unpatterned detector, the detection enhancement can be greater than 92% and 148% for parallel and perpendicular polarizations. Our work can pave the way for practical, easy-to-fabricate detectors, which are highly useful for many infrared imaging applications.

  14. Simulation and analysis of grating-integrated quantum dot infrared detectors for spectral response control and performance enhancement

    SciTech Connect

    Oh Kim, Jun; Ku, Zahyun; Urbas, Augustine E-mail: Augustine.Urbas@wpafb.af.mil; Krishna, Sanjay; Kang, Sang-Woo; Jun Lee, Sang; Chul Jun, Young E-mail: Augustine.Urbas@wpafb.af.mil

    2014-04-28

    We propose and analyze a novel detector structure for pixel-level multispectral infrared imaging. More specifically, we investigate the device performance of a grating-integrated quantum dots-in-a-well photodetector under backside illumination. Our design uses 1-dimensional grating patterns fabricated directly on a semiconductor contact layer and, thus, adds a minimal amount of additional effort to conventional detector fabrication flows. We show that we can gain wide-range control of spectral response as well as large overall detection enhancement by adjusting grating parameters. For small grating periods, the spectral responsivity gradually changes with parameters. We explain this spectral tuning using the Fabry–Perot resonance and effective medium theory. For larger grating periods, the responsivity spectra get complicated due to increased diffraction into the active region, but we find that we can obtain large enhancement of the overall detector performance. In our design, the spectral tuning range can be larger than 1 μm, and, compared to the unpatterned detector, the detection enhancement can be greater than 92% and 148% for parallel and perpendicular polarizations. Our work can pave the way for practical, easy-to-fabricate detectors, which are highly useful for many infrared imaging applications.

  15. High in content InGaAs near-infrared detectors: growth, structural design and photovoltaic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiwei; Miao, Guoqing; Song, Hang; Li, Dabing; Jiang, Hong; Li, Zhiming; Chen, Yiren; Sun, Xiaojuan

    2017-04-01

    The design of novel structural material is an effective way to improve photodetection device performance. In this paper, the fabrication and performance of high In content InGaAs detectors were investigated. Using the two-step growth method, mismatch defect was effectively inhibited even with larger lattice mismatch at the interface. Meanwhile, the spectral response can cover the entire near-infrared region at room temperature. Through experiments and simulation, the optoelectronic properties of detector with different materials in the p-region are explored, elucidating the critical role of cap material in the transport properties of carriers. Compared to the typical InP cap detector, the InAsP cap detector shows better device performance. Also the dark current mechanism is analyzed on the basis of bias-temperature relation, and the result shows that the tunneling current plays a key role at high bias or low temperature. The introduction of a novel InGaAs detector provides a potential application to the development of near-infrared detection.

  16. Optimizing indium antimonide (InSb) detectors for low background operation. [infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Treffers, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    The various noise sources that affect InSb detectors (and similar voltaic devices) are discussed and calculated. Methods are given for measuring detector resistance, photon loading, detector and amplifier capacitance, amplifier frequency response, amplifier noise, and quantum efficiency. A photovoltaic InSb detector with increased sensitivity in the 1 to 5.6 mu region is dicussed.

  17. InAs/GaInSb superlattices as a promising material system for third generation infrared detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, Antoni

    2005-06-01

    Hitherto two families of multielement detectors have been used for infrared applications scanning systems (first generation) and staring systems (second generation). Third generation systems are being developed nowadays. In the common understanding third generation JR systems provide enhanced capabilities like larger number of pixels higher frame rates better thermal resolution as well as multicolour functionality and other on-chip functions. In the class of third generation infrared photon detectors two main competitors HgCdTe photodiodes and AlGaAs/GaAs quantum well infrared photoconductors (QWIPs) are considered. However in the long wavelength infrared (LWIR) region the HgCdTe material fail to give the requirements of large format two-dimensional (2D) arrays due to metallurgical problems of the epitaxial layers such as uniformity and number of defected elements. A superlattice based InAs/GaInSb system grown on GaSb substrate seems to be an attractive to HgCdTe with good spatial uniformity and an ability to span cutoff wavelength from 3 to 25 tm. The recently published results have indicated that high performance middle wavelength infrared (MWIR) InAs/GaInSb superlatice focal plane arrays can be fabricated. Based on these very promising results it is obvious now that the antimonide superlattice technology is competing with HgCdTe dual colour technology with the potential advantage of standard III-V technology to be more competitive in costs and as a consequence series production pricing.

  18. InGaAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattices for mid-wave infrared detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ariyawansa, Gamini Reyner, Charles J.; Steenbergen, Elizabeth H.; Duran, Joshua M.; Reding, Joshua D.; Scheihing, John E.; Bourassa, Henry R.; Liang, Baolai L.; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2016-01-11

    Investigation of growth and properties of InGaAs/InAsSb strained layer superlattices, identified as ternary strained layer superlattices (ternary SLSs), is reported. The material space for the antimony-based SLS detector development is expanded beyond InAs/InAsSb and InAs/(In)GaSb by incorporating Ga into InAs. It was found that this not only provides support for strain compensation but also enhances the infrared (IR) absorption properties. A unique InGaAs/InAsSb SLS exists when the conduction band of InGaAs aligns with that of InAsSb. The bandgap of this specific InGaAs/InAsSb SLS can then be tuned by adjusting the thickness of both constituents. Due to the enhanced electron-hole wavefunction overlap, a significant increase in the absorption coefficient was theoretically predicted for ternary SLS as compared to current state-of-the-art InAs/InAsSb SLS structures, and an approximately 30%–35% increase in the absorption coefficient was experimentally observed. All the samples examined in this work were designed to have the same bandgap of approximately 0.240 eV (5.6 μm) at 150 K.

  19. The lifetime prediction model of stirling cryocooler for infrared detector assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shao-hua; Liu, Xin-guang; Wu, Yi-nong

    2013-09-01

    With the rapid development of infrared focal plane array detector, stirling cyrocooler as a cold source has played an important role in space application. However, it is difficult to qualify its reliability and life expectancy before space application. Existing experiment and research data show that the most critical factor to restrict stirling cryocooler's service life is working gas contamination. Based on outgassing of stirling cryocooler internal material and its relationship with temperature, time and outgassing experimental data, the failure life model of contamination is proposed. By thousands of hours of accelerated life test, two types of prototype cryocooler have been verified for applicability of the proposed life model, and the working gas analysis of tested cryocoolers also proved the existence of contamination. Afterwards, through three group contaminations adding experiment of different level water vapor, the degradation characteristics of more than 1000 hour have proved complying with the life model above. Finally, the paper further verified the applicability of this model by the fitting of experimental data of long-term running in working condition. Consequently, the life model of stirling cryocooler caused contamination degradation is established, as well as an accelerated lifetime evaluation technique was proposed for stirling cryocooler.

  20. Simultaneous real-time visible and infrared video with single-pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edgar, Matthew. P.; Gibson, Graham M.; Bowman, Richard W.; Sun, Baoqing; Radwell, Neal; Mitchell, Kevin J.; Welsh, Stephen S.; Padgett, Miles J.

    2015-05-01

    Conventional cameras rely upon a pixelated sensor to provide spatial resolution. An alternative approach replaces the sensor with a pixelated transmission mask encoded with a series of binary patterns. Combining knowledge of the series of patterns and the associated filtered intensities, measured by single-pixel detectors, allows an image to be deduced through data inversion. In this work we extend the concept of a ‘single-pixel camera’ to provide continuous real-time video at 10 Hz , simultaneously in the visible and short-wave infrared, using an efficient computer algorithm. We demonstrate our camera for imaging through smoke, through a tinted screen, whilst performing compressive sampling and recovering high-resolution detail by arbitrarily controlling the pixel-binning of the masks. We anticipate real-time single-pixel video cameras to have considerable importance where pixelated sensors are limited, allowing for low-cost, non-visible imaging systems in applications such as night-vision, gas sensing and medical diagnostics.