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Sample records for nbn nanowire single

  1. High efficiency and rapid response superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector based on asymmetric split ring metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guanhai; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Wang, Shao-Wei Lu, Wei

    2014-06-09

    With asymmetric split ring metamaterial periodically placed on top of the niobium nitride (NbN) nanowire meander, we theoretically propose a kind of metal-insulator-metallic metamaterial nanocavity to enhance absorbing efficiency and shorten response time of the superconducting NbN nanowire single photon detector (SNSPD) operating at wavelength of 1550 nm. Up to 99.6% of the energy is absorbed and 96.5% dissipated in the nanowire. Meanwhile, taking advantage of this high efficiency absorbing cavity, we implement a more sparse arrangement of the NbN nanowire of the filling factor 0.2, which significantly lessens the nanowire and crucially boosts the response time to be only 40% of reset time in previous evenly spaced meander design. Together with trapped mode resonance, a standing wave oscillation mechanism is presented to explain the high efficiency and broad bandwidth properties. To further demonstrate the advantages of the nanocavity, a four-pixel SNSPD on 10 μm × 10 μm area is designed to further reduce 75% reset time while maintaining 70% absorbing efficiency. Utilizing the asymmetric split ring metamaterial, we show a higher efficiency and more rapid response SNSPD configuration to contribute to the development of single photon detectors.

  2. Multi-channeled NbN superconducting single photon detectors (SSPDs) system with NbN meander nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Miki, Shigehito; Wang Zhen

    2009-04-13

    A superconducting single photon detector (SSPD) is promising candidate of the detector in a quantum key distribution (QKD) system, because of its low dark count and high speed repetition rate. We have developed the SSPD system cooled by a GM cryocooler. In this system, and the work surface can be cooled 2.95 K and up to 6 SSPDs can be installed. The active areas of SSPDs are 10x10 {mu}m{sup 2} or 20x20 {mu}m{sup 2}, and the system detection efficiency at dark count rate of 100 Hz reached 2.6% at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  3. Large sensitive-area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors fabricated on single-crystal MgO substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Miki, Shigehito; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide; Wang Zhen; Baek, Burm; Nam, Sae Woo; Miller, Aaron J.; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2008-02-11

    We report on the performance of large area NbN nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). 20x20 {mu}m{sup 2} area SSPDs with 80 and 100 nm linewidths and 50% fill factor were fabricated in 4-nm-thick NbN films grown on single-crystal MgO substrates. The high quality of the devices was verified by electrical and optical testing and compares favorably to measurements of 10x10 {mu}m{sup 2} area SSPDs. Measurements of kinetic inductance versus bias current indicate that the constriction density is low. The fiber-coupled detection efficiency of the devices was 0.4%-3.5% at 100 Hz dark count rate.

  4. Quantum and thermal phase slips in superconducting niobium nitride (NbN) ultrathin crystalline nanowire: application to single photon detection.

    PubMed

    Delacour, Cécile; Pannetier, Bernard; Villegier, Jean-Claude; Bouchiat, Vincent

    2012-07-11

    We present low-temperature electronic transport properties of superconducting nanowires obtained by nanolithography of 4-nm-thick niobium nitride (NbN) films epitaxially grown on sapphire substrate. Below 6 K, clear evidence of phase slippages is observed in the transport measurements. Upon lowering the temperature, we observe the signatures of a crossover between a thermal and a quantum behavior in the phase slip regimes. We find that phase slips are stable even at the lowest temperatures and that no hotspot is formed. The photoresponse of these nanowires is measured as a function of the light irradiation wavelength and temperature and exhibits a behavior comparable with previous results obtained on thicker films.

  5. Broadening of hot-spot response spectrum of superconducting NbN nanowire single-photon detector with reduced nitrogen content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrich, D.; Dörner, S.; Hofherr, M.; Il'in, K.; Semenov, A.; Heintze, E.; Scheffler, M.; Dressel, M.; Siegel, M.

    2012-10-01

    The spectral detection efficiency and the dark count rate of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPD) have been studied systematically on detectors made from thin NbN films with different chemical compositions. Reduction of the nitrogen content in the 4 nm thick NbN films results in a decrease of the dark count rates more than two orders of magnitude and in a red shift of the cut-off wavelength of the hot-spot SNSPD response. The observed phenomena are explained by an improvement of uniformity of NbN films that has been confirmed by a decrease of resistivity and an increase of the ratio of the measured critical current to the depairing current. The latter factor is considered as the most crucial for both the cut-off wavelength and the dark count rates of SNSPD. Based on our results we propose a set of criteria for material properties to optimize SNSPD in the infrared spectral region.

  6. Superconductivity in highly disordered NbN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu; Ramos-Álvarez, A.; Semenov, A. V.; Korneeva, Yu P.; An, P. P.; Korneev, A. A.; Murphy, A.; Bezryadin, A.; Gol'tsman, G. N.

    2016-11-01

    The topic of superconductivity in strongly disordered materials has attracted significant attention. These materials appear to be rather promising for fabrication of various nanoscale devices such as bolometers and transition edge sensors of electromagnetic radiation. The vividly debated subject of intrinsic spatial inhomogeneity responsible for the non-Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer relation between the superconducting gap and the pairing potential is crucial both for understanding the fundamental issues of superconductivity in highly disordered superconductors, and for the operation of corresponding nanoelectronic devices. Here we report an experimental study of the electron transport properties of narrow NbN nanowires with effective cross sections of the order of the debated inhomogeneity scales. The temperature dependence of the critical current follows the textbook Ginzburg-Landau prediction for the quasi-one-dimensional superconducting channel I c ˜ (1-T/T c)3/2. We find that conventional models based on the the phase slip mechanism provide reasonable fits for the shape of R(T) transitions. Better agreement with R(T) data can be achieved assuming the existence of short ‘weak links’ with slightly reduced local critical temperature T c. Hence, one may conclude that an ‘exotic’ intrinsic electronic inhomogeneity either does not exist in our structures, or, if it does exist, it does not affect their resistive state properties, or does not provide any specific impact distinguishable from conventional weak links.

  7. Single nanowire extinction spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Jay; Vietmeyer, Felix; McDonald, Matthew P; Kuno, Masaru

    2011-08-10

    Here we show the first direct extinction spectra of single one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanostructures obtained at room temperature utilizing a spatial modulation approach. (1) For these materials, ensemble averaging in conventional extinction spectroscopy has limited our understanding of the interplay between carrier confinement and their electrostatic interactions. (2-4) By probing individual CdSe nanowires (NWs), we have identified and assigned size-dependent exciton transitions occurring across the visible. In turn, we have revealed the existence of room temperature 1D excitons in the narrowest NWs.

  8. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hochbaum, Allon I; Gargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-10-01

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  9. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, A.I.; Gargas, Daniel; Jeong Hwang, Yun; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-04

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. These porous nanowires also retain the crystallographic orientation of the wafer from which they are etched. Electron microscopy and diffraction confirm their single-crystallinity and reveal the silicon surrounding the pores is as thin as several nanometers. Confocal fluorescence microscopy showed that the photoluminescence (PL) of these arrays emanate from the nanowires themselves, and their PL spectrum suggests that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  10. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N Superconducting-Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.; Leduc, Henry G.; Bumble, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in which Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N (where x<1) films serve as the superconducting materials have shown promise as superior alternatives to previously developed SNSPDs in which NbN films serve as the superconducting materials. SNSPDs have potential utility in optical communications and quantum cryptography. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N is a solid solution of NbN and TiN, and has many properties similar to those of NbN. It has been found to be generally easier to stabilize Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N in the high-superconducting-transition temperature phase than it is to so stabilize NbN. In addition, the resistivity and penetration depth of polycrystalline films of Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N have been found to be much smaller than those of films of NbN. These differences have been hypothesized to be attributable to better coupling at grain boundaries within Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N films.

  11. Single crystalline mesoporous silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Hochbaum, Allon; Dargas, Daniel; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Yang, Peidong

    2009-08-18

    Herein we demonstrate a novel electroless etching synthesis of monolithic, single-crystalline, mesoporous silicon nanowire arrays with a high surface area and luminescent properties consistent with conventional porous silicon materials. The photoluminescence of these nanowires suggest they are composed of crystalline silicon with small enough dimensions such that these arrays may be useful as photocatalytic substrates or active components of nanoscale optoelectronic devices. A better understanding of this electroless route to mesoporous silicon could lead to facile and general syntheses of different narrow bandgap semiconductor nanostructures for various applications.

  12. Single gallium nitride nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Justin C; Choi, Heon-Jin; Knutsen, Kelly P; Schaller, Richard D; Yang, Peidong; Saykally, Richard J

    2002-10-01

    There is much current interest in the optical properties of semiconductor nanowires, because the cylindrical geometry and strong two-dimensional confinement of electrons, holes and photons make them particularly attractive as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices, including lasersand nonlinear optical frequency converters. Gallium nitride (GaN) is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of much practical interest, because it is widely used in electrically pumped ultraviolet-blue light-emitting diodes, lasers and photodetectors. Recent progress in microfabrication techniques has allowed stimulated emission to be observed from a variety of GaN microstructures and films. Here we report the observation of ultraviolet-blue laser action in single monocrystalline GaN nanowires, using both near-field and far-field optical microscopy to characterize the waveguide mode structure and spectral properties of the radiation at room temperature. The optical microscope images reveal radiation patterns that correlate with axial Fabry-Perot modes (Q approximately 10(3)) observed in the laser spectrum, which result from the cylindrical cavity geometry of the monocrystalline nanowires. A redshift that is strongly dependent on pump power (45 meV microJ x cm(-2)) supports the idea that the electron-hole plasma mechanism is primarily responsible for the gain at room temperature. This study is a considerable advance towards the realization of electron-injected, nanowire-based ultraviolet-blue coherent light sources.

  13. Fiber-coupled quantum-communications receiver based on two NbN superconducting single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slysz, W.; Wegrzecki, M.; Bar, J.; Grabiec, P.; Górska, M.; Latta, C.; Zwiller, V.; Pearlman, A.; Cross, A.; Korneev, A.; Kouminov, P.; Smirnov, K.; Voronov, B.; Gol'tsman, G.; Verevkin, A.; Currie, M.; Sobolewski, R.

    2005-09-01

    We present the design and performance of a novel, two-channel single-photon receiver, based on two fiber-coupled NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). The SSPDs are nanostructured superconducting meanders covering an area of 100 μm2 and are known for ultrafast and efficient counting of single, visible-to-infrared photons. Their operation has been explained within a phenomenological hot-electron photoresponse model. Our receiver is intended for fiber-based quantum cryptography and communication systems, operational at near-infrared (NIR) telecommunication wavelengths, λ = 1.3 μm and λ = 1.55 μm. Coupling between the NbN detector and a single-mode optical fiber was achieved using a specially designed, micromechanical photoresist ring, positioned directly over the SSPD active area. The positioning accuracy of the ring was below 1 μm. The receiver with SSPDs was placed (immersed) in a standard liquid-helium transport Dewar and kept without interruption for over two months at 4.2 K. At the same time, the optical fiber inputs and electrical outputs were kept at room temperature. Our best system reached a system quantum efficiency of up to 0.3 % in the NIR radiation range, with the detector coupling efficiency of about 30 %. The response time was measured to be about 250 ps and was limited by our read-out electronics. The measured jitter was close to 35 ps. The presented performance parameters show that our NIR single photon detectors are suitable for practical quantum cryptography and for applications in quantum-correlation experiments.

  14. Single gold nanowire electrodes and single Pt@Au nanowire electrodes: electrochemistry and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaoyao; Xu, Shen; Xiao, Xiaoqing; Liu, Yong; Qian, Yuanyuan; Li, Yongxin

    2017-03-02

    Single Au nanowire electrodes and single Pt@Au nanowire electrodes showed steady-state voltammetric responses and a fast electron-transfer rate, which have been used to fabricate an E-DNA sensor and investigate the oxygen reduction reaction at the single nanowire level.

  15. FOURTH SEMINAR TO THE MEMORY OF D.N. KLYSHKO: Superconducting single-photon ultrathin NbN film detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, A. A.; Minaeva, O. V.; Rubtsova, Inna A.; Milostnaya, I. I.; Chulkova, G. M.; Voronov, B. M.; Smirnov, K. V.; Seleznev, V. A.; Gol'tsman, G. N.; Pearlman, A.; Slysz, W.; Cross, A.; Alvarez, P.; Verevkin, A.; Sobolewski, R.

    2005-08-01

    Superconducting single-photon ultrathin NbN film detectors are studied. The development of manufacturing technology of detectors and the reduction of their operating temperature down to 2 K resulted in a considerable increase in their quantum efficiency, which reached in the visible region (at 0.56 μm) 30%—40%, i.e., achieved the limit determined by the absorption coefficient of the film. The quantum efficiency exponentially decreases with increasing wavelength, being equal to ~20% at 1.55 μm and ~0.02% at 5 μm. For the dark count rate of ~10-4s-1, the experimental equivalent noise power was 1.5×10-20 W Hz-1/2; it can be decreased in the future down to the record low value of 5×10-21 W Hz-1/2. The time resolution of the detector is 30 ps.

  16. Single mode lasing in coupled nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yao; Meng, Chao; Wu, Xiaoqin; Tong, Limin

    2011-07-01

    We demonstrate single mode lasing in coupled CdSe nanowires. By coupling two 420 nm diameter CdSe nanowires to form an X-structure cavity, single-mode lasing emission around 734.3 nm is obtained with line width of 0.11 nm and lasing threshold of about 120 μJ/cm2. Mode selection in the lasing nanowire is realized via Vernier effect in the coupled cavities. Our results suggest a simple approach to single-mode nanowire lasers.

  17. Large-sensitive-area superconducting nanowire single-photon detector at 850 nm with high detection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Zhang, Lu; You, Lixing; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Weijun; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Sijing; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2015-06-29

    Satellite-ground quantum communication requires single-photon detectors of 850-nm wavelength with both high detection efficiency and large sensitive area. We developed superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one-dimensional photonic crystals, which acted as optical cavities to enhance the optical absorption, with a sensitive-area diameter of 50 μm. The fabricated multimode fiber coupled NbN SNSPDs exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency (DE) of up to 82% and a DE of 78% at a dark count rate of 100 Hz at 850-nm wavelength as well as a system jitter of 105 ps.

  18. Effect of the wire width on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lusche, R. Semenov, A.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.; Korneeva, Y.; Trifonov, A.; Korneev, A.; Goltsman, G.; Vodolazov, D.; Hübers, H.-W.

    2014-07-28

    A thorough spectral study of the intrinsic single-photon detection efficiency in superconducting TaN and NbN nanowires with different widths has been performed. The experiment shows that the cut-off of the intrinsic detection efficiency at near-infrared wavelengths is most likely controlled by the local suppression of the barrier for vortex nucleation around the absorption site. Beyond the cut-off quasi-particle diffusion in combination with spontaneous, thermally activated vortex crossing explains the detection process. For both materials, the reciprocal cut-off wavelength scales linearly with the wire width where the scaling factor agrees with the hot-spot detection model.

  19. Single-photon detection using magnesium diboride superconducting nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, H.; Takesue, H.; Honjo, T.; Akazaki, T.; Tokura, Y.

    2010-11-01

    We fabricated 10 nm thick MgB2 nanowires with a width down to 100 nm using the liftoff process. The I-V characteristics of the nanowire show hysteresis and a sharp voltage jump at Ic. Though a 150 nm wide nanowire exhibits the capacity for detecting a single photon at 405 nm wavelength, the nanowire is too wide to detect a single photon at 1560 nm. A 100 nm wide nanowire exhibits the capacity for detecting single photons in the 405-1560 nm wavelength range. This indicates a possible application of MgB2 as a high-performance superconducting nanowire single-photon detector.

  20. Electro-thermal simulation of superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Marsili, F.; Najafi, F.; Herder, C.; Berggren, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    We developed an electrothermal model of NbN superconducting nanowire avalanche photodetectors (SNAPs) on sapphire substrates. SNAPs are single-photon detectors consisting of the parallel connection of N superconducting nanowires. We extrapolated the physical constants of the model from experimental data and we simulated the time evolution of the device resistance, temperature and current by solving two coupled electrical and thermal differential equations describing the nanowires. The predictions of the model were in good quantitative agreement with the experimental results.

  1. Superconducting nanowire single photon detector at 532 nm and demonstration in satellite laser ranging.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Chen, Sijing; You, Lixing; Meng, Wengdong; Wu, Zhibo; Zhang, Zhongping; Tang, Kai; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Weijun; Yang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2016-02-22

    Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) at a wavelength of 532 nm were designed and fabricated aiming to satellite laser ranging (SLR) applications. The NbN SNSPDs were fabricated on one-dimensional photonic crystals with a sensitive-area diameter of 42 μm. The devices were coupled with multimode fiber (ϕ = 50 μm) and exhibited a maximum system detection efficiency of 75% at an extremely low dark count rate of <0.1 Hz. An SLR experiment using an SNSPD at a wavelength of 532 nm was successfully demonstrated. The results showed a depth ranging with a precision of ~8.0 mm for the target satellite LARES, which is ~3,000 km away from the ground ranging station at the Sheshan Observatory.

  2. Vibrating property of single Ge based heterostructure nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yao; Wang, Chunrui; Xu, Jing

    2013-12-01

    Raman spectrum of single heterostructure nanowire can reflect its unusual lattice vibrations as well as the junction features. In this paper, we report Raman spectra of two morphologies of single Ge based heterostructure nanowire, that is, one is CdSe/Ge biaxial heterostructure nanowires(sample I), another is Ge nanowires is surrounded by CdSe nanoparticles (sample II), which is fabricated by one step thermal evaporation of CdSe and Ge powder. A new mode was observed in Raman spectrum of Ge nanowires surrounded by CdSe nanoparticles, which caused by the interaction of LO mode of CdSe and LO (TO) mode of Ge. The LO (TO) mode of Ge nanowire in CdSe/Ge biaxial heterostructure nanowires and Ge nanowires surrounded by CdSe nanoparticles all has a red-shift in comparison with that of Ge nanowires. The vibrational mode of CdSe in CdSe/Ge biaxial heterostructure nanowires has a red-shift. The vibrational mode of CdSe in Ge nanowires surrounded by CdSe nanoparticles has a blue-shift. The red-shift mode may be caused by quantum confinement effect. The blue-shift mode may be originated from tensile stress or high density of stacking defects. The vibrating mode of the heterostructure nanowires was much sensitive to stacking fault than to quantum confinement effect when the diameter of nanowire is larger than 300nm.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of single crystalline selenium nanowire arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.Y. . E-mail: apzhxy@polyu.edu.hk; Xu, L.H.; Dai, J.Y.; Cai, Y.; Wang, N.

    2006-09-14

    Ordered selenium nanowire arrays with diameters about 40 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition using anodic porous alumina templates. As determined by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, electron diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selenium nanowires have uniform diameters, which are fully controllable. Single crystalline trigonal selenium nanowires have been obtained after postannealing at 180 deg. C. These nanowires are perfect with a c-axis growth orientation. The optical absorption spectra reveal two types of electron transition activity.

  4. Thermal and Thermoelectric Transport in Highly Resistive Single Sb2Se3 Nanowires and Nanowire Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Ting-Yu; Shellaiah, Muthaiah; Sun, Kien Wen

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we measured the thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of single Sb2Se3 nanowires and nanowire bundles with a high resistivity (σ ~ 4.37 × 10‑4 S/m). Microdevices consisting of two adjacent suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated to measure the thermal transport properties of the nanowires in vacuum. Single Sb2Se3 nanowires with different diameters and nanowire bundles were carefully placed on the device to bridge the two membranes. The relationship of temperature difference on each heating/sensing suspension membranes with joule heating was accurately determined. A single Sb2Se3 nanowire with a diameter of ~ 680 nm was found to have a thermal conductivity (kNW) of 0.037 ± 0.002 W/m·K. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires is more than an order of magnitude lower than that of bulk materials (k ~ 0.36–1.9 W/m·K) and highly conductive (σ ~ 3 × 104 S/m) Sb2Se3 single nanowires (k ~ 1 W/m·K). The measured Seebeck coefficient with a positive value of ~ 661 μV/K is comparable to that of highly conductive Sb2Se3 single nanowires (~ 750 μV/K). The thermal transport between wires with different diameters and nanowire bundles was compared and discussed.

  5. Thermal and Thermoelectric Transport in Highly Resistive Single Sb2Se3 Nanowires and Nanowire Bundles.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ting-Yu; Shellaiah, Muthaiah; Sun, Kien Wen

    2016-10-07

    In this study, we measured the thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of single Sb2Se3 nanowires and nanowire bundles with a high resistivity (σ ~ 4.37 × 10(-4) S/m). Microdevices consisting of two adjacent suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated to measure the thermal transport properties of the nanowires in vacuum. Single Sb2Se3 nanowires with different diameters and nanowire bundles were carefully placed on the device to bridge the two membranes. The relationship of temperature difference on each heating/sensing suspension membranes with joule heating was accurately determined. A single Sb2Se3 nanowire with a diameter of ~ 680 nm was found to have a thermal conductivity (kNW) of 0.037 ± 0.002 W/m·K. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires is more than an order of magnitude lower than that of bulk materials (k ~ 0.36-1.9 W/m·K) and highly conductive (σ ~ 3 × 10(4) S/m) Sb2Se3 single nanowires (k ~ 1 W/m·K). The measured Seebeck coefficient with a positive value of ~ 661 μV/K is comparable to that of highly conductive Sb2Se3 single nanowires (~ 750 μV/K). The thermal transport between wires with different diameters and nanowire bundles was compared and discussed.

  6. Thermal and Thermoelectric Transport in Highly Resistive Single Sb2Se3 Nanowires and Nanowire Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Ting-Yu; Shellaiah, Muthaiah; Sun, Kien Wen

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we measured the thermal conductivity and Seebeck coefficient of single Sb2Se3 nanowires and nanowire bundles with a high resistivity (σ ~ 4.37 × 10−4 S/m). Microdevices consisting of two adjacent suspended silicon nitride membranes were fabricated to measure the thermal transport properties of the nanowires in vacuum. Single Sb2Se3 nanowires with different diameters and nanowire bundles were carefully placed on the device to bridge the two membranes. The relationship of temperature difference on each heating/sensing suspension membranes with joule heating was accurately determined. A single Sb2Se3 nanowire with a diameter of ~ 680 nm was found to have a thermal conductivity (kNW) of 0.037 ± 0.002 W/m·K. The thermal conductivity of the nanowires is more than an order of magnitude lower than that of bulk materials (k ~ 0.36–1.9 W/m·K) and highly conductive (σ ~ 3 × 104 S/m) Sb2Se3 single nanowires (k ~ 1 W/m·K). The measured Seebeck coefficient with a positive value of ~ 661 μV/K is comparable to that of highly conductive Sb2Se3 single nanowires (~ 750 μV/K). The thermal transport between wires with different diameters and nanowire bundles was compared and discussed. PMID:27713527

  7. Determining Electrochemical Surface Stress of Single Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Shan, Xiaonan; Yu, Hui; Wang, Yan; Schmickler, Wolfgang; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Tao, Nongjian

    2017-02-13

    Electrochemical surface stress is important in nanomaterials because of their large surface-to-volume ratios, which lead to unique mechanical and electrocatalytic properties, but directly measuring this quantity has been challenging. Here we report on experimental determination of the surface stress, and associated electrochemical processes of a single gold nanowire with an optical imaging technique. We show that surface stress changes linearly and reversibly with the potential between 0 and 0.8 V versus Ag/AgCl, but abruptly with large hysteresis, associated with the oxidation and reduction of the nanowire, between 0.8 and 1.5 V. The potential derivative of the surface stress closely resembles the cyclic voltammograms. We described the observations in terms of anion adsorption and surface oxidation/reduction. This work demonstrates a new approach to study electrochemical processes and the associated surface stress changes of nanomaterials.

  8. Nanowire-based single-cell endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ruoxue; Park, Ji-Ho; Choi, Yeonho; Heo, Chul-Joon; Yang, Seung-Man; Lee, Luke P.; Yang, Peidong

    2012-03-01

    One-dimensional smart probes based on nanowires and nanotubes that can safely penetrate the plasma membrane and enter biological cells are potentially useful in high-resolution and high-throughput gene and drug delivery, biosensing and single-cell electrophysiology. However, using such probes for optical communication across the cellular membrane at the subwavelength level remains limited. Here, we show that a nanowire waveguide attached to the tapered tip of an optical fibre can guide visible light into intracellular compartments of a living mammalian cell, and can also detect optical signals from subcellular regions with high spatial resolution. Furthermore, we show that through light-activated mechanisms the endoscope can deliver payloads into cells with spatial and temporal specificity. Moreover, insertion of the endoscope into cells and illumination of the guided laser did not induce any significant toxicity in the cells.

  9. Amplitude distributions of dark counts and photon counts in NbN superconducting single-photon detectors integrated with the HEMT readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitaygorsky, J.; Słysz, W.; Shouten, R.; Dorenbos, S.; Reiger, E.; Zwiller, V.; Sobolewski, Roman

    2017-01-01

    We present a new operation regime of NbN superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) by integrating them with a low-noise cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor and a high-load resistor. The integrated sensors are designed to get a better understanding of the origin of dark counts triggered by the detector, as our scheme allows us to distinguish the origin of dark pulses from the actual photon pulses in SSPDs. The presented approach is based on a statistical analysis of amplitude distributions of recorded trains of the SSPD photoresponse transients. It also enables to obtain information on energy of the incident photons, as well as demonstrates some photon-number-resolving capability of meander-type SSPDs.

  10. Single Nanowire Probe for Single Cell Endoscopy and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Ruoxue

    The ability to manipulate light in subwavelength photonic and plasmonic structures has shown great potentials in revolutionizing how information is generated, transformed and processed. Chemically synthesized nanowires, in particular, offers a unique toolbox not only for highly compact and integrated photonic modules and devices, including coherent and incoherent light sources, waveguides, photodetectors and photovoltaics, but also for new types of nanoscopic bio-probes for spot cargo delivery and in-situ single cell endoscopy and sensing. Such nanowire probes would enable us to carry out intracellular imaging and probing with high spatial resolution, monitor in-vivo biological processes within single living cells and greatly improve our fundamental understanding of cell functions, intracellular physiological processes, and cellular signal pathways. My work is aimed at developing a material and instrumental platform for such single nanowire probe. Successful optical integration of Ag nanowire plasmonic waveguides, which offers deep subwavelength mode confinement, and conventional photonic waveguides was demonstrated on a single nanowire level. The highest plasmonic-photonic coupling efficiency coupling was found at small coupling angles and low input frequencies. The frequency dependent propagation loss was observed in Ag nanowire and was confirmed by quantitative measurement and in agreement with theoretical expectations. Rational integration of dielectric and Ag nanowire waveguide components into hybrid optical-plasmonic routing devices has been demonstrated. This capability is essential for incorporating sub-100nm Ag nanowire waveguides into optical fiber based nanoprobes for single cell endoscopy. The nanoprobe system based on single nanowire waveguides was demonstrated by optically coupling semiconductor or metal nanowire with an optical fiber with tapered tip. This nanoprobe design requires minimal instrumentation which makes it cost efficient and readily

  11. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N Superconducting-Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stem, Jeffrey A.; Farr, William H.; Leduc, Henry G.; Bumble, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Superconducting-nanowire singlephoton detectors (SNSPDs) in which Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N (where x<1) films serve as the superconducting materials have shown promise as superior alternatives to previously developed SNSPDs in which NbN films serve as the superconducting materials. SNSPDs have potential utility in optical communications and quantum cryptography. Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N is a solid solution of NbN and TiN, and has many properties similar to those of NbN. It has been found to be generally easier to stabilize NbxTi1 xN in the high-superconducting-transitiontemperature phase than it is to so stabilize NbN. In addition, the resistivity and penetration depth of polycrystalline films of Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N have been found to be much smaller than those of films of NbN. These differences have been hypothesized to be attributable to better coupling at grain boundaries within Nb(x)Ti(1-x)N films.

  12. Single Pt nanowire electrode: preparation, electrochemistry, and electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Wu, Qingqing; Jiao, Shoufeng; Xu, Chaodi; Wang, Lun

    2013-04-16

    A single Pt nanowire electrode (SPNE) was fabricated through HF etching process from Pt disk nanoelectrode and an underpotential deposition (UPD) redox replacement technique. The electrochemical experiments showed that SPNE had steady-state electrochemical responses at redox species solution and the mass transfer rates were affected by the lengths and radii of SPNEs. The prepared SPNEs were utilized to examine the oxygen-reduction reaction in a KOH solution to explore the feasibility of electrocatalytic activity of single Pt nanowire and the results showed that the electrocatalytic activity of SPNE was dependent on the surface position of single Pt nanowire: the tip end position is more active than the sidewall position. Meanwhile, the electrocatalytic activity of SPNE was related to the radius of nanowire. These observations are not only important to understand the structure-function relationship in single nanowire level but have significant implications for the synthesis and selection of novel catalysts with high efficiency used in electrochemistry, energy, bioanalysis, etc.

  13. A single crystalline InP nanowire photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin; Li, Bang; Wu, Yao; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2016-08-01

    Single crystalline nanowires are critical for achieving high-responsivity, high-speed, and low-noise nanoscale photodetectors. Here, we report a metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector based on a single crystalline InP nanowire. The nanowires are grown by a self-catalyzed method and exhibit stacking-fault-free zinc blende crystal structure. The nanowire exhibits a typical n-type semiconductor property and shows a low room temperature dark current of several hundred pA at moderate biases. A photoresponsivity of 6.8 A/W is obtained at a laser power density of 0.2 mW/cm2. This work demonstrates that single crystalline InP nanowires are good candidates for future optoelectronic device applications.

  14. A diamond nanowire single-photon source.

    PubMed

    Babinec, Thomas M; Hausmann, Birgit J M; Khan, Mughees; Zhang, Yinan; Maze, Jeronimo R; Hemmer, Philip R; Loncar, Marko

    2010-03-01

    The development of a robust light source that emits one photon at a time will allow new technologies such as secure communication through quantum cryptography. Devices based on fluorescent dye molecules, quantum dots and carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated, but none has combined a high single-photon flux with stable, room-temperature operation. Luminescent centres in diamond have recently emerged as a stable alternative, and, in the case of nitrogen-vacancy centres, offer spin quantum bits with optical readout. However, these luminescent centres in bulk diamond crystals have the disadvantage of low photon out-coupling. Here, we demonstrate a single-photon source composed of a nitrogen-vacancy centre in a diamond nanowire, which produces ten times greater flux than bulk diamond devices, while using ten times less power. This result enables a new class of devices for photonic and quantum information processing based on nanostructured diamond, and could have a broader impact in nanoelectromechanical systems, sensing and scanning probe microscopy.

  15. Spatially resolved Hall effect measurement in a single semiconductor nanowire.

    PubMed

    Storm, Kristian; Halvardsson, Filip; Heurlin, Magnus; Lindgren, David; Gustafsson, Anders; Wu, Phillip M; Monemar, Bo; Samuelson, Lars

    2012-11-01

    Efficient light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic energy-harvesting devices are expected to play an important role in the continued efforts towards sustainable global power consumption. Semiconductor nanowires are promising candidates as the active components of both light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic cells, primarily due to the added freedom in device design offered by the nanowire geometry. However, for nanowire-based components to move past the proof-of-concept stage and be implemented in production-grade devices, it is necessary to precisely quantify and control fundamental material properties such as doping and carrier mobility. Unfortunately, the nanoscale geometry that makes nanowires interesting for applications also makes them inherently difficult to characterize. Here, we report a method to carry out Hall measurements on single core-shell nanowires. Our technique allows spatially resolved and quantitative determination of the carrier concentration and mobility of the nanowire shell. As Hall measurements have previously been completely unavailable for nanowires, the experimental platform presented here should facilitate the implementation of nanowires in advanced practical devices.

  16. Ultrafast transient absorption studies of single metal and semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartland, Gregory V.; Carey, Christopher R.; Staleva, Hristina

    2010-02-01

    Single particle transient absorption experiments have been used to study metallic and semiconducting nanowires. For the metal wires the major result is the observation of modulations in the transient absorption traces due to coherently excited breathing modes. The vibrational periods depend on the dimensions of the nanowire, and the decay times are sensitive to the environment. The nanowires in our experiments are spin coated from a polymer solution onto a glass substrate, and experience a range of different environments. This causes large variations in the quality factor of the breathing mode for different wires. Semiconducting nanowires of CdTe and CdSe were also examined. The CdTe wires show fast picosecond time scale dynamics, which are assigned to charge carrier trapping at surface states of the wires. In contrast, CdSe nanowires show no dynamics on the time scale of our measurements. For the CdTe nanowires the charge carrier trapping times vary from wire-to-wire, and also vary with position in a single wire. This is attributed to differences in surface chemistry. Overall these experiments illustrate the important of single particle techniques for studying nanomaterials, especially for elucidating how differences in local environment and structure affect dynamics.

  17. Anomalous high capacitance in a coaxial single nanowire capacitor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Zhan, Yongjie; Shi, Gang; Moldovan, Simona; Gharbi, Mohamed; Song, Li; Ma, Lulu; Gao, Wei; Huang, Jiaqi; Vajtai, Robert; Banhart, Florian; Sharma, Pradeep; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-06-06

    Building entire multiple-component devices on single nanowires is a promising strategy for miniaturizing electronic applications. Here we demonstrate a single nanowire capacitor with a coaxial asymmetric Cu-Cu(2)O-C structure, fabricated using a two-step chemical reaction and vapour deposition method. The capacitance measured from a single nanowire device corresponds to ~140 μF cm(-2), exceeding previous reported values for metal-insulator-metal micro-capacitors and is more than one order of magnitude higher than what is predicted by classical electrostatics. Quantum mechanical calculations indicate that this unusually high capacitance may be attributed to a negative quantum capacitance of the dielectric-metal interface, enhanced significantly at the nanoscale.

  18. Waveguide-Coupled Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Andrew D.; Briggs, Ryan M.; Marsili, Francesco; Cohen, Justin D.; Meenehan, Sean M.; Painter, Oskar J.; Shaw, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    We have demonstrated WSi-based superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors coupled to SiNx waveguides with integrated ring resonators. This photonics platform enables the implementation of robust and efficient photon-counting detectors with fine spectral resolution near 1550 nm.

  19. Direct Photonic-Plasmonic Coupling and Routing in Single Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Rouxue; Pausauskie, Peter; Huang, Jiaxing; Yang, Piedong

    2009-10-20

    Metallic nanoscale structures are capable of supporting surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), propagating collective electron oscillations with tight spatial confinement at the metal surface. SPPs represent one of the most promising structures to beat the diffraction limit imposed by conventional dielectric optics. Ag nano wires have drawn increasing research attention due to 2D sub-100 nm mode confinement and lower losses as compared with fabricated metal structures. However, rational and versatile integration of Ag nanowires with other active and passive optical components, as well as Ag nanowire based optical routing networks, has yet to be achieved. Here, we demonstrate that SPPs can be excited simply by contacting a silver nanowire with a SnO2 nanoribbon that serves both as an unpolarized light source and a dielectric waveguide. The efficient coupling makes it possible to measure the propagation-distance-dependent waveguide spectra and frequency-dependent propagation length on a single Ag nanowire. Furthermore, we have demonstrated prototypical photonic-plasmonic routing devices, which are essential for incorporating low-loss Ag nanowire waveguides as practical components into high-capacity photonic circuits.

  20. Unveiling the formation pathway of single crystalline porous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xing; Qu, Yongquan; Lin, Yung-Chen; Liao, Lei; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-02-01

    Porous silicon nanowire is emerging as an interesting material system due to its unique combination of structural, chemical, electronic, and optical properties. To fully understand their formation mechanism is of great importance for controlling the fundamental physical properties and enabling potential applications. Here we present a systematic study to elucidate the mechanism responsible for the formation of porous silicon nanowires in a two-step silver-assisted electroless chemical etching method. It is shown that silicon nanowire arrays with various porosities can be prepared by varying multiple experimental parameters such as the resistivity of the starting silicon wafer, the concentration of oxidant (H(2)O(2)) and the amount of silver catalyst. Our study shows a consistent trend that the porosity increases with the increasing wafer conductivity (dopant concentration) and oxidant (H(2)O(2)) concentration. We further demonstrate that silver ions, formed by the oxidation of silver, can diffuse upwards and renucleate on the sidewalls of nanowires to initiate new etching pathways to produce a porous structure. The elucidation of this fundamental formation mechanism opens a rational pathway to the production of wafer-scale single crystalline porous silicon nanowires with tunable surface areas ranging from 370 to 30 m(2) g(-1) and can enable exciting opportunities in catalysis, energy harvesting, conversion, storage, as well as biomedical imaging and therapy.

  1. Single GaAs/GaAsP coaxial core-shell nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Hua, Bin; Motohisa, Junichi; Kobayashi, Yasunori; Hara, Shinjiroh; Fukui, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Highly uniform GaAs/GaAsP coaxial nanowires were prepared via selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Photoluminescence spectra from a single nanowire indicate that the obtained heterostructures can produce near-infrared (NIR) lasing under pulsed light excitation. The end facets of a single nanowire form a natural mirror surface to create an axial cavity, which realizes resonance and give stimulated emission. This study is a considerable advance toward the realization of nanowire-based NIR light sources.

  2. ``Hot spots'' growth on single nanowire controlled by electric charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Shaobo; Liu, Xuehua; He, Ting; Tian, Lei; Wang, Wenhui; Sun, Rui; He, Weina; Zhang, Xuetong; Zhang, Jinping; Ni, Weihai; Zhou, Xiaochun

    2016-06-01

    ``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a model based on Boltzmann distribution. In addition, the distance distribution here has an advantage in electron transfer and energy saving. Therefore, it's necessary to consider the functions of electric charge during the synthesis or application of nanomaterials.``Hot spots'' - a kind of highly active site, which are usually composed of some unique units, such as defects, interfaces, catalyst particles or special structures - can determine the performance of nanomaterials. In this paper, we study a model system, i.e. ``hot spots'' on a single Ag nanowire in the galvanic replacement reaction (GRR), by dark-field microscopy. The research reveals that electric charge can be released by the formation reaction of AgCl, and consequently the electrochemical potential on Ag nanowire drops. The electric charge could induce the reduction of Ag+ to form the ``hot spots'' on the nanowire during the GRR. The appearance probability of ``hot spots'' is almost even along the Ag nanowire, while it is slightly lower near the two ends. The spatial distance between adjacent ``hot spots'' is also controlled by the charge, and obeys a

  3. Laser-induced single point nanowelding of silver nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shuowei; Li, Qiang; Liu, Guoping; Yang, Hangbo; Yang, Yuanqing; Zhao, Ding; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Min

    2016-03-01

    Nanowelding of nanomaterials opens up an emerging set of applications in transparent conductors, thin-film solar cells, nanocatalysis, cancer therapy, and nanoscale patterning. Single point nanowelding (SPNW) is highly demanded for building complex nanostructures. In this letter, the precise control of SPNW of silver nanowires is explored in depth, where the nanowelding is laser-induced through the plasmonic resonance enhanced photothermal effect. It is shown that the illumination position is a critical factor for the nanowelding process. As an example of performance enhancement, output at wire end can be increased by 65% after welding for a plasmonic nanocoupler. Thus, single point nanowelding technique shows great potentials for high-performance electronic and photonic devices based on nanowires, such as nanoelectronic circuits and plasmonic nanodevices.

  4. Imaging Single ZnO Vertical Nanowire Laser Cavities using UV-Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gargas, D.J.; Toimil-Molares, M.E.; Yang, P.

    2008-11-17

    We report the fabrication and optical characterization of individual ZnO vertical nanowire laser cavities. Dilute nanowire arrays with interwire spacing>10 ?m were produced by a modified chemical vapor transport (CVT) method yielding an ideal platform for single nanowire imaging and spectroscopy. Lasing characteristics of a single vertical nanowire are presented, as well as high-resolution photoluminescence imaging by UV-laser scanning confocal microscopy. In addition, three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the photoluminescence emission performed in both planar and vertical dimensions demonstrates height-selective imaging useful for vertical nanowires and heteronanostructures emerging in the field of optoelectronics and nanophotonics.

  5. Thermal Conductivity of ZnO Single Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Yuldashev, Sh U; Yalishev, V Sh; Cho, H D; Kang, T W

    2016-02-01

    The thermal conductivity of a single ZnO nanowire with diameter of ~150 nm was measured using a four-point-probe 3omega method over a temperature range of 140-300 K. The measured ther- mal conductivity of ZnO nanowire is strongly reduced compared to bulk ZnO crystal due to the enhanced phonon-boundary and impurity (isotope) scattering. The maximum of the thermal conductivity is shifted to a higher temperature than that of bulk counterpart. Temperature dependent measurements show that beyond the low-temperature maximum, the thermal conductivity decreases with temperature as T(-1.5) indicating strong impurity (isotope) scattering at intermediate and high temperatures.

  6. Miniaturized ionization gas sensors from single metal oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Ramirez, Francisco; Prades, Juan Daniel; Hackner, Angelika; Fischer, Thomas; Mueller, Gerhard; Mathur, Sanjay; Morante, Joan Ramon

    2011-02-01

    Gas detection experiments were performed with individual tin dioxide (SnO2) nanowires specifically configured to observe surface ion (SI) emission response towards representative analyte species. These devices were found to work at much lower temperatures (T≈280 °C) and bias voltages (V≈2 V) than their micro-counterparts, thereby demonstrating the inherent potential of individual nanostructures in building functional nanodevices. High selectivity of our miniaturized sensors emerges from the dissimilar sensing mechanisms of those typical of standard resistive-type sensors (RES). Therefore, by employing this detection principle (SI) together with RES measurements, better selectivity than that observed in standard metal oxide sensors could be demonstrated. Simplicity and specificity of the gas detection as well as low-power consumption make these single nanowire devices promising technological alternatives to overcome the major drawbacks of solid-state sensor technologies.

  7. Polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi2O3 nanowires and determination of their growth direction from polarized Raman single nanowire microscopy.

    PubMed

    In, Juneho; Yoon, Ilsun; Seo, Kwanyong; Park, Jeunghee; Choo, Jaebum; Lee, Yonghoon; Kim, Bongsoo

    2011-01-24

    We report polymorph-tuned synthesis of α- and β-Bi(2)O(3) nanowires and their single nanowire micro-Raman study. The single crystalline Bi(2)O(3) nanowires in different phases (α and β) were selectively synthesized by adjusting the heating temperature of Bi precursor in a vapor transport process. No catalyst was employed. Furthermore, at an identical precursor evaporation temperature, α- and β- phase Bi(2)O(3) nanowires were simultaneously synthesized along the temperature gradient at a substrate. The growth direction of α-Bi(2)O(3) nanowires was revealed by polarized Raman single nanowire spectra. For thin β-Bi(2)O(3) nanowires with a very small diameter, the polarized Raman single nanowire spectrum was strongly influenced by the shape effect.

  8. SbSI Nanosensors: from Gel to Single Nanowire Devices.

    PubMed

    Mistewicz, Krystian; Nowak, Marian; Paszkiewicz, Regina; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    The gas-sensing properties of antimony sulfoiodide (SbSI) nanosensors have been tested for humidity and carbon dioxide in nitrogen. The presented low-power SbSI nanosensors have operated at relatively low temperature and have not required heating system for recovery. Functionality of sonochemically prepared SbSI nanosensors made of xerogel as well as single nanowires has been compared. In the latter case, small amount of SbSI nanowires has been aligned in electric field and bonded ultrasonically to Au microelectrodes. The current and photocurrent responses of SbSI nanosensors have been investigated as function of relative humidity. Mechanism of light-induced desorption of H2O from SbSI nanowires' surface has been discussed. SbSI nanosensors have been tested for concentrations from 51 to 10(6) ppm of CO2 in N2, exhibiting a low detection limit of 40(31) ppm. The current response sensitivity has shown a tendency to decrease with increasing CO2 concentration. The experimental results have been explained taking into account proton-transfer process and Grotthuss' chain reaction, as well as electronic theory of adsorption and catalysis on semiconductors.

  9. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanowire Tips for Ultrasensitive Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Y; Degen, C L

    2015-12-09

    We report the fabrication, integration, and assessment of sharp diamond tips for ultrasensitive force microscopy experiments. Two types of tips, corresponding to the upper and lower halves of a diamond nanowire, were fabricated by top-down plasma etching from a single-crystalline substrate. The lower, surface-attached halves can be directly integrated into lithographically defined nanostructures, like cantilevers. The upper, detachable halves result in diamond nanowires with a tunable diameter (50-500 nm) and lengths of a few microns. Tip radii were around 10 nm and tip apex angles around 15°. We demonstrate the integration of diamond nanowires for use as scanning tips onto ultrasensitive pendulum-style silicon cantilevers. We find the noncontact friction and frequency jitter to be exceptionally low, with no degradation in the intrinsic mechanical quality factor (Q ≈ 130,000) down to tip-to-surface distances of about 10 nm. Our results are an encouraging step toward further improvement of the sensitivity and resolution of force-detected magnetic resonance imaging.

  10. SbSI Nanosensors: from Gel to Single Nanowire Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mistewicz, Krystian; Nowak, Marian; Paszkiewicz, Regina; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2017-02-01

    The gas-sensing properties of antimony sulfoiodide (SbSI) nanosensors have been tested for humidity and carbon dioxide in nitrogen. The presented low-power SbSI nanosensors have operated at relatively low temperature and have not required heating system for recovery. Functionality of sonochemically prepared SbSI nanosensors made of xerogel as well as single nanowires has been compared. In the latter case, small amount of SbSI nanowires has been aligned in electric field and bonded ultrasonically to Au microelectrodes. The current and photocurrent responses of SbSI nanosensors have been investigated as function of relative humidity. Mechanism of light-induced desorption of H2O from SbSI nanowires' surface has been discussed. SbSI nanosensors have been tested for concentrations from 51 to 106 ppm of CO2 in N2, exhibiting a low detection limit of 40(31) ppm. The current response sensitivity has shown a tendency to decrease with increasing CO2 concentration. The experimental results have been explained taking into account proton-transfer process and Grotthuss' chain reaction, as well as electronic theory of adsorption and catalysis on semiconductors.

  11. NBN Gene Polymorphisms and Cancer Susceptibility: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Berardinelli, Francesco; di Masi, Alessandra; Antoccia, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between DNA repair failure and cancer is well established as in the case of rare, high penetrant genes in high cancer risk families. Beside this, in the last two decades, several studies have investigated a possible association between low penetrant polymorphic variants in genes devoted to DNA repair pathways and risk for developing cancer. This relationship would be also supported by the observation that DNA repair processes may be modulated by sequence variants in DNA repair genes, leading to susceptibility to environmental carcinogens. In this framework, the aim of this review is to provide the reader with the state of the art on the association between common genetic variants and cancer risk, limiting the attention to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NBN gene and providing the various odd ratios (ORs). In this respect, the NBN protein, together with MRE11 and RAD50, is part of the MRN complex which is a central player in the very early steps of sensing and processing of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), in telomere maintenance, in cell cycle control, and in genomic integrity in general. So far, many papers were devoted to ascertain possible association between common synonymous and non-synonymous NBN gene polymorphisms and increased cancer risk. However, the results still remain inconsistent and inconclusive also in meta-analysis studies for the most investigated E185Q NBN miscoding variant. PMID:24396275

  12. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Michael G.; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H.

    2014-03-01

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.

  13. Optimised quantum hacking of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Michael G; Makarov, Vadim; Hadfield, Robert H

    2014-03-24

    We explore bright-light control of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) in the shunted configuration (a practical measure to avoid latching). In an experiment, we simulate an illumination pattern the SNSPD would receive in a typical quantum key distribution system under hacking attack. We show that it effectively blinds and controls the SNSPD. The transient blinding illumination lasts for a fraction of a microsecond and produces several deterministic fake clicks during this time. This attack does not lead to elevated timing jitter in the spoofed output pulse, and hence does not introduce significant errors. Five different SNSPD chip designs were tested. We consider possible countermeasures to this attack.

  14. Direct electrical transport measurement on a single thermoelectric nanowire embedded in an alumina template.

    PubMed

    Ben Khedim, Meriam; Cagnon, Laurent; Garagnon, Christophe; Serradeil, Valerie; Bourgault, Daniel

    2016-04-28

    Electrical conductivity is a key parameter to increase the performance of thermoelectric materials. However, the measurement of such performance remains complex for 1D structures, involving tedious processing. In this study, we present a non-destructive, rapid and easy approach for the characterization of electrical conductivity of Bi2Te3 based single nanowires. By controlling the nanowire overgrowth, each nanowire emerges in the form of a micrometric hemisphere constituting a unique contact zone for direct nanoprobing. As nanowires need no preliminary preparation and remain in their template during measurement, we avoid oxidation effects and time-consuming processing. Electrical transport results show a low nanowire resistivity for compact nanowires obtained at low overpotential. Such values are comparable to bulk materials and thin films. This method not only confirmed its reliability, but it could also be adopted for other semiconducting or metallic electrodeposited nanowires.

  15. Electrical properties of single CuO nanowires for device fabrication: Diodes and field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Florica, Camelia; Costas, Andreea; Boni, Andra Georgia; Negrea, Raluca; Preda, Nicoleta E-mail: encu@infim.ro; Pintilie, Lucian; Enculescu, Ionut E-mail: encu@infim.ro; Ion, Lucian

    2015-06-01

    High aspect ratio CuO nanowires are synthesized by a simple and scalable method, thermal oxidation in air. The structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the semiconducting nanowires were studied. Au-Ti/CuO nanowire and Pt/CuO nanowire electrical contacts were investigated. A dominant Schottky mechanism was evidenced in the Au-Ti/CuO nanowire junction and an ohmic behavior was observed for the Pt/CuO nanowire junction. The Pt/CuO nanowire/Pt structure allows the measurements of the intrinsic transport properties of the single CuO nanowires. It was found that an activation mechanism describes the behavior at higher temperatures, while a nearest neighbor hopping transport mechanism is characteristic at low temperatures. This was also confirmed by four-probe resistivity measurements on the single CuO nanowires. By changing the metal/semiconductor interface, devices such as Schottky diodes and field effect transistors based on single CuO p-type nanowire semiconductor channel are obtained. These devices are suitable for being used in various electronic circuits where their size related properties can be exploited.

  16. Doped niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Tao; Kang, Lin; Zhang, Labao; Zhao, Qingyuan; Gu, Min; Qiu, Jian; Chen, Jian; Jin, Biaobing

    2014-09-01

    We designed and fabricated a special doped niobium (Nb*) superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) on MgO substrate. The superconductivity of this ultra-thin Nb* film was further improved by depositing an ultra-thin aluminum nitride protective layer on top. Compared with traditional Nb films, Nb* films present higher T C and J C. We investigated the dependence of the characteristics of devices, such as cut-off wavelength, response bandwidth, and temperature, on their geometrical dimensions. Results indicate that reduction in both the width and thickness of Nb* nanowires extended the cut-off wavelength and improved the sensitivity. The Nb* SNSPD (50 nm width and 4.5 nm thickness) exhibited single-photon sensitivities at 1,310, 1,550, and 2,010 nm. We also demonstrated an enhancement in the detection efficiency by a factor of 10 in its count rate by lowering the working temperature from 2.26 K to 315 mK.

  17. Light-Induced Charge Transport within a Single Asymmetric Nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chong; Hwang, Yun Yeong; Jeong, Hoon Eui; Yang, Peidong

    2011-01-21

    Artificial photosynthetic systems using semiconductor materials have been explored for more than three decades in order to store solar energy in chemical fuels such as hydrogen. By mimicking biological photosynthesis with two light-absorbing centers that relay excited electrons in a nanoscopic space, a dual-band gap photoelectrochemical (PEC) system is expected to have higher theoretical energy conversion efficiency than a single band gap system. This work demonstrates the vectorial charge transport of photo-generated electrons and holes within a single asymmetric Si/TiO2 nanowire using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). Under UV illumination, higher surface potential was observed on the n-TiO₂ side, relative to the potential of the p-Si side, as a result of majority carriers’ recombination at the Si/TiO₂ interface. These results demonstrate a new approach to investigate charge separation and transport in a PEC system. This asymmetric nanowire heterostructure, with a dual band gap configuration and simultaneously exposed anode and cathode surfaces represents an ideal platform for the development of technologies for the generation of solar fuels, although better photoanode materials remain to be discovered.

  18. Single-crystalline zinc oxide nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shu-Te; Hsiao, Ching-Lun; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Hsiang-An; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Lin, Heh-Nan

    2010-10-01

    This study reports the use of single-crystalline and well-aligned ZnO nanowires as photoanode material for dye-sensitized solar cells. The ZnO nanowires are grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass substrates without catalysts by thermal evaporation. In spite of low roughness factors of around 25 for the nanowire photoanodes, the fabricated solar cells yield power conversion efficiencies of around 1.3% under AM 1.5G (100 mW cm-2) illumination. Moreover, fill factors of around 0.5 have been achieved and are relatively high when compared with reported values from ZnO nanowire photoanodes. The results reveal the advantage of using single-crystalline nanowires as photoanode material and provide clues for the advancement of nanowire based dye-sensitized solar cells.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy of single crystalline GaN nanowires on a flexible Ti foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, Gabriele; Corfdir, Pierre; Gao, Guanhui; Pfüller, Carsten; Trampert, Achim; Brandt, Oliver; Geelhaar, Lutz; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the self-assembled growth of vertically aligned GaN nanowire ensembles on a flexible Ti foil by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The analysis of single nanowires by transmission electron microscopy reveals that they are single crystalline. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that in comparison to standard GaN nanowires grown on Si, the nanowires prepared on the Ti foil exhibit an equivalent crystalline perfection, a higher density of basal-plane stacking faults, but a reduced density of inversion domain boundaries. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the nanowire ensemble is not influenced or degraded by the bending of the substrate. The present results pave the way for the fabrication of flexible optoelectronic devices based on GaN nanowires on metal foils.

  20. CuInSe2 nanowires from facile chemical transformation of In2Se3 and their integration in single-nanowire devices.

    PubMed

    Schoen, David T; Peng, Hailin; Cui, Yi

    2013-04-23

    Nanowire solar cells are receiving a significant amount of attention for their potential to improve light absorption and charge collection in photovoltaics. Single-nanowire solar cells offer the ability to investigate performance limits for macroscale devices, as well as the opportunity for in-depth structural characterization and property measurement in small working devices. Copper indium selenide (CIS) is a material uniquely suited to these investigations. Not only could nanowire solar cells of CIS perhaps allow efficient macroscale photovoltaics to be fabricated while reducing the amount of CIS required, important for a system with possible resource limitations, but it is also a photovoltaic material for which fundamental understanding has been elusive. We here present a recipe for a scaled up vapor liquid solid based synthesis of CIS nanowires, in-depth material and property correlation of single crystalline CIS nanowires, and the first report of a single CIS nanowire solar cell. The synthesis was accomplished by annealing copper-coated In2Se3 nanowires at a moderate temperature of 350 °C, leading to solid-state reaction forming CIS nanowires. These nanowires are p-type with a resitivity of 6.5 Ωcm. Evidence is observed for a strong diameter dependence on the nanowire transport properties. The single-nanowire solar cells have an open-circuit voltage of 500 mV and a short-circuit current of 2 pA under AM 1.5 illumination.

  1. Localized ultraviolet photoresponse in single bent ZnO micro/nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Wen; Yang Ya; Qi Junjie; Zhao Jing; Zhang Yue

    2010-09-27

    The localized ultraviolet photoresponse in single bent ZnO micro/nanowires bridging two Ohmic contacts has been investigated. The ZnO micro/nanowire has a higher photoresponse sensitivity of about 190% at the bent region (bending strain: about 4%) than that at the straight region (about 50%). The rise and decay time constants are almost the same in the straight and bent regions of the ZnO micro/nanowire. A possible mechanism has been proposed and discussed. The bent ZnO micro/nanowires could be potentially useful for fabricating the coupled piezoelectric and optoelectronic nanodevices.

  2. Cold welding of copper nanowires with single-crystalline and twinned structures: A comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2016-09-01

    In this article, molecular simulations were adopted to explore the cold welding processes of copper nanowires with both single-crystalline and fivefold twinned structures. It was verified that the twinned nanowires exhibited enhanced strength but lowered elastic limit and ductility. Both nanowires could be successfully welded through rather small loadings, although their stress-strain responses toward compression were different. Meanwhile, more stress was accumulated in the twinned nanowire due to repulsive force of the twin boundaries against the nucleation and motions of dislocations. Moreover, by characterizing the structure evolutions in the welding process, it can be ascertained that perfect atomic order was finally built at the weld region in both nanowires. This comparison study will be of great importance to future mechanical processing of metallic nanowires.

  3. Single-crystalline ZnTe nanowires for application as high-performance green/ultraviolet photodetector.

    PubMed

    Cao, Y L; Liu, Z T; Chen, L M; Tang, Y B; Luo, L B; Jie, J S; Zhang, W J; Lee, S T; Lee, C S

    2011-03-28

    Single-crystalline ZnTe nanowires were prepared by a simple vapor transport and deposition method. Photodetectors of individual ZnTe nanowires were fabricated to study photoconductivity of the nanowires. It was observed the nanowire photodetectors show the highest visible-light photoconductive gains among all reported photodetectors based on 1D nanostructure semiconductors, including CdS, CdSe, ZnSe, etc. The high photosensitivity and relatively fast response speed are attributable to the high crystal quality of the ZnTe nanowires. These results reveal that such single-crystalline ZnTe nanowires are excellent candidates for optoelectronic applications.

  4. Rainbow radiating single-crystal Ag nanowire nanoantenna.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taejoon; Choi, Wonjun; Yoon, Ilsun; Lee, Hyoban; Seo, Min-Kyo; Park, Q-Han; Kim, Bongsoo

    2012-05-09

    Optical antennas interface an object with optical radiation and boost the absorption and emission of light by the objects through the antenna modes. It has been much desired to enhance both excitation and emission processes of the quantum emitters as well as to interface multiwavelength channels for many nano-optical applications. Here we report the experimental implementation of an optical antenna operating in the full visible range via surface plasmon currents induced in a defect-free single-crystalline Ag nanowire (NW). With its atomically flat surface, the long Ag NW reliably establishes multiple plasmonic resonances and produces a unique rainbow antenna radiation in the Fresnel region. Detailed antenna radiation properties, such as radiating near-field patterns and polarization states, were experimentally examined and precisely analyzed by numerical simulations and antenna theory. The multiresonant Ag NW nanoantenna will find superb applications in nano-optical spectroscopy, high-resolution nanoimaging, photovoltaics, and nonlinear signal conversion.

  5. Capillarity creates single-crystal calcite nanowires from amorphous calcium carbonate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yi-Yeoun; Hetherington, Nicola B J; Noel, Elizabeth H; Kröger, Roland; Charnock, John M; Christenson, Hugo K; Meldrum, Fiona C

    2011-12-23

    Single-crystal calcite nanowires are formed by crystallization of morphologically equivalent amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) particles within the pores of track etch membranes. The polyaspartic acid stabilized ACC is drawn into the membrane pores by capillary action, and the single-crystal nature of the nanowires is attributed to the limited contact of the intramembrane ACC particle with the bulk solution. The reaction environment then supports transformation to a single-crystal product.

  6. Large scale synthesis of highly pure single crystalline tellurium nanowires by thermal evaporation method.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Paritosh; Park, Jeunghee; Kim, Bongsoo

    2006-11-01

    Single crystalline tellurium nanowires were successfully synthesized in large scale by a facile approach of vaporizing tellurium metal and condensing the vapor in an inert atmosphere onto a Si substrate. Tellurium was evaporated by heating at 300 degrees C at 1 torr and condensed on the Si substrate at 100-150 degrees C, in the downstream of argon (Ar) gas at a flow rate of 25 sccm for 30 min. The as-synthesized nanowires have diameters between 100-300 nm and lengths up to several micrometers. The single crystalline nanowires grew in a preferred [0001] direction. The obtained nanowires were highly pure as only tellurium metal was used in the vaporization process, and no other reagent, surfactant, or template were used for the growth. This low temperature and high-yield approach to the tellurium nanowires synthesis may facilitate its industrial production for various applications.

  7. Electrical properties of single CdTe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Matei, Elena; Florica, Camelia; Costas, Andreea; Toimil-Molares, María Eugenia; Enculescu, Ionut

    2015-01-01

    Ion track, nanoporous membranes were employed as templates for the preparation of CdTe nanowires. For this purpose, electrochemical deposition from a bath containing Cd and Te ions was employed. This process leads to high aspect ratio CdTe nanowires, which were harvested and placed on a substrate with lithographically patterned, interdigitated electrodes. Focused ion beam-induced metallization was used to produce individual nanowires with electrical contacts and electrical measurements were performed on these individual nanowires. The influence of a bottom gate was investigated and it was found that surface passivation leads to improved transport properties.

  8. Electrical properties of single CdTe nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Matei, Elena; Florica, Camelia; Costas, Andreea; Toimil-Molares, María Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Ion track, nanoporous membranes were employed as templates for the preparation of CdTe nanowires. For this purpose, electrochemical deposition from a bath containing Cd and Te ions was employed. This process leads to high aspect ratio CdTe nanowires, which were harvested and placed on a substrate with lithographically patterned, interdigitated electrodes. Focused ion beam-induced metallization was used to produce individual nanowires with electrical contacts and electrical measurements were performed on these individual nanowires. The influence of a bottom gate was investigated and it was found that surface passivation leads to improved transport properties. PMID:25821685

  9. Subcellular Neural Probes from Single-Crystal Gold Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Size reduction of neural electrodes is essential for improving the functionality of neuroprosthetic devices, developing potent therapies for neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, and long-term brain–computer interfaces. Typical neural electrodes are micromanufactured devices with dimensions ranging from tens to hundreds of micrometers. Their further miniaturization is necessary to reduce local tissue damage and chronic immunological reactions of the brain. Here we report the neural electrode with subcellular dimensions based on single-crystalline gold nanowires (NWs) with a diameter of ∼100 nm. Unique mechanical and electrical properties of defect-free gold NWs enabled their implantation and recording of single neuron-activities in a live mouse brain despite a ∼50× reduction of the size compared to the closest analogues. Reduction of electrode dimensions enabled recording of neural activity with improved spatial resolution and differentiation of brain activity in response to different social situations for mice. The successful localization of the epileptic seizure center was also achieved using a multielectrode probe as a demonstration of the diagnostics potential of NW electrodes. This study demonstrated the realism of single-neuron recording using subcellular-sized electrodes that may be considered a pivotal point for use in diverse studies of chronic brain diseases. PMID:25112683

  10. Probing the low thermal conductivity of single-crystalline porous Si nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yunshan; Lina Yang Collaboration; Lingyu Kong Collaboration; Baowen Li Collaboration; John T L Thong Collaboration; Kedar Hippalgaonkar Collaboration

    Pore-like structures provide a novel way to reduce the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires, compared to both smooth-surface VLS nanowires and rough EE nanowires. Because of enhanced phonon scattering with interface and decrease in phonon transport path, the porous nanostructures show reduction in thermal conductance by few orders of magnitude. It proves to be extremely challenging to evaluate porosity accurately in an experimental manner and further understand its effect on thermal transport. In this study, we use the newly developed electron-beam based micro-electrothermal device technique to study the porosity dependent thermal conductivity of mesoporous silicon nanowires that have single-crystalline scaffolding. Based on the Casino simulation, the power absorbed by the nanowire, coming from the loss of travelling electron energy, has a linear relationship with it cross section. The relationship has been verified experimentally as well. Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to theoretically predict the thermal conductivity of silicon nanowires with a specific value of porosity. These single-crystalline porous silicon nanowires show extremely low thermal conductivity, even below the amorphous limit. These structures together with our experimental techniques provide a particularly intriguing platform to understand the phonon transport in nanoscale and aid the performance improvement in future nanowires-based devices.

  11. Single n+-i-n+ InP nanowires for highly sensitive terahertz detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Kun; Parkinson, Patrick; Gao, Qian; Boland, Jessica L.; Li, Ziyuan; Wang, Fan; Mokkapati, Sudha; Fu, Lan; Johnston, Michael B.; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2017-03-01

    Developing single-nanowire terahertz (THz) electronics and employing them as sub-wavelength components for highly-integrated THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) applications is a promising approach to achieve future low-cost, highly integrable and high-resolution THz tools, which are desirable in many areas spanning from security, industry, environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics to fundamental science. In this work, we present the design and growth of n+-i-n+ InP nanowires. The axial doping profile of the n+-i-n+ InP nanowires has been calibrated and characterized using combined optical and electrical approaches to achieve nanowire devices with low contact resistances, on which the highly-sensitive InP single-nanowire photoconductive THz detectors have been demonstrated. While the n+-i-n+ InP nanowire detector has a only pA-level response current, it has a 2.5 times improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with the undoped InP nanowire detector and is comparable to traditional bulk THz detectors. This performance indicates a promising path to nanowire-based THz electronics for future commercial applications.

  12. Single n(+)-i-n(+) InP nanowires for highly sensitive terahertz detection.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kun; Parkinson, Patrick; Gao, Qian; Boland, Jessica L; Li, Ziyuan; Wang, Fan; Mokkapati, Sudha; Fu, Lan; Johnston, Michael B; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2017-03-24

    Developing single-nanowire terahertz (THz) electronics and employing them as sub-wavelength components for highly-integrated THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) applications is a promising approach to achieve future low-cost, highly integrable and high-resolution THz tools, which are desirable in many areas spanning from security, industry, environmental monitoring and medical diagnostics to fundamental science. In this work, we present the design and growth of n(+)-i-n(+) InP nanowires. The axial doping profile of the n(+)-i-n(+) InP nanowires has been calibrated and characterized using combined optical and electrical approaches to achieve nanowire devices with low contact resistances, on which the highly-sensitive InP single-nanowire photoconductive THz detectors have been demonstrated. While the n(+)-i-n(+) InP nanowire detector has a only pA-level response current, it has a 2.5 times improved signal-to-noise ratio compared with the undoped InP nanowire detector and is comparable to traditional bulk THz detectors. This performance indicates a promising path to nanowire-based THz electronics for future commercial applications.

  13. Tuning the magnetic anisotropy of Co-Ni nanowires: comparison between single nanowires and nanowire arrays in hard-anodic aluminum oxide membranes.

    PubMed

    Vega, V; Böhnert, T; Martens, S; Waleczek, M; Montero-Moreno, J M; Görlitz, D; Prida, V M; Nielsch, K

    2012-11-23

    Co(x)Ni(1-x) alloy nanowires with varying Co content (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.95), having a diameter of 130 nm and length of around 20 μm, are synthesized by template-assisted electrodeposition into the nanopores of SiO(2) conformal coated hard-anodic aluminum oxide membranes. The magneto-structural properties of both single isolated nanowires and hexagonally ordered nanowire arrays of Co-Ni alloys are systematically studied by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry and vibrating sample magnetometry, respectively, allowing us to compare different alloy compositions and to distinguish between the magnetostatic and magnetocrystalline contributions to the effective magnetic anisotropy for each system. The excellent tunable soft magnetic properties and magnetic bistability exhibited by low Co content Co-Ni nanowires indicate that they might become the material of choice for the development of nanostructured magnetic systems and devices as an alternative to Fe-Ni alloy based systems, being chemically more robust. Furthermore, Co contents higher than 51 at.% allow us to modify the magnetic behavior of Co-rich nanowires by developing well controlled magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which is desirable for data storage applications.

  14. Characterization of superconducting nanowire single-photon detector with artificial constrictions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Dengkuan; Wu, Junjie; He, Yuhao; Lv, Chaolin; You, Lixing Zhang, Weijun; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen Xie, Xiaoming

    2014-06-15

    Statistical studies on the performance of different superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on one chip suggested that random constrictions existed in the nanowire that were barely registered by scanning electron microscopy. With the aid of advanced e-beam lithography, artificial geometric constrictions were fabricated on SNSPDs as well as single nanowires. In this way, we studied the influence of artificial constrictions on SNSPDs in a straight forward manner. By introducing artificial constrictions with different wire widths in single nanowires, we concluded that the dark counts of SNSPDs originate from a single constriction. Further introducing artificial constrictions in SNSPDs, we studied the relationship between detection efficiency and kinetic inductance and the bias current, confirming the hypothesis that constrictions exist in SNSPDs.

  15. Single-Nanowire Electrochemical Probe Detection for Internally Optimized Mechanism of Porous Graphene in Electrochemical Devices.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping; Yan, Mengyu; Wang, Xuanpeng; Han, Chunhua; He, Liang; Wei, Xiujuan; Niu, Chaojiang; Zhao, Kangning; Tian, Xiaocong; Wei, Qiulong; Li, Zijia; Mai, Liqiang

    2016-03-09

    Graphene has been widely used to enhance the performance of energy storage devices due to its high conductivity, large surface area, and excellent mechanical flexibility. However, it is still unclear how graphene influences the electrochemical performance and reaction mechanisms of electrode materials. The single-nanowire electrochemical probe is an effective tool to explore the intrinsic mechanisms of the electrochemical reactions in situ. Here, pure MnO2 nanowires, reduced graphene oxide/MnO2 wire-in-scroll nanowires, and porous graphene oxide/MnO2 wire-in-scroll nanowires are employed to investigate the capacitance, ion diffusion coefficient, and charge storage mechanisms in single-nanowire electrochemical devices. The porous graphene oxide/MnO2 wire-in-scroll nanowire delivers an areal capacitance of 104 nF/μm(2), which is 4.0 and 2.8 times as high as those of reduced graphene oxide/MnO2 wire-in-scroll nanowire and MnO2 nanowire, respectively, at a scan rate of 20 mV/s. It is demonstrated that the reduced graphene oxide wrapping around the MnO2 nanowire greatly increases the electronic conductivity of the active materials, but decreases the ion diffusion coefficient because of the shielding effect of graphene. By creating pores in the graphene, the ion diffusion coefficient is recovered without degradation of the electron transport rate, which significantly improves the capacitance. Such single-nanowire electrochemical probes, which can detect electrochemical processes and behavior in situ, can also be fabricated with other active materials for energy storage and other applications in related fields.

  16. Facile synthesis of single-crystal silver nanowires through a tannin-reduction process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xuelin; Li, Juan; Pan, Shilie

    2009-10-01

    A facile aqueous-phase approach for the synthesis of silver nanowires is reported, in which tannin (C76H52O46) is used as a mild reducing agent for silver nitrate. This synthesis is a root-temperature, seedless process, and does not need any surfactant or capping agent to direct the anisotropic growth of the nanoparticles. The obtained silver nanowires are about 25 nm in diameter and up to 20 μm in length. Unlike the usually reported cases of silver nanowires or nanorods, in which the silver nanocrystals were often generated with a multi-twinned structure, in our experiments the nanowires adopt a single-crystal structure with their growth direction along the [100] axis. Investigations on the influence of different experimental conditions indicate that slow rate of the reduction process is a key factor for inducing the anisotropic growth of the nanowires.

  17. Quantum dots (QDs) immobilization on metal nanowire end-facets for single photon source application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Lee, B. C.; Kang, C.; Lee, S. Y.; Park, J. H.; Shin, H. J.

    2010-02-01

    We introduce a fabrication process to immobilize cadmium selenide (CdSe) Quantum Dots (QDs) on end-facets of metal nanowires, which can be possibly used as a cavity-free unidirectional single photon source with high coupling efficiency due to high Purcell factor. Nanowires were fabricated using E-beam lithography, E-beam evaporation, and lift-off process and finally covered with chemically deposited silicon dioxide (SiO2) layer. End-facets of metal nanowires were defined using wet etching process. QD immobilization was accomplished through surface modifications on both metal and QD surfaces. We immobilized thiol (-SH) functionalized 15 base pair (bp) ssDNA on Au nanowire surface to hybridize with its complimentary amine (- NH3) functionalized 15bp ssDNA and conjugated the amine functionalized 15bp ssDNA with QD. Presenting QD immobilization method showed high selectivity between metal nanowire and SiO2 surfaces.

  18. Characterization of single crystalline CdS nanowires synthesized by solvothermal method.

    PubMed

    Hadia, N M A; García-Granda, Santiago; García, José R

    2014-07-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanowires with uniform diameter were prepared by the solvothermal method using ethylenediamine (en) as solvent. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scan electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the products are hexagonal crystals of CdS nanowires with diameter of 28 nm and length up to several micrometres. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM) studies indicate the single-crystalline nature of CdS nanowires with an oriented growth along the c-axis direction. The absorption spectrum of the as-prepared CdS nanowires shows an absorption peak of around 485 nm. These CdS nanowires exhibit bright photoluminescence (PL) with two distinct emission bands at 502 nm and 696 nm.

  19. A magnetic force microscopy study of the magnetic reversal of a single Fe nanowire.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Wang, Y; Fu, Y; Hasegawa, T; Li, F S; Saito, H; Ishio, S

    2009-03-11

    The magnetization reversal properties of a single 60 nm diameter Fe nanowire were investigated with an in-field magnetic force microscope (MFM). MFM images were observed in a successively decreasing applied field, at various angles between the applied field and the nanowire axis. The results show that the magnetization undergoes a sharp reversal at various angles. When the applied field deviates from the nanowire axis, before complete magnetization reversal, a coherent rotation of magnetic moments inside the nanowire and a stable vortex state at the end of the nanowire are exhibited. The angle dependence of the switching field can be closely described by a curling model, despite the fact the magnetization reversal process is not identical to this model.

  20. Electrical control of single hole spins in nanowire quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Pribiag, V S; Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; van den Berg, J W G; van Weperen, I; Plissard, S R; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2013-03-01

    The development of viable quantum computation devices will require the ability to preserve the coherence of quantum bits (qubits). Single electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are a versatile platform for quantum information processing, but controlling decoherence remains a considerable challenge. Hole spins in III-V semiconductors have unique properties, such as a strong spin-orbit interaction and weak coupling to nuclear spins, and therefore, have the potential for enhanced spin control and longer coherence times. A weaker hyperfine interaction has previously been reported in self-assembled quantum dots using quantum optics techniques, but the development of hole-spin-based electronic devices in conventional III-V heterostructures has been limited by fabrication challenges. Here, we show that gate-tunable hole quantum dots can be formed in InSb nanowires and used to demonstrate Pauli spin blockade and electrical control of single hole spins. The devices are fully tunable between hole and electron quantum dots, which allows the hyperfine interaction strengths, g-factors and spin blockade anisotropies to be compared directly in the two regimes.

  1. Direct-write fabrication of a nanoscale digital logic element on a single nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Somenath; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2010-06-01

    In this paper we report on the 'direct-write' fabrication and electrical characteristics of a nanoscale logic inverter, integrating enhancement-mode (E-mode) and depletion-mode (D-mode) field-effect transistors (FETs) on a single zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire. 'Direct-writing' of platinum metal electrodes and a dielectric layer is executed on individual single-crystalline ZnO nanowires using either a focused electron beam (FEB) or a focused ion beam (FIB). We fabricate a top-gate FET structure, in which the gate electrode wraps around the ZnO nanowire, resulting in a more efficient gate response than the conventional back-gate nanowire transistors. For E-mode device operation, the gate electrode (platinum) is deposited directly onto the ZnO nanowire by a FEB, which creates a Schottky barrier and in turn a fully depleted channel. Conversely, sandwiching an insulating layer between the FIB-deposited gate electrode and the nanowire channel makes D-mode operation possible. Integrated E- and D-mode FETs on a single nanowire exhibit the characteristics of a direct-coupled FET logic (DCFL) inverter with a high gain and noise margin.

  2. Dielectrophoretic investigation of Bi₂Te₃ nanowires-a microfabricated thermoelectric characterization platform for measuring the thermoelectric and structural properties of single nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Kojda, Danny; Peranio, Nicola; Kroener, Michael; Mitdank, Rüdiger; Toellner, William; Nielsch, Kornelius; Fischer, Saskia F; Gutsch, Sebastian; Zacharias, Margit; Eibl, Oliver; Woias, Peter

    2015-03-27

    In this article a microfabricated thermoelectric nanowire characterization platform to investigate the thermoelectric and structural properties of single nanowires is presented. By means of dielectrophoresis (DEP), a method to manipulate and orient nanowires in a controlled way to assemble them onto our measurement platform is introduced. The thermoelectric platform fabricated with optimally designed DEP electrodes results in a yield of nanowire assembly of approximately 90% under an applied peak-to-peak ac signal Vpp = 10 V and frequency f = 20 MHz within a series of 200 experiments. Ohmic contacts between the aligned single nanowire and the electrodes on the platform are established by electron beam-induced deposition. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of electrochemically synthesized Bi2Te3 nanowires are measured to be -51 μV K(-1) and (943 ± 160)/(Ω(-1) cm(-1)), respectively. Chemical composition and crystallographic structure are obtained using transmission electron microscopy. The selected nanowire is observed to be single crystalline over its entire length and no grain boundaries are detected. At the surface of the nanowire, 66.1 ± 1.1 at.% Te and 34.9 ± 1.1 at.% Bi are observed. In contrast, chemical composition of 64.2 at.% Te and 35.8 at.% Bi is detected in the thick center of the nanowire.

  3. Facile morphological control of single-crystalline silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-long; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Rui-ting; Cheng, Guo-an

    2012-10-01

    To realize wider potentials of silicon nanowires (SiNWs), the morphological controllability is desirable. In this paper, we synthesized well vertically- and slantingly-aligned SiNWs with ultra-high aspect ratio in metal-assisted chemical etching method, and wafer-scale zigzag SiNWs with three types of turning angle were also obtained. The formation of the curved SiNWs is a result of the alternation of moving direction of Ag nanoparticles between the preferred <1 0 0> and other directions in Si substrates. The as-prepared SiNWs are single-crystalline and their orientations are mostly along the <1 0 0> or <1 1 1> directions. The surface of the resulting SiNWs can be controlled to be smooth or rough, with or without mesopores, by adjusting the etching conditions and using various Si substrates with different crystal orientations and doping levels. Moreover, the effects of the etching conditions (etching time, oxidant concentration, deposition time of Ag nanoparticles and etching temperature) and substrate properties (crystal orientation and doping level) on the as-prepared SiNWs have been discussed.

  4. Electromigration in focused ion beam deposited tungsten single nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pabitra; Das, Bipul; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    As the focused ion beam induced deposited (FIBID) nanowires (NWs) of W, Pt are being used in nanoelectronic technology to connect individual nanodevices, repairing damaged interconnects in integrated circuit (IC), electromigration study in FIBID-NWs has become essential. Briefly, when a thin conductor, like metallic Al, Cu interconnects in an IC chip carry quite high current density ~1012 A/m2, ions or atoms start migrating. Such migration causes void and hillock formation leading to interconnect discontinuity, short circuit and ultimately IC failure. Our electromigration study in single FIBID-NWs of W reveals that failure in NWs of width and thickness ~100 nm occurs typically at 1011 A/m2. Most notably, void and hillock always form in opposite polarity compared to typical metallic NWs. Such distinctly new outcome is explained via electromigration driven by direct force (ionic charge*electric field) opposed to wind force driven migration observed in metallic NWs. As FIBID-NWs are composite in nature, different species (e.g., Ga, W and C) migrate with different degree and direction depending on their oxidation state, leading to redistribution of species across NW length and formation of a Ga rich hillock. S. N. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Block-JD, Sector-III, Salt Lake, Kolkata-98, India.

  5. Photovoltaic effect and charge storage in single ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Zhimin; Xu Jun; Zhang Jingmin; Yu Dapeng

    2008-07-14

    Asymmetric Schottky barriers between ZnO nanowire and metal electrode have been fabricated at the two ends of the nanowire. An obvious photocurrent generated from the device at zero voltage bias can be switched on/off with quick response by controlling the light irradiation. Moreover, the device can still afford a current at zero bias after switching off light illumination, which is ascribed to the charge storage effect in single ZnO nanowires. The underlying mechanisms related to the photovoltaic effect and charge storage were discussed.

  6. Local detection efficiency of a NbN superconducting single photon detector explored by a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Renema, Jelmer J; Engel, Andreas; van Exter, Martin P; de Dood, Michiel J A

    2015-09-21

    We propose an experiment to directly probe the local response of a superconducting single photon detector using a sharp metal tip in a scattering scanning near-field optical microscope. The optical absorption is obtained by simulating the tip-detector system, where the tip-detector is illuminated from the side, with the tip functioning as an optical antenna. The local detection efficiency is calculated by considering the recently introduced position-dependent threshold current in the detector. The calculated response for a 150 nm wide detector shows a peak close to the edge that can be spatially resolved with an estimated resolution of ∼ 20 nm, using a tip with parameters that are experimentally accessible.

  7. Fabrication of enzyme-degradable and size-controlled protein nanowires using single particle nano-fabrication technique

    PubMed Central

    Omichi, Masaaki; Asano, Atsushi; Tsukuda, Satoshi; Takano, Katsuyoshi; Sugimoto, Masaki; Saeki, Akinori; Sakamaki, Daisuke; Onoda, Akira; Hayashi, Takashi; Seki, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Protein nanowires exhibiting specific biological activities hold promise for interacting with living cells and controlling and predicting biological responses such as apoptosis, endocytosis and cell adhesion. Here we report the result of the interaction of a single high-energy charged particle with protein molecules, giving size-controlled protein nanowires with an ultra-high aspect ratio of over 1,000. Degradation of the human serum albumin nanowires was examined using trypsin. The biotinylated human serum albumin nanowires bound avidin, demonstrating the high affinity of the nanowires. Human serum albumin–avidin hybrid nanowires were also fabricated from a solid state mixture and exhibited good mechanical strength in phosphate-buffered saline. The biotinylated human serum albumin nanowires can be transformed into nanowires exhibiting a biological function such as avidin–biotinyl interactions and peroxidase activity. The present technique is a versatile platform for functionalizing the surface of any protein molecule with an extremely large surface area. PMID:24770668

  8. Single ZnO Nanowire-Based Gas Sensors to Detect Low Concentrations of Hydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Cardoza-Contreras, Marlene N.; Romo-Herrera, José M.; Ríos, Luis A.; García-Gutiérrez, R.; Zepeda, T. A.; Contreras, Oscar E.

    2015-01-01

    Low concentrations of hazardous gases are difficult to detect with common gas sensors. Using semiconductor nanostructures as a sensor element is an alternative. Single ZnO nanowire gas sensor devices were fabricated by manipulation and connection of a single nanowire into a four-electrode aluminum probe in situ in a dual-beam scanning electron microscope-focused ion beam with a manipulator and a gas injection system in/column. The electrical response of the manufactured devices shows response times up to 29 s for a 121 ppm of H2 pulse, with a variation in the nanowire resistance appreciable at room temperature and at 373.15 K of approximately 8% and 14% respectively, showing that ZnO nanowires are good candidates to detect low concentrations of H2. PMID:26690158

  9. Single ZnO Nanowire-Based Gas Sensors to Detect Low Concentrations of Hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Cardoza-Contreras, Marlene N; Romo-Herrera, José M; Ríos, Luis A; García-Gutiérrez, R; Zepeda, T A; Contreras, Oscar E

    2015-12-04

    Low concentrations of hazardous gases are difficult to detect with common gas sensors. Using semiconductor nanostructures as a sensor element is an alternative. Single ZnO nanowire gas sensor devices were fabricated by manipulation and connection of a single nanowire into a four-electrode aluminum probe in situ in a dual-beam scanning electron microscope-focused ion beam with a manipulator and a gas injection system in/column. The electrical response of the manufactured devices shows response times up to 29 s for a 121 ppm of H₂ pulse, with a variation in the nanowire resistance appreciable at room temperature and at 373.15 K of approximately 8% and 14% respectively, showing that ZnO nanowires are good candidates to detect low concentrations of H₂.

  10. Crystallographic anisotropy of the resistivity size effect in single crystal tungsten nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Dooho; Moneck, Matthew; Liu, Xuan; Oh, Soong Ju; Kagan, Cherie R.; Coffey, Kevin R.; Barmak, Katayun

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates an anisotropic increase in resistivity with decreasing width in single crystal tungsten (W) nanowires having a height of 21 nm. Nanowire-widths were in the range of 15–451 nm, with the anisotropy observed for widths below 50 nm. The longitudinal directions of the nanowires coincided with the <100>, <110> and <111> orientations of the body centered cubic phase of W. The resistivity increase was observed to be minimized for the <111>-oriented single crystal nanowires, exhibiting a factor of two lower increase in resistivity at a width of ~15 nm, relative to the thin film resistivity (i.e., an infinitely wide wire). The observed anisotropy is attributed to crystallographic anisotropy of the Fermi velocity and the resultant anisotropy of the electron mean free path in W, and underscores the critical role of crystallographic orientation in nanoscale metallic conduction. PMID:24005230

  11. Crystallographic anisotropy of the resistivity size effect in single crystal tungsten nanowires.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dooho; Moneck, Matthew; Liu, Xuan; Oh, Soong Ju; Kagan, Cherie R; Coffey, Kevin R; Barmak, Katayun

    2013-01-01

    This work demonstrates an anisotropic increase in resistivity with decreasing width in single crystal tungsten (W) nanowires having a height of 21 nm. Nanowire-widths were in the range of 15-451 nm, with the anisotropy observed for widths below 50 nm. The longitudinal directions of the nanowires coincided with the <100>, <110> and <111> orientations of the body centered cubic phase of W. The resistivity increase was observed to be minimized for the <111>-oriented single crystal nanowires, exhibiting a factor of two lower increase in resistivity at a width of ~15 nm, relative to the thin film resistivity (i.e., an infinitely wide wire). The observed anisotropy is attributed to crystallographic anisotropy of the Fermi velocity and the resultant anisotropy of the electron mean free path in W, and underscores the critical role of crystallographic orientation in nanoscale metallic conduction.

  12. Modal characteristics in a single-nanowire cavity with a triangular cross section.

    PubMed

    Seo, Min-Kyo; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Park, Hong-Gyu; Qian, Fang; Ee, Ho-Seok; No, You-Shin; Leet, Yong-Hee

    2008-12-01

    In this study, the modal characteristics of a single-GaN nanowire cavity with a triangular cross section surrounded by air or located on a silicon dioxide substrate have been analyzed. Two transverse resonant modes, transverse electric-like and transverse magnetic-like modes, are dominantly excited for nanowire cavities that have a small cross-sectional size of <300 nm and length of 10 microm. Using the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation method, quality factors, confinement factors, single-mode conditions, and far-field emission patterns are investigated for a nanowire cavity as a function of one length of the triangular cross section. The results of these simulations provide information that will be vital for the design and development of efficient nanowire lasers and light sources in ultracompact nanophotonic integrated circuits.

  13. Bleach-Imaged Plasmon Propagation (BlIPP) in Single Gold Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Solis, David; Chang, Wei-Shun; Khanal, Bishnu P.; Bao, Kui; Nordlander, Peter; Zubarev, Eugene R.; Link, Stephan

    2010-08-13

    Here, we present a novel approach to visualize propagating surface plasmon polaritons through plasmon-exciton interactions between single gold nanowires and a thin film of a fluorescent polymer. A plasmon polariton was launched by exciting one end of a single gold nanowire with a 532 nm laser. The local near-field of the propagating plasmon modes caused bleaching of the polymer emission. The degree of photobleaching along the nanowire could be correlated with the propagation distance of the surface plasmon polaritons. Using this method of bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP), we determined a plasmon propagation distance of 1.8 ± 0.4 μm at 532 nm for chemically grown gold nanowires. Our results are supported by finite difference time domain electromagnetic simulations.

  14. Monolithic single GaN nanowire laser with photonic crystal microcavity on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Junseok; Guo, Wei; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2011-01-01

    Optically pumped lasing at room temperature in a silicon based monolithic single GaN nanowire with a two-dimensional photonic crystal microcavity is demonstrated. Catalyst-free nanowires with low density (˜108 cm-2) are grown on Si by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the nanowires are of wurtzite structure and they have no observable defects. A single nanowire laser fabricated on Si is characterized by a lasing transition at λ =371.3 nm with a linewidth of 0.55 nm. The threshold is observed at a pump power density of ˜120 kW/cm2 and the spontaneous emission factor β is estimated to be 0.08.

  15. Polarization properties of surface plasmon enhanced photoluminescence from a single Ag nanowire.

    PubMed

    Song, Min; Chen, Gengxu; Liu, Yan; Wu, E; Wu, Botao; Zeng, Heping

    2012-09-24

    Metallic nanowires are of great research interest due to their applications in surface plasmon polariton coupling of light. The efficiency is much dependent on the polarization of the light due to the phase matching requirement in the light-surface plasmon polariton coupling. By scanning confocal microscope, the photoluminescence from a single Ag nanowire was demonstrated strongly dependent on the excitation laser polarization, showing good consistency with the theoretical simulation. Meanwhile strong avalanche photoluminescence from a single Ag nanowire was observed when the excitation laser was polarized along the long axis of the Ag nanowire. The photoluminescence emission exhibited a polarization-sensitive spatial distribution. This may stimulate promising applications in designing polarization-controllable nanoscale plasmonic devices.

  16. Optoelectronics: Continuously Spatial-Wavelength-Tunable Nanowire Lasers on a Single Chip

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-28

    multiple-bandgap solar cells using spatially composition-graded CdxPb1-xS nanowires on a single substrate: a design study, Optics Express (07 2011...R.B. Liu. SPATIALLY COMPOSITION-GRADED ALLOY SEMICONDUCTOR NANOWIRES AND WAVELENGTH SPECIFIC LATERAL-MULTIJUNCTION FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR CELLS , (06...Stat. Sol B247, 774-788 (2010) 6. D. A. Caselli and C.Z. Ning, High-performance laterally-arranged multiple-bandgap solar cells using spatially

  17. Space-and-time-resolved spectroscopy of single GaN nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Martinez, Julio A.; Li, Qiming; Wang, George T.; Swartzentruber, Brian S.; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.

    2015-06-29

    Gallium nitride nanowires have garnered much attention in recent years due to their attractive optical and electrical properties. An understanding of carrier transport, relaxation, and recombination in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems is therefore important in optimizing them for various applications. Here, we present ultrafast optical microscopic measurements on single GaN nanowires. Our experiments, performed while varying the light polarization, excitation fluence, and position, give insight into the mechanisms governing carrier dynamics in these nanosystems.

  18. Single electron pumping in InAs nanowire double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrer, A.; Fasth, C.; Samuelson, L.

    2007-07-01

    Closely spaced local gate electrodes are used to electrically define a double quantum dot along an InAs nanowire crystal. By applying a periodic pulse sequence to two plunger gate electrodes controlling the double quantum dot charge configuration, the device is operated as a single electron pump. The authors find that within measurement accuracy, the pumping current equals one electron per cycle for frequencies up to 2MHz, demonstrating the suitability of nanowire based quantum dots for pumping applications.

  19. Statistical analysis of the temporal single-photon response of superconducting nanowire single photon detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yu-Hao; Chao-Lin, Lü; Zhang, Wei-Jun; Zhang, Lu; Wu, Jun-Jie; Chen, Si-Jing; You, Li-Xing; Wang, Zhen

    2015-06-01

    A new method to study the transient detection efficiency (DE) and pulse amplitude of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPD) during the current recovery process is proposed — statistically analyzing the single photon response under photon illumination with a high repetition rate. The transient DE results match well with the DEs deduced from the static current dependence of DE combined with the waveform of a single-photon detection event. This proves that static measurement results can be used to analyze the transient current recovery process after a detection event. The results are relevant for understanding the current recovery process of SNSPDs after a detection event and for determining the counting rate of SNSPDs. Project supported by the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB04010200), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CBA00202), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401441).

  20. Simultaneous high-resolution scanning Bragg contrast and ptychographic imaging of a single solar cell nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Wallentin, Jesper; Wilke, Robin N.; Osterhoff, Markus; Salditt, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous scanning Bragg contrast and small-angle ptychographic imaging of a single solar cell nanowire are demonstrated, using a nanofocused hard X-ray beam and two detectors. The 2.5 µm-long nanowire consists of a single-crystal InP core of 190 nm diameter, coated with amorphous SiO2 and polycrystalline indium tin oxide. The nanowire was selected and aligned in real space using the small-angle scattering of the 140 × 210 nm X-ray beam. The orientation of the nanowire, as observed in small-angle scattering, was used to find the correct rotation for the Bragg condition. After alignment in real space and rotation, high-resolution (50 nm step) raster scans were performed to simultaneously measure the distribution of small-angle scattering and Bragg diffraction in the nanowire. Ptychographic reconstruction of the coherent small-angle scattering was used to achieve sub-beam spatial resolution. The small-angle scattering images, which are sensitive to the shape and the electron density of all parts of the nanowire, showed a homogeneous profile along the nanowire axis except at the thicker head region. In contrast, the scanning Bragg diffraction microscopy, which probes only the single-crystal InP core, revealed bending and crystalline inhomogeneity. Both systematic and non-systematic real-space movement of the nanowire were observed as it was rotated, which would have been difficult to reveal only from the Bragg scattering. These results demonstrate the advantages of simultaneously collecting and analyzing the small-angle scattering in Bragg diffraction experiments. PMID:26664342

  1. Simultaneous high-resolution scanning Bragg contrast and ptychographic imaging of a single solar cell nanowire.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Jesper; Wilke, Robin N; Osterhoff, Markus; Salditt, Tim

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous scanning Bragg contrast and small-angle ptychographic imaging of a single solar cell nanowire are demonstrated, using a nanofocused hard X-ray beam and two detectors. The 2.5 µm-long nanowire consists of a single-crystal InP core of 190 nm diameter, coated with amorphous SiO2 and polycrystalline indium tin oxide. The nanowire was selected and aligned in real space using the small-angle scattering of the 140 × 210 nm X-ray beam. The orientation of the nanowire, as observed in small-angle scattering, was used to find the correct rotation for the Bragg condition. After alignment in real space and rotation, high-resolution (50 nm step) raster scans were performed to simultaneously measure the distribution of small-angle scattering and Bragg diffraction in the nanowire. Ptychographic reconstruction of the coherent small-angle scattering was used to achieve sub-beam spatial resolution. The small-angle scattering images, which are sensitive to the shape and the electron density of all parts of the nanowire, showed a homogeneous profile along the nanowire axis except at the thicker head region. In contrast, the scanning Bragg diffraction microscopy, which probes only the single-crystal InP core, revealed bending and crystalline inhomogeneity. Both systematic and non-systematic real-space movement of the nanowire were observed as it was rotated, which would have been difficult to reveal only from the Bragg scattering. These results demonstrate the advantages of simultaneously collecting and analyzing the small-angle scattering in Bragg diffraction experiments.

  2. Graphene enhances Li storage capacity of porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Liang; Han, Wei-Qiang

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO3 etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g(-1) that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g(-1) of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  3. Graphene Enhances Li Storage Capacity of Porous Single-crystalline Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.; Han, W.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrated that graphene significantly enhances the reversible capacity of porous silicon nanowires used as the anode in Li-ion batteries. We prepared our experimental nanomaterials, viz., graphene and porous single-crystalline silicon nanowires, respectively, using a liquid-phase graphite exfoliation method and an electroless HF/AgNO{sub 3} etching process. The Si porous nanowire/graphene electrode realized a charge capacity of 2470 mAh g{sup -1} that is much higher than the 1256 mAh g{sup -1} of porous Si nanowire/C-black electrode and 6.6 times the theoretical capacity of commercial graphite. This relatively high capacity could originate from the favorable charge-transportation characteristics of the combination of graphene with the porous Si 1D nanostructure.

  4. Optical quenching of photoconductivity in CdSe single nanowires via waveguiding excitation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fuxing; Wang, Pan; Yu, Huakang; Guo, Bing; Tong, Limin

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate broadband optical quenching of photoconductivity in CdSe single nanowires with low excitation power. Using 1550-nm-wavelength light with 10-nW power for waveguiding excitation, we observe a typical responsivity of 0.5 A/W for quenching the photoconductivity established by 10-µW 660-nm-wavelength background light in a 403-nm-diameter CdSe nanowire, with detectable limit of the quenching power down to pW level at room temperature, which is several orders of magnitude lower than those reported previously. This large quenching effect originates from the enhanced light-defect interaction in the nanowires via waveguiding excitation. These results open new opportunities for noninvasive characterization of deep-level defect states in low-dimensional semiconductor nanomaterials, and novel optoelectronic applications of semiconductor nanowires such as high-sensitive broadband photodetection.

  5. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2016-12-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  6. Single-crystalline self-branched anatase titania nanowires for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenquan; Yang, Huang; Wu, Fei; Fu, Jianxun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Weiguang

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of the anatase titania plays an important role in improving the photovoltaic performance in dye-sensitized solar cells. In this work, single-crystalline self-branched anatase TiO2 nanowires have been synthesized by hydrothermal method using TBAH and CTAB as morphology controlling agents. The obtained self-branched TiO2 nanowires dominated by a large percentage of (010) facets. The photovoltaic conversion efficiency (6.37%) of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on the self-branched TiO2 nanowires shows a significant improvement (26.6%) compared to that of P25 TiO2 (5.03%). The enhanced performance of the self-branched TiO2 nanowires-based DSSC is due to heir large percent of exposed (010) facets which have strong dye adsorption capacity and effective charge transport of the self-branched 1D nanostructures.

  7. Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Core-Shell Single Nanowire Lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Changyi; Wright, Jeremy B; Liu, Sheng; Lu, Ping; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Leung, Benjamin; Chow, Weng W; Brener, Igal; Koleske, Daniel D; Luk, Ting-Shan; Feezell, Daniel F; Brueck, S R J; Wang, George T

    2017-02-08

    We report lasing from nonpolar p-i-n InGaN/GaN multi-quantum well core-shell single-nanowire lasers by optical pumping at room temperature. The nanowire lasers were fabricated using a hybrid approach consisting of a top-down two-step etch process followed by a bottom-up regrowth process, enabling precise geometrical control and high material gain and optical confinement. The modal gain spectra and the gain curves of the core-shell nanowire lasers were measured using micro-photoluminescence and analyzed using the Hakki-Paoli method. Significantly lower lasing thresholds due to high optical gain were measured compared to previously reported semipolar InGaN/GaN core-shell nanowires, despite significantly shorter cavity lengths and reduced active region volume. Mode simulations show that due to the core-shell architecture, annular-shaped modes have higher optical confinement than solid transverse modes. The results show the viability of this p-i-n nonpolar core-shell nanowire architecture, previously investigated for next-generation light-emitting diodes, as low-threshold, coherent UV-visible nanoscale light emitters, and open a route toward monolithic, integrable, electrically injected single-nanowire lasers operating at room temperature.

  8. Temperature dependent electrical transport in single Ge nanowires near insulator-metal transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhuri, Arup Kumar; Seth, Shaili; Das, Kaustuv

    We report low temperature (4K <= T <= 300K) electrical transport in single strands of Germanium Nanowires of radius well below 50 nm. The nanowires, grown from vapour phase with Au catalyst have carrier concentrations ranging from intrinsic to near the insulator-metal transition boundary. The nanowires were characterized extensively by High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope and established their crystalline quality. A single nanowire dispersed on a Si/SiO2 substrate was connected by Cr/Au contacts made by electron beam lithography in 2-probe / 4-probe configurations. The undoped nanowires have a room temperature resistivity (ρ) of 2 ohm.cm or more (estimated carrier concentration ~1015/cm3) and below the 25K (where it shows carrier freeze out) the ρ rises to high value of 35 ohm.cm. For nanowires with ρ <= .01 ohm.cm at 300K , low temperature ρ becomes finite, signaling transition to a metallic state with negative temperature co-efficient of ρ. The critical composition for the insulator-metal transition is more than an order higher than that observed in the bulk. At low T (<25K) resistivity data in this regime can be fitted to weak-localization form ρ =ρ0 - aTp/2 with ρ0 the NW's ~ 0.5-3.5 mohm.cm, with the exponent p ~ 3-4 as expected from theoretical predictions. Acknowldge Financial Support from Department od Science and Technology, Government of India for Sponsored Project.

  9. A four-pixel single-photon pulse-position array fabricated from WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V. B. Horansky, R.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Stern, J. A.; Shaw, M. D.

    2014-02-03

    We demonstrate a scalable readout scheme for an infrared single-photon pulse-position camera consisting of WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors. For an N × N array, only 2 × N wires are required to obtain the position of a detection event. As a proof-of-principle, we show results from a 2 × 2 array.

  10. In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single SnO2 Nanowire Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J. Y.; Zhong, Li; Wang, Chong M.; Sullivan, John P.; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Li Q.; Mao, Scott; Hudak, N.; Liu, Xiao H.; Subramanian, Arun Kumar; Fan, Hongyou; Qi, Liang; Kushima, Akihiro; Li, Ju

    2010-11-18

    We report the first real-time transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations of the structural evolution and phase transformation of lithium-ion battery anode during the battery charging process. A nanobattery consisting of a single SnO2 nanowire anode and an ionic liquid electrolyte was successfully constructed in a TEM. We observed that during the charging process, the SnO2 crystal was converted to Li2O glass with LixSn nanocrystalline precipitates as the reaction front propagated progressively along the nanowire. After the reaction front passed, the nanowire showed swelling, elongation, and large off-axis distortion (spiraling). Upon completion of the electrochemical charging, the nanowire showed up to 120% elongation and a 30% increase in diameter with a volume expansion of about 272%. The charging front, which separates the reacted and unreacted sections of the nanowire, contains a high density of mobile dislocations, which are continuously nucleated and annihilated at the moving reaction front. This dislocation cloud indicates large in-plane misfit stresses, and serves as structural precursor to the eventual complete solid-state amorphization. The rate of charging in our nanobatteries is found to be proportional to the inverse square root of nanowire length, indicating that a standalone nanobattery or integrated arrays of nanobatteries should have kinetic advantage over conventional battery design. The present observations also provide important mechanistic insights for the design of advanced batteries with improved performance and lifetime for broad electrical energy storage applications.

  11. In Situ Investigation of Li and Na Ion Transport with Single Nanowire Electrochemical Devices.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Yan, Mengyu; Tian, Xiaocong; Yang, Chuchu; Shi, Mengzhu; Wei, Qiulong; Xu, Lin; Mai, Liqiang

    2015-06-10

    In the past decades, Li ion batteries are widely considered to be the most promising rechargeable batteries for the rapid development of mobile devices and electric vehicles. There arouses great interest in Na ion batteries, especially in the field of static grid storage due to their much lower production cost compared with Li ion batteries. However, the fundamental mechanism of Li and Na ion transport in nanoscale electrodes of batteries has been rarely experimentally explored. This insight can guide the development and optimization of high-performance electrode materials. In this work, single nanowire devices with multicontacts are designed to obtain detailed information during the electrochemical reactions. This unique platform is employed to in situ investigate and compare the transport properties of Li and Na ions at a single nanowire level. To give different confinement for ions and electrons during the electrochemical processes, two different configurations of nanowire electrode are proposed; one is to fully immerse the nanowire in the electrolyte, and the other is by using photoresist to cover the nanowire with only one end exposed. For both configurations, the conductivity of nanowire decreases after intercalation/deintercalation for both Li and Na ions, indicating that they share the similar electrochemical reaction mechanisms in layered electrodes. However, the conductivity degradation and structure destruction for Na ions is more severe than those of Li ions during the electrochemical processes, which mainly results from the much larger volume of Na ions and greater energy barrier encountered by the limited layered spaces. Moreover, the battery performances of coin cells are compared to further confirm this conclusion. The present work provides a unique platform for in situ electrochemical and electrical probing, which will push the fundamental and practical research of nanowire electrode materials for energy storage applications.

  12. Field-effect modulation of Seebeck coefficient in single PbSe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenjie; Hochbaum, Allon I; Fardy, Melissa; Rabin, Oded; Zhang, Minjuan; Yang, Peidong

    2009-04-01

    In this Letter, we present a novel strategy to control the thermoelectric properties of individual PbSe nanowires. Using a field-effect gated device, we were able to tune the Seebeck coefficient of single PbSe nanowires from 64 to 193 microV x K(-1). This direct electrical field control of sigma and S suggests a powerful strategy for optimizing ZT in thermoelectric devices. These results represent the first demonstration of field-effect modulation of the thermoelectric figure of merit in a single semiconductor nanowire. This novel strategy for thermoelectric property modulation could prove especially important in optimizing the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors where reproducible doping is difficult to achieve.

  13. Resonant tunnelling features in a suspended silicon nanowire single-hole transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Llobet, Jordi; Pérez-Murano, Francesc E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk; Krali, Emiljana; Wang, Chen; Jones, Mervyn E.; Durrani, Zahid A. K. E-mail: z.durrani@imperial.ac.uk; Arbiol, Jordi

    2015-11-30

    Suspended silicon nanowires have significant potential for a broad spectrum of device applications. A suspended p-type Si nanowire incorporating Si nanocrystal quantum dots has been used to form a single-hole transistor. Transistor fabrication uses a novel and rapid process, based on focused gallium ion beam exposure and anisotropic wet etching, generating <10 nm nanocrystals inside suspended Si nanowires. Electrical characteristics at 10 K show Coulomb diamonds with charging energy ∼27 meV, associated with a single dominant nanocrystal. Resonant tunnelling features with energy spacing ∼10 meV are observed, parallel to both diamond edges. These may be associated either with excited states or hole–acoustic phonon interactions, in the nanocrystal. In the latter case, the energy spacing corresponds well with reported Raman spectroscopy results and phonon spectra calculations.

  14. High-frequency characterization and modeling of single metallic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chuan-Lun; Ardila, Gustavo; Benech, Philippe

    2013-07-01

    The transmission line characteristics of an individual aluminum metallic nanowire up to 100 GHz are presented in this paper. We have built a reliable framework for characterizing such nanowires using a specially designed coplanar waveguide platform. We systematically estimate the pad parasitics, contact impedance and transmission line parameters based on an equivalent circuit model and cascade-based de-embedding theory. This is the first time that such external parasitic elements have been successfully removed from a nanoscale transmission line. The extracted frequency-dependent electrical responses show good signal levels and a high degree of reproducibility. Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  15. Single Material Band Gap Engineering in GaAs Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Spirkoska, D.; Abstreiter, G.; Efros, A.; Conesa-Boj, S.; Morante, J. R.; Arbiol, J.; Fontcuberta i Morral, A.

    2011-12-23

    The structural and optical properties of GaAs nanowire with mixed zinc-blende/wurtzite structure are presented. High resolution transmission electron microscopy indicates the presence of a variety of shorter and longer segments of zinc-blende or wurtzite crystal phases. Sharp photoluminescence lines are observed with emission energies tuned from 1.515 eV down to 1.43 eV. The downward shift of the emission peaks can be understood by carrier confinement at the wurtzite/zinc-blende heterojunction, in quantum wells and in random short period superlattices existent in these nanowires, assuming the theoretical staggered band-offset between wurtzite and zinc-blende GaAs.

  16. Characterizations of Ohmic and Schottky-behaving contacts of a single ZnO nanowire.

    PubMed

    Bercu, Bogdan; Geng, Wei; Simonetti, Olivier; Kostcheev, Sergei; Sartel, Corinne; Sallet, Vincent; Lérondel, Gilles; Molinari, Michaël; Giraudet, Louis; Couteau, Christophe

    2013-10-18

    Current-voltage and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) measurements were performed on single ZnO nanowires. Measurements are shown to be strongly correlated with the contact behavior, either Ohmic or diode-like. The ZnO nanowires were obtained by metallo-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and contacted using electronic-beam lithography. Depending on the contact geometry, good quality Ohmic contacts (linear I-V behavior) or non-linear (diode-like) contacts were obtained. Current-voltage and KPFM measurements on both types of contacted ZnO nanowires were performed in order to investigate their behavior. A clear correlation could be established between the I-V curve, the electrical potential profile along the device and the nanowire geometry. Some arguments supporting this behavior are given based on technological issues and on depletion region extension. This work will help to better understand the electrical behavior of Ohmic contacts on single ZnO nanowires, for future applications in nanoscale field-effect transistors and nano-photodetectors.

  17. Performance-limiting factors for GaAs-based single nanowire photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xufeng; Khan, Mohammad Ryyan; Lundstrom, Mark; Bermel, Peter

    2014-03-10

    GaAs nanowires (NWs) offer the possibility of decoupling light absorption from charge transport for high-performance photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, it is still an open question as to whether these devices can exceed the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit for single-junction PV. In this work, single standing GaAs-based nanowire solar cells in both radial and vertical junction configurations is analyzed and compared to a planar thin-film design. By using a self-consistent, electrical-optically coupled 3D simulator, we show the design principles for nanowire and planar solar cells are significantly different; nanowire solar cells are vulnerable to surface and contact recombination, while planar solar cells suffer significant losses due to imperfect backside mirror reflection. Overall, the ultimate efficiency of the GaAs nanowire solar cell with radial and vertical junction is not expected to exceed that of the thin-film design, with both staying below the Shockley-Queisser limit.

  18. Magnetoresistance characteristics in individual Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} single crystal nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K. M. Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles; Padture, Nitin P.

    2015-05-07

    We report on the magnetoresistance (MR) and electron transport measurements observed on a single crystal magnetite nanowire prepared using a hydrothermal synthesis method. High-resolution electron microscopy revealed the single crystal magnetite nanowires with 80–120 nm thickness and up to 8 μm in length. Magnetic measurements showed the typical Verwey transition around 120 K with a 100 Oe room temperature coercivity and 45 emu/g saturation magnetization, which are comparable to bulk magnetite. Electrical resistance measurements in 5–300 K temperature range were performed by scanning gate voltage and varying applied magnetic field. Electrical resistivity of the nanowire was found to be around 5 × 10{sup −4} Ω m, slightly higher than the bulk and has activation energy of 0.07 eV. A negative MR of about 0.7% is observed for as-synthesized nanowires at 0.3 T applied field. MR scaled with increasing applied magnetic field representing the field-induced alignment of magnetic domain. These results are attributed to the spin-polarized electron transport across the antiphase boundaries, which implicate promising applications for nanowires in magnetoelectronics.

  19. Single particle plasmon spectroscopy of silver nanowires and gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    N'Gom, Moussa; Ringnalda, Jan; Mansfield, John F; Agarwal, Ashish; Kotov, Nicholas; Zaluzec, Nestor J; Norris, Theodore B

    2008-10-01

    The excitation of surface plasmons in individual silver nanowires and gold nanorods is investigated by means of high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy in a transmission electron microscope. The transverse and longitudinal modes of these nanostructures are resolved, and the size variation of the plasmon peaks is studied. The effect of electromagnetic coupling between closely spaced nanoparticles is also observed. Finally, the relation between energy-loss measurements and optical spectroscopy of nanoparticle plasmon modes is discussed.

  20. A near-infrared 64-pixel superconducting nanowire single photon detector array with integrated multiplexed readout

    SciTech Connect

    Allman, M. S. Verma, V. B.; Stevens, M.; Gerrits, T.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R.; Nam, S. W.; Marsili, F.; Beyer, A.; Shaw, M. D.; Kumor, D.

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate a 64-pixel free-space-coupled array of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors optimized for high detection efficiency in the near-infrared range. An integrated, readily scalable, multiplexed readout scheme is employed to reduce the number of readout lines to 16. The cryogenic, optical, and electronic packaging to read out the array as well as characterization measurements are discussed.

  1. Study of electrical properties of single GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozharov, A. M.; Komissarenko, F. E.; Vasiliev, A. A.; Bolshakov, A. D.; Moiseev, E. I.; Mukhin, M. S.; Cirlin, G. E.; Mukhin, I. S.

    2016-08-01

    Electrical properties of single GaN nanowires grown by means of molecular beam epitaxy with N-plasma source were studied. Ohmic contacts connected to single n-type GaN wires were produced by the combination of electron beam lithography, metal vacuum evaporation and rapid thermal annealing technique. The optimal annealing temperature to produce ohmic contacts implemented in the form of Ti/Al/Ti/Au stack has been determined. By means of 2-terminal measurement wiring diagram the conductivity of single NW has been obtained for NWs with different growth parameters. The method of MESFET measurement circuit layout of single GaN nanowires (NWs) has been developed. In accordance with performed numerical calculation, free carriers' concentration and mobility of single NWs could be independently estimated using MESFET structure.

  2. One-dimensional weak antilocalization in single-crystal Bi2Te3 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Wei; Du, Haifeng; Kong, Fengyu; Yang, Jiyong; Han, Yuyan; Tian, Mingliang; Zhang, Yuheng

    2013-01-01

    Angle-dependent magnetoconductance was measured on an individual surface-curved Bi2Te3 single-crystal nanowire fabricated by electrochemical deposition, where the evolution of surface conduction with wire diameters was investigated. It was found that the magnetoconductance of these nanowires in low field regime can be well described by one-dimensional (1D) weak antilocalization (WAL) model, where the dephasing length of the electrons follows T−1/3 dependence but insensitive to the wire diameter. Meanwhile, such a 1D surface WAL was found to be enhanced significantly with the decrease of the wire diameter. PMID:23535588

  3. Proton irradiation effects on the thermoelectric properties in single-crystalline Bi nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Taehoo; Kim, Jeongmin; Song, Min-Jung; Lee, Wooyoung

    2015-05-15

    The effects of proton irradiation on the thermoelectric properties of Bi nanowires (Bi-NWs) were investigated. Single crystalline Bi-NWs were grown by the on-film formation of nanowires method. The devices based on individual Bi-NWs were irradiated with protons at different energies. The total number of displaced atoms was estimated using the Kinchin-Pease displacement model. The electric conductivity and Seebeck coefficient in the Bi-NW devices were investigated before and after proton irradiation at different temperatures. Although the Seebeck coefficient remained stable at various irradiation energies, the electrical conductivity significantly declined with increasing proton energy up to 40 MeV.

  4. Stress induced growth of Sn nanowires in a single step by sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, A. Kothari, D. C.; Patel, N.; Miotello, A.

    2015-06-24

    Sn nanowires in aluminum film have been synthesized in a single step by co-sputtering of Al and Sn targets. Due to immiscibility of Sn and Al, co-sputtering leads to generation of stress in the composite film. In order to attain thermodynamic equilibrium, Sn separates from Al and diffuses towards the grain boundaries. External perturbation due to ambient atmosphere leads to corrosion at the grain boundaries forming pits which provide path for Sn to evolve. Owing to this, extrusion of Sn nanowires from Al film occurs to release the residual stress in the film.

  5. An electrically driven quantum dot-in-nanowire visible single photon source operating up to 150 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Saniya; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2013-12-01

    We demonstrate electrically pumped single photon emission up to 150 K from a single InGaN quantum dot embedded in a GaN nanowire junction diode. The InGaN dot-in-nanowire p-n junctions were grown on silicon by molecular beam epitaxy. The exciton electroluminescence from individual dot-in-nanowires is in the green spectral range (λ ˜ 520 nm) and is detectable up to 150 K. Second order autocorrelation measurements performed at the exciton energy at an ambient temperature of 125 K show a background corrected g(2)(0) equal to 0.35, indicating dominant single photon emission. The steady state nanowire temperature under these conditions is estimated to be 150 K due to Joule heating induced by the large nanowire series resistance. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements yield an exciton radiative lifetime of 1.1 ns.

  6. An electrically driven quantum dot-in-nanowire visible single photon source operating up to 150 K

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Saniya; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2013-12-09

    We demonstrate electrically pumped single photon emission up to 150 K from a single InGaN quantum dot embedded in a GaN nanowire junction diode. The InGaN dot-in-nanowire p-n junctions were grown on silicon by molecular beam epitaxy. The exciton electroluminescence from individual dot-in-nanowires is in the green spectral range (λ ∼ 520 nm) and is detectable up to 150 K. Second order autocorrelation measurements performed at the exciton energy at an ambient temperature of 125 K show a background corrected g{sup (2)}(0) equal to 0.35, indicating dominant single photon emission. The steady state nanowire temperature under these conditions is estimated to be 150 K due to Joule heating induced by the large nanowire series resistance. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements yield an exciton radiative lifetime of 1.1 ns.

  7. Single-crystal nanowires grown via electron-beam-induced deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Kate L; Randolph, Steven J; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Allard Jr, Lawrence Frederick; Meyer III, Harry M; Simpson, Michael L; Rack, Philip D

    2008-01-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a useful technique for direct-writing of 3-dimensional dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic materials with nanoscale precision and resolution. The EBID process, however, has been limited in many cases because precursor byproducts (typically from organic precursors like W(CO)6) are incorporated into the deposited material resulting in contaminated and amorphous structures. In this manuscript, we have investigated the structure and composition of EBID tungsten nanostructures as-deposited from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) precursor. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy were employed to determine the effects that the electron beam scanning conditions have on the deposit characteristics. The results show that slow, one-dimensional lateral scanning produces textured -tungsten nanowire cores surrounded by an oxide secondary layer, while stationary vertical growth leads to single-crystal [100]-oriented W3O nanowires. Furthermore we correlate how the growth kinetics affect the resultant nanowire structure and composition.

  8. Light-gated single CdSe nanowire transistor: photocurrent saturation and band gap extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Chakraborty, Ritun; Kudera, Stefan; Krahne, Roman

    2015-11-01

    CdSe nanowires are popular building blocks for many optoelectronic devices mainly owing to their direct band gap in the visible range of the spectrum. Here we investigate the optoelectronic properties of single CdSe nanowires fabricated by colloidal synthesis, in terms of their photocurrent-voltage characteristics and photoconductivity spectra recorded at 300 and 18 K. The photocurrent is identified as the secondary photocurrent, which gives rise to a photoconductive gain of 35. We observe a saturation of the photocurrent beyond a certain voltage bias that can be related to the finite drift velocity of electrons. From the photoconductivity spectra, we determine the band gap energy of the nanowires as 1.728 eV, and we resolve low-energy peaks that can be associated with sub-bandgap states.

  9. Salt flux synthesis of single and bimetallic carbide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Brian M.; Waetzig, Gregory R.; Clouser, Dale A.; Schmuecker, Samantha M.; Harris, Daniel P.; Stacy, John M.; Duffee, Kyle D.; Wan, Cheng

    2016-07-01

    Metal carbide compounds have a broad range of interesting properties and are some of the hardest and highest melting point compounds known. However, their high melting points force very high reaction temperatures and thus limit the formation of high surface area nanomaterials. To avoid the extreme synthesis temperatures commonly associated with these materials, a new salt flux technique has been employed to reduce reaction temperatures and form these materials in the nanometer regime. Additionally, the use of multiwall carbon nanotubes as a reactant further reduces the diffusion distance and provides a template for the final carbide materials. The metal carbide compounds produced through this low temperature salt flux technique maintain the nanowire morphology of the carbon nanotubes but increase in size to ˜15-20 nm diameter due to the incorporation of metal in the carbon lattice. These nano-carbides not only have nanowire like shape but also have much higher surface areas than traditionally prepared metal carbides. Finally, bimetallic carbides with composition control can be produced with this method by simply using two metal precursors in the reaction. This method provides the ability to produce nano sized metal carbide materials with size, morphology, and composition control and will allow for these compounds to be synthesized and studied in a whole new size and temperature regime.

  10. Electrical properties of ZnO single nanowires.

    PubMed

    Stiller, Markus; Barzola-Quiquia, José; Zoraghi, Mahsa; Esquinazi, Pablo

    2015-10-02

    We have investigated the electrical resistance R(T) of ZnO nanowires of ≈ 400 nm diameter as a function of temperature, between 30 K and 300 K, and frequency in the range 40 Hz to 30 MHz. The measurements were done on the as-prepared and after low-energy proton implantation at room temperature. The temperature dependence of the resistance of the wire, before proton implantation, can be well described by two processes in parallel. One process is the fluctuation induced tunneling conductance (FITC) and the other the usual thermally activated process. The existence of a tunneling conductance was also observed in the current-voltage ([Formula: see text]) results, and can be well described by the FITC model. Impedance spectroscopy measurements in the as-prepared state and at room temperature, indicate and support the idea of two contributions of these two transport processes in the nanowires. Electron backscatter diffraction confirms the existence of different crystalline regions. After the implantation of H(+) a third thermally activated process is found that can be explained by taking into account the impurity band splitting due to proton implantation.

  11. One step solution synthesis towards ultra-thin and uniform single-crystalline ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, G. W.; Wong, A. S. W.

    2007-03-01

    Bundles of high-aspect-ratio single-crystalline ZnO nanowires were fabricated by a single-step mild hydrothermal condition without the use of a seeding layer, thus eliminating an annealing step. The growth yields nanowires of high aspect ratio (>200). No significant lateral growth takes place with prolonged reaction time. The morphology and aspect ratio of the final products depend on the concentration of the precursors; a highly water-soluble tetradentate cyclic tertiary amine and zinc nitrate system. The nanowires grow along the [0001] direction and have an average width of <10 nm and a narrow distribution of ±5 nm. Photoluminescence measurements of the ultra-thin nanowires exhibit a strong band-edge emission at room temperature. The highly crystalline sub tens of nanometer scale diameter nanowires can, in combination, be a good one-dimensional candidate to study optical and electronic properties.

  12. Monolithic carbon structures including suspended single nanowires and nanomeshes as a sensor platform

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    With the development of nanomaterial-based nanodevices, it became inevitable to develop cost-effective and simple nanofabrication technologies enabling the formation of nanomaterial assembly in a controllable manner. Herein, we present suspended monolithic carbon single nanowires and nanomeshes bridging two bulk carbon posts, fabricated in a designed manner using two successive UV exposure steps and a single pyrolysis step. The pyrolysis step is accompanied with a significant volume reduction, resulting in the shrinkage of micro-sized photoresist structures into nanoscale carbon structures. Even with the significant elongation of the suspended carbon nanowire induced by the volume reduction of the bulk carbon posts, the resultant tensional stress along the nanowire is not significant but grows along the wire thickness; this tensional stress gradient and the bent supports of the bridge-like carbon nanowire enhance structural robustness and alleviate the stiction problem that suspended nanostructures frequently experience. The feasibility of the suspended carbon nanostructures as a sensor platform was demonstrated by testing its electrochemical behavior, conductivity-temperature relationship, and hydrogen gas sensing capability. PMID:24256942

  13. Ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on single-layered nickel hydroxide with high hydrogen evolution activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Huajie; Zhao, Shenlong; Zhao, Kun; Muqsit, Abdul; Tang, Hongjie; Chang, Lin; Zhao, Huijun; Gao, Yan; Tang, Zhiyong

    2015-03-01

    Design and synthesis of effective electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline environments is critical to reduce energy losses in alkaline water electrolysis. Here we report a hybrid nanomaterial comprising of one-dimensional ultrathin platinum nanowires grown on two-dimensional single-layered nickel hydroxide. Judicious surface chemistry to generate the fully exfoliated nickel hydroxide single layers is explored to be the key for controllable growth of ultrathin platinum nanowires with diameters of about 1.8 nm. Impressively, this hybrid nanomaterial exhibits superior electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen evolution reaction in alkaline solution, which outperforms currently reported catalysts, and the obviously improved catalytic stability. We believe that this work may lead towards the development of single-layered metal hydroxide-based hybrid materials for applications in catalysis and energy conversion.

  14. Genetic Variation in the 3'-Untranslated Region of NBN Gene Is Associated with Gastric Cancer Risk in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xun; Ren, Chuanli; Xie, Lan; Dai, Ningbin; Gu, Yayun; Yan, Caiwang; Dai, Juncheng; Ma, Hongxia; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Jiaping; Hu, Zhibin; Shen, Hongbing; Wu, Haorong; Jin, Guangfu

    2015-01-01

    NBN plays a crucial role in carcinogenesis as a core component for both homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathways. Genetic variants in the NBN gene have been associated with multiple cancers risk, suggesting pleiotropic effect on cancer. We hypothesized that genetic variants in the NBN gene may modify the risk of gastric cancer. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the association between four potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in NBN and gastric cancer risk in a case–control study of 1,140 gastric cancer cases and 1,547 controls in a Chinese population. We found that the A allele of rs10464867 (G>A) was significantly associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.71–0.94; P = 4.71×10−3). Furthermore, the association between A allele of rs10464867 and decreased risk of gastric cancer was more significantly in elder individuals (per-allele OR = 0.72[0.59–0.88], P = 1.07×10−3), and male individuals (per-allele OR = 0.73[0.62–0.87], P = 3.68×10−4). We further conducted a haplotype analysis and identified that the NBN Ars10464867Grs14448Grs1063053 haplotype conferred stronger protective effect on gastric cancer (OR = 0.76[0.65–0.89], P = 6.39×10−4). In summary, these findings indicate that genetic variants at NBN gene may contribute to gastric cancer susceptibility and may further advance our understanding of NBN gene in cancer development. PMID:26402912

  15. The Influence of Short-Range Correlation on the Phonon Confinement of a Single ZnO Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Shih, Po-Hsun; Wu, Sheng Yun

    2017-12-01

    Plenty of researches have been performed to probe the diverse properties of ZnO nanowires, but only a few have focused on the physical properties of a single nanowire since to analyze the optical confinement and their correlation lengths along a single nanowire is difficult. In this study, a single ZnO nanowire was synthesized using a Ti-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to avoid the appearance of catalytic contamination. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for probing the phonon confinement effect in a single ZnO nanowire. A confinement model was used to calculate the correlation lengths along the growth direction. The Raman mapping of ZnO nanowires was obtained by a confocal Raman spectrometer. A phonon confinement model was used to fit the Raman curves of the E2 mode and to obtain the correlation lengths along the growth direction of the ZnO nanowire. The correlation lengths are related to the phonon confined region by boundaries and/or defects.

  16. Facile fabrication of electrolyte-gated single-crystalline cuprous oxide nanowire field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoesser, Anna; von Seggern, Falk; Purohit, Suneeti; Nasr, Babak; Kruk, Robert; Dehm, Simone; Wang, Di; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2016-10-01

    Oxide semiconductors are considered to be one of the forefront candidates for the new generation, high-performance electronics. However, one of the major limitations for oxide electronics is the scarcity of an equally good hole-conducting semiconductor, which can provide identical performance for the p-type metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors as compared to their electron conducting counterparts. In this quest, here we present a bulk synthesis method for single crystalline cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanowires, their chemical and morphological characterization and suitability as active channel material in electrolyte-gated, low-power, field-effect transistors (FETs) for portable and flexible logic circuits. The bulk synthesis method used in the present study includes two steps: namely hydrothermal synthesis of the nanowires and the removal of the surface organic contaminants. The surface treated nanowires are then dispersed on a receiver substrate where the passive electrodes are structured, followed by printing of a composite solid polymer electrolyte (CSPE), chosen as the gate insulator. The characteristic electrical properties of individual nanowire FETs are found to be quite interesting including accumulation-mode operation and field-effect mobility of 0.15 cm2 V-1 s-1.

  17. In Situ Observation of the Electrochemical Lithiation of a Single SnO2 Nanowire Electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J Y; Zhong, L; Wang, C M; Sullivan, J P; Xu, W; Zhang, L Q; Mao, S X; Hudak, N S; Liu, X H; Subramanian, A; Fan, H Y; Qi, L A; Kushima, A; Li, J

    2010-12-09

    We report the creation of a nanoscale electrochemical device inside a transmission electron microscope—consisting of a single tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanowire anode, an ionic liquid electrolyte, and a bulk lithium cobalt dioxide (LiCoO{sub 2}) cathode—and the in situ observation of the lithiation of the SnO{sub 2} nanowire during electrochemical charging. Upon charging, a reaction front propagated progressively along the nanowire, causing the nanowire to swell, elongate, and spiral. The reaction front is a “Medusa zone” containing a high density of mobile dislocations, which are continuously nucleated and absorbed at the moving front. This dislocation cloud indicates large in-plane misfit stresses and is a structural precursor to electrochemically driven solid-state amorphization. Because lithiation-induced volume expansion, plasticity, and pulverization of electrode materials are the major mechanical effects that plague the performance and lifetime of high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries, our observations provide important mechanistic insight for the design of advanced batteries.

  18. In situ observation of the electrochemical lithiation of a single SnO₂ nanowire electrode.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian Yu; Zhong, Li; Wang, Chong Min; Sullivan, John P; Xu, Wu; Zhang, Li Qiang; Mao, Scott X; Hudak, Nicholas S; Liu, Xiao Hua; Subramanian, Arunkumar; Fan, Hongyou; Qi, Liang; Kushima, Akihiro; Li, Ju

    2010-12-10

    We report the creation of a nanoscale electrochemical device inside a transmission electron microscope--consisting of a single tin dioxide (SnO(2)) nanowire anode, an ionic liquid electrolyte, and a bulk lithium cobalt dioxide (LiCoO(2)) cathode--and the in situ observation of the lithiation of the SnO(2) nanowire during electrochemical charging. Upon charging, a reaction front propagated progressively along the nanowire, causing the nanowire to swell, elongate, and spiral. The reaction front is a "Medusa zone" containing a high density of mobile dislocations, which are continuously nucleated and absorbed at the moving front. This dislocation cloud indicates large in-plane misfit stresses and is a structural precursor to electrochemically driven solid-state amorphization. Because lithiation-induced volume expansion, plasticity, and pulverization of electrode materials are the major mechanical effects that plague the performance and lifetime of high-capacity anodes in lithium-ion batteries, our observations provide important mechanistic insight for the design of advanced batteries.

  19. Synthesis of single-crystal low-loss LiB3O5 nanowire and its optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Guang-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Cui, Guo-xin; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2016-01-01

    Optical-quality single-crystal LiB3O5 (LBO) nanowires are synthesized for the first time using a sol–gel method. The LBO nanowires possess diameters ranging from 200 to 800 nm and lengths of up to 200 μm, and exhibit excellent uniformity, smooth surfaces, and good mechanical properties. A typical propagating loss of 0.038 dB/μm at 532 nm is obtained for a 620 nm-diameter nanowire. This is a decrease of one order of magnitude compared with that of a β-BaB2O4 (BBO) nanowire with similar diameter, which makes the LBO nanowire a promising candidate to construct miniaturized nonlinear photonic devices. PMID:27991549

  20. Synthesis of single-crystal low-loss LiB3O5 nanowire and its optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Guang-Yuan; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Cui, Guo-Xin; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2016-12-01

    Optical-quality single-crystal LiB3O5 (LBO) nanowires are synthesized for the first time using a sol–gel method. The LBO nanowires possess diameters ranging from 200 to 800 nm and lengths of up to 200 μm, and exhibit excellent uniformity, smooth surfaces, and good mechanical properties. A typical propagating loss of 0.038 dB/μm at 532 nm is obtained for a 620 nm-diameter nanowire. This is a decrease of one order of magnitude compared with that of a β-BaB2O4 (BBO) nanowire with similar diameter, which makes the LBO nanowire a promising candidate to construct miniaturized nonlinear photonic devices.

  1. X-ray diffraction strain analysis of a single axial InAs 1-x Px nanowire segment.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Mario; Mandl, Bernhard; Kriegner, Dominik; Holý, Václav; Samuelsson, Lars; Bauer, Günther; Deppert, Knut; Stangl, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The spatial strain distribution in and around a single axial InAs 1-x Px hetero-segment in an InAs nanowire was analyzed using nano-focused X-ray diffraction. In connection with finite-element-method simulations a detailed quantitative picture of the nanowire's inhomogeneous strain state was achieved. This allows for a detailed understanding of how the variation of the nanowire's and hetero-segment's dimensions affect the strain in its core region and in the region close to the nanowire's side facets. Moreover, ensemble-averaging high-resolution diffraction experiments were used to determine statistical information on the distribution of wurtzite and zinc-blende crystal polytypes in the nanowires.

  2. Resistive Switching Memory of TiO2 Nanowire Networks Grown on Ti Foil by a Single Hydrothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ming; Musselman, Kevin P.; Duley, Walter W.; Zhou, Norman Y.

    2017-04-01

    The resistive switching characteristics of TiO2 nanowire networks directly grown on Ti foil by a single-step hydrothermal technique are discussed in this paper. The Ti foil serves as the supply of Ti atoms for growth of the TiO2 nanowires, making the preparation straightforward. It also acts as a bottom electrode for the device. A top Al electrode was fabricated by e-beam evaporation process. The Al/TiO2 nanowire networks/Ti device fabricated in this way displayed a highly repeatable and electroforming-free bipolar resistive behavior with retention for more than 104 s and an OFF/ON ratio of approximately 70. The switching mechanism of this Al/TiO2 nanowire networks/Ti device is suggested to arise from the migration of oxygen vacancies under applied electric field. This provides a facile way to obtain metal oxide nanowire-based ReRAM device in the future.

  3. Enhanced light-harvesting capability for silicon single-nanowire solar cells coupled with metallic cavity.

    PubMed

    Gai, Feng; Zhang, Cheng; Zhan, Yaohui; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-26

    Single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) are attracting increasing interest due to their unique optical antenna effect beneficial for achieving higher light-trapping capability. However, for conventional circular-cross-sectional SNSCs, the light-trapping performance is still far from the expectation. Here we demonstrate that integrating a silicon single nanowire into a metallic slit can dramatically enhance the absorption efficiency over almost the whole spectral band due to strengthened optical antenna effect. Especially, it is found that by using finite-size metallic blocks to form a nanoscale metallic cavity, the light-trapping performance of the SNSCs can be further improved. Through examining the detailed optical spectral response, electric field distribution, and cavity dispersion characteristics, the metallic-coupled SNSC system is optimized and the underlying physics are provided. Simulation results indicate that the photocurrent density of the SNSCs coupled with the designed metallic cavity can be enhanced by 44.4% than that of the conventional bare SNSCs.

  4. Sharp exciton emission from single InAs quantum dots in GaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panev, Nikolay; Persson, Ann I.; Sköld, Niklas; Samuelson, Lars

    2003-09-01

    We have performed photoluminescence spectroscopy on single GaAs nanowires with InAs quantum dots in the form of thin slices of InAs, possibly alloyed with Ga as InGaAs, incorporated into the GaAs. The nanowires were grown by chemical beam epitaxy using gold nanoparticles as catalysts. The photoluminescence measurements showed rich spectra consisting of sharp lines with energies and excitation power dependency behavior very similar to that observed for Stranski-Krastanow-grown InAs/GaAs quantum dots. By reducing the excitation power density we were able to obtain a quantum dot spectrum consisting of only one single sharp line—the exciton line.

  5. The Slavic NBN Founder Mutation: A Role for Reproductive Fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Seemanova, Eva; Varon, Raymonda; Vejvalka, Jan; Seeman, Pavel; Chrzanowska, Krystyna H.; Digweed, Martin; Resnick, Igor; Kremensky, Ivo; Saar, Kathrin; Hoffmann, Katrin; Dutrannoy, Véronique; Karbasiyan, Mohsen; Ghani, Mehdi; Barić, Ivo; Tekin, Mustafa; Kovacs, Peter; Krawczak, Michael; Reis, André; Sperling, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) are of Slavic origin and carry a deleterious deletion (c.657del5; rs587776650) in the NBN gene on chromosome 8q21. This mutation is essentially confined to Slavic populations and may thus be considered a Slavic founder mutation. Notably, not a single parenthood of a homozygous c.657del5 carrier has been reported to date, while heterozygous carriers do reproduce but have an increased cancer risk. These observations seem to conflict with the considerable carrier frequency of c.657del5 of 0.5% to 1% as observed in different Slavic populations because deleterious mutations would be eliminated quite rapidly by purifying selection. Therefore, we propose that heterozygous c.657del5 carriers have increased reproductive success, i.e., that the mutation confers heterozygote advantage. In fact, in our cohort study of the reproductive history of 24 NBS pedigrees from the Czech Republic, we observed that female carriers gave birth to more children on average than female non-carriers, while no such reproductive differences were observed for males. We also estimate that c.657del5 likely occurred less than 300 generations ago, thus supporting the view that the original mutation predated the historic split and subsequent spread of the ‘Slavic people’. We surmise that the higher fertility of female c.657del5 carriers reflects a lower miscarriage rate in these women, thereby reflecting the role of the NBN gene product, nibrin, in the repair of DNA double strand breaks and their processing in immune gene rearrangements, telomere maintenance, and meiotic recombination, akin to the previously described role of the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2. PMID:27936167

  6. Ambient surfactantless synthesis, growth mechanism, and size-dependent electrocatalytic behavior of high-quality, single crystalline palladium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Koenigsmann, Christopher; Santulli, Alexander C; Sutter, Eli; Wong, Stanislaus S

    2011-09-27

    In this report, we utilize the U-tube double diffusion device as a reliable, environmentally friendly method for the size-controlled synthesis of high-quality, single crystalline Pd nanowires. The nanowires grown in 200 and 15 nm polycarbonate template pores maintain diameters of 270 ± 45 nm and 45 ± 9 nm, respectively, and could be isolated either as individual nanowires or as ordered free-standing arrays. The growth mechanism of these nanowires has been extensively explored, and we have carried out characterization of the isolated nanowires, free-standing nanowire arrays, and cross sections of the filled template in order to determine that a unique two-step growth process predominates within the template pores. Moreover, as-prepared submicrometer and nanosized wires were studied by comparison with ultrathin 2 nm Pd nanowires in order to elucidate the size-dependent trend in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalysis. Subsequently, the desired platinum monolayer overcoating was reliably deposited onto the surface of the Pd nanowires by Cu underpotential deposition (UPD) followed by galvanic displacement of the Cu adatoms. The specific and platinum mass activity of the core-shell catalysts was found to increase from 0.40 mA/cm(2) and 1.01 A/mg to 0.74 mA/cm(2) and 1.74 A/mg as the diameter was decreased from the submicrometer size regime to the ultrathin nanometer range.

  7. Nano-optical observation of cascade switching in a parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detector

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, Robert M. Tanner, Michael G.; Casaburi, Alessandro; Hadfield, Robert H.; Webster, Mark G.; San Emeterio Alvarez, Lara; Jiang, Weitao; Barber, Zoe H.; Warburton, Richard J.

    2014-02-10

    The device physics of parallel-wire superconducting nanowire single photon detectors is based on a cascade process. Using nano-optical techniques and a parallel wire device with spatially separate pixels, we explicitly demonstrate the single- and multi-photon triggering regimes. We develop a model for describing efficiency of a detector operating in the arm-trigger regime. We investigate the timing response of the detector when illuminating a single pixel and two pixels. We see a change in the active area of the detector between the two regimes and find the two-pixel trigger regime to have a faster timing response than the one-pixel regime.

  8. Transport studies of quantum dots sensitized single Mn-ZnO nanowire field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Keshab R.; Maloney, Francis Scott; Rimal, Gaurab; Poudyal, Uma; Tang, Jinke; Wang, Wenyong

    We present opto-electrical transport properties of Mn-CdSe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized single Mn-ZnO nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FET). The ZnO NWs with 2 atomic % of Mn doping are grown by chemical vapor deposition. The NWs are ferromagnetic at low temperature. The as grown nanowires are transferred to clean SiO2/Si substrate and single nanowire field effect transistors (FET) are fabricated by standard e-beam lithography. Mobility and carrier concentration of Mn-ZnO NWs are estimated from FET device measurement which shows NWs are n-type semiconductors. Pulse laser deposition of Mn-CdSe QDs on the single NW FET significantly increases carrier concentration of the QD-NW system in dark where the QD monolayer conduction is negligibly small. The photoconductivity study of QD sensitized NW FET enlightens the conduction spectrum of QD-NW system and QD to NW carrier transfer mechanism. This work has been supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-10ER46728.

  9. Formation of long single quantum dots in high quality InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dingxun; Li, Sen; Kang, N; Caroff, Philippe; Wang, L B; Huang, Y Q; Deng, M T; Yu, C L; Xu, H Q

    2015-09-28

    We report on realization and transport spectroscopy study of single quantum dots (QDs) made from InSb nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The nanowires employed are 50-80 nm in diameter and the QDs are defined in the nanowires between the source and drain contacts on a Si/SiO2 substrate. We show that highly tunable QD devices can be realized with the MBE-grown InSb nanowires and the gate-to-dot capacitance extracted in the many-electron regimes is scaled linearly with the longitudinal dot size, demonstrating that the devices are of single InSb nanowire QDs even with a longitudinal size of ∼700 nm. In the few-electron regime, the quantum levels in the QDs are resolved and the Landég-factors extracted for the quantum levels from the magnetotransport measurements are found to be strongly level-dependent and fluctuated in a range of 18-48. A spin-orbit coupling strength is extracted from the magnetic field evolutions of a ground state and its neighboring excited state in an InSb nanowire QD and is on the order of ∼300 μeV. Our results establish that the MBE-grown InSb nanowires are of high crystal quality and are promising for the use in constructing novel quantum devices, such as entangled spin qubits, one-dimensional Wigner crystals and topological quantum computing devices.

  10. The sensitivity of gas sensor based on single ZnO nanowire modulated by helium ion radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, L.; Lu, H. B.; Li, J. C.; Liu, C.; Fu, D. J.; Liu, Y. L.

    2007-10-22

    In this letter, we present a gas sensor using a single ZnO nanowire as a sensing unit. This ZnO nanowire-based sensor has quick and high sensitive response to H{sub 2}S in air at room temperature. It has also been found that the gas sensitivity of the ZnO nanowires could be modulated and enhanced by He{sup +} implantation at an appropriate dose. A possible explanation is given based on the modulation model of the depletion layer.

  11. Single-photon emission from InAsP quantum dots embedded in density-controlled InP nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanase, Shougo; Sasakura, Hirotaka; Hara, Shinjiro; Motohisa, Junichi

    2017-04-01

    We attempted to control the density and size of InP-based nanowires (NWs) and nanowire quantum dots (NW-QDs) during selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. InP nanowire arrays with a 5 µm pitch and an average NW diameter d of 67 nm were successfully grown by optimization of growth conditions. InAsP quantum dots were embedded in these density-controlled InP NW arrays, and clear single-photon emission and exciton-biexciton cascaded emission were confirmed by excitation-dependent photoluminescence and photon correlation measurements.

  12. Localized tip enhanced Raman spectroscopic study of impurity incorporated single GaN nanowire in the sub-diffraction limit

    SciTech Connect

    Patsha, Avinash E-mail: dhara@igcar.gov.in; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, A. K.

    2015-09-21

    The localized effect of impurities in single GaN nanowires in the sub-diffraction limit is reported using the study of lattice vibrational modes in the evanescent field of Au nanoparticle assisted tip enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). GaN nanowires with the O impurity and the Mg dopants were grown by the chemical vapor deposition technique in the catalyst assisted vapor-liquid-solid process. Symmetry allowed Raman modes of wurtzite GaN are observed for undoped and doped nanowires. Unusually very strong intensity of the non-zone center zone boundary mode is observed for the TERS studies of both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN single nanowires. Surface optical mode of A{sub 1} symmetry is also observed for both the undoped and the Mg doped GaN samples. A strong coupling of longitudinal optical (LO) phonons with free electrons, however, is reported only in the O rich single nanowires with the asymmetric A{sub 1}(LO) mode. Study of the local vibration mode shows the presence of Mg as dopant in the single GaN nanowires.

  13. Fabrication of a single metal nanowire connected with dissimilar metal electrodes and its application to chemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Yu; Chen, Hsiang-An; Lin, Heh-Nan

    2008-03-15

    We report a convenient method for the fabrication of a single metal nanowire connected with dissimilar metal electrodes and its application to chemical sensing. The method is based on a combination of atomic force microscopy nanomachining and conventional photolithography. The success of this integrated approach is confirmed by the linear current-voltage behavior of the created nanowires and comparable resistivities with those reported previously. The chemical sensing capability is demonstrated by the selective binding of a self-assembled monolayer onto a single Au nanowire connected with Ti electrodes and the subsequent resistance increase due to increased surface scattering effects after adsorption. It is found that the resistance increases by around 9% after the complete coverage of either octadecanethiol or dodecanethiol molecules onto a 20 nm thick Au nanowire. A theoretical explanation for the relationship between the resistance increase and the alkanethiol concentration is also given.

  14. Investigation into Photoconductivity in Single CNF/TiO2-Dye Core-Shell Nanowire Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhuangzhi; Rochford, Caitlin; Javier Baca, F.; Liu, Jianwei; Li, Jun; Wu, Judy

    2010-09-01

    A vertically aligned carbon nanofiber array coated with anatase TiO2 (CNF/TiO2) is an attractive possible replacement for the sintered TiO2 nanoparticle network in the original dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design due to the potential for improved charge transport and reduced charge recombination. Although the reported efficiency of 1.1% in these modified DSSC’s is encouraging, the limiting factors must be identified before a higher efficiency can be obtained. This work employs a single nanowire approach to investigate the charge transport in individual CNF/TiO2 core-shell nanowires with adsorbed N719 dye molecules in dark and under illumination. The results shed light on the role of charge traps and dye adsorption on the (photo) conductivity of nanocrystalline TiO2 CNF’s as related to dye-sensitized solar cell performance.

  15. Antibacterial activity of single crystalline silver-doped anatase TiO2 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Li, Meng; He, Xiaojing; Hang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Yueyue; Yao, Xiaohong; Tang, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Well-ordered, one-dimensional silver-doped anatase TiO2 nanowire (AgNW) arrays have been prepared through a hydrothermal growth process on the sputtering-deposited AgTi layers. Electron microscope analyses reveal that the as-synthesized AgNW arrays exhibit a single crystalline phase with highly uniform morphologies, diameters ranging from 85 to 95 nm, and lengths of about 11 μm. Silver is found to be doped into TiO2 nanowire evenly and mainly exists in the zerovalent state. The AgNW arrays show excellent efficient antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), and all of the bacteria can be killed within 1 h. Additionally, the AgNW arrays can still kill E. coli after immersion for 60 days, suggesting the long-term antibacterial property. The technique reported here is environmental friendly for formation of silver-containing nanostructure without using any toxic organic solvents.

  16. Alignment, rotation, and spinning of single plasmonic nanoparticles and nanowires using polarization dependent optical forces.

    PubMed

    Tong, Lianming; Miljković, Vladimir D; Käll, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate optical alignment and rotation of individual plasmonic nanostructures with lengths from tens of nanometers to several micrometers using a single beam of linearly polarized near-infrared laser light. Silver nanorods and dimers of gold nanoparticles align parallel to the laser polarization because of the high long-axis dipole polarizability. Silver nanowires, in contrast, spontaneously turn perpendicular to the incident polarization and predominantly attach at the wire ends, in agreement with electrodynamics simulations. Wires, rods, and dimers all rotate if the incident polarization is turned. In the case of nanowires, we demonstrate spinning at an angular frequency of approximately 1 Hz due to transfer of spin angular momentum from circularly polarized light.

  17. Single-crystalline δ-Ni2Si nanowires with excellent physical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Wen-Li; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Huang, Yu-Ting; Lu, Kuo-Chang; Hsin, Cheng-Lun; Yeh, Ping-Hung; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2013-06-01

    In this article, we report the synthesis of single-crystalline nickel silicide nanowires (NWs) via chemical vapor deposition method using NiCl2·6H2O as a single-source precursor. Various morphologies of δ-Ni2Si NWs were successfully acquired by controlling the growth conditions. The growth mechanism of the δ-Ni2Si NWs was thoroughly discussed and identified with microscopy studies. Field emission measurements show a low turn-on field (4.12 V/μm), and magnetic property measurements show a classic ferromagnetic characteristic, which demonstrates promising potential applications for field emitters, magnetic storage, and biological cell separation.

  18. Subnanosecond spectral diffusion of a single quantum dot in a nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallen, G.; Tribu, A.; Aichele, T.; André, R.; Besombes, L.; Bougerol, C.; Richard, M.; Tatarenko, S.; Kheng, K.; Poizat, J.-Ph.

    2011-07-01

    We have studied spectral diffusion of the photoluminescence of a single CdSe quantum dot inserted in a ZnSe nanowire. We have measured the characteristic diffusion time as a function of pumping power and temperature using a recently developed technique [G. Sallen , Nat. Photon. RMPHAT1749-488510.1038/nphoton.2010.1744, 696 (2010)] that offers subnanosecond resolution. These data are consistent with a model where only a single carrier wanders around in traps located in the vicinity of the quantum dot.

  19. Improving the timing jitter of a superconducting nanowire single-photon detection system.

    PubMed

    Wu, Junjie; You, Lixing; Chen, Sijing; Li, Hao; He, Yuhao; Lv, Chaolin; Wang, Zhen; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-03-10

    Low timing jitter is a unique merit of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) for time-correlated applications. Quantitative analysis was performed for the SNSPD system. Aided by an oscilloscope with an optimal signal amplitude, we were able to measure a full width at half-maximum system timing jitter as low as 14.2 ps for a high-switching-current SNSPD using a room-temperature low-noise amplifier. When using a time-correlated single-photon counting module, the system timing jitter was 17.3 ps. The detector's intrinsic timing jitter was estimated at ∼12.0  ps.

  20. Orthogonal sequencing multiplexer for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with RSFQ electronics readout circuit.

    PubMed

    Hofherr, Matthias; Wetzstein, Olaf; Engert, Sonja; Ortlepp, Thomas; Berg, Benjamin; Ilin, Konstantin; Henrich, Dagmar; Stolz, Ronny; Toepfer, Hannes; Meyer, Hans-Georg; Siegel, Michael

    2012-12-17

    We propose an efficient multiplexing technique for superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on an orthogonal detector bias switching method enabling the extraction of the average count rate of a set of detectors by one readout line. We implemented a system prototype where the SNSPDs are connected to an integrated cryogenic readout and a pulse merger system based on rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) electronics. We discuss the general scalability of this concept, analyze the environmental requirements which define the resolvability and the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of this approach with experimental results for a SNSPD array with four pixels.

  1. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, K. M. Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles; Padture, Nitin P.

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120 K and a room temperature coercive field of 90 Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  2. Electrical probing of magnetic phase transition and domain wall motion in single-crystalline Mn₅Ge₃ nanowire.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Jiang, Wanjun; Chang, Li-Te; Fan, Yabin; Chan, Michael; Wu, Can; Hung, Min-Hsiu; Liu, Pei-Hsuan; Yang, Hong-Jie; Tuan, Hsing-Yu; Chen, Lih-Juann; Wang, Kang L

    2012-12-12

    In this Letter, the magnetic phase transition and domain wall motion in a single-crystalline Mn(5)Ge(3) nanowire were investigated by temperature-dependent magneto-transport measurements. The ferromagnetic Mn(5)Ge(3) nanowire was fabricated by fully germaniding a single-crystalline Ge nanowire through the solid-state reaction with Mn contacts upon thermal annealing at 450 °C. Temperature-dependent four-probe resistance measurements on the Mn(5)Ge(3) nanowire showed a clear slope change near 300 K accompanied by a magnetic phase transition from ferromagnetism to paramagnetism. The transition temperature was able to be controlled by both axial and radial magnetic fields as the external magnetic field helped maintain the magnetization aligned in the Mn(5)Ge(3) nanowire. Near the magnetic phase transition, the critical behavior in the 1D system was characterized by a power-law relation with a critical exponent of α = 0.07 ± 0.01. Besides, another interesting feature was revealed as a cusp at about 67 K in the first-order derivative of the nanowire resistance, which was attributed to a possible magnetic transition between two noncollinear and collinear ferromagnetic states in the Mn(5)Ge(3) lattice. Furthermore, temperature-dependent magneto-transport measurements demonstrated a hysteretic, symmetric, and stepwise axial magnetoresistance of the Mn(5)Ge(3) nanowire. The interesting features of abrupt jumps indicated the presence of multiple domain walls in the Mn(5)Ge(3) nanowire and the annihilation of domain walls driven by the magnetic field. The Kurkijärvi model was used to describe the domain wall depinning as thermally assisted escape from a single energy barrier, and the fitting on the temperature-dependent depinning magnetic fields yielded an energy barrier of 0.166 eV.

  3. Single-crystal nanowires grown via electron-beam-induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, K. L.; Randolph, S. J.; Fowlkes, J. D.; Allard, L. F.; Meyer, H. M., III; Simpson, M. L.; Rack, P. D.

    2008-08-01

    Electron-beam-induced deposition (EBID) is a useful technique for direct-writing of three-dimensional dielectric, semiconductor, and metallic materials with nanoscale precision and resolution. The EBID process, however, has been limited in many cases because precursor byproducts (typically from organic precursors like W(CO)6) are incorporated into the deposited material resulting in contaminated and amorphous structures. In this work, we have investigated the structure and composition of EBID tungsten nanostructures as-deposited from a tungsten hexafluoride (WF6) precursor. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction and electron spectroscopy were employed to determine the effects that the electron beam scanning conditions have on the deposit characteristics. The results show that slow, one-dimensional lateral scanning produces textured β-tungsten nanowire cores surrounded by an oxide secondary layer, while stationary vertical growth leads to single-crystal [100]-oriented W3O nanowires. Furthermore we correlate how the growth kinetics affect the resultant nanowire structure and composition.

  4. Optoelectronically probing the density of nanowire surface trap states to the single state limit

    SciTech Connect

    Dan, Yaping

    2015-02-02

    Surface trap states play a dominant role in the optoelectronic properties of nanoscale devices. Understanding the surface trap states allows us to properly engineer the device surfaces for better performance. But characterization of surface trap states at nanoscale has been a formidable challenge using the traditional capacitive techniques. Here, we demonstrate a simple but powerful optoelectronic method to probe the density of nanowire surface trap states to the single state limit. In this method, we choose to tune the quasi-Fermi level across the bandgap of a silicon nanowire photoconductor, allowing for capture and emission of photogenerated charge carriers by surface trap states. The experimental data show that the energy density of nanowire surface trap states is in a range from 10{sup 9 }cm{sup −2}/eV at deep levels to 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}/eV near the conduction band edge. This optoelectronic method allows us to conveniently probe trap states of ultra-scaled nano/quantum devices at extremely high precision.

  5. Atomistic Study of the Melting Behavior of Single Crystalline Wurtzite Gallium Nitride Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Zu, Xiaotao; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2007-03-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation was used to study the melting behavior of GaN nanowires with Stillinger-Webber (SW) potential. Our results reveal that the melting of nanowires starts from the surface, and rapidly extends to the inner regions of nanowires as temperature increases. The melting temperature of GaN nanowires is lower than that of the bulk GaN, which may associate with large surfaces of nanowires. The melting temperatures increase to saturation values ~3100K and ~2900K when the diameters of nanowires are larger than 3.14 and 4.14 nm for nanowires with [100]- and [110]-oriented lateral facets, respectively.

  6. Controllable Synthesis of Single-Crystalline CdO and Cd(OH)2Nanowires by a Simple Hydrothermal Approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Single-crystalline Cd(OH)2 or CdO nanowires can be selectively synthesized at 150 °C by a simple hydrothermal method using aqueous Cd(NO3)2 as precursor. The method is biosafe, and compared to the conventional oil-water surfactant approach, more environmental-benign. As revealed by the XRD results, CdO or Cd(OH)2 nanowires can be generated in high purity by varying the time of synthesis. The results of FESEM and HRTEM analysis show that the CdO nanowires are formed in bundles. Over the CdO-nanowire bundles, photoluminescence at ~517 nm attributable to near band-edge emission of CdO was recorded. Based on the experimental results, a possible growth mechanism of the products is proposed. PMID:20672033

  7. Single crystalline 3C-SiC nanowires grown on the diamond surface with the assistance of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, W.; Yu, J. H.; Wang, Y.; Song, Y. Z.; Bai, H.; Jiang, N.

    2015-06-01

    Single crystalline 3C-SiC nanowires were grown directly on the surface of bulk diamond in a catalyst-participated heating treatment process at 1300 °C. The iron powder was used as catalyst and graphene was served as the second carbon source during the reaction. The sample was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy-dispersed X-ray (EDX). The results showed that the nanowires consisted of a crystalline 3C-SiC core that had a diameter of 40-60 nm and wrapped with about 10 nm amorphous SiO2 shell. Their lengths were up to several micrometers. The axes of nanowires lay along the [111] direction with a high density of stacking fault. Accordingly, we proposed graphene-assisted growth model to interpret the growth process of SiC nanowires on the diamond surface.

  8. Characterization of the oxygen oonosorption effect on a single SnO2 nanowire by using conductive atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jinhee; Lee, Junghwan

    2012-06-01

    We have verified that SnO2 nano-wire has an n-type semiconductor property and it can be a p-type one when it is exposed to O2. We employed conductive AFM system to measure the I-V curve and resistance of single SnO2 nano-wire which had been synthesized on the Au thin film by a thermal process. To analyze a effect of O2 ionosorption into nano-wire, resistance was measured with various O2 concentration and we observed increment and maintenance of resistance which caused by O2 ionosorption. Also, the O2 ionosorption causes a type transfer of semiconductor and this phenomenon was verified by comparing the Schottky property of nano-wire before and after O2 exposure.

  9. Electrical properties of single and multiple poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) nanowires for sensing nitric oxide gas.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui-Hsin; Lin, Chia-Yu; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien; Fang, Yueh-Yuan; Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Yang, Dongfang; Lee, Chih-Kung; Hsu, Su-Ming; Lin, Chii-Wann

    2009-04-27

    The electrical properties of conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), nanowires were studied to develop nitric oxide (NO) gas sensors with low working temperatures. A nanowire with a diameter of 300 nm was fabricated using dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) across a 55 microm gap between a pair of electrodes. The electrical properties of single or multiple PEDOT nanowires were examined by plotting the current-voltage (I-V) curves in the range -3 V to +3 V at temperatures between 298 K and 393 K. The conductance of parallel wires was normalized with respect to the dimensions of the fabricated nanowires. The single nanowire exhibited nonlinear conductance associated with hysteresis but multiple wires did not. The currents increased with the temperature and the I-V characteristics were consistent with the power law G(T)alphaT(alpha) with alpha approximately 5.14 and 5.43. The responses to NO were highly linear and reproducible, indicating that sensing using PEDOT nanowires was reliable with a minimal concentration of NO of 10 ppm.

  10. Large-scale synthesis and electrical transport properties of single-crystalline SmB6 nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yong; Peng, Yuehua; Yin, Yanling; Zhou, Weichang; Zhou, Fang; Liu, Chang; Liu, Guangtong; Sun, Lianfeng; Tang, Dongsheng

    2016-07-01

    Topological Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride (SmB6) nanowires, with diameters of 60-150 nm and lengths up to 1-5 μm, were successfully synthesized in large scale by chemical vapor deposition using BCl3 and SmCl3 as precursors at 1070 °C. Transmission electron microscopy observation and selected area electron diffraction analysis indicate that SmB6 nanowires are single-crystalline and grow in a preferred direction of [1 0 0]. It also indicates that the growth of SmB6 nanowires might be governed by a vapor-solid mechanism. Conventional four-terminal resistance measurements show that the resistance of an SmB6 nanowire increases with decreasing temperature, but saturates at temperatures less than 10 K, which might be attributed to a true topological insulator with a metallic surface and fully insulating bulk states. Resistance measurements also indicate that the contribution of surface states to conductance in the SmB6 nanowire is enhanced remarkably; therefore the high-quality single-crystalline SmB6 nanowires with large surface-to-bulk ratio might be the best candidate for investigating the topological properties of this material.

  11. Growth and Physical Property Study of Single Nanowire (Diameter ~45 nm) of Half Doped Manganite

    DOE PAGES

    Datta, Subarna; Chandra, Sayan; Samanta, Sudeshna; ...

    2013-01-01

    We repormore » t here the growth and characterization of functional oxide nanowire of hole doped manganite of La 0.5 Sr 0.5 MnO 3 (LSMO). We also report four-probe electrical resistance measurement of a single nanowire of LSMO (diameter ~45 nm) using focused ion beam (FIB) fabricated electrodes. The wires are fabricated by hydrothermal method using autoclave at a temperature of 270 °C. The elemental analysis and physical property like electrical resistivity are studied at an individual nanowire level. The quantitative determination of Mn valency and elemental mapping of constituent elements are done by using Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) in the Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) mode. We address the important issue of whether as a result of size reduction the nanowires can retain the desired composition, structure, and physical properties. The nanowires used are found to have a ferromagnetic transition ( T C ) at around 325 K which is very close to the bulk value of around 330 K found in single crystal of the same composition. It is confirmed that the functional behavior is likely to be retained even after size reduction of the nanowires to a diameter of 45 nm. The electrical resistivity shows insulating behavior within the measured temperature range which is similar to the bulk system.« less

  12. Single nanowire green InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guogang; Li, Ziyuan; Yuan, Xiaoming; Wang, Fan; Fu, Lan; Zhuang, Zhe; Ren, Fang-Fang; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Rong; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-10-01

    Single nanowire (NW) green InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by top-down etching technology. The electroluminescence (EL) peak wavelength remains approximately constant with an increasing injection current in contrast to a standard planar LED, which suggests that the quantum-confined Stark effect is significantly reduced in the single NW device. The strain relaxation mechanism is studied in the single NW LED using Raman scattering analysis. As compared to its planar counterpart, the EL peak of the NW LED shows a redshift, due to electric field redistribution as a result of changes in the cavity mode pattern after metallization. Our method has important implication for single NW optoelectronic device applications.

  13. Effect of irradiation on DNA synthesis, NBN gene expression and chromosomal stability in cells with NBN mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Jerzy; Świątek-Kościelna, Bogna; Kałużna, Ewelina M.; Rembowska, Jolanta; Dzikiewicz-Krawczyk, Agnieszka; Zawada, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The NBN gene product is part of the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, which plays an essential role in genomic stability. In the study we try to answer the question what is the effect of irradiation on DNA synthesis, NBN gene expression and chromosomal stability in cells with homozygous c.657-661del, and heterozygous c.657-661del, p.I171V and p.R215W NBN gene mutations. Material and methods Immortalized B-lymphocytes with NBN gene mutations were X-ray irradiated at doses of 1, 2, 5 and 8 Gy/min. Radioresistant DNA synthesis rate and the percentage of cells in phase S was analyzed by 3H thymidine and BrdU incorporation assays. NBN gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR with TaqMan fluorescent probe. Results Increasing the irradiation dose resulted in gradual decrease of 3H thymidine incorporation in all cells, but significantly only in homo- and heterozygous c.657-661del cells (p-values < 0.0001). After irradiation the relative expression of NBN was significantly higher in homozygous c.657-661del and heterozygous p.R215W cells as compared to heterozygous c.657-661del, p.I171V and control cells (p < 0.01). All cells with NBN gene mutations showed significantly higher total number of chromosomal aberrations per metaphase as compared to control cells, with the highest number of aberrations in homozygous c.657-661del cells (p < 0.001). Conclusions The results obtained indicate that homozygous c.657-661del mutation affects cell sensitivity to irradiation. Moreover, homozygous variant is associated with disturbance in the activation of cell cycle checkpoints and with defects in DNA repair. In turn, heterozygous c.657-661del, p.R215W and p.I171V mutations do not substantially alter the radiosensitivity. PMID:28261280

  14. Comparing Hall Effect and Field Effect Measurements on the Same Single Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Hultin, Olof; Otnes, Gaute; Borgström, Magnus T; Björk, Mikael; Samuelson, Lars; Storm, Kristian

    2016-01-13

    We compare and discuss the two most commonly used electrical characterization techniques for nanowires (NWs). In a novel single-NW device, we combine Hall effect and back-gated and top-gated field effect measurements and quantify the carrier concentrations in a series of sulfur-doped InP NWs. The carrier concentrations from Hall effect and field effect measurements are found to correlate well when using the analysis methods described in this work. This shows that NWs can be accurately characterized with available electrical methods, an important result toward better understanding of semiconductor NW doping.

  15. Exciton-plasmon coupling of a single quantum dot and a metal nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hong

    2016-11-01

    The interactions between surface plasmons in metal nanostructures and excitons in quantum emitters lead to many interesting phenomena that are strongly dependent on the quantum yield of surface plasmons. The experimental measurement of this quantum yield is hindered due to the difficulty in distinguishing all the possible exciton recombination channels. By utilizing the propagation of surface plasmons, we experimentally measured the decay rates of all exciton recombination channels, and thus obtained the quantum yield of single surface plasmons generated by a quantum dot coupled with a silver nanowire.

  16. Fabrication, characterization, and kinetic study of vertical single-crystalline CuO nanowires on Si substrates

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report here on the first study of the growth kinetics of high-yield, vertical CuO nanowires on silicon substrates produced by the process of thermal oxidation. The length of the CuO nanowires could be tuned from several to tens of micrometers by adjusting the oxidation temperature and time. The grown CuO nanowires were determined to be single-crystalline with different axial crystallographic orientations. After a series of scanning electron microscopy examinations, the average length of CuO nanowires produced at each temperature was found to follow a parabolic relationship with the oxidation time. The parabolic growth rate at different oxidation temperatures was measured. The activation energy for the growth of CuO nanowires calculated from an Arrhenius plot was found to be about 174.2 kJ/mole. In addition, the current-voltage characterization indicated that the sample with high-density CuO nanowires exhibited ohmic behavior, and its resistance was found to significantly decrease with increasing environmental temperature. The result can be attributed to an increase in the number of carriers at higher temperatures. PMID:22330902

  17. Single-plasmon scattering grating using nanowire surface plasmon coupled to nanodiamond nitrogen-vacancy center.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong

    2011-10-10

    We investigate the scattering properties of a single surface plasmon in metal nanowire coupled to a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond nanocrystal under optical excitation. We demonstrate that, by spatially modulating a classical control beam, alternating regions of high reflection and absorption as well as high transmission and absorption of a single plasmon can be created in the left- and right-going directions that act as a kind of scattering grating. Such approach to induce grating gets out the well investigating region in which the weak interactions between single atoms and light is often used. The proposal may be used for chip-integrated grating, switcher and multi-channel drop filter.

  18. Unraveling the strain state of GaN down to single nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzelle, Thomas; Biquard, Xavier; Bellet-Amalric, Edith; Fang, Zhihua; Roussel, Hervé; Cros, Ana; Daudin, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    GaN nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy are usually assumed free of strain in spite of different individual luminescence signatures. To ascertain this usual assumption, the c/a of a GaN NW assembly has been characterized using both X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, with scaling the measurement down to the single NW. Free-standing single NWs have been observed free of strain—defined as [c /a -(c/a ) o]/(c/a ) o —within the experimental accuracy amounting to 1.25 × 10-4. However, in the general case, a significant portion of the NWs is coalesced, generating an average tensile strain that can be partly released by detaching the NWs from their substrates. It is concluded that at the scale of the single NW, the free surface and the residual doping do not generate a significant strain and only coalescence does.

  19. Concerted single-nanowire absorption and emission spectroscopy: Explaining the origin of the size-dependent Stokes shift in single cadmium selenide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vietmeyer, F.; Chatterjee, R.; McDonald, M. P.; Kuno, M.

    2015-02-01

    Concerted single-nanowire (NW) absorption and emission spectroscopies have been used to measure Stokes shifts in the optical response of individual CdSe NWs. Obtained spectra are free of inhomogeneous broadening inherent to ensemble measurements. They reveal apparent size-dependent NW Stokes shifts with magnitudes on the order of 30 meV. Given that an effective mass model previously used to explain CdSe NW excited state progressions predicts no sizable emission Stokes shift, we have investigated modifications to the theory to rationalize their existence. This has entailed better accounting for the effects of crystal field splitting on NW band edge states. What results are important changes to the spectroscopic assignment of NW band edge transitions that arise from the crossing of hole levels. Furthermore, these modifications simultaneously predict Stokes shifts with size-dependent magnitudes up to 20 meV. However, quantitative agreement with experiment is only achieved by accounting for the role of exciton trap states. Consequently, we conclude that CdSe NW Stokes shifts contain both intrinsic and extrinsic contributions—the latter arising from band edge exciton potential energy fluctuations. At a broader level, these concerted absorption and emission measurements have provided detailed insight into the electronic structure of CdSe NWs, beyond what could be obtained using either single-particle absorption or emission spectroscopies alone.

  20. Berry's phase manifestation in Aharonov-Bohm oscillations in single Bi nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitsu, D. V.; Huber, T. E.; Konopko, L. A.; Nikolaeva, A. A.

    2009-02-01

    Here we report on Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of magnetoresistance (MR) of the single Bi nanowires with diameter d<80 nm. The samples were prepared by Ulitovsky technique and represented cylindrical single crystals with the 1011 orientation along the wire axis. Due to semimetal-to-semiconductor transformation and big density of surface states with strong spin-orbit interactions Bi nanowire should effectively become a conducting tube. The equidistant oscillations of the MR have been observed in a wide range of magnetic fields up to 14 T at various temperatures (1.5 K< T< 4.2 K) and angles θ (0< θ < 90°) of the sample orientation relative to the magnetic field. We have obtained longitudinal MR oscillations with periods ΔB1=Φ0/S and ΔB2=Φ0/2S, where Φ0=h/e is the flux quantum and S is the wire cross section. From B approx 8 T down to B=0 the extremums of Φ0/2S oscillations are shifted up to 3π at B=0 which is the manifestation of Berry phase shift due to carriers moving in inhomogeneous magnetic field. An interpretation of the MR oscillations in terms of a subband structure in the surface state band caused by quantum interference is presented.

  1. Enhanced non-volatile resistive switching in suspended single-crystalline ZnO nanowire with controllable multiple states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yan; Chen, Xuejiao; Feng, Zhihong; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Daihua

    2016-08-01

    Resistive switching nanostructures are a promising candidate for next-generation non-volatile memories. In this report, we investigate the switching behaviors of single-crystalline ZnO nanowires suspended in air. They exhibit significantly higher current density, lower switching voltage, and more pronounced multiple conductance states compared to nanowires in direct contact with substrate. We attribute the effect to enhanced Joule heating efficiency, reduced surface scattering, and more significantly, the positive feedback established between the current density and local temperature in the suspended nanowires. The proposed mechanism has been quantitatively examined by finite element simulations. We have also demonstrated an innovative approach to initiating the current-temperature mutual enhancement through illumination by ultraviolet light, which further confirmed our hypothesis and enabled even greater enhancement. Our work provides further insight into the resistive switching mechanism of single-crystalline one-dimensional nanostructures, and suggests an effective means of performance enhancement and device optimization.

  2. Enhanced non-volatile resistive switching in suspended single-crystalline ZnO nanowire with controllable multiple states.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Pang, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Chen, Yan; Chen, Xuejiao; Feng, Zhihong; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Daihua

    2016-06-27

    Resistive switching nanostructures are a promising candidate for next-generation non-volatile memories. In this report, we investigate the switching behaviors of single-crystalline ZnO nanowires suspended in air. They exhibit significantly higher current density, lower switching voltage, and more pronounced multiple conductance states compared to nanowires in direct contact with substrate. We attribute the effect to enhanced Joule heating efficiency, reduced surface scattering, and more significantly, the positive feedback established between the current density and local temperature in the suspended nanowires. The proposed mechanism has been quantitatively examined by finite element simulations. We have also demonstrated an innovative approach to initiating the current-temperature mutual enhancement through illumination by ultraviolet light, which further confirmed our hypothesis and enabled even greater enhancement. Our work provides further insight into the resistive switching mechanism of single-crystalline one-dimensional nanostructures, and suggests an effective means of performance enhancement and device optimization.

  3. Metastable Copper-Phthalocyanine Single-Crystal Nanowires and Their Use in Fabricating High-Performance Field-Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Kai; Li, Rongjin; Tao, Jing; Payzant, E Andrew; Ivanov, Ilia N; Puretzky, Alexander A; Hu, Wenping; Geohegan, David B

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, vapor-phase route to the synthesis of metastable α-phase copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc) single-crystal nanowires through control of the growth temperature. The influence of the growth temperature on the crystal structures, morphology, and size of the CuPc nanostructures was explored by XRD, optical absorption and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). α-CuPc nanowires were successfully incorporated as active semiconductors in field-effect transistors (FETs). Single nanowire devices exhibited the carrier mobilities and current on/off ratios as high as 0.4 cm2/Vs and > 104, respectively, rendering them useful for organic photovoltaic cells, organic light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors, memories and gas sensors

  4. Study of the Electrochemical System of Antimony-Tellurium in Dimethyl Sulfoxide for Growth of Nanowire Arrays, and an Innovative Method for Single Nanowire Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalisman, Philip Taubman

    There is a strong interest in thermoelectric materials for energy production and savings. The properties which are integral to thermoelectric performance are typically linked, typically changing one of these properties for the better will change another for the worse. The intertwined nature of these properties has limited bulk thermoelectrics to low efficiencies, which has curbed their use to only niche applications. There has been theoretical and experimental work which has shown that limiting these materials in one or more dimensions will result in deconvolution of properties. Nanowires of well established thermoelectrics should show impressively high performance. Tellurium is attractive in many fields, including thermoelectrics. Nanowires of tellurium have been grown, but with limited success and with out the ability to dope the tellurium. Working on previous work with other systems, tellurium was studied in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The electrochemical system of tellurium was found to be quite dierent from its aqueous analog, but through comprehensive cyclic voltammetric study, all events were identified and explained. The binary antimony-tellurium system was also studied, as doping of tellurium is integral for many applications. Cyclic voltammograms of this system were studied, and the insight from these studies was used to grow nanowire arrays. Arrays of tellurium were grown and analysis showed that by using DMSO, antimony doped tellurium nanowire arrays could be grown. Furthermore, analysis showed that the antimony doped tellurium interstitially, resulting in a n-type material. Measurements were also performed on arrays and individual wires. Arrays of 1.15% antimony showed ZT of 0.092, with the low ZT attributed to poor contact methods. Although contacting was an obstacle towards measuring whole arrays, single wire measurements were also performed. Single wire measurements were done by a novel method which allows for easy, reproducible measurements of wire

  5. Resistance of a single domain wall in (Co/Pt)7 multilayer nanowires.

    PubMed

    Hassel, C; Brands, M; Lo, F Y; Wieck, A D; Dumpich, G

    2006-12-01

    Single (Co/Pt)_{7} multilayer nanowires prepared by electron beam lithography with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy are locally modified by means of Ga-ion implantation generating 180 degrees domain walls which are pinned at the edges of underlying thin Pt wires. Since we can exclude contributions from the anisotropic and the Lorentz magnetoresistance this allows us to determine the resistance of a single domain wall at room temperature. We find a positive relative resistance increase of DeltaR/R=1.8% inside the domain wall which agrees well with the model of Levy and Zhang [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 5110 (1997)10.1103/PhysRevLett.79.5110].

  6. Epitaxially aligned cuprous oxide nanowires for all-oxide, single-wire solar cells.

    PubMed

    Brittman, Sarah; Yoo, Youngdong; Dasgupta, Neil P; Kim, Si-in; Kim, Bongsoo; Yang, Peidong

    2014-08-13

    As a p-type semiconducting oxide that can absorb visible light, cuprous oxide (Cu2O) is an attractive material for solar energy conversion. This work introduces a high-temperature, vapor-phase synthesis that produces faceted Cu2O nanowires that grow epitaxially along the surface of a lattice-matched, single-crystal MgO substrate. Individual wires were then fabricated into single-wire, all-oxide diodes and solar cells using low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiO2 and ZnO films to form the heterojunction. The performance of devices made from pristine Cu2O wires and chlorine-exposed Cu2O wires was investigated under one-sun and laser illumination. These faceted wires allow the fabrication of well-controlled heterojunctions that can be used to investigate the interfacial properties of all-oxide solar cells.

  7. Single-crystalline δ-Ni2Si nanowires with excellent physical properties

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the synthesis of single-crystalline nickel silicide nanowires (NWs) via chemical vapor deposition method using NiCl2·6H2O as a single-source precursor. Various morphologies of δ-Ni2Si NWs were successfully acquired by controlling the growth conditions. The growth mechanism of the δ-Ni2Si NWs was thoroughly discussed and identified with microscopy studies. Field emission measurements show a low turn-on field (4.12 V/μm), and magnetic property measurements show a classic ferromagnetic characteristic, which demonstrates promising potential applications for field emitters, magnetic storage, and biological cell separation. PMID:23782805

  8. Ternary Synaptic Plasticity Arising from Memdiode Behavior of TiOx Single Nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Deshun; Chen, Yuansha; Sun, Jirong; Shen, Baogen; Group 3 of Magnetism Laboratory, Beijing National LaboratoryCondensed Matter Physics Team

    Electric field-induced resistive switching (RS) effect has been widely explored as a novel nonvolatile memory over the past few years. Recently, the RS behavior with continuous transition has received considerable attention for its promising prospect in neuromorphic simulation. Here, the switching characteristics of a planar-structured TiOx single nanowire device were systematically investigated. It exhibited a strong electrical history-dependent rectifying behavior that was defined as a ''memdiode''. We further demonstrated that a ternary synaptic plasticity could be realized in such a TiOx nanowire device, characterized by the resistance and photocurrent responses. For a given state of the memdiode, a conjugated memristive characteristic and a distinct photocurrent can be simulaneously obtained, resulting in a synchronous implementation of various Hebbian plasticities with the same temporal order of spikes. These intriguing properties of TiOx memdiode provide a feasible way toward the designing of multifunctional electronic synapses as well as programmable artificial neural network This work has been partially supported by the National Basic Research of China (2013CB921700), the ``Strategic Priority Research Program (B)'' of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDB07030200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11374339).

  9. Frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of ultrashort pulses by using single nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Liao, Feng; Gu, Fuxing; Zeng, Heping

    2016-09-01

    The use of ultrashort pulses for fundamental studies and applications has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Along with the development of ultrashort lasers, exploring new pulse diagnositic approaches with higher signal-to-noise ratio have attracted great scientific and technological interests. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique of ultrashort pulses characterization with a single semiconductor nanowire. By performing a frequency-resolved optical gating method with a ZnO nanowire coupled to tapered optical microfibers, the phase and amplitude of a pulse series are extracted. The generated signals from the transverse frequency conversion process can be spatially distinguished from the input, so the signal-to-noise ratio is improved and permits lower energy pulses to be identified. Besides, since the nanometer scale of the nonlinear medium provides relaxed phase-matching constraints, a measurement of 300-nm-wide supercontinuum pulses is achieved. This system is highly compatible with standard optical fiber systems, and shows a great potential for applications such as on-chip optical communication.

  10. Frequency-resolved optical gating measurement of ultrashort pulses by using single nanowire

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jiaxin; Liao, Feng; Gu, Fuxing; Zeng, Heping

    2016-01-01

    The use of ultrashort pulses for fundamental studies and applications has been increasing rapidly in the past decades. Along with the development of ultrashort lasers, exploring new pulse diagnositic approaches with higher signal-to-noise ratio have attracted great scientific and technological interests. In this work, we demonstrate a simple technique of ultrashort pulses characterization with a single semiconductor nanowire. By performing a frequency-resolved optical gating method with a ZnO nanowire coupled to tapered optical microfibers, the phase and amplitude of a pulse series are extracted. The generated signals from the transverse frequency conversion process can be spatially distinguished from the input, so the signal-to-noise ratio is improved and permits lower energy pulses to be identified. Besides, since the nanometer scale of the nonlinear medium provides relaxed phase-matching constraints, a measurement of 300-nm-wide supercontinuum pulses is achieved. This system is highly compatible with standard optical fiber systems, and shows a great potential for applications such as on-chip optical communication. PMID:27609521

  11. Measurement and simulation of anisotropic magnetoresistance in single GaAs/MnAs core/shell nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, J.; Wang, J.; Paul, A.; Cooley, B. J.; Rench, D. W.; Dellas, N. S.; Mohney, S. E.; Engel-Herbert, R.; Samarth, N.

    2012-04-01

    We report four probe measurements of the low field magnetoresistance (MR) in single core/shell GaAs/MnAs nanowires (NWs) synthesized by molecular beam epitaxy, demonstrating clear signatures of anisotropic magnetoresistance that track the field-dependent magnetization. A comparison with micromagnetic simulations reveals that the principal characteristics of the magnetoresistance data can be unambiguously attributed to the nanowire segments with a zinc blende GaAs core. The direct correlation between magnetoresistance, magnetization, and crystal structure provides a powerful means of characterizing individual hybrid ferromagnet/semiconductor nanostructures.

  12. Surface-passivated GaAsP single-nanowire solar cells exceeding 10% efficiency grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Holm, Jeppe V; Jørgensen, Henrik I; Krogstrup, Peter; Nygård, Jesper; Liu, Huiyun; Aagesen, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Continued development of high-efficiency multi-junction solar cells requires growth of lattice-mismatched materials. Today, the need for lattice matching both restricts the bandgap combinations available for multi-junctions solar cells and prohibits monolithic integration of high-efficiency III-V materials with low-cost silicon solar cells. The use of III-V nanowires is the only known method for circumventing this lattice-matching constraint, and therefore it is necessary to develop growth of nanowires with bandgaps >1.4 eV. Here we present the first gold-free gallium arsenide phosphide nanowires grown on silicon by means of direct epitaxial growth. We demonstrate that their bandgap can be controlled during growth and fabricate core-shell nanowire solar cells. We further demonstrate that surface passivation is of crucial importance to reach high efficiencies, and present a record efficiency of 10.2% for a core-shell single-nanowire solar cell.

  13. Single-Crystalline, Metallic TiC Nanowires for Highly Robust and Wide-Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xinhui; Zhan, Jiye; Zhong, Yu; Wang, Xiuli; Tu, Jiangping; Fan, Hong Jin

    2017-02-01

    Customized electrode materials with good temperature adaptability and high-rate capability are critical to the development of wide-temperature power sources. Herein, high-quality TiC nanowires are uniformly grown on flexible carbon cloth as free-standing electric-double-layer supercapacitor electrode. The TiC nanowires, 20-40 nm wide and 3-6 µm long, are single-crystalline and highly conductive that is close to typical metal. Symmetric supercapacitors are constructed with ionic liquid electrolyte and TiC nanowires electrodes as wide-temperature and long-cycle stable power source. Ultrastable high-rate cycling life of TiC nanowire arrays electrodes is demonstrated with capacitance retention of 96.8% at 60 °C (≈440 F g(-1) ), 99% at 25 °C (≈400 F g(-1) ), and 98% at -25 °C (≈240 F g(-1) ) after 50 000 cycles at 10 A g(-1) . Moreover, due to high electrical conductivity, the TiC nanowire arrays show ultrafast energy release with a fast response time constant of ≈0.7 ms. The results demonstrate the viability of metal carbide nanostructures as wide-temperature, robust electrode materials for high-rate and ultrastable supercapacitors.

  14. CdS/CdSe cosensitized oriented single-crystalline TiO2 nanowire array for solar cell application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Liu, Yong; Wang, Hai; Shen, Hui; Zhao, Wenxia; Huang, Hong; Liang, Chaolun

    2010-11-01

    Vertically oriented single-crystalline TiO2 nanowires array was grown on transparent conductive oxide glass substrate, and then CdS and CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were deposited on nanowires to form a TiO2/CdS/CdSe core-shell structure films. The optical properties of films with different layers of QDs were compared. The QD sensitized solar cells (QD-SSCs) were assembled and the effect of coating cycles of QDs on the photovoltaic performance was investigated. Under optimum parameters, QD-SSCs assembled with 5 μm thick TiO2 nanowires film exhibited a short-circuit current density of 7.92 mA cm-2, an open-circuit voltage of 0.40 V, and a power conversion efficiency of 1.14%.

  15. Ultrafast carrier capture and Auger recombination in single GaN/InGaN multiple quantum well nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Boubanga-Tombet, Stephane; Wright, Jeremy B.; Lu, Ping; ...

    2016-11-04

    Ultrafast optical microscopy is an important tool for examining fundamental phenomena in semiconductor nanowires with high temporal and spatial resolution. In this paper, we used this technique to study carrier dynamics in single GaN/InGaN core–shell nonpolar multiple quantum well nanowires. We find that intraband carrier–carrier scattering is the main channel governing carrier capture, while subsequent carrier relaxation is dominated by three-carrier Auger recombination at higher densities and bimolecular recombination at lower densities. Finally, the Auger constants in these nanowires are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than in planar InGaN multiple quantum wells, highlighting their potential for future light-emitting devices.

  16. Single nanowire electrode electrochemistry of silicon anode by in situ atomic force microscopy: solid electrolyte interphase growth and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Rui; Deng, Xin; Liu, Ran-Ran; Yan, Hui-Juan; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wang, Dong; Wan, Li-Jun

    2014-11-26

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have attracted great attention as promising anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) on account of their high capacity and improved cyclability compared with bulk silicon. The interface behavior, especially the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), plays a significant role in the performance and stability of the electrodes. We report herein an in situ single nanowire atomic force microscopy (AFM) method to investigate the interface electrochemistry of silicon nanowire (SiNW) electrode. The morphology and Young's modulus of the individual SiNW anode surface during the SEI growth were quantitatively tracked. Three distinct stages of the SEI formation on the SiNW anode were observed. On the basis of the potential-dependent morphology and Young's modulus evolution of SEI, a mixture-packing structural model was proposed for the SEI film on SiNW anode.

  17. Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Electronic Structure of Single-Crystalline CuxV2O5 Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Patridge, C.; Jaye, C; Zhang, H; Marschilok, A; Fischer, D; Takeuchi, E; Banerjee, S

    2009-01-01

    Single-crystalline copper vanadium oxide nanowires ??-CuxV2O5 (x 0.60) have been synthesized by the hydrothermal reduction of bulk CuV2O6 using small-molecule aliphatic alcohols as reducing agents. The prepared copper vanadium bronze nanowires are metallic in nature and exhibit aspect ratios as high as 300. The recent discovery of superconductivity and charge disproportionation in bulk ??-CuxV2O5 has led to renewed interest in these one-dimensional metallic systems. Scaling these systems to nanoscale dimensions offers the potential for further tunability of electronic transport and Li-ion intercalation kinetics. A combination of spectroscopic and electrical measurement methods has been used to provide evidence for the metallic nature and the presence of room-temperature charge disproportionation in these nanowires.

  18. Low-threshold room-temperature AlGaAs/GaAs nanowire/single-quantum-well heterostructure laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xin; Wei, Wei; Tang, Fengling; Wang, Xi; Li, Luying; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2017-02-01

    Near-infrared nanowire lasers are promising as ultrasmall, low-consumption light emitters in on-chip optical communications and computing systems. Here, we report on a room-temperature near-infrared nanolaser based on an AlGaAs/GaAs nanowire/single-quantum-well heterostructure grown by Au-catalyzed metal organic chemical vapor deposition. When subjects to pulsed optical excitation, the nanowire exhibits lasing, with a low threshold of 600 W/cm2, a narrow linewidth of 0.39 nm, and a high Q factor of 2000 at low temperature. Lasing is observed up to 300 K, with an ultrasmall temperature dependent wavelength shift of 0.045 nm/K. This work paves the way towards ultrasmall, low-consumption, and high-temperature-stability near-infrared nanolasers.

  19. Optical properties of single cadmium selenide nanowires: Breaking through the limitations of ensemble measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giblin, Jay P.

    In this thesis the optical properties of colloidal CdSe nanowires (NWs) are elucidated at the singe wire level. Using single molecule fluorescence microscopy we have established that dielectric contrast controls their optical response to polarized light. Specifically, single CdSe wire excitation polarization anisotropies (rhoexc) were studied as a function of NW radius, excitation wavelength, and dielectric environment. Experiments reveal that the strongest dependence of rhoexc-values is on a NW's surroundings in agreement with a classical dielectric contrast model. These results, however, only hold true for wires with radii less than the wavelength of light. In the limit of optically thick wires a transition from strong dielectric contrast influences to the onset of bulk-like behavior occurs. Namely, rhoexc-values decrease concurrently with the emergence of a sizable wavelength dependence when NW radii become comparable to the wavelength of light. As a consequence, pronounced rho exc rolloffs are observed at short wavelengths in the visible. We quantitatively explain the wavelength sensitivities by modeling the NW as an absorbing dielectric cylinder under plane wave excitation. A comparison of predicted rhoexc-values to experimental numbers shows good agreement and confirms the existence of wavelength-dependent rho exc-values in optically thick wires. In addition, absorption cross section values (sigmaabs) of single CdSe nanowires have been measured by photothermal heterodyne imaging (PHI). Specifically, PHI signals from isolated gold nanoparticles (NPs) with known absorption cross sections were compared to those of individual CdSe NWs excited at 532 nm. Based on our analysis an average CdSe NW absorption cross section value of sigmaabs = (3.17 +/- 0.44) x 10 -11 cm2/microm was determined. This agrees well with the theoretical value obtained using a classical Poynting vector field analysis (sigmaabs = 5.00 x 10-11 cm2/microm) and also with earlier ensemble

  20. Multiple nanowire species synthesized on a single chip by selectively addressable horizontal nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ying; Keilbach, Andreas; Codinachs, Lia Moreno; Nielsch, Kornelius; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna; Bein, Thomas

    2010-04-14

    The synthesis of horizontal porous anodic alumina (PAA) structures with individually addressable channel systems is demonstrated. This was achieved by developing a multicontact design of aluminum finger structures (two to five contacts) on silicon wafers. These aluminum contacts were electrically isolated from each other, allowing the individual anodization of each contact at different conditions. This way it is possible to synthesize different pore diameters, pore densities, and channel lengths on a single chip. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization revealed that the neighboring contacts are not significantly altered during the anodization procedure. After successful barrier-layer thinning, the individual finger structures of each contact were filled by electrodeposition and thermal chemical vapor deposition. The resulting metal (Au, Cu, Ni, Co) and semiconductor (Te, Si) nanowires embedded within the porous anodic alumina mold were characterized by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray measurements. The multicontact fabrication results open a new route toward complex nanoelectronic and sensing applications.

  1. Electrotriggered, spatioselective, quantitative gene delivery into a single cell nucleus by Au nanowire nanoinjector.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Seung Min; Kang, Mijeong; Kang, Taejoon; Kim, Dong Min; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Bongsoo

    2013-06-12

    Delivery of bioactive materials into a cell is highly important in the study of cell biology and medical treatments. Ideal nanoinjectors should be able to deliver biomaterials with high spatial resolution while causing minimum cell damage. We developed a Au nanowire (NW) nanoinjector that has the thinnest diameter (100–150 nm) among the DNA delivering devices as well as optimum mechanical properties, minimizing cell damage. Well-defined (111) single-crystalline Au surface and high electric conductivity of a Au NW nanoinjector allow precisely timed and efficient electrochemical release of DNA molecules attached on a Au NW surface. Both linear DNA and plasmid DNA were delivered separately and showed successful expression. The Au NW nanoinjector would find important biomedical applications in the fields such as gene therapy, DNA vaccination, targeted drug delivery, and probe/control of cell signaling events.

  2. Plasmon assisted enhanced second-harmonic generation in single hybrid Au/ZnS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jassim, Nadia M.; Wang, Kai; Han, Xiaobo; Long, Hua; Wang, Bing; Lu, Peixiang

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate the enhanced second-harmonic generation (SHG) in single ZnS nanowires (NWs) attached with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). The hybrid Au/ZnS NWs with different densities of the attached Au NPs were prepared by a simple solution impregnation method. By comparing with bare ZnS NWs, ∼1.3, ∼6.6, ∼7 and ∼2 times enhancement of SH intensity was achieved in the hybrid Au/ZnS NWs with low, moderate, high and ultrahigh densities of the attached Au NPs, respectively. The enhanced SHG in the hybrid Au/ZnS NWs is attributed to the strong local-fields from the Au cluster under the near-resonant condition, which is supported by the related dark-field scattering spectra. This hybrid Au/ZnS NWs provide a simple platform for enhancing nonlinear optical responses, which have potential applications in nano-probing and nano-sensing.

  3. Formation and Stabilization of Single-Crystalline Metastable AuGe Phases in Ge Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Sutter, E.; Sutter, P.

    2011-07-22

    We use in situ observations by variable temperature transmission electron microscopy on AuGe alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) with systematically varying composition to demonstrate the controlled formation of metastable solid phases integrated in NWs. The process, which operates in the regime of vapor-liquid-solid growth, involves a size-dependent depression of the alloy liquidus at the nanoscale that leads to extremely Ge-rich AuGe melts at low temperatures. During slow cooling, these liquid AuGe alloy drops show pronounced departures from equilibrium, i.e., a frustrated phase separation of Ge into the adjacent solid NW, and ultimately crystallize as single-crystalline segments of metastable {gamma}-AuGe. Our findings demonstrate a general avenue for synthesizing NW heterostructures containing stable and metastable solid phases, applicable to a wide range of materials of which NWs form by the vapor-liquid-solid method.

  4. Plasma enhanced multistate storage capability of single ZnO nanowire based memory

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Yunfeng Xin, Pucong; Cheng, Shuying; Yu, Jinling; Zheng, Qiao

    2015-01-19

    Multiple-state storage (MSS) is common for resistive random access memory, but the effects of plasma treatment on the MSS and the switching properties have been scarcely investigated. We have demonstrated a stable four-state storage capability of single zinc oxide nanowire (ZnO NW) treated by argon plasma. The electrical switching is attributed to the electron trapping and detrapping from the oxygen vacancies (V{sub o}s). The MSS relates to the electrical-thermal induced distribution of the V{sub o}s which determines electron transport behavior to show different resistance states. Additionally, programming (set and reset) voltages decrease with plasma treatment due to the thickness modulation of the interface barrier.

  5. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with non-periodic dielectric multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Taro; Waki, Kentaro; Miki, Shigehito; Kirkwood, Robert A.; Hadfield, Robert H.; Terai, Hirotaka

    2016-10-01

    We present superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs) on non-periodic dielectric multilayers, which enable us to design a variety of wavelength dependences of optical absorptance by optimizing the dielectric multilayer. By adopting a robust simulation to optimize the dielectric multilayer, we designed three types of SSPDs with target wavelengths of 500 nm, 800 nm, and telecom range respectively. We fabricated SSPDs based on the optimized designs for 500 and 800 nm, and evaluated the system detection efficiency at various wavelengths. The results obtained confirm that the designed SSPDs with non-periodic dielectric multilayers worked well. This versatile device structure can be effective for multidisciplinary applications in fields such as the life sciences and remote sensing that require high efficiency over a precise spectral range and strong signal rejection at other wavelengths.

  6. Investigations of afterpulsing and detection efficiency recovery in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenkov, Viacheslav; Xu, He; Qi, Bing; Hadfield, Robert H.; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2013-06-01

    We report on the observation of a non-uniform dark count rate in Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors (SNSPDs), specifically focusing on an afterpulsing effect present when the SNSPD is operated at a high bias current regime. The afterpulsing exists for real detection events (triggered by input photons) as well as for dark counts (no laser input). In our standard set-up, the afterpulsing is most likely to occur at around 180 ns following a detection event, for both real counts and dark counts. We characterize the afterpulsing behavior and speculate that it is not due to the SNSPD itself but rather the amplifiers used to boost the electrical output signal from the SNSPD. We show that the afterpulsing indeed disappears when we use a different amplifier with a better low frequency response. We also examine the short-lived enhancement of detection efficiency during the recovery of the SNSPD due to temporary perturbation of the bias and grounding conditions.

  7. Point decoration of silicon nanowires: an approach toward single-molecule electrical detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jindong; Shen, Fangxia; Wang, Zhenxing; He, Gen; Qin, Jinwen; Cheng, Nongyi; Yao, Maosheng; Li, Lidong; Guo, Xuefeng

    2014-05-12

    Probing interactions of biological systems at the molecular level is of great importance to fundamental biology, diagnosis, and drug discovery. A rational bioassay design of lithographically integrating individual point scattering sites into electrical circuits is capable of realizing real-time, label-free biodetection of influenza H1N1 viruses with single-molecule sensitivity and high selectivity by using silicon nanowires as local reporters in combination with microfluidics. This nanocircuit-based architecture is complementary to more conventional optical techniques, but has the advantages of no bleaching problems and no fluorescent labeling. These advantages offer a promising platform for exploring dynamics of stochastic processes in biological systems and gaining information from genomics to proteomics to improve accurate molecular and even point-of-care clinical diagnosis.

  8. Continuous and dynamic spectral tuning of single nanowire lasers with subnanometer resolution using hydrostatic pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Changyi; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brueck, Steven R. J.; Brener, Igal; Wang, George T.

    2015-04-27

    In this paper, we report continuous, dynamic, reversible, and widely tunable lasing from 367 to 337 nm from single GaN nanowires (NWs) by applying hydrostatic pressure up to ~7 GPa. The GaN NW lasers, with heights of 4–5 μm and diameters ~140 nm, are fabricated using a lithographically defined two-step top-down technique. The wavelength tuning is caused by an increasing Γ direct bandgap of GaN with increasing pressure and is precisely controllable to subnanometer resolution. The observed pressure coefficients of the NWs are ~40% larger compared with GaN microstructures fabricated from the same material or from reported bulk GaN values, revealing a nanoscale-related effect that significantly enhances the tuning range using this approach. Finally, this approach can be generally applied to other semiconductor NW lasers to potentially achieve full spectral coverage from the UV to IR.

  9. Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors with non-periodic dielectric multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Taro; Waki, Kentaro; Miki, Shigehito; Kirkwood, Robert A.; Hadfield, Robert H.; Terai, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    We present superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs) on non-periodic dielectric multilayers, which enable us to design a variety of wavelength dependences of optical absorptance by optimizing the dielectric multilayer. By adopting a robust simulation to optimize the dielectric multilayer, we designed three types of SSPDs with target wavelengths of 500 nm, 800 nm, and telecom range respectively. We fabricated SSPDs based on the optimized designs for 500 and 800 nm, and evaluated the system detection efficiency at various wavelengths. The results obtained confirm that the designed SSPDs with non-periodic dielectric multilayers worked well. This versatile device structure can be effective for multidisciplinary applications in fields such as the life sciences and remote sensing that require high efficiency over a precise spectral range and strong signal rejection at other wavelengths. PMID:27775712

  10. Interface nature of oxidized single-crystal arrays of etched Si nanowires on (100)Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jivanescu, M.; Stesmans, A.; Kurstjens, R.; Dross, F.

    2012-02-01

    Low temperature electron spin resonance studies have been carried out on single crystalline arrays of sub-10 nm Si nanowires (NWs) manufactured on (100)Si by top down etching and oxidation thinning. This reveals the presence of a substantial inherent density of Pb0 (Si3 ≡ Si•) defects (traps) at the NW Si/SiO2 interfaces, due to particular faceting and enhanced interface strain, leaving NW interfaces of reduced electrical quality. Perusal of the specific properties of the occurring Pb-type defect system points to a nanopillar morphology compatible with NWs predominantly bordered by {110} facets, with cross sectional shape of <100> truncated {110} squares. The inherent interface quality appears limited by the wire-narrowing thermal oxidation procedure.

  11. Synchrotron nanoimaging of single In-rich InGaN nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segura-Ruiz, J.; Martínez-Criado, G.; Chu, M. H.; Denker, C.; Malindretos, J.; Rizzi, A.

    2013-04-01

    This work reports on the elemental distribution and local structure of single InxGa1-xN nanowires (NWs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy on Si (111) substrates using X-ray fluorescence nanoprobe. Ga and In maps reveal an inhomogeneous elemental distribution along the NWs, with a higher Ga concentration at the bottom of the NW. Scanning electron microscopy images show that the inhomogeneous axial distribution is not correlated with a X-ray beam induced damage, and therefore, should be an intrinsic characteristic of the NWs arising from the growth process. Spatially resolved X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy data acquired around the In K-edge show that the tetrahedral structure is preserved around the absorbing In-atoms all along the NW, and suggests that the compositional modulation could be affecting its long-range order.

  12. Design of a polarization-insensitive superconducting nanowire single photon detector with high detection efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Xu, Ruiying; Zhu, Guanghao; Jin, Biaobing; Kang, Lin; Xu, Weiwei; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) deliver superior performance over their competitors in the near-infrared regime. However, these detectors have an intrinsic polarization dependence on the incident wave because of their one-dimensional meander structure. In this paper, we propose an approach to eliminate the polarization sensitivity of SNSPDs by using near-field optics to increase the absorption of SNSPDs under transverse magnetic (TM) illumination. In addition, an optical cavity is added to our SNSPD to obtain nearly perfect absorption of the incident wave. Numerical simulations show that the maximum absorption of a designed SNSPD can reach 96% at 1550 nm, and indicate that the absorption difference between transverse electric (TE) and TM polarization is less than 0.5% across a wavelength window of 300 nm. Our work provides the first demonstration of the possibility of designing a polarization-insensitive and highly efficient SNSPD without performing device symmetry improvements. PMID:26948672

  13. Fabrication of Fe nanowires on yittrium-stabilized zirconia single crystal substrates by thermal CVD methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahito, A.; Yanase, T.; Endo, T.; Nagahama, T.; Shimada, T.

    2015-05-07

    Magnetic nanowires (NWs) are promising as material for use in spintronics and as the precursor of permanent magnets because they have unique properties due to their high aspect ratio. The growth of magnetic Fe whiskers was reported in the 1960s, but the diameter was not on a nanoscale level and the growth mechanism was not fully elucidated. In the present paper, we report the almost vertical growth of Fe NWs on a single crystal yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y{sub 0.15}Zr{sub 0.85}O{sub 2}) by a thermal CVD method. The NWs show a characteristic taper part on the bottom growing from a trigonal pyramidal nucleus. The taper angle and length can be controlled by changing the growth condition in two steps, which will lead to obtaining uniformly distributed thin Fe NWs for applications.

  14. Limiting efficiency calculation of silicon single-nanowire solar cells with considering Auger recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Xiongfei; Wu, Shaolong; Shang, Aixue; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-09

    Single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) have attracted considerable attention due to their unique light-harvesting capability mediated by the optical antenna effect and the high photoconversion efficiency due to the orthogonalization of the carrier collection to the photon incidence. We present a detailed prediction of the light-conversion efficiency of Si SNSCs based on finite-element simulation and thermodynamic balance analysis, with especially focusing on the comparison between SNSCs and film systems. Carrier losses due to radiative and Auger recombinations are introduced in the analysis of the limiting efficiency, which show that the Auger recombination plays a key role in accurately predicting the efficiency of Si SNSCs, otherwise, the device performance would be strongly overestimated. The study paves a more realistic way to evaluate the nanostructured solar cells based on indirect-band photoactive materials.

  15. Mapping carrier diffusion in single silicon core-shell nanowires with ultrafast optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Seo, M A; Yoo, J; Dayeh, S A; Picraux, S T; Taylor, A J; Prasankumar, R P

    2012-12-12

    Recent success in the fabrication of axial and radial core-shell heterostructures, composed of one or more layers with different properties, on semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has enabled greater control of NW-based device operation for various applications. (1-3) However, further progress toward significant performance enhancements in a given application is hindered by the limited knowledge of carrier dynamics in these structures. In particular, the strong influence of interfaces between different layers in NWs on transport makes it especially important to understand carrier dynamics in these quasi-one-dimensional systems. Here, we use ultrafast optical microscopy (4) to directly examine carrier relaxation and diffusion in single silicon core-only and Si/SiO(2) core-shell NWs with high temporal and spatial resolution in a noncontact manner. This enables us to reveal strong coherent phonon oscillations and experimentally map electron and hole diffusion currents in individual semiconductor NWs for the first time.

  16. Continuous and dynamic spectral tuning of single nanowire lasers with subnanometer resolution using hydrostatic pressure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Changyi; Figiel, Jeffrey J; Brueck, Steven R J; Brener, Igal; Wang, George T

    2015-06-07

    We report continuous, dynamic, reversible, and widely tunable lasing from 367 to 337 nm from single GaN nanowires (NWs) by applying hydrostatic pressure up to ∼7 GPa. The GaN NW lasers, with heights of 4-5 μm and diameters ∼140 nm, are fabricated using a lithographically defined two-step top-down technique. The wavelength tuning is caused by an increasing Γ direct bandgap of GaN with increasing pressure and is precisely controllable to subnanometer resolution. The observed pressure coefficients of the NWs are ∼40% larger compared with GaN microstructures fabricated from the same material or from reported bulk GaN values, revealing a nanoscale-related effect that significantly enhances the tuning range using this approach. This approach can be generally applied to other semiconductor NW lasers to potentially achieve full spectral coverage from the UV to IR.

  17. Vertical Single-Crystalline Organic Nanowires on Graphene: Solution-Phase Epitaxy and Optical Microcavities.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jian-Yao; Xu, Hongjun; Wang, Jing Jing; Winters, Sinéad; Motta, Carlo; Karademir, Ertuğrul; Zhu, Weigang; Varrla, Eswaraiah; Duesberg, Georg S; Sanvito, Stefano; Hu, Wenping; Donegan, John F

    2016-08-10

    Vertically aligned nanowires (NWs) of single crystal semiconductors have attracted a great deal of interest in the past few years. They have strong potential to be used in device structures with high density and with intriguing optoelectronic properties. However, fabricating such nanowire structures using organic semiconducting materials remains technically challenging. Here we report a simple procedure for the synthesis of crystalline 9,10-bis(phenylethynyl) anthracene (BPEA) NWs on a graphene surface utilizing a solution-phase van der Waals (vdW) epitaxial strategy. The wires are found to grow preferentially in a vertical direction on the surface of graphene. Structural characterization and first-principles ab initio simulations were performed to investigate the epitaxial growth and the molecular orientation of the BPEA molecules on graphene was studied, revealing the role of interactions at the graphene-BPEA interface in determining the molecular orientation. These free-standing NWs showed not only efficient optical waveguiding with low loss along the NW but also confinement of light between the two end facets of the NW forming a microcavity Fabry-Pérot resonator. From an analysis of the optical dispersion within such NW microcavities, we observed strong slowing of the waveguided light with a group velocity reduced to one-tenth the speed of light. Applications of the vertical single-crystalline organic NWs grown on graphene will benefit from a combination of the unique electronic properties and flexibility of graphene and the tunable optical and electronic properties of organic NWs. Therefore, these vertical organic NW arrays on graphene offer the potential for realizing future on-chip light sources.

  18. Elucidating the localized plasmonic enhancement effects from a single Ag nanowire in organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinfeng; Wu, Bo; Zhang, Qing; Yip, Jing Ngei; Yu, Guannan; Xiong, Qihua; Mathews, Nripan; Sum, Tze Chien

    2014-10-28

    The origins of performance enhancement in hybrid plasmonic organic photovoltaic devices are often embroiled in a complex interaction of light scattering, localized surface plasmon resonances, exciton-plasmon energy transfer and even nonplasmonic effects. To clearly deconvolve the plasmonic contributions from a single nanostructure, we herein investigate the influence of a single silver nanowire (NW) on the charge carriers in bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells using spatially resolved optical spectroscopy, and correlate to electrical device characterization. Polarization-dependent photocurrent enhancements with a maximum of ∼ 36% over the reference are observed when the transverse mode of the plasmonic excitations in the Ag NW is activated. The ensuing higher absorbance and light scattering induced by the electronic motion perpendicular to the NW long axis lead to increased exciton and polaron densities instead of direct surface plasmon-exciton energy transfer. Finite-difference time-domain simulations also validate these findings. Importantly, our study at the single nanostructure level explores the fundamental limits of plasmonic enhancement achievable in organic solar cells with a single plasmonic nanostructure.

  19. Single trap dynamics in electrolyte-gated Si-nanowire field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Pud, S.; Li, J.; Offenhäusser, A.; Vitusevich, S. A.; Gasparyan, F.; Petrychuk, M.

    2014-06-21

    Liquid-gated silicon nanowire (NW) field effect transistors (FETs) are fabricated and their transport and dynamic properties are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Random telegraph signal (RTS) fluctuations were registered in the nanolength channel FETs and used for the experimental and theoretical analysis of transport properties. The drain current and the carrier interaction processes with a single trap are analyzed using a quantum-mechanical evaluation of carrier distribution in the channel and also a classical evaluation. Both approaches are applied to treat the experimental data and to define an appropriate solution for describing the drain current behavior influenced by single trap resulting in RTS fluctuations in the Si NW FETs. It is shown that quantization and tunneling effects explain the behavior of the electron capture time on the single trap. Based on the experimental data, parameters of the single trap were determined. The trap is located at a distance of about 2 nm from the interface Si/SiO{sub 2} and has a repulsive character. The theory of dynamic processes in liquid-gated Si NW FET put forward here is in good agreement with experimental observations of transport in the structures and highlights the importance of quantization in carrier distribution for analyzing dynamic processes in the nanostructures.

  20. Simultaneous integration of different nanowires on single textured Si (100) substrates.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Torsten; Rosenbach, Daniel; Mussler, Gregor; Schäpers, Thomas; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lepsa, Mihail Ion

    2015-03-11

    By applying a texturing process to silicon substrates, we demonstrate the possibility to integrate III-V nanowires on (100) oriented silicon substrates. Nanowires are found to grow perpendicular to the {111}-oriented facets of pyramids formed by KOH etching. Having control of the substrate orientation relative to the incoming fluxes enables not only the growth of nanowires on selected facets of the pyramids but also studying the influence of the fluxes on the nanowire nucleation and growth. Making use of these findings, we show that nanowires with different dimensions can be grown on the same sample and, additionally, it is even possible to integrate nanowires of different semiconductor materials, for example, GaAs and InAs, on the very same sample.

  1. Localized Synthesis of Iron Oxide Nanowires and Fabrication of High Performance Nanosensors Based on a Single Fe2 O3 Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Lupan, O; Postica, V; Wolff, N; Polonskyi, O; Duppel, V; Kaidas, V; Lazari, E; Ababii, N; Faupel, F; Kienle, L; Adelung, R

    2017-02-10

    A composed morphology of iron oxide microstructures covered with very thin nanowires (NWs) with diameter of 15-50 nm has been presented. By oxidizing metallic Fe microparticles at 255 °C for 12 and 24 h, dense iron oxide NW networks bridging prepatterned Au/Cr pads are obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies reveal formation of α-Fe2 O3 and Fe3 O4 on the surface and it is confirmed by detailed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) investigations that NWs are single phase α-Fe2 O3 and some domains of single phase Fe3 O4 . Localized synthesis of such nano- and microparticles directly on sensor platform/structure at 255 °C for 24 h and reoxidation at 650 °C for 0.2-2 h, yield in highly performance and reliable detection of acetone vapor with fast response and recovery times. First nanosensors on a single α-Fe2 O3 nanowire are fabricated and studied showing excellent performances and an increase in acetone response by decrease of their diameter was developed. The facile technological approach enables this nanomaterial as candidate for a range of applications in the field of nanoelectronics such as nanosensors and biomedicine devices, especially for breath analysis in the treatment of diabetes patients.

  2. Direct Fabrication of Functional Ultrathin Single-Crystal Nanowires from Quasi-One-Dimensional van der Waals Crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xue; Liu, Jinyu; Antipina, Liubov Yu; Hu, Jin; Yue, Chunlei; Sanchez, Ana M; Sorokin, Pavel B; Mao, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jiang

    2016-10-12

    Micromechanical exfoliation of two-dimensional (2D) van der Waals materials has triggered an explosive interest in 2D material research. The extension of this idea to 1D van der Waals materials, possibly opening a new arena for 1D material research, has not yet been realized. In this paper, we demonstrate that 1D nanowire with sizes as small as six molecular ribbons, can be readily achieved in the Ta2(Pd or Pt)3Se8 system by simple micromechanical exfoliation. Exfoliated Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowires are n-type semiconductors, whereas isostructural Ta2Pt3Se8 nanowires are p-type semiconductors. Both types of nanowires show excellent electrical switching performance as the channel material for a field-effect transistor. Low-temperature transport measurement reveals a defect level inherent to Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowires, which enables the observed electrical switching behavior at high temperature (above 140 K). A functional logic gate consisting of both n-type Ta2Pd3Se8 and p-type Ta2Pt3Se8 field-effect transistors has also been successfully achieved. By taking advantage of the high crystal quality derived from the parent van der Waals bulk compound, our findings about the exfoliated Ta2(Pd or Pt)3Se8 nanowires demonstrate a new pathway to access single-crystal 1D nanostructures for the study of their fundamental properties and the exploration of their applications in electronics, optoelectronics, and energy harvesting.

  3. Fast, sensitive hydrogen gas detection using single palladium nanowires that resist fracture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Taggart, David K; Penner, Reginald M

    2009-05-01

    Two types of pure palladium (Pd) nanowires, differentiated by microstructure, were electrodeposited: (1) nanocrystalline Pd nanowires (grain diameter approximately 5 nm, henceforth nc5-Pd) and (2) nanocrystalline Pd nanowires with a grain diameter of 15 nm (nc15-Pd). These nanowires were evaluated for the detection of hydrogen gas (H(2)). Despite their fundamental similarities, the behavior of these nanowires upon exposure to H(2) was dramatically and reproducibly different: nc5-Pd nanowires spontaneously fractured upon exposure to H(2) above 1-2%. Fractured nanowires continued to function as sensors for H(2) concentrations above 2%, actuated by the volume change associated with the alpha to beta phase transition of PdH(x). nc15-Pd nanowires, in contrast, withstood repeated exposures to H(2) up to 10% without fracturing. nc15-Pd nanowires showed a rapid (2 s at 10%) increase in resistance in the presence of H(2) and a response that scaled smoothly with [H(2)] spanning 5 orders of magnitude down to 2 ppm.

  4. Low-frequency flicker noise in a MSM device made with single Si nanowire (diameter ≈ 50 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Sudeshna; Das, Kaustuv; Raychaudhuri, Arup Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Low-frequency flicker noise has been measured in a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device made from a single strand of a single crystalline Si nanowire (diameter approximately 50 nm). Measurement was done with an alternating current (ac) excitation for the noise measurement superimposed with direct current (dc) bias that can be controlled independently. The observed noise has a spectral power density ∝1/ f α . Application of the superimposed dc bias (retaining the ac bias unchanged) with a value more than the Schottky barrier height at the junction leads to a large suppression of the noise amplitude along with a change of α from 2 to ≈ 1. The dc bias-dependent part of the noise has been interpreted as arising from the interface region. The residual dc bias-independent flicker noise is suggested to arise from the single strand of Si nanowire, which has the conventional 1/ f spectral power density.

  5. Compressive holographic imaging based on single in-line hologram and superconducting nanowire single-photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Pan, Yangyang; Li, Jiaosheng; Li, Rong; Yang, Zhibin; Xu, Kunyuan; Tang, Zhilie; Zhong, Ting

    2015-11-01

    A novel compressive holographic 3D imaging method based on single in-line hologram and superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) is proposed. It utilizes the Mach-Zehnder interferometer to form just one-only in-line 3D hologram on CCD plane, and then apply compressive sensing (CS) approach to perform the 3D hologram acquisition process with a digital micro-mirror device array (DMD) placed in the CCD plane and a SNSPD. Once the 3D object measurements sensed by a SNSPD is got via compressive sampling with DMD in the pure optical domain, original 3D object can be reconstructed numerically via certain signal recovery algorithms of CS and digital holography. Computer simulations demonstrated the feasibility and the efficiency of the method. This method is supposed to break through the limitation of array imaging based on the superconductor diode and large measurements in compressive holographic imaging based on the multi-step phase-shifting digital holography.

  6. Composition-graded nanowire solar cells fabricated in a single process for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems.

    PubMed

    Caselli, Derek; Liu, Zhicheng; Shelhammer, David; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2014-10-08

    Nanomaterials such as semiconductor nanowires have unique features that could enable novel optoelectronic applications such as novel solar cells. This paper aims to demonstrate one such recently proposed concept: Monolithically Integrated Laterally Arrayed Multiple Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems. Two cells with different band gaps were fabricated simultaneously in the same process on a single substrate using spatially composition-graded CdSSe alloy nanowires grown by the Dual-Gradient Method in a chemical vapor deposition system. CdSSe nanowire ensemble devices tested under 1 sun AM1.5G illumination achieved open-circuit voltages up to 307 and 173 mV and short-circuit current densities as high as 0.091 and 0.974 mA/cm(2) for the CdS- and CdSe-rich cells, respectively. The open-circuit voltages were roughly three times those of similar CdSSe film cells fabricated for comparison due to the superior optical quality of the nanowires. I-V measurements were also performed using optical filters to simulate spectrum-splitting. The open-circuit voltages and fill factors of the CdS-rich subcells were uniformly larger than the corresponding CdSe-rich cells for similar photon flux, as expected. This suggests that if all wires can be contacted, the wide-gap cell is expected to have greater output power than the narrow-gap cell, which is the key to achieving high efficiencies with spectrum-splitting. This paper thus provides the first proof-of-concept demonstration of simultaneous fabrication of MILAMB solar cells. This approach to solar cell fabrication using single-crystal nanowires for spectrum-splitting photovoltaics could provide a future low-cost high-efficiency alternative to the conventional high-cost high-efficiency tandem cells.

  7. X-ray Bragg Ptychography on a Single InGaN/GaN Core-Shell Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Dzhigaev, Dmitry; Stankevič, Tomaš; Bi, Zhaoxia; Lazarev, Sergey; Rose, Max; Shabalin, Anatoly; Reinhardt, Juliane; Mikkelsen, Anders; Samuelson, Lars; Falkenberg, Gerald; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Vartanyants, Ivan A

    2017-03-20

    The future of solid-state lighting can be potentially driven by applications of InGaN/GaN core-shell nanowires. These heterostructures provide the possibility for fine-tuning of functional properties by controlling a strain state between mismatched layers. We present a nondestructive study of a single 400 nm-thick InGaN/GaN core-shell nanowire using two-dimensional (2D) X-ray Bragg ptychography (XBP) with a nanofocused X-ray beam. The XBP reconstruction enabled the determination of a detailed three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the strain in the particular nanowire using a model based on finite element method. We observed the strain induced by the lattice mismatch between the GaN core and InGaN shell to be in the range from -0.1% to 0.15% for an In concentration of 30%. The maximum value of the strain component normal to the facets was concentrated at the transition region between the main part of the nanowire and the GaN tip. In addition, a variation in misfit strain relaxation between the axial growth and in-plane directions was revealed.

  8. Large optical Stark shifts in single quantum dots coupled to core-shell GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Wei, Yu-Ming; Wang, Jing; Li, Jia-Hua; Shang, Xiang-Jun; Ni, Hai-Qiao; Niu, Zhi-Chuan; Wang, Xue-Hua; Yu, Si-Yuan

    2017-04-12

    Nanowire quantum dots (NW-QDs) can be used for future compact and efficient optoelectronic devices. Many efforts have been made to control the QD states by inserting the QDs in doped structures and applying an electric field in a nanowire system. In this paper, we use down-conversion and up-conversion photoluminescence excitations to explore the optical and electronic properties of single quantum dots in GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowires. We investigate a large optical Stark shift in this system as a new method to tune the QD states. When the tunable laser lies within the spectral bandwidth of ZB/WZ GaAs (780 nm-860 nm), we observe an extremely large optical Stark shift of 1.3 nm (0.5 nm) with increasing excitation power at a resonant wavelength of 800 nm (840 nm) in GaAs states. The ability to in situ control the energy states of self-catalyzed NW-QDs should open a new way for quantum light sources and nonlinear optics in a nanowire system.

  9. Single-crystal CdSe nanowires prepared via vapor-phase growth assisted with silicon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Y; Zhang, L D; Ye, C H; Fang, X S; Xiao, Z D; Kong, M G

    2005-12-01

    Hexagonal cadmium selenide (CdSe) nanowires, with diameter around 20 nm, were synthesized using a simple vapor-phase growth. Silicon (Si) powder acts as a source material assisting the synthesis, which is very important to the formation of the CdSe nanowires. We also suggest that self-catalysis at the Cd-terminated (0001) surface, together with the assistance action of Si, leads to the formation of wire-like structures to be formed. Meanwhile, the assistance of Si is responsible for the fineness and uniformity of the CdSe nanowires. The possible growth mechanism of the CdSe nanowires is proposed, and the optical property of the as-grown CdSe nanowires is characterized.

  10. Spatiotemporal Imaging of the Acoustic Field Emitted by a Single Copper Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Jean, Cyril; Belliard, Laurent; Cornelius, Thomas W; Thomas, Olivier; Pennec, Yan; Cassinelli, Marco; Toimil-Molares, Maria Eugenia; Perrin, Bernard

    2016-10-12

    The monochromatic and geometrically anisotropic acoustic field generated by 400 and 120 nm diameter copper nanowires simply dropped on a 10 μm silicon membrane is investigated in transmission using three-dimensional time-resolved femtosecond pump-probe experiments. Two pump-probe time-resolved experiments are carried out at the same time on both sides of the silicon substrate. In reflection, the first radial breathing mode of the nanowire is excited and detected. In transmission, the longitudinal and shear waves are observed. The longitudinal signal is followed by a monochromatic component associated with the relaxation of the nanowire's first radial breathing mode. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations are performed and accurately reproduce the diffracted field. A shape anisotropy resulting from the large aspect ratio of the nanowire is detected in the acoustic field. The orientation of the underlying nanowires is thus acoustically deduced.

  11. Experimental determination of single CdSe nanowire absorption cross sections through photothermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Giblin, Jay; Syed, Muhammad; Banning, Michael T; Kuno, Masaru; Hartland, Greg

    2010-01-26

    Absorption cross sections ((sigma)abs) of single branched CdSe nanowires (NWs) have been measured by photothermal heterodyne imaging (PHI). Specifically, PHI signals from isolated gold nanoparticles (NPs) with known cross sections were compared to those of individual CdSe NWs excited at 532 nm. This allowed us to determine average NW absorption cross sections at 532 nm of (sigma)abs = (3.17 +/- 0.44) x 10(-11) cm2/microm (standard error reported). This agrees well with a theoretical value obtained using a classical electromagnetic analysis ((sigma)abs = 5.00 x 10(-11) cm2/microm) and also with prior ensemble estimates. Furthermore, NWs exhibit significant absorption polarization sensitivities consistent with prior NW excitation polarization anisotropy measurements. This has enabled additional estimates of the absorption cross section parallel ((sigma)abs) and perpendicular ((sigma)abs(perpendicular) to the NW growth axis, as well as the corresponding NW absorption anisotropy ((rho)abs). Resulting values of (sigma)abs = (5.6 +/- 1.1) x 10(-11) cm2/microm, (sigma)abs(perpendicular) = (1.26 +/- 0.21) x 10(-11) cm2/microm, and (rho)abs = 0.63+/- 0.04 (standard errors reported) are again in good agreement with theoretical predictions. These measurements all indicate sizable NW absorption cross sections and ultimately suggest the possibility of future direct single NW absorption studies.

  12. Weak localization and the approach to metal-insulator transition in single crystalline germanium nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sett, Shaili; Das, K; Raychaudhuri, A K

    2017-03-22

    We study the low-temperature electronic transport properties of single germanium nanowires (NWs) with diameters down to 45 nm to investigate the weak localization (WL) behavior and approach to metal-insulator transition (MIT) within them. The NWs (single crystalline) we investigate lie on the metallic side of the MIT with an extrapolated zero temperature conductivity [Formula: see text] in the range 23 to 1790 [Formula: see text] cm)(-1) and show a temperature-dependent conductivity which below 30 K can be described by a 3D WL behavior with Thouless length [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. From the observed value of [Formula: see text] and the value of the critical carrier concentration n c, it is observed that the approach to MIT can be described by the scaling equation [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text], which is a value expected for an uncompensated system. The investigation establishes a NW size limit for the applicability of 3D scaling theories.

  13. Weak localization and the approach to metal–insulator transition in single crystalline germanium nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sett, Shaili; Das, K.; Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    We study the low-temperature electronic transport properties of single germanium nanowires (NWs) with diameters down to 45 nm to investigate the weak localization (WL) behavior and approach to metal–insulator transition (MIT) within them. The NWs (single crystalline) we investigate lie on the metallic side of the MIT with an extrapolated zero temperature conductivity {σ0} in the range 23 to 1790 (Ω cm)‑1 and show a temperature-dependent conductivity which below 30 K can be described by a 3D WL behavior with Thouless length {{L}\\text{Th}}∼ {{T}-\\frac{p{2}}} and p∼ 4 . From the observed value of {σ0} and the value of the critical carrier concentration n c, it is observed that the approach to MIT can be described by the scaling equation {σ0}∼ {{≤ft(n-{{n}\\text{c}}\\right)}ν} with ν ≈ 0.6 , which is a value expected for an uncompensated system. The investigation establishes a NW size limit for the applicability of 3D scaling theories.

  14. Quantum Yield of Single Surface Plasmons Generated by a Quantum Dot Coupled with a Silver Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wei, Hong; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-12-09

    The interactions between surface plasmons (SPs) in metal nanostructures and excitons in quantum emitters (QEs) lead to many interesting phenomena and potential applications that are strongly dependent on the quantum yield of SPs. The difficulty in distinguishing all the possible exciton recombination channels hinders the experimental determination of SP quantum yield. Here, we experimentally measured for the first time the quantum yield of single SPs generated by the exciton-plasmon coupling in a system composed of a single quantum dot and a silver nanowire (NW). By utilizing the SP guiding property of the NW, the decay rates of all the exciton recombination channels, i.e., direct free space radiation channel, SP generation channel, and nonradiative damping channel, are quantitatively obtained. It is determined that the optimum emitter-NW coupling distance for the largest SP quantum yield is about 10 nm, resulting from the different distance-dependent decay rates of the three channels. These results are important for manipulating the coupling between plasmonic nanostructures and QEs and developing on-chip quantum plasmonic devices for potential nanophotonic and quantum information applications.

  15. Single trap in liquid gated nanowire FETs: Capture time behavior as a function of current

    SciTech Connect

    Gasparyan, F.; Zadorozhnyi, I.; Vitusevich, S.

    2015-05-07

    The basic reason for enhanced electron capture time, τ{sub c}, of the oxide single trap dependence on drain current in the linear operation regime of p{sup +}-p-p{sup +} silicon field effect transistors (FETs) was established, using a quantum-mechanical approach. A strong increase of τ{sub c} slope dependence on channel current is explained using quantization and tunneling concepts in terms of strong field dependence of the oxide layer single trap effective cross-section, which can be described by an amplification factor. Physical interpretation of this parameter deals with the amplification of the electron cross-section determined by both decreasing the critical field influence as a result of the minority carrier depletion and the potential barrier growth for electron capture. For the NW channel of n{sup +}-p-n{sup +} FETs, the experimentally observed slope of τ{sub c} equals (−1). On the contrary, for the case of p{sup +}-p-p{sup +} Si FETs in the accumulation regime, the experimentally observed slope of τ{sub c} equals (−2.8). It can be achieved when the amplification factor is about 12. Extraordinary high capture time slope values versus current are explained by the effective capture cross-section growth with decreasing electron concentration close to the nanowire-oxide interface.

  16. InAs Nanowire with Epitaxial Aluminum as a Single-Electron Transistor with Fixed Tunnel Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taupin, M.; Mannila, E.; Krogstrup, P.; Maisi, V. F.; Nguyen, H.; Albrecht, S. M.; Nygârd, J.; Marcus, C. M.; Pekola, J. P.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the fabrication of single-electron transistors using InAs nanowires with epitaxial aluminum with fixed tunnel barriers made of aluminum oxide. The devices exhibit a hard superconducting gap induced by the proximized aluminum cover shell, and they behave as metallic single-electron transistors. In contrast to the typical few-channel contacts in semiconducting devices, our approach forms opaque multichannel contacts to a semiconducting wire and, thus, provides a complementary way to study them. In addition, we confirm that unwanted extra quantum dots can appear at the surface of the nanowire. Their presence is prevented in our devices and also by inserting a protective layer of GaAs between the InAs and Al, the latter being suitable for standard measurement methods.

  17. Stereo-epitaxial growth of single-crystal Ni nanowires and nanoplates from aligned seed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoban; Yoo, Youngdong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Eungwang; Fang, Xiaosheng; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-05-01

    Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni seeds are determined by the interfacial energy between the bottom plane of the seeds and the substrates. The as-synthesized Ni NWs and nanoplates have blocking temperature values greater than 300 K at 500 Oe, verifying that these Ni nanostructures can form large magnetic DWs with high magnetic anisotropy properties. We anticipate that epitaxially grown Ni NWs and nanoplates will be used in various types of 3-dimensional magnetic devices.Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni

  18. Blue single photon emission up to 200 K from an InGaN quantum dot in AlGaN nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Saniya; Das, Ayan; Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate polarized blue single photon emission up to 200 K from an In0.2Ga0.8N quantum dot in a single Al0.1Ga0.9N nanowire. The InGaN/AlGaN dot-in-nanowire heterostructure was grown on (111) silicon by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. Nanowires dispersed on a silicon substrate show sharp exciton and biexciton transitions in the micro-photoluminescence spectra. Second-order correlation measurements performed under pulsed excitation at the biexciton wavelength confirm single photon emission, with a g(2)(0) of 0.43 at 200 K. The emitted photons have a short radiative lifetime of 0.7 ns and are linearly polarized along the c-axis of the nanowire with a degree of polarization of 78%.

  19. From single atoms to self-assembled quantum single-atomic nanowires: noble metal atoms on black phosphorene monolayers.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X J; Shan, Wen-Wen; He, Hao; Xue, Xinlian; Guo, Z X; Li, S F

    2017-03-15

    Transition metal (TM) nanostructures, such as one dimensional (1D) nanowires with/without substrates, usually possess drastically different properties from their bulk counterparts, due to their distinct stacking and electronic confinement. Correspondingly, it is of great importance to establish the dominant driving force in forming 1D single-metal-atom-wires (SMAWs). Here, with first-principles calculations, taking the black phosphorene (BP) monolayer as a prototype 2D substrate, we investigate the energetic and kinetic properties of all the 5d-TM atoms on the 2D substrate to reveal the mechanism of formation of SMAWs. In contrast to other 5d- and 4d-TMs, noble metal elements Pd and Pt are found to prefer to grow along the trough in an atom-by-atom manner, self-assembling into SMAWs with a significant magic growth behavior. This is due to distinct binding energies and diffusion barriers along the trough, i.e., zig-zag direction, as compared to other directions of the BP. The present findings are valuable in the fabrication and modulation of 1D nanostructures which can be anticipated to possess desirable functionalities for potential applications such as in nanocatalysis, nanosensors, and related areas.

  20. From single III-nitride nanowires to piezoelectric generators: New route for powering nomad electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogneau, N.; Jamond, N.; Chrétien, P.; Houzé, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Tchernycheva, M.

    2016-10-01

    Ambient energy harvesting using piezoelectric nanomaterials is today considered as a promising way to supply microelectronic devices. Since the first demonstration of electrical energy generation from piezoelectric semiconductor nanowires in 2006, the piezoelectric response of 1D-nanostructures and the development of nanowire-based piezogenerators have become a hot topic in nanoscience. After several years of intense research on ZnO nanowires, III-nitride nanomaterials have started to be explored thanks to their high piezoelectric coefficients and their strong piezogeneration response. This review describes the present status of the field of piezoelectric energy generation with nitride nanowires. After presenting the main motivation and a general overview of the domain, a short description of the main properties of III-nitride nanomaterials is given. Then we review the piezoelectric responses of III-N nanowires and the specificities of the piezogeneration mechanism in these nanostructures. Finally, the design and performance of the macroscopic piezogenerators based on nitride nanowire arrays are described, showing the promise of III-nitride nanowires for ultra-compact and efficient piezoelectric generators.

  1. Sustained Resistive Switching in a Single Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane Nanowire: A Promising Material for Resistive Random Access Memory

    PubMed Central

    Basori, Rabaya; Kumar, Manoranjan; Raychaudhuri, Arup K.

    2016-01-01

    We report a new type of sustained and reversible unipolar resistive switching in a nanowire device made from a single strand of Cu:7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (Cu:TCNQ) nanowire (diameter <100 nm) that shows high ON/OFF ratio (~103), low threshold voltage of switching (~3.5 V) and large cycling endurance (>103). This indicates a promising material for high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) device integration. Switching is observed in Cu:TCNQ single nanowire devices with two different electrode configuration: symmetric (C-Pt/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt) and asymmetric (Cu/Cu:TCNQ/C-Pt), where contacts connecting the nanowire play an important role. This report also developed a method of separating out the electrode and material contributions in switching using metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) device model along with a direct 4-probe resistivity measurement of the nanowire in the OFF as well as ON state. The device model was followed by a phenomenological model of current transport through the nanowire device which shows that lowering of potential barrier at the contacts likely occur due to formation of Cu filaments in the interface between nanowire and contact electrodes. We obtain quantitative agreement of numerically analyzed results with the experimental switching data. PMID:27245099

  2. Stereo-epitaxial growth of single-crystal Ni nanowires and nanoplates from aligned seed crystals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyoban; Yoo, Youngdong; Kang, Taejoon; Lee, Jiyoung; Kim, Eungwang; Fang, Xiaosheng; Lee, Sungyul; Kim, Bongsoo

    2016-05-21

    Epitaxially grown anisotropic Ni nanostructures are promising building blocks for the development of miniaturized and stereo-integrated data storage kits because they can store multiple magnetic domain walls (DWs). Here, we report stereo-epitaxially grown single-crystalline Ni nanowires (NWs) and nanoplates, and their magnetic properties. Vertical and inclined Ni NWs were grown at the center and edge regions of c-cut sapphire substrates, respectively. Vertical Ni nanoplates were grown on r-cut sapphire substrates. The morphology and growth direction of Ni nanostructures can be steered by seed crystals. Cubic Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni NWs, tetrahedral Ni seeds grow into inclined Ni NWs, and triangular Ni seeds grow into vertical Ni nanoplates. The shapes of the Ni seeds are determined by the interfacial energy between the bottom plane of the seeds and the substrates. The as-synthesized Ni NWs and nanoplates have blocking temperature values greater than 300 K at 500 Oe, verifying that these Ni nanostructures can form large magnetic DWs with high magnetic anisotropy properties. We anticipate that epitaxially grown Ni NWs and nanoplates will be used in various types of 3-dimensional magnetic devices.

  3. Direct Measurement of Single CdSe Nanowire Extinction Polarization Anisotropies.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Matthew P; Vietmeyer, Felix; Kuno, Masaru

    2012-08-16

    The origin of sizable absorption polarization anisotropies (ρabs) in one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has been debated. Invoked explanations employ either classical or quantum mechanical origins, where the classical approach suggests dielectric constant mismatches between the NW and its surrounding environment as the predominant source of observed polarization sensitivities. At the same time, the confinement-influenced mixing of states suggests a sizable contribution from polarization-sensitive transition selection rules. Sufficient evidence exists in the literature to support either claim. However, in all cases, these observations stem from excitation polarization anisotropy (ρexc) studies, which only indirectly measure ρabs. In this manuscript, we directly measure the band edge extinction polarization anisotropies (ρext) of individual CdSe NWs using single NW extinction spectroscopy. Observed polarization anisotropies possess distinct spectral features and wavelength dependencies that correlate well with theoretical transition selection rules derived from a six-band k·p theory used to model the electronic structure of CdSe NWs.

  4. The Electrochemical Response of Single Crystalline Copper Nanowires to Atmospheric Air and Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bowei; Chen, Bensong; Wu, Junsheng; Hao, Shiji; Yang, Guang; Cao, Xun; Jing, Lin; Zhu, Minmin; Tsang, Siu Hon; Teo, Edwin Hang Tong; Huang, Yizhong

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, single crystalline copper nanowires (CuNWs) have been electrochemically grown through anodic aluminum oxide template. The environmental stability of the as-obtained CuNWs in both 40% relative humidity (RH) atmosphere and 0.1 m NaOH aqueous solution has been subsequently studied. In 40% RH atmosphere, a uniform compact Cu2 O layer is formed as a function of exposure time following the logarithmic law and epitaxially covers the CuNW surfaces. It is also found that the oxide layers on CuNWs are sequentially grown when subjected to the cyclic voltammetry measurement in 0.1 m NaOH solution. An epitaxially homogeneous Cu2 O layer is initially formed over the surface of the CuNW substrates by solid-state reaction (SSR). Subsequently, the conversion of Cu2 O into epitaxial CuO based on the SSR takes place with the increase of applied potential. This CuO layer is partially dissolved in the solution forming Cu(OH)2 , which then redeposited on the CuNW surfaces (i.e., dissolution-redeposition (DR) process) giving rise to a mixed polycrystalline CuO/Cu(OH)2 layer. The further increase of applied potential allows the complete oxidation of Cu2 O into CuO to form a dual-layer structure (i.e., CuO inner layer and Cu(OH)2 outer layer) with random orientations through an enhanced DR process.

  5. Low frequency noise in single GaAsSb nanowires with self-induced compositional gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Junghwan; Kim, Dong-Chul; Mazid Munshi, A.; Dheeraj, Dasa L.; Jang, Doyoung; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove; Weman, Helge

    2016-09-01

    Due to bandgap tunability, GaAsSb nanowires (NWs) have received a great deal of attention for a variety of optoelectronic device applications. However, electrical and optical properties of GaAsSb are strongly affected by Sb-related defects and scattering from surface states and/or defects, which can limit the performance of GaAsSb NW devices. Thus, in order to utilize the GaAsSb NWs for high performance electronic and optoelectronic devices, it is required to study the material and interface properties (e.g. the interface trap density) in the GaAsSb NW devices. Here, we investigate the low frequency noise in single GaAsSb NWs with self-induced compositional gradients. The current noise spectral density of the GaAsSb NW device showed a typical 1/f noise behavior. The Hooge’s noise parameter and the interface trap density of the GaAsSb NW device were found to be ˜2.2 × 10-2 and ˜2 × 1012 eV-1 cm-2, respectively. By applying low frequency noise measurements, the noise equivalent power, a key figure of merit of photodetectors, was calculated. The observed low frequency noise properties can be useful as guidance for quality and reliability of GaAsSb NW based electronic devices, especially for photodetectors.

  6. Single InAs/GaSb nanowire low-power CMOS inverter.

    PubMed

    Dey, Anil W; Svensson, Johannes; Borg, B Mattias; Ek, Martin; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2012-11-14

    III-V semiconductors have so far predominately been employed for n-type transistors in high-frequency applications. This development is based on the advantageous transport properties and the large variety of heterostructure combinations in the family of III-V semiconductors. In contrast, reports on p-type devices with high hole mobility suitable for complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) circuits for low-power operation are scarce. In addition, the difficulty to integrate both n- and p-type devices on the same substrate without the use of complex buffer layers has hampered the development of III-V based digital logic. Here, inverters fabricated from single n-InAs/p-GaSb heterostructure nanowires are demonstrated in a simple processing scheme. Using undoped segments and aggressively scaled high-κ dielectric, enhancement mode operation suitable for digital logic is obtained for both types of transistors. State-of-the-art on- and off-state characteristics are obtained and the individual long-channel n- and p-type transistors exhibit minimum subthreshold swings of SS = 98 mV/dec and SS = 400 mV/dec, respectively, at V(ds) = 0.5 V. Inverter characteristics display a full signal swing and maximum gain of 10.5 with a small device-to-device variability. Complete inversion is measured at low frequencies although large parasitic capacitances deform the waveform at higher frequencies.

  7. Continuous and dynamic spectral tuning of single nanowire lasers with subnanometer resolution using hydrostatic pressure

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Sheng; Li, Changyi; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; ...

    2015-04-27

    In this paper, we report continuous, dynamic, reversible, and widely tunable lasing from 367 to 337 nm from single GaN nanowires (NWs) by applying hydrostatic pressure up to ~7 GPa. The GaN NW lasers, with heights of 4–5 μm and diameters ~140 nm, are fabricated using a lithographically defined two-step top-down technique. The wavelength tuning is caused by an increasing Γ direct bandgap of GaN with increasing pressure and is precisely controllable to subnanometer resolution. The observed pressure coefficients of the NWs are ~40% larger compared with GaN microstructures fabricated from the same material or from reported bulk GaN values,more » revealing a nanoscale-related effect that significantly enhances the tuning range using this approach. Finally, this approach can be generally applied to other semiconductor NW lasers to potentially achieve full spectral coverage from the UV to IR.« less

  8. Design principles for single standing nanowire solar cells: going beyond the planar efficiency limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yang; Ye, Qinghao; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-05-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have long been used in photovoltaic applications but restricted to approaching the fundamental efficiency limits of the planar devices with less material. However, recent researches on standing NWs have started to reveal their potential of surpassing these limits when their unique optical property is utilized in novel manners. Here, we present a theoretical guideline for maximizing the conversion efficiency of a single standing NW cell based on a detailed study of its optical absorption mechanism. Under normal incidence, a standing NW behaves as a dielectric resonator antenna, and its optical cross-section shows its maximum when the lowest hybrid mode (HE11δ) is excited along with the presence of a back-reflector. The promotion of the cell efficiency beyond the planar limits is attributed to two effects: the built-in concentration caused by the enlarged optical cross-section, and the shifting of the absorption front resulted from the excited mode profile. By choosing an optimal NW radius to support the HE11δ mode within the main absorption spectrum, we demonstrate a relative conversion-efficiency enhancement of 33% above the planar cell limit on the exemplary a-Si solar cells. This work has provided a new basis for designing and analyzing standing NW based solar cells.

  9. Atomistic simulations of nanowelding of single-crystal and amorphous gold nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Cheng-Da; Fang, Te-Hua Wu, Chung-Chin

    2015-01-07

    The mechanism and quality of the welding of single-crystal (SC) and amorphous gold nanowires (NWs) with head-to-head contact are studied using molecular dynamics simulations based on the second-moment approximation of the many-body tight-binding potential. The results are discussed in terms of atomic trajectories, slip vectors, stress, and radial distribution function. Simulation results show that the alignment for the amorphous NWs during welding is easier than that for the SC NWs due to the former's relatively stable geometry. A few dislocations nucleate and propagate on the (111) close-packed plane (slip plane) inside the SC NWs during the welding and stretching processes. During welding, an incomplete jointing area first forms through the interactions of the van der Waals attractive force, and the jointing area increases with increasing extent of contact between the two NWs. A crystallization transition region forms in the jointing area for the welding of SC-amorphous or amorphous-SC NWs. With increasing interference, an amorphous gold NW shortens more than does a SC gold NW due to the former's relatively poor strength. The pressure required for welding decreases with increasing temperature.

  10. Optical properties of single wurtzite/zinc-blende ZnSe nanowires grown at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zannier, V.; Cremel, T.; Kheng, K.; Artioli, A.; Ferrand, D.; Grillo, V.

    2015-09-07

    ZnSe nanowires with a dominant wurtzite structure have been grown at low temperature (300 °C) by molecular beam epitaxy assisted by solid Au nanoparticles. The nanowires emission is polarized perpendicularly to their axis in agreement with the wurtzite selection rules. Alternations of wurtzite and zinc-blende regions have been observed by transmission electron microscopy, and their impact on the nanowires optical properties has been studied by microphotoluminescence. The nanowires show a dominant intense near-band-edge emission as well as the ZnSe wurtzite free exciton line. A type II band alignment between zinc-blende and wurtzite ZnSe is evidenced by time-resolved photoluminescence. From this measurement, we deduce values for the conduction and valence band offsets of 98 and 50 meV, respectively.

  11. Decoupling single nanowire mobilities limited by surface scattering and bulk impurity scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Khanal, D. R.; Levander, A. X.; Wu, J.; Yu, K. M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Walukiewicz, W.; Grandal, J.; Sanchez-Garcia, M. A.; Calleja, E.

    2011-08-01

    We demonstrate the isolation of two free carrier scattering mechanisms as a function of radial band bending in InN nanowires via universal mobility analysis, where effective carrier mobility is measured as a function of effective electric field in a nanowire field-effect transistor. Our results show that Coulomb scattering limits effective mobility at most effective fields, while surface roughness scattering only limits mobility under very high internal electric fields. High-energy {alpha} particle irradiation is used to vary the ionized donor concentration, and the observed decrease in mobility and increase in donor concentration are compared to Hall effect results of high-quality InN thin films. Our results show that for nanowires with relatively high doping and large diameters, controlling Coulomb scattering from ionized dopants should be given precedence over surface engineering when seeking to maximize nanowire mobility.

  12. Enhanced Photoelectrical Response of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Single-Nanowire Solar Cells by Front-Opening Crescent Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhenhai; Cao, Guoyang; Shang, Aixue; Lei, Dang Yuan; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-04-01

    We report an approach for substantially enhancing the light-trapping and photoconversion efficiency of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) by engineering the cross section of the nanowire from circular into a front-opening crescent shape. The proposed SNSCs show a broadband and highly tunable optical absorption compared to the conventional circular counterparts under both transverse electric and transverse magnetic incidences, enabling an enhancement ratio of over 40 % in both the photocurrent density and the photoconversion efficiency in a-Si:H SNSCs with a diameter of 200 nm. We further show that the superior performance can be well maintained under a wide range of incident angle and is robust to the blunt crescent edges.

  13. Enhanced Photoelectrical Response of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Single-Nanowire Solar Cells by Front-Opening Crescent Design.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenhai; Cao, Guoyang; Shang, Aixue; Lei, Dang Yuan; Zhang, Cheng; Gao, Pingqi; Ye, Jichun; Li, Xiaofeng

    2016-12-01

    We report an approach for substantially enhancing the light-trapping and photoconversion efficiency of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) single-nanowire solar cells (SNSCs) by engineering the cross section of the nanowire from circular into a front-opening crescent shape. The proposed SNSCs show a broadband and highly tunable optical absorption compared to the conventional circular counterparts under both transverse electric and transverse magnetic incidences, enabling an enhancement ratio of over 40 % in both the photocurrent density and the photoconversion efficiency in a-Si:H SNSCs with a diameter of 200 nm. We further show that the superior performance can be well maintained under a wide range of incident angle and is robust to the blunt crescent edges.

  14. Growth kinetics of a single InP1-xAsx nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmand, Jean-Christophe; Glas, Frank; Patriarche, Gilles

    2010-06-01

    Semiconductor nanowires offer additional properties and more flexibility for many potential applications. However the precise control of their growth is very challenging and much more complex than for two-dimensional layers. Here, we present a method which provides detailed information on their formation. The method is implemented with In(P,As) nanowires grown by Au-catalyzed molecular beam epitaxy. Controlled and periodic modulations of the incident vapor phase are generated. Due to these modulations, the nanowires show small and short oscillations of composition along their growth axis. These oscillations furnish a time scale which is recorded in the nanowire solid phase. The instantaneous growth rate and the total length of the nanowire at any time of the growth are accessible. The experimental data are fitted with models. The adatom diffusion lengths on the different surfaces and the chemical potentials in the adsorbed and liquid phases are extracted. It appears that the vapor flux intercepted by the nanowire sidewalls is the dominant contribution to their elongation. We discuss which contribution allows one initiating their growth from the catalyst drop.

  15. Temperature dependence of electrical and thermal conduction in single silver nanowire.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhe; Liu, Longju; Xu, Shen; Lu, Meng; Wang, Xinwei

    2015-06-02

    In this work, the thermal and electrical transport in an individual silver nanowire is characterized down to 35 K for in-depth understanding of the strong structural defect induced electron scattering. The results indicate that, at room temperature, the electrical resistivity increases by around 4 folds from that of bulk silver. The Debye temperature (151 K) of the silver nanowire is found 36% lower than that (235 K) of bulk silver, confirming strong phonon softening. At room temperature, the thermal conductivity is reduced by 55% from that of bulk silver. This reduction becomes larger as the temperature goes down. To explain the opposite trends of thermal conductivity (κ) ~ temperature (T) of silver nanowire and bulk silver, a unified thermal resistivity (Θ ~ T/k ) is used to elucidate the electron scattering mechanism. A large residual Θ is observed for silver nanowire while that of the bulk silver is almost zero. The same Θ ~ T trend proposes that the silver nanowire and bulk silver share the similar phonon-electron scattering mechanism for thermal transport. Due to phonon-assisted electron energy transfer across grain boundaries, the Lorenz number of the silver nanowire is found much larger than that of bulk silver and decreases with decreasing temperature.

  16. Orientation effect on the giant stress field induced in a single Ni nanowire by mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Clochard, M.-C.; Wegrowe, J.-E.

    2015-09-01

    The change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect) allows to investigate at the nanoscale the effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresitance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. Due to the inverse magnetostriction, a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≍ 10 K has been evidenced. The coplanarity of the vectors between the magnetization and the magnetic field is broken. A way of studying the effect of the geometry on such a system, is to fabricate oriented polymer templates. Track-etched polymer membranes were thus irradiated at various angles (αirrad) leading, after electrodeposition, to embedded Ni NWs of different orientations. With cylindrical Ni NW oriented normally to the template surface, the induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification results in three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress-strain law. When the Ni NWs are tilted from the polymer template surface normality, the induced stress field is reduced and the amplification phenomenon is less important.

  17. Nanowire-based detector

    DOEpatents

    Berggren, Karl K; Hu, Xiaolong; Masciarelli, Daniele

    2014-06-24

    Systems, articles, and methods are provided related to nanowire-based detectors, which can be used for light detection in, for example, single-photon detectors. In one aspect, a variety of detectors are provided, for example one including an electrically superconductive nanowire or nanowires constructed and arranged to interact with photons to produce a detectable signal. In another aspect, fabrication methods are provided, including techniques to precisely reproduce patterns in subsequently formed layers of material using a relatively small number of fabrication steps. By precisely reproducing patterns in multiple material layers, one can form electrically insulating materials and electrically conductive materials in shapes such that incoming photons are redirected toward a nearby electrically superconductive materials (e.g., electrically superconductive nanowire(s)). For example, one or more resonance structures (e.g., comprising an electrically insulating material), which can trap electromagnetic radiation within its boundaries, can be positioned proximate the nanowire(s). The resonance structure can include, at its boundaries, electrically conductive material positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire such that light that would otherwise be transmitted through the sensor is redirected toward the nanowire(s) and detected. In addition, electrically conductive material can be positioned proximate the electrically superconductive nanowire (e.g. at the aperture of the resonant structure), such that light is directed by scattering from this structure into the nanowire.

  18. Diagnostics and Degradation Investigations of Li-Ion Battery Electrodes using Single Nanowire Electrochemical Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palapati, Naveen Kumar Reddy

    Portable energy storage devices, which drive advanced technological devices, are improving the productivity and quality of our everyday lives. In order to meet the growing needs for energy storage in transportation applications, the current lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery technology requires new electrode materials with performance improvements in multiple aspects: (1) energy and power densities, (2) safety, and (3) performance lifetime. While a number of interesting nanomaterials have been synthesized in recent years with promising performance, accurate capabilities to probe the intrinsic performance of these high-performance materials within a battery environment are lacking. Most studies on electrode nanomaterials have so far used traditional, bulk-scale techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. These approaches give an ensemble-average estimation of the electrochemical properties of a battery electrode and does not provide a true indication of the performance that is intrinsic to its material system. Thus, new techniques are essential to understand the changes happening at a single particle level during the operation of a battery. The results from this thesis solve this need and study the electrical, mechanical and size changes that take place in a battery electrode at a single particle level. Single nanowire lithium cells are built by depositing nanowires in carefully designed device regions of a silicon chip using Dielectrophoresis (DEP). This work has demonstrated the assembly of several NW cathode materials like LiFePO 4, pristine and acid-leached alpha-MnO2, todorokite - MnO2, acid and nonacid-leached Na0.44MnO2. Within these materials, alpha-MnO2 was chosen as the model material system for electrochemical experiments. Electrochemical lithiation of pristine alpha-MnO 2 was performed inside a glove box. The volume, elasticity and conductivity changes were measured at each state-of-charge (SOC) to

  19. Quantum Transport and Nano Angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on the Topological Surface States of Single Sb2Te3 Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Arango, Yulieth C; Huang, Liubing; Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Asensio, Maria C; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lüth, Hans; Lu, Jia Grace; Schäpers, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We report on low-temperature transport and electronic band structure of p-type Sb2Te3 nanowires, grown by chemical vapor deposition. Magnetoresistance measurements unravel quantum interference phenomena, which depend on the cross-sectional dimensions of the nanowires. The observation of periodic Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations is attributed to transport in topologically protected surface states in the Sb2Te3 nanowires. The study of universal conductance fluctuations demonstrates coherent transport along the Aharonov-Bohm paths encircling the rectangular cross-section of the nanowires. We use nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on single nanowires (nano-ARPES) to provide direct experimental evidence on the nontrivial topological character of those surface states. The compiled study of the bandstructure and the magnetotransport response unambiguosly points out the presence of topologically protected surface states in the nanowires and their substantial contribution to the quantum transport effects, as well as the hole doping and Fermi velocity among other key issues. The results are consistent with the theoretical description of quantum transport in intrinsically doped quasi-one-dimensional topological insulator nanowires.

  20. Quantum Transport and Nano Angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on the Topological Surface States of Single Sb2Te3 Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arango, Yulieth C.; Huang, Liubing; Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Asensio, Maria C.; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lüth, Hans; Lu, Jia Grace; Schäpers, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We report on low-temperature transport and electronic band structure of p-type Sb2Te3 nanowires, grown by chemical vapor deposition. Magnetoresistance measurements unravel quantum interference phenomena, which depend on the cross-sectional dimensions of the nanowires. The observation of periodic Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations is attributed to transport in topologically protected surface states in the Sb2Te3 nanowires. The study of universal conductance fluctuations demonstrates coherent transport along the Aharonov-Bohm paths encircling the rectangular cross-section of the nanowires. We use nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on single nanowires (nano-ARPES) to provide direct experimental evidence on the nontrivial topological character of those surface states. The compiled study of the bandstructure and the magnetotransport response unambiguosly points out the presence of topologically protected surface states in the nanowires and their substantial contribution to the quantum transport effects, as well as the hole doping and Fermi velocity among other key issues. The results are consistent with the theoretical description of quantum transport in intrinsically doped quasi-one-dimensional topological insulator nanowires.

  1. Quantum Transport and Nano Angle-resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on the Topological Surface States of Single Sb2Te3 Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Arango, Yulieth C.; Huang, Liubing; Chen, Chaoyu; Avila, Jose; Asensio, Maria C.; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lüth, Hans; Lu, Jia Grace; Schäpers, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We report on low-temperature transport and electronic band structure of p-type Sb2Te3 nanowires, grown by chemical vapor deposition. Magnetoresistance measurements unravel quantum interference phenomena, which depend on the cross-sectional dimensions of the nanowires. The observation of periodic Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations is attributed to transport in topologically protected surface states in the Sb2Te3 nanowires. The study of universal conductance fluctuations demonstrates coherent transport along the Aharonov-Bohm paths encircling the rectangular cross-section of the nanowires. We use nanoscale angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on single nanowires (nano-ARPES) to provide direct experimental evidence on the nontrivial topological character of those surface states. The compiled study of the bandstructure and the magnetotransport response unambiguosly points out the presence of topologically protected surface states in the nanowires and their substantial contribution to the quantum transport effects, as well as the hole doping and Fermi velocity among other key issues. The results are consistent with the theoretical description of quantum transport in intrinsically doped quasi-one-dimensional topological insulator nanowires. PMID:27581169

  2. Germline variants in MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex genes in childhood leukemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The MRE11, RAD50, and NBN genes encode proteins of the MRE11-RAD50-NBN (MRN) complex involved in cellular response to DNA damage and the maintenance of genome stability. In our previous study we showed that the germline p.I171V mutation in NBN may be considered as a risk factor in the development of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and some specific haplotypes of that gene may be associated with childhood leukemia. These findings raise important questions about the role of mutations in others genes of the MRN complex in childhood leukemia. The aim of this study was to answer the question whether MRE11 and RAD50 alterations may be associated with childhood ALL or AML. Methods We estimated the frequency of constitutional mutations and polymorphisms in selected regions of MRE11, RAD50, and NBN in the group of 220 children diagnosed with childhood leukemias and controls (n=504/2200). The analysis was performed by specific amplification of region of interest by PCR and followed by multi-temperature single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-MSSCP) technique. We performed two molecular tests to examine any potential function of the detected the c.551+19G>A SNP in RAD50 gene. To our knowledge, this is the first analysis of the MRE11, RAD50 and NBN genes in childhood leukemia. Results The frequency of either the AA genotype or A allele of RAD50_rs17166050 were significantly different in controls compared to leukemia group (ALL+AML) (p<0.0019 and p<0.0019, respectively). The cDNA analysis of AA or GA genotypes carriers has not revealed evidence of splicing abnormality of RAD50 pre-mRNA. We measured the allelic-specific expression of G and A alleles at c.551+19G>A and the statistically significant overexpression of the G allele has been observed. Additionally we confirmed the higher incidence of the p.I171V mutation in the leukemia group (7/220) than among controls (12/2400) (p<0.0001). Conclusion The formerly reported sequence variants in the RAD50

  3. Effect of phonon focusing on Knudsen flow of phonon gas in single-crystal nanowires made of spintronics materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuleev, I. I.; Bakharev, S. M.; Kuleev, I. G.; Ustinov, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Effect of anisotropy of elastic energy on the phonon propagation in single-crystal nanowires made of Fe, Cu, MgO, InSb, and GaAs materials that are used to fabricate spintronics devices in the regime of the Knudsen flow of phonon gas has been studied. A new method of analyzing the focusing of quasi-transverse modes has been suggested, which made it possible to determine the average values of the densities of phonon states in the regions of focusing and defocusing slow and fast quasi-transverse modes. The effect of phonon focusing on the anisotropy of heat conductivity and lengths of the phonon free paths has been analyzed for all acoustic modes that exist in spintronics nanostructures. It has been shown that for all the nanowires investigated the angular dependences of the free paths of fast and slow transverse modes in the {100} and {110} planes correlate with the angular dependences of the densities of phonon states for these modes. Directions of the heat flux that ensure the maximum and minimum phonon heat conductivity in the nanowires have been determined.

  4. A simple hydrothermal method for the large-scale synthesis of single-crystal potassium tungsten bronze nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gu, Zhanjun; Ma, Ying; Zhai, Tianyou; Gao, Bifen; Yang, Wensheng; Yao, Jiannian

    2006-10-10

    The large-scale synthesis of single-crystal K(x)WO(3) tungsten bronze nanowires has been successfully realized by a hydrothermal method under mild conditions. Uniform K(0.33)WO(3) nanowires with diameters of 5-25 nm and lengths of up to several micrometers are obtained. It is found that the morphology and crystallographic forms of the final products are strongly dependent on the sulfate and citric acid, which may act as structure-directing and soft-reducing agent, respectively. Some other influential factors on the growth of tungsten bronze nanowires, such as temperature and reaction time, are also discussed. It is worth noting that other alkali metal tungsten bronzes such as (NH(4))(x)WO(3), Rb(x)WO(3), and Cs(x)WO(3) could also be selectively synthesized by a similar route. Thus, this novel and efficient method could provide a potential mild route to selectively synthesize various tungsten bronze on-dimensional nanomaterials.

  5. Phase separation in single In(x)Ga(1-x)N nanowires revealed through a hard X-ray synchrotron nanoprobe.

    PubMed

    Segura-Ruiz, J; Martínez-Criado, G; Denker, C; Malindretos, J; Rizzi, A

    2014-03-12

    In this work, we report on the composition, short- and long-range structural order of single molecular beam epitaxy grown In(x)Ga(1-x)N nanowires using a hard X-ray synchrotron nanoprobe. Nano-X-ray fluorescence mapping reveals an axial and radial heterogeneous elemental distribution in the single wires with Ga accumulation at their bottom and outer regions. Polarization-dependent nano-X-ray absorption near edge structure demonstrates that despite the elemental modulation, the tetrahedral order around the Ga atoms remains along the nanowires. Nano-X-ray diffraction mapping on single nanowires shows the existence of at least three different phases at their bottom: an In-poor shell and two In-rich phases. The alloy homogenizes toward the top of the wires, where a single In-rich phase is observed. No signatures of In-metallic precipitates are observed in the diffraction spectra. The In-content along the single nanowires estimated from X-ray fluorescence and diffraction data are in good agreement. A rough picture of these phenomena is briefly presented. We anticipate that this methodology will contribute to a greater understanding of the underlying growth concepts not only of nanowires but also of many nanostructures in materials science.

  6. Effect of highly ordered single-crystalline TiO2 nanowire length on the photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zheng-ji; Fan, Jun-qi; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Wen-hui; Du, Zu-liang; Wu, Si-xin

    2011-11-01

    One-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures grown directly onto transparent conducting oxide substrates with a high internal surface area are most desirable for high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Herein, we present a multicycle hydrothermal synthesis process to produce vertically aligned, single crystal rutile TiO(2) nanowires with different lengths between 1 and 8 μm for application as the working electrode in DSSCs. Optimum performance was obtained with a TiO(2) nanowire length of 2.0 μm, which may be ascribed to a smaller nanowire diameter with a high internal surface area and better optical transmittance with an increase in the incident light intensity on the N719 dye; as well as a firm connection at the FTO/TiO(2) nanowire interface.

  7. Template-directed synthesis of ordered single-crystalline nanowires arrays of Cu2ZnSnS4 and Cu2ZnSnSe4.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Pei, Congjian; Xu, Yeming; Li, Quan

    2011-07-13

    Highly ordered quaternary semiconductor Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) nanowires array have been prepared via a facile solvothermal approach using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) as a hard template. The as-prepared nanowires are uniform and single crystalline. They grow along either the crystalline [110] or [111] direction. The structure, morphology, composition, and optical absorption properties of the as-prepared Cu(2)ZnSnS(4) samples were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-vis spectrometry. A possible formation mechanism of the nanowire arrays is proposed. Governed by similar mechanism, we show that Cu(2)ZnSnSe(4) nanowire array with similar structural characteristics can also be obtained.

  8. Atomic Migration Induced Crystal Structure Transformation and Core-Centered Phase Transition in Single Crystal Ge2Sb2Te5 Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Jeon, Deok-Jin; Han, Jaehyun; Yeo, Jong-Souk

    2016-10-12

    A phase change nanowire holds a promise for nonvolatile memory applications, but its transition mechanism has remained unclear due to the analytical difficulties at atomic resolution. Here we obtain a deeper understanding on the phase transition of a single crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5 nanowire (GST NW) using atomic scale imaging, diffraction, and chemical analysis. Our cross-sectional analysis has shown that the as-grown hexagonal close-packed structure of the single crystal GST NW transforms to a metastable face-centered cubic structure due to the atomic migration to the pre-existing vacancy layers in the hcp structure going through iterative electrical switching. We call this crystal structure transformation "metastabilization", which is also confirmed by the increase of set-resistance during the switching operation. For the set to reset transition between crystalline and amorphous phases, high-resolution imaging indicates that the longitudinal center of the nanowire mainly undergoes phase transition. According to the atomic scale analysis of the GST NW after repeated electrical switching, partial crystallites are distributed around the core-centered amorphous region of the nanowire where atomic migration is mainly induced, thus potentially leading to low power electrical switching. These results provide a novel understanding of phase change nanowires, and can be applied to enhance the design of nanowire phase change memory devices for improved electrical performance.

  9. Single-electron transport in InAs nanowire quantum dots formed by crystal phase engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Malin; Namazi, Luna; Lehmann, Sebastian; Leijnse, Martin; Dick, Kimberly A.; Thelander, Claes

    2016-05-01

    We report electrical characterization of quantum dots formed by introducing pairs of thin wurtzite (WZ) segments in zinc blende (ZB) InAs nanowires. Regular Coulomb oscillations are observed over a wide gate voltage span, indicating that WZ segments create significant barriers for electron transport. We find a direct correlation of transport properties with quantum dot length and corresponding growth time of the enclosed ZB segment. The correlation is made possible by using a method to extract lengths of nanowire crystal phase segments directly from scanning electron microscopy images, and with support from transmission electron microscope images of typical nanowires. From experiments on controlled filling of nearly empty dots with electrons, up to the point where Coulomb oscillations can no longer be resolved, we estimate a lower bound for the ZB-WZ conduction-band offset of 95 meV.

  10. Ultrafast spectroscopy of quantum confined states in a single CdSe nanowire.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Thorsten; Giessen, Harald; Lippitz, Markus

    2013-04-10

    We measure for the first time transient absorption spectra of individual CdSe nanowires with about 10 nm diameter. Confinement of the carrier wave functions leads to discrete states which can be described by a six-band effective mass model. Combining transient absorption and luminescence spectroscopy allows us to track the excitation dynamics in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. About 10% of all absorbed photons lead to an excitation of the lowest energy state. Of these excitations, less than 1% lead to a photon in the optical far-field. Almost all emission is reabsorbed by other parts of the nanowire. These findings might explain the low overall quantum efficiency of CdSe nanowires.

  11. nBn Infrared Detector Containing Graded Absorption Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath D.; Ting, David Z.; Hill, Cory J.; Bandara, Sumith V.

    2009-01-01

    It has been proposed to modify the basic structure of an nBn infrared photodetector so that a plain electron-donor- type (n-type) semiconductor contact layer would be replaced by a graded n-type III V alloy semiconductor layer (i.e., ternary or quarternary) with appropriate doping gradient. The abbreviation nBn refers to one aspect of the unmodified basic device structure: There is an electron-barrier ("B" ) layer between two n-type ("n" ) layers, as shown in the upper part of the figure. One of the n-type layers is the aforementioned photon-absorption layer; the other n-type layer, denoted the contact layer, collects the photocurrent. The basic unmodified device structure utilizes minority-charge-carrier conduction, such that, for reasons too complex to explain within the space available for this article, the dark current at a given temperature can be orders of magnitude lower (and, consequently, signal-to-noise ratios can be greater) than in infrared detectors of other types. Thus, to obtain a given level of performance, less cooling (and, consequently, less cooling equipment and less cooling power) is needed. [In principle, one could obtain the same advantages by means of a structure that would be called pBp because it would include a barrier layer between two electron-acceptor- type (p-type) layers.] The proposed modifications could make it practical to utilize nBn photodetectors in conjunction with readily available, compact thermoelectric coolers in diverse infrared- imaging applications that could include planetary exploration, industrial quality control, monitoring pollution, firefighting, law enforcement, and medical diagnosis.

  12. Amorphization and recrystallization of single-crystalline hydrogen titanate nanowires by N{sup +} ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Behera, Akshaya K.; Bandyopadyay, Malay K.; Chatterjee, Shyamal; Facsko, Stefan; Das, Siddhartha

    2014-06-21

    We report on the phase transformation of hydrogen titanate (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}) nanowires induced by 50 keV N{sup +} ion irradiation at room temperature with fluences of 1 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} and 1 × 10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2}, respectively. Using transmission electron microscopy, the internal structure of the ion irradiated nanowires is analyzed. At low fluence, a transformation from crystalline H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7} to amorphous TiO{sub 2} is observed. However, at higher fluence, a remarkable crystalline-amorphous TiO{sub 2} core-shell structure is formed. At this higher fluence, the recrystallization occurs in the core of the nanowire and the outer layer remains amorphous. The phase transformation and formation of core-shell structure are explained using the thermal spike model, radiation enhanced diffusion, and classical theory of nucleation and growth under non-equilibrium thermodynamics. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman scattering reveal further insight into the structure of the nanowires before and after ion irradiation.

  13. Structural modulation of nanowire interfaces grown over selectively disrupted single crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garratt, E.; Nikoobakht, B.

    2015-08-01

    Recent breakthroughs in deterministic approaches to the fabrication of nanowire arrays have demonstrated the possibility of fabricating such networks using low-cost scalable methods. In this regard, we have developed a scalable growth platform for lateral fabrication of nanocrystals with high precision utilizing lattice match and symmetry. Using this planar architecture, a number of homo- and heterostructures have been demonstrated including ZnO nanowires grown over GaN. The latter combination produces horizontal, epitaxially formed crystals aligned in the plane of the substrate containing a very low number of intrinsic defects. We use such ordered structures as model systems in the interests of gauging the interfacial structural dynamics in relation to external stimuli. Nanosecond pulses of focused ion beams are used to slightly modify the substrate surface and selectively form lattice disorders in the path of nanowire growth to examine the nanocrystal, namely: its directionality and lattice defects. High resolution electron microscopies are used to reveal some interesting structural effects; for instance, a minimum threshold of surface defects that can divert nanowires. We also discuss data indicating formation of surface strains and show their mitigation during the growth process.

  14. Orientation-and polarization-dependent optical properties of the single Ag nanowire/glass substrate system excited by the evanescent wave

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mu; Cai, Wei; Wang, Yingjie; Sun, Mengtao; Shang, Guangyi

    2016-01-01

    As an important plasmon one-dimensional material, orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of single Ag nanowires/glass substrate system are investigated by a powerful platform consisting of evanescent wave excitation, near-/far-field detection and a micromanipulator. In the case of the nanowire perpendicular or parallel to the incident plane and p- ors-polarized evanescent excitation respectively, optical properties of the nanowire is measured both in far-field and near-field. For the perpendicular situation, scattering light from the nanowire shows strong dependence on the polarization of incident light, and period patterns along the nanowire are observed both in the near- and far-field. The chain of dipole model is used to explain the origin of this pattern. The discrepancy of the period patterns observed in the near- and far-field is due to the different resolution of the near- and far-field detection. For the parallel case, light intensity from the output end also depends on the incident polarization. Both experimental and calculation results show that the polarization dependence effect results from the surface plasmon excitation. These results on the orientation- and polarization-dependent properties of the Ag nanowires detected by the combination of near- and far-field methods would be helpful to understand interactions of one-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures with light. PMID:27157123

  15. High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum state engineering in the near infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Jeannic, Hanna; Verma, Varun B.; Cavaillès, Adrien; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D.; Huang, Kun; Morin, Olivier; Nam, Sae Woo; Laurat, Julien

    2016-11-01

    We report on high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on amorphous WSi and optimized at 1064 nm. At an operating temperature of 1.8 K, we demonstrated a 93% system detection efficiency at this wavelength with a dark noise of a few counts per second. Combined with cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion, this fiber-coupled detector enabled us to generate narrowband single photons with a heralding efficiency greater than 90% and a high spectral brightness of $0.6\\times10^4$ photons/(s$\\cdot$mW$\\cdot$MHz). Beyond single-photon generation at large rate, such high-efficiency detectors open the path to efficient multiple-photon heralding and complex quantum state engineering.

  16. High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors for quantum state engineering in the near infrared.

    PubMed

    Le Jeannic, Hanna; Verma, Varun B; Cavaillès, Adrien; Marsili, Francesco; Shaw, Matthew D; Huang, Kun; Morin, Olivier; Nam, Sae Woo; Laurat, Julien

    2016-11-15

    We report on high-efficiency superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors based on amorphous tungsten silicide and optimized at 1064 nm. At an operating temperature of 1.8 K, we demonstrated a 93% system detection efficiency at this wavelength with a dark noise of a few counts per second. Combined with cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric downconversion, this fiber-coupled detector enabled us to generate narrowband single photons with a heralding efficiency greater than 90% and a high spectral brightness of 0.6×104 photons/(s·mW·MHz). Beyond single-photon generation at large rate, such high-efficiency detectors open the path to efficient multiple-photon heralding and complex quantum state engineering.

  17. Size- and structure-dependence of thermal and mechanical behaviors of single-crystalline and polytypic superlattice ZnS nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Junghwan; Cho, Maenghyo; Zhou, Min

    2015-06-07

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out to study the thermal and mechanical behaviors of single-crystalline wurtzite (WZ), zinc-blende (ZB), and polytypic superlattice ZnS nanowires containing alternating WZ and ZB regions with thicknesses between 1.85 nm and 29.62 nm under tensile loading. The wires analyzed have diameters between 1.77 nm and 5.05 nm. The Green-Kubo method is used to calculate the thermal conductivity of the wires at different deformed states. A non-equilibrium MD approach is used to analyze the thermal transport behavior at the interfaces between different structural regions in the superlattice nanowires (SLNWs). The Young's modulus and thermal conductivity of ZB nanowires are approximately 2%–12% and 23%–35% lower than those of WZ nanowires, respectively. The lower initial residual compressive stress due to higher irregularity of surface atoms causes the Young's modulus of ZB nanowires to be lower. The dependence of the thermal conductivity on structure comes from differences in phonon group velocities associated with the different wires. The thermal conductivity of polytypic superlattice nanowires is up to 55% lower than that of single-crystalline nanowires, primarily because of phonon scattering at the interfaces and the resulting lower effective phonon mean free paths for each structural region. As the periodic lengths (1.85–29.62 nm) and specimen lengths (14.81–59.24 nm) of SLNWs decrease, these effects become more pronounced, causing the thermal conductivity to further decrease by up to 30%.

  18. Single-crystalline In2S3 nanowire-based flexible visible-light photodetectors with an ultra-high photoresponse.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuming; Shen, Guozhen

    2015-03-21

    With a band gap of 2.28 eV, In2S3 is an excellent candidate for visible-light sensitive photodetectors. By growing single-crystalline In2S3 nanowires via a simple CVD method, we report the fabrication of high-performance single-crystal In2S3 nanowire-based flexible photodetectors. The as-fabricated flexible photodetectors exhibited an ultra-high Ion/Ioff ratio up to 10(6) and a high sensitivity to visible incident light with responsivity and quantum efficiency as high as 7.35 × 10(4) A W(-1) and 2.28 × 10(7)%, respectively. Besides, the flexible photodetectors were demonstrated to possess a robust flexibility and excellent stability. With these favorable merits, In2S3 nanowires are believed to have a promising future in the application of high performance and flexible integrated optoelectronic devices.

  19. Room-temperature near-infrared photodetectors based on single heterojunction nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liang; Hu, Wei; Zhang, Qinglin; Ren, Pinyun; Zhuang, Xiujuan; Zhou, Hong; Xu, Jinyou; Li, Honglai; Shan, Zhengping; Wang, Xiaoxia; Liao, Lei; Xu, H Q; Pan, Anlian

    2014-02-12

    Nanoscale near-infrared photodetectors are attractive for their potential applications in integrated optoelectronic devices. Here we report the synthesis of GaSb/GaInSb p-n heterojunction semiconductor nanowires for the first time through a controllable chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. Based on these nanowires, room-temperature, high-performance, near-infrared photodetectors were constructed. The fabricated devices show excellent light response in the infrared optical communication region (1.55 μm), with an external quantum efficiency of 10(4), a responsivity of 10(3) A/W, and a short response time of 2 ms, which shows promising potential applications in integrated photonics and optoelectronics devices or systems.

  20. Luminescence and electrical properties of single ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Comedi, David; Bern, Francis; Barzola-Quiquia, José; Esquinazi, Pablo; Tirado, Mónica

    2014-03-10

    To neutralise the influence of the surface of ZnO nanowires for photonics and optoelectronic applications, we have covered them with insulating MgO film and individually contacted them for electrical characterisation. We show that such a metal-insulator-semiconductor-type nanodevice exhibits a high diode ideality factor of 3.4 below 1 V. MgO shell passivates ZnO surface states and provides confining barriers to electrons and holes within the ZnO core, favouring excitonic ultraviolet radiative recombination, while suppressing defect-related luminescence in the visible and improving electrical conductivity. The results indicate the potential use of ZnO/MgO nanowires as a convenient building block for nano-optoelectronic devices.

  1. Super-resolution imaging of light-matter interactions near single semiconductor nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johlin, Eric; Solari, Jacopo; Mann, Sander A.; Wang, Jia; Shimizu, Thomas S.; Garnett, Erik C.

    2016-12-01

    Nanophotonics is becoming invaluable for an expanding range of applications, from controlling the spontaneous emission rate and the directionality of quantum emitters, to reducing material requirements of solar cells by an order of magnitude. These effects are highly dependent on the near field of the nanostructure, which constitutes the evanescent fields from propagating and resonant localized modes. Although the interactions between quantum emitters and nanophotonic structures are increasingly well understood theoretically, directly imaging these interactions experimentally remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a photoactivated localization microscopy-based technique to image emitter-nanostructure interactions. For a 75 nm diameter silicon nanowire, we directly observe a confluence of emission rate enhancement, directivity modification and guided mode excitation, with strong interaction at scales up to 13 times the nanowire diameter. Furthermore, through analytical modelling we distinguish the relative contribution of these effects, as well as their dependence on emitter orientation.

  2. Super-resolution imaging of light–matter interactions near single semiconductor nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Johlin, Eric; Solari, Jacopo; Mann, Sander A.; Wang, Jia; Shimizu, Thomas S.; Garnett, Erik C.

    2016-01-01

    Nanophotonics is becoming invaluable for an expanding range of applications, from controlling the spontaneous emission rate and the directionality of quantum emitters, to reducing material requirements of solar cells by an order of magnitude. These effects are highly dependent on the near field of the nanostructure, which constitutes the evanescent fields from propagating and resonant localized modes. Although the interactions between quantum emitters and nanophotonic structures are increasingly well understood theoretically, directly imaging these interactions experimentally remains challenging. Here we demonstrate a photoactivated localization microscopy-based technique to image emitter-nanostructure interactions. For a 75 nm diameter silicon nanowire, we directly observe a confluence of emission rate enhancement, directivity modification and guided mode excitation, with strong interaction at scales up to 13 times the nanowire diameter. Furthermore, through analytical modelling we distinguish the relative contribution of these effects, as well as their dependence on emitter orientation. PMID:27996010

  3. Highly efficient biocompatible single silicon nanowire electrodes with functional biological pore channels.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Julio A; Misra, Nipun; Wang, Yinmin; Stroeve, Pieter; Grigoropoulos, Costas P; Noy, Aleksandr

    2009-03-01

    Nanoscale electrodes based on one-dimensional inorganic conductors could possess significant advantages for electrochemical measurements over their macroscopic counterparts in a variety of electrochemical applications. We show that the efficiency of the electrodes constructed of individual highly doped silicon nanowires greatly exceeds the efficiency of flat Si electrodes. Modification of the surfaces of the nanowire electrodes with phospholipid bilayers produces an efficient biocompatible barrier to transport of the solution redox species to the nanoelectrode surface. Incorporating functional alpha-hemolysin protein pores in the lipid bilayer results in a partial recovery of the Faradic current due to the specific transport through the protein pore. These assemblies represent a robust and versatile platform for building a new generation of highly specific biosensors and nano/bioelectronic devices.

  4. Catalyst patterning for nanowire devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Jun (Inventor); Cassell, Alan M. (Inventor); Han, Jie (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Nanowire devices may be provided that are based on carbon nanotubes or single-crystal semiconductor nanowires. The nanowire devices may be formed on a substrate. Catalyst sites may be formed on the substrate. The catalyst sites may be formed using lithography, thin metal layers that form individual catalyst sites when heated, collapsible porous catalyst-filled microscopic spheres, microscopic spheres that serve as masks for catalyst deposition, electrochemical deposition techniques, and catalyst inks. Nanowires may be grown from the catalyst sites.

  5. All Nanowire Integrated Sensor Circuitry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    of single crystalline nanomaterials. Highly ordered and parallel arrays of optically active CdSe nanowires and high mobility Ge/Si nanowires are...for enabling the fabrication of the all- nanowire sensor circuitry. First, highly aligned CdSe and Ge/Si NW arrays were assembled at pre-defined...FETs (Tl and T2) amplifying the photoresponse of a CdSe nanosensor. (B) Schematic of the all- nanowire optical sensor circuit based on ordered

  6. Maximizing integrated optical and electrical properties of a single ZnO nanowire through native interfacial doping.

    PubMed

    Ding, Huaiyi; Pan, Nan; Ma, Chao; Wu, Yukun; Li, Junwen; Cai, Hongbing; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Guanghui; Ren, Wenzhen; Li, Jianqi; Luo, Yi; Wang, Xiaoping; Hou, J G

    2014-05-21

    A native interfacial doping layer introduced in core-shell type ZnO nano-wires by a simple vapor phase re-growth procedure endows the produced nano-wires with both excellent electrical and optical performances compared to conventional homogeneous ZnO nanowires. The unique Zn-rich interfacial structure in the core-shell nanowires plays a crucial role in the outstanding performances.

  7. Fabrication Development for Nanowire GHz-Counting-Rate Single-Photon Detectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    without PEC had a higher variation in linewidths: the largest variation between any two measurements was 15 nm. Fig. 2(d) shows a plot of the linewidth...portion of the meander pattern written with PEC showing uniform 90 nm wide lines with smooth line edges formed in HSQ. (d) Plot of measured widths at...Kelvin-resistor test structure used to evaluate superconductivity of nanowires. (c) Normalized resistance vs. temperature plots showing the

  8. Temperature Dependence of Electrical and Thermal Conduction in Single Silver Nanowire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-02

    sound speed (2600 m/s) is used to estimate the phonon velocity of silver39. At low temperatures , the phonon-phonon scattering mean free path becomes...depth understanding of the strong structural defect induced electron scattering. The results indicate that, at room temperature , the electrical...resistivity increases by around 4 folds from that of bulk silver. The Debye temperature (151 K) of the silver nanowire is found 36% lower than that (235 K) of

  9. Single crystalline cylindrical nanowires – toward dense 3D arrays of magnetic vortices

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Vivas, Laura G.; Kosel, Jurgen; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Vázquez, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic vortex-based media have recently been proposed for several applications of nanotechnology; however, because lithography is typically used for their preparation, their low-cost, large-scale fabrication is a challenge. One solution may be to use arrays of densely packed cobalt nanowires that have been efficiently fabricated by electrodeposition. In this work, we present this type of nanoscale magnetic structures that can hold multiple stable magnetic vortex domains at remanence with different chiralities. The stable vortex state is observed in arrays of monocrystalline cobalt nanowires with diameters as small as 45 nm and lengths longer than 200 nm with vanishing magnetic cross talk between closely packed neighboring wires in the array. Lorentz microscopy, electron holography and magnetic force microscopy, supported by micromagnetic simulations, show that the structure of the vortex state can be adjusted by varying the aspect ratio of the nanowires. The data we present here introduce a route toward the concept of 3-dimensional vortex-based magnetic memories. PMID:27030143

  10. Single crystalline cylindrical nanowires – toward dense 3D arrays of magnetic vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Vivas, Laura G.; Kosel, Jurgen; Chubykalo-Fesenko, Oksana; Vázquez, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic vortex-based media have recently been proposed for several applications of nanotechnology; however, because lithography is typically used for their preparation, their low-cost, large-scale fabrication is a challenge. One solution may be to use arrays of densely packed cobalt nanowires that have been efficiently fabricated by electrodeposition. In this work, we present this type of nanoscale magnetic structures that can hold multiple stable magnetic vortex domains at remanence with different chiralities. The stable vortex state is observed in arrays of monocrystalline cobalt nanowires with diameters as small as 45 nm and lengths longer than 200 nm with vanishing magnetic cross talk between closely packed neighboring wires in the array. Lorentz microscopy, electron holography and magnetic force microscopy, supported by micromagnetic simulations, show that the structure of the vortex state can be adjusted by varying the aspect ratio of the nanowires. The data we present here introduce a route toward the concept of 3-dimensional vortex-based magnetic memories.

  11. Fluorescence signals of core-shell quantum dots enhanced by single crystalline gold caps on silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, S. H.; Chou, J. W.; Becker, M.; Sivakov, V.; Ehrhold, K.; Berger, A.; Chou, W. C.; Chuu, D. S.; Gösele, U.

    2009-04-01

    We use nanoscale (20-300 nm in diameter) single crystalline gold (Au)-caps on silicon nanowires (NWs) grown by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism to enhance the fluorescence photoluminescence (PL) signals of highly dilute core/shell CdSeTe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous solution (10-5 M). For NWs without Au-caps, as they appear, for example, after Au etching in aqua regia or buffered KI/I2-solution, essentially no fluorescence signal of the same diluted QDs could be observed. Fluorescence PL signals were measured using excitation with a laser wavelength of 633 nm. The signal enhancement by single crystalline, nanoscale Au-caps is discussed and interpreted based on finite element modeling (FEM).

  12. Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction of single GaAs nanowires at locations defined by focused ion beams.

    PubMed

    Bussone, Genziana; Schott, Rüdiger; Biermanns, Andreas; Davydok, Anton; Reuter, Dirk; Carbone, Gerardina; Schülli, Tobias U; Wieck, Andreas D; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2013-08-01

    Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction measurements on single GaAs nanowires (NWs) grown on a (111)-oriented GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy are reported. The positions of the NWs are intentionally determined by a direct implantation of Au with focused ion beams. This controlled arrangement in combination with a nanofocused X-ray beam allows the in-plane lattice parameter of single NWs to be probed, which is not possible for randomly grown NWs. Reciprocal space maps were collected at different heights along the NW to investigate the crystal structure. Simultaneously, substrate areas with different distances from the Au-implantation spots below the NWs were probed. Around the NWs, the data revealed a 0.4% decrease in the lattice spacing in the substrate compared with the expected unstrained value. This suggests the presence of a compressed region due to Au implantation.

  13. Dependence of superconducting properties of NbN thin films on sputtering parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaire, Trupti; Carter, Faustin; Ding, Junjia; Posada, Chrystian; Bender, Amy; Wang, Gensheng; Yefremenko, Volodymyr; Pearson, John; Padin, Steve; Chang, Clarence; Hoffmann, Axel; Novosad, Valentyn; SPT3G Collaboration

    Recently, there has been growing interest in utilizing NbN, TiN, NbTiN thin films in superconducting device applications (e.g. detectors for CMB, mm and sub-mm astronomy). In this work, we have fabricated NbN superconducting thin films by DC reactive magnetron sputtering of Nb in the presence of argon and nitrogen gases. We found that the critical temperature of NbN films is sensitive to various deposition parameters like nitrogen flow rate, target voltage, base pressure, RF substrate bias, and the substrate temperature. By studying each of these factors we have been able to create highly reproducible NbN thin films. We obtained a Tc of 15.25 +/-0.25 K for 300 nm thick NbN film grown on silicon substrate at modest temperature of 250 C in the presence of RF substrate bias. We are also investigating the microwave properties of these NbN films at temperatures well below 50 mK by fabricating quarter wavelength CPW resonators out of NbN and characterizing their frequency shifts and quality factors as functions of temperature and power. In this work we present the results of these analyses. This work was supported by BES-DOE Grant DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  14. Electrically Robust Metal Nanowire Network Formation by In-Situ Interconnection with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jong Seok; Han, Joong Tark; Jung, Sunshin; Jang, Jeong In; Kim, Ho Young; Jeong, Hee Jin; Jeong, Seung Yol; Baeg, Kang-Jun; Lee, Geon-Woong

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of the junction resistance between metallic nanowires is a crucial factor for high performance of the network-structured conducting film. Here, we show that under current flow, silver nanowire (AgNW) network films can be stabilised by minimizing the Joule heating at the NW-NW junction assisted by in-situ interconnection with a small amount (less than 3 wt%) of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). This was achieved by direct deposition of AgNW suspension containing SWCNTs functionalised with quadruple hydrogen bonding moieties excluding dispersant molecules. The electrical stabilisation mechanism of AgNW networks involves the modulation of the electrical transportation pathway by the SWCNTs through the SWCNT-AgNW junctions, which results in a relatively lower junction resistance than the NW-NW junction in the network film. In addition, we propose that good contact and Fermi level matching between AgNWs and modified SWCNTs lead to the modulation of the current pathway. The SWCNT-induced stabilisation of the AgNW networks was also demonstrated by irradiating the film with microwaves. The development of the high-throughput fabrication technology provides a robust and scalable strategy for realizing high-performance flexible transparent conductor films. PMID:24763208

  15. Atomistic simulations on the axial nanowelding configuration and contact behavior between Ag nanowire and single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Jianlei; Zhang, Jianwei; He, Xiaoqiao; Yang, Xinjun; Mei, Xuesong; Wang, Wenjun; Jiang, Gedong; Wang, Kedian; Yang, Lijun; Xie, Hui

    2017-03-01

    As for the interesting new building blocks, the Ag nanowires (AgNWs) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as the interesting new building blocks are viewed as the promising candidates for the next-generation interconnects due to their most remarkable electrical, thermal, optical, mechanical, and other properties. The axial nanowelding of head-to-head style and side-to-side style is relatively simulated with the molecular dynamics method. As for the head-to-head structural style, SWNTs will move toward the AgNWs and contact with the head of AgNWs. And, the part of the Ag nanowire may be subsequently encapsulated in SWNT with the core-filling Ag atom chain as the final atomic contact configuration during nanowelding, which is related to the nanowelding temperature. When the SWNTs and AgNWs are arranged by the side-to-side contact style, the SWNTs will move along the SWNT surface and may eventually catch up with the AgNW being neck and neck. Aiming at the final axial atomic configurations and the contact behavior during nanowelding process, the related dominant mechanism is revealed in this paper.

  16. Electron transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells made from single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Enache-Pommer, Emil; Liu, Bin; Aydil, Eray S

    2009-11-14

    Contrary to expectations, the electron transport rate in dye-sensitized solar cells made from single-crystal rutile titanium dioxide nanowires is found to be similar to that measured in dye-sensitized solar cells made from titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

  17. Rapid charge transport in dye-sensitized solar cells made from vertically aligned single-crystal rutile TiO(2) nanowires.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinjian; Zhu, Kai; Frank, Arthur J; Grimes, Craig A; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2012-03-12

    A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO(2) nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.

  18. Rapid Charge Transport in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Made from Vertically Aligned Single-Crystal Rutile TiO2 Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Zhu, K.; Frank, A. J.; Grimes, C. A.; Mallouk, T. E.

    2012-03-12

    A rapid solvothermal approach was used to synthesize aligned 1D single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays on transparent conducting substrates as electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. The NW arrays showed a more than 200 times faster charge transport (see picture) and a factor four lower defect state density than conventional rutile nanoparticle films.

  19. Study on limiting efficiencies of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H-based single-nanowire solar cells under single and tandem junction configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Xiongfei; Cao, Guoyang; Wu, Shaolong E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn; Shang, Aixue; Li, Xiaofeng E-mail: xfli@suda.edu.cn

    2015-11-02

    Detailed balance calculations are presented for a-Si:H/μc-Si:H-based single- and tandem-junction single-nanowire solar cells (S- and T-SNSCs). Our study is based on three-dimensional finite-element electromagnetic simulation and thermodynamic balanced analysis, which includes radiative and Auger recombinations simultaneously. We quantify and compare the limiting short-circuit current densities, open-circuit voltages, and light-conversion efficiencies of these highly compact photovoltaic cells, addressing especially the effect of Auger recombination on the open-circuit voltages of SNSCs. Results show that tandem design leads to much higher light-conversion capability than μc-Si:H S-SNSCs, but exhibits superior performance than a-Si:H S-SNSCs only for cells with large radii.

  20. Study on limiting efficiencies of a-Si:H/μc-Si:H-based single-nanowire solar cells under single and tandem junction configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Xiongfei; Cao, Guoyang; Wu, Shaolong; Shang, Aixue; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-11-01

    Detailed balance calculations are presented for a-Si:H/μc-Si:H-based single- and tandem-junction single-nanowire solar cells (S- and T-SNSCs). Our study is based on three-dimensional finite-element electromagnetic simulation and thermodynamic balanced analysis, which includes radiative and Auger recombinations simultaneously. We quantify and compare the limiting short-circuit current densities, open-circuit voltages, and light-conversion efficiencies of these highly compact photovoltaic cells, addressing especially the effect of Auger recombination on the open-circuit voltages of SNSCs. Results show that tandem design leads to much higher light-conversion capability than μc-Si:H S-SNSCs, but exhibits superior performance than a-Si:H S-SNSCs only for cells with large radii.

  1. Transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Di; Liu, Zhe; Liang, Bo; Wang, Xianfu; Shen, Guozhen

    2012-05-01

    With the features of high mobility, a high electric on/off ratio and excellent transparency, metal oxide nanowires are excellent candidates for transparent thin-film transistors, which is one of the key technologies to realize transparent electronics. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors. It begins with the brief introduction to the synthetic methods for high quality metal oxide nanowires, and the typical nanowire transfer and printing techniques with emphasis on the simple contact printing methodology. High performance transparent transistors built on both single nanowires and nanowire thin films are then highlighted. The final section deals with the applications of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors in the field of transparent displays and concludes with an outlook on the current perspectives and future directions of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors.

  2. Transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di; Liu, Zhe; Liang, Bo; Wang, Xianfu; Shen, Guozhen

    2012-05-21

    With the features of high mobility, a high electric on/off ratio and excellent transparency, metal oxide nanowires are excellent candidates for transparent thin-film transistors, which is one of the key technologies to realize transparent electronics. This article provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art research activities that focus on transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors. It begins with the brief introduction to the synthetic methods for high quality metal oxide nanowires, and the typical nanowire transfer and printing techniques with emphasis on the simple contact printing methodology. High performance transparent transistors built on both single nanowires and nanowire thin films are then highlighted. The final section deals with the applications of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors in the field of transparent displays and concludes with an outlook on the current perspectives and future directions of transparent metal oxide nanowire transistors.

  3. Growth of aligned single-crystalline rutile TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates and their application in dye-sensitized solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Akshay; Madaria, Anuj R.; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-05-06

    TiO{sub 2} is a wide band gap semiconductor with important applications in photovoltaic cells and photocatalysis. In this paper, we report synthesis of single-crystalline rutile phase TiO{sub 2} nanowires on arbitrary substrates, including fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), glass slides, tin-doped indium oxide (ITO), Si/SiO{sub 2}, Si(100), Si(111), and glass rods. By controlling the growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor concentrations, and so forth, we demonstrate that anisotropic growth of TiO{sub 2} is possible leading to various morphologies of nanowires. Optimization of the growth recipe leads to well-aligned vertical array of TiO{sub 2} nanowires on both FTO and glass substrates. Effects of various titanium precursors on the growth kinetics, especially on the growth rate of nanowires, are also studied. Finally, application of vertical array of TiO{sub 2} nanowires on FTO as the photoanode is demonstrated in dye-sensitized solar cell with an efficiency of 2.9 ± 0.2%.

  4. ZnO nanowires array grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal for dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qichang; Li, Yafeng; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ding, Kai; Wei, Mingdeng; Lin, Zhang

    2015-06-23

    High quality ZnO nanowires arrays were homoepitaxial grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal (GZOSC), which have the advantages of high conductivity, high carrier mobility and high thermal stability. When it was employed as a photoanode in the DSSCs, the cell exhibited a 1.44% power-conversion efficiency under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5G). The performance is superior to our ZnO nanowires/FTO based DSSCs under the same condition. This enhanced performance is mainly attributed to the perfect interface between the ZnO nanowires and the GZOSC substrate that contributes to lower carrier scattering and recombination rates compared with that grown on traditional FTO substrate.

  5. Evanescent-wave pumped room-temperature single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowire lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Wei; Zhang, Xia Ren, Xiaomin; Liu, Yange Wang, Zhi

    2014-06-02

    Evanescent-wave pumped room-temperature single-mode GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell nanowire lasers are proposed and demonstrated. The nanowires are axially excited by evanescent wave outside a microfiber with a diameter about 10 μm via a ns-pulse laser. The lasing emission with a low effective threshold less than 90 nJ is achieved at 868.62 nm along with a linewidth of ∼1.8 nm. Moreover, multiple lasing lines in a wavelength range from 852.56 nm to 882.48 nm are observed. The mechanism of diverse lasing wavelengths is revealed. Furthermore, the proposed GaAs/AlGaAs nanowire laser has advantages such as simple structure, easy to operate, and controllable lasing wavelength, tending to be practical in optical communications and integrated photonic circuits.

  6. ZnO nanowires array grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal for dye-sensitized solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qichang; Li, Yafeng; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Zhaojun; Ding, Kai; Wei, Mingdeng; Lin, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    High quality ZnO nanowires arrays were homoepitaxial grown on Ga-doped ZnO single crystal (GZOSC), which have the advantages of high conductivity, high carrier mobility and high thermal stability. When it was employed as a photoanode in the DSSCs, the cell exhibited a 1.44% power-conversion efficiency under the illumination of one sun (AM 1.5G). The performance is superior to our ZnO nanowires/FTO based DSSCs under the same condition. This enhanced performance is mainly attributed to the perfect interface between the ZnO nanowires and the GZOSC substrate that contributes to lower carrier scattering and recombination rates compared with that grown on traditional FTO substrate. PMID:26099568

  7. Polarization Dependence of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering on a Single Dielectric Nanowire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    no. 8, pp. 2497–2502, 2008. [10] B. J. Wiley, Y. Chen, J. M. McLellan et al., “ Synthesis and optical properties of silver nanobars and nanorice,” Nano...original work is properly cited. Our measurements of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Ga2O3 dielectric nanowires (NWs) core/ silver composites...process has been widely discussed [15–21]. In this work, a highly effective SERS composite of dielectric Ga2O3 NWs core/ silver was employed to investigate

  8. InAs nanowire MOSFETs in three-transistor configurations: single balanced RF down-conversion mixers.

    PubMed

    Berg, Martin; Persson, Karl-Magnus; Wu, Jun; Lind, Erik; Sjöland, Henrik; Wernersson, Lars-Erik

    2014-12-05

    Integration of III-V semiconductors on Si substrates allows for the realization of high-performance, low power III-V electronics on the Si-platform. In this work, we demonstrate the implementation of single balanced down-conversion mixer circuits, fabricated using vertically aligned InAs nanowire devices on Si. A thin, highly doped InAs buffer layer has been introduced to reduce the access resistance and serve as a bottom electrode. Low-frequency voltage conversion gain is measured up to 7 dB for a supply voltage of 1.5V. Operation of these mixers extends into the GHz regime with a -3 dB cut-off frequency of 2 GHz, limited by the optical lithography system used. The circuit dc power consumption is measured at 3.9 mW.

  9. High efficiency single Ag nanowire/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Y.; Li, X.; Xu, P.; Wang, Y.; Shen, X.; Liu, X.; Yang, Q.; Hasan, T.

    2015-02-02

    We report a high efficiency single Ag nanowire (NW)/p-GaN substrate Schottky junction-based ultraviolet light emitting diode (UV-LED). The device demonstrates deep UV free exciton electroluminescence at 362.5 nm. The dominant emission, detectable at ultralow (<1 μA) forward current, does not exhibit any shifts when the forward current is increased. External quantum efficiency (EQE) as high as 0.9% is achieved at 25 μA current at room temperature. Experiments and simulation analysis show that devices fabricated with thinner Ag NWs have higher EQE. However, for very thin Ag NWs (diameter < 250 nm), this trend breaks down due to heat accumulation in the NWs. Our simple device architecture offers a potentially cost-effective scheme to fabricate high efficiency Schottky junction-based UV-LEDs.

  10. High-efficiency WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors operating at 2.5 K

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V. B.; Horansky, R. D.; Lita, A. E.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.; Korzh, B.; Bussières, F.; Zbinden, H.; Marsili, F.; Shaw, M. D.

    2014-09-22

    We investigate the operation of WSi superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) at 2.5 K, a temperature which is ∼70% of the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub C}) of 3.4 K. We demonstrate saturation of the system detection efficiency at 78 ± 2% at a wavelength of 1310 nm, with a jitter of 191 ps. We find that the jitter at 2.5 K is limited by the noise of the readout and can be improved through the use of cryogenic amplifiers. Operation of SNSPDs with high efficiency at temperatures very close to T{sub C} appears to be a unique property of amorphous WSi.

  11. Satellite laser ranging using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at 1064  nm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li; Li, Zhulian; Zhang, Labao; Zhai, Dongsheng; Li, Yuqiang; Zhang, Sen; Li, Ming; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng; Xiong, Yaoheng

    2016-08-15

    Satellite laser ranging operating at 1064 nm wavelength using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) is successfully demonstrated. A SNSPD with an intrinsic quantum efficiency of 80% and a dark count rate of 100 cps at 1064 nm wavelength is developed and introduced to Yunnan Observatory in China. With improved closed-loop telescope systems (field of view of about 26''), satellites including Cryosat, Ajisai, and Glonass with ranges of 1600 km, 3100 km, and 19,500 km, respectively, are experimentally ranged with mean echo rates of 1200/min, 4200/min, and 320/min, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of laser ranging for satellites using SNSPDs at 1064 nm wavelength. Theoretical analysis of the detection efficiency and the mean echo rate for typical satellites indicate that it is possible for a SNSPD to range satellites from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit.

  12. Electrical transport properties of single undoped and n-type doped InN nanowires.

    PubMed

    Richter, T; Lüth, H; Schäpers, Th; Meijers, R; Jeganathan, K; Estévez Hernández, S; Calarco, R; Marso, M

    2009-10-07

    Electrical transport properties of undoped and n-type doped InN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied by current-voltage and back-gate field-effect transistor measurements. The current-voltage characteristics show ohmic behavior in the temperature range between 4 and 300 K. Down to about 120 K a linear decrease in resistance with temperature is observed. The investigation of a large number of nanowires revealed for undoped as well as doped wires an approximately linear relation between the normalized conductance and diameter for wires with a diameter below 100 nm. This shows that the main conduction takes place in the tubular surface accumulation layer of the wires. In contrast, for doped wires with a diameter larger than 100 nm a quadratic dependence of conduction on the diameter was found, which is attributed to bulk conductance as the main contribution. The successful doping of the wires is confirmed by an enhanced conduction and by the results of the back-gate field-effect transistor measurements.

  13. Dramatic enhancement of superconductivity in single-crystalline nanowire arrays of Sn

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wong, Chi Ho; Shen, Junying; Sze, Sin Ting; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Haijing; Dong, Yan; Xu, Hui; Yan, Zifeng; Li, Yingying; Hu, Xijun; Lortz, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Sn is a classical superconductor on the border between type I and type II with critical temperature of 3.7 K. We show that its critical parameters can be dramatically increased if it is brought in the form of loosely bound bundles of thin nanowires. The specific heat displays a pronounced double phase transition at 3.7 K and 5.5 K, which we attribute to the inner ‘bulk’ contribution of the nanowires and to the surface contribution, respectively. The latter is visible only because of the large volume fraction of the surface layer in relation to the bulk volume. The upper transition coincides with the onset of the resistive transition, while zero resistance is gradually approached below the lower transition. In contrast to the low critical field Hc = 0.03 T of Sn in its bulk form, a magnetic field of more than 3 T is required to fully restore the normal state. PMID:27595646

  14. Nonvolatile multibit Schottky memory based on single n-type Ga doped CdSe nanowires.

    PubMed

    Wu, Di; Jiang, Yang; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yugang; Li, Guohua; Zhu, Zhifeng; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Li; Luo, Linbao; Jie, Jiansheng

    2012-12-07

    Nonvolatile resistive switching has been observed for the first time in CdSe nanowire (NW)/Au Schottky barrier diodes, where a Schottky contact electrode and an Ohmic contact electrode were formed at the Au/CdSe NW and CdSe NW/In interfaces, respectively. The CdSe NWs Schottky devices were found to possess multibit storage ability in an individual nanowire, and exhibited excellent memory characteristics, with a resistance on/off ratio exceeding four orders of magnitude, a long retention time of over 10(4) s and a lower operating voltage of 2 V. By replacing the SiO(2)/Si substrate with a poly ethylene terephthalate substrate, flexible and transparent memory devices with superior stability under strain were realized. The resistive switching of CdSe NW/Au Schottky devices is understood by electron trapping and detrapping in the interfacial oxide layer. Our findings provide a viable way to create new functional high-density nonvolatile multibit memory devices compatible with simple processing techniques for normal one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  15. Nonvolatile multibit Schottky memory based on single n-type Ga doped CdSe nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Jiang, Yang; Yu, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yugang; Li, Guohua; Zhu, Zhifeng; Wu, Chunyan; Wang, Li; Luo, Linbao; Jie, Jiansheng

    2012-12-01

    Nonvolatile resistive switching has been observed for the first time in CdSe nanowire (NW)/Au Schottky barrier diodes, where a Schottky contact electrode and an Ohmic contact electrode were formed at the Au/CdSe NW and CdSe NW/In interfaces, respectively. The CdSe NWs Schottky devices were found to possess multibit storage ability in an individual nanowire, and exhibited excellent memory characteristics, with a resistance on/off ratio exceeding four orders of magnitude, a long retention time of over 104 s and a lower operating voltage of 2 V. By replacing the SiO2/Si substrate with a poly ethylene terephthalate substrate, flexible and transparent memory devices with superior stability under strain were realized. The resistive switching of CdSe NW/Au Schottky devices is understood by electron trapping and detrapping in the interfacial oxide layer. Our findings provide a viable way to create new functional high-density nonvolatile multibit memory devices compatible with simple processing techniques for normal one-dimensional nanomaterials.

  16. Intrinsic nanotwin effect on thermal boundary conductance in bulk and single-nanowire twinning superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Aaron; Tran, Chan; Sansoz, Frederic

    2016-05-01

    Coherent twin boundaries form periodic lamellar twinning in a wide variety of semiconductor nanowires, and they are often viewed as near-perfect interfaces with reduced phonon and electron scattering behaviors. Such unique characteristics are of practical interest for high-performance thermoelectrics and optoelectronics; however, insufficient understanding of twin-size effects on thermal boundary resistance poses significant limitations for potential applications. Here, using atomistic simulations and ab initio calculations, we report direct computational observations showing a crossover from diffuse interface scattering to superlatticelike behavior for thermal transport across nanoscale twin boundaries present in prototypical bulk and nanowire Si examples. Intrinsic interface scattering is identified for twin periods ≥22.6 nm, but it also vanishes below this size to be replaced by ultrahigh Kapitza thermal conductances. Detailed analysis of vibrational modes shows that modeling twin boundaries as atomically thin 6 H -Si layers, rather than phonon scattering interfaces, provides an accurate description of effective cross-plane and in-plane thermal conductivities in twinning superlattices, as a function of the twin period thickness.

  17. On-chip lithium cells for electrical and structural characterization of single nanowire electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, A.; Hudak, N. S.; Huang, J. Y.; Zhan, Y.; Lou, J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2014-07-01

    We present a transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-compatible, hybrid nanomachined, on-chip construct for probing the structural and electrical changes in individual nanowire electrodes during lithium insertion. We have assembled arrays of individual β-phase manganese dioxide (β-MnO2) nanowires (NWs), which are employed as a model material system, into functional electrochemical cells through a combination of bottom-up (dielectrophoresis) and top-down (silicon nanomachining) unit processes. The on-chip NWs are electrochemically lithiated inside a helium-filled glovebox and their electrical conductivity is studied as a function of incremental lithium loading during initial lithiation. We observe a dramatic reduction in NW conductivity (on the order of two to three orders in magnitude), which is not reversed when the lithium is extracted from the nanoelectrode. This conductivity change is attributed to an increase in lattice disorder within the material, which is observed from TEM images of the lithiated NWs. Furthermore, electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was employed to confirm the reduction in valence state of manganese, which occurs due to the transformation of MnO2 to LixMnO2.

  18. A review of III–V nanowire infrared photodetectors and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaPierre, R. R.; Robson, M.; Azizur-Rahman, K. M.; Kuyanov, P.

    2017-03-01

    A review of III–V nanowire-based infrared photodetectors is provided including single nanowires, ensemble nanowires, and heterostructured nanowires. The performance metrics of reported nanowire photodetectors are compared. The potential advantages of nanowire photodetectors, including enhanced absorption, fast carrier collection, multispectral detection, and direct growth on Si, are discussed.

  19. NBN gain is predictive for adverse outcome following image-guided radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Jenna; Zafarana, Gaetano; Chu, Kenneth C.; Ramnarine, Varune R.; Ishkanian, Adrian; Sendorek, Dorota H.S.; Pasic, Ivan; Lam, Wan L.; Jurisica, Igor; van der Kwast, Theo; Milosevic, Michael; Boutros, Paul C.; Bristow, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the use of clinical prognostic factors (PSA, T-category and Gleason score), 20-60% of localized prostate cancers (PCa) fail primary local treatment. Herein, we determined the prognostic importance of main sensors of the DNA damage response (DDR): MRE11A, RAD50, NBN, ATM, ATR and PRKDC. We studied copy number alterations in DDR genes in localized PCa treated with image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT; n=139) versus radical prostatectomy (RadP; n=154). In both cohorts, NBN gains were the most frequent genomic alteration (14.4 and 11% of cases, respectively), and were associated with overall tumour genomic instability (p<0.0001). NBN gains were the only significant predictor of 5yrs biochemical relapse-free rate (bRFR) following IGRT (46% versus 77%; p=0.00067). On multivariate analysis, NBN gain remained a significant independent predictor of bRFR after adjusting for known clinical prognostic variables (HR=3.28, 95% CI 1.56–6.89, Wald p-value=0.0017). No DDR-sensing gene was prognostic in the RadP cohort. In vitro studies correlated NBN gene overexpression with PCa cells radioresistance. In conclusion, NBN gain predicts for decreased bRFR in IGRT, but not in RadP patients. If validated independently, Nibrin gains may be the first PCa predictive biomarker to facilitate local treatment decisions using precision medicine approaches with surgery or radiotherapy. PMID:25415046

  20. Electroplating and magnetostructural characterization of multisegmented Co54Ni46/Co85Ni15 nanowires from single electrochemical bath in anodic alumina templates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Highly hexagonally ordered hard anodic aluminum oxide membranes, which have been modified by a thin cover layer of SiO2 deposited by atomic layer deposition method, were used as templates for the synthesis of electrodeposited magnetic Co-Ni nanowire arrays having diameters of around 180 to 200 nm and made of tens of segments with alternating compositions of Co54Ni46 and Co85Ni15. Each Co-Ni single segment has a mean length of around 290 nm for the Co54Ni46 alloy, whereas the length of the Co85Ni15 segments was around 430 nm. The composition and crystalline structure of each Co-Ni nanowire segment were determined by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction techniques. The employed single-bath electrochemical nanowire growth method allows for tuning both the composition and crystalline structure of each individual Co-Ni segment. The room temperature magnetic behavior of the multisegmented Co-Ni nanowire arrays is also studied and correlated with their structural and morphological properties. PMID:23735184

  1. Amorphous layer coating induced brittle to ductile transition in single crystalline SiC nanowires: an atomistic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhiguo; Zu, Xiaotao T.; Li, Zhijie; Gao, Fei

    2008-08-07

    Molecular dynamics simulations with Tersoff potentials were used to study the response of SiC nanowires with and without amorphous coating to a tensile strain along the axial direction. The uncoated nanowires show brittle properties and fail through bond breaking. Although the amorphous coating leads to the decrease of Young’s modulus of nanowires, yet it also leads the appearance of plastic deformation under axial strain. These results provide an effective way to modify the brittle properties of some other semiconductor nanowires.

  2. Single domain wall manipulation in curved nanowires using a mobile, local, circular field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortt, Madeline; Bickel, Jessica; Khan, Mina; Tuominen, Mark; Aidala, Katherine

    2014-03-01

    Ferromagnetic nanostructures present exciting physics with a range of potential applications in data storage devices, such as magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM). These proposals require precise control and understanding of domain wall (DW) movement and interactions. We developed a technique that generates a local circular Oersted field at a precise location by applying current through the tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM). We previously used this technique to control DW motion in nanorings. We extend this method to control individual DW movement in curved nanowires by placing the tip near a 180 DW at the vertex of a curved wire and generating a local field. In this way, we can examine the motion of domain walls through regions with different curvature and the effects of pinning. This work was supported in part by NSF DMR-1207924 and the UMass Center for Hierarchical Manufacturing, NSF CMMI-1025020.

  3. Gold nanoparticles-decorated single silver nanowire as an efficient SERS-active substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, En-zhong

    2014-07-01

    A novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate based on Au nanoparticles (AuNPs)-coated silver nanowire (AgNW) is obtained by an effective and simple method. The results show that the hybrid structures prepared by this method are powerful SERS-active substrates for the detection of malachite green (MG) molecules with the limit of 1 nmol/L. The excellent enhancing ability mainly comes from two kinds of hot spots. One is from the gaps among the adjacent AuNPs, and the other is the presence of zone between AuNPs and AgNW. In particular, the AuNPs-coated AgNW can be viewed through the objective of the confocal Raman spectrometer due to the length of the AgNW reaches microns, which can improve the repeatability of detection. Moreover, it is of great significance in research of SERS mechanism and application.

  4. Multiple Schottky Barrier-Limited Field-Effect Transistors on a Single Silicon Nanowire with an Intrinsic Doping Gradient.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Jorge L; Keiper, Timothy D; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Peng

    2017-04-05

    In comparison to conventional (channel-limited) field-effect transistors (FETs), Schottky barrier-limited FETs possess some unique characteristics which make them attractive candidates for some electronic and sensing applications. Consequently, modulation of the nano Schottky barrier at a metal-semiconductor interface promises higher performance for chemical and biomolecular sensor applications when compared to conventional FETs with ohmic contacts. However, the fabrication and optimization of devices with a combination of ideal ohmic and Schottky contacts as the source and drain, respectively, present many challenges. We address this issue by utilizing Si nanowires (NWs) synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition process which yields a pronounced doping gradient along the length of the NWs. Devices with a series of metal contacts on a single Si NW are fabricated in a single lithography and metallization process. The graded doping profile of the NW is manifested in monotonic increases in the channel and junction resistances and variation of the nature of the contacts from ohmic to Schottky of increasing effective barrier height along the NW. Hence multiple single Schottky junction-limited FETs with extreme asymmetry and high reproducibility are obtained on an individual NW. A definitive correlation between increasing Schottky barrier height and enhanced gate modulation is revealed. Having access to systematically varying Schottky barrier contacts on the same NW device provides an ideal platform for identifying optimal device characteristics for sensing and electronic applications.

  5. Electrical and photoresponse properties of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in single phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping-Jian; Liao, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xin-Zheng; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Zhu, Hui-Chao; Gao, Jing-Yun; Laurent, K; Leprince-Wang, Y; Wang, N; Yu, Da-Peng

    2009-07-01

    The single-crystal n-type and p-type ZnO nanowires (NWs) were synthesized via a chemical vapor deposition method, where phosphorus pentoxide was used as the dopant source. The electrical and photoluminescence studies reveal that phosphorus-doped ZnO NWs (ZnO:P NWs) can be changed from n-type to p-type with increasing P concentration. Furthermore, we report for the first time the formation of an intramolecular p-n homojunction in a single ZnO:P NW. The p-n junction diode has a high on/off current ratio of 2.5 x 10(3) and a low forward turn-on voltage of approximately 1.37 V. Finally, the photoresponse properties of the diode were investigated under UV (325 nm) excitation in air at room temperature. The high photocurrent/dark current ratio (3.2 x 10(4)) reveals that the diode has a potential as extreme sensitive UV photodetectors.

  6. Fabrication of single phase p-CuInSe{sub 2} nanowire arrays by electrodeposited into anodic alumina templates

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Yu-Song; Lang, Hao-Jan; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2015-10-19

    Single-phase CuInSe{sub 2} nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various pH values in a heated electrolyte by using pulse electrodeposition techniques and an anodized aluminum oxide template. X-ray diffraction showed that the CuInSe{sub 2} NW nucleation mechanism received H{sup +} constraints when the NWs were deposited at pH 1.7 with a (112) orientation and annealed at 550 °C. The CuInSe{sub 2} NW band gap was determined to be approximately 1 eV through optical measurements. Transmission electron microscopy showed that at the pH value of 1.7, small particles of the single-phase CuInSe{sub 2} NWs aligned along the crystallographic direction are nucleated to form large particles. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the NW diameter and the length were 80 nm and 2.3 μm, respectively. From Mott–Schottky and Ohmic contact plots, the CuInSe{sub 2} NWs were found to be p-type semiconductors, and their work function was estimated to be approximately 4.69 eV.

  7. An ultrasensitive electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a copper oxide nanowires/single-walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mei; Hou, Changjun; Huo, Danqun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huanbao

    2016-02-01

    Here, we developed a novel and sensitive electrochemical biosensor to detect specific-sequence target DNA. The biosensor was based on a hybrid nanocomposite consisting of copper oxide nanowires (CuO NWs) and carboxyl-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs-COOH). The resulting CuO NWs/SWCNTs layers exhibited a good differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) current response for the target DNA sequences, which we attributed to the properties of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. CuO NWs and SWCNTs hybrid composites with highly conductive and biocompatible nanostructure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Immobilization of the probe DNA on the electrode surface was largely improved due to the unique synergetic effect of CuO NWs and SWCNTs. DPV was applied to monitor the DNA hybridization event, using adriamycin as an electrochemical indicator. Under optimal conditions, the peak currents of adriamycin were linear with the logarithm of target DNA concentrations (ranging from 1.0 × 10-14 to 1.0 × 10-8 M), with a detection limit of 3.5 × 10-15 M (signal/noise ratio of 3). The biosensor also showed high selectivity to single-base mismatched target DNA. Compared with other electrochemical DNA biosensors, we showed that the proposed biosensor is simple to implement, with good stability and high sensitivity.

  8. Fabrication of single phase p-CuInSe2 nanowire arrays by electrodeposited into anodic alumina templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Song; Lang, Hao-Jan; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2015-10-01

    Single-phase CuInSe2 nanowire (NW) arrays were prepared at various pH values in a heated electrolyte by using pulse electrodeposition techniques and an anodized aluminum oxide template. X-ray diffraction showed that the CuInSe2 NW nucleation mechanism received H+ constraints when the NWs were deposited at pH 1.7 with a (112) orientation and annealed at 550 °C. The CuInSe2 NW band gap was determined to be approximately 1 eV through optical measurements. Transmission electron microscopy showed that at the pH value of 1.7, small particles of the single-phase CuInSe2 NWs aligned along the crystallographic direction are nucleated to form large particles. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the NW diameter and the length were 80 nm and 2.3 μm, respectively. From Mott-Schottky and Ohmic contact plots, the CuInSe2 NWs were found to be p-type semiconductors, and their work function was estimated to be approximately 4.69 eV.

  9. Modulating resonance modes and Q value of a CdS nanowire cavity by single Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Shan, Xin-Yan; Feng, Xiao; Wang, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Qu-Quan; Jia, Jin-Feng; Xue, Qi-Kun

    2011-10-12

    Semiconductor nanowire (NW) cavities with tailorable optical modes have been used to develop nanoscale oscillators and amplifiers in microlasers, sensors, and single photon emitters. The resonance modes of NW could be tuned by different boundary conditions. However, continuously and reversibly adjusting resonance modes and improving Q-factor of the cavity remain a great challenge. We report a method to modulate resonance modes continuously and reversibly and improve Q-factor based on surface plasmon-exciton interaction. By placing single Ag nanoparticle (NP) nearby a CdS NW, we show that the wavelength and relative intensity of the resonance modes in the NW cavity can systematically be tuned by adjusting the relative position of the Ag NP. We further demonstrate that a 56% enhancement of Q-factor and an equivalent π-phase shift of the resonance modes can be achieved when the Ag NP is located near the NW end. This hybrid cavity has potential applications in active plasmonic and photonic nanodevices.

  10. Generation and the role of dislocations in single-crystalline phase-change In 2 Se 3 nanowires under electrical pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Mafi, Elham; Tao, Xin; Zhu, Wenguang; Gao, Yanfei; Wang, Chongmin; Gu, Yi

    2016-07-08

    Using single crystalline In2Se3 nanowires as a platform, we have studied the RESET switching (from low to high electrical resistance) in this phase-change material under electric pulses. Particularly, we correlated the atomic-scale structural evolutions with local electrical resistance variations, by performing transmission electron microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy on the same nanowires. By coupling the experimental results with density functional theory calculations, we show that the immobile dislocations generated via vacancy condensations are responsible for the RESET switching and that the material maintains the single crystallinity during the process. This new mechanism is fundamentally different from the crystalline-amorphous transition, which is commonly understood as the underlying process for the RESET switching in similar phase-change materials.

  11. Single-crystalline In2S3 nanowire-based flexible visible-light photodetectors with an ultra-high photoresponse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xuming; Shen, Guozhen

    2015-03-01

    With a band gap of 2.28 eV, In2S3 is an excellent candidate for visible-light sensitive photodetectors. By growing single-crystalline In2S3 nanowires via a simple CVD method, we report the fabrication of high-performance single-crystal In2S3 nanowire-based flexible photodetectors. The as-fabricated flexible photodetectors exhibited an ultra-high Ion/Ioff ratio up to 106 and a high sensitivity to visible incident light with responsivity and quantum efficiency as high as 7.35 × 104 A W-1 and 2.28 × 107%, respectively. Besides, the flexible photodetectors were demonstrated to possess a robust flexibility and excellent stability. With these favorable merits, In2S3 nanowires are believed to have a promising future in the application of high performance and flexible integrated optoelectronic devices.With a band gap of 2.28 eV, In2S3 is an excellent candidate for visible-light sensitive photodetectors. By growing single-crystalline In2S3 nanowires via a simple CVD method, we report the fabrication of high-performance single-crystal In2S3 nanowire-based flexible photodetectors. The as-fabricated flexible photodetectors exhibited an ultra-high Ion/Ioff ratio up to 106 and a high sensitivity to visible incident light with responsivity and quantum efficiency as high as 7.35 × 104 A W-1 and 2.28 × 107%, respectively. Besides, the flexible photodetectors were demonstrated to possess a robust flexibility and excellent stability. With these favorable merits, In2S3 nanowires are believed to have a promising future in the application of high performance and flexible integrated optoelectronic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD pattern, SEM image of the back gate FETs, Electronic transport properties, and I-V curves of the device in dark. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00410a

  12. Assessing the thermoelectric properties of single InSb nanowires: the role of thermal contact resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazji, S.; Swinkels, M. Y.; De Luca, M.; Hoffmann, E. A.; Ercolani, D.; Roddaro, S.; Abstreiter, G.; Sorba, L.; Bakkers, E. P. A. M.; Zardo, I.

    2016-06-01

    The peculiar shape and dimensions of nanowires (NWs) have opened the way to their exploitation in thermoelectric applications. In general, the parameters entering into the thermoelectric figure of merit are strongly interdependent, which makes it difficult to realize an optimal thermoelectric material. In NWs, instead, the power factor can be increased and the thermal conductivity reduced, thus boosting the thermoelectric efficiency compared to bulk materials. However, the assessment of all the thermoelectric properties of a NW is experimentally very challenging. Here, we focus on InSb NWs, which have proved to be promising thermoelectric materials. The figure of merit is accurately determined by using a novel method based on a combination of Raman spectroscopy and electrical measurements. Remarkably, this type of experiment provides a powerful approach allowing us to neglect the role played by thermal contact resistance. Furthermore, we compare the thermal conductivity determined by this novel method to the one determined on the same sample by the thermal bridge method. In this latter approach, the thermal contact resistance is a non-negligible parameter, especially in NWs with large diameters. We provide experimental evidence of the crucial role played by thermal contact resistance in the assessment of the thermal properties of nanostructures, using two different measurement methods of the thermal conductivity.

  13. Single-crystalline CuO nanowires for resistive random access memory applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Yi-Siang; Chen, Jui-Yuan; Huang, Chun-Wei; Chiu, Chung-Hua; Huang, Yu-Ting; Huang, Ting Kai; He, Ruo Shiuan; Wu, Wen-Wei

    2015-04-27

    Recently, the mechanism of resistive random access memory (RRAM) has been partly clarified and determined to be controlled by the forming and erasing of conducting filaments (CF). However, the size of the CF may restrict the application and development as devices are scaled down. In this work, we synthesized CuO nanowires (NW) (∼150 nm in diameter) to fabricate a CuO NW RRAM nanodevice that was much smaller than the filament (∼2 μm) observed in a bulk CuO RRAM device in a previous study. HRTEM indicated that the Cu{sub 2}O phase was generated after operation, which demonstrated that the filament could be minimize to as small as 3.8 nm when the device is scaled down. In addition, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) show the resistive switching of the dielectric layer resulted from the aggregated oxygen vacancies, which also match with the I-V fitting results. Those results not only verify the switching mechanism of CuO RRAM but also show RRAM has the potential to shrink in size, which will be beneficial to the practical application of RRAM devices.

  14. Contact properties and surface reaction kinetics of single ZnO nanowire devices fabricated by dielectrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, J. L.; García Núñez, C.; García Marín, A.; Guerrero, C.; Rodríguez, P.; Borromeo, S.; Piqueras, J.

    2014-03-01

    This work describes the development of ZnO nanowire (NW) devices for ultraviolet detection and cost-effective gas sensing. A dielectrophoresis (DEP) flow cell fabricated for the integration of NWs on different substrates is presented. The system includes the possibility to set characteristic parameters such as alternating current (AC) frequency, amplitude or flow speed in order to control NW trapping on specific sites defined by micro-gapped electrodes. The electrical characteristics of the rectifying metal/NW contact fabricated by DEP are investigated in darkness and under direct illumination of the metal-NW interface through the ZnO NW. A significant downshift of the turn-on voltage is observed in the current-voltage characteristics during the illumination with photon energies higher than the ZnO bandgap. The reduction is attributed to a barrier height lowering induced by interface charge emission. The effects of AC bias on the thermal drift of the DC average current in NW devices are also discussed. Finally, the reaction kinetics of ethanol and water vapors on the NW surface are compared through the analysis of the DC current under direct exposure to gas flows. Device responses to more complex compound mixtures such as coffee or mint are also monitored over time, showing different performance in both cases.

  15. Theoretical study of the electronic states of small cationic niobium clusters, Nbn+ (n=3-5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, D.; Balasubramanian, K.

    2001-07-01

    Geometries and energy separations of the various low-lying electronic states of Nbn+ (n=3-5) clusters with different structural arrangements have been investigated. The complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CASMCSCF) method followed by the multireference singles plus doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) that included up to 13 million configuration spin functions have been used to compute several electronic states of these clusters. A 5A2 isosceles triangle geometry in C2v symmetry and a 2A' pyramid structure in Cs symmetry are computed as the ground states of Nb3+ and Nb4+ clusters, respectively. In the case of Nb5+, a 1A' state of distorted edge-capped tetrahedral structure (in Cs symmetry) was found to be the ground state. We also compared our MRSDCI results with density functional calculations. The dissociation and atomization energies have been calculated at the MRSDCI level and the results have been found to be in agreement with experimental findings.

  16. Wafer-Scale Precise Patterning of Organic Single-Crystal Nanowire Arrays via a Photolithography-Assisted Spin-Coating Method.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Zhang, Xiujuan; Wang, Liang; Wang, Jincheng; Shang, Qixun; Zhang, Xiaohong; Huang, Liming; Jie, Jiansheng

    2015-12-02

    A photolithography-assisted spin-coating approach is developed to produce single-crystal organic nanowire (NW) arrays at designated locations with high precision and high efficiency. This strategy enables the large-scale fabrication of organic NW arrays with nearly the same accuracy, reliability, and flexibility as photolithography. The high mobilities of the organic NWs enable the control of the switch of multicolored light-emitting devices with good stability.

  17. Nanowire sensors and arrays for chemical/biomolecule detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yun, Minhee; Lee, Choonsup; Vasquez, Richard P.; Ramanathan, K.; Bangar, M. A.; Chen, W.; Mulchandan, A.; Myung, N. V.

    2005-01-01

    We report electrochemical growth of single nanowire based sensors using e-beam patterned electrolyte channels, potentially enabling the controlled fabrication of individually addressable high density arrays. The electrodeposition technique results in nanowires with controlled dimensions, positions, alignments, and chemical compositions. Using this technique, we have fabricated single palladium nanowires with diameters ranging between 75 nm and 300 nm and conducting polymer nanowires (polypyrrole and polyaniline) with diameters between 100 nm and 200 nm. Using these single nanowires, we have successfully demonstrated gas sensing with Pd nanowires and pH sensing with polypirrole nanowires.

  18. Terahertz Mixing Characteristics of NbN Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Related Astronomical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.

    2010-01-01

    High-sensitivity superconducting SIS (superconductor-insulator-superconductor) mixers are playing an increasingly important role in the terahertz (THz) astronomical observation, which is an emerging research frontier in modern astrophysics. Superconducting SIS mixers with niobium (Nb) tunnel junctions have reached a sensitivity close to the quantum limit, but have a frequency limit about 0.7 THz (i.e., gap frequency of Nb tunnel junctions). Beyond this frequency Nb superconducting films will absorb energetic photons (i.e., energy loss) to break Cooper pairs, thereby resulting in significant degradation of the mixer performance. Therefore, it is of particular interest to develop THz superconducting SIS mixers incorporating tunnel junctions with a larger energy gap. Niobium-nitride (NbN) superconducting tunnel junctions have been long known for their large energy gap, almost double that of Nb ones. With the introduction of epitaxially grown NbN films, the fabrication technology of NbN superconducting tunnel junctions has been considerably improved in the recent years. Nevertheless, their performances are still not as good as Nb ones, and furthermore they are not yet demonstrated in real astronomical applications. Given the facts mentioned above, in this paper we systematically study the quantum mixing behaviors of NbN superconducting tunnel junctions in the THz regime and demonstrate an astronomical testing observation with a 0.5 THz superconducting SIS mixer developed with NbN tunnel junctions. The main results of this study include: (1) successful design and fabrication of a 0.4˜0.6 THz waveguide mixing circuit with the high-dielectric-constant MgO substrate; (2) successful fabrication of NbN superconducting tunnel junctions with the gap voltage reaching 5.6 mV and the quality factor as high as 15; (3) demonstration of a 0.5 THz waveguide NbN superconducting SIS mixer with a measured receiver noise temperature (no correction) as low as five times the quantum limit

  19. Solution-phase synthesis of single-crystal Cu3Si nanowire arrays on diverse substrates with dual functions as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fang-Wei; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Li, Guo-An; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chu, Li-Wei; Chen, Lih-Juann; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2013-09-01

    There is strong and growing interest in applying metal silicide nanowires as building blocks for a new class of silicide-based applications, including spintronics, nano-scale interconnects, thermoelectronics, and anti-reflective coating materials. Solution-phase environments provide versatile materials chemistry as well as significantly lower production costs compared to gas-phase synthesis. However, solution-phase synthesis of silicide nanowires remains challenging due to the lack of fundamental understanding of silicidation reactions. In this study, single-crystalline Cu3Si nanowire arrays were synthesized in an organic solvent. Self-catalyzed, dense single-crystalline Cu3Si nanowire arrays were synthesized by thermal decomposition of monophenylsilane in the presence of copper films or copper substrates at 420 to 475 °C and 10.3 MPa in supercritical benzene. The solution-grown Cu3Si nanowire arrays serve dual functions as field emitters and anti-reflective layers, which are reported on copper silicide materials for the first time. Cu3Si nanowires exhibit superior field-emission properties, with a turn-on-voltage as low as 1.16 V μm-1, an emission current density of 8 mA cm-2 at 4.9 V μm-1, and a field enhancement factor (β) of 1500. Cu3Si nanowire arrays appear black with optical absorption less than 5% between 400 and 800 nm with minimal reflectance, serving as highly efficient anti-reflective layers. Moreover, the Cu3Si nanowires could be grown on either rigid or flexible substrates (PI). This study shows that solution-phase silicide reactions are adaptable for high-quality silicide nanowire growth and demonstrates their promise towards fabrication of metal silicide-based devices.There is strong and growing interest in applying metal silicide nanowires as building blocks for a new class of silicide-based applications, including spintronics, nano-scale interconnects, thermoelectronics, and anti-reflective coating materials. Solution-phase environments

  20. Epidermal Nbn deletion causes premature hair loss and a phenotype resembling psoriasiform dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Seidel, Philipp; Remus, Martina; Delacher, Michael; Grigaravicius, Paulius; Reuss, David E.; Frappart, Lucien; von Deimling, Andreas; Feuerer, Markus; Abdollahi, Amir; Frappart, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome is a disease caused by NBN mutations. Here, we report a novel function of Nbn in skin homeostasis. We found that Nbn deficiency in hair follicle (HF) progenitors promoted increased DNA damage signaling, stimulating p16Ink4a up-regulation, Trp53 stabilization and cytokines secretion leading to HF-growth arrest and hair loss. At later stages, the basal keratinocytes layer exhibited also enhanced DNA damage response but in contrast to the one in HF progenitor was not associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines expression, but rather increased proliferation, lack of differentiation and immune response resembling psoriasiform dermatitis. Simultaneous Nbn and Trp53 inactivation significantly exacerbated this phenotype, due to the lack of inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines secretion by Trp53. Altogether, we demonstrated novel functions of Nbn in HF maintenance and prevention of skin inflammation and we provide a mechanistic explanation that links cell intrinsic DNA maintenance with large scale morphological tissue alterations. PMID:27050272

  1. Electrochemistry at nanoscale electrodes: individual single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and SWNT-templated metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dudin, Petr V; Snowden, Michael E; Macpherson, Julie V; Unwin, Patrick R

    2011-12-27

    Individual nanowires (NWs) and native single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) can be readily used as well-defined nanoscale electrodes (NSEs) for voltammetric analysis. Here, the simple photolithography-free fabrication of submillimeter long Au, Pt, and Pd NWs, with sub-100 nm heights, by templated electrodeposition onto ultralong flow-aligned SWNTs is demonstrated. Both individual Au NWs and SWNTs are employed as NSEs for electron-transfer (ET) kinetic quantification, using cyclic voltammetry (CV), in conjunction with a microcapillary-based electrochemical method. A small capillary with internal diameter in the range 30-70 μm, filled with solution containing a redox-active mediator (FcTMA(+) ((trimethylammonium)methylferrocene), Fe(CN)(6)(4-), or hydrazine) is positioned above the NSE, so that the solution meniscus completes an electrochemical cell. A 3D finite-element model, faithfully reproducing the experimental geometry, is used to both analyze the experimental CVs and derive the rate of heterogeneous ET, using Butler-Volmer kinetics. For a 70 nm height Au NW, intrinsic rate constants, k(0), up to ca. 1 cm s(-1) can be resolved. Using the same experimental configuration the electrochemistry of individual SWNTs can also be accessed. For FcTMA(+/2+) electrolysis the simulated ET kinetic parameters yield very fast ET kinetics (k(0) > 2 ± 1 cm s(-1)). Some deviation between the experimental voltammetry and the idealized model is noted, suggesting that double-layer effects may influence ET at the nanoscale.

  2. High-performance single CdS nanowire (nanobelt) Schottky junction solar cells with Au/graphene Schottky electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yu; Dai, Yu; Dai, Lun; Shi, Zujin; Liu, Nan; Wang, Fei; Fu, Lei; Peng, Ruomin; Wen, Xiaonan; Chen, Zhijian; Liu, Zhongfan; Qin, Guogang

    2010-12-01

    High-performance single CdS nanowire (NW) as well as nanobelt (NB) Schottky junction solar cells were fabricated. Au (5 nm)/graphene combined layers were used as the Schottky contact electrodes to the NWs (NBs). Typical as-fabricated NW solar cell shows excellent photovoltaic behavior with an open circuit voltage of ∼0.15 V, a short circuit current of ∼275.0 pA, and an energy conversion efficiency of up to ∼1.65%. The physical mechanism of the combined Schottky electrode was discussed. We attribute the prominent capability of the devices to the high-performance Schottky combined electrode, which has the merits of low series resistance, high transparency, and good Schottky contact to the CdS NW (NB). Besides, a promising site-controllable patterned graphene transfer method, which has the advantages of economizing graphene material and free from additional etching process, was demonstrated in this work. Our results suggest that semiconductor NWs (NBs) are promising materials for novel solar cells, which have potential application in integrated nano-optoelectronic systems.

  3. Numerical method to optimize the polar-azimuthal orientation of infrared superconducting-nanowire single-photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Csete, Mária; Sipos, Áron; Najafi, Faraz; Hu, Xiaolong; Berggren, Karl K

    2011-11-01

    A finite-element method for calculating the illumination-dependence of absorption in three-dimensional nanostructures is presented based on the radio frequency module of the Comsol Multiphysics software package (Comsol AB). This method is capable of numerically determining the optical response and near-field distribution of subwavelength periodic structures as a function of illumination orientations specified by polar angle, φ, and azimuthal angle, γ. The method was applied to determine the illumination-angle-dependent absorptance in cavity-based superconducting-nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD) designs. Niobium-nitride stripes based on dimensions of conventional SNSPDs and integrated with ~ quarter-wavelength hydrogen-silsesquioxane-filled nano-optical cavity and covered by a thin gold film acting as a reflector were illuminated from below by p-polarized light in this study. The numerical results were compared to results from complementary transfer-matrix-method calculations on composite layers made of analogous film-stacks. This comparison helped to uncover the optical phenomena contributing to the appearance of extrema in the optical response. This paper presents an approach to optimizing the absorptance of different sensing and detecting devices via simultaneous numerical optimization of the polar and azimuthal illumination angles.

  4. Investigation on hydrogenation performance of Mg{sub 2}Ni+10 wt.% NbN composite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin; Han, Shumin; Zhu, Yi; Chen, Xiaocui; Ke, Dandan; Wang, Zhibin; Liu, Ting; Ma, Yufei

    2015-01-15

    The Mg{sub 2}Ni+10 wt.% NbN composite was prepared by mechanical milling and its hydrogen absorption/desorption properties and microstructure were systematically investigated. XRD results indicated that NbN was stable during ball milling process while partly decomposed into NbN{sub 0.95} and NbH during hydriding/dehydriding cycles irreversibly. The composite exhibited excellent hydrogenation/dehydrogenation kinetics performance with 2.71 wt.% hydrogen absorbed in 60 s at 423 K and 0.81 wt.% hydrogen released in 2 h at 523 K, respectively. The H diffusion constant of the composite reached 14.98×10{sup −5} s{sup −1} which was more than twice increased than that of pure Mg{sub 2}Ni powder. The superior hydrogen storage properties of the composite were ascribed to the refined grain size and abundant N-defect points provided by NbN and NbN{sub 0.95} in the composite. - Graphical abstract: The Mg{sub 2}Ni+10 wt.% NbN composite displays improvements on particle size distribution as well as hydrogen storage properties compared with that of pure Mg{sub 2}Ni. - Highlights: • NbN is introduced into Mg{sub 2}Ni hydride by Ar protected ball-milling. • Surfaces of the additive NbN particle are reduced by Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4}. • Hydrogenation kinetic property at 423 K is double improved. • Dehydrogenation capacity at 523 K of composites is beyond double improved.

  5. Solution-phase synthesis of single-crystal Cu3Si nanowire arrays on diverse substrates with dual functions as high-performance field emitters and efficient anti-reflective layers.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Fang-Wei; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Li, Guo-An; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chu, Li-Wei; Chen, Lih-Juann; Tuan, Hsing-Yu

    2013-10-21

    There is strong and growing interest in applying metal silicide nanowires as building blocks for a new class of silicide-based applications, including spintronics, nano-scale interconnects, thermoelectronics, and anti-reflective coating materials. Solution-phase environments provide versatile materials chemistry as well as significantly lower production costs compared to gas-phase synthesis. However, solution-phase synthesis of silicide nanowires remains challenging due to the lack of fundamental understanding of silicidation reactions. In this study, single-crystalline Cu3Si nanowire arrays were synthesized in an organic solvent. Self-catalyzed, dense single-crystalline Cu3Si nanowire arrays were synthesized by thermal decomposition of monophenylsilane in the presence of copper films or copper substrates at 420 to 475 °C and 10.3 MPa in supercritical benzene. The solution-grown Cu3Si nanowire arrays serve dual functions as field emitters and anti-reflective layers, which are reported on copper silicide materials for the first time. Cu3Si nanowires exhibit superior field-emission properties, with a turn-on-voltage as low as 1.16 V μm(-1), an emission current density of 8 mA cm(-2) at 4.9 V μm(-1), and a field enhancement factor (β) of 1500. Cu3Si nanowire arrays appear black with optical absorption less than 5% between 400 and 800 nm with minimal reflectance, serving as highly efficient anti-reflective layers. Moreover, the Cu3Si nanowires could be grown on either rigid or flexible substrates (PI). This study shows that solution-phase silicide reactions are adaptable for high-quality silicide nanowire growth and demonstrates their promise towards fabrication of metal silicide-based devices.

  6. Visible Light-Assisted High-Performance Mid-Infrared Photodetectors Based on Single InAs Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hehai; Hu, Weida; Wang, Peng; Guo, Nan; Luo, Wenjin; Zheng, Dingshan; Gong, Fan; Luo, Man; Tian, Hongzheng; Zhang, Xutao; Luo, Chen; Wu, Xing; Chen, Pingping; Liao, Lei; Pan, Anlian; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Lu, Wei

    2016-10-12

    One-dimensional InAs nanowires (NWs) have been widely researched in recent years. Features of high mobility and narrow bandgap reveal its great potential of optoelectronic applications. However, most reported work about InAs NW-based photodetectors is limited to the visible waveband. Although some work shows certain response for near-infrared light, the problems of large dark current and small light on/off ratio are unsolved, thus significantly restricting the detectivity. Here in this work, a novel "visible light-assisted dark-current suppressing method" is proposed for the first time to reduce the dark current and enhance the infrared photodetection of single InAs NW photodetectors. This method effectively increases the barrier height of the metal-semiconductor contact, thus significantly making the device a metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiode. These MSM photodiodes demonstrate broadband detection from less than 1 μm to more than 3 μm and a fast response of tens of microseconds. A high detectivity of ∼10(12) Jones has been achieved for the wavelength of 2000 nm at a low bias voltage of 0.1 V with corresponding responsivity of as much as 40 A/W. Even for the incident wavelength of 3113 nm, a detectivity of ∼10(10) Jones and a responsivity of 0.6 A/W have been obtained. Our work has achieved an extended detection waveband for single InAs NW photodetector from visible and near-infrared to mid-infrared. The excellent performance for infrared detection demonstrated the great potential of narrow bandgap NWs for future infrared optoelectronic applications.

  7. Porous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2011-10-05

    In this mini-review, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures-single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion batteries, gas sensors and drug delivery.

  8. Novel approach for observing the asymmetrical evolution and the compositional nonuniformity of laser pulsed atom probe tomography of a single ZnO nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, Jae-Bok; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Bo-Hwa; Park, Chan-Gyung

    2016-01-01

    The characterization of ZnO nanowires is crucial for developing nanostructured devices together with related compounds and alloys with an atomic-scale regime. This study describes the effects of laser energy on the atom probe tomography analysis of a single ZnO nanowire with a high aspect ratio, diameters of 80?100 nm and lengths of 10 µm. We observed both an asymmetrical evolution in the apex morphology and the compositional nonuniformities of Zn and O ions with respect to the laser energies ranging from 5 to 40 nJ. When the higher laser illumination exposed to the ZnO nanowires, non-uniform field strength becomes noticeable especially at the laser incident side of the samples. Moreover, we measured the charge state ratios of Zn+ and Zn2+ ions as a function of the applied laser energies. Our results proved important for accurate quantitative characterization and better interpretation for the laser-pulsed atom probe tomography of ZnO-based devices.

  9. Crosstalk-free operation of multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector array integrated with single-flux-quantum circuit in a 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Makise, Kazumasa; Wang, Zhen

    2012-07-15

    We demonstrate the successful operation of a multielement superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SSPD) array integrated with a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) readout circuit in a compact 0.1 W Gifford-McMahon cryocooler. A time-resolved readout technique, where output signals from each element enter the SFQ readout circuit with finite time intervals, revealed crosstalk-free operation of the four-element SSPD array connected with the SFQ readout circuit. The timing jitter and the system detection efficiency were measured to be 50 ps and 11.4%, respectively, which were comparable to the performance of practical single-pixel SSPD systems.

  10. Irreversible evolution of angular-dependent coercivity in Fe80Ni20 nanowire arrays: Detection of a single vortex state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alikhani, M.; Ramazani, A.; Almasi Kashi, M.; Samanifar, S.; Montazer, A. H.

    2016-09-01

    The irreversible evolution of magnetic coercivity in arrays of 75 nm diameter Fe80Ni20 nanowires (NWs) has been explored by means of first-order reversal curve (FORC) analysis as a function of the angle between the magnetic field and the NW axis (0°≤θ≤90°). The Fe80Ni20 NWs with lengths up to 60 μm were fabricated using a pulsed electrodeposition method into hard-anodic aluminum oxide templates with an interpore distance of 275 nm. Investigating the interwire and intrawire magnetostatic interactions, the angular FORC (AFORC) diagrams indicated enhanced intrawire interactions with increasing length and θ (<90°), induced by a magnetization reversal through vortex domain wall (VDW) propagation. Intriguingly, in addition to the VDW mode, a single vortex state with broad irreversible switching of nucleation and annihilation fields was detected at θ=83° for 60 μm long NWs. At θ=90°, the NWs reversed magnetization through transverse domain wall, involving a reversible component by a fraction of 95%. Furthermore, the transition angle between the reversal modes was found to decrease with increasing aspect ratio from 200 to 800. The irreversible angular-dependent coercivity (HcIrrev(θ)) of Fe80Ni20 NWs was extracted from the AFORC measurements and compared with the major angular dependence of coercivity (HcMajor(θ)) obtained from the conventional hysteresis loop measurements. While HcMajor(θ) showed a non-monotonic behavior, HcIrrev(θ) constantly increased with increasing θ (<90°). On the other hand, using analytical models, a 93% agreement was obtained between the theoretical angular-dependent nucleation field and experimental HcIrrev(θ) for irreversible switching of VDW when 0°≤θ≤86°.

  11. Space-and-time resolved spectroscopy of single GaN nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Upadhya, Prashanth C.; Martinez, Julio A.; Li, Qiming; ...

    2015-06-30

    Gallium nitridenanowires have garnered much attention in recent years due to their attractive optical and electrical properties. An understanding of carrier transport, relaxation, and recombination in these quasi-one-dimensional nanosystems is therefore important in optimizing them for various applications. We present ultrafast optical microscopic measurements on single GaNnanowires. Furthermore, our experiments, performed while varying the light polarization,excitation fluence, and position, give insight into the mechanisms governing carrier dynamics in these nanosystems.

  12. Anisotropic behaviour of transmission through thin superconducting NbN film in parallel magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šindler, M.; Tesař, R.; Koláček, J.; Skrbek, L.

    2017-02-01

    Transmission of terahertz waves through a thin layer of the superconductor NbN deposited on an anisotropic R-cut sapphire substrate is studied as a function of temperature in a magnetic field oriented parallel with the sample. A significant difference is found between transmitted intensities of beams linearly polarised parallel with and perpendicular to the direction of applied magnetic field.

  13. NbN Josephson and Tunnel Junctions for Space THz Observation and Signal Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    jonctions Josephson en nitrures supraconducteurs (TiN et NbN) ; application à la logique RSFQ, Ph.D. thesis, SPSMS/LCP CEA - Grenoble and DEMIRM...Accepted for Publication in June 2005. [14] V. Larrey, Etude et réalisation de jonctions SIS à base de nitrure de niobium et d’une barrière tunnel

  14. Correlation of electrical and structural properties of single as-grown GaAs nanowires on Si (111) substrates.

    PubMed

    Bussone, Genziana; Schäfer-Eberwein, Heiko; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Biermanns, Andreas; Carbone, Dina; Tahraoui, Abbes; Geelhaar, Lutz; Bolívar, Peter Haring; Schülli, Tobias U; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2015-02-11

    We present the results of the study of the correlation between the electrical and structural properties of individual GaAs nanowires measured in their as-grown geometry. The resistance and the effective charge carrier mobility were extracted for several nanowires, and subsequently, the same nano-objects were investigated using X-ray nanodiffraction. This revealed a number of perfectly stacked zincblende and twinned zincblende units separated by axial interfaces. Our results suggest a correlation between the electrical parameters and the number of intrinsic interfaces.

  15. III-nitride nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key figure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical confinement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve single-mode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode operation. The first method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-off condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter efficiency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, specifically a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip

  16. III-Nitride Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Jeremy Benjamin

    2014-07-01

    In recent years there has been a tremendous interest in nanoscale optoelectronic devices. Among these devices are semiconductor nanowires whose diameters range from 10-100 nm. To date, nanowires have been grown using many semiconducting material systems and have been utilized as light emitting diodes, photodetectors, and solar cells. Nanowires possess a relatively large index contrast relative to their dielectric environment and can be used as lasers. A key gure of merit that allows for nanowire lasing is the relatively high optical con nement factor. In this work, I discuss the optical characterization of 3 types of III-nitride nanowire laser devices. Two devices were designed to reduce the number of lasing modes to achieve singlemode operation. The third device implements low-group velocity mode lasing with a photonic crystal constructed of an array of nanowires. Single-mode operation is necessary in any application where high beam quality and single frequency operation is required. III-Nitride nanowire lasers typically operate in a combined multi-longitudinal and multi-transverse mode state. Two schemes are introduced here for controlling the optical modes and achieving single-mode op eration. The rst method involves reducing the diameter of individual nanowires to the cut-o condition, where only one optical mode propagates in the wire. The second method employs distributed feedback (DFB) to achieve single-mode lasing by placing individual GaN nanowires onto substrates with etched gratings. The nanowire-grating substrate acted as a distributed feedback mirror producing single mode operation at 370 nm with a mode suppression ratio (MSR) of 17 dB. The usage of lasers for solid state lighting has the potential to further reduce U.S. lighting energy usage through an increase in emitter e ciency. Advances in nanowire fabrication, speci cally a two-step top-down approach, have allowed for the demonstration of a multi-color array of lasers on a single chip that emit

  17. Generation and the role of dislocations in single-crystalline phase-change In2Se3 nanowires under electrical pulses.

    PubMed

    Mafi, Elham; Tao, Xin; Zhu, Wenguang; Gao, Yanfei; Wang, Chongmin; Gu, Yi

    2016-08-19

    We report the observation of the generation of dislocations in single-crystal phase-change In2Se3 nanowires under electrical pulses and the impact of these dislocations on electrical properties. Particularly, we correlated the atomic-scale structural characteristics with local electrical resistance variations, by performing transmission electron microscopy and scanning Kelvin probe microscopy on the same nanowires. By coupling the experimental results with first-principles density functional theory calculations, we show that the immobile dislocations are generated via vacancy condensations. Importantly, these dislocations lead to several orders of magnitude increase in the electrical resistance, while maintaining the single crystallinity of the lattice. These results significantly advance the fundamental understanding of the structure-property relation in this phase-change material under transient electrical excitations. From a practical perspective, the significant increase in the electrical resistance, driven by the formation of dislocations, can be exploited as a new electronic state in the single-crystalline phase in this phase-change material.

  18. A T-type method for characterization of the thermoelectric performance of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Weigang; Miao, Tingting; Zhang, Xing; Takahashi, Koji; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Zhang, Boping; Ge, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive method to evaluate the thermoelectric performance of one-dimensional nanostructures, called the T-type method, has been first developed. The thermoelectric properties, including the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire have been first characterized by applying the T-type method. The determined figure of merit is far less than the reported values of nanostructured bulk Bi2S3 samples, and the mechanism is that the Seebeck coefficient is nearly zero in the temperature range of 300-420 K and changes its sign at 320 K.A comprehensive method to evaluate the thermoelectric performance of one-dimensional nanostructures, called the T-type method, has been first developed. The thermoelectric properties, including the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, of an individual free-standing single crystal Bi2S3 nanowire have been first characterized by applying the T-type method. The determined figure of merit is far less than the reported values of nanostructured bulk Bi2S3 samples, and the mechanism is that the Seebeck coefficient is nearly zero in the temperature range of 300-420 K and changes its sign at 320 K. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05946a

  19. High-efficiency second harmonic generation from a single hybrid ZnO nanowire/Au plasmonic nano-oligomer.

    PubMed

    Grinblat, Gustavo; Rahmani, Mohsen; Cortés, Emiliano; Caldarola, Martín; Comedi, David; Maier, Stefan A; Bragas, Andrea V

    2014-11-12

    We introduce a plasmonic-semiconductor hybrid nanosystem, consisting of a ZnO nanowire coupled to a gold pentamer oligomer by crossing the hot-spot. It is demonstrated that the hybrid system exhibits a second harmonic (SH) conversion efficiency of ∼3 × 10(-5)%, which is among the highest values for a nanoscale object at optical frequencies reported so far. The SH intensity was found to be ∼1700 times larger than that from the same nanowire excited outside the hot-spot. Placing high nonlinear susceptibility materials precisely in plasmonic confined-field regions to enhance SH generation opens new perspectives for highly efficient light frequency up-conversion on the nanoscale.

  20. Magnetic force microscopy study of the switching field distribution of low density arrays of single domain magnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabasum, M. R.; Zighem, F.; De La Torre Medina, J.; Encinas, A.; Piraux, L.; Nysten, B.

    2013-05-01

    In the present work, we report on the in situ magnetic force microscopy (MFM) study of the magnetization reversal in two-dimensional arrays of ferromagnetic Ni80Fe20 and Co55Fe45 nanowires (NW) with different diameters (40, 50, 70, and 100 nm) deposited inside low porosity (P < 1%) nanoporous polycarbonate membranes. In such arrays, the nanowires are sufficiently isolated from each other so that long range dipolar interactions can be neglected. The MFM experiments performed for different magnetization states at the same spot of the samples are analysed to determine the switching field distribution (SFD). The magnetization curves obtained from the MFM images are relatively square shaped. The SFD widths are narrower compared to those obtained for high density arrays. The weak broadening of the curves may be ascribed to the NW intrinsic SFD. The influence of diameter and composition of the ferromagnetic NW is also investigated.

  1. E{sub 1} Gap of Wurtzite InAs Single Nanowires Measured by Means of Resonant Raman Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, M.; Lima, M. M. Jr. de; Cantarero, A.; Dacal, L. C. O.; Iikawa, F.; Chiaramonte, T.; Cotta, M. A.

    2011-12-23

    Indium arsenide nanowires were synthesized with an intermixing of wurtzite and zincblende structure by chemical beam epitaxy with the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Resonant Raman spectroscopy of the transverse optical phonon mode at 215 cm{sup -1} reveals an E{sub 1} gap of 2.47 eV which is assigned to the electronic band gap at the A point in the indium arsenide wurtzite phase.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of porous silicon nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Daeyoon; Cho, Soo Gyeong; Moon, Taeho; Sohn, Honglae

    2016-01-01

    We report the synthesis of porous silicon nanowires through the metalassisted chemical etching of porous silicon in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The morphology of porous silicon nanowires was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The etch rate of the porous silicon nanowires was faster than that of silicon nanowires, but slower than that of porous silicon. The porous silicon nanowires distributed uniformly on the entire porous silicon layer and the tips of the porous silicon nanowires congregated together. The single crystalline and sponge-like porous structure with the pore diameters of less than 5 nm was confirmed for the porous silicon nanowires. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Electrically Injected UV-Visible Nanowire Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, George T.; Li, Changyi; Li, Qiming; Liu, Sheng; Wright, Jeremy Benjamin; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting -Shan; Chow, Weng W.; Leung, Benjamin; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Koleske, Daniel D.; Lu, Tzu-Ming

    2015-09-01

    There is strong interest in minimizing the volume of lasers to enable ultracompact, low-power, coherent light sources. Nanowires represent an ideal candidate for such nanolasers as stand-alone optical cavities and gain media, and optically pumped nanowire lasing has been demonstrated in several semiconductor systems. Electrically injected nanowire lasers are needed to realize actual working devices but have been elusive due to limitations of current methods to address the requirement for nanowire device heterostructures with high material quality, controlled doping and geometry, low optical loss, and efficient carrier injection. In this project we proposed to demonstrate electrically injected single nanowire lasers emitting in the important UV to visible wavelengths. Our approach to simultaneously address these challenges is based on high quality III-nitride nanowire device heterostructures with precisely controlled geometries and strong gain and mode confinement to minimize lasing thresholds, enabled by a unique top-down nanowire fabrication technique.

  4. Hierarchical, ultrathin single-crystal nanowires of CdS conveniently produced in laser-induced thermal field

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Li -Li; Xin, Huolin L.; Kulinich, Sergei A.; ...

    2015-07-16

    Hierarchical nanowires (HNWs) exhibit unique properties and have wide applications, while often suffering from imperfect structure. We report a facile strategy toward ultrathin CdS HNWs with monocrystal structure, where a continuous-wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser is employed to irradiate an oleic acid (OA) solution containing precursors and a light absorber. The high heating rate and large temperature gradient generated by the CW laser lead to the rapid formation of tiny zinc-blende CdS nanocrystals which then line up into nanowires with the help of OA molecules. Next, the nanowires experience a phase transformation from zinc-blende to wurtzite structure, and the transformation-induced stressmore » creates terraces on their surface, which promotes the growth of side branches and eventually results in monocrystal HNWs with an ultrathin diameter of 24 nm. The one-step synthesis of HNWs is conducted in air and completes in just 40 seconds, thus being very simple and rapid. The prepared CdS HNWs display photocatalytic performance superior to their nanoparticle counterparts, thus showing promise for catalytic applications in the future.« less

  5. Hierarchical, ultrathin single-crystal nanowires of CdS conveniently produced in laser-induced thermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Li -Li; Xin, Huolin L.; Kulinich, Sergei A.; Yang, Li -Jun; Du, Xi -Wen

    2015-07-16

    Hierarchical nanowires (HNWs) exhibit unique properties and have wide applications, while often suffering from imperfect structure. We report a facile strategy toward ultrathin CdS HNWs with monocrystal structure, where a continuous-wave (CW) Nd:YAG laser is employed to irradiate an oleic acid (OA) solution containing precursors and a light absorber. The high heating rate and large temperature gradient generated by the CW laser lead to the rapid formation of tiny zinc-blende CdS nanocrystals which then line up into nanowires with the help of OA molecules. Next, the nanowires experience a phase transformation from zinc-blende to wurtzite structure, and the transformation-induced stress creates terraces on their surface, which promotes the growth of side branches and eventually results in monocrystal HNWs with an ultrathin diameter of 24 nm. The one-step synthesis of HNWs is conducted in air and completes in just 40 seconds, thus being very simple and rapid. The prepared CdS HNWs display photocatalytic performance superior to their nanoparticle counterparts, thus showing promise for catalytic applications in the future.

  6. Improvement of electroluminescence performance by integration of ZnO nanowires and single-crystalline films on ZnO/GaN heterojunction

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Zhifeng; Zhang, Yuantao Cui, Xijun; Wu, Bin; Zhuang, Shiwei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong; Yang, Xiaotian

    2014-03-31

    Heterojunction light-emitting diodes based on n-ZnO nanowires/ZnO single-crystalline films/p-GaN structure have been demonstrated for an improved electroluminescence performance. A highly efficient ultraviolet emission was observed under forward bias. Compared with conventional n-ZnO/p-GaN structure, high internal quantum efficiency and light extraction efficiency were simultaneously considered in the proposed diode. In addition, the diode can work continuously for ∼10 h with only a slight degradation in harsh environments, indicating its good reliability and application prospect in the future. This route opens possibilities for the development of advanced nanoscale devices in which the advantages of ZnO single-crystalline films and nanostructures can be integrated together.

  7. Effect of Defects on III-V MWIR nBn Detector Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    dark current densities. The resulting diffusion current is limited by the generation of carriers through defect states in the neutral n-type absorber...and a dark current dependence on the defect density described by one of two limits, a short absorber or long absorber limit. This characteristic...MWIR, nBn, photodiode, defects, irradiation, lattice mismatch, dark current REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10

  8. Piezotronic-effect enhanced drug metabolism and sensing on a single ZnO nanowire surface with the presence of human cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Gao, Caizhen; Xue, Fei; Han, Yu; Li, Tao; Cao, Xia; Zhang, Xueji; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2015-03-24

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) enzymes are involved in catalyzing the metabolism of various endogenous and exogenous compounds. A rapid analysis of drug metabolism reactions by CYPs is required because they can metabolize 95% of current drugs in drug development and effective therapies. Here, we describe a study of piezotronic-effect enhanced drug metabolism and sensing by utilizing a single ZnO nanowire (ZnO NW) device. Owing to the unique hydrophobic feature of a ZnO NW that provides a desirable "microenvironment" for the immobilization of biomolecules, our device can effectively stimulate the tolbutamide metabolism by decorating a ZnO NW with cytochrome P4502C9/CYPs reductase (CYP2C9/CPR) microsomes. By applying an external compressive strain to the ZnO nanowire, the piezotronic effect, which plays a primary role in tuning the transport behavior of a ZnO NW utilizing the created piezoelectric polarization charges at the local interface, can effectively enhance the performance of the device. A theoretical model is proposed using an energy band diagram to explain the experimental data. This study provides a potential approach to study drug metabolism and trace drug detection based on the piezotronic effect.

  9. Confined-space synthesis of single crystal TiO2 nanowires in atmospheric vessel at low temperature: a generalized approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Hai; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Yong; Li, Baojun; Zhou, Xiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop innovative synthesis strategies for nanomaterials in order to exploit the true potential of nanotechnology. However, most approaches require high temperature or high pressure to favor crystallization. Here we highlight an unconventional approach for the confined-space synthesis of the single crystal TiO2 nanowires in the atmospheric vessel at low temperature by cleverly manipulating the unique physical properties of straight-chain saturated fatty acids. Our method also applys to icosane due to its straight-chain saturated hydrocarbon structure and similar physical properties to the saturated fatty acids. Interestingly, we also found that the unsaturated fatty acids can facilitate the crystal growth, but their bent chains lead to the formation of TiO2 particle aggregates. In addition, we demonstrate the growth of TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates, which are of great importance for their wider applications. We thus anticipate our presented method to be a possible starting point for non-classical crystallization strategies and be easily adapted for the fabrication of all other inorganic materials.

  10. Confined-space synthesis of single crystal TiO2 nanowires in atmospheric vessel at low temperature: a generalized approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Hai; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Yong; Li, Baojun; Zhou, Xiang; Shen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been devoted to develop innovative synthesis strategies for nanomaterials in order to exploit the true potential of nanotechnology. However, most approaches require high temperature or high pressure to favor crystallization. Here we highlight an unconventional approach for the confined-space synthesis of the single crystal TiO2 nanowires in the atmospheric vessel at low temperature by cleverly manipulating the unique physical properties of straight-chain saturated fatty acids. Our method also applys to icosane due to its straight-chain saturated hydrocarbon structure and similar physical properties to the saturated fatty acids. Interestingly, we also found that the unsaturated fatty acids can facilitate the crystal growth, but their bent chains lead to the formation of TiO2 particle aggregates. In addition, we demonstrate the growth of TiO2 nanowires on arbitrary substrates, which are of great importance for their wider applications. We thus anticipate our presented method to be a possible starting point for non-classical crystallization strategies and be easily adapted for the fabrication of all other inorganic materials. PMID:25634804

  11. Dynamical color-controllable lasing with extremely wide tuning range from red to green in a single alloy nanowire using nanoscale manipulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhicheng; Yin, Leijun; Ning, Hao; Yang, Zongyin; Tong, Limin; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    2013-10-09

    Multicolor lasing and dynamic color-tuning in a wide spectrum range are challenging to realize but critically important in many areas of technology and daily life, such as general lighting, display, multicolor detection, and multiband communication. By exploring nanoscale growth and manipulation, we have demonstrated the first active dynamical color control of multicolor lasing, continuously tunable between red and green colors separated by 107 nm in wavelength. This is achieved in a purposely engineered single CdSSe alloy nanowire with composition varied along the wire axis. By looping the wide-gap end of the alloy nanowire through nanoscale manipulation, two largely independent (only weakly coupled) laser cavities are formed respectively for the green and red color modes. Our approach simultaneously overcomes the two fundamental challenges for multicolor lasing in material growth and cavity design. Such multicolor lasing and continuous color tuning in a wide spectral range represents a new paradigm shift and would eventually enable color-by-design and white-color lasers for lighting, illumination, and many other applications.

  12. Effect of molecular adsorption on the electrical conductance of single au nanowires fabricated by electron-beam lithography and focused ion beam etching.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Zhang, Jingying; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Bohn, Paul W

    2010-11-22

    Metal nanowires are one of the potential candidates for nanostructured sensing elements used in future portable devices for chemical detection; however, the optimal methods for fabrication have yet to be fully explored. Two routes to nanowire fabrication, electron-beam lithography (EBL) and focused ion beam (FIB) etching, are studied, and their electrical and chemical sensing properties are compared. Although nanowires fabricated by both techniques exhibit ohmic conductance, I-V characterization indicates that nanowires fabricated by FIB etching exhibit abnormally high resistivity. In addition, the resistivity of nanowires fabricated by FIB etching shows very low sensitivity toward molecular adsorption, while those fabricated by EBL exhibit sensitive resistance change upon exposure to solution-phase adsorbates. The mean grain sizes of nanowires prepared by FIB etching are much smaller than those fabricated by EBL, so their resistance is dominated by grain-boundary scattering. As a result, these nanowires are much less sensitive to molecular adsorption, which mediates nanowire conduction through surface scattering. The much reduced mean grain sizes of these nanowires correlate with Ga ion damage caused during the ion milling process. Thus, even though the nanowires prepared by FIB etching can be smaller than their EBL counterparts, their reduced sensitivity to adsorption suggests that nanowires produced by EBL are preferred for chemical and biochemical sensing applications.

  13. Identification of the Interactors of Human Nibrin (NBN) and of Its 26 kDa and 70 kDa Fragments Arising from the NBN 657del5 Founder Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Pennisi, Rosa; Pallotta, Valeria; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antoccia, Antonio; Zolla, Lello; Ascenzi, Paolo; di Masi, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Nibrin (also named NBN or NBS1) is a component of the MRE11/RAD50/NBN complex, which is involved in early steps of DNA double strand breaks sensing and repair. Mutations within the NBN gene are responsible for the Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS). The 90% of NBS patients are homozygous for the 657del5 mutation, which determines the synthesis of two truncated proteins of 26 kDa (p26) and 70 kDa (p70). Here, HEK293 cells have been exploited to transiently express either the full-length NBN protein or the p26 or p70 fragments, followed by affinity chromatography enrichment of the eluates. The application of an unsupervised proteomics approach, based upon SDS-PAGE separation and shotgun digestion of protein bands followed by MS/MS protein identification, indicates the occurrence of previously unreported protein interacting partners of the full-length NBN protein and the p26 fragment containing the FHA/BRCT1 domains, especially after cell irradiation. In particular, results obtained shed light on new possible roles of NBN and of the p26 fragment in ROS scavenging, in the DNA damage response, and in protein folding and degradation. In particular, here we show that p26 interacts with PARP1 after irradiation, and this interaction exerts an inhibitory effect on PARP1 activity as measured by NAD+ levels. Furthermore, the p26-PARP1 interaction seems to be responsible for the persistence of ROS, and in turn of DSBs, at 24 h from IR. Since some of the newly identified interactors of the p26 and p70 fragments have not been found to interact with the full-length NBN, these interactions may somehow contribute to the key biological phenomena underpinning NBS. PMID:25485873

  14. Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors fabricated from an amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V. B.; Lita, A. E.; Vissers, M. R.; Marsili, F.; Pappas, D. P.; Mirin, R. P.; Nam, S. W.

    2014-07-14

    We present the characteristics of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) fabricated from amorphous Mo{sub 0.75}Ge{sub 0.25} thin-films. Fabricated devices show a saturation of the internal detection efficiency at temperatures below 1 K, with system dark count rates below 500 cps. Operation in a closed-cycle cryocooler at 2.5 K is possible with system detection efficiencies exceeding 20% for SNSPDs which have not been optimized for high detection efficiency. Jitter is observed to vary between 69 ps at 250 mK and 187 ps at 2.5 K using room temperature amplifiers.

  15. Room-temperature near-infrared up-conversion lasing in single-crystal Er-Y chloride silicate nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Rui; Xu, Chao; Wang, Xingjun; Cui, Jishi; Zhou, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Near-infrared up-conversion lasing in erbium(Er)-yttrium(Y) chloride silicate nanowires was demonstrated when pumped by 1476 nm laser at room temperature. The emission covers a very wide wavelength range (400–1000 nm). A clear threshold for 985 nm peak was observed at a launched average pump power of approximately 7 mW. Above threshold, the intensity increases linearly when turning up the pump power. The full width at half maximum at 985 nm decreases from 1.25 nm to 0.25 nm when reducing the measurement temperature from 30 K to 7 K, which is the narrowest linewidth of 980 nm micro-lasers to date. Our demonstration presents a possible novel method of utilizing up-conversion mechanism in Er-Y nanowire to achieve tunable near-infrared laser, which breaks new ground in the exploration of nanoscale optoelectronic devices operating at near-infrared wavelength. PMID:27703180

  16. Room-temperature near-infrared up-conversion lasing in single-crystal Er-Y chloride silicate nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Rui; Xu, Chao; Wang, Xingjun; Cui, Jishi; Zhou, Zhiping

    2016-10-01

    Near-infrared up-conversion lasing in erbium(Er)-yttrium(Y) chloride silicate nanowires was demonstrated when pumped by 1476 nm laser at room temperature. The emission covers a very wide wavelength range (400-1000 nm). A clear threshold for 985 nm peak was observed at a launched average pump power of approximately 7 mW. Above threshold, the intensity increases linearly when turning up the pump power. The full width at half maximum at 985 nm decreases from 1.25 nm to 0.25 nm when reducing the measurement temperature from 30 K to 7 K, which is the narrowest linewidth of 980 nm micro-lasers to date. Our demonstration presents a possible novel method of utilizing up-conversion mechanism in Er-Y nanowire to achieve tunable near-infrared laser, which breaks new ground in the exploration of nanoscale optoelectronic devices operating at near-infrared wavelength.

  17. Nanowires, nanostructures and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2005-04-19

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  18. ZnO nanowire lasers.

    PubMed

    Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; van Vugt, Lambert K

    2011-07-01

    The pathway towards the realization of optical solid-state lasers was gradual and slow. After Einstein's paper on absorption and stimulated emission of light in 1917 it took until 1960 for the first solid state laser device to see the light. Not much later, the first semiconductor laser was demonstrated and lasing in the near UV spectral range from ZnO was reported as early as 1966. The research on the optical properties of ZnO showed a remarkable revival since 1995 with the demonstration of room temperature lasing, which was further enhanced by the first report of lasing by a single nanowire in 2001. Since then, the research focussed increasingly on one-dimensional nanowires of ZnO. We start this review with a brief description of the opto-electronic properties of ZnO that are related to the wurtzite crystal structure. How these properties are modified by the nanowire geometry is discussed in the subsequent sections, in which we present the confined photon and/or polariton modes and how these can be investigated experimentally. Next, we review experimental studies of laser emission from single ZnO nanowires under different experimental conditions. We emphasize the special features resulting from the sub-wavelength dimensions by presenting our results on single ZnO nanowires lying on a substrate. At present, the mechanism of lasing in ZnO (nanowires) is the subject of a strong debate that is considered at the end of this review.

  19. Is the NBN gene mutation I171V a potential risk factor for malignant solid tumors in children?

    PubMed

    Nowak, Jerzy; Mosor, Maria; Nowicka, Karina; Rembowska, Jolanta; Januszkiewicz, Danuta

    2011-08-01

    NBN gene is considered as one of the low-to-moderate cancer susceptibility gene. At least 4 germline NBN mutations have been found in several malignancies in adults. In our studies, we observed the high incidence of germline mutation I171V of NBN gene in breast, colorectal, larynx cancer, and in multiple primary tumors. In this study, we would like to answer the question whether I171V germline mutation of NBN gene may constitute risk factor for solid tumors in children. The frequency of this mutation has been analyzed in patients with neuroblastoma (n=66), Wilms tumor (n=54), medulloblastoma (n=57), and rhabdomyosarcoma (n=82) hospitalized in Pediatric Oncology, Hematology and Bone Marrow Transplantation Department in the years between 1987 and 2010. About 2947 anonymous blood samples collected on Guthrie cards drawn from the newborn screening program of the Wielkopolska region have been used as controls. All the patients and controls came from the same geographical region. I171V mutation of the NBN gene has been observed in 5 controls. Among children with solid tumors only in 1 child with medulloblastoma I171V variant has been found. In conclusion, I171V germline mutation in contrary to adults cannot be considered as a risk factor for children malignancies. However, owing to low number of patients with solid tumors the possibility of a Type II error may exist.

  20. Superconducting properties of very high quality NbN thin films grown by high temperature chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, D.; Tsavdaris, N.; Jebari, S.; Grimm, A.; Blanchet, F.; Mercier, F.; Blanquet, E.; Chapelier, C.; Hofheinz, M.

    2016-10-01

    Niobium nitride (NbN) is widely used in high-frequency superconducting electronics circuits because it has one of the highest superconducting transition temperatures ({T}{{c}}˜ 16.5 {{K}}) and largest gap among conventional superconductors. In its thin-film form, the T c of NbN is very sensitive to growth conditions and it still remains a challenge to grow NbN thin films (below 50 nm) with high T c. Here, we report on the superconducting properties of NbN thin films grown by high-temperature chemical vapor deposition (HTCVD). Transport measurements reveal significantly lower disorder than previously reported, characterized by a Ioffe-Regel parameter ({k}{{F}}{\\ell }) ˜ 12. Accordingly we observe {T}{{c}}˜ 17.06 {{K}} (point of 50% of normal state resistance), the highest value reported so far for films of thickness 50 nm or less, indicating that HTCVD could be particularly useful for growing high quality NbN thin films.

  1. CdTe nBn photodetectors with ZnTe barrier layer grown on InSb substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhao-Yu; Campbell, Calli M.; Lassise, Maxwell B.; Lin, Zhi-Yuan; Becker, Jacob J.; Zhao, Yuan; Boccard, Mathieu; Holman, Zachary; Zhang, Yong-Hang

    2016-09-01

    We have demonstrated an 820 nm cutoff CdTe nBn photodetector with ZnTe barrier layer grown on an InSb substrate. At room temperature, under a bias of -0.1 V, the photodetector shows Johnson and shot noise limited specific detectivity (D*) of 3 × 1013 cm Hz1/2/W at a wavelength of 800 nm and 2 × 1012 cm Hz1/2/W at 200 nm. The D* is optimized by using a top contact design of ITO/undoped-CdTe. This device not only possesses nBn advantageous characteristics, such as generation-recombination dark current suppression and voltage-bias-addressed two-color photodetection, but also offers features including responsivity enhancements by deep-depletion and by using a heterostructure ZnTe barrier layer. In addition, this device provides a platform to study nBn device physics at room temperature, which will help us to understand more sophisticated properties of infrared nBn photodetectors that may possess a large band-to-band tunneling current at a high voltage bias, because this current is greatly suppressed in the large-bandgap CdTe nBn photodetector.

  2. Optically controllable nanobreaking of metallic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lina; Lu, Jinsheng; Yang, Hangbo; Luo, Si; Wang, Wei; Lv, Jun; Qiu, Min; Li, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    Nanobreaking of nanowires has shown its necessity for manufacturing integrated nanodevices as nanojoining does. In this letter, we develop a method for breaking gold pentagonal nanowires by taking advantage of the photothermal effect with a 532 nm continuous-wave (CW) laser. The critical power required for nanobreaking is much lower for perpendicular polarization than that for parallel polarization. By controlling the polarization and the power of the irradiation light for nanobreaking, the nanowires can be cut into segments with gap widths ranging from dozens of nanometers to several micrometers. This CW light-induced single point nanobreaking of metallic nanowires provides a highly useful and promising method in constructing nanosystems.

  3. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Peidong; Choi, Heonjin; Lee, Sangkwon; He, Rongrui; Zhang, Yanfeng; Kuykendal, Tevye; Pauzauskie, Peter

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  4. Modeling of silica nanowires for optical sensing.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jingyi; Tong, Limin; Ye, Zhizhen

    2005-03-21

    Based on evanescent-wave guiding properties of nanowire waveguides, we propose to use single-mode subwavelength-diameter silica nanowires for optical sensing. Phase shift of the guided mode caused by index change is obtained by solving Maxwell's equation, and is used as a criterion for sensitivity estimation. Nanowire sensor employing a wire-assembled Mach-Zehnder structure is modeled. The result shows that optical nanowires, especially those fabricated by taper drawing of optical fibers, are promising for developing miniaturized optical sensors with high sensitivity.

  5. Fluorescence modulation of single CdSe nanowires by charge injection through the tip of an atomic-force microscope.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Sebastian; Wang, Zhe; Kipp, Tobias; Mews, Alf

    2011-09-23

    We demonstrate a direct correlation between the charge state and photoluminescence (PL) intensity of individual CdSe nanowires by actively charging them and performing electrostatic force microscopy and PL measurements simultaneously. While the injection of positive charges leads to an immediate PL quenching, a small amount of injected electrons can lead to an increase of the PL intensity. We directly observed the migration of excess charges into the substrate, which leads to a recovery of the PL. Further, we show that the PL of individual NWs can be actively switched between on and off states by charging with the atomic-force microscope tip. We propose a model based on charge trapping and migration into the substrate to explain our results.

  6. Cellular manipulation and patterning using ferromagnetic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultgren, Anne

    Ferromagnetic nanowires are demonstrated as an effective tool to apply forces to living cells. Both magnetic cell separations and the magnetic patterning of cells on a substrate will be accomplished through the use of cell-nanowire interactions as well as nanowire-magnetic field interactions. When introduced into cultures of NIH-3T3 cells, the nanowires are internalized by cells via the integrin-mediated adhesion pathway without inflicting any toxic effects on the cell cycle over the course of several days. In addition, the length of the nanowires was found to have an effect on the cell-nanowire interactions when the cells were dissociated from the tissue culture dish. To compare the effectiveness of the nanowires as a means of manipulating cells to the current technology which is based on superparamagnetic beads, magnetic cell separations were performed with electrodeposited Ni nanowires 350 nm in diameter and 5--35 mum long in field gradients of 80 T/m. Single-pass separations of NIH-3T3 cells bound to nanowires achieve up to 81% purity with 85% yield, a dramatic improvement over the 55% purity and 20% yield obtained with the beads. The yield for the separations were found to be dependent on the length of the nanowires, and was maximized when the length of the nanowires equaled the diameter of the cells. This dependence was exploited to perform a size-selective magnetic separation. Substrates containing arrays of micro-magnets, fabricated using photolithography, were placed in cell cultures. These micro-magnet arrays create regions of locally strong magnetic field gradients to trap nanowires in specific locations on the substrate. These substrates were used in conjunction with fluid flow and a weak, externally applied magnetic field to create and control patterns of cells bound to nanowires. Controlled isolation of heterogeneous pairs and groups of cells will enable the study of the biochemistry of cell-cell contacts.

  7. Effects of the single-ion anisotropy on magnetic and thermodynamic properties of a ferrimagnetic mixed-spin (1, 3/2) cylindrical Ising nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Bi, Jiang-lin; Liu, Rui-jia; Chen, Xu; Liu, Jin-ping

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulation has been performed in detail to study magnetic and thermodynamic properties of a ferrimagnetic mixed-spin (1, 3/2) cylindrical Ising nanowire with core-shell structure. The ground phase diagrams are obtained for different single-ion anisotropies. The system can display rich phase transitions such as the second- and first-order phase transitions, the tricritical points and the compensation points. Especially, emphasis has been given to the effects of the single-ion anisotropy and the temperate on the magnetization, the internal energy, the specific heat, the compensation points and hysteresis loops of the system as well as two sublattices. A number of characteristic phenomena such as such as various types of magnetization curves and triple, duadruple as well as quintuple hysteresis loops behaviors have been observed for certain physical parameters, originating from the competitions among the anisotropies, temperature and the longitudinal magnetic field. It is found that the single-ion anisotropy and the temperature strongly affect the coercivity and the remanence of the system. A satisfactory agreement can be achieved from comparisons between our results and previous theoretical and experimental works.

  8. A Heterojunction Design of Single Layer Hole Tunneling ZnO Passivation Wrapping around TiO2Nanowires for Superior Photocatalytic Performance

    PubMed Central

    Ghobadi, Amir; Ulusoy, T. Gamze; Garifullin, Ruslan; Guler, Mustafa O.; Okyay, Ali K.

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured hybrid heterojunctions have been studied widely for photocatalytic applications due to their superior optical and structural properties. In this work, the impact of angstrom thick atomic layer deposited (ALD) ZnO shell layer on photocatalytic activity (PCA) of hydrothermal grown single crystalline TiO2 nanowires (NWs) is systematically explored. We showed that a single cycle of ALD ZnO layer wrapped around TiO2 NWs, considerably boosts the PCA of the heterostructure. Subsequent cycles, however, gradually hinder the photocatalytic activity (PCA) of the TiO2 NWs. Various structural, optical, and transient characterizations are employed to scrutinize this unprecedented change. We show that a single atomic layer of ZnO shell not only increases light harvesting capability of the heterostructure via extension of the absorption toward visible wavelengths, but also mitigates recombination probability of carriers through reduction of surface defects density and introduction of proper charge separation along the core-shell interface. Furthermore, the ultrathin ZnO shell layer allows a strong contribution of the core (TiO2) valence band holes through tunneling across the ultrathin interface. All mechanisms responsible for this enhanced PCA of heterostructure are elucidated and corresponding models are proposed. PMID:27464476

  9. Semiconductor nanowires: Controlled growth and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yiying

    This dissertation presents an experimental study of the controlled growth of semiconductor nanowires and their thermophysical properties. The synthesis of nanowires was based on the well-known Vapor-Liquid-Solid (VLS) mechanism in which the growth of nanowire is initiated by a nanosized liquid droplet. The prepared nanowires are single-crystalline with certain preferred growth direction. Nanowires with different compositions have been synthesized, including Si, Ge, boron and MgB2. The control of nanowire composition, diameter and orientation has also been achieved. In addition, a Pulsed Laser Ablation-Chemical Vapor Deposition (PLA-CVD) hybrid process was developed to synthesize Si/SiGe longitudinally superlattice nanowires. The thermal conductivity of individual pure Si nanowire and Si/SiGe nanowire was measured using a microfabricated suspended device over a temperature range of 20--320 K. The thermal conductivities of individual 22, 37, 56, and 115 nm diameter single crystalline intrinsic Si nanowires were much lower than the bulk value due to the strong phonon boundary scattering. Except for the 22 nm diameter nanowire, theoretical predictions using a modified Callaway model fit the experimental data very well. The data for the 22 nm diameter wire suggest that changes in phonon dispersion due to confinement can cause additional thermal conductivity reduction. The Si/SiGe superlattice nanowires with diameters of 83 run and 58 nm were also measured. Their thermal conductivities are smaller than pure Si nanowire with similar diameter, as well as Si/SiGe superlattice thin film with comparable period. Both the alloying scattering and the boundary scattering are believed to contribute to this reduction. Size dependent melting-recrystallization study of the carbon-sheathed semiconductor Ge nanowires was carried out in in-situ high temperature transmission electron microscope (TEM). Significant depression in melting temperature with decreasing size of the nanowires as

  10. Optical properties of heavily doped GaAs nanowires and electroluminescent nanowire structures.

    PubMed

    Lysov, A; Offer, M; Gutsche, C; Regolin, I; Topaloglu, S; Geller, M; Prost, W; Tegude, F-J

    2011-02-25

    We present GaAs electroluminescent nanowire structures fabricated by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Electroluminescent structures were realized in both axial pn-junctions in single GaAs nanowires and free-standing nanowire arrays with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate, respectively. The electroluminescence emission peak from single nanowire pn-junctions at 10 K was registered at an energy of around 1.32 eV and shifted to 1.4 eV with an increasing current. The line is attributed to the recombination in the compensated region present in the nanowire due to the memory effect of the vapor-liquid-solid growth mechanism. Arrayed nanowire electroluminescent structures with a pn-junction formed between nanowires and substrate demonstrated at 5 K a strong electroluminescence peak at 1.488 eV and two shoulder peaks at 1.455 and 1.519 eV. The main emission line was attributed to the recombination in the p-doped GaAs. The other two lines correspond to the tunneling-assisted photon emission and band-edge recombination in the abrupt junction, respectively. Electroluminescence spectra are compared with the micro-photoluminescence spectra taken along the single p-, n- and single nanowire pn-junctions to find the origin of the electroluminescence peaks, the distribution of doping species and the sharpness of the junctions.

  11. Silver nanowires--unique templates for functional nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yugang

    2010-09-01

    This feature article reviews the synthesis and application of silver nanowires with the focus on a polyol process that is capable of producing high quality silver nanowires with high yield. The as-synthesized silver nanowires can be used as both physical templates for the synthesis of metal/dielectric core/shell nanowires and chemical templates for the synthesis of metal nanotubes as well as semiconductor nanowires. Typical examples including Ag/SiO(2) coaxial nanocables, single- and multiple-walled nanotubes made of Au-Ag alloy, AgCl nanowires and AgCl/Au core/shell nanowires are discussed in detail to illustrate the versatility of nanostructures derived from silver nanowire templates. Novel properties associated with these one-dimensional nanostructures are also briefly discussed to shed the light on their potential applications in electronics, photonics, optoelectronics, catalysis, and medicine.

  12. Free-standing and single-crystalline Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires with room-temperature ferromagnetism and excellent magnetic response.

    PubMed

    Hung, Min-Hsiu; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Tang, Jianshi; Lin, Ching-Chun; Hou, Te-Chien; Jiang, Xiaowei; Wang, Kang L; Chen, Lih-Juann

    2012-06-26

    High-aspect-ratio Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires with room-temperature ferromagnetism were synthesized by a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method in one step. This is the first report of ternary silicide nanowires using magnetic Mn ions to partially replace metal sites in the host matrix. Here we report the excellent magnetic characteristics of Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires, which exhibit strong ferromagnetism at room temperature and high magnetoresistance (MR) variation. As-synthesized Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires show a hyperbranched morphology and a spin-disorder behavior. The strong spin interaction in Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires, induced by the substitution of Fe sublattices for magnetic Mn ions, was revealed in the hysteresis loops. The magnetization versus magnetic field (M-H) curves of Fe(1-x)Mn(x)Si nanowires are much less sensitive to the temperature variation from 10 to 300 K than those of FeSi nanowires. Remarkably, the excellent MR performance, -41.6% at 25 K with a magnetic field of 9 T, was demonstrated in an individual Fe(0.88)Mn(0.12)Si nanowire.

  13. Angle dependence on the anisotropic magnetoresistance amplitude of a single-contacted Ni nanowire subjected to a thermo-mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melilli, G.; Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Clochard, M.-C.

    2015-12-01

    The effects of thermoelastic and piezoelectric strain of an active track-etched β-PVDF polymer matrix on an electrodeposited single-contacted Ni nanowire (NW) are investigated at the nanoscale by measuring the change of magnetization (i.e. using the inverse magnetostriction effect). The magnetization state is measured locally by anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR). The ferromagnetic NW plays thus the role of a mechanical probe that allows the effects of mechanical strain to be characterized and described qualitatively and quantitatively. The inverse magnetostriction was found to be responsible for a quasi-disappearance of the AMR signal for a variation of the order of ΔT ≈ 10 K. In other terms, the variation of the magnetization due to the stress compensates the effect of external magnetic field applied on the NW resistance. The induced stress field in a single Ni NW was found 1000 time higher than the bulk stress field (due to thermal expansion measured on the PVDF). This amplification could be attributed to three nanoscopic effects: (1) a stress mismatch between the Ni NW and the membrane, (2) a non-negligible role of the surface tension on Ni NW Young modulus, and (3) the possibility of non-linear stress-strain law. We investigate here the role of these different contributions using track-etched polymer membranes irradiated at various angles (αirrad) leading to, after electrodeposition, embedded Ni NWs of different orientations.

  14. Gate-Tunable Spin Exchange Interactions and Inversion of Magnetoresistance in Single Ferromagnetic ZnO Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Vijayakumar; Jin, Mi-Jin; Park, Jungmin; Jo, Junhyeon; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Baik, Jeong Min; Seo, Changwon; Kim, Jeongyong; Yoo, Jung-Woo

    2016-04-26

    Electrical control of ferromagnetism in semiconductor nanostructures offers the promise of nonvolatile functionality in future semiconductor spintronics. Here, we demonstrate a dramatic gate-induced change of ferromagnetism in ZnO nanowire (NW) field-effect transistors (FETs). Ferromagnetism in our ZnO NWs arose from oxygen vacancies, which constitute deep levels hosting unpaired electron spins. The magnetic transition temperature of the studied ZnO NWs was estimated to be well above room temperature. The in situ UV confocal photoluminescence (PL) study confirmed oxygen vacancy mediated ferromagnetism in the studied ZnO NW FET devices. Both the estimated carrier concentration and temperature-dependent conductivity reveal the studied ZnO NWs are at the crossover of the metal-insulator transition. In particular, gate-induced modulation of the carrier concentration in the ZnO NW FET significantly alters carrier-mediated exchange interactions, which causes even inversion of magnetoresistance (MR) from negative to positive values. Upon sweeping the gate bias from -40 to +50 V, the MRs estimated at 2 K and 2 T were changed from -11.3% to +4.1%. Detailed analysis on the gate-dependent MR behavior clearly showed enhanced spin splitting energy with increasing carrier concentration. Gate-voltage-dependent PL spectra of an individual NW device confirmed the localization of oxygen vacancy-induced spins, indicating that gate-tunable indirect exchange coupling between localized magnetic moments played an important role in the remarkable change of the MR.

  15. Composition and bandgap-graded semiconductor alloy nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiujuan; Ning, C Z; Pan, Anlian

    2012-01-03

    Semiconductor alloy nanowires with spatially graded compositions (and bandgaps) provide a new material platform for many new multifunctional optoelectronic devices, such as broadly tunable lasers, multispectral photodetectors, broad-band light emitting diodes (LEDs) and high-efficiency solar cells. In this review, we will summarize the recent progress on composition graded semiconductor alloy nanowires with bandgaps graded in a wide range. Depending on different growth methods and material systems, two typical nanowire composition grading approaches will be presented in detail, including composition graded alloy nanowires along a single substrate and those along single nanowires. Furthermore, selected examples of applications of these composition graded semiconductor nanowires will be presented and discussed, including tunable nanolasers, multi-terminal on-nanowire photodetectors, full-spectrum solar cells, and white-light LEDs. Finally, we will make some concluding remarks with future perspectives including opportunities and challenges in this research area.

  16. Anomalous piezoresistance effect in ultrastrained silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Lugstein, A; Steinmair, M; Steiger, A; Kosina, H; Bertagnolli, E

    2010-08-11

    In this paper we demonstrate that under ultrahigh strain conditions p-type single crystal silicon nanowires possess an anomalous piezoresistance effect. The measurements were performed on vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) grown Si nanowires, monolithically integrated in a microelectro-mechanical loading module. The special setup enables the application of pure uniaxial tensile strain along the <111> growth direction of individual, 100 nm thick Si nanowires while simultaneously measuring the resistance of the nanowires. For low strain levels (nanowire elongation less than 0.8%), our measurements revealed the expected positive piezoresistance effect, whereas for ultrahigh strain levels a transition to anomalous negative piezoresistance was observed. For the maximum tensile strain of 3.5%, the resistance of the Si nanowires decreased by a factor of 10. Even at these high strain amplitudes, no fatigue failures are observed for several hundred loading cycles. The ability to fabricate single-crystal nanowires that are widely free of structural defects will it make possible to apply high strain without fracturing to other materials as well, therefore in any application where crystallinity and strain are important, the idea of making nanowires should be of a high value.

  17. NbN and NaNbN2 particles: selective solid state synthesis and conduction performance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangbiao; Zhu, Yongchun; Shi, Liang; Si, Lulu; Li, Qianwen; Qian, Yitai

    2012-09-01

    Starting from Nb2O5, NaN3 and different metallic reductants such as magnesium or aluminum, cubic NbN and hexagonal NaNbN2 were selectively synthesized in a stainless steel autoclave at 400-700 degrees C. When magnesium was used as a metallic reductant, NbN can be synthesized at 400 degrees C for 10 h. If the metallic reductant was replaced by aluminum, NaNbN2 was obtained at 700 degrees C for 40 h. The structures and morphologies of the samples were derived from X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). FE-SEM images showed that the NbN sample consisted of particles with an average size of about 100 nm, and the NaNbN2 sample is composed of with an average size of 500 nm. Furthermore, the electric resistivity of the obtained samples reveals the obtained NbN sample is a superconductor with transition temperature of 17 K, and the obtained NaNbN2 sample can be classified as a semiconductor.

  18. Development of Fast NbN RSFQ Logic Gates in Sigma-Delta Converters for Space Telecommunications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    spatiales des circuits logiques supraconducteurs ” Internal Technical Reports, Alcatel Space & CEA, 2003. [3] P. Bunyk, K. Likharev and D. Zinoviev...films minces et de junctions Josephson en nitrures supraconducteurs (TiN et NbN), application à la logique RSFQ, PhD Thesis, Université J. Fourier

  19. Synthesis and manipulation of metallic nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Anne K.

    Metallic nanowires (200 nm in diameter and of varying lengths) were fabricated by electrodeposition into the pores of alumina and polycarbonate templates. Cu-Sn alloy nanowires were electrodeposited from a single electrolyte containing Cu2+ and Sn2+ ions using both constant-potential and pulsed-potential techniques. The composition of the Cu-Sn alloys was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, and the effect of the electrodeposition conditions on the alloy composition was determined. To manipulate and position the bronze alloy nanowires, nickel caps were grown on each end by sequential electrodeposition of nickel, delta-CuSn, and nickel. The segmented nanowires were ferromagnetic and responded to magnetic fields. In suspensions, the nanowires could be oriented in any direction by applying a magnetic field. The nanowires were dispersed on pairs of nickel stripes photolithographically defined on silicon substrates while an applied magnetic field encouraged the alignment of the nanowires between the stripes. Improved alignment was achieved compared to non-magnetic nanowires. The behavior of suspensions of nickel nanowires in a variety of solvents was examined. The nanowires settle in response to gravity at velocities that fall within the range of velocities predicted by Stokes theory. Nanowires settled more slowly in more viscous solvents. When magnetic fields are applied to the suspensions of nanowires, they scatter light in the plane perpendicular to the nanowire axis and containing the incident light beam. This light scattering effect was utilized to create a magneto-optical switch in which magnetic fields affect the intensity of light reaching a detector. When the suspensions of nanowires were placed in thin film cuvets and oriented with magnetic fields, the nanowires re-oriented the polarization of incident light. The template synthesis technique was adapted to develop an undergraduate laboratory experiment in which students create their own nickel nanowires

  20. Optical absorption of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Lambert, Y.; Krzeminski, C.; Grandidier, B.; Stievenard, D.; Leveque, G.; Akjouj, A.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B.

    2012-08-01

    We report on simulations and measurements of the optical absorption of silicon nanowires (NWs) versus their diameter. We first address the simulation of the optical absorption based on two different theoretical methods: the first one, based on the Green function formalism, is useful to calculate the scattering and absorption properties of a single or a finite set of NWs. The second one, based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, is well-adapted to deal with a periodic set of NWs. In both cases, an increase of the onset energy for the absorption is found with increasing diameter. Such effect is experimentally illustrated, when photoconductivity measurements are performed on single tapered Si nanowires connected between a set of several electrodes. An increase of the nanowire diameter reveals a spectral shift of the photocurrent intensity peak towards lower photon energies that allow to tune the absorption onset from the ultraviolet radiations to the visible light spectrum.

  1. Thermal conductivity measurements of single-crystalline bismuth nanowires by the four-point-probe 3-ω technique at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yong; Kim, Gil-Sung; Lee, Mi-Ri; Lim, Hyuneui; Kim, Wan-Doo; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2013-05-10

    We have successfully investigated the thermal conductivity (κ) of single-crystalline bismuth nanowires (BiNWs) with [110] growth direction, via a straightforward and powerful four-point-probe 3-ω technique in the temperature range 10-280 K. The BiNWs, which are well known as the most effective material for thermoelectric (TE) device applications, were synthesized by compressive thermal stress on a SiO2/Si substrate at 250-270 °C for 10 h. To understand the thermal transport mechanism of BiNWs, we present three kinds of experimental technique as follows, (i) a manipulation of a single BiNW by an Omni-probe in a focused ion beam (FIB), (ii) a suspended bridge structure integrating a four-point-probe chip by micro-fabrication to minimize the thermal loss to the substrate, and (iii) a simple 3-ω technique system setup. We found that the thermal transport of BiNWs is highly affected by boundary scattering of both phonons and electrons as the dominant heat carriers. The thermal conductivity of a single BiNW (d ~ 123 nm) was estimated to be ~2.9 W m(-1) K(-1) at 280 K, implying lower values compared to the thermal conductivity of the bulk (~11 W m(-1) K(-1) at 280 K). It was noted that this reduction in the thermal conductivity of the BiNWs could be due to strongly enhanced phonon-boundary scattering at the surface of the BiNWs. Furthermore, we present temperature-dependent (10-280 K) thermal conductivity of the BiNWs using the 3-ω technique.

  2. Large area fabrication of vertical silicon nanowire arrays by silver-assisted single-step chemical etching and their formation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Sanjay K.; Kumar, Dinesh; Schmitt, S. W.; Sood, K. N.; Christiansen, S. H.; Singh, P. K.

    2014-05-01

    Vertically aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays have been fabricated over a large area using a silver-assisted single-step electroless wet chemical etching (EWCE) method, which involves the etching of silicon wafers in aqueous hydrofluoric acid (HF) and silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution. A comprehensive systematic investigation on the influence of different parameters, such as the etching time (up to 15 h), solution temperature (10-80 °C), AgNO3 (5-200 mM) and HF (2-22 M) concentrations, and properties of the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers, is presented to establish a relationship of these parameters with the SiNW morphology. A linear dependence of the NW length on the etch time is obtained even at higher temperature (10-50 °C). The activation energy for the formation of SiNWs on Si(100) has been found to be equal to ˜0.51 eV . It has been shown for the first time that the surface area of the Si wafer exposed to the etching solution is an important parameter in determining the etching kinetics in the single-step process. Our results establish that single-step EWCE offers a wide range of parameters by means of which high quality vertical SiNWs can be produced in a very simple and controlled manner. A mechanism for explaining the influence of various parameters on the evolution of the NW structure is discussed. Furthermore, the SiNW arrays have extremely low reflectance (as low as <3% for Si(100) NWs and <12% for mc-Si NWs) compared to ˜35% for the polished surface in the 350-1000 nm wavelength range. The remarkably low reflection surface of SiNW arrays has great potential for use as an effective light absorber material in novel photovoltaic architectures, and other optoelectronic and photonic devices.

  3. Single-Crystalline Gold Nanowires Synthesized from Light-Driven Oriented Attachment and Plasmon-Mediated Self-Assembly of Gold Nanorods or Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shang-Yang; Gunawan, Hariyanto; Tsai, Shiao-Wen; Chen, Yun-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liaw, Jiunn-Woei

    2017-03-16

    Through the light-driven geometrically oriented attachment (OA) and self-assembly of Au nanorods (NRs) or nanoparticles (NPs), single-crystalline Au nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by the irradiation of a linearly-polarized (LP) laser. The process was conducted in a droplet of Au colloid on a glass irradiated by LP near-infrared (e.g. 1064 nm and 785 nm) laser beam of low power at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, without any additive. The FE-SEM images show that the cross sections of NWs are various: tetragonal, pentagonal or hexagonal. The EDS spectrum verifies the composition is Au, and the pattern of X-ray diffraction identifies the crystallinity of NWs with the facets of {111}, {200}, {220} and {311}. We proposed a hypothesis for the mechanism that the primary building units are aligned and coalesced by the plasmon-mediated optical torque and force to form the secondary building units. Subsequently, the secondary building units undergo the next self-assembly, and so forth the tertiary ones. The LP light guides the translational and rotational motions of these building units to perform geometrically OA in the side-by-side, end-to-end and T-shaped manners. Consequently, micron-sized ordered mesocrystals are produced. Additionally, the concomitant plasmonic heating causes the annealing for recrystallizing the mesocrystals in water.

  4. Single-Crystalline Gold Nanowires Synthesized from Light-Driven Oriented Attachment and Plasmon-Mediated Self-Assembly of Gold Nanorods or Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shang-Yang; Gunawan, Hariyanto; Tsai, Shiao-Wen; Chen, Yun-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liaw, Jiunn-Woei

    2017-01-01

    Through the light-driven geometrically oriented attachment (OA) and self-assembly of Au nanorods (NRs) or nanoparticles (NPs), single-crystalline Au nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by the irradiation of a linearly-polarized (LP) laser. The process was conducted in a droplet of Au colloid on a glass irradiated by LP near-infrared (e.g. 1064 nm and 785 nm) laser beam of low power at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, without any additive. The FE-SEM images show that the cross sections of NWs are various: tetragonal, pentagonal or hexagonal. The EDS spectrum verifies the composition is Au, and the pattern of X-ray diffraction identifies the crystallinity of NWs with the facets of {111}, {200}, {220} and {311}. We proposed a hypothesis for the mechanism that the primary building units are aligned and coalesced by the plasmon-mediated optical torque and force to form the secondary building units. Subsequently, the secondary building units undergo the next self-assembly, and so forth the tertiary ones. The LP light guides the translational and rotational motions of these building units to perform geometrically OA in the side-by-side, end-to-end and T-shaped manners. Consequently, micron-sized ordered mesocrystals are produced. Additionally, the concomitant plasmonic heating causes the annealing for recrystallizing the mesocrystals in water. PMID:28300218

  5. Single-Crystalline Gold Nanowires Synthesized from Light-Driven Oriented Attachment and Plasmon-Mediated Self-Assembly of Gold Nanorods or Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shang-Yang; Gunawan, Hariyanto; Tsai, Shiao-Wen; Chen, Yun-Ju; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liaw, Jiunn-Woei

    2017-03-01

    Through the light-driven geometrically oriented attachment (OA) and self-assembly of Au nanorods (NRs) or nanoparticles (NPs), single-crystalline Au nanowires (NWs) were synthesized by the irradiation of a linearly-polarized (LP) laser. The process was conducted in a droplet of Au colloid on a glass irradiated by LP near-infrared (e.g. 1064 nm and 785 nm) laser beam of low power at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, without any additive. The FE-SEM images show that the cross sections of NWs are various: tetragonal, pentagonal or hexagonal. The EDS spectrum verifies the composition is Au, and the pattern of X-ray diffraction identifies the crystallinity of NWs with the facets of {111}, {200}, {220} and {311}. We proposed a hypothesis for the mechanism that the primary building units are aligned and coalesced by the plasmon-mediated optical torque and force to form the secondary building units. Subsequently, the secondary building units undergo the next self-assembly, and so forth the tertiary ones. The LP light guides the translational and rotational motions of these building units to perform geometrically OA in the side-by-side, end-to-end and T-shaped manners. Consequently, micron-sized ordered mesocrystals are produced. Additionally, the concomitant plasmonic heating causes the annealing for recrystallizing the mesocrystals in water.

  6. Photonic nanowires: from subwavelength waveguides to optical sensors.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Ying, Yibin; Tong, Limin

    2014-02-18

    Nanowires are one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures with comparatively large aspect ratios, which can be useful in manipulating electrons, photons, plasmons, phonons, and atoms for numerous technologies. Among various nanostructures for low-dimensional photonics, the 1D nanowire is of great importance owing to its ability to route tightly confined light fields in single-mode with lowest space and material requirements, minimized optical path, and high mechanical flexibilities. In recent years, nanowire photonics have increasingly been attracting scientists' interests for both fundamental studies and technological applications because 1D nanowires have more favorable properties than many other structures, such as 0D quantum dots (QDs) and 2D films. As subwavelength waveguides, free-standing nanowires fabricated by either chemical growth or physical drawing techniques surpass nanowaveguides fabricated by almost all other means in terms of sidewall smoothness and diameter uniformity. This conveys their low waveguiding losses. With high index contrast (typically higher than 0.5) between the core and the surrounding or with surface plasmon resonance, a nanowire can guide light with tight optical confinement. For example, the effective mode area is less than λ(2)/10 for a dielectric nanowire or less than λ(2)/100 for a metal nanowire, where λ is the vacuum wavelength of the light. As we increase the wavelength-to-diameter ratio (WDR) of a nanowire, we can enlarge the fractional power of the evanescent fields in the guiding modes to over 80% while maintaining a small effective mode area, which may enable highly localized near-field interaction between the guided fields and the surrounding media. These favorable properties have opened great opportunities for optical sensing on the single-nanowire scale. However, several questions arise with ongoing research. With a deep-subwavelength cross-section, how can we efficiently couple light into a single nanowire? How can we

  7. A review of the electrical properties of semiconductor nanowires: insights gained from terahertz conductivity spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Hannah J.; Boland, Jessica L.; Davies, Christopher L.; Baig, Sarwat A.; Johnston, Michael B.

    2016-10-01

    Accurately measuring and controlling the electrical properties of semiconductor nanowires is of paramount importance in the development of novel nanowire-based devices. In light of this, terahertz (THz) conductivity spectroscopy has emerged as an ideal non-contact technique for probing nanowire electrical conductivity and is showing tremendous value in the targeted development of nanowire devices. THz spectroscopic measurements of nanowires enable charge carrier lifetimes, mobilities, dopant concentrations and surface recombination velocities to be measured with high accuracy and high throughput in a contact-free fashion. This review spans seminal and recent studies of the electronic properties of nanowires using THz spectroscopy. A didactic description of THz time-domain spectroscopy, optical pump–THz probe spectroscopy, and their application to nanowires is included. We review a variety of technologically important nanowire materials, including GaAs, InAs, InP, GaN and InN nanowires, Si and Ge nanowires, ZnO nanowires, nanowire heterostructures, doped nanowires and modulation-doped nanowires. Finally, we discuss how THz measurements are guiding the development of nanowire-based devices, with the example of single-nanowire photoconductive THz receivers.

  8. Performance of NbN superconductive tunnel junctions as SIS mixers at 205 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, W.R.; Stern, J.A.; Javadi, H.H.S.; Cypher, S.R.; Hunt, B.D.; LeDuc, H.G. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on the performance of NbN superconductive tunnel junctions as SIS mixers at 205 GHz. The authors have fabricated small area ({le}1 {mu}{sup 2}) high current density NbN/MgO/NbN tunnel junctions with I- V characteristics suitable for high frequency mixers. Mesa- geometry junctions with an area of about 1 {mu}{sup 2} and critical current density of 5-10kA/cm{sup 2} are integrated with superconducting microstrip lines designed to resonate out the junction capacitance. Accurate values of junction capacitance and magnetic-penetration depth are required for the proper design of the microstrip. The authors studied the mixer gain and noise performance near 205 GHz as a function of the inductance provided by the microstrip line.

  9. Electrical properties of nominally undoped silicon nanowires grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Jan; Fleischer, Frank; Breitenstein, Otwin; Schubert, Luise; Werner, Peter; Gösele, Ulrich; Zacharias, Margit

    2007-01-01

    Single undoped Si nanowires were electrically characterized. The nanowires were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on n+ silicon substrates and were contacted by platinum/iridium tips. I-V curves were measured and electron beam induced current investigations were performed on single nanowires. It was found that the nanowires have an apparent resistivity of 0.85Ωcm, which is much smaller than expected for undoped Si nanowires. The conductance is explained by hopping conductivity at the Si -SiO2 interface of the nanowire surface.

  10. Scaling laws for the critical current density of NbN films in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hampshire, D.P. . Dept. of Physics); Gray, K.E.; Kampwirth, R.T. )

    1992-08-01

    We have measured the critical current density (Jc) of two NbN films (500 {Angstrom} and 1550 {Angstrom} thick) as a function of temperature in magnetic fields up to 25 Tesla using transport measurements. In both films, the functional form of the volume pinning force F{sub p} obeys the Fietz - Webb scaling law throughout the entire magnetic field and temperature range such that: F{sub p}=J{sub c} {times} B= {alpha}B{sub c2}{sup m}(T)b{sup {1/2}} (1-b){sup 2} = {alpha}*(1-T/T{sub c}){sup m}b{sup {1/2}}(1-b){sup 2} where {alpha} and {alpha}* are constants dependent on the film, B{sub c2}(T) is the upper critical field, b = B/B{sub c2}(T) is the reduced magnetic field, {Tc} is the critical temperature and we find m = 2.7 {plus minus} 0.1. Over a limited range of magnetic fields close to B{sub c2}(T), we can approximate this functional form by: F{sub p} = {Beta}B{sub c2}{sup M}(T)b(1-b){sup 2}={Beta}*(1-T/{Tc}){sup M}b(1-b){sup 2} where {Beta} and {Beta}* are constants and we find M = 2.6{plus minus}0.2. Values of J{sub c} derived from D.C. magnetisation data obtained using Bean's model show qualitative agreement with the transport measurements throughout the superconducting phase. Despite the marked granularity in the microstructure of these films, we interpret our results as evidence that a flux pinning mechanism determines the transport current density in NbN films in high magnetic fields.

  11. Scaling laws for the critical current density of NbN films in high magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hampshire, D.P.; Gray, K.E.; Kampwirth, R.T.

    1992-08-01

    We have measured the critical current density (Jc) of two NbN films (500 {Angstrom} and 1550 {Angstrom} thick) as a function of temperature in magnetic fields up to 25 Tesla using transport measurements. In both films, the functional form of the volume pinning force F{sub p} obeys the Fietz - Webb scaling law throughout the entire magnetic field and temperature range such that: F{sub p}=J{sub c} {times} B= {alpha}B{sub c2}{sup m}(T)b{sup {1/2}} (1-b){sup 2} = {alpha}*(1-T/T{sub c}){sup m}b{sup {1/2}}(1-b){sup 2} where {alpha} and {alpha}* are constants dependent on the film, B{sub c2}(T) is the upper critical field, b = B/B{sub c2}(T) is the reduced magnetic field, {Tc} is the critical temperature and we find m = 2.7 {plus_minus} 0.1. Over a limited range of magnetic fields close to B{sub c2}(T), we can approximate this functional form by: F{sub p} = {Beta}B{sub c2}{sup M}(T)b(1-b){sup 2}={Beta}*(1-T/{Tc}){sup M}b(1-b){sup 2} where {Beta} and {Beta}* are constants and we find M = 2.6{plus_minus}0.2. Values of J{sub c} derived from D.C. magnetisation data obtained using Bean`s model show qualitative agreement with the transport measurements throughout the superconducting phase. Despite the marked granularity in the microstructure of these films, we interpret our results as evidence that a flux pinning mechanism determines the transport current density in NbN films in high magnetic fields.

  12. Broad Wavelength Tunable Robust Lasing from Single-Crystal Nanowires of Cesium Lead Halide Perovskites (CsPbX3, X = Cl, Br, I).

    PubMed

    Fu, Yongping; Zhu, Haiming; Stoumpos, Constantinos C; Ding, Qi; Wang, Jue; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Jin, Song

    2016-08-23

    Lead halide perovskite nanowires (NWs) are emerging as a class of inexpensive semiconductors with broad bandgap tunability for optoelectronics, such as tunable NW lasers. Despite exciting progress, the current organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite NW lasers suffer from limited tunable wavelength range and poor material stability. Herein, we report facile solution growth of single-crystal NWs of inorganic perovskite CsPbX3 (X = Br, Cl) and their alloys [CsPb(Br,Cl)3] and a low-temperature vapor-phase halide exchange method to convert CsPbBr3 NWs into perovskite phase CsPb(Br,I)3 alloys and metastable CsPbI3 with well-preserved perovskite crystal lattice and NW morphology. These single crystalline NWs with smooth end facets and subwavelength dimensions are ideal Fabry-Perot cavities for NW lasers. Optically pumped tunable lasing across the entire visible spectrum (420-710 nm) is demonstrated at room temperature from these NWs with low lasing thresholds and high-quality factors. Such highly efficient lasing similar to what can be achieved with organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites indicates that organic cation is not essential for light emission application from these lead halide perovskite materials. Furthermore, the CsPbBr3 NW lasers show stable lasing emission with no measurable degradation after at least 8 h or 7.2 × 10(9) laser shots under continuous illumination, which are substantially more robust than their organic-inorganic counterparts. The Cs-based perovskites offer a stable material platform for tunable NW lasers and other nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  13. Facile synthesis of vanadium oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kysar, Jesse; Sekhar, Praveen Kumar

    2016-10-01

    A simple growth process is reported for the synthesis of vanadium (II) oxide nanowires with an average width of 65 nm and up to 5 μm in length for growth at 1000 °C for 3 h. The vanadium (II) oxide nanowires were grown on a gold-coated silicon substrate at ambient pressure using a single heat zone furnace with Ar as the carrier gas. Gold was utilized as a catalyst for the growth of the nanowires. The growth temperature and heating time were varied to observe the nanowire morphology. An increase in nanowire width was observed with an increase in the heating temperature. A ninefold increase in the number density of the nanowires was observed when the heating time was changed from 30 min to 3 h. This is the first time a simple growth process for producing VO nanowires at ambient pressure has been demonstrated. Such a scheme enables wider use of VO nanowires in critical applications such as energy storage, gas sensors, and optical devices.

  14. Manganese oxide nanowires, films, and membranes and methods of making

    DOEpatents

    Suib, Steven Lawrence; Yuan, Jikang

    2008-10-21

    Nanowires, films, and membranes comprising ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieves, and methods of making, are disclosed. A single crystal ultra-long nanowire includes an ordered porous manganese oxide-based octahedral molecular sieve, and has an average length greater than about 10 micrometers and an average diameter of about 5 nanometers to about 100 nanometers. A film comprises a microporous network comprising a plurality of single crystal nanowires in the form of a layer, wherein a plurality of layers is stacked on a surface of a substrate, wherein the nanowires of each layer are substantially axially aligned. A free standing membrane comprises a microporous network comprising a plurality of single crystal nanowires in the form of a layer, wherein a plurality of layers is aggregately stacked, and wherein the nanowires of each layer are substantially axially aligned.

  15. Electrically conductive and optically active porous silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yongquan; Liao, Lei; Li, Yujing; Zhang, Hua; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2009-12-01

    We report the synthesis of vertical silicon nanowire array through a two-step metal-assisted chemical etching of highly doped n-type silicon (100) wafers in a solution of hydrofluoric acid and hydrogen peroxide. The morphology of the as-grown silicon nanowires is tunable from solid nonporous nanowires, nonporous/nanoporous core/shell nanowires, to entirely nanoporous nanowires by controlling the hydrogen peroxide concentration in the etching solution. The porous silicon nanowires retain the single crystalline structure and crystallographic orientation of the starting silicon wafer and are electrically conductive and optically active with visible photoluminescence. The combination of electronic and optical properties in the porous silicon nanowires may provide a platform for novel optoelectronic devices for energy harvesting, conversion, and biosensing.

  16. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Alnassar, Mohammed; Perez, Jose E.; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires. PMID:27072595

  17. A detailed study of magnetization reversal in individual Ni nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Vilanova Vidal, Enrique; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Mohammed, Hanan; Kosel, Jürgen

    2015-01-19

    Magnetic nanowires have emerged as essential components for a broad range of applications. In many cases, a key property of these components is the switching field, which is studied as a function of the angle between the field and the nanowire. We found remarkable differences of up to 100% between the switching fields of different nanowires from the same fabrication batch. Our experimental results and micromagnetic simulations indicate that the nanowires exhibit a single domain behavior and that the switching mechanism includes vortex domain wall motion across the nanowire. The differences between the switching fields are attributed to different cross-sections of the nanowires, as found by electron microscopy. While a circular cross-section yields the smallest switching field values, any deviation from this shape results in an increase of the switching field. The shape of the nanowires' cross-sections is thus a critical parameter that has not been previously taken into account.

  18. Tunable magnetic nanowires for biomedical and harsh environment applications.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Yurii P; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Alnassar, Mohammed; Perez, Jose E; Vazquez, Manuel; Chuvilin, Andrey; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-04-13

    We have synthesized nanowires with an iron core and an iron oxide (magnetite) shell by a facile low-cost fabrication process. The magnetic properties of the nanowires can be tuned by changing shell thicknesses to yield remarkable new properties and multi-functionality. A multi-domain state at remanence can be obtained, which is an attractive feature for biomedical applications, where a low remanence is desirable. The nanowires can also be encoded with different remanence values. Notably, the oxidation process of single-crystal iron nanowires halts at a shell thickness of 10 nm. The oxide shell of these nanowires acts as a passivation layer, retaining the magnetic properties of the iron core even during high-temperature operations. This property renders these core-shell nanowires attractive materials for application to harsh environments. A cell viability study reveals a high degree of biocompatibility of the core-shell nanowires.

  19. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    DOE PAGES

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y. -C.; Reuter, M. C.; ...

    2015-07-13

    Nanowire growth by the vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a ‘mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystalsmore » that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.« less

  20. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y. -C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.

    2015-07-13

    Nanowire growth by the vapour–liquid–solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a ‘mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. Furthermore, we demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.

  1. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    PubMed Central

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y.-C.; Reuter, M.C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E.A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid state lighting and single photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyze nanowire growth as a “mixing bowl”, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. We demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures. PMID:26168344

  2. Synthesis of nanostructures in nanowires using sequential catalyst reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panciera, F.; Chou, Y.-C.; Reuter, M. C.; Zakharov, D.; Stach, E. A.; Hofmann, S.; Ross, F. M.

    2015-08-01

    Nanowire growth by the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) process enables a high level of control over nanowire composition, diameter, growth direction, branching and kinking, periodic twinning, and crystal structure. The tremendous impact of VLS-grown nanowires is due to this structural versatility, generating applications ranging from solid-state lighting and single-photon sources to thermoelectric devices. Here, we show that the morphology of these nanostructures can be further tailored by using the liquid droplets that catalyse nanowire growth as a `mixing bowl’, in which growth materials are sequentially supplied to nucleate new phases. Growing within the liquid, these phases adopt the shape of faceted nanocrystals that are then incorporated into the nanowires by further growth. We demonstrate this concept by epitaxially incorporating metal-silicide nanocrystals into Si nanowires with defect-free interfaces, and discuss how this process can be generalized to create complex nanowire-based heterostructures.

  3. Nanowire Optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhihuan; Nabet, Bahram

    2015-12-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have been used in a variety of passive and active optoelectronic devices including waveguides, photodetectors, solar cells, light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers, sensors, and optical antennas. We review the optical properties of these nanowires in terms of absorption, guiding, and radiation of light, which may be termed light management. Analysis of the interaction of light with long cylindrical/hexagonal structures with subwavelength diameters identifies radial resonant modes, such as Leaky Mode Resonances, or Whispering Gallery modes. The two-dimensional treatment should incorporate axial variations in "volumetric modes,"which have so far been presented in terms of Fabry-Perot (FP), and helical resonance modes. We report on finite-difference timedomain (FDTD) simulations with the aim of identifying the dependence of these modes on geometry (length, width), tapering, shape (cylindrical, hexagonal), core-shell versus core-only, and dielectric cores with semiconductor shells. This demonstrates how nanowires (NWs) form excellent optical cavities without the need for top and bottommirrors. However, optically equivalent structures such as hexagonal and cylindrical wires can have very different optoelectronic properties meaning that light management alone does not sufficiently describe the observed enhancement in upward (absorption) and downward transitions (emission) of light inNWs; rather, the electronic transition rates should be considered. We discuss this "rate management" scheme showing its strong dimensional dependence, making a case for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) that can take advantage of the confluence of the desirable optical and electronic properties of these nanostructures.

  4. Growth and optical properties of phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. S.; Fallert, J.; Lotnyk, A.; Scholz, R.; Pippel, E.; Senz, S.; Kalt, H.; Gösele, U.; Zacharias, M.

    2007-09-01

    Single-crystal phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires were synthesized by using a single-source precursor-based vapor transport method. The photoluminescence spectra of phosphorus-doped ZnO nanowires and undoped nanowires are compared. While both show several shallow bound exciton complexes, the phosphorus-doped nanowires reveal an additional distinct emission feature at 3.316 eV. Additionally, the time-resolved PL measurements were conducted to characterize the recombination dynamics.

  5. III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Songrui; Nguyen, Hieu P. T.; Kibria, Md. G.; Mi, Zetian

    2015-11-01

    Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2 eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65 eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.

  6. Templated synthesis of magnetic nanowires by electrochemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Liwen

    There has been much interest in magnetic nanowire because of its perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, enhanced coercivity and large giant magnetoresistance (GMR). So, it is supposed that magnetic nanowires have potential applications to ultra-high-density magnetic recording and high sensitive sensors. Many kinds of methods have been used for the growth of nanowires with diameter ranging from 10nm to few hundred nanometers, however, template assisted electrochemical deposition exhibits many advantages on the growth of metal nanowires. In this work, two-step anodic alumina templates were fabricated for the growth of magnetic nanowires. These templates provided platforms for achieving uniform nanowires. Moreover, nano-imprinting was introduced for the formation of nanopore arrays with long-range order. A new Si3N4 thin film nano-stamp was developed, which is much simpler and more cost-effective. Also, nanopore patterning alignment was successfully achieved without using e-beam lithography. This would provide the opportunity to electrically address each single nanostructure in arrays with high density. The growth of magnetic nanowires was done by eletrodeposition, which included single element Co and Co/Cu multilayered nanowires. Their structures, magnetic and transport properties have been investigated, and were tailored by optimizing the fabrication process. It was shown that the composition of magnetic nanowires was a function of deposition potential. And the structure of electrodeposited Co was affected by the pH of electrolyte and growth rate. GMR and spin transfer torque have been performed on the Co/Cu nanowires. A GMR of 22% was achieved in Co/Cu nanowires. Different magnetoresistance behaviors were observed, which were related to the magnetic anisotropy of the nanowires. It was the first time to detect spin transfer torque in the nanowires with hundreds of Co/Cu bilayers. The switching current density was about 107A/cm2. This process demonstrated the fabrication

  7. Minority carrier lifetime and dark current measurements in mid-wavelength infrared InAs0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetectors

    DOE PAGES

    Olson, B. V.; Kim, J. K.; Kadlec, E. A.; ...

    2015-11-03

    Carrier lifetime and dark current measurements are reported for a mid-wavelength infrared InAs 0.91Sb0.09 alloy nBn photodetector. Minority carrier lifetimes are measured using a non-contact time-resolved microwave technique on unprocessed portions of the nBn wafer and the Auger recombination Bloch function parameter is determined to be |F1F2|=0.292. Moreover, the measured lifetimes are also used to calculate the expected diffusion dark current of the nBn devices and are compared with the experimental dark current measured in processed photodetector pixels from the same wafer. As a result, excellent agreement is found between the two, highlighting the important relationship between lifetimes and diffusionmore » currents in nBn photodetectors.« less

  8. Two-Dimensional Rectangular and Honeycomb Lattices of NbN: Emergence of Piezoelectric and Photocatalytic Properties at Nanoscale.

    PubMed

    Anand, Shashwat; Thekkepat, Krishnamohan; Waghmare, Umesh V

    2016-01-13

    Using first-principles calculations, we predict that monolayered honeycomb and rectangular two-dimensional (2D) lattice forms of NbN are metastable and naturally derivable from different orientations of its rocksalt structure. While the rectangular form is shown to retain the metallic and superconducting (SC) properties of the bulk, spectacularly contrasting properties emerge in the honeycomb form of NbN: it exhibits (a) semiconducting electronic structure suitable for valleytronics and photocatalysis of water splitting, (b) piezoelectricity with a spontaneous polarization originating from a rare sd(2)-sp(2) type hybridization, and (c) a wide gap in its phonon spectrum making it suitable for use in hot carrier solar cells. Our work demonstrates how low coordination numbers and associated strong bonding stabilize 2D nanoforms of covalently bonded solids and introduce novel functionalities of technological importance.

  9. Dehydrocoupling and Silazane Cleavage Routes to Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers with NBN Units in the Main Chain.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Thomas; Lik, Artur; Plamper, Felix A; Helten, Holger

    2016-06-13

    Despite the great potential of both π-conjugated organoboron polymers and BN-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in organic optoelectronics, our knowledge of conjugated polymers with B-N bonds in their main chain is currently scarce. Herein, the first examples of a new class of organic-inorganic hybrid polymers are presented, which consist of alternating NBN and para-phenylene units. Polycondensation with B-N bond formation provides facile access to soluble materials under mild conditions. The photophysical data for the polymer and molecular model systems of different chain lengths reveal a low extent of π-conjugation across the NBN units, which is supported by DFT calculations. The applicability of the new polymers as macromolecular polyligands is demonstrated by a cross-linking reaction with Zr(IV) .

  10. Desorption/ionization on silicon nanowires.

    PubMed

    Go, E P; Apon, J V; Luo, G; Saghatelian, A; Daniels, R H; Sahi, V; Dubrow, R; Cravatt, B F; Vertes, A; Siuzdak, G

    2005-03-15

    Dense arrays of single-crystal silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have been used as a platform for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry of small molecules, peptides, protein digests, and endogenous and xenobiotic metabolites in biofluids. Sensitivity down to the attomole level has been achieved on the nanowire surfaces by optimizing laser energy, surface chemistry, nanowire diameter, length, and growth orientation. An interesting feature of the nanowire surface is that it requires lower laser energy as compared to porous silicon and MALDI to desorb/ionize small molecules, therefore reducing background ion interference. Taking advantage of their high surface area and fluid wicking capabilities, SiNWs were used to perform chromatographic separation followed by mass analysis of the separated molecules providing a unique platform that can integrate separation and mass spectrometric detection on a single surface.

  11. Laser direct writing of modulation-doped nanowire p/n junctions.

    PubMed

    Nam, Woongsik; Mitchell, James I; Xu, Xianfan

    2016-12-02

    We demonstrate a single-step, laser-based technique to fabricate axial modulation-doped silicon nanowires. Our method is based on laser-direct-write chemical vapor deposition and has the capability to fabricate nanowires as small as 60 nm, which is far below the diffraction limit of the laser wavelength of 395 nm, with precise control of nanowire position, length, and orientation. By switching dopant gases during nanowire writing, p-n junction nanowires are produced. The p-n junction nanowires are fabricated into multifinger devices with parallel metal contacts and electrically tested to demonstrate diode characteristics.

  12. Designing and building nanowires: directed nanocrystal self-assembly into radically branched and zigzag PbS nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fan; Ma, Xin; Gerlein, L. Felipe; Cloutier, Sylvain G.

    2011-07-01

    Lead sulfide nanowires with controllable optoelectronic properties would be promising building blocks for various applications. Here, we report the hot colloidal synthesis of radically branched and zigzag nanowires through self-attachment of star-shaped and octahedral nanocrystals in the presence of multiple surfactants. We obtained high-quality single-crystal nanowires with uniform diameter along the entire length, and the size of the nanowire can be tuned by tailoring the reaction parameters. This slow oriented attachment provides a better understanding of the intricacies of this complex nanocrystal assembly process. Meanwhile, these self-assembled nanowire structures have appealing lateral conformations with narrow side arms or highly faceted edges, where strong quantum confinement can occur. Consequently, the single-crystal nanowire structures exhibit strong photoluminescence in the near-infrared region with a large blue-shift compared to the bulk material.

  13. Methods Of Fabricating Nanosturctures And Nanowires And Devices Fabricated Therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2006-02-07

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  14. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar,; Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2009-08-04

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  15. Methods of fabricating nanostructures and nanowires and devices fabricated therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Majumdar, Arun; Shakouri, Ali; Sands, Timothy D.; Yang, Peidong; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.; Feick, Henning; Weber, Eicke R.; Kind, Hannes; Huang, Michael; Yan, Haoquan; Wu, Yiying; Fan, Rong

    2010-11-16

    One-dimensional nanostructures having uniform diameters of less than approximately 200 nm. These inventive nanostructures, which we refer to as "nanowires", include single-crystalline homostructures as well as heterostructures of at least two single-crystalline materials having different chemical compositions. Because single-crystalline materials are used to form the heterostructure, the resultant heterostructure will be single-crystalline as well. The nanowire heterostructures are generally based on a semiconducting wire wherein the doping and composition are controlled in either the longitudinal or radial directions, or in both directions, to yield a wire that comprises different materials. Examples of resulting nanowire heterostructures include a longitudinal heterostructure nanowire (LOHN) and a coaxial heterostructure nanowire (COHN).

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: DNA nanowire fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Qun; Cheng, Chuanding; Gonela, Ravikanth; Suryanarayanan, Shivashankar; Anabathula, Sathish; Dai, Kun; Haynie, Donald T.

    2006-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has been a key building block in nanotechnology since the earliest work on what is now called DNA-templated self-assembly (Alivisatos et al 1996 Nature 382 609; Mirkin et al 1996 Nature 382 607; Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775). A range of different nanoparticles and nanoclusters have been assembled on single DNA molecules for a variety of purposes (Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775; Richter et al 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 536; Park et al 2002 Science 295 1503; Mirkin 2000 Inorg. Chem. 39 2258; Keren et al 2003 Science 302 1380). Electrically conductive silver (Braun et al 1998 Nature 391 775) and palladium (Richter et al 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 78 536) nanowires, for example, have been fabricated by DNA templating for the development of interconnection of nanoelectric elements, and field effect transistors have been built by assembly of a single carbon nanotube and DNA-templated nanowires (Keren et al 2003 Science 302 1380). DNA is well suited for nanowire assembly because of its size, well organized structure, and exquisite molecular-recognition-ability-specific base pairing. This property has been used to detect nucleic acids (Park et al 2002 Science 295 1503) and anthrax (Mirkin 2000 Inorg. Chem. 39 2258) with high sensitivity and specificity. Molecular recognition can also be used to localize nanowires in electronics. Various methods, for example molecular combing, electrophoretic stretching, and hydrodynamic stretching, have been developed to orient DNA molecules on a solid support. This review focuses on methods used to manipulate and metallize DNA in nanowire fabrication. A novel approach based on a single-stranded DNA template and molecular recognition is also discussed.

  17. Dissipative processes in superconducting nanodevices: Nanowire-resonators, shunted nanowires, and graphene proximity junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Matthew W.

    The topic of superconducting nanowires has recently been an interesting field of research which has included the study of the superconductor to insulator transition (SIT), the observation of macroscopic quantum behavior such as quantum phase slips (QPS), and the potential use of nanowires as qubits. Superconducting coplanar microwave waveguide resonators have also become a popular way of studying superconducting junctions and qubits, as they provide an extremely low noise environment. For example, superconducting two-dimensional Fabry-Perot resonators have been used by other groups to make non-demolition measurements of a qubit. The motivation of this thesis will be the merging of the fields of superconducting nanowires and the technique of using superconducting microwave resonators to study junctions by incorporating a nanowire into the resonator itself at a current anti-node. By doing this, the nonlinear effects of the nanowire can be studied which may find application in single photon detectors, mixers, and the readout of qubits. We also employ the technique of molecular templating to fabricate some of the thinnest superconducting nanowires ever studied (down to ˜ 5 nm in diameter in some cases). In this thesis, we extend the understanding of the nonlinear properties of a nanowire-resonator system and investigate a new type of nonlinearity that involves a pulsing regime between the superconducting and normal phases of the nanowire. We develop a model, which describes the results quantitatively and by modeling the system, we are able to extract information regarding the relaxation time of the nanowire back into the superconducting state. We also study double nanowire-resonator systems where two closely spaced parallel nanowires interrupt the resonator center conductor and form a loop where vortex tunneling processes can occur. Using a double nanowire-resonator we are able to observe the Little-Parks effect at low temperatures (where the resistance of the wires

  18. Controllable positioning and alignment of silver nanowires by tunable hydrodynamic focusing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Chen, Ying; Guo, Qiuquan; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang; Yang, Jun

    2011-03-25

    Assembly and alignment of nanowires or nanotubes are critical steps for integrating functional nanodevices by the bottom-up strategy. However, it is still challenging to manipulate either an array of nanowires or individual nanowires in a controllable manner. Here we present a simple but versatile method of positioning and aligning nanowires by hydrodynamic focusing that functions as 'hydro-tweezers'. By adjusting the flow duration and flow rates of the sheath flows and sample flow, the density, width and position of the nanowire arrays, as building blocks of nanodevices, can be readily tuned in the hydrodynamic focusing process. This approach exhibits great potentials in the assembly of an array of functional nanodevices. With this method, multiple nanowire arrays can be positioned and aligned on predefined locations. Further focusing the sample flow, nanowires flow in single file. Thus single nanowires can also be lined up and located to desired positions.

  19. Study of the effect of NbN on microwave Niobium cavities for gravitational wave detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liccardo, V.; França, E. K.; Aguiar, O. D.; Oliveira, R. M.; Ribeiro, K. L.; Silva, M. M. N. F.

    2016-07-01

    Superconducting reentrant cavities may be used in parametric transducers for resonant-mass gravitational wave detectors. When coupled to a spherical resonant antenna, transducers will monitor its mechanical quadrupolar modes, working as a mass-spring system. In this paper we will investigate the effect of the Niobium Nitride (NbN), produced through plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII), on the quality factor of reentrant Niobium (Nb) cavities. With the PIII surface treatment unloaded electrical Q-factors (Q0) of the order of 105 were obtained in cryogenic conditions. These results indicated a significant increase in the effect of superconductivity after the cavity surfaces have been heavily attacked by a concentrated acid mixture and after suffering successive PIII processes. Q0's ~ 3.0 × 105 at 4.2 K are expected to be obtained using Nb RRR399 with a suitable surface treatment. These cavities, with high Q0, are already installed and being tested in the Gravitational Wave Detector Mario Schenberg. The experimental tests have been carried out at the laboratories of the National Institute for Space Research (INPE).

  20. Laterally assembled nanowires for ultrathin broadband solar absorbers.

    PubMed

    Song, Kyung-Deok; Kempa, Thomas J; Park, Hong-Gyu; Kim, Sun-Kyung

    2014-05-05

    We studied optical resonances in laterally oriented Si nanowire arrays by conducting finite-difference time-domain simulations. Localized Fabry-Perot and whispering-gallery modes are supported within the cross section of each nanowire in the array and result in broadband light absorption. Comparison of a nanowire array with a single nanowire shows that the current density (J(SC)) is preserved for a range of nanowire morphologies. The J(SC) of a nanowire array depends on the spacing of its constituent nanowires, which indicates that both diffraction and optical antenna effects contribute to light absorption. Furthermore, a vertically stacked nanowire array exhibits significantly enhanced light absorption because of the emergence of coupled cavity-waveguide modes and the mitigation of a screening effect. With the assumption of unity internal quantum efficiency, the J(SC) of an 800-nm-thick cross-stacked nanowire array is 14.0 mA/cm², which yields a ~60% enhancement compared with an equivalent bulk film absorber. These numerical results underpin a rational design strategy for ultrathin solar absorbers based on assembled nanowire cavities.

  1. Fabrication and magnetic properties of Ni nanowire arrays with ultrahigh axial squareness.

    PubMed

    Tian, F; Huang, Z P; Whitmore, L

    2012-06-28

    Poly- and single-crystalline Ni nanowire arrays showing ultrahigh axial squareness are fabricated by direct-current electrodeposition in pores of anodic aluminum oxide templates. High voltage is shown to be the key in order for Ni nanowires to have a (220) preferred orientation. 2-Dimensional nucleation theory is used to understand the growth of the nanowires. Based on the structure and growth analyses, the magnetic properties of different kinds of nanowires are explained.

  2. Growth and electrical properties of zinc oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zengxing; Zhao, Yuanchun; Sun, Lianfeng; Liu, Dongfang; Shen, Jun; Zhou, Weiya; Luo, Qiang; Jin, Aizi; Yang, Haifang; Gu, Changzhi; Xie, Sishen

    2009-02-01

    Zinc oxide nanowires were grown on molybdenum grids with a simple chemical vapor transport and deposition method through thermal evaporation of zinc powder at a temperature of 600 degrees C. These nanowires are 20-50 nm in diameter and over ten microns in length. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies show that the as-grown nanowires are single crystal of wurtzite structure and grow along the (0001) direction. The growth process was explained with a vapor-solid mechanism under zinc-rich conditions. We further patterned electrodes on individual ZnO nanowires by e-beam lithography and studied thier electrical properties.

  3. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-05-06

    Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures.

  4. Growth and photoluminescence characteristics of AlGaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z. H.; Sun, M.; Mei, X. Y.; Ruda, H. E.

    2004-07-01

    Growth of high-quality single-crystal AlGaAs nanowires was demonstrated using the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism with molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE). Highly ordered AlGaAs nanowire arrays and GaAs /AlGaAs multilayer nanowires were also prepared. Photoluminescence (PL) from homogeneous AlGaAs and GaAs /AlGaAs multilayer nanowires was measured. The Al composition of the AlGaAs nanowires was found to be significantly lower than that for planar MBE films grown under the same conditions, as determined from PL and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy measurements. This is explained in terms of the different growth mechanisms for VLS and normal MBE. Such AlGaAs nanowires are expected to have a wide range of applications in electronic and photonic devices.

  5. Deformation mechanisms of Cu nanowires with planar defects

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xia Yang, Haixia; Wan, Rui; Cui, Junzhi; Yu, Xingang

    2015-01-21

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the mechanical behavior of Cu nanowires (NWs) with planar defects such as grain boundaries (GBs), twin boundaries (TBs), stacking faults (SFs), etc. To investigate how the planar defects affect the deformation and fracture mechanisms of naowires, three types of nanowires are considered in this paper: (1) polycrystalline Cu nanowire; (2) single-crystalline Cu nanowire with twin boundaries; and (3) single-crystalline Cu nanowire with stacking faults. Because of the large fraction of atoms at grain boundaries, the energy of grain boundaries is higher than that of the grains. Thus, grain boundaries are proved to be the preferred sites for dislocations to nucleate. Moreover, necking and fracture prefer to occur at the grain boundary interface owing to the weakness of grain boundaries. For Cu nanowires in the presence of twin boundaries, it is found that twin boundaries can strength nanowires due to the restriction of the movement of dislocations. The pile up of dislocations on twin boundaries makes them rough, inducing high energy in twin boundaries. Hence, twin boundaries can emit dislocations, and necking initiates at twin boundaries. In the case of Cu nanowires with stacking faults, all pre-existing stacking faults in the nanowires are observed to disappear during deformation, giving rise to a fracture process resembling the samples without stacking fault.

  6. Tunneling and Transport in Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, Allen M.

    2016-08-16

    The goal of this program was to study new physical phenomena that might be relevant to the performance of conductive devices and circuits of the smallest realizable feature sizes possible using physical rather than biological techniques. Although the initial scientific work supported involved the use of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy to ascertain the statistics of the energy level distribution of randomly sized and randomly shaped quantum dots, or nano-crystals, the main focus was on the investigation of selected properties, including superconductivity, of conducting and superconducting nanowires prepared using electron-beam-lithography. We discovered a magnetic-field-restoration of superconductivity in out-of-equilibrium nanowires driven resistive by current. This phenomenon was explained by the existence of a state in which dissipation coexisted with nonvanishing superconducting order. We also produced ultra-small superconducting loops to study a predicted anomalous fluxoid quantization, but instead, found a magnetic-field-dependent, high-resistance state, rather than superconductivity. Finally, we developed a simple and controllable nanowire in an induced charged layer near the surface of a masked single-crystal insulator, SrTiO3. The layer was induced using an electric double layer transistor employing an ionic liquid (IL). The transport properties of the induced nanowire resembled those of collective electronic transport through an array of quantum dots.

  7. On-surface formation of metal nanowire transparent top electrodes on CdSe nanowire array-based photoconductive devices.

    PubMed

    Azulai, Daniel; Givan, Uri; Shpaisman, Nava; Belenkova, Tatyana Levi; Gilon, Hagit; Patolsky, Fernando; Markovich, Gil

    2012-06-27

    A simple wet chemical approach was developed for a unique on-surface synthesis of transparent conductive films consisting of ultrathin gold/silver nanowires directly grown on top of CdSe nanowire array photoconductive devices enclosed in polycarbonate membranes. The metal nanowire film formed an ohmic contact to the semiconductor nanowires without additional treatment. The sheet resistance and transparency of the metal nanowire arrays could be controlled by the number of metal nanowire layers deposited, ranging from ∼98-99% transmission through the visible range and several kOhm/sq sheet resistance for a single layer, to 80-85% transmission and ∼100 Ohm/sq sheet resistance for 4 layers.

  8. Electro-triggering and electrochemical monitoring of dopamine exocytosis from a single cell by using ultrathin electrodes based on Au nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Mijeong; Yoo, Seung Min; Gwak, Raekeun; Eom, Gayoung; Kim, Jihwan; Lee, Sang Yup; Kim, Bongsoo

    2015-12-01

    A sophisticated set of an Au nanowire (NW) stimulator-Au NW detector system is developed for electrical cell stimulation and electrochemical analysis of subsequent exocytosis with very high spatial resolution. Dopamine release from a rat pheochromocytoma cell is more stimulated by a more negative voltage pulse. This system could help to improve the therapeutic efficacy of electrotherapies by providing valuable information on their healing mechanism.A sophisticated set of an Au nanowire (NW) stimulator-Au NW detector system is developed for electrical cell stimulation and electrochemical analysis of subsequent exocytosis with very high spatial resolution. Dopamine release from a rat pheochromocytoma cell is more stimulated by a more negative voltage pulse. This system could help to improve the therapeutic efficacy of electrotherapies by providing valuable information on their healing mechanism. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06021d

  9. Effect of nanowire number, diameter, and doping density on nano-FET biosensor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jason; Zhang, Yanliang; To, Steve; You, Lidan; Sun, Yu

    2011-08-23

    Semiconductive nanowire-based biosensors are capable of label-free detection of biological molecules. Nano-FET (field-effect transistor) biosensors exhibiting high sensitivities toward proteins, nucleic acids, and viruses have been demonstrated. Rational device design methodologies, particularly those based on theoretical predictions, were reported. However, few experimental studies have investigated the effect of nanowire diameter, doping density, and number on nano-FET sensitivity. In this study, we devised a fabrication process based on parallel approaches and nanomanipulation-based post-processing for constructing nano-FET biosensor devices with carefully controlled nanowire parameters (diameter, doping density, and number). We experimentally reveal the effect of these nanowire parameters on nano-FET biosensor sensitivity. The experimental findings quantitatively demonstrate that device sensitivity decreases with increasing number of nanowires (4 and 7 nanowire devices exhibited a ∼38 and ∼82% decrease in sensitivity as compared to a single-nanowire device), larger nanowire diameters (sensors with 81-100 and 101-120 nm nanowire diameters exhibited a ∼16 and ∼37% decrease in sensitivity compared to devices with nanowire diameters of 60-80 nm), and higher nanowire doping densities (∼69% decrease in sensitivity due to an increase in nanowire doping density from 10(17) to 10(19) atoms·cm(-3)). These results provide insight into the importance of controlling nanowire properties for maximizing sensitivity and minimizing performance variation across devices when designing and manufacturing nano-FET biosensors.

  10. Role of Au in the growth and nanoscale optical properties of ZnO nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, M.; Zhou, Xiang; Lim, S. K.; Gradecak, S.

    2011-03-17

    Metallic nanoparticles play a crucial role in nanowire growth and have profound consequences on nanowire morphology and their physical properties. Here, we investigate the evolving role of the Au nanoparticle during ZnO nanowire growth and its effects on nanoscale photoemission of the nanowires. We observe the transition from Au-assisted to non-assisted growth mechanisms during a single nanowire growth, with significant changes in growth rates during these two regimes. This transition occurs through the reduction of oxygen partial pressure, which modifies the ZnO facet stability and increases Au diffusion. Nanoscale quenching of ZnO cathodoluminescence occurs near the Au nanoparticle due to excited electron diffusion to the nanoparticle. Thus, the Au nanoparticle is critically linked to the nanowire growth mechanism and corresponding growth rate through the energy of its interface with the ZnO nanowire, and its presence modifies nanowire optical properties on the nanoscale.

  11. Domain wall motion in synthetic Co2Si nanowires.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Lin, Yung-Chen; Liao, Lei; Liu, Lixin; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan O; Zhou, Hailong; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2012-04-11

    We report the synthesis of single crystalline Co(2)Si nanowires and the electrical transport studies of single Co(2)Si nanowire devices at low temperature. The butterfly shaped magnetoresistance shows interesting ferromagnetic features, including negative magnetoresistance, hysteretic switch fields, and stepwise drops in magnetoresistance. The nonsmooth stepwise magnetoresistance response is attributed to magnetic domain wall pinning and depinning motion in the Co(2)Si nanowires probably at crystal or morphology defects. The temperature dependence of the domain wall depinning field is observed and described by a model based on thermally assisted domain wall depinning over a single energy barrier.

  12. On-chip time resolved detection of quantum dot emission using integrated superconducting single photon detectors.

    PubMed

    Reithmaier, G; Lichtmannecker, S; Reichert, T; Hasch, P; Müller, K; Bichler, M; Gross, R; Finley, J J

    2013-01-01

    We report the routing of quantum light emitted by self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) into the optical modes of a GaAs ridge waveguide and its efficient detection on-chip via evanescent coupling to NbN superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SSPDs). The waveguide coupled SSPDs primarily detect QD luminescence, with scattered photons from the excitation laser onto the proximal detector being negligible by comparison. The SSPD detection efficiency from the evanescently coupled waveguide modes is shown to be two orders of magnitude larger when compared with operation under normal incidence illumination, due to the much longer optical interaction length. Furthermore, in-situ time resolved measurements performed using the integrated detector show an average QD spontaneous emission lifetime of 0.95 ns, measured with a timing jitter of only 72 ps. The performance metrics of the SSPD integrated directly onto GaAs nano-photonic hardware confirms the strong potential for on-chip few-photon quantum optics using such semiconductor-superconductor hybrid systems.

  13. Synthesis of nanograined ZnO nanowires and their enhanced gas sensing properties.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunghoon; An, Soyeon; Ko, Hyunsung; Jin, Changhyun; Lee, Chongmu

    2012-07-25

    Polycrystalline ZnO nanowires with grain sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm were synthesized using a newly designed two-step process: (first step) synthesis of ZnSe nanowires by vapor transportation of a mixture of ZnSe powders; and (second step) thermal oxidation of the ZnSe nanowires at 650 °C. Compared to the single-crystal ZnO nanowire gas sensors and other nanomaterial gas sensors reported previously, the multiple networked nanowire gas sensors fabricated from the nanograined ZnO nanowires showed substantially enhanced electrical responses to NO2 gas at 300 °C. The NO2 gas sensing properties of the nanograined ZnO nanowires increased dramatically with increasing NO2 concentration. The multiple-networked nanograined ZnO nanowire sensor showed a response value of 237,263% at 10 ppm NO2 and 300 °C, whereas the single-crystal ZnO nanowire sensors showed a response of only 6.5% under the same conditions. The recovery time of the nanograined ZnO nanowire sensor was much shorter than that of the normal ZnO nanowire sensor over the NO2 concentration range of 1-10 ppm, even though the response time of the former was somewhat longer than that of the latter. The origin of the enhanced NO2 gas sensing properties of the nanograined ZnO nanowire sensor is discussed.

  14. High-performance laterally-arranged multiple-bandgap solar cells using spatially composition-graded CdxPb1-xS nanowires on a single substrate: a design study.

    PubMed

    Caselli, D A; Ning, C Z

    2011-07-04

    In this paper, laterally arranged multiple bandgap (LAMB) solar cells based on CdxPb1-xS alloy nanowires of varying composition on a single substrate are designed to be used together with a dispersive concentrator. Simulation results for a design with six subcells in series connection are presented. The design is based on a unique materials capability achieved in our recent research. An efficiency of 34.9% was obtained for operation without solar concentration, which increased to 40.5%, 41.7%, and 42.7% for concentration ratios of 25, 100, and 240 respectively. The device was also simulated with decreased carrier mobilities to model the possible reduction in absorber conductivity, depending on the nanowire geometry and configuration. For a concentration ratio of unity, decreasing the mobilities to 25% of their original values caused less than a 2.5% absolute drop in efficiency. The LAMB design offers the advantages of an integrated cell platform and the potential for low-cost, high efficiency photovoltaic systems.

  15. Solvothermal synthesis of strontium phosphate chloride nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. M.; Wong, C. T.; Li, Z. Y.; Luk, K. D. K.; Chan, W. K.; Yang, C.; Chiu, K. Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, W. W.

    2007-08-01

    Strontium phosphate chloride nanowire was synthesized via a solvothermal treatment of strontium tri-polyphosphate and Collin salt in 1,4-dioxane at 150 °C. The effects of 1,4-dioxane concentration on particle morphology, crystallinity and phase purity were investigated in this study. The specimen morphology was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When the concentration of 1,4-dioxane was below 10%, micron-sized whisker was the dominant form. At 20-25% concentration of 1,4-dioxane, strontium phosphate chloride single-crystalline nanowire was 31±12 nm in diameter and 1.43±0.6 μm in length with an aspect ratio of 52.28±29.41. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of this nanowire matched with that of strontium phosphate chloride (JCPDS #083-0973). When 1,4-dioxane concentration exceeded 25%, nanorod aggregate was the dominant form instead of nanowire. At 20-25% 1,4-dioxane concentration suitable strontium concentration combine with high chemical potential environment favors the formation of nanowires. By adding 1,4-dioxane impure phase such as β-strontium hydrogen phosphate, nanorod formation was suppressed. This method provides an efficient way to synthesize high aspect ratio strontium phosphate chloride nanowire. It has potential bioactive nanocomposite, high mechanical performance bioactive bone cement filler and fluorescent material applications.

  16. Aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires: Growth methods, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hainey, Mel F.; Redwing, Joan M.

    2016-12-01

    Metal-mediated vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is a promising approach for the fabrication of silicon nanowires, although residual metal incorporation into the nanowires during growth can adversely impact electronic properties particularly when metals such as gold and copper are utilized. Aluminum, which acts as a shallow acceptor in silicon, is therefore of significant interest for the growth of p-type silicon nanowires but has presented challenges due to its propensity for oxidation. This paper summarizes the key aspects of aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth along with wire properties and device results. In the first section, aluminum-catalyzed nanowire growth is discussed with a specific emphasis on methods to mitigate aluminum oxide formation. Next, the influence of growth parameters such as growth temperature, precursor partial pressure, and hydrogen partial pressure on nanowire morphology is discussed, followed by a brief review of the growth of templated and patterned arrays of nanowires. Aluminum incorporation into the nanowires is then discussed in detail, including measurements of the aluminum concentration within wires using atom probe tomography and assessment of electrical properties by four point resistance measurements. Finally, the use of aluminum-catalyzed VLS growth for device fabrication is reviewed including results on single-wire radial p-n junction solar cells and planar solar cells fabricated with nanowire/nanopyramid texturing.

  17. Electrical transport along bacterial nanowires from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    PubMed Central

    El-Naggar, Mohamed Y.; Wanger, Greg; Leung, Kar Man; Yuzvinsky, Thomas D.; Southam, Gordon; Yang, Jun; Lau, Woon Ming; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Gorby, Yuri A.

    2010-01-01

    Bacterial nanowires are extracellular appendages that have been suggested as pathways for electron transport in phylogenetically diverse microorganisms, including dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria and photosynthetic cyanobacteria. However, there has been no evidence presented to demonstrate electron transport along the length of bacterial nanowires. Here we report electron transport measurements along individually addressed bacterial nanowires derived from electron-acceptor–limited cultures of the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Transport along the bacterial nanowires was independently evaluated by two techniques: (i) nanofabricated electrodes patterned on top of individual nanowires, and (ii) conducting probe atomic force microscopy at various points along a single nanowire bridging a metallic electrode and the conductive atomic force microscopy tip. The S. oneidensis MR-1 nanowires were found to be electrically conductive along micrometer-length scales with electron transport rates up to 109/s at 100 mV of applied bias and a measured resistivity on the order of 1 Ω·cm. Mutants deficient in genes for c-type decaheme cytochromes MtrC and OmcA produce appendages that are morphologically consistent with bacterial nanowires, but were found to be nonconductive. The measurements reported here allow for bacterial nanowires to serve as a viable microbial strategy for extracellular electron transport. PMID:20937892

  18. Nanowire Plasmon Resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Leon, Nathalie; Shields, Brendan; Yu, Chun; Englund, Dirk; Akimov, Alexey; Lukin, Mikhail; Park, Hongkun

    2011-05-01

    Strong interactions between light and matter can be engineered by confining light to a small volume for an extended period of time. Nanoscale plasmonic structures can concentrate lighte well below the diffraction limit, but realization of small mode-volume plasmon cavities remains an outstanding challenge. We propose and demonstrate a new approach for realization of nanoscale plasmon resonators enabling strong light-matter interaction. In our approach, chemically synthesized silver nanowires are surrounded by patterned dielectric to create resonators with mode volumes that are two orders of magnitude below the diffraction limit and quality factors approaching 100. We show that they can be used to enhance spontaneous emission rates of CdSe quantum dots and single diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers by a factor larger than 20 at the cavity resonance.

  19. Nucleation and coalescence effects on the density of self-induced GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consonni, V.; Knelangen, M.; Trampert, A.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of the density of self-induced GaN nanowires as a function of the growth time, gallium rate, and growth temperature has been investigated by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Nucleation and coalescence effects have been disentangled and quantified by distinguishing between single nanowires and nanowire clusters. Owing to the very specific nanowire nucleation mechanism involving a shape transition from spherical-cap-shaped islands, the nanowire density does not follow the standard island nucleation theory. Furthermore, the detrimental nanowire coalescence process can be significantly reduced by raising the growth temperature.

  20. Study of the evolution of the atomic composition of thin NbN films under irradiation with mixed ion beams by methods of electron energy loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dement'eva, M. M.; Prikhod'ko, K. E.; Gurovich, B. A.; Kutuzov, L. V.; Komarov, D. A.

    2016-11-01

    The variation in the atomic composition of ultrathin NbN films under irradiation by mixed ion beams to a doze of 4 dpa (for nitrogen) is experimentally studied by methods of electron energy loss spectroscopy with a transmission electron microscope in the transmission scan mode on cross-cut samples. The behavior of the substitution of nitrogen atoms by oxygen atoms has been established; it is characterized by changing the composition of the conducting part of the film from NbN to NbNO.

  1. Boron carbide nanowires: Synthesis and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Zhe

    Bulk boron carbide has been widely used in ballistic armored vest and the property characterization has been heavily focused on mechanical properties. Even though boron carbides have also been projected as a promising class of high temperature thermoelectric materials for energy harvesting, the research has been limited in this field. Since the thermal conductivity of bulk boron carbide is still relatively high, there is a great opportunity to take advantage of the nano effect to further reduce it for better thermoelectric performance. This dissertation work aims to explore whether improved thermoelectric performance can be found in boron carbide nanowires compared with their bulk counterparts. This dissertation work consists of four main parts. (1) Synthesis of boron carbide nanowires. Boron carbide nanowires were synthesized by co-pyrolysis of diborane and methane at low temperatures (with 879 °C as the lowest) in a home-built low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) system. The CVD-based method is energy efficient and cost effective. The as-synthesized nanowires were characterized by electron microscopy extensively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results show the nanowires are single crystalline with planar defects. Depending on the geometrical relationship between the preferred growth direction of the nanowire and the orientation of the defects, the as-synthesized nanowires could be further divided into two categories: transverse fault (TF) nanowires grow normal to the defect plane, while axial fault (AF) ones grow within the defect plane. (2) Understanding the growth mechanism of as-synthesized boron carbide nanowires. The growth mechanism can be generally considered as the famous vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. TF and AF nanowires were found to be guided by Ni-B catalysts of two phases. A TF nanowire is lead by a hexagonal phase catalyst, which was proved to be in a liquid state during reaction. While an AF nanowires is catalyzed by a

  2. Effect of an oxidizing environment on the phase structure of lead oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hai, Kuo; Tang, Dongsheng; Wang, Xiao-Gang

    2013-02-01

    The effect of an oxidizing environment on the phase formation of lead oxide nanowires is reported. The phase structure, optical properties, sizes and morphologies of the nanowires have been investigated by atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and UV—Vis-NIR reflectance diffusion spectrums. The phase structure of the lead oxide nanowires is very sensitive to both the process temperature and the oxygen flow/oxygen partial pressure. Single phase oxide nanowires can be obtained only in a narrow, low temperature range and within a low oxygen partial pressure. The wire morphology of Pb nanowires has been perfectly maintained after being oxidized.

  3. Advances in nanowire bioelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Dai, Xiaochuan; Lieber, Charles M.

    2017-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires represent powerful building blocks for next generation bioelectronics given their attractive properties, including nanometer-scale footprint comparable to subcellular structures and bio-molecules, configurable in nonstandard device geometries readily interfaced with biological systems, high surface-to-volume ratios, fast signal responses, and minimum consumption of energy. In this review article, we summarize recent progress in the field of nanowire bioelectronics with a focus primarily on silicon nanowire field-effect transistor biosensors. First, the synthesis and assembly of semiconductor nanowires will be described, including the basics of nanowire FETs crucial to their configuration as biosensors. Second, we will introduce and review recent results in nanowire bioelectronics for biomedical applications ranging from label-free sensing of biomolecules, to extracellular and intracellular electrophysiological recording.

  4. Multicolored Vertical Silicon Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Kwanyong; Wober, Munib; Steinvurzel, P.; Schonbrun, E.; Dan, Yaping; Ellenbogen, T.; Crozier, K. B.

    2011-04-13

    We demonstrate that vertical silicon nanowires take on a surprising variety of colors covering the entire visible spectrum, in marked contrast to the gray color of bulk silicon. This effect is readily observable by bright-field microscopy, or even to the naked eye. The reflection spectra of the nanowires each show a dip whose position depends on the nanowire radii. We compare the experimental data to the results of finite difference time domain simulations to elucidate the physical mechanisms behind the phenomena we observe. The nanowires are fabricated as arrays, but the vivid colors arise not from scattering or diffractive effects of the array, but from the guided mode properties of the individual nanowires. Each nanowire can thus define its own color, allowing for complex spatial patterning. We anticipate that the color filter effect we demonstrate could be employed in nanoscale image sensor devices.

  5. Understanding hydrothermal transformation from Mn2O3 particles to Na0.55Mn2O4·1.5H2O nanosheets, nanobelts, and single crystalline ultra-long Na4Mn9O18 nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yohan; Woo Lee, Sung; Kim, Ki Hyeon; Min, Bong-Ki; Kumar Nayak, Arpan; Pradhan, Debabrata; Sohn, Youngku

    2015-01-01

    Manganese oxides are one of the most valuable materials for batteries, fuel cells and catalysis. Herein, we report the change in morphology and phase of as-synthesized Mn2O3 by inserting Na+ ions. In particular, Mn2O3 nanoparticles were first transformed to 2 nm thin Na0.55Mn2O4·1.5H2O nanosheets and nanobelts via hydrothermal exfoliation and Na cation intercalation, and finally to sub-mm ultra-long single crystalline Na4Mn9O18 nanowires. This paper reports the morphology and phase-dependent magnetic and catalytic (CO oxidation) properties of the as-synthesized nanostructured Na intercalated Mn-based materials. PMID:26667348

  6. Phonons in Ge nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peelaers, H.; Partoens, B.; Peeters, F. M.

    2009-09-01

    The phonon spectra of thin freestanding, hydrogen passivated, Ge nanowires are calculated by ab initio techniques. The effect of confinement on the phonon modes as caused by the small diameters of the wires is investigated. Confinement causes a hardening of the optical modes and a softening of the longitudinal acoustic modes. The stability of the nanowires, undoped or doped with B or P atoms, is investigated using the obtained phonon spectra. All considered wires were stable, except for highly doped, very thin nanowires.

  7. Joule heating in nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangohr, Hans; Chernyshenko, Dmitri S.; Franchin, Matteo; Fischbacher, Thomas; Meier, Guido

    2011-08-01

    We study the effect of Joule heating from electric currents flowing through ferromagnetic nanowires on the temperature of the nanowires and on the temperature of the substrate on which the nanowires are grown. The spatial current density distribution, the associated heat generation, and diffusion of heat are simulated within the nanowire and the substrate. We study several different nanowire and constriction geometries as well as different substrates: (thin) silicon nitride membranes, (thick) silicon wafers, and (thick) diamond wafers. The spatially resolved increase in temperature as a function of time is computed. For effectively three-dimensional substrates (where the substrate thickness greatly exceeds the nanowire length), we identify three different regimes of heat propagation through the substrate: regime (i), where the nanowire temperature increases approximately logarithmically as a function of time. In this regime, the nanowire temperature is well described analytically by You [Appl. Phys. Lett.APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.2399441 89, 222513 (2006)]. We provide an analytical expression for the time tc that marks the upper applicability limit of the You model. After tc, the heat flow enters regime (ii), where the nanowire temperature stays constant while a hemispherical heat front carries the heat away from the wire and into the substrate. As the heat front reaches the boundary of the substrate, regime (iii) is entered, where the nanowire and substrate temperature start to increase rapidly. For effectively two-dimensional substrates (where the nanowire length greatly exceeds the substrate thickness), there is only one regime in which the temperature increases logarithmically with time for large times, before the heat front reaches the substrate boundary. We provide an analytical expression, valid for all pulse durations, that allows one to accurately compute this temperature increase in the nanowire on thin substrates.

  8. Nanofabrication of structures for the study of nanowire doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichfeld, Chad

    characterized by electron microscopy and found to be single crystal and to grow oriented to the growth substrate. 4-pt electrical resistivity measurements of the silicon nanowires were made. The resistivity measured ranged from of 0.005-0.017 O-cm, corresponding to an impurity concentration 7 x 1018 to 2 x 1019 cm-3 assuming bulk mobility. Calculations show that possible error from depletion at the surface has only a small effect on the calculated resistivity for a 100 nm diameter nanowire at this high of a doping concentration. The results of LEAP metrology analysis of the Al catalyzed nanowires show an estimated Al concentration of 0.4 atomic percent or 2 x 1020 cm-3 about 200 nm from the nanowire tip, where the concentration appears to have leveled out. This value is higher than would be expected from the solubility published for Al.

  9. Seedless Growth of Bismuth Nanowire Array via Vacuum Thermal Evaporation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhao; Nam, Chang-Yong; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-21

    Here a seedless and template-free technique is demonstrated to scalably grow bismuth nanowires, through thermal evaporation in high vacuum at RT. Conventionally reserved for the fabrication of metal thin films, thermal evaporation deposits bismuth into an array of vertical single crystalline nanowires over a flat thin film of vanadium held at RT, which is freshly deposited by magnetron sputtering or thermal evaporation. By controlling the temperature of the growth substrate the length and width of the nanowires can be tuned over a wide range. Responsible for this novel technique is a previously unknown nanowire growth mechanism that roots in the mild porosity of the vanadium thin film. Infiltrated into the vanadium pores, the bismuth domains (~ 1 nm) carry excessive surface energy that suppresses their melting point and continuously expels them out of the vanadium matrix to form nanowires. This discovery demonstrates the feasibility of scalable vapor phase synthesis of high purity nanomaterials without using any catalysts.

  10. Self-Assembled PbSe Nanowire:Perovskite Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyu; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Janmohamed, Alyf; Lan, Xinzheng; Levina, Larissa; Comin, Riccardo; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-12-02

    Inorganic semiconductor nanowires are of interest in nano- and microscale photonic and electronic applications. Here we report the formation of PbSe nanowires based on directional quantum dot alignment and fusion regulated by hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite surface ligands. All material synthesis is carried out at mild temperatures. Passivation of PbSe quantum dots was achieved via a new perovskite ligand exchange. Subsequent in situ ammonium/amine substitution by butylamine enables quantum dots to be capped by butylammonium lead iodide, and this further drives the formation of a PbSe nanowire superlattice in a two-dimensional (2D) perovskite matrix. The average spacing between two adjacent nanowires agrees well with the thickness of single atomic layer of 2D perovskite, consistent with the formation of a new self-assembled semiconductor nanowire:perovskite heterocrystal hybrid.

  11. Growth of silver nanowires on GaAs wafers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yugang

    2011-05-01

    Silver (Ag) nanowires with chemically clean surfaces have been directly grown on semi-insulating gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafers through a simple solution/solid interfacial reaction (SSIR) between the GaAs wafers themselves and aqueous solutions of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) at room temperature. The success in synthesis of Ag nanowires mainly benefits from the low concentration of surface electrons in the semi-insulating GaAs wafers that can lead to the formation of a low-density of nuclei that facilitate their anisotropic growth into nanowires. The resulting Ag nanowires exhibit rough surfaces and reasonably good electric conductivity. These characteristics are beneficial to sensing applications based on single-nanowire surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and possible surface-adsorption-induced conductivity variation.

  12. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; ...

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control overmore » the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.« less

  13. Intrinsic polarization control in rectangular GaN nanowire lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyi; Liu, Sheng; Luk, Ting S.; Figiel, Jeffrey J.; Brener, Igal; Brueck, S. R. J.; Wang, George T.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we demonstrate intrinsic, linearly polarized lasing from single GaN nanowires using cross-sectional shape control. A two-step top-down fabrication approach was employed to create straight nanowires with controllable rectangular cross-sections. A clear lasing threshold of 444kW/cm2 and a narrow spectral line width of 0.16 nm were observed under optical pumping at room temperature, indicating the onset of lasing. The polarization was along the short dimension (y-direction) of the nanowire due to the higher transverse confinement factors for y-polarized transverse modes resulting from the rectangular nanowire cross-section. The results show that cross-sectioned shape control can enable inherent control over the polarization of nanowire lasers without additional environment requirements, such as placement onto lossy substrates.

  14. Super-Joule heating in graphene and silver nanowire network

    SciTech Connect

    Maize, Kerry; Das, Suprem R.; Sadeque, Sajia; Mohammed, Amr M. S.; Shakouri, Ali E-mail: alam@purdue.edu; Janes, David B.; Alam, Muhammad A. E-mail: alam@purdue.edu

    2015-04-06

    Transistors, sensors, and transparent conductors based on randomly assembled nanowire networks rely on multi-component percolation for unique and distinctive applications in flexible electronics, biochemical sensing, and solar cells. While conduction models for 1-D and 1-D/2-D networks have been developed, typically assuming linear electronic transport and self-heating, the model has not been validated by direct high-resolution characterization of coupled electronic pathways and thermal response. In this letter, we show the occurrence of nonlinear “super-Joule” self-heating at the transport bottlenecks in networks of silver nanowires and silver nanowire/single layer graphene hybrid using high resolution thermoreflectance (TR) imaging. TR images at the microscopic self-heating hotspots within nanowire network and nanowire/graphene hybrid network devices with submicron spatial resolution are used to infer electrical current pathways. The results encourage a fundamental reevaluation of transport models for network-based percolating conductors.

  15. Gallium nitride nanowire based nanogenerators and light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chih-Yen; Zhu, Guang; Hu, Youfan; Yu, Jeng-Wei; Song, Jinghui; Cheng, Kai-Yuan; Peng, Lung-Han; Chou, Li-Jen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-06-26

    Single-crystal n-type GaN nanowires have been grown epitaxially on a Mg-doped p-type GaN substrate. Piezoelectric nanognerators based on GaN nanowires are investigated by conductive AFM, and the results showed an output power density of nearly 12.5 mW/m(2). Luminous LED modules based on n-GaN nanowires/p-GaN substrate have been fabricated. CCD images of the lighted LED and the corresponding electroluminescence spectra are recorded at a forward bias. Moreover, the GaN nanowire LED can be lighted up by the power provided by a ZnO nanowire based nanogenerator, demonstrating a self-powered LED using wurtzite-structured nanomaterials.

  16. Integrating simulations and experiments to predict sheet resistance and optical transmittance in nanowire films for transparent conductors.

    PubMed

    Mutiso, Rose M; Sherrott, Michelle C; Rathmell, Aaron R; Wiley, Benjamin J; Winey, Karen I

    2013-09-24

    Metal nanowire films are among the most promising alternatives for next-generation flexible, solution-processed transparent conductors. Breakthroughs in nanowire synthesis and processing have reported low sheet resistance (Rs ≤ 100 Ω/sq) and high optical transparency (%T > 90%). Comparing the merits of the various nanowires and fabrication methods is inexact, because Rs and %T depend on a variety of independent parameters including nanowire length, nanowire diameter, areal density of the nanowires and contact resistance between nanowires. In an effort to account for these fundamental parameters of nanowire thin films, this paper integrates simulations and experimental results to build a quantitatively predictive model. First, by fitting the results from simulations of quasi-2D rod networks to experimental data from well-defined nanowire films, we obtain an effective average contact resistance, which is indicative of the nanowire chemistry and processing methods. Second, this effective contact resistance is used to simulate how the sheet resistance depends on the aspect ratio (L/D) and areal density of monodisperse rods, as well as the effect of mixtures of short and long nanowires on the sheet resistance. Third, by combining our simulations of sheet resistance and an empirical diameter-dependent expression for the optical transmittance, we produced a fully calculated plot of optical transmittance versus sheet resistance. Our predictions for silver nanowires are validated by experimental results for silver nanowire films, where nanowires of L/D > 400 are required for high performance transparent conductors. In contrast to a widely used approach that employs a single percolative figure of merit, our method integrates simulation and experimental results to enable researchers to independently explore the importance of contact resistance between nanowires, as well as nanowire area fraction and arbitrary distributions in nanowire sizes. To become competitive, metal

  17. Electroluminescent, polycrystalline cadmium selenide nanowire arrays.

    PubMed

    Ayvazian, Talin; van der Veer, Wytze E; Xing, Wendong; Yan, Wenbo; Penner, Reginald M

    2013-10-22

    Electroluminescence (EL) from nanocrystalline CdSe (nc-CdSe) nanowire arrays is reported. The n-type, nc-CdSe nanowires, 400-450 nm in width and 60 nm in thickness, were synthesized using lithographically patterned nanowire electrodeposition, and metal-semiconductor-metal (M-S-M) devices were prepared by the evaporation of two gold contacts spaced by either 0.6 or 5 μm. These M-S-M devices showed symmetrical current voltage curves characterized by currents that increased exponentially with applied voltage bias. As the applied biased was increased, an increasing number of nanowires within the array "turned on", culminating in EL emission from 30 to 50% of these nanowires at applied voltages of 25-30 V. The spectrum of the emitted light was broad and centered at 770 nm, close to the 1.74 eV (712 nm) band gap of CdSe. EL light emission occurred with an external quantum efficiency of 4 × 10(-6) for devices with a 0.60 μm gap between the gold contacts and 0.5 × 10(-6) for a 5 μm gap-values similar to those reported for M-S-M devices constructed from single-crystalline CdSe nanowires. Kelvin probe force microscopy of 5 μm nc-CdSe nanowire arrays showed pronounced electric fields at the gold electrical contacts, coinciding with the location of strongest EL light emission in these devices. This electric field is implicated in the Poole-Frenkel minority carrier emission and recombination mechanism proposed to account for EL light emission in most of the devices that were investigated.

  18. Hydrogen gas sensing with networks of ultra-small palladium nanowires formed on filtration membranes.

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, X. Q.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Panuganti, S.; Welp, U.; Kwok, W. K.; Xu, T.

    2010-11-29

    Hydrogen sensors based on single Pd nanowires show promising results in speed, sensitivity, and ultralow power consumption. The utilization of single Pd nanowires, however, face challenges in nanofabrication, manipulation, and achieving ultrasmall transverse dimensions. We report on hydrogen sensors that take advantage of single palladium nanowires in high speed and sensitivity and that can be fabricated conveniently. The sensors are based on networks of ultrasmall (<10 nm) palladium nanowires deposited onto commercially available filtration membranes. We investigated the sensitivities and response times of these sensors as a function of the thickness of the nanowires and also compared them with a continuous reference film. The superior performance of the ultrasmall Pd nanowire network based sensors demonstrates the novelty of our fabrication approach, which can be directly applied to palladium alloy and other hydrogen sensing materials.

  19. Near-unity broadband absorption designs for semiconducting nanowire arrays via localized radial mode excitation.

    PubMed

    Fountaine, Katherine T; Kendall, Christian G; Atwater, Harry A

    2014-05-05

    We report design methods for achieving near-unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays, illustrated by results for visible absorption in GaAs nanowires on Si substrates. Sparse (<5% fill fraction) nanowire arrays achieve near unity absorption at wire resonant wavelengths due to coupling into 'leaky' radial waveguide modes of individual wires and wire-wire scattering processes. From a detailed conceptual development of radial mode resonant absorption, we demonstrate two specific geometric design approaches to achieve near unity broadband light absorption in sparse nanowire arrays: (i) introducing multiple wire radii within a small unit cell array to increase the number of resonant wavelengths, yielding a 15% absorption enhancement relative to a uniform nanowire array and (ii) tapering of nanowires to introduce a continuum of diameters and thus resonant wavelengths excited within a single wire, yielding an 18% absorption enhancement over a uniform nanowire array.

  20. Density Functional Study of the Structure, Stability and Oxygen Reduction Activity of Ultrathin Platinum Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Matanovic, Ivana; Kent, Paul; Garzon, Fernando; Henson, Neil J.

    2013-03-14

    We used density functional theory to study the difference in the structure, stability and catalytic reactivity between ultrathin, 0.5–1.0 nm diameter, platinum nanotubes and nanowires. Model nanowires were formed by inserting an inner chain of platinum atoms in small diameter nanotubes. In this way more stable, non-hollow structures were formed. The difference in the electronic structure of platinum nanotubes and nanowires was examined by inspecting the density of surface states and band structure. Furthermore, reactivity toward the oxygen reduction reaction of platinum nanowires was assessed by studying the change in the chemisorption energies of oxygen, hydroxyl, and hydroperoxyl groups, induced by converting the nanotube models to nanowires. Both ultrathin platinum nanotubes and nanowires show distinct properties compared to bulk platinum. Single-wall nanotubes and platinum nanowires with diameters larger than 1 nm show promise for use as oxygen reduction catalysts.

  1. Large-scale, heterogeneous integration of nanowire arrays for image sensor circuitry.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhiyong; Ho, Johnny C; Jacobson, Zachery A; Razavi, Haleh; Javey, Ali

    2008-08-12

    We report large-scale integration of nanowires for heterogeneous, multifunctional circuitry that utilizes both the sensory and electronic functionalities of single crystalline nanomaterials. Highly ordered and parallel arrays of optically active CdSe nanowires and high-mobility Ge/Si nanowires are deterministically positioned on substrates, and configured as photodiodes and transistors, respectively. The nanowire sensors and electronic devices are then interfaced to enable an all-nanowire circuitry with on-chip integration, capable of detecting and amplifying an optical signal with high sensitivity and precision. Notably, the process is highly reproducible and scalable with a yield of approximately 80% functional circuits, therefore, enabling the fabrication of large arrays (i.e., 13 x 20) of nanowire photosensor circuitry with image-sensing functionality. The ability to interface nanowire sensors with integrated electronics on large scales and with high uniformity presents an important advance toward the integration of nanomaterials for sensor applications.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of ZnO nanowires for nanosensor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lupan, O.; Emelchenko, G.A.; Ursaki, V.V.; Chai, G.; Redkin, A.N.; Gruzintsev, A.N.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Chow, L.; Ono, L.K.; and others

    2010-08-15

    In this paper we report the synthesis of ZnO nanowires via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at 650 {sup o}C. It will be shown that these nanowires are suitable for sensing applications. ZnO nanowires were grown with diameters ranging from 50 to 200 nm depending on the substrate position in a CVD synthesis reactor and the growth regimes. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), photoluminescence (PL), and Raman spectroscopy (RS) have been used to characterize the ZnO nanowires. To investigate the suitability of the CVD synthesized ZnO nanowires for gas sensing applications, a single ZnO nanowire device (50 nm in diameter) was fabricated using a focused ion beam (FIB). The response to H{sub 2} of a gas nanosensor based on an individual ZnO nanowire is also reported.

  3. Structural characterization of nanowires and nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Catherine Rose

    Nanowires, which have diameter less than a few hundred nanometers and high aspect ratios, may have the same properties as their corresponding bulk materials, or may exhibit unique properties due to their confined dimensions and increased surface to volume ratios. They are a popular field of technological investigation in applications that depend on the transport of charge carriers, because of expectations that microcircuit miniaturization will lead to the next boom in the electronics industry. In this work, the high spatial resolution afforded by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to study nanowires formed by electrochemical deposition into porous alumina templates. The goal is to determine the effect of the synthesis and subsequent processing on the microstructure and crystallinity of the wires. A thorough understanding of the microstructural features of a material is vital for optimizing its performance in a desired application. Two material systems were studied in this work. The first is bismuth telluride (Bi 2Te3), which is used in thermoelectric applications. The second is metallic copper, the electrochemical deposition of which is of interest for interconnects in semiconductor devices. The first part of this work utilized TEM to obtain a thorough characterization of the microstructural features of individual Bi2Te3 nanowires following release from the templates. As deposited, the nanowires are fine grained and exhibit significant lattice strain. Annealing increases the grain size and dislocations are created to accommodate the lattice strain. The degree of these microstructural changes depends on the thermal treatment. However, no differences were seen in the nanowire microstructure as a function of the synthetic parameters. The second part of this work utilized a modified dark field TEM technique in order to obtain a spatially resolved, semi-quantitative understanding of the evolution of preferred orientation as a function of the electrochemical

  4. Plasmonic engineering of metal-oxide nanowire heterojunctions in integrated nanowire rectification units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Luchan; Zou, Guisheng; Liu, Lei; Duley, Walt W.; Zhou, Y. Norman

    2016-05-01

    We show that irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses can produce robust nanowire heterojunctions in coupled non-wetting metal-oxide Ag-TiO2 structures. Simulations indicate that joining arises from the effect of strong plasmonic localization in the region of the junction. Strong electric field effects occur in both Ag and TiO2 resulting in the modification of both surfaces and an increase in wettability of TiO2, facilitating the interconnection of Ag and TiO2 nanowires. Irradiation leads to the creation of a thin layer of highly defected TiO2 in the contact region between the Ag and TiO2 nanowires. The presence of this layer allows the formation of a heterojunction and offers the possibility of engineering the electronic characteristics of interfacial structures. Rectifying junctions with single and bipolar properties have been generated in Ag-TiO2 nanowire circuits incorporating asymmetrical and symmetrical interfacial structures, respectively. This fabrication technique should be applicable for the interconnection of other heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire components and demonstrates that femtosecond laser irradiation enables interfacial engineering for electronic applications of integrated nanowire structures.

  5. Jump to contact of hcp nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakasugi, Shinsaku; Kurokawa, Shu; Sakai, Akira

    2016-12-01

    Exploiting molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated jump to contact (JC) at the recontact of broken Mg and Cd nanowires. We observed frequent JCs for junctions of these soft hcp metals, as previously reported for soft fcc metals [C. Untiedt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 206801 (2007)]. Thus, the crystal structure matters little for JC, and the high rate of JC should be a common characteristic of soft metal junctions. Recontacts of broken nanowires also lead to the frequent formation of single-atom contacts (SACs). For comparison, we have also studied JC and the SAC formation for tip-sample junctions of Pb.

  6. Flexible inorganic nanowire light-emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Athavan; Word, Robert C; Meiss, Jan; Könenkamp, Rolf

    2008-02-01

    We report a highly flexible light-emitting device in which inorganic nanowires are the optically active components. The single-crystalline ZnO nanowires are grown at 80 degrees C on flexible polymer-based indium-tin-oxide-coated substrates and subsequently encapsulated in a minimal-thickness, void-filling polystyrene film. A reflective top contact serving as the anode in the diode structure is provided by a strongly doped p-type polymer and an evaporated Au film. The emission through the polymer side of this arrangement covers most of the visual region. Electrical and optical properties as well as performance limitations of the device structure are discussed.

  7. Nanowire Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, David

    2015-01-01

    Firefly Technologies, in collaboration with the Rochester Institute of Technology and the University of Wisconsin-Madison, developed synthesis methods for highly strained nanowires. Two synthesis routes resulted in successful nanowire epitaxy: direct nucleation and growth on the substrate and a novel selective-epitaxy route based on nanolithography using diblock copolymers. The indium-arsenide (InAs) nanowires are implemented in situ within the epitaxy environment-a significant innovation relative to conventional semiconductor nanowire generation using ex situ gold nanoparticles. The introduction of these nanoscale features may enable an intermediate band solar cell while simultaneously increasing the effective absorption volume that can otherwise limit short-circuit current generated by thin quantized layers. The use of nanowires for photovoltaics decouples the absorption process from the current extraction process by virtue of the high aspect ratio. While no functional solar cells resulted from this effort, considerable fundamental understanding of the nanowire epitaxy kinetics and nanopatterning process was developed. This approach could, in principle, be an enabling technology for heterointegration of dissimilar materials. The technology also is applicable to virtual substrates. Incorporating nanowires onto a recrystallized germanium/metal foil substrate would potentially solve the problem of grain boundary shunting of generated carriers by restricting the cross-sectional area of the nanowire (tens of nanometers in diameter) to sizes smaller than the recrystallized grains (0.5 to 1 micron(exp 2).

  8. Metallic nanowire networks

    DOEpatents

    Song, Yujiang; Shelnutt, John A.

    2012-11-06

    A metallic nanowire network synthesized using chemical reduction of a metal ion source by a reducing agent in the presence of a soft template comprising a tubular inverse micellar network. The network of interconnected polycrystalline nanowires has a very high surface-area/volume ratio, which makes it highly suitable for use in catalytic applications.

  9. Superconducting qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, K. D.; Larsen, T. W.; Kuemmeth, F.; Jespersen, T. S.; Krogstrup, P.; Nygård, J.; Marcus, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting transmon qubits are a promising basis for a scalable quantum information processor. The recent development of semiconducting InAs nanowires with in situ molecular beam epitaxy-grown Al contacts presents new possibilities for building hybrid superconductor/semiconductor devices using precise bottom up fabrication techniques. Here, we take advantage of these high quality materials to develop superconducting qubits with superconductor-normal-superconductor Josephson junctions (JJs) where the normal element is an InAs semiconductor nanowire. We have fabricated transmon qubits in which the conventional Al-Al2O3-Al JJs are replaced by a single gate-tunable nanowire JJ. Using spectroscopy to probe the qubit we observe fluctuations in its level splitting with gate voltage that are consistent with universal conductance fluctuations in the nanowire's normal state conductance. Our gate-tunable nanowire transmons may enable new means of control for large scale qubit architectures and hybrid topological quantum computing schemes. Research supported by Microsoft Station Q, Danish National Research Foundation, Villum Foundation, Lundbeck Foundation and the European Commission.

  10. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-François; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M

    2012-09-18

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li(+) gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stabilize the electrodes over extended cycles and provide efficient current collection. Using the above developed process we demonstrate an operational full cell 3.4 V lithium-polymer silicon nanowire (LIPOSIL) battery which is mechanically flexible and scalable to large dimensions.

  11. Surface superconductivity in thin cylindrical Bi nanowire.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingliang; Wang, Jian; Ning, Wei; Mallouk, Thomas E; Chan, Moses H W

    2015-03-11

    The physical origin and the nature of superconductivity in nanostructured Bi remains puzzling. Here, we report transport measurements of individual cylindrical single-crystal Bi nanowires, 20 and 32 nm in diameter. In contrast to nonsuperconducting Bi nanoribbons with two flat surfaces, cylindrical Bi nanowires show superconductivity below 1.3 K. However, their superconducting critical magnetic fields decrease with their diameter, which is the opposite of the expected behavior for thin superconducting wires. Quasiperiodic oscillations of magnetoresistance were observed in perpendicular fields but were not seen in the parallel orientation. These results can be understood by a model of surface superconductivity with an enhanced surface-to-bulk volume in small diameter wires, where the superconductivity originates from the strained surface states of the nanowires due to the surface curvature-induced stress.

  12. Roll up nanowire battery from silicon chips

    PubMed Central

    Vlad, Alexandru; Reddy, Arava Leela Mohana; Ajayan, Anakha; Singh, Neelam; Gohy, Jean-François; Melinte, Sorin; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report an approach to roll out Li-ion battery components from silicon chips by a continuous and repeatable etch-infiltrate-peel cycle. Vertically aligned silicon nanowires etched from recycled silicon wafers are captured in a polymer matrix that operates as Li+ gel-electrolyte and electrode separator and peeled off to make multiple battery devices out of a single wafer. Porous, electrically interconnected copper nanoshells are conformally deposited around the silicon nanowires to stabilize the electrodes over extended cycles and provide efficient current collection. Using the above developed process we demonstrate an operational full cell 3.4 V lithium-polymer silicon nanowire (LIPOSIL) battery which is mechanically flexible and scalable to large dimensions. PMID:22949696

  13. Semiconductor nanowire lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Samuel W.; Fu, Anthony; Wong, Andrew B.; Ning, Cun-Zheng; Yang, Peidong

    2016-06-01

    The discovery and continued development of the laser has revolutionized both science and industry. The advent of miniaturized, semiconductor lasers has made this technology an integral part of everyday life. Exciting research continues with a new focus on nanowire lasers because of their great potential in the field of optoelectronics. In this Review, we explore the latest advancements in the development of nanowire lasers and offer our perspective on future improvements and trends. We discuss fundamental material considerations and the latest, most effective materials for nanowire lasers. A discussion of novel cavity designs and amplification methods is followed by some of the latest work on surface plasmon polariton nanowire lasers. Finally, exciting new reports of electrically pumped nanowire lasers with the potential for integrated optoelectronic applications are described.

  14. Resonant quantum efficiency enhancement of midwave infrared nBn photodetectors using one-dimensional plasmonic gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Nolde, Jill A. Kim, Chul Soo; Jackson, Eric M.; Ellis, Chase T.; Abell, Joshua; Glembocki, Orest J.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Tischler, Joseph G.; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R.; Aifer, Edward H.; Kim, Mijin

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate up to 39% resonant enhancement of the quantum efficiency (QE) of a low dark current nBn midwave infrared photodetector with a 0.5 μm InAsSb absorber layer. The enhancement was achieved by using a 1D plasmonic grating to couple incident light into plasmon modes propagating in the plane of the device. The plasmonic grating is composed of stripes of deposited amorphous germanium overlaid with gold. Devices with and without gratings were processed side-by-side for comparison of their QEs and dark currents. The peak external QE for a grating device was 29% compared to 22% for a mirror device when the illumination was polarized perpendicularly to the grating lines. Additional experiments determined the grating coupling efficiency by measuring the reflectance of analogous gratings deposited on bare GaSb substrates.

  15. Direct minority carrier transport characterization of InAs/InAsSb superlattice nBn photodetectors

    DOE PAGES

    Zuo, Daniel; Liu, Runyu; Wasserman, Daniel; ...

    2015-02-18

    We present an extensive characterization of the minority carrier transport properties in an nBn mid-wave infrared detector incorporating a Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice as the absorbing region. Using a modified electron beam induced current technique in conjunction with time-resolved photoluminescence, we were able to determine several important transport parameters of the absorber region in the device, which uses a barrier layer to reduce dark current. For a device at liquid He temperatures we report a minority carrier diffusion length of 750 nm and a minority carrier lifetime of 202 ns, with a vertical diffusivity of 2.78 x 10–2 cm2/s. Wemore » also report on the device's optical response characteristics at 78 K.« less

  16. Direct minority carrier transport characterization of InAs/InAsSb superlattice nBn photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Daniel; Liu, Runyu; Wasserman, Daniel; Mabon, James; He, Zhao -Yu; Liu, Shi; Zhang, Yong -Hang; Kadlec, Emil A.; Olson, Benjamin V.; Shaner, Eric A.

    2015-02-18

    We present an extensive characterization of the minority carrier transport properties in an nBn mid-wave infrared detector incorporating a Ga-free InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattice as the absorbing region. Using a modified electron beam induced current technique in conjunction with time-resolved photoluminescence, we were able to determine several important transport parameters of the absorber region in the device, which uses a barrier layer to reduce dark current. For a device at liquid He temperatures we report a minority carrier diffusion length of 750 nm and a minority carrier lifetime of 202 ns, with a vertical diffusivity of 2.78 x 10–2 cm2/s. We also report on the device's optical response characteristics at 78 K.

  17. Synthesis of SiC nanowires with in-situ deposition of carbon coating.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Araki, Hiroshi; Tang, Chengchun; Hu, Quanli; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Noda, Tetsuji

    2005-02-01

    SiC nanowires are effective reinforcement materials in ceramic matrix composites. A compliant coating such as carbon on nanowires is necessary in order to moderate the nanowire/matrix interfacial bounding for taking the most advantages of SiC nanowires. SiC nanowires with an in-situ deposition of carbon shell coating were fabricated by a novel chemical vapor growth process. Highresolution transmission electron microscopy examinations showed that the nanowires consisted of a single crystal beta-SiC core with an amorphous carbon shell 2-5 nm in thickness. The nanowires were straight with a length generally over 10 microm and a diameter 15-150 nm. The growth direction of the core SiC nanowires is (111). A simple three-step growth model for SiC nanowires was proposed based on a vapor-solid growth mechanism. Because the carbon-coated nanowires were grown directly on continuous Tyranno-SA SiC fibers, in-situ application of the present technique on the fabrication of SiC nanowire-reinforced SiC/SiC composites is expected.

  18. Vertically grown nanowire crystals of dibenzotetrathienocoronene (DBTTC) on large-area graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B.; Chiu, C. -Y.; Kang, S. J.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, G. -H.; Chen, Z.; Ahn, S.; Yager, K. G.; Ciston, J.; Nuckolls, C.; Schiros, T.

    2016-06-01

    Here we demonstrate controlled growth of vertical organic crystal nanowires on single layer graphene. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transition electron microscopy (TEM), and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXD), we probe the microstructure and morphology of dibenzotetrathienocoronene (DBTTC) nanowires epitaxially grown on graphene. The investigation is performed at both the ensemble and single nanowire level, and as function of growth parameters, providing insight of and control over the formation mechanism. Finally, the size, density and height of the nanowires can be tuned via growth conditions, opening new avenues for tailoring three-dimensional (3-D) nanostructured architectures for organic electronics with improved functional performance.

  19. Shape anisotropy in zero-magnetostrictive rapidly solidified amorphous nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotărescu, C.; Atitoaie, A.; Stoleriu, L.; Óvári, T.-A.; Lupu, N.; Chiriac, H.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic behavior of zero-magnetostrictive rapidly solidified amorphous nanowires has been investigated in order to understand their magnetic bistability. The study has been performed both experimentally - based on inductive hysteresis loop measurements - and theoretically, by means of micromagnetic simulations. Experimental hysteresis loops have shown that the amorphous nanowires display an axial magnetic bistability, characterized by a single-step magnetization reversal when the applied field reaches a critical value called switching field. The simulated loops allowed us to understand the effect of shape anisotropy on coercivity. The results are key for understanding and controlling the magnetization processes in these novel nanowires, with important application possibilities in new miniaturized sensing devices.

  20. Modifying the emission of light from a semiconductor nanowire array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anttu, Nicklas

    2016-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowire arrays have been identified as a promising platform for future light emitting diodes (LEDs), for example, due to the materials science freedom of combining lattice-mismatched materials in them. Furthermore, the emission of light from nanowires can be tailored by designing their geometry. Such tailoring could optimize the emission of light to the top side as well as enhance the emission rate through the Purcell effect. However, the possibility for enhanced light extraction from III-V nanowire arrays over a conventional bulk-like LED has not been investigated systematically. Here, we use electromagnetic modeling to study the emission of light from nanowire arrays. We vary both the diameter of the nanowires and the array period to show the benefit of moving from a bulk-like LED to a nanowire array LED. We study the fraction of light emitted to the top air side and to the substrate at wavelength λ. We find several diameter-dependent resonant peaks for which the emission to the top side is maximized. For the strongest such peak, by increasing the array period, the fraction of emitted light that is extracted at the top air side can be enhanced by a factor of 30 compared to that in a planar bulk LED. By modeling a single nanowire, we confirm that it is beneficial to place the nanowires further apart to enhance the emission to the top side. Furthermore, we predict that for a nanowire diameter D > λ/2, a majority of the emitted power ends up in the substrate. Our results offer direction for the design and optimization of nanowire-array based light emitting diodes.