Gueimonde, Miguel; Ventura, Marco; Margolles, Abelardo
In this work, we report the genome sequences of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain LMG13195. Results from our research group show that this strain is able to interact with human immune cells, generating functional regulatory T cells. PMID:23209243
Turroni, Francesca; Taverniti, Valentina; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Duranti, Sabrina; Guglielmetti, Simone; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Gioiosa, Laura; Palanza, Paola; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe
Here, we describe data obtained from transcriptome profiling of human cell lines and intestinal cells of a murine model upon exposure and colonization, respectively, with Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. Significant changes were detected in the transcription of genes that are known to be involved in innate immunity. Furthermore, results from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that exposure to B. bifidum PRL2010 causes enhanced production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 cytokines, presumably through NF-κB activation. The obtained global transcription profiles strongly suggest that Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 modulates the innate immune response of the host. PMID:24242237
Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech; Parafati, Lucia; Musilova, Sarka; Bunesova, Vera; Vlkova, Eva; Killer, Jiri; Mrazek, Jakub; Kmet, Vladimir; Svejstil, Roman
Bifidobacterium bifidum is a bacterial species exclusively found in the human intestinal tract. This species is becoming increasingly popular as a probiotic organism added to lyophilized products. In this study, porcine mucin was used as the sole carbon source for the selective enumeration of B. bifidum in probiotic food additives. Thirty-six bifidobacterial strains were cultivated in broth with mucin. Only 13 strains of B. bifidum utilized the mucin to produce acids. B. bifidum was selectively enumerated in eight probiotic food supplements using agar (MM agar) containing mupirocin (100 mg/L) and mucin (20 g/L) as the sole carbon source. MM agar was fully selective if the B. bifidum species was presented together with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum species and with lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, streptococci). Isolated strains of B. bifidum were identified using biochemical, PCR, MALDI-TOF procedures and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The novel selective medium was also suitable for the isolation of B. bifidum strains from human fecal samples.
Predominant genera of fecal microbiota in children with atopic dermatitis are not altered by intake of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07.
Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn K; Gøbel, Rikke; Michaelsen, Kim F; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren J; Hansen, Lars H; Jakobsen, Mogens
The effect of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 on the composition of the Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium and the total bacterial population in feces from young children with atopic dermatitis was investigated. The study included 50 children randomized to intake of one of the probiotic strain or placebo. Microbial composition was characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, quantitative PCR and, in a subset of subjects, by pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The core population of the Lactobacillus group was identified as Lactobacillus gasseri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus oris, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, while the bifidobacterial community included Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium catenulatum. The fecal numbers of L. acidophilus and B. lactis increased significantly after intervention, indicating survival of the ingested bacteria. The levels of Bifidobacterium correlated positively (P=0.03), while the levels of the Lactobacillus group negatively (P=0.01) with improvement of atopic eczema evaluated by the Severity Scoring of Atopic Dermatitis index. This correlation was observed across the whole study cohort and not attributed to the probiotic intake. The main conclusion of the study is that administration of L. acidophilus NCFM and B. lactis Bi-07 does not affect the composition and diversity of the main bacterial populations in feces.
Ferrario, Chiara; Duranti, Sabrina; Milani, Christian; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Lugli, Gabriele A.; Turroni, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Ossiprandi, Maria C.; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco
The acquisition and assimilation strategies followed by members of the infant gut microbiota to retrieve nitrogen from the gut lumen are still largely unknown. In particular, no information on these metabolic processes is available regarding bifidobacteria, which are among the first microbial colonizers of the human intestine. Here, evaluation of amino acid auxotrophy and prototrophy of Bifidobacterium bifidum, with particular emphasis on B. bifidum strain PRL2010 (LMG S-28692), revealed a putative auxotrophy for cysteine. In addition, we hypothesized that cysteine plays a role in the oxidative stress response in B. bifidum. The use of glutathione as an alternative reduced sulfur compound did not alleviate cysteine auxotrophy of this strain, though it was shown to stimulate expression of the genes involved in cysteine biosynthesis, reminiscent of oxidative stress response. When PRL2010 was grown on a medium containing complex substrates, such as whey proteins or casein hydrolysate, we noticed a distinct growth-promoting effect of these compounds. Transcriptional analysis involving B. bifidum PRL2010 cultivated on whey proteins or casein hydrolysate revealed that the biosynthetic pathways for cysteine and methionine are modulated by the presence of casein hydrolysate. Such findings support the notion that certain complex substrates may act as potential prebiotics for bifidobacteria in their ecological niche. PMID:26635786
Turroni, Francesca; Strati, Francesco; Foroni, Elena; Serafini, Fausta; Duranti, Sabrina; van Sinderen, Douwe
The Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 genome encodes a relatively small set of predicted carbohydrate transporters. Growth experiments and transcriptome analyses of B. bifidum PRL2010 revealed that carbohydrate utilization in this microorganism appears to be restricted to a relatively low number of carbohydrates. PMID:22562993
Background Bifidobacteria belong to one of the predominant bacterial groups in the intestinal microbiota of infants and adults. Several beneficial effects on the health status of their human hosts have been demonstrated making bifidobacteria interesting candidates for probiotic applications. Adhesion of probiotics to the intestinal epithelium is discussed as a prerequisite for colonisation of and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract. Results In the present study, 15 different strains of bifidobacteria were tested for adhesion. B. bifidum was identified as the species showing highest adhesion to all tested intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) lines. Adhesion of B. bifidum S17 to IECs was strongly reduced after treatment of bacteria with pronase. These results strongly indicate that a proteinaceous cell surface component mediates adhesion of B. bifidum S17 to IECs. In silico analysis of the currently accessible Bifidobacterium genomes identified bopA encoding a lipoprotein as a B. bifidum-specific gene previously shown to function as an adhesin of B. bifidum MIMBb75. The in silico results were confirmed by Southern Blot analysis. Furthermore, Northern Blot analysis demonstrated that bopA is expressed in all B. bifidum strains tested under conditions used to cultivate bacteria for adhesion assays. The BopA gene was successfully expressed in E. coli and purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography as a C-terminal His6-fusion. Purified BopA had an inhibitory effect on adhesion of B. bifidum S17 to IECs. Moreover, bopA was successfully expressed in B. bifidum S17 and B. longum/infantis E18. Strains overexpressing bopA showed enhanced adhesion to IECs, clearly demonstrating a role of BopA in adhesion of B. bifidum strains. Conclusions BopA was identified as a B. bifidum-specific protein involved in adhesion to IECs. Bifidobacterium strains expressing bopA show enhanced adhesion. Our results represent the first report on recombinant bifidobacteria with improved adhesive
González-Rodríguez, Irene; Sánchez, Borja; Ruiz, Lorena; Turroni, Francesca; Ventura, Marco; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel
The ability of bifidobacteria to establish in the intestine of mammals is among the main factors considered to be important for achieving probiotic effects. The role of surface molecules from Bifidobacterium bifidum taxon in mucin adhesion capability and the aggregation phenotype of this bacterial species was analyzed. Adhesion to the human intestinal cell line HT29 was determined for a collection of 12 B. bifidum strains. In four of them—B. bifidum LMG13195, DSM20456, DSM20239, and A8—the involvement of surface-exposed macromolecules in the aggregation phenomenon was determined. The aggregation of B. bifidum A8 and DSM20456 was abolished after treatment with proteinase K, this effect being more pronounced for the strain A8. Furthermore, a mucin binding assay of B. bifidum A8 surface proteins showed a high adhesive capability for its transaldolase (Tal). The localization of this enzyme on the surface of B. bifidum A8 was unequivocally demonstrated by immunogold electron microscopy experiments. The gene encoding Tal from B. bifidum A8 was expressed in Lactococcus lactis, and the protein was purified to homogeneity. The pure protein was able to restore the autoaggregation phenotype of proteinase K-treated B. bifidum A8 cells. A recombinant L. lactis strain, engineered to secrete Tal, displayed a mucin- binding level more than three times higher than the strain not producing the transaldolase. These findings suggest that Tal, when exposed on the cell surface of B. bifidum, could act as an important colonization factor favoring its establishment in the gut. PMID:22447584
Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Bottacini, Francesca; Guglielmetti, Simone; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco
Bifidobacteria are considered dominant and for this reason key members of the human gut microbiota, particularly during the first one to two years following birth. A substantial proportion of the bifidobacterial population in the intestine of infants belong to the Bifidobacterium bifidum taxon, whose members have been shown to display remarkable physiological and genetic features involving adhesion to epithelia, as well as utilization of host-derived glycans. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge on the genetic features and associated adaptations of B. bifidum to the human gut. PMID:25191315
Ku, Seockmo; Park, Myeong Soo; Ji, Geun Eog; You, Hyun Ju
Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 is a probiotic strain that has been used as a major ingredient to produce nutraceutical products and as a dairy starter since 2000. The various bio-functional effects and potential for industrial application of B. bifidum BGN4 has been characterized and proven by in vitro (i.e., phytochemical bio-catalysis, cell adhesion and anti-carcinogenic effects on cell lines, and immunomodulatory effects on immune cells), in vivo (i.e., suppressed allergic responses in mouse model and anti-inflammatory bowel disease), and clinical studies (eczema in infants and adults with irritable bowel syndrome). Recently, the investigation of the genome sequencing was finished and this data potentially clarifies the biochemical characteristics of B. bifidum BGN4 that possibly illustrate its nutraceutical functionality. However, further systematic research should be continued to gain insight for academic and industrial applications so that the use of B. bifidum BGN4 could be expanded to result in greater benefit. This review deals with multiple studies on B. bifidum BGN4 to offer a greater understanding as a probiotic microorganism available in functional food ingredients. In particular, this work considers the potential for commercial application, physiological characterization and exploitation of B. bifidum BGN4 as a whole. PMID:27649150
Ku, Seockmo; Park, Myeong Soo; Ji, Geun Eog; You, Hyun Ju
Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 is a probiotic strain that has been used as a major ingredient to produce nutraceutical products and as a dairy starter since 2000. The various bio-functional effects and potential for industrial application of B. bifidum BGN4 has been characterized and proven by in vitro (i.e., phytochemical bio-catalysis, cell adhesion and anti-carcinogenic effects on cell lines, and immunomodulatory effects on immune cells), in vivo (i.e., suppressed allergic responses in mouse model and anti-inflammatory bowel disease), and clinical studies (eczema in infants and adults with irritable bowel syndrome). Recently, the investigation of the genome sequencing was finished and this data potentially clarifies the biochemical characteristics of B. bifidum BGN4 that possibly illustrate its nutraceutical functionality. However, further systematic research should be continued to gain insight for academic and industrial applications so that the use of B. bifidum BGN4 could be expanded to result in greater benefit. This review deals with multiple studies on B. bifidum BGN4 to offer a greater understanding as a probiotic microorganism available in functional food ingredients. In particular, this work considers the potential for commercial application, physiological characterization and exploitation of B. bifidum BGN4 as a whole.
Zhang, Fan; Li, Xiao Yan; Park, Hyun Jin; Zhao, Min
Six kinds of Bifidobacterium bifidum microcapsules were prepared by extrusion methods, emulsion methods and coacervation methods. Effects of preparation methods on the survival of encapsulated B. bifidum were examined. Results showed that microcapsules prepared by emulsion method with alginate and chitosan exhibited the best protection for B. bifidum. The diameter was 10-20 µm, encapsulation efficiency was 90.36% and the live cell amount was 3.01 × 10₉ cfu/g after freeze-drying. Encapsulated cells exhibited significantly higher resistance to artificial gastrointestinal juice and the cell numbers were above 10₉ cfu/g after exposure to simulated gastric (pH 1.2) and bile salt (1%, w/v). Cell numbers of microencapsulated B. bifidum was 8.61 × 10₈ cfu/g after storage at 37°C, relative humidity 60%-65% for 3 months. Results indicated microcapsules prepared with alginate and chitosan by emulsion method could successfully protect B. bifidum against adverse conditions and it might be useful in the delivery of probiotic cultures as a functional food.
Wei, Xiao; Wang, Simiao; Zhao, Xiangna; Wang, Xuesong; Li, Huan; Lin, Weishi; Lu, Jing; Zhurina, Daria; Li, Boxing; Riedel, Christian U.; Sun, Yansong; Yuan, Jing
Bifidobacteria are frequently used in probiotic food and dairy products. Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 is a promising probiotic candidate strain that displays strong adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells and elicits potent anti-inflammatory capacity both in vitro and in murine models of colitis. The recently sequenced genome of B. bifidum S17 has a size of about 2.2 Mb and encodes 1,782 predicted protein-coding genes. In the present study, a comprehensive proteomic profiling was carried out to identify and characterize proteins expressed by B. bifidum S17. A total of 1148 proteins entries were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), representing 64.4% of the predicted proteome. 719 proteins could be assigned to functional categories according to cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs). The COG distribution of the detected proteins highly correlates with that of the complete predicted proteome suggesting a good coverage and representation of the genomic content of B. bifidum S17 by the proteome. COGs that were highly present in the proteome of B. bifidum S17 were Translation, Amino Acid Transport and Metabolism, and Carbohydrate Transport and Metabolism. Complete sets of enzymes for both the bifidus shunt and the Embden-Meyerh of pathway were identified. Further bioinformatic analysis yielded 28 proteins with a predicted extracellular localization including 14 proteins with an LPxTG-motif for cell wall anchoring and two proteins (elongation factor Tu and enolase) with a potential moonlighting function in adhesion. Amongst the predicted extracellular proteins were five of six pilin proteins encoded in the B. bifidum S17 genome as well as several other proteins with a potential role in interaction with host structures. The presented results are the first compilation of a proteomic reference profile for a B. bifidum strain and will facilitate analysis of the molecular mechanisms of physiology, host-interactions and
Nalepa, Beata; Siemianowska, Ewa; Skibniewska, Krystyna Anna
Bread is considered an important source of minerals; however, the presence of fiber and phytic acid reduces bioavailability of minerals from cereal products. It is well established that activity of microorganisms in human gut increases the amount of nutrients released during digestion. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of Bifidobacterium bifidum on release of some minerals from bread using an in vitro process of enzymatic digestion. White bread and with addition of 15, 30, or 45% of bran was baked in a bakery by traditional methods, with addition of yeasts and rye leaven, from flour made of wheat, Tonacja variety. Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, manganese, zinc, copper, and iron were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Bread was enzymatically digested in vitro without and with the addition of Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 (inoculum 10(6) CFU/cm(3)) and percentages of minerals released were determined. The concentration of minerals released during enzymatic digestion varied depending upon the element, quantity of bran, and presence of bacteria. Increase in bran content decreased release of elements. Bifidobacterium bifidum KD6 enhanced amounts of magnesium and zinc released from all types of bread, while manganese and copper rose only from white bread with 15% bran addition. Bacteria decreased amounts of calcium and iron released from bread. Data indicate that diets rich in beneficial bacteria (probiotics) but not balanced with minerals might increase mineral deficiency.
de Oliveira, Cybelle Pereira; da Silva, João Andrade; de Siqueira-Júnior, José Pinto
The antimicrobial activities as well as the nature of the inhibitory compounds obtained from Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium animalis strains were assayed on foodborne pathogenic - Staphyloccoccus aureus subsp. aureus (CCUG ATCC® 25926™) and Escherichia coli (ATCC® 25922™) - and spoilage microorganisms - Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC® 27853™). Test producer strains showed inhibitory effect on all indicator microorganisms in diffusion of cell-free concentrated supernatant by agar in well methods (10.0-22.5 mm) in periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. Inhibitory compounds showed no sensitivity to the action of proteolytic enzyme trypsin and were completely inactivated by adjusting the pH of the cell-free 20 × concentrated supernatant to 7.0. The results demonstrated that antimicrobial substances do not have proteinaceous nature and are caused by the action of organic acids with decreasing medium pH.
Wang, Bao-gui; Xu, Hai-bo; Xu, Feng; Zeng, Zhe-ling; Wei, Hua
This study aimed to examine whether Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, a species of colonic microflora in humans, is involved in the intestinal tract of mice. This study was also conducted to determine the antioxidant activity of this species by evaluating different microbial populations and reactive oxygen species isolated from feces and intestinal contents for 28 days of oral administration. Microbial diversities were assessed through bacterial culture techniques, PCR-DGGE, and real-time PCR. This study showed that the intake of B. bifidum ATCC 29521 significantly (p < 0.05) improved the ecosystem of the intestinal tract of BALB/c mice by increasing the amount of probiotics (Lactobacillus intestinalis and Lactobacillus crispatus) and by reducing unwanted bacterial populations (Enterobacter, Escherichia coli). Antioxidative activities of incubated cell-free extracts were evaluated through various assays, including the scavenging ability of DPPH radical (64.5% and 67.54% (p < 0.05), respectively, at 21 days in nutrients and 28 days in MRS broth), superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical (85% and 61.5% (p < 0.05), respectively, at intestinal contents in nutrients and 21 days in MRS broth). Total reducing power (231.5 μmol/L (p < 0.05), 14 days in MRS broth) and mRNA level of genes related to oxidative stress were also determined. Results indicated that B. bifidum ATCC 29521 elicits a beneficial effect on murine gut microbiota and antioxidant activities compared with the control samples. This species can be considered as a potential bioresource antioxidant to promote health. Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 may also be used as a promising material in microbiological and food applications.
Guglielmetti, Simone; Tamagnini, Isabella; Mora, Diego; Minuzzo, Mario; Scarafoni, Alessio; Arioli, Stefania; Hellman, Jukka; Karp, Matti; Parini, Carlo
We found that the human intestinal isolate Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 strongly adhered to Caco-2 cells. Proteinase K and lithium chloride treatments showed that proteins play a key role in MIMBb75 adhesion to Caco-2 cells. By studying the cell wall-associated proteins, we identified a surface protein, which we labeled BopA. We purified the protein chromatographically and found that it functioned as an adhesion promoter on Caco-2 cells. In silico analysis of the gene coding for this protein and globomycin experiments showed that BopA is a cysteine-anchored lipoprotein expressed as a precursor polypeptide. A database search indicated that BopA appears to function biologically as an oligopeptide/tripeptide-solute-binding protein in the ABC transport system. We discovered a protein corresponding to BopA and its gene in eight other highly adherent B. bifidum strains. Finally, we found that B. bifidum MIMBb75 and BopA affected the production of interleukin-8 in Caco-2 epithelial cells. BopA is the first protein described to date to be directly involved in the adhesion of bifidobacteria to Caco-2 cells and to show immunomodulatory activity. PMID:18539800
Guglielmetti, Simone; Tamagnini, Isabella; Minuzzo, Mario; Arioli, Stefania; Parini, Carlo; Comelli, Elena; Mora, Diego
The aim of this study was to investigate the adhesive phenotype of the human intestinal isolate Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 to human colon carcinoma cell lines. We have previously shown that the adhesion of this strain to Caco-2 cells is mediated by an abundant surface lipoprotein named BopA. In this study, we found that this strain adheres to Caco-2 and HT-29 cells, and that its adhesion strongly depends on the environmental conditions, including the presence of sugars and bile salts and the pH. Considerably more adhesion to a Caco-2 monolayer occurred in the presence of fucose and mannose and less when MIMBb75 grew in Oxgall bile salts compared to standard environmental conditions. In particular, growth in Oxgall bile salts reduced the adhesion ability of MIMBb75 and modified the SDS-PAGE profile of the cell wall associated proteins of the strain. The pH markedly affected both adhesion to Caco-2 and bacterial autoaggregation. Finally, experiments with sodium metaperiodate suggested that not only proteinaceous determinants are involved in the adhesion process of B. bifidum. In conclusion, it seems that the colonization strategy of this bacterium can be influenced by factors varying along the gastrointestinal tract, such as the presence of specific sugars and bile salts and the pH, possibly limiting the adhesion of B. bifidum to only restricted distal sites of the gut.
Guglielmetti, Simone; Tamagnini, Isabella; Mora, Diego; Minuzzo, Mario; Scarafoni, Alessio; Arioli, Stefania; Hellman, Jukka; Karp, Matti; Parini, Carlo
We found that the human intestinal isolate Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 strongly adhered to Caco-2 cells. Proteinase K and lithium chloride treatments showed that proteins play a key role in MIMBb75 adhesion to Caco-2 cells. By studying the cell wall-associated proteins, we identified a surface protein, which we labeled BopA. We purified the protein chromatographically and found that it functioned as an adhesion promoter on Caco-2 cells. In silico analysis of the gene coding for this protein and globomycin experiments showed that BopA is a cysteine-anchored lipoprotein expressed as a precursor polypeptide. A database search indicated that BopA appears to function biologically as an oligopeptide/tripeptide-solute-binding protein in the ABC transport system. We discovered a protein corresponding to BopA and its gene in eight other highly adherent B. bifidum strains. Finally, we found that B. bifidum MIMBb75 and BopA affected the production of interleukin-8 in Caco-2 epithelial cells. BopA is the first protein described to date to be directly involved in the adhesion of bifidobacteria to Caco-2 cells and to show immunomodulatory activity.
Ghazvini, Roshanak Daie; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Amini, Abolfazl; Niknejad, Farhad
Food and feedstuff contamination with aflatoxins (AFTs) is a serious health problem for humans and animals, especially in developing countries. The present study evaluated antifungal activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against growth and aflatoxin production of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus. The mycelial growth inhibition rate of A. parasiticus PTCC 5286 was investigated in the presence of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC 1644 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1744 by the pour plate method. After seven days incubation in yeast extract sucrose broth at 30°C, the mycelial mass was weighed after drying. The inhibitory activity of LAB metabolites against aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was evaluated using HPLC method. B. bifidum and L. fermentum significantly reduced aflatoxin production and growth rate of A. parasiticus in comparison with the controls (p≤0.05). LAB reduced total aflatoxins and B1, B2, G1 and G2 fractions by more than 99%. Moreover, LAB metabolites reduced the level of standard AFB1, B2, G1 and G2 from 88.8% to 99.8% (p≤0.05). Based on these findings, B. bifidum and L. fermentum are recommended as suitable biocontrol agents against the growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. PMID:28077976
Sharma, Poonam; Bhardwaj, Priyanka; Singh, Rambir
Background: The present work was planned to evaluate the antihyperglycemic, lipid-lowering, and antioxidant effect of Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Single daily dose of 1 × 107 cfu/ml of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both was given to Wistar rats orally by gavaging for 28 days. Glucose tolerance test, fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were measured from blood. Glycogen from thigh muscles and liver and oxidative stress parameters from pancreas were analyzed. Results: Administration of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both to diabetic rats decreased serum FBG (60.47%, 55.89%, and 56.49%, respectively), HbA1c (28.11%, 28.61%, and 28.28%), total cholesterol (171.69%, 136.47%, and 173.58%), triglycerides (9.935%, 8.58%, and 7.91%), low-density lipoproteins (53.27%, 53.35%, and 52.91%) and very low-density lipoproteins (10%, 8.58%, and 11.15%, respectively) and increased high-density lipoproteins (13.73%, 15.47%, and 15.47%), and insulin (19.50%, 25.80%, and 29.47%, respectively). The treatment also resulted in increase in muscle (171.69%, 136.47%, and 173.58%) and liver (25.82%, 6.63%, and 4.02%) glycogen level. The antioxidant indexes in pancreas of diabetic rats returned to normal level with reduction in lipid peroxidation (30.89%, 46.46%, and 65.36%) and elevation in reduced glutathione (104.5%, 161.34%, and 179.04%), superoxide dismutase (38.65%, 44.32%, and 53.35%), catalase (13.08%, 27%, and 31.52%), glutathione peroxidase (55.56%, 72.23%, and 97.23%), glutathione reductase (49.27%, 88.40%, and 110.86%), and glutathione-S-transferase (140%, 220%, and 246.6%, respectively) on treatment with L. casei, B. bifidum, and combination treatment. Conclusions: Administration of L. casei and B. bifidum alone and in combination of both ameliorated hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and oxidative stress in STZ
Yang, Dong; Wu, Xiaoli; Yu, Xiaomin; He, Lihua; Shah, Nagendra P; Xu, Feng
In this paper, Bifidobacterium bifidum WBBI03 and Listeria monocytogenes CMCC 54001 were selected to detect the changes in their growth pattern after mutual interaction between them. The proteomic changes after the interaction between the 2 bacteria were detected by the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation method. The proteins related to the biosynthesis and cell reproduction were selected, and their changes at the transcriptional level were monitored by fluorescent quantitative PCR. Also, 3 other types of probiotic organisms and opportunistic pathogens were used to verify the results mentioned above. The results showed that growing the 2 organisms together could promote the growth of each other, resulting in earlier entry into the logarithmic phase. The results also showed that the expression of these proteins mostly tended to be upregulated at the translational and transcriptional level. The increase in the expression of these proteins might help promote the growth and reproduction of B. bifidum WBBI03 and L. monocytogenes CMCC 54001. One aspect of the biological significance of their presence in the normal intestine may be that the opportunistic pathogens promote the growth of the probiotics.
Turroni, Francesca; Serafini, Fausta; Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; O’Connell Motherway, Mary; Taverniti, Valentina; Mangifesta, Marta; Milani, Christian; Viappiani, Alice; Roversi, Tommaso; Sánchez, Borja; Santoni, Andrea; Gioiosa, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Margolles, Abelardo; Piazza, Laura; Palanza, Paola; Bolchi, Angelo; Guglielmetti, Simone; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco
Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant groups of microorganisms colonizing the human infant intestine. Commensal bacteria that interact with a eukaryotic host are believed to express adhesive molecules on their cell surface that bind to specific host cell receptors or soluble macromolecules. Whole-genome transcription profiling of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010, a strain isolated from infant stool, revealed a small number of commonly expressed extracellular proteins, among which were genes that specify sortase-dependent pili. Expression of the coding sequences of these B. bifidum PRL2010 appendages in nonpiliated Lactococcus lactis enhanced adherence to human enterocytes through extracellular matrix protein and bacterial aggregation. Furthermore, such piliated L. lactis cells evoked a higher TNF-α response during murine colonization compared with their nonpiliated parent, suggesting that bifidobacterial sortase-dependent pili not only contribute to adherence but also display immunomodulatory activity. PMID:23776216
Kainulainen, Veera; Reunanen, Justus; Hiippala, Kaisa; Guglielmetti, Simone; Vesterlund, Satu; Palva, Airi
The ability of bifidobacteria to adhere to the intestine of the human host is considered to be important for efficient colonization and achieving probiotic effects. Bifidobacterium bifidum strains DSM20456 and MIMBb75 adhere well to the human intestinal cell lines Caco-2 and HT-29. The surface lipoprotein BopA was previously described to be involved in mediating adherence of B. bifidum to epithelial cells, but thioacylated, purified BopA inhibited the adhesion of B. bifidum to epithelial cells in competitive adhesion assays only at very high concentrations, indicating an unspecific effect. In this study, the role of BopA in the adhesion of B. bifidum was readdressed. The gene encoding BopA was cloned and expressed without its lipobox and hydrophobic signal peptide in Escherichia coli, and an antiserum against the recombinant BopA was produced. The antiserum was used to demonstrate the abundant localization of BopA on the cell surface of B. bifidum. However, blocking of B. bifidum BopA with specific antiserum did not reduce adhesion of bacteria to epithelial cell lines, arguing that BopA is not an adhesin. Also, adhesion of B. bifidum to human colonic mucin and fibronectin was found to be BopA independent. The recombinant BopA bound only moderately to human epithelial cells and colonic mucus, and it failed to bind to fibronectin. Thus, our results contrast the earlier findings on the major role of BopA in adhesion, indicating that the strong adhesion of B. bifidum to epithelial cell lines is BopA independent. PMID:24014530
Gargari, Giorgio; Taverniti, Valentina; Balzaretti, Silvia; Ferrario, Chiara; Gardana, Claudio; Simonetti, Paolo
ABSTRACT Modulation of the intestinal microbial ecosystem (IME) is a useful target to establish probiotic efficacy in a healthy population. We conducted a randomized, double-blind, crossover, and placebo-controlled intervention study to determine the impact of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb on the IME of adult healthy volunteers of both sexes. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to characterize the fecal microbiota before and after 4 weeks of daily probiotic cell consumption. The intake of approximately one billion live B. bifidum cells affected the relative abundance of dominant taxa in the fecal microbiota and modulated fecal butyrate levels. Specifically, Prevotellaceae (P = 0.041) and Prevotella (P = 0.034) were significantly decreased, whereas Ruminococcaceae (P = 0.039) and Rikenellaceae (P = 0.010) were significantly increased. We also observed that the probiotic intervention modulated the fecal concentrations of butyrate in a manner dependent on the initial levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). In conclusion, our study demonstrates that a single daily administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum strain Bb can significantly modify the IME in healthy (not diseased) adults. These findings demonstrate the need to reassess the notion that probiotics do not influence the complex and stable IME of a healthy individual. IMPORTANCE Foods and supplements claimed to contain health-promoting probiotic microorganisms are everywhere these days and mainly intended for consumption by healthy people. However, it is still debated what actual effects probiotic products may have on the healthy population. In this study, we report the results of an intervention trial aimed at assessing the modifications induced in the intestinal microbial ecosystem of healthy adults from the consumption of a probiotic product. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of a probiotic product in the dietary habits of healthy people may significantly modify dominant taxa of
Etoh, S; Asamura, K; Obu, A; Sonomoto, K; Ishizaki, A
Natural rubber serum powder, which is a by-product obtained in the production of latex rubber, has a strong growth-stimulating activity for Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254. The retained fraction obtained by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cutoff 1000) showed a growth-stimulating activity in a dose-dependent manner on B12 assay medium with ammonium sulfate. One of the growth stimulators was purified from the retained fraction by acetone precipitation, solid-phase extraction with a hydrophobic pretreatment column, and multistage reversed-phase HPLC. An increase of 53-fold in the specific activity, and a recovery of 1.3% were obtained. The amino acid composition and N-terminal sequence analysis of this growth stimulator provided the structure of Ala-Thr-Pro-Glu-Lys-Glu-Glu-Pro-Thr-Ala. The molecular mass was 1075 by MALDI-TOF MS analysis. These results showed that this growth stimulator was a decapeptide with the sequence shown above. This is the first report that clarified the structure of an active peptide for the growth of Bifidobacterium.
Grimm, Verena; Radulovic, Katarina; Riedel, Christian U.
The effects of at least some probiotics are restricted to live, metabolically active bacteria at their site of action. Colonization of and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract is thus contributing to the beneficial effects of these strains. In the present study, colonization of an anti-inflammatory Bifidobacterium bifidum strain was studied in C57BL/6J mice under germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions as well as during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. B. bifidum S17/pMGC was unable to stably colonize C57BL/6J mice under SPF conditions. Mono-association of GF mice by three doses on consecutive days led to long-term, stable detection of up to 109 colony forming units (CFU) of B. bifidum S17/pMGC per g feces. This stable population was rapidly outcompeted upon transfer of mono-associated animals to SPF conditions. A B. animalis strain was isolated from the microbiota of these re-conventionalized mice. This B. animalis strain displayed significantly higher adhesion to murine CMT–93 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) than to human Caco–2 IECs (p = 0.018). Conversely, B. bifidum S17/pMGC, i.e., a strain of human origin, adhered at significantly higher levels to human compared to murine IECs (p < 0.001). Disturbance of the gut ecology and induction of colitis by DSS-treatment did not promote colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by B. bifidum S17/pMGC. Despite its poor colonization of the mouse GIT, B. bifidum S17/pMGC displayed a protective effect on DSS-induced colitis when administered as viable bacteria but not as UV-inactivated preparation. Collectively, these results suggest a selective disadvantage of B. bifidum S17/pMGC in the competition with the normal murine microbiota and an anti-inflammatory effect that requires live, metabolically active bacteria. PMID:26439388
Grimm, Verena; Radulovic, Katarina; Riedel, Christian U
The effects of at least some probiotics are restricted to live, metabolically active bacteria at their site of action. Colonization of and persistence in the gastrointestinal tract is thus contributing to the beneficial effects of these strains. In the present study, colonization of an anti-inflammatory Bifidobacterium bifidum strain was studied in C57BL/6J mice under germ-free (GF) and specific pathogen-free (SPF) conditions as well as during dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. B. bifidum S17/pMGC was unable to stably colonize C57BL/6J mice under SPF conditions. Mono-association of GF mice by three doses on consecutive days led to long-term, stable detection of up to 109 colony forming units (CFU) of B. bifidum S17/pMGC per g feces. This stable population was rapidly outcompeted upon transfer of mono-associated animals to SPF conditions. A B. animalis strain was isolated from the microbiota of these re-conventionalized mice. This B. animalis strain displayed significantly higher adhesion to murine CMT-93 intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) than to human Caco-2 IECs (p = 0.018). Conversely, B. bifidum S17/pMGC, i.e., a strain of human origin, adhered at significantly higher levels to human compared to murine IECs (p < 0.001). Disturbance of the gut ecology and induction of colitis by DSS-treatment did not promote colonization of the murine gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by B. bifidum S17/pMGC. Despite its poor colonization of the mouse GIT, B. bifidum S17/pMGC displayed a protective effect on DSS-induced colitis when administered as viable bacteria but not as UV-inactivated preparation. Collectively, these results suggest a selective disadvantage of B. bifidum S17/pMGC in the competition with the normal murine microbiota and an anti-inflammatory effect that requires live, metabolically active bacteria.
Wang, Yu-huan; Huang, Ying
To investigate Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum) supplementation to triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication and dynamic changes in intestinal flora in children with H. pylori infection. One hundred H. pylori-infected children were randomly assigned to two groups: treatment group (n = 43), standard triple anti-H. pylori therapy plus probiotics of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum for 2 weeks followed by taking probiotics for another 4 weeks; control group (n = 45), standard triple anti-H. pylori therapy for 6 weeks. After 6-week treatment, ¹³C-urease breath test was performed and side effects were monitored during the observation period. Quantitative PCR with 16S rRNA-gene-targeted species-specific primers was carried out for the analysis of human intestinal B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, and Escherichia coli (E. coli). As expected, treatment group could significantly enhance the H. pylori eradication rate (83.7 vs. 64.4 %, P < 0.05). B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, and E. coli showed no statistical difference before or after therapy in the treatment group. The number of B. bifidum and L. acidophilus was significantly decreased after 2-week treatment in the control group, but after 6-week treatment it significantly increased and nearly returned to the level before treatment. The number of E. coli increased significantly after 2-week treatment, while after 6-week treatment, it nearly decreased to the level before treatment. L. acidophilus and B. bifidum supplementation is effective for H. pylori eradication compared with triple therapy alone.
Godoy, Andre S; de Lima, Mariana Z T; Camilo, Cesar M; Polikarpov, Igor
Given the current interest in second-generation biofuels, carbohydrate-active enzymes have become the most important tool to overcome the structural recalcitrance of the plant cell wall. While some glycoside hydrolase families have been exhaustively described, others remain poorly characterized, especially with regard to structural information. The family 43 glycoside hydrolases are a diverse group of inverting enzymes; the available structure information on these enzymes is mainly from xylosidases and arabinofuranosidase. Currently, only one structure of an exo-β-1,3-galactanase is available. Here, the production, crystallization and structure determination of a putative exo-β-1,3-galactanase from Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 (BbGal43A) are described. BbGal43A was successfully produced and showed activity towards synthetic galactosides. BbGal43A was subsequently crystallized and data were collected to 1.4 Å resolution. The structure shows a single-domain molecule, differing from known homologues, and crystal contact analysis predicts the formation of a dimer in solution. Further biochemical studies are necessary to elucidate the differences between BbGal43A and its characterized homologues.
Zou, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhao, Jianxin; Tian, Fengwei; Zhang, He-ping; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
Bifidobacterium bifidum F-35 was microencapsulated into whey protein microcapsules (WPMs) by a transglutaminase (TGase)-induced method after optimization of gelation conditions. The performance of these WPMs was compared with that produced by a spray drying method (WPMs-A). WPMs produced by the TGase-induced gelation method (WPMs-B) had larger and denser structures in morphological examinations. Native gel and SDS-PAGE analyses showed that most of the polymerization observed in WPMs-B was due to stable covalent crosslinks catalyzed by TGase. The degradation properties of these WPMs were investigated in simulated gastric juice (SGJ) with or without pepsin. In the presence of pepsin, WPMs-A degraded more quickly than did WPMs-B. Finally, survival rates of the microencapsulated cells in both WPMs were significantly better than that of free cells and varied with the microencapsulation method. However, WPMs-B produced by TGase-induced gelation could provide better protection for microencapsulated cells in low pH conditions and during 1 mo of storage at 4 °C or at ambient temperature.
Mora-Cura, Y N; Meléndez-Rentería, N P; Delgado-García, M; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Morlett-Chávez, J A; Aguilar, C N; Rodríguez-Herrera, R
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation of dietary fiber from green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and prickly pear shell (Opuntia ficus-indica) by Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 450B growing as mono-culture and co-culture, the fermentation products, and proteins expressed during this process. The analysis of the fermentation profile showed a major growth of bacteria in the culture media of each dietary fiber supplemented with glucose, and particularly B. bifidum 450B at 48 h showed the highest growth. In the case of the co-culture, the growth was lower indicating the possible negative interaction between L. acidophilus LA-5 and B. bifidum 450B and may be due to the less amount of carbohydrates and the high content of non-soluble fiber that affected the nutrients availability for the bacterial strains. The pH changes indicated the presence of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), being acetate (46-100%) the main SCFA. Changes in the proteome concerned proteins that are involved in carbohydrate and other carbohydrate pathways. The characterization of the bacteria according to the growth, metabolites, and proteins expressed allows understanding the response to the change of environmental conditions and could be useful to understand L. acidophilus LA-5 and B. bifidum 450B strains' adaptation to specific applications.
Nagae, M.; Tsuchiya, A.; Katayama, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Wakatsuki, S.; Kato, R.
1,2-alpha-L-fucosidase (AfcA), which hydrolyzes the glycosidic linkage of Fucalpha1-2Gal via an inverting mechanism, was recently isolated from Bifidobacterium bifidum and classified as the first member of the novel glycoside hydrolase family 95. To better understand the molecular mechanism of this enzyme, we determined the x-ray crystal structures of the AfcA catalytic (Fuc) domain in unliganded and complexed forms with deoxyfuconojirimycin (inhibitor), 2'-fucosyllactose (substrate), and L-fucose and lactose (products) at 1.12-2.10 A resolution. The AfcA Fuc domain is composed of four regions, an N-terminal beta region, a helical linker, an (alpha/alpha)6 helical barrel domain, and a C-terminal beta region, and this arrangement is similar to bacterial phosphorylases. In the complex structures, the ligands were buried in the central cavity of the helical barrel domain. Structural analyses in combination with mutational experiments revealed that the highly conserved Glu566 probably acts as a general acid catalyst. However, no carboxylic acid residue is found at the appropriate position for a general base catalyst. Instead, a water molecule stabilized by Asn423 in the substrate-bound complex is suitably located to perform a nucleophilic attack on the C1 atom of L-fucose moiety in 2'-fucosyllactose, and its location is nearly identical near the O1 atom of beta-L-fucose in the products-bound complex. Based on these data, we propose and discuss a novel catalytic reaction mechanism of AfcA.
Balzaretti, Silvia; Taverniti, Valentina; Miriani, Matteo; Milani, Christian; Scarafoni, Alessio; Corona, Silvia; Ciranna, Alessandro; Arioli, Stefania; Santala, Ville; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco; Ventura, Marco; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti
Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 is a human intestinal isolate demonstrated to be interactive with the host and efficacious as a probiotic. However, the molecular biology of this microorganism is yet largely unknown. For this reason, we undertook whole-genome sequencing of B. bifidum MIMBb75 to identify potential genetic factors that would explain the metabolic and probiotic attributes of this bacterium. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a 45-kb chromosomal region that comprises 19 putative genes coding for a potential type IV secretion system (T4SS). Thus, we undertook the initial characterization of this genetic region by studying the putative virB1-like gene, named tgaA. Gene tgaA encodes a peptidoglycan lytic enzyme containing two active domains: lytic murein transglycosylase (LT, cd00254.3) and cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP, pfam05257.4). By means of several in vitro assays, we experimentally confirmed that protein TgaA, consistent with its computationally assigned role, has peptidoglycan lytic activity, which is principally associated to the LT domain. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling showed that the protein TgaA is abundantly expressed on the cell surface of B. bifidum MIMBb75. According to the literature, the T4SSs, which have not been characterized before in bifidobacteria, can have important implications for bacterial cell-to-cell communication as well as cross talk with host cells, justifying the interest for further studies aimed at the investigation of this genetic region. PMID:24951779
Guglielmetti, Simone; Balzaretti, Silvia; Taverniti, Valentina; Miriani, Matteo; Milani, Christian; Scarafoni, Alessio; Corona, Silvia; Ciranna, Alessandro; Arioli, Stefania; Santala, Ville; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco; Ventura, Marco; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti
Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75 is a human intestinal isolate demonstrated to be interactive with the host and efficacious as a probiotic. However, the molecular biology of this microorganism is yet largely unknown. For this reason, we undertook whole-genome sequencing of B. bifidum MIMBb75 to identify potential genetic factors that would explain the metabolic and probiotic attributes of this bacterium. Comparative genomic analysis revealed a 45-kb chromosomal region that comprises 19 putative genes coding for a potential type IV secretion system (T4SS). Thus, we undertook the initial characterization of this genetic region by studying the putative virB1-like gene, named tgaA. Gene tgaA encodes a peptidoglycan lytic enzyme containing two active domains: lytic murein transglycosylase (LT, cd00254.3) and cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP, pfam05257.4). By means of several in vitro assays, we experimentally confirmed that protein TgaA, consistent with its computationally assigned role, has peptidoglycan lytic activity, which is principally associated to the LT domain. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and immunogold labeling showed that the protein TgaA is abundantly expressed on the cell surface of B. bifidum MIMBb75. According to the literature, the T4SSs, which have not been characterized before in bifidobacteria, can have important implications for bacterial cell-to-cell communication as well as cross talk with host cells, justifying the interest for further studies aimed at the investigation of this genetic region.
Kiseleva, E P; Mikhailopulo, K I; Novik, G I; Szwajcer Dey, E; Zdorovenko, E L; Shashkov, A S; Knirel, Y A
Bifidobacterium bifidum 791 (commercially available as B. bifidum BIM B-733D) cell-surface biopolymers (BPs) interact selectively with human serum thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) autoantibodies (anti TPO and anti Tg, respectively). BPanti-TPO and BPanti-Tg were isolated from the soluble fraction of B. bifidum BIM B-733D by affinity chromatography with anti-TPO or anti-Tg, respectively. Homogeneity of affinity eluates (AEanti-TPO and AEanti-Tg) was tested by size exclusion chromatography. For each AE, the elution profiles generated on the basis of absorbance at 280 nm do not conform to ELISA data for functional activity characteristic of BPs. Moreover, high functional activity was detected in chromatographic fractions that had significantly different molecular weights and no absorbance at 280 nm, which suggests a non-protein (carbohydrate) nature of BPanti-TPO and BPanti-Tg. The semi-preparative size exclusion chromatography of AEanti-TPO and AEanti-Tg with detection by refractometer gave 5,000-7,000 Da fractions containing substances that interact selectively with either anti TPO (BPanti-TPO) or anti-Tg (BPanti-Tg) according to ELISA data. Analysis by two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy including a 1H, 13C-heteronuclear single-quantum coherence experiment indicated that both substances are linear α-1,6-glucans. For the first time, an immunological similarity (molecular mimicry) of glycopolymers of B. bifidum BIM B-733D and human thyroid proteins, TPO and Tg, was shown. On the whole, our data point to a possible role of bifidobacteria in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD). The main requirements for triggering/acceleration or prevention/abrogation of ATD by bifidobacteria through molecular mimicry mechanism are hypothesised to be (1) genetic predisposition to ATD and (2) intestinal epithelium penetration by α-1,6-glucan.
Timoshko, M A; Vil'shanskaia, F L; Pospelova, V V; Rakhimova, N G
Experiments on gnotobiont chickens indicated that the strains B. bifidum 1/85 phi, P. vulgaris F-30 and K. pneumoniae 204, when introduced simultaneously into the gastrointestinal tract in a single administration, proliferate there with the pronounced predominance of bifidobacteria. 6 additional administrations of B. bifidum 1/85 phi culture resulted in the complete suppression of microorganisms belonging to the genera Rroteus and Klebsiella as early as 10 days after the introduction of bifidobacteria. These data suggest that it is necessary to use B. bifidum 1/85 phi in cases of intestinal dysbacteriosis characterized by the predominance of microorganisms belonging to the genera Proteus and Klebsiella.
URITA, Yoshihisa; GOTO, Mayu; WATANABE, Toshiyasu; MATSUZAKI, Makoto; GOMI, Atsushi; KANO, Mitsuyoshi; MIYAZAKI, Kouji; KANEKO, Hironori
The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of probiotic fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium bifidum YIT 10347 improves symptoms in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID). Thirty-seven FGID patients (18 male, 19 female) aged 12–80 years (mean ± SD, 52.6 ± 17.5 years) whose condition had not improved despite being seen at several medical institutions consumed 100 mL/day of B. bifidum YIT 10347 fermented milk for 4 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated after the enrollment period (BL: baseline), sample consumption period (CP) and 4 weeks after the CP (FP: follow-up period). Gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated using the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS) and the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (FSSG); psychological symptoms were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) short form. Concentrations of salivary stress markers and the oxidative stress marker urinary 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured. GSRS subscale scores for abdominal pain, diarrhea, and constipation significantly improved relative to BL after consumption of the fermented milk, as did FSSG subscale scores for symptoms of acid-related dyspepsia. Some subjective psychological symptoms improved. POMS scores significantly improved, and “Anger-Hostility” subscale scores significantly decreased after the consumption period, while “Vigor” subscale scores marginally increased during the consumption period. The concentrations of urinary 8-OHdG and the stress marker salivary cortisol were significantly lower at CP but returned to baseline levels at FP. Continuous consumption of B. bifidum YIT 10347 fermented milk is expected to improve gastrointestinal symptoms and reduce psychological stress in FGID patients. PMID:25918671
Zanoni, Ivan; Balzaretti, Silvia; Miriani, Matteo; Taverniti, Valentina; De Noni, Ivano; Presti, Ilaria; Stuknyte, Milda; Scarafoni, Alessio; Arioli, Stefania; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Granucci, Francesca
Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract that have evolved close interaction with their host and especially with the host's immune system. The molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions, however, are largely unidentified. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75, a bacterium of human intestinal origin commercially used as a probiotic. Particularly, we focused our attention on TgaA, a protein expressed on the outer surface of MIMBb75's cells and homologous to other known bacterial immunoactive proteins. TgaA is a peptidoglycan lytic enzyme containing two active domains: lytic murein transglycosylase (LT) and cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP). We ran immunological experiments stimulating dendritic cells (DCs) with the B. bifidum MIMBb75 and TgaA, with the result that both the bacterium and the protein activated DCs and triggered interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. In addition, we observed that the heterologous expression of TgaA in Bifidobacterium longum transferred to the bacterium the ability to induce IL-2. Subsequently, immunological experiments performed using two purified recombinant proteins corresponding to the single domains LT and CHAP demonstrated that the CHAP domain is the immune-reactive region of TgaA. Finally, we also showed that TgaA-dependent activation of DCs requires the protein CD14, marginally involves TRIF, and is independent of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88. In conclusion, our study suggests that the bacterial CHAP domain is a novel microbe-associated molecular pattern actively participating in the cross talk mechanisms between bifidobacteria and the host's immune system. PMID:24814791
Guglielmetti, Simone; Zanoni, Ivan; Balzaretti, Silvia; Miriani, Matteo; Taverniti, Valentina; De Noni, Ivano; Presti, Ilaria; Stuknyte, Milda; Scarafoni, Alessio; Arioli, Stefania; Iametti, Stefania; Bonomi, Francesco; Mora, Diego; Karp, Matti; Granucci, Francesca
Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract that have evolved close interaction with their host and especially with the host's immune system. The molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions, however, are largely unidentified. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory potential of Bifidobacterium bifidum MIMBb75, a bacterium of human intestinal origin commercially used as a probiotic. Particularly, we focused our attention on TgaA, a protein expressed on the outer surface of MIMBb75's cells and homologous to other known bacterial immunoactive proteins. TgaA is a peptidoglycan lytic enzyme containing two active domains: lytic murein transglycosylase (LT) and cysteine- and histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase (CHAP). We ran immunological experiments stimulating dendritic cells (DCs) with the B. bifidum MIMBb75 and TgaA, with the result that both the bacterium and the protein activated DCs and triggered interleukin-2 (IL-2) production. In addition, we observed that the heterologous expression of TgaA in Bifidobacterium longum transferred to the bacterium the ability to induce IL-2. Subsequently, immunological experiments performed using two purified recombinant proteins corresponding to the single domains LT and CHAP demonstrated that the CHAP domain is the immune-reactive region of TgaA. Finally, we also showed that TgaA-dependent activation of DCs requires the protein CD14, marginally involves TRIF, and is independent of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MyD88. In conclusion, our study suggests that the bacterial CHAP domain is a novel microbe-associated molecular pattern actively participating in the cross talk mechanisms between bifidobacteria and the host's immune system.
Ehsandoost, E; Gholami, S P; Nazemi, M
This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of different doses (0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) of Denak powder (Oliveria decumbens Vent) on viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum in milk and yoghurt during 21 day refrigerated storage for production of probiotic herbal milk and yoghurt. In order to determine the effect of different doses of Denak powder on growth of probiotic bacteria in milk and yoghurt, first lyophilized bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus was added to 1 liter of low fat sterilized milk and was considered as control. Denak powder at the concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 1.5% were added to the samples and incubated until acidity reached 40 degrees Dornic and then left in refrigerator. Similar procedure was applied to the bacteria Bifidobacterium bifidum. The results of this experiment indicate the positive correlation between increased bacterial growth and increased Denak concentration. The investigation showed that the yoghurt containing 1% Denak powder had the best for taste, color, and insolubility. The sample with 1.5% Denak powder in milk and yoghurt had greater viscosity than the other samples investigated. The shelf lives of products were determined to be 21 days during which the bacterial count decreased but not less than 10(9). All the results suggest that Denak (Oliveria decumbens Vent) promoted the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria in milk and yoghurt. According to these findings, addition of Denak powder to milk and yoghurt can be recommended to take advantage of their beneficial properties on human health attributed to antimicrobial activities.
Cell-Free Spent Media Obtained from Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium crudilactis Grown in Media Supplemented with 3′-Sialyllactose Modulate Virulence Gene Expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium
Bondue, Pauline; Crèvecoeur, Sébastien; Brose, François; Daube, Georges; Seghaye, Marie-Christine; Griffiths, Mansel W.; LaPointe, Gisèle; Delcenserie, Véronique
Complex oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO) possess an antimicrobial activity and can promote the growth of bifidobacteria such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. In addition, fermentation of carbohydrates by bifidobacteria can result in the production of metabolites presenting an antivirulence effect on several pathogenic bacteria. Whey is rich in complex bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) structurally similar to HMO and B. crudilactis, a species of bovine origin, is able to metabolize some of those complex carbohydrates. This study focused on the ability of B. bifidum and B. crudilactis to grow in a culture medium supplemented in 3′-sialyllactose (3′SL) as the main source of carbon, a major BMO encountered in cow milk. Next, the effects of cell-free spent media (CFSM) were tested against virulence expression of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Both strains were able to grow in presence of 3′SL, but B. crudilactis showed the best growth (7.92 ± 0.3 log cfu/ml) compared to B. bifidum (6.84 ± 0.9 log cfu/ml). Then, CFSM were tested for their effects on virulence gene expression by ler and hilA promoter activity of luminescent mutants of E. coli and S. Typhimurium, respectively, and on wild type strains of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium using RT-qPCR. All CFSM resulted in significant under expression of the ler and hilA genes for the luminescent mutants and ler (ratios of −15.4 and −8.1 respectively) and qseA (ratios of −2.1 and −3.1) for the wild type strain of E. coli O157:H7. The 3′SL, a major BMO, combined with some bifidobacteria strains of bovine or human origin could therefore be an interesting synbiotic to maintain or restore the intestinal health of young children. These effects observed in vitro will be further investigated regarding the overall phenotype of pathogenic agents and the exact nature of the active molecules. PMID:27713728
Godoy, Andre Schutzer; Camilo, Cesar Moises; Kadowaki, Marco Antonio; Muniz, Heloisa Dos S; Espirito Santo, Melissa; Murakami, Mario Tyago; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Polikarpov, Igor
In a search for better comprehension of β-galactosidase function and specificity, we solved the crystal structures of the GH42 β-galactosidase BbgII from Bifidobacterium bifidum S17, a well-adapted probiotic microorganism from the human digestive tract, and its complex with d-α-galactose. BbgII is a three-domain molecule that forms barrel-shaped trimers in solution. BbgII interactions with d-α-galactose, a competitive inhibitor, showed a number of residues that are involved in the coordination of ligands. A combination of site-directed mutagenesis of these amino acid residues with enzymatic activity measurements confirmed that Glu161 and Glu320 are fundamental for catalysis and their substitution by alanines led to catalytically inactive mutants. Mutation Asn160Ala resulted in a two orders of magnitude decrease of the enzyme kcat without significant modification in its Km , whereas mutations Tyr289Phe and His371Phe simultaneously decreased kcat and increased Km values. Enzymatic activity of Glu368Ala mutant was too low to be detected. Our docking and molecular dynamics simulations showed that the enzyme recognizes and tightly binds substrates with β1→6 and β1→3 bonds, while binding of the substrates with β1→4 linkages is less favorable.
Tanaka, Katsunori; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Yanagi, Takahide; Nakahara, Sayuri; Furukawa, Ouki; Tsutsui, Hidemi; Koshida, Shigeki
Probiotic supplementation has been part of the discussion on methods to enhance humoral immunity. Administration of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 (OLB6378) reduced the incidence of late-onset sepsis in infants. In this non-randomized study, we aimed to determine the effect of administration of live OLB6378 on infants’ humoral immunity. Secondly, we tried to elucidate whether similar effects would be observed with administration of non-live OLB6378. Low birth weight (LBW) infants weighing 1500–2500 g were divided into three groups: Group N (no intervention), Group L (administered live OLB6378 concentrate), and Group H (administered non-live OLB6378 concentrate). The interventions were started within 48 h after birth and continued until six months of age. Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels (IgG at one month/IgG at birth) were significantly higher in Group L than in Group N (p < 0.01). Group H exhibited significantly higher serum IgG levels (p < 0.01) at one month of age and significantly higher intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels (p < 0.05) at one and two months of age than Group N. No difference was observed in the mortality or morbidity between groups. Thus, OLB6378 administration in LBW infants enhanced humoral immunity, and non-live OLB6378, which is more useful as a food ingredient, showed a more marked effect than the viable bacteria. PMID:28245626
Timoshko, M A; Vil'shanskaia, F L; Pospelova, V V; Rakhimova, N G
The antagonistic relations between Bacterium bifidum, strain I/850 phi, and Proteus vulgaris, strain F-30, were studied. These organisms, when introduced together in equal doses into the digestive tract of gnotobiotic chickens in a single administration, were shown to create certain ecological correlations in various organs with the prevalence of bifidobacteria which exerted no negative influence on Proteus vulgaris. The additional daily administration of bifidobacteria for 3 days running in doses 1000 times as great as the initial dose, the content of both dibifobacteria and Proteus vulgaris in the intestine being at that time at its maximum, resulted in the suppression of the growth of Proteus vulgaris. Our findings indicate that the influence of the pH of the medium should be considered in order to obtain the evidence of significantly pronounced antagonistic relations between the two organisms in vitro.
Chen, Xiaodi; Xu, Li; Jin, Lan; Sun, Bin; Gu, Guofeng
ABSTRACT β-N-Acetylhexosaminidases have attracted interest particularly for oligosaccharide synthesis, but their use remains limited by the rarity of enzyme sources , low efficiency, and relaxed regioselectivity of transglycosylation. In this work, genes of 13 β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, including 5 from Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, 5 from Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124, and 3 from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254, were cloned and heterogeneously expressed in Escherichia coli. The resulting recombinant enzymes were purified and screened for transglycosylation activity. A β-N-acetylhexosaminidase named BbhI, which belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 20 and was obtained from B. bifidum JCM 1254, possesses the bifunctional property of efficiently transferring both GalNAc and GlcNAc residues through β1-3 linkage to the Gal residue of lactose. The effects of initial substrate concentration, pH, temperature, and reaction time on transglycosylation activities of BbhI were studied in detail. With the use of 10 mM pNP-β-GalNAc or 20 mM pNP-β-GlcNAc as the donor and 400 mM lactose as the acceptor in phosphate buffer (pH 5.8), BbhI synthesized GalNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc and GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc at maximal yields of 55.4% at 45°C and 4 h and 44.9% at 55°C and 1.5 h, respectively. The model docking of BbhI with lactose showed the possible molecular basis of strict regioselectivity of β1-3 linkage in β-N-acetylhexosaminyl lactose synthesis. IMPORTANCE Oligosaccharides play a crucial role in many biological events and therefore are promising potential therapeutic agents. However, their use is limited because large-scale production of oligosaccharides is difficult. The chemical synthesis requires multiple protecting group manipulations to control the regio- and stereoselectivity of glycosidic bonds. In comparison, enzymatic synthesis can produce oligosaccharides in one step by using glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Given the lower price of their glycosyl
Kawahara, Tomohiro; Makizaki, Yutaka; Oikawa, Yosuke; Tanaka, Yoshiki; Maeda, Ayako; Shimakawa, Masaki; Komoto, Satoshi; Moriguchi, Kyoko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Koki
Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model. As well as prophylactic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 2 days before RV infection, therapeutic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 1 day after RV infection significantly alleviated RV-induced diarrhea. Therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 reduced various types of damage in the small intestine, such as epithelial vacuolization and villous shortening, and significantly diminished the infectious RV titer in mixtures of cecal contents and feces. It was also shown that therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly increased the number of acidic mucin-positive goblet cells and the gene expression of mucosal protective factors including MUC2, MUC3, MUC4, TGFβ1 and TFF3 in the small intestine. This led to alleviation of low gut permeability shown as decreased gene expression levels of occludin, claudin-1 and villin-1 after RV infection. Furthermore, in the small intestine, therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 significantly palliated the decreased gene expression of SGLT-1, which plays an important role in water absorption. In the large intestine, administered BBG9-1 was shown to replicate to assimilate undigested nutrients, resulting in normalization of the abnormally high osmotic pressure. These results suggested that water malabsorption caused by RV infection was alleviated in mice administered
Probiotics (Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and Bifidobacterium longum MM-2) improve rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life in individuals with seasonal allergies: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
Dennis-Wall, Jennifer C; Culpepper, Tyler; Nieves, Carmelo; Rowe, Cassie C; Burns, Alyssa M; Rusch, Carley T; Federico, Ashton; Ukhanova, Maria; Waugh, Sheldon; Mai, Volker; Christman, Mary C; Langkamp-Henken, Bobbi
Background: Rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life is often reduced during seasonal allergies. The Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MRQLQ) is a validated tool used to measure quality of life in people experiencing allergies (0 = not troubled to 6 = extremely troubled). Probiotics may improve quality of life during allergy season by increasing the percentage of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and inducing tolerance.Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether consuming Lactobacillus gasseri KS-13, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1, and B. longum MM-2 compared with placebo would result in beneficial effects on MRQLQ scores throughout allergy season in individuals who typically experience seasonal allergies. Secondary outcomes included changes in immune markers as part of a potential mechanism for changes in MRQLQ scores.Design: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel, randomized clinical trial, 173 participants (mean ± SEM: age 27 ± 1 y) who self-identified as having seasonal allergies received either a probiotic (2 capsules/d, 1.5 billion colony-forming units/capsule) or placebo during spring allergy season for 8 wk. MRQLQ scores were collected weekly throughout the study. Fasting blood samples were taken from a subgroup (placebo, n = 37; probiotic, n = 35) at baseline and week 6 (predicted peak of pollen) to determine serum immunoglobulin (Ig) E concentrations and Treg percentages.Results: The probiotic group reported an improvement in the MRQLQ global score from baseline to pollen peak (-0.68 ± 0.13) when compared with the placebo group (-0.19 ± 0.14; P = 0.0092). Both serum total IgE and the percentage of Tregs increased from baseline to week 6, but changes were not different between groups.Conclusions: This combination probiotic improved rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life during allergy season for healthy individuals with self-reported seasonal allergies; however, the associated mechanism is still
Probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum modulates the formation of aberrant crypt foci, mucin-depleted foci, and cell proliferation on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in Wistar rats.
Mohania, Dheeraj; Kansal, Vinod K; Kruzliak, Peter; Kumari, Archana
Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) are pre-neoplastic lesions identified in the colon of carcinogen-treated rodents and in humans at high risk for colon cancer. The present study was carried out to divulge the protective potential of the probiotic Dahi containing Lactobacillus acidophilus LaVK2 and Bifidobacterium bifidum BbVK3 alone or in combination with piroxicam (PXC) on the development of early biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats administered 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). DMH was injected subcutaneously at the rate of 40 mg/kg body weight per animal twice a week for 2 weeks. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to five groups, each group having 24 animals. The rats were fed with buffalo milk or probiotic supplement (20 grams) alone or as an adjunct with PXC in addition to a basal diet ad libitum for 32 weeks. Group I was offered buffalo milk (BM) and served as the control group. Group II was administered DMH along with BM and served as the DMH-control group; group III was administered BM-DMH-PXC, in which besides administering BM-DMH, PXC was also offered. Group IV was offered probiotic LaBb Dahi and DMH, and group V was offered both probiotic LaBb Dahi and PXC along with DMH. The rats were euthanized at the 8(th), 16(th), and 32(nd) week of the experiment and examined for development of ACF, aberrant crypts per ACF (AC/ACF), mucin-depleted foci (MDF), large MDF, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling index. Administration of DMH in rats induced pre-neoplastic lesions (ACF and MDF) and increased the PCNA index in colorectal tissue. A significant (p<0.05) reduction in the number of ACF, AC/ACF, MDF, large MDF, and PCNA labeling index were observed in the probiotic LaBb Dahi group compared with the DMH control group. Feeding rats with LaBb Dahi or treatment with PXC diminished the initiation and progression of DMH-induced pre-neoplastic lesions and the PCNA index, and treatment with
Effect of salt stress on morphology and membrane composition of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and their adhesion to human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells.
Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P
The effects of NaCl reduction (10.0, 7.5, 5.0, 2.5, and 0% NaCl) and its substitution with KCl (50% substitution at each given concentration) on morphology of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Bifidobacterium longum was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Changes in membrane composition, including fatty acids and phospholipids, were investigated using gas chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Adhesion ability of these bacteria to human intestinal epithelial-like Caco-2 cells, as affected by NaCl and its substitution with KCl, was also evaluated. Bacteria appeared elongated and the intracellular content appeared contracted when subjected to salt stress, as observed by transmission electron microscopy. Fatty acid content was altered with an increase in the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acid content on increasing the NaCl-induced stress. Among the phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol was reduced, whereas phosphatidylinositol and cardioplipin were increased when the bacteria were subjected to salt stress. There was a significant reduction in adhesion ability of the bacteria to Caco-2 cells when cultured in media supplemented with NaCl; however, the adhesion ability was improved on substitution with KCl at a given total salt concentration. The findings provide insights into bacterial membrane damage caused by NaCl.
Wang, Yan; Kim, Jin Yong; Park, Myeong Soo; Ji, Geun Eog
For the development of a food-grade expression system for Bifidobacterium, a strong promoter leading to high-level expression of cloned gene is a prerequisite. For this purpose, a promoter screening host-vector system for Bifidobacterium has been established using β-glucosidase from Bifidobacterium lactis as a reporter and Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4 as a host, which is β-glucosidase negative strain. Seven putative promoters showing constitutive high-level expression were selected through microarray analysis based on the genome sequence of B. bifidum BGN4. They were cloned into upstream of β-glucosidase gene and transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α and B. bifidum BGN4. Promoter activities were analyzed both in E. coli and B. bifidum BGN4 by measuring β-glucosidase activity. β-Glucosidase activities in all of the transformants showed growth-associated characteristics. Among them, P919 was the strongest in B. bifidum BGN4 and showed maximum activity at 18 h, while P895 was the strongest in E. coli DH5α at 7 h. This study shows that novel strong promoters such as P919 can be used for high-level expression of foreign genes in Bifidobacterium and will be useful for the construction of an efficient food-grade expression system.
Ramirez-Farias, Carlett; Slezak, Kathleen; Fuller, Zoë; Duncan, Alan; Holtrop, Grietje; Louis, Petra
Prebiotics are food ingredients that improve health by modulating the colonic microbiota. The bifidogenic effect of the prebiotic inulin is well established; however, it remains unclear which species of Bifidobacterium are stimulated in vivo and whether bacterial groups other than lactic acid bacteria are affected by inulin consumption. Changes in the faecal microbiota composition were examined by real-time PCR in twelve human volunteers after ingestion of inulin (10 g/d) for a 16-d period in comparison with a control period without any supplement intake. The prevalence of most bacterial groups examined did not change after inulin intake, although the low G+C % Gram-positive species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii exhibited a significant increase (10.3% for control period v. 14.5% during inulin intake, P=0.019). The composition of the genus Bifidobacterium was studied in four of the volunteers by clone library analysis. Between three and five Bifidobacterium spp. were found in each volunteer. Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium longum were present in all volunteers, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium dentium were also detected. Real-time PCR was employed to quantify the four most prevalent Bifidobacterium spp., B. adolescentis, B. longum, B. pseudocatenulatum and B. bifidum, in ten volunteers carrying detectable levels of bifidobacteria. B. adolescentis showed the strongest response to inulin consumption, increasing from 0.89 to 3.9% of the total microbiota (P=0.001). B. bifidum was increased from 0.22 to 0.63% (P<0.001) for the five volunteers for whom this species was present.
Gwiazdowska, Daniela; Juś, Krzysztof; Jasnowska-Małecka, Joanna; Kluczyńska, Katarzyna
Polyphenols are a common group of plant based bioactive compounds, that can affect human health because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties as well as free-radical scavenging activity. An increasing interest is observed in the interaction between polyphenols and microbiota occurring in food and the human gut. The aim of the work presented here, was to evaluate the effect of some polyphenolic compounds on the growth of two strains of Bifidobacterium: B. adolescentis and B. bifidum. The influence of some flavonoids: naringinin, hesperidin, rutin, quercetin as well as phenolic acids: gallic, caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, chlorogenic, vanillic and sinapic was determined by a 96-well microtiter plate assay. In the experiments the effect of three different concentrations of polyphenols: 2, 20 and 100 µg/ml on the growth of Bifidobacterium strains was investigated. All tested compounds influenced the growth of the examined bacteria. Both stimulatory and inhibitory effects were observed in comparison to the positive control. The strongest impact on the growth of bifidobacteria was observed during the first hours of incubation. The constant inhibitory effect was observed for hesperidin and quercetin addition and was dose-dependent. B. bifidum showed a stronger dependence on phenolic acids content in the medium than B. adolescentis during the first hours of incubation.
Egan, Muireann; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Ventura, Marco
Bifidobacteria constitute a specific group of commensal bacteria that inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals. Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 has previously been shown to utilize several plant-derived carbohydrates that include cellodextrins, starch, and galactan. In the present study, we investigated the ability of this strain to utilize the mucin- and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO)-derived carbohydrate sialic acid. Using a combination of transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches, we identified a gene cluster dedicated to the uptake and metabolism of sialic acid. Furthermore, we demonstrate that B. breve UCC2003 can cross feed on sialic acid derived from the metabolism of 3′-sialyllactose, an abundant HMO, by another infant gut bifidobacterial strain, Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010. PMID:24814790
Roager, Henrik M; Sulek, Karolina; Skov, Kasper; Frandsen, Henrik L; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Wilcks, Andrea; Skov, Thomas H; Villas-Boas, Silas G; Licht, Tine R
Monocolonization of germ-free (GF) mice enables the study of specific bacterial species in vivo. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM(TM) (NCFM) is a probiotic strain; however, many of the mechanisms behind its health-promoting effect remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of NCFM on the metabolome of jejunum, cecum, and colon of NCFM monocolonized (MC) and GF mice using liquid chromatography coupled to mass-spectrometry (LC-MS). The study adds to existing evidence that NCFM in vivo affects the bile acid signature of mice, in particular by deconjugation. Furthermore, we confirmed that carbohydrate metabolism is affected by NCFM in the mouse intestine as especially the digestion of oligosaccharides (penta- and tetrasaccharides) was increased in MC mice. Additionally, levels of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamin E acetate) were higher in the intestine of GF mice than in MC mice, suggesting that NCFM affects the vitamin E acetate metabolism. NCFM did not digest vitamin E acetate in vitro, suggesting that direct bacterial metabolism was not the cause of the altered metabolome in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that NCFM affects intestinal carbohydrate metabolism, bile acid metabolism and vitamin E metabolism, although it remains to be investigated whether this effect is unique to NCFM.
Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are high G+C Gram positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria, and represent common inhabitants of the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) of mammals, birds and certain cold-blooded animals. The overall microbial population that resides in the GIT, referred to as the "gut microbiota", is an extremely complex community of microorganisms whose functions are believed to have a significant impact on human physiology. Different ecological relationships between bifidobacteria and their host can be developed, ranging from opportunistic pathogenic interactions (e.g. in the case of Bifidobacterium dentium) to a commensal or even health-promoting relationship (e.g. in the case of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium breve species). Among the known health-promoting or probiotic microorganisms, bifidobacteria represent one of the most dominant group and some bifidobacterial species are frequently used as the probiotic ingredient in many functional foods. However, despite the generally accepted importance of bifidobacteria as constituents of the human microbiota, there is only limited information available on their phylogeny, physiology and genetics. Moreover, host-microbiota interactions and cross-talk between different members of the gut microbiota are far from completely understood although they represent a crucial factor in the development and maintenance of human physiology and immune system. The aim of this review is to highlight the genetic and functional features of bifidobacteria residing in the human GIT using genomic and ecology-based information.
Duranti, Sabrina; Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Turroni, Francesca; Ferrario, Chiara; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Sánchez, Borja; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco
Bifidobacteria are members of the human gut microbiota, being numerically dominant in the colon of infants, while also being prevalent in the large intestine of adults. In this study, we determined and analyzed the pan-genome of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, which is one of many bacteria found in the human adult gut microbiota. In silico analysis of the genome sequences of eighteen B. adolescentis strains isolated from various environments, such as human milk, human feces and bovine rumen, revealed a high level of genetic variability, resulting in an open pan-genome. Compared to other bifidobacterial taxa such as Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium breve, the more extensive B. adolescentis pan-genome supports the hypothesis that the genetic arsenal of this taxon expanded so as to become more adaptable to the variable and changing ecological niche of the gut. These increased genetic capabilities are particularly evident for genes required for dietary glycan-breakdown. PMID:27035119
Vinderola, C G; Prosello, W; Ghiberto, T D; Reinheimer, J A
We evaluated the suitability of Argentinian Fresco cheese as a food carrier of probiotic cultures. We used cultures of Bifidobacterium bifidum (two strains), Bifidobacterium longum (two strains), Bifidobacterium sp. (one strain), Lactobacillus acidophilus (two strains), and Lactobacillus casei (two strains) in different combinations, as probiotic adjuncts. Probiotic, lactic starter (Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus), and contaminant (coliforms, yeasts, and molds) organisms were counted at 0, 30, and 60 d of refrigerated storage. Furthermore, the acid resistance of probiotic and starter bacteria was determined from hydrochloric solutions (pH 2 and 3) of Fresco cheese. The results showed that nine different combinations of bifidobacteria and L. acidophilus had a satisfactory viability (count decreases in 60 d <1 log order) in the cheese. Both combinations of bifidobacteria and L. casei cultures assayed also showed a satisfactory survival (counts decreased <1 log order for bifidobacteria but no decrease was detected for L. casei). On the other hand, the three combinations of bifidobacteria, L. acidophilus, and L. casei tested adapted well to the Fresco cheese environment. When a cheese homogenate at pH 3 was used to partially simulate the acidic conditions in the stomach, the probiotic cultures had an excellent ability to remain viable up to 3 h. At pH 2, the cell viability was more affected; B. bifidum was the most resistant organism. This study showed that the Argentinian Fresco cheese could be used as an adequate carrier of probiotic bacteria.
Havas, Petra; Kun, Szilárd; Perger-Mészáros, Izabell; Rezessy-Szabó, Judit M; Nguyen, Quang D
Growth and metabolic activity of several new, human origin isolates of Bifidobacterium strains were investigated. All tested bifidobacteria strains were grown well on the native soymilk medium without any additional nutrients. The fermentation processes cultured with initial cell concentrations in 10⁵ -10⁷ cfu/ml resulted in 10⁸ cfu/ml after 8-12 h of incubation in soymilk, and were kept viable up to the end of fermentation (48 h). Volumetric productivities of B. bifidum B3.2, B. bifidum B7.1 and B. breve B9.14 were 1.6 × 10¹⁰ cfu/L.h, 4.5 × 10¹⁰ cfu/L.h and 7.6 × 10⁹ cfu/L.h, respectively, whereas these values of B. lactis Bb-12 and B. longum Bb-46 probiotic strains were 2.7 × 10⁹ cfu/L.h and 1.0 x 10¹⁰ cfu/L.h. The α-galactosidase activities were also detected in the intracellular fraction of the disrupted cells. Productions of lactic and acetic acids were in the range of 23-60 mmol/L and 2.4-5.6 mmol/L, respectively. Molar ratios of acetate to lactate in all tested strains varied from 0.05-0.1 that are very promising for further technological development of probiotic fermented soy-based food products.
Goderska, Kamila; Czarnecki, Zbigniew
Improved production methods of starter cultures, which constitute the most important element of probiotic preparations, were investigated. The aim of the presented research was to analyse changes in the viability of Lactobacillus. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum after stabilization (spray drying, liophilization, fluidization drying) and storage in refrigerated conditions for 4 months. The highest numbers of live cells, up to the fourth month of storage in refrigerated conditions, of the order of 10(7) cfu/g preparation were recorded for the B. bifidum DSM 20239 bacteria in which the N-Tack starch for spray drying was applied. Fluidization drying of encapsulated bacteria allowed obtaining a preparation of the comparable number of live bacterial cells up to the fourth month of storage with those encapsulated bacteria, which were subjected to freeze-drying but the former process was much shorter. The highest survivability of the encapsulated L. acidophilus DSM 20079 and B. bifidum DSM 20239 cells subjected to freeze-drying was obtained using skimmed milk as the cryoprotective substance. Stabilization of bacteria by microencapsulation can give a product easy to store and apply to produce dried food composition.
Rabiu, Bodun A.; Jay, Andrew J.; Gibson, Glenn R.; Rastall, Robert A.
β-Galactosidase enzymes were extracted from pure cultures of Bifidobacterium angulatum, B. bifidum BB-12, B. adolescentis ANB-7, B. infantis DSM-20088, and B. pseudolongum DSM-20099 and used in glycosyl transfer reactions to synthesize oligosaccharides from lactose. At a lactose concentration of 30% (wt/wt) oligosaccharide yields of 24.7 to 47.6% occurred within 7 h. Examination of the products by thin-layer chromatography and methylation analysis revealed distinct product derived spectra from each enzyme. These were found to be different to that of Oligomate 55, a commercial prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharide. Fermentation testing of the oligosaccharides showed an increase in growth rate, compared to Oligomate 55, with products derived from B. angulatum, B. bifidum, B. infantis, and B. pseudolongum. However B. adolescentis had a lower growth rates on its oligosaccharide compared with Oligomate 55. Mixed culture testing of the B. bifidum BS-4 oligosaccharide showed that the overall prebiotic effect was equivalent to that of Oligomate 55. PMID:11375159
Valdés-Varela, L.; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel
The intestinal overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, often after disturbance of the gut microbiota by antibiotic treatment, leads to C. difficile infection (CDI) which manifestation ranges from mild diarrhea to life-threatening conditions. The increasing CDI incidence, not only in compromised subjects but also in traditionally considered low-risk populations, together with the frequent relapses of the disease, has attracted the interest for prevention/therapeutic options. Among these, probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics constitute a promising approach. In this study we determined the potential of selected Bifidobacterium strains for the inhibition of C. difficile growth and toxicity in different carbon sources. We conducted co-cultures of the toxigenic strain C. difficile LMG21717 with four Bifidobacterium strains (Bifidobacterium longum IPLA20022, Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20006, Bifidobacterium bifidum IPLA20015, and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12) in the presence of various prebiotic substrates (Inulin, Synergy, and Actilight) or glucose, and compared the results with those obtained for the corresponding mono-cultures. C. difficile and bifidobacteria levels were quantified by qPCR; the pH and the production of short chain fatty acids was also determined. Moreover, supernatants of the cultures were collected to evaluate their toxicity using a recently developed model. Results showed that co-culture with B. longum IPLA20022 and B. breve IPLA20006 in the presence of short-chain fructooligosaccharides, but not of Inulin, as carbon source significantly reduced the growth of the pathogen. With the sole exception of B. animalis Bb12, whose growth was enhanced, the presence of C. difficile did not show major effects upon the growth of the bifidobacteria. In accordance with the growth data, B. longum and B. breve were the strains showing higher reduction in the toxicity of the co-culture supernatants. PMID:27242753
Kim, Younghoon; Mylonakis, Eleftherios
Although the immune response of Caenorhabditis elegans to microbial infections is well established, very little is known about the effects of health-promoting probiotic bacteria on evolutionarily conserved C. elegans host responses. We found that the probiotic Gram-positive bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is not harmful to C. elegans and that L. acidophilus NCFM is unable to colonize the C. elegans intestine. Conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM significantly decreased the burden of a subsequent Enterococcus faecalis infection in the nematode intestine and prolonged the survival of nematodes exposed to pathogenic strains of E. faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, including multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates. Preexposure of nematodes to Bacillus subtilis did not provide any beneficial effects. Importantly, L. acidophilus NCFM activates key immune signaling pathways involved in C. elegans defenses against Gram-positive bacteria, including the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway (via TIR-1 and PMK-1) and the β-catenin signaling pathway (via BAR-1). Interestingly, conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM had a minimal effect on Gram-negative infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and had no or a negative effect on defense genes associated with Gram-negative pathogens or general stress. In conclusion, we describe a new system for the study of probiotic immune agents and our findings demonstrate that probiotic conditioning with L. acidophilus NCFM modulates specific C. elegans immunity traits.
Kiseleva, E P; Mikhailopulo, K I; Sviridov, O V; Novik, G I; Knirel, Y A; Szwajcer Dey, E
During recent years, researchers have been focusing on the concept of an infectious etiology of autoimmune diseases. The most discussed theory is molecular mimicry, i.e. the emergence of autoreactive clones of T- and B-lymphocytes as a result of cross-immune response to homologous bacterial or viral antigen. Information on the role of probiotic microorganisms (PM) in the molecular mechanisms of autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATD) is limited. Using proteins and immunogenic peptides databanks and relevant computer programs, the homology between the amino acid sequences of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg), which are potential B- and T-cell epitopes of these antigens, and proteins of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli was established. Moreover, we have found components of cells of Bifidobacterium bifidum 791, Bifidobacterium adolescentis 94 BIM, Bifidobacterium longum B379M and Lactobacillus plantarum B-01 that selectively bind human antibodies to TPO (anti-TPO) and antibodies to Tg (anti-Tg) and compete with natural antigens for the binding of anti-TPO and anti-Tg in ELISA. Additionally, a three-fold difference was observed between the probability of detecting antibodies (Abs) to the antigens of L. plantarum B-01 and B. bifidum 791 in serum samples containing and those not containing anti-TPO. On the whole, our data are arguments in favour of the assumption of the possible role of PM of the genera Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus in triggering ATD by the mechanism of molecular mimicry. The data obtained in silico and in vitro should be proven by use of animal models and clinical studies for extrapolations to the whole body. Possible antigenic properties of components/proteins of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, selectively binding anti-TPO and anti-Tg should be taken into consideration. Natural human Abs to these bacterial components are probably able to cross-react with the TPO and Tg in the ELISA for detection of anti-TPO and anti-Tg, which are serologic
Li, Sha; Gong, Guangyu; Ma, Chengjie; Liu, Zhenmin; Cai, Jie
In this study, the influence of tea extract (TE) on the growth of probiotics in skim milk was examined. Lactobacillus plantarum ST-III, Bifidobacterium bifidum Bb02, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG were used in this study. The introduction of TE in milk significantly stimulated the propagation and acidification of L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM. The antioxidant capacities and the total free amino acid contents of all fermented milk products were enhanced by the addition of TE; however, there were different antioxidant properties and free amino acid contents of fermented milk samples fermented by different bacteria. With a 9% (w/w) level, the fermentation with L. rhamnosus GG and L. acidophilus NCFM showed larger numbers of viable cells and faster acidifying rates, as well as excellent antioxidant capacity and abundant free amino acids. The stimulative effects of TE on probiotics can be considered for industrial purposes and has practical implications for commercial applications.
Synbiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and cellobiose does not affect human gut bacterial diversity but increases abundance of lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and branched-chain fatty acids: a randomized, double-blinded cross-over trial.
van Zanten, Gabriella C; Krych, Lukasz; Röytiö, Henna; Forssten, Sofia; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Sørensen, Søren; Svensson, Birte; Jespersen, Lene; Jakobsen, Mogens
Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is synbiotics, have been reported to modulate gut microbiota of humans. In this study, effects of a novel synbiotic on the composition and metabolic activity of human gut microbiota were investigated. Healthy volunteers (n = 18) were enrolled in a double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled cross-over study and received synbiotic [Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (10(9) CFU) and cellobiose (5 g)] or placebo daily for 3 weeks. Fecal samples were collected and lactobacilli numbers were quantified by qPCR. Furthermore, 454 tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing was used to monitor the effect of synbiotic on the composition of the microbiota. The synbiotic increased levels of Lactobacillus spp. and relative abundances of the genera Bifidobacterium, Collinsella, and Eubacterium while the genus Dialister was decreased (P < 0.05). No other effects were found on microbiota composition. Remarkably, however, the synbiotic increased concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, measured by gas chromatography, while short-chain fatty acids were not affected.
Sheu, Sen-Je; Hwang, Wen-Zhe; Chiang, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Chen, Hsin-Chih; Tsen, Hau-Yang
Due to the increasing use of bifidobacteria in probiotic products, it is essential to establish a rapid method for the qualitative and quantitative assay of the bifidobacteria in commercial products. In this study, partial sequences of the tuf gene for 18 Bifidobacterium strains belonging to 14 species were determined. Alignment of these sequences showed that the similarities among these Bifidobacterium species were 82.24% to 99.72%. Based on these tuf gene sequences, 6 primer sets were designed for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay of B. animalis subsp. animalis, B. animalis subsp. lactis, B. bifidum, B. breve, B. longum subsp. infantis, B. longum subsp. longum, and the genus of Bifidobacterium, respectively. These Bifidobacterium species are common probiotic species present in dairy and probiotic products. When each target Bifidobacterium spp. was assayed with the designed primers, PCR product with expected size was generated. In addition, for each target species, more than 70 bacterial strains other than the target species, including strains of other Bifidobacterium species, strains of Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., and other bacterial species, all generated negative results. PCR assay with primers specific to B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. longum subsp. longum confirmed the presence of these Bifidobacterium species in commercial yogurt products. In addition, for each product, enumeration of the bifidobacteria cells by culture method with BIM-25 agar and the quantitative real-time PCR showed similar cell counts. Such results indicated that within 15-d storage (4 °C) after manufacture, all the bifidobacteria cells originally present in yogurt products were viable and culturable during the storage.
Hymes, Jeffrey P.; Johnson, Brant R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe
Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) are crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (Slps) that comprise the outermost layer of the cell envelope. Many additional proteins that are associated with or embedded within the S-layer have been identified in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, an S-layer-forming bacterium that is widely used in fermented dairy products and probiotic supplements. One putative S-layer-associated protein (SLAP), LBA0191, was predicted to mediate adhesion to fibronectin based on the in silico detection of a fibronectin-binding domain. Fibronectin is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of intestinal epithelial cells. Adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells is considered an important trait for probiotic microorganisms during transit and potential association with the intestinal mucosa. To investigate the functional role of LBA0191 (designated FbpB) in L. acidophilus NCFM, an fbpB-deficient strain was constructed. The L. acidophilus mutant with a deletion of fbpB lost the ability to adhere to mucin and fibronectin in vitro. Homologues of fbpB were identified in five additional putative S-layer-forming species, but no homologues were detected in species outside the L. acidophilus homology group. PMID:26921419
Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Hachem, Maher Abou; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Goh, Yong-Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R.
The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β- linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various α- and β-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota. PMID:23028535
Andersen, Joakim Mark; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Hachem, Maher Abou; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Goh, Yong-Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R
The human gastrointestinal tract can be positively modulated by dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates. Here differential transcriptomics and functional genomics were used to identify genes in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM involved in the uptake and catabolism of 11 potential prebiotic compounds consisting of α- and β-linked galactosides and glucosides. These oligosaccharides induced genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent sugar phosphotransferase systems (PTS), galactoside pentose hexuronide (GPH) permease, and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. PTS systems were upregulated primarily by di- and tri-saccharides such as cellobiose, isomaltose, isomaltulose, panose and gentiobiose, while ABC transporters were upregulated by raffinose, Polydextrose, and stachyose. A single GPH transporter was induced by lactitol and galactooligosaccharides (GOS). The various transporters were associated with a number of glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 4, 13, 32, 36, 42, and 65, involved in the catabolism of various α- and β-linked glucosides and galactosides. Further subfamily specialization was also observed for different PTS-associated GH1 6-phospho-β-glucosidases implicated in the catabolism of gentiobiose and cellobiose. These findings highlight the broad oligosaccharide metabolic repertoire of L. acidophilus NCFM and establish a platform for selection and screening of both probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds that may positively influence the gastrointestinal microbiota.
Hymes, Jeffrey P; Johnson, Brant R; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R
Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) are crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (Slps) that comprise the outermost layer of the cell envelope. Many additional proteins that are associated with or embedded within the S-layer have been identified in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, an S-layer-forming bacterium that is widely used in fermented dairy products and probiotic supplements. One putative S-layer-associated protein (SLAP), LBA0191, was predicted to mediate adhesion to fibronectin based on the in silico detection of a fibronectin-binding domain. Fibronectin is a major component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of intestinal epithelial cells. Adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells is considered an important trait for probiotic microorganisms during transit and potential association with the intestinal mucosa. To investigate the functional role of LBA0191 (designated FbpB) in L. acidophilus NCFM, an fbpB-deficient strain was constructed. The L. acidophilus mutant with a deletion off bpB lost the ability to adhere to mucin and fibronectin in vitro Homologues off bpB were identified in five additional putative S-layer-forming species, but no homologues were detected in species outside theL. acidophilus homology group.
Allegretti, L; Revolledo, L; Astolfi-Ferreira, C S; Chacón, J L; Martins, L M; Seixas, G H F; Ferreira, A J P
In Brazil, the blue-fronted Amazon parrot (Amazona aestiva) is a common pet. The faecal microbiota of these birds include a wide variety of bacterial species, the majority of which belong to the Gram-positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) clade. The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the diversity and abundance of LAB and Bifidobacterium spp. in the cloacae between wild and captive birds and to select, identify and characterise LAB for consideration as a parrot probiotic. Cloacal swabs were collected from 26 wild and 26 captive birds. Bacterial DNA was extracted, and the 16S rRNA genes were amplified. The numbers of PCR-positive Enterococcus, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus species isolated from wild and captive birds were significantly different (P<0.05). Enterococcus was the most frequently isolated genus, followed by Pediococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus and Bifidobacterium. Enterococcus faecium, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most frequently isolated species from all birds. This study increases our understanding of the faecal microbiota, and may help to improve the nutrition and habitat management of captive and wild parrots. The bacterial population identified in the faecal microbiota of clinically healthy wild and captive parrots can serve as a database to analyse variations in the gut microbiota of pathogen-infected parrots and to develop probiotics specific to these genera.
Mevissen-Verhage, E A; Marcelis, J H; de Vos, M N; Harmsen-van Amerongen, W C; Verhoef, J
Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. isolated from the feces of 23 neonates during the first 3 months of life were identified. Of the 23 neonates, 10 were breast fed, 6 received an infant formula with iron supplement (5 mg/liter), and 7 received the formula without iron supplement (iron concentration, less than 0.5 mg/liter). The Bifidobacterium spp. most frequently isolated from the three groups of infants were B. longum, B. breve, B. adolescentis, and B. bifidum. The bacteroides spp. most frequently isolated were B. fragilis and B. vulgatus. The most common Clostridium sp. in the three groups of infants was C. perfringens. The type of milk did not select for species of Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, or Clostridium, except for Clostridium butyricum, which was isolated significantly more often from bottle-fed infants with iron supplement than from the other groups, and Clostridium tertium, which was more often isolated from breast-fed infants. The species of the three anaerobic genera did not persist for a long period of time in the three groups of infants. PMID:3818925
James, Kieran; Motherway, Mary O’Connell; Bottacini, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe
In this study, we demonstrate that the prototype B. breve strain UCC2003 possesses specific metabolic pathways for the utilisation of lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), which represent the central moieties of Type I and Type II human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), respectively. Using a combination of experimental approaches, the enzymatic machinery involved in the metabolism of LNT and LNnT was identified and characterised. Homologs of the key genetic loci involved in the utilisation of these HMO substrates were identified in B. breve, B. bifidum, B. longum subsp. infantis and B. longum subsp. longum using bioinformatic analyses, and were shown to be variably present among other members of the Bifidobacterium genus, with a distinct pattern of conservation among human-associated bifidobacterial species. PMID:27929046
Rodes, Laetitia; Khan, Afshan; Paul, Arghya; Coussa-Charley, Michael; Marinescu, Daniel; Tomaro-Duchesneau, Catherine; Shao, Wei; Kahouli, Imen; Prakash, Satya
Gut-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are critical to the development and progression of chronic low-grade inflammation and metabolic diseases. In this study, the effects of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium on gut-derived lipopolysaccharide and inflammatory cytokine concentrations were evaluated using a human colonic microbiota model. Lactobacillus reuteri, L. rhamnosus, L. plantarum, Bifidobacterium animalis, B. bifidum, B. longum, and B. longum subsp. infantis were identified from the literature for their anti-inflammatory potential. Each bacterial culture was administered daily to a human colonic microbiota model during 14 days. Colonic lipopolysaccharides, and Gram-positive and negative bacteria were quantified. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were stimulated with supernatant from the human colonic microbiota model. Concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-4 cytokines were measured. Lipopolysaccharide concentrations were significantly reduced with the administration of B. bifidum (-46.45 +/- 5.65%), L. rhamnosus (-30.40 +/- 5.08%), B. longum (-42.50 +/- 1.28%), and B. longum subsp. infantis (-68.85 +/- 5.32%) (p < 0.05). Cell counts of Gram-negative and positive bacteria were distinctly affected by the probiotic administered. There was a probiotic strain-specific effect on immunomodulatory responses of RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. B. longum subsp. infantis demonstrated higher capacities to reduce TNF-alpha concentrations (-69.41 +/- 2.78%; p < 0.05) and to increase IL-4 concentrations (+16.50 +/- 0.59%; p < 0.05). Colonic lipopolysaccharides were significantly correlated with TNF-alpha and IL-1beta concentrations (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that specific probiotic bacteria, such as B. longum subsp. infantis, might decrease colonic lipopolysaccharide concentrations, which might reduce the proinflammatory tone. This study has noteworthy applications in the field of biotherapeutics for the prevention and/or treatment of inflammatory and metabolic
Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov., Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov., Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov., Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. isolated from faeces of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas).
Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Schumann, Peter; Pukall, Rüdiger; Dicks, Leon M T
Five strains of bifidobacteria were isolated from faeces of a common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and a red-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas). The five isolates clustered inside the phylogenetic group of the genus Bifidobacterium but did not show high sequence similarities between the isolates and to known species in the genus by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Sequence analyses of dnaJ1 and hsp60 also indicated their independent phylogenetic positions to each other in the Bifidobacterium cluster. DNA G+C contents of the species ranged from 57.3 to 66.3 mol%, which is within the values recorded for Bifidobacterium species. All isolates showed fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase activity. Based on the data provided, the five isolates represent five novel species, for which the names Bifidobacterium reuteri sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-1(T) = JCM 17295(T) = DSM 23975(T)), Bifidobacterium callitrichos sp. nov. (type strain: AFB22-5(T) = JCM 17296(T) = DSM 23973(T)), Bifidobacterium saguini sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-1(T) = JCM 17297(T) = DSM 23967(T)), Bifidobacterium stellenboschense sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-3(T) = JCM 17298(T) = DSM 23968(T)) and Bifidobacterium biavatii sp. nov. (type strain: AFB23-4(T) = JCM 17299(T) = DSM 23969(T)) are proposed.
Wang, Bao-Gui; Xu, Hai-Bo; Wei, Hua; Zeng, Zhe-Ling; Xu, Feng
Bifidobacteria are generally acknowledged as major gut microflora used as probiotics, which promote human health. In this study, the effects of the administration of Bifidobacterim bifidum on modulating gastrointestinal (GI) tract microflora, acid and bile resistance, and physiological indices in BALB/c mice were investigated. Results showed that B. bifidum can significantly improve the ecosystem of the GI tract by increasing the amount of probiotics and reducing the populations of pathogenic bacteria, as measured by plate count and real-time PCR. After exposure to simulated GI tract conditions, the growth of gut microflora in the B. bifidum group was higher than that in the control group when incubated for 12 h in MRS or nutrient broth adjusted to pH 2.0 or 3.0 or in the presence of a concentration of bile salt (0.45% m/v). The blood biochemical index was examined, and the physiological effect of the cell-free extract of gut microflora was evaluated by measuring the activity of various enzymes, including α-glucosidases, esterase, and lactate dehydrogenase. This study suggested that a B. bifidum strain can stabilize blood sugar, lower cholesterol levels in serum, and improve metabolic activity. Moreover, B. bifidum was a promising enhancer of microbial diversity in mouse intestine and played a vital role in human physiological processes, which can benefit the health of a host.
Background Constipation is a frequent complaint and the combination of a prebiotic and probiotics could have a potentially synergic effect on the intestinal transit. The present study therefore aims to investigate the combination of polydextrose (Litesse®), L. acidophilus NCFM® and B. lactis HN019 in a yogurt on intestinal transit in subjects who suffer from constipation. Methods Patients with constipation were randomly divided into two groups, Control Group (CG) and Treatment Group (TG), and had to eat 180 ml of unflavored yogurt every morning for 14 days. Those in the CG received only yogurt, while the TG received yogurt containing polydextrose, L. acidophilus NCFM® (ATCC 700396) and B. lactis HN019 (AGAL NM97/09513). Results Favourable clinical response was assessed since Agachan score had a significant reduction at the end of the study in both groups and tended to be better in the TG. The subjects in the treatment group also had a shorter transit time at the end of the intervention compared to the control group (p = 0.01). Conclusion The product containing yogurt with polydextrose, B. lactis HN019 and L. acidophilus NCFM® significantly shortened colonic transit time after two weeks in the TG compared to CG and may be an option for treatment of constipation. PMID:25056655
Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Sanz-Penella, Juan Mario; Yebra, María J.
Two novel phytases have been characterized from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The enzymes belong to a new subclass within the histidine acid phytases, are highly specific for the hydrolysis of phytate, and render myo-inositol triphosphate as the final hydrolysis product. They represent the first phytases characterized from this group of probiotic microorganisms, opening the possibilities for their use in the processing of high-phytate-content foods. PMID:22582052
Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio; Sanz-Penella, Juan Mario; Yebra, María J; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika
Two novel phytases have been characterized from Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis. The enzymes belong to a new subclass within the histidine acid phytases, are highly specific for the hydrolysis of phytate, and render myo-inositol triphosphate as the final hydrolysis product. They represent the first phytases characterized from this group of probiotic microorganisms, opening the possibilities for their use in the processing of high-phytate-content foods.
van Zanten, Gabriella C; Sparding, Nadja; Majumder, Avishek; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Svensson, Birte; Jacobsen, Susanne
Probiotics, prebiotics, and combinations thereof, that is, synbiotics, are known to exert beneficial health effects in humans; however interactions between pro- and prebiotics remain poorly understood at the molecular level. The present study describes changes in abundance of different proteins of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) when grown on the potential prebiotic cellobiose as compared to glucose. Cytosolic cell extract proteomes after harvest at late exponential phase of NCFM grown on cellobiose or glucose were analyzed by two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in the acidic (pH 4-7) and the alkaline (pH 6-11) regions showing a total of 136 spots to change in abundance. Proteins were identified by MS or MS/MS from 81 of these spots representing 49 unique proteins and either increasing 1.5-13.9-fold or decreasing 1.5-7.8-fold in relative abundance. Many of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, including the cellobiose related glycoside hydrolases phospho-β-glucosidase (LBA0881) and phospho-β-galactosidase II (LBA0726). The data provide insight into the utilization of the candidate prebiotic cellobiose by the probiotic bacterium NCFM. Several of the upregulated or downregulated identified proteins associated with utilization of cellobiose indicate the presence of carbon catabolite repression and regulation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism.
Altermann, Eric; Russell, W. Michael; Azcarate-Peril, M. Andrea; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Buck, B. Logan; McAuliffe, Olivia; Souther, Nicole; Dobson, Alleson; Duong, Tri; Callanan, Michael; Lick, Sonja; Hamrick, Alice; Cano, Raul; Klaenhammer, Todd R.
Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM is a probiotic bacterium that has been produced commercially since 1972. The complete genome is 1,993,564 nt and devoid of plasmids. The average GC content is 34.71% with 1,864 predicted ORFs, of which 72.5% were functionally classified. Nine phage-related integrases were predicted, but no complete prophages were found. However, three unique regions designated as potential autonomous units (PAUs) were identified. These units resemble a unique structure and bear characteristics of both plasmids and phages. Analysis of the three PAUs revealed the presence of two R/M systems and a prophage maintenance system killer protein. A spacers interspersed direct repeat locus containing 32 nearly perfect 29-bp repeats was discovered and may provide a unique molecular signature for this organism. In silico analyses predicted 17 transposase genes and a chromosomal locus for lactacin B, a class II bacteriocin. Several mucus- and fibronectin-binding proteins, implicated in adhesion to human intestinal cells, were also identified. Gene clusters for transport of a diverse group of carbohydrates, including fructooligosaccharides and raffinose, were present and often accompanied by transcriptional regulators of the lacI family. For protein degradation and peptide utilization, the organism encoded 20 putative peptidases, homologs for PrtP and PrtM, and two complete oligopeptide transport systems. Nine two-component regulatory systems were predicted, some associated with determinants implicated in bacteriocin production and acid tolerance. Collectively, these features within the genome sequence of L. acidophilus are likely to contribute to the organisms' gastric survival and promote interactions with the intestinal mucosa and microbiota. PMID:15671160
Sohail, Asma; Turner, Mark S; Prabawati, Elisabeth Kartika; Coombes, Allan G A; Bhandari, Bhesh
This study investigated the effect of microencapsulation on the survival of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and their acidification in orange juice at 25°C for nine days and at 4°C over thirty five days of storage. Alginate micro beads (10-40 μm) containing the probiotics were produced by a novel dual aerosol method of alginate and CaCl(2) cross linking solution. Unencapsulated L. rhamnosus GG was found to have excellent survivability in orange juice at both temperatures. However unencapsulated L. acidophilus NCFM showed significant reduction in viability. Encapsulation of these two bacteria did not significantly enhance survivability but did reduce acidification at 25°C and 4°C. In agreement with this, encapsulation of L. rhamnosus GG also reduced acidification in pear and peach fruit-based foods at 25°C, however at 4°C difference in pH was insignificant between free and encapsulated cells. In conclusion, L. rhamnosus GG showed excellent survival in orange juice and microencapsulation has potential in reducing acidification and possible negative sensory effects of probiotics in orange juice and other fruit-based products.
Favarin, Luciana; Laureano-Melo, Roberto; Luchese, Rosa Helena
This study evaluated the effect of honey addition on the viability of free and emulsion encapsulated cells of two strains of Bifidobacterium that underwent simulation of human upper gastrointestinal transit. In the control condition, without honey, free cells were drastically reduced after exposure to gastrointestinal conditions. The reduction was more pronounced with Bifidobacterium J7 of human origin. On the other hand, when cells were encapsulated, the viability reduction was higher for strain Bifidobacterium Bb12. The microencapsulation improved the viability maintenance of both Bifidobacterium strains, in recommended amounts for probiotic activity, after exposure to simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Moreover, suspending free cells of both Bifidobacterium strains in honey solutions resulted in a protective effect, equivalent to the plain microencapsulation with sodium alginate 3%. It is concluded that microencapsulation and the addition of honey improved the ability of Bifidobacterium to tolerate gastrointestinal conditions in vitro.
Johnson, Brant R.
ABSTRACT Autolysins, also known as peptidoglycan hydrolases, are enzymes that hydrolyze specific bonds within bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan during cell division and daughter cell separation. Within the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, there are 11 genes encoding proteins with peptidoglycan hydrolase catalytic domains, 9 of which are predicted to be functional. Notably, 5 of the 9 putative autolysins in L. acidophilus NCFM are S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) noncovalently colocalized along with the surface (S)-layer at the cell surface. One of these SLAPs, AcmB, a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase encoded by the gene lba0176 (acmB), was selected for functional analysis. In silico analysis revealed that acmB orthologs are found exclusively in S-layer- forming species of Lactobacillus. Chromosomal deletion of acmB resulted in aberrant cell division, autolysis, and autoaggregation. Complementation of acmB in the ΔacmB mutant restored the wild-type phenotype, confirming the role of this SLAP in cell division. The absence of AcmB within the exoproteome had a pleiotropic effect on the extracellular proteins covalently and noncovalently bound to the peptidoglycan, which likely led to the observed decrease in the binding capacity of the ΔacmB strain for mucin and extracellular matrices fibronectin, laminin, and collagen in vitro. These data suggest a functional association between the S-layer and the multiple autolysins noncovalently colocalized at the cell surface of L. acidophilus NCFM and other S-layer-producing Lactobacillus species. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus acidophilus is one of the most widely used probiotic microbes incorporated in many dairy foods and dietary supplements. This organism produces a surface (S)-layer, which is a self-assembling crystalline array found as the outermost layer of the cell wall. The S-layer, along with colocalized associated proteins, is an important mediator of probiotic activity through intestinal adhesion and modulation of
Møller, Marie S; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte; Abou Hachem, Maher
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents.
Dhanashree; Rajashekharan, Sharika; Krishnaswamy, Balamurugan; Kammara, Rajagopal
Although the genus Bifidobacterium was originally named for its bifid morphology, not all bifidobacterial species have a similar structure, and very few of them adopt a bifid shape under stress conditions. The exposure of respective bifidobacterial species to various conditions, such as different pH, temperatures, medium components, in vivo growth in Caenorhabditis elegans, and subculture, did not affect their diverse morphologies. Extensive scanning electron microscopy studies suggested that the bifid shape of B. adolescentis are maintained irrespective of the conditions. Hence, we conclude that the bifid morphology is intrinsic to B. adolescentis. Most bifidobacterial species are anaerobic and rod-shaped, whereas, after the first generation, they become microaerophilic or aerophilic. CaCl2 (treatment of B. animalis) signaling triggered a change from the rod shape to the bifid shape and vice versa in B. adolescentis. PMID:28377762
Ruiz, Lorena; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja
Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Most of the probiotic bacteria currently available in the market belong to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and specific health-promoting activities, such as treatment of diarrhea or amelioration of gastrointestinal discomfort, have been attributed to them. In order to be able to survive the gastrointestinal transit and transiently colonize our gut, these bacteria must be able to counteract the deleterious action of bile salts, which are the main components of bile. Bile salts are detergent-like biological substances synthesized in the liver from cholesterol. Host enzymes conjugate the newly synthesized free bile acids in the liver with the amino acids glycine or taurine, generating conjugated bile salts. These compounds are stored in the gall bladder and they are released into the duodenum during digestion to perform their physiological function, which is the solubilization of fat coming from diet. These bile salts possess strong antimicrobial activity, since they are able to disorganize the structure of the cell membrane, as well as trigger DNA damage. This means that bacteria inhabiting our intestinal tract must have intrinsic resistance mechanisms to cope with bile salts. To do that, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium display a variety of proteins devoted to the efflux of bile salts or protons, to modify sugar metabolism or to prevent protein misfolding. In this manuscript, we review and discuss specific bile resistance mechanisms, as well as the processes responsible for the adaptation of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli to bile. PMID:24399996
Moslehi-Jenabian, Saloomeh; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; Jespersen, Lene
The luxS gene involved in quorum sensing has been shown to control different behaviour of probiotic lactobacilli. In this study we investigated if luxS in Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM was up-regulated in response to Listeria monocytogenes EGD-e. The two bacterial strains were grown in mono- and co-culture and the growth of both bacteria and the transcriptional level of luxS in L. acidophilus cells were monitored. Contrary to L. acidophilus, the growth of L. monocytogenes was significantly affected by co-cultivation. Transcriptional analysis showed that the expression of luxS increased during exponential growth in L. acidophilus cells with the highest level in the late-exponential growth phase, decreasing in the stationary phase. Following co-cultivation with L. monocytogenes, the transcriptional level of luxS increased significantly in mid-exponential growing cells of L. acidophilus after incubation with viable L. monocytogenes cells and by addition of cell-free culture supernatant of L. monocytogenes, whereas incubation with heat killed cells of L. monocytogenes had no effect on the transcriptional level. This could indicate that the up-regulation of luxS is due to a response to a secreted compound produced by L. monocytogenes cells.
Weiss, Gudrun; Rasmussen, Simon; Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Nielsen, Birgit Nøhr; Jarmer, Hanne; Jespersen, Lene; Frøkiaer, Hanne
Lactobacilli are probiotics that, among other health-promoting effects, have been ascribed immunostimulating and virus-preventive properties. Certain Lactobacillus spp. have been shown to possess strong interleukin-12 (IL-12) -inducing properties. As IL-12 production depends on the up-regulation of type I interferons (IFNs), we hypothesized that the strong IL-12-inducing capacity of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM in murine bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells (DCs) is caused by an up-regulation of IFN-β, which subsequently induces IL-12 and the double-stranded RNA binding Toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3). The expression of the genes encoding IFN-β, TLR-3, IL-12 and IL-10 in DCs upon stimulation with L. acidophilus NCFM was determined. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM induced a much stronger expression of Ifn-β, Il-12 and Il-10 compared with the synthetic double-stranded RNA ligand Poly I:C, whereas the levels of expressed Tlr-3 were similar. Whole genome microarray gene expression analysis revealed that other genes related to viral defence were significantly up-regulated and among the strongest induced genes in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. The ability to induce IFN-β was also detected in another L. acidophilus strain (X37), but was not a property of other probiotic strains tested, i.e. Bifidobacterium bifidum Z9 and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917. The IFN-β expression was markedly reduced in TLR-2(-/-) DCs, dependent on endocytosis, and the major cause of the induction of Il-12 and Tlr-3 in DCs stimulated with L. acidophilus NCFM. Collectively, our results reveal that certain lactobacilli trigger the expression of viral defence genes in DCs in a TLR-2 manner dependent on IFN-β.
Møller, Marie S.; Fredslund, Folmer; Majumder, Avishek; Nakai, Hiroyuki; Poulsen, Jens-Christian N.; Lo Leggio, Leila; Svensson, Birte
Isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO) have been suggested as promising prebiotics that stimulate the growth of probiotic bacteria. Genomes of probiotic lactobacilli from the acidophilus group, as represented by Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, encode α-1,6 glucosidases of the family GH13_31 (glycoside hydrolase family 13 subfamily 31) that confer degradation of IMO. These genes reside frequently within maltooligosaccharide utilization operons, which include an ATP-binding cassette transporter and α-glucan active enzymes, e.g., maltogenic amylases and maltose phosphorylases, and they also occur separated from any carbohydrate transport or catabolism genes on the genomes of some acidophilus complex members, as in L. acidophilus NCFM. Besides the isolated locus encoding a GH13_31 enzyme, the ABC transporter and another GH13 in the maltooligosaccharide operon were induced in response to IMO or maltotetraose, as determined by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) transcriptional analysis, suggesting coregulation of α-1,6- and α-1,4-glucooligosaccharide utilization loci in L. acidophilus NCFM. The L. acidophilus NCFM GH13_31 (LaGH13_31) was produced recombinantly and shown to be a glucan 1,6-α-glucosidase active on IMO and dextran and product-inhibited by glucose. The catalytic efficiency of LaGH13_31 on dextran and the dextran/panose (trisaccharide) efficiency ratio were the highest reported for this class of enzymes, suggesting higher affinity at distal substrate binding sites. The crystal structure of LaGH13_31 was determined to a resolution of 2.05 Å and revealed additional substrate contacts at the +2 subsite in LaGH13_31 compared to the GH13_31 from Streptococcus mutans (SmGH13_31), providing a possible structural rationale to the relatively high affinity for dextran. A comprehensive phylogenetic and activity motif analysis mapped IMO utilization enzymes from gut microbiota to rationalize preferential utilization of IMO by gut residents. PMID:22685275
Dylus, Ewa; Buda, Barbara; Górska-Frączek, Sabina; Brzozowska, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej
Beneficial effects due to the presence of probiotic bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium in the human intestinal tract are still an interesting object of study. So far activities have been confirmed of bifidobacteria in stimulation of the host immune system, stimulation of tumor cell apoptosis, improvement of bowel motility, alleviation of symptoms of lactose intolerance, cholesterol lowering capacity, prevention and treatment of diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome, alleviation of allergy or atopic dermatitis, maintenance of homeostasis of the intestine, and stimulation of the development of normal intestinal microflora in infants. A multitude of therapeutic properties encourages researchers to investigate the possibility of using the potential of Bifidobacterium in the prevention and treatment of other conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and depression. Although it is known that the beneficial effects are due to intestinal mucosal colonization by these bacteria, the cell components responsible for the colonization are still not determined. In addition to the beneficial effects of probiotic administration, there were also negative effects including sepsis. Therefore research has been directed to identify specific components of Bifidobacterium responsible for probiotic effects. Currently researchers are focused on identifying, isolating and evaluating the properties of surface proteins that are probably involved in the adhesion of bacterial cells to the intestinal epithelium, improving colonization. This paper is an overview of current knowledge on Bifidobacterium surface proteins. The ways of transport and anchoring proteins in Gram-positive bacterial cells, the assembly of cell wall, and a description of the genus Bifidobacterium are presented.
Björklund, Marika; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Forssten, Sofia D; Nikkilä, Janne; Tiihonen, Kirsti; Rautonen, Nina; Lahtinen, Sampo J
Ageing changes gut microbiota composition and alters immune system function. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics may improve the health status of elderly individuals by modifying the intestinal environment and the microbiota composition, and by stimulating the immune system. In this work, we studied the effects of synbiotic supplementation on the gut microbiota of healthy elderly volunteers. Fifty-one elders were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic dietary supplement or a placebo in addition to their usual diet for a 2-week period. The synbiotic product consisted of the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and the prebiotic lactitol and was ingested twice a day, with a total daily dose of 10 g lactitol and 2 × 10(10) cells of probiotic bacteria. Before, during and after the intervention period fecal quantities of six phylogenetic bacterial groups were determined using quantitative PCR, and relative changes in total microbiota composition were assessed by percent guanine-plus-cytosine profiling. The microbiota profiles showed certain relative changes within the microbial community, and indicated an increase of bifidobacteria levels during synbiotic supplementation. Quantification by PCR confirmed the in changes in the microbiota composition; for example increases in total levels of endogenous bifidobacteria and lactobacilli were recorded. Throughout the 6-week study period there was a decrease unrelated to intervention in the Blautia coccoides-Eubacterium rectale bacterial group levels and Clostridium cluster XIVab levels, but this decrease appeared to be halted during the synbiotic intervention. In conclusion, putatively beneficial changes in microbiota were observed in the elderly subjects supplemented with the synbiotic product.
Michelini, Samanta; Modesto, Monica; Filippini, Gianfranco; Spiezio, Caterina; Sandri, Camillo; Biavati, Bruno; Pisi, Annamaria; Mattarelli, Paola
Forty-five microorganisms were isolated on bifidobacteria selective medium from one faecal sample of an adult subject of the cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus L.). All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, anaerobic, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase positive, and asporogenous rod-shaped bacteria. In this study, only eight out of the forty-five strains were characterized more deeply, whereas the others are still currently under investigation. They were grouped by BOX-PCR into three clusters: Cluster I (TRE 17(T), TRE 7, TRE 26, TRE 32, TRE 33, TRE I), Cluster II (TRE C(T)), and Cluster III (TRE M(T)). Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the results from the cluster analysis and revealed relatively low level similarities to each other (mean value 95%) and to members of the genus Bifidobacterium. All eight isolates showed the highest level of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with Bifidobacterium scardovii DSM 13734(T) (mean value 96.6%). Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of five housekeeping genes (hsp60, rpoB, clpC, dnaJ and dnaG) supported their independent phylogenetic position to each other and to related species of Bifidobacterium. The G+C contents were 63.2%, 65.9% and 63.0% for Cluster I, Cluster II and Cluster III, respectively. Peptidoglycan types were A3α l-Lys-l-Thr-l-Ala, A4β l-Orn (Lys)-d-Ser-d-Glu and A3β l-Orn-l-Ser-l-Ala in Clusters I, II and III, respectively. Based on the data provided, each cluster represented a novel taxon for which the names Bifidobacterium aerophilum sp. nov. (TRE 17(T)=DSM 100689=JCM 30941; TRE 26=DSM 100690=JCM 30942), Bifidobacterium avesanii sp. nov. (TRE C(T)=DSM 100685=JCM 30943) and Bifidobacterium ramosum sp. nov. (TRE M=DSM 100688=JCM 30944) are proposed.
Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Bifidobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase...
Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco
Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes.
Milani, Christian; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Bottacini, Francesca; Mangifesta, Marta; Sanchez, Borja; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe
Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that are present in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling stage of life of humans and other mammals. However, the overall genome structure of this group of microorganisms remains largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 42 representative (sub)species across the Bifidobacterium genus and used this information to explore the overall genetic picture of this bacterial group. Furthermore, the genomic data described here were used to reconstruct the evolutionary development of the Bifidobacterium genus. This reconstruction suggests that its evolution was substantially influenced by genetic adaptations to obtain access to glycans, thereby representing a common and potent evolutionary force in shaping bifidobacterial genomes. PMID:25085493
Haros, Monica; Bielecka, Maria; Sanz, Yolanda
Phytase activity has been detected for the first time in Bifidobacterium spp. These bacteria were able to dephosphorylate phytic acid (myo-inositol hexaphosphate, IP(6)) and generate several myo-inositol phosphate intermediates (IP(3)-IP(5)). B. globosum and B. pseudocatenulatum were optimally active at neutral-alkaline pH and B. adolescentis, B. angulatum and B. longum at acid pH. B. pseudocatenulatum showed the highest levels of phytase activity. This species produced maximum activity in the exponential phase of growth and when fructo-oligosaccharides were used as carbon source in the culture medium. The potential role of phytase activity from Bifidobacterium spp. in the reduction of the antinutritional properties of IP(6) is discussed.
Raimondi, Stefano; Roncaglia, Lucia; De Lucia, Marzia; Amaretti, Alberto; Leonardi, Alan; Pagnoni, Ugo Maria; Rossi, Maddalena
Twenty-two strains of Bifidobacterium, representative of eight major species of human origin, were screened for their ability to transform the isoflavones daidzin and daidzein. Most of the strains released the aglycone from daidzin and 12 gave yields higher than 90%. The kinetics of growth, daidzin consumption, and daidzein production indicated that the hydrolytic activity occurred during the growth. The supernatant of the majority of the strains did not release the aglycone from daidzin, suggesting that cell-associated beta-glucosidases (beta-Glu) are mainly responsible for the metabolism of soybean glyco-conjugates. Cell-associated beta-Glu was mainly intracellular and significantly varied among the species and the strains. The lack of beta-Glu was correlated with the inability to hydrolyze daidzin. Although S-equol production by anaerobic intestinal bacteria has been established, information on S-equol-producing bifidobacteria is contradictory. In this study, 22 bifidobacteria failed to transform daidzein into reduced metabolites under all the experimental conditions, excluding any role in the reductive pathway of daidzein toward the production of S-equol. These results suggest that selected probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium can be used to speed up the release of daidzein, improving its bioavailability for absorption by colonic mucosa and/or biotransformation to S-equol by other intestinal microorganisms.
Background Probiotic bifidobacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates have documented positive effects on human health regarding gastrointestinal disorders and improved immunity, however the selective routes of uptake remain unknown for most candidate prebiotics. The differential transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of α- and β-linked hexoses, and β-xylosides. Results The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type of glycoside (galactosides, glucosides or xylosides) utilized. Carbohydrate transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (induced by gentiobiose and β-galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (upregulated by cellobiose, GOS, isomaltose, maltotriose, melibiose, panose, raffinose, stachyose, xylobiose and β-xylo-oligosaccharides) were differentially upregulated, together with glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 13, 36, 42, 43 and 77. Sequence analysis of the identified solute-binding proteins that determine the specificity of ABC transporters revealed similarities in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. Conclusion This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights into the ability of this probiotic microbe to utilize indigestible carbohydrates in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23663691
Tupikin, Alexey E.; Kalmykova, Anna I.
Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum strain MC-42 isolated from the feces of a healthy infant, and which was used in the commercially available probiotic product Biovestin. PMID:27979954
We provide genome sequences for two strains of honey bee associated Bifidobacterium. Reflecting an oxygen-rich niche, both strains possessed catalase, peroxidase, superoxide-dismutase and respiratory chain enzymes indicative of oxidative metabolism. The strains show markedly different carbohydrate ...
Bottacini, Francesca; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Casey, Eoghan; McDonnell, Brian; Mahony, Jennifer; Ventura, Marco
Bifidobacterium breve is a common and sometimes very abundant inhabitant of the human gut. Genome sequencing of B. breve JCM 7017 revealed the presence of an extrachromosomal element, designated pMP7017 consisting of >190 kb, thus representing the first reported bifidobacterial megaplasmid. In silico characterization of this element revealed several genomic features supporting a stable establishment of the megaplasmid in its host, illustrated by predicted CRISPR-Cas functions that are known to protect the host against intrusion of foreign DNA. Interestingly, pMP7017 is also predicted to encode a conjugative DNA transfer apparatus and, consistent with this notion, we demonstrate here the conjugal transfer of pMP7017 to representative strains of B. breve and B. longum subsp. longum. We also demonstrate the presence of a megaplasmid with homology to pMP7017 in three B. longum subsp. longum strains. PMID:25326305
Gueimonde, Miguel; Flórez, Ana Belén; van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Strøman, Per; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Margolles, Abelardo
All strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis described to date show medium level resistance to tetracycline. Screening of 26 strains from a variety of sources revealed the presence of tet(W) in all isolates. A transposase gene upstream of tet(W) was found in all strains, and both genes were cotranscribed in strain IPLAIC4. Mutants with increased tetracycline resistance as well as tetracycline-sensitive mutants of IPLAIC4 were isolated and genetically characterized. The native tet(W) gene was able to restore the resistance phenotype to a mutant with an alteration in tet(W) by functional complementation, indicating that tet(W) is necessary and sufficient for the tetracycline resistance seen in B. animalis subsp. lactis. PMID:20348299
Sanders, Mary Ellen
The bacterium, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019, has been studied for a variety of traits important to its ability to function as a probiotic. Publications documenting identity, safety, antipathogenic effects, immune enhancement, and intestinal colonization are reviewed. Most studies documenting immune effects are short term in duration (< or =6 wk feeding periods), so longer term trials would be useful to determine to what extent effects are sustained. One year-long trial feeding both galacto-oligosaccharides and HN019 in children 1 to 3 years of age provided evidence for improved growth and reduction in infection incidence. HN019 is a well-characterized probiotic strain with documented probiotic effects of meaningful magnitude especially in the area of immune system modulation.
Khoroshkin, Matvei S; Leyn, Semen A; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Rodionov, Dmitry A
Bifidobacteria, which represent common commensals of mammalian gut, are believed to have positive effects on human health. The influence of certain non-digestible carbohydrates (and their use as so-called prebiotics) on growth and metabolic activity of bifidobacteria is of increasing interest; however, mechanisms of transcriptional control of carbohydrate metabolism are poorly understood in these species. We used a comparative genomics approach to reconstruct carbohydrate utilization pathways and transcriptional regulons in 10 Bifidobacterium genomes. Analysis of regulatory gene regions revealed candidate DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 268 transcription factors from the LacI, ROK, DeoR, AraC, GntR, and TetR families that form 64 orthologous groups of regulators. Most of the reconstructed regulons are local and control specific catabolic pathways for host- and diet-derived glycans and monosaccharides. Mosaic distributions of many of these local regulators across Bifidobacterium species correlate with distribution of corresponding catabolic pathways. In contrast, the maltose, galactose, sucrose, and fructose regulons, as well as a novel global LacI-family regulator that is predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism and arabinose catabolism genes, are universally present in all 10 studied bifidobacteria. A novel group of TetR-family regulators presumably controls the glucoside and galactoside utilization pathways. Paralogs of the ribose repressor RbsR control the pyrimidine nucleoside utilization genes. Multiple paralogs of the maltose regulator MalR co-regulate large sets of genes involved in maltodextrin utilization. The inferred metabolic regulons provide new insights on diverse carbohydrate utilization networks in bifidobacteria that can be employed in metabolic modeling, phenotype prediction and the rational development of novel prebiotics.
Khoroshkin, Matvei S.; Leyn, Semen A.; Van Sinderen, Douwe; Rodionov, Dmitry A.
Bifidobacteria, which represent common commensals of mammalian gut, are believed to have positive effects on human health. The influence of certain non-digestible carbohydrates (and their use as so-called prebiotics) on growth and metabolic activity of bifidobacteria is of increasing interest; however, mechanisms of transcriptional control of carbohydrate metabolism are poorly understood in these species. We used a comparative genomics approach to reconstruct carbohydrate utilization pathways and transcriptional regulons in 10 Bifidobacterium genomes. Analysis of regulatory gene regions revealed candidate DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 268 transcription factors from the LacI, ROK, DeoR, AraC, GntR, and TetR families that form 64 orthologous groups of regulators. Most of the reconstructed regulons are local and control specific catabolic pathways for host- and diet-derived glycans and monosaccharides. Mosaic distributions of many of these local regulators across Bifidobacterium species correlate with distribution of corresponding catabolic pathways. In contrast, the maltose, galactose, sucrose, and fructose regulons, as well as a novel global LacI-family regulator that is predicted to control the central carbohydrate metabolism and arabinose catabolism genes, are universally present in all 10 studied bifidobacteria. A novel group of TetR-family regulators presumably controls the glucoside and galactoside utilization pathways. Paralogs of the ribose repressor RbsR control the pyrimidine nucleoside utilization genes. Multiple paralogs of the maltose regulator MalR co-regulate large sets of genes involved in maltodextrin utilization. The inferred metabolic regulons provide new insights on diverse carbohydrate utilization networks in bifidobacteria that can be employed in metabolic modeling, phenotype prediction and the rational development of novel prebiotics. PMID:26903998
Wei, Pijin; Yang, Yan; Liu, Zhaobing; Huang, Junli; Gong, Yahui; Sun, Hanxiao
The oral delivery of peptides is a highly attractive treatment approach. However, the harsh environment of the gastrointestinal tract limits its application. Here, we utilize Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to orally deliver a potent anti-inflammatory but short duration peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) against experimental colitis. The aim of our study was to facilitate the efficient oral delivery of α-MSH. We designed a vector of pBDMSH and used it to construct a Bifidobacterium longum expressing α-MSH. We then determined the bioactivity of recombinant Bifidobacterium in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory models of HT-29 cells. Finally, we used Bifidobacterium expressing α-MSH against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis mice. Results based on the myeloperoxidase activity, the levels of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 and the histological injury of colon tissue reveal recombinant Bifidobacterium was efficient in attenuating DSS-induced ulcerative colitis, suggesting an alternative way to use Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to deliver α-MSH for DSS-induced ulcerative colitis therapy.
Yang, Chun; Fujita, Yuko; Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Dong, Chao; Hashimoto, Kenji
Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormalities in the composition of the gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of depression. Although approximately 30% mice are resilient to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), the role of gut microbiota in this stress resilience is unknown. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a different CD1 aggressor mouse for 10 min on 10 consecutive days. A social interaction test was applied to distinguish between resilient and susceptible mice. Using 16S rRNA analysis, we examined the composition of gut microbiota in feces from control, resilient, and susceptible mice. The marked appearance of Bifidobacterium was detected in the resilient mice, whereas in the control and susceptible mice, Bifidobacterium were below the detection limit. Oral intake of Bifidobacterium significantly increased the number of resilient mice after CSDS compared with vehicle-treated mice. These findings suggest that Bifidobacterium may confer resilience to CSDS. Therefore, supplementation of Bifidobacterium may prevent the onset of depression from stress in humans. In addition, supplementation of Bifidobacterium may prevent or minimize relapse from remission induced by inflammation and/or stress in depressed patients. PMID:28368029
Yang, Chun; Fujita, Yuko; Ren, Qian; Ma, Min; Dong, Chao; Hashimoto, Kenji
Accumulating evidence suggests that abnormalities in the composition of the gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of depression. Although approximately 30% mice are resilient to chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), the role of gut microbiota in this stress resilience is unknown. In this study, male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to a different CD1 aggressor mouse for 10 min on 10 consecutive days. A social interaction test was applied to distinguish between resilient and susceptible mice. Using 16S rRNA analysis, we examined the composition of gut microbiota in feces from control, resilient, and susceptible mice. The marked appearance of Bifidobacterium was detected in the resilient mice, whereas in the control and susceptible mice, Bifidobacterium were below the detection limit. Oral intake of Bifidobacterium significantly increased the number of resilient mice after CSDS compared with vehicle-treated mice. These findings suggest that Bifidobacterium may confer resilience to CSDS. Therefore, supplementation of Bifidobacterium may prevent the onset of depression from stress in humans. In addition, supplementation of Bifidobacterium may prevent or minimize relapse from remission induced by inflammation and/or stress in depressed patients.
Underwood, Mark A.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.
Oligosaccharides are abundant in human milk. Production of these highly diverse structures requires significant energy expenditure by the mother and yet these human milk oligosaccharides offer no direct nutritive value to her infant. A primary function of human milk oligosaccharides is to shape the infant’s intestinal microbiota with life-long consequences. Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis (B. infantis) is unique among gut bacteria in its prodigious capacity to digest and consume any human milk oligosaccharide structure, the result of a large repertoire of bacterial genes encoding an array of glycosidases and oligosaccharide transporters not found in other bacterial species. In vitro, B. infantis grows better than other bacterial strains in the presence of human milk oligosaccharides, displays anti-inflammatory activity in premature intestinal cells, and decreases intestinal permeability. In premature infants, B. infantis given in combination with human milk increases B. infantis and decreases Enterobacteriaceae in the feces. Probiotics containing B. infantis decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis in premature infants. Colonization with B. infantis is also associated with increased vaccine responses. Probiotic organisms have historically been selected based on ease of production and stability. The advantages of B. infantis, selected through coevolution with human milk glycans, present an opportunity for focused manipulation of the infant intestinal microbiota. PMID:25303277
Rodrigues, Fabiana Carvalho; Castro, Adriano Simões Barbosa; Rodrigues, Vívian Carolina; Fernandes, Sérgio Antônio; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; de Oliveira, Tânia Toledo; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; de Luces Fortes Ferreira, Célia Lúcia
Yacon flour has been considered a food with prebiotic potential because of the high levels of fructooligosaccharides, which allows for its use in formulating synbiotic foods. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yacon flour and probiotic (Bifidobacterium longum) on the modulation of variables related to bone health. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control, yacon flour, diet+B. longum, and yacon flour+B. longum. After euthanasia, the bones were removed for analysis of biomechanical properties (thickness, length, and strength of fracture) and mineral content (Ca, Mg, and P); the cecum was removed for analysis of the microbiota and short-chain fatty acids. Tibia Ca, P, and Mg content was significantly (P<.05) higher in groups fed diet+B. longum, yacon flour+B. longum than in the control group. An increase in fracture strength was observed in the yacon flour (8.1%), diet+B. longum (8.6%), and yacon flour+B. longum (14.6%) in comparison to the control group. Total anaerobe and weight of the cecum were higher (P<.05) in rats consuming the yacon flour diet compared with the other groups. Cecal concentration of propionate was higher in all experimental groups compared with the control (P<.05). Yacon flour in combination with B. longum helped increase the concentration of minerals in bones, an important factor in the prevention of diseases such as osteoporosis.
Zhou, J S; Pillidge, C J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S
The antimicrobial susceptibilities and presence of plasmids in four new probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) HN067, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10), were determined. Resistance to 18 commonly used antibiotics was assessed by disk diffusion. The three Lactobacillus strains had similar antibiotic susceptibility profiles to those of Lactobacillus plantarum strain HN045 and two commercial probiotic Lactobacillus strains, GG and LA-1. The B. lactis strain HN019 had a similar profile to three commercial probiotic B. lactis strains (Bb12, HN049 and HN098). All 10 strains were sensitive to the Gram-positive spectrum antibiotics erythromycin and novobiocin, the broad-spectrum antibiotics rifampicin, spectinomycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol and the beta-lactam antibiotics penicillin, ampicillin and cephalothin. By contrast, most strains were resistant to the Gram-negative spectrum antibiotics fusidic acid, nalidixic acid and polymyxin B and the aminoglycosides neomycin, gentamicin, kanamycin and streptomycin. All three L. rhamnosus strains (HN001, HN067 and GG) were resistant to vancomycin and several strains were also resistant to cloxacillin. Of the four new probiotic strains, only L. rhamnosus HN001 contained plasmids; however, a plasmid-free derivative of HN001 had the same antibiotic susceptibility profile as the parent strain.
Huang, Huey-Chun; Chang, Tsong-Min
Melanin is a dark pigment produced by melanocytes. Tyrosinase is a key enzyme which catalyzes the rate-limiting step of melanogenesis. However, accumulation of melanin leads to various skin hyperpigmentation disorders. To find a novel skin-whitening agent, the antioxidant capacity of Bifidobacterium adolescentis culture filtrate and inhibitory effect on melanogenesis were investigated. The antioxidant effects of B. adolescentis culture filtrate include 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)(ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity and reducing power were measured spectrophotometrically. The reducing power is a useful index for the evaluation of potential antioxidants which carry out reduction of ferricyanide to ferrocyanide. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of the bacterial culture filtrate on mushroom tyrosinase, B16F10 intracellular tyrosinase activity and melanin content were also determined. The results revealed that B. adolescentis culture filtrate (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 %; v/v) effectively scavenged DPPH and ABTS radicals, and lower concentrations of the bacterial culture filtrates (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 %; v/v) showed potent reducing power in a dose-dependent pattern. Additionally, the bacterial culture filtrate suppressed murine tyrosinase activity and decreased the amount of melanin in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrated that B. adolescentis culture filtrate decreases the melanogenesis process of melanoma cells by inhibiting tyrosinase activity, which we suggest may be mediated through its antioxidant activity.
Wang, Fang; Huang, Guohong; Cai, Da; Li, Danlei; Liang, Xiaolin; Yu, Ting; Shen, Peihong; Su, Haiyan; Liu, Jidong; Gu, Hongcang; Zhao, Mouming; Li, Quanyang
Centenarians constitute a significant subpopulation in the Bama County of Guangxi province in China. The beneficial effects of intestinal microbiota, especially bifidobacteria of centenarians, have been widely accepted; however, knowledge about Bifidobacterium species in centenarians is not adequate. The aim of this study was to investigate the quantity and prevalence of fecal Bifidobacterium in healthy longevous individuals. Fecal samples from eight centenarians from Bama (aged 100 to 108 years), eight younger elderlies from Bama (aged 80 to 99 years), and eight younger elderlies from Nanning (aged 80 to 99 years) were analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, species-specific clone library, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction technology (qPCR). A total of eight different Bifidobacterium species were detected. B. dentium, B. longum, B. thermophilum, B. pseudocatenulatum/B. catenulatum, and B. adolescentis were common in fecal of centenarians and young elderly. B. minimum, B. saecularmay/B. pullorum/B. gallinarum, and B. mongoliense were found in centenarians but were absent in the younger elderlies. In addition, Bifidobacterium species found in centenarians were different from those found in Bama young elderly and Nanning young elderly, and the principal differences were the significant increase in the population of B. longum (P < 0.05) and B. dentium (P < 0.05) and the reduction in the frequency of B. adolescentis (P < 0.05), respectively. Centenarians tend to have more complex fecal Bifidobacterium species than young elderlies from different regions.
Waligora-Dupriet, A J; Campeotto, F; Romero, K; Mangin, I; Rouzaud, G; Ménard, O; Suau, A; Soulaines, P; Nicolis, I; Kapel, N; Dupont, C; Butel, M J
Some clinical studies have suggested a relationship between allergic diseases and gut microbiota. We aimed to study bifidobacterial colonization at species and strain levels in ten allergic French infants included at their first clinical consultation and 20 controls matching for age at sampling, mode of delivery, per partum antibiotics, type of feeding and antibiotics in the first weeks of life. The faecal microbiota was analyzed by culture methods and TTGE. Bifidobacterial species and strains were identified using multiplex PCR and Box-PCR fingerprinting. No differences were observed between groups in the number of colonized infants or in the levels of colonization by the main aerobic and anaerobic genera. All infants were colonized with high levels of Bifidobacterium except for one in each group. One to 5 Bifidobacterium species and 1 to 7 strains were observed per subject independently of allergic status and age at sampling. Our study showed the infants to be colonized by several species and strains, including several strains from the same species. This diversity in Bifidobacterium colonization was not related with the allergic status and showed that the link between Bifidobacterium colonization and allergic diseases is complex and cannot be restricted to the role attributed to Bifidobacterium species.
Jin, Jong-Sik; Touyama, Mutsumi; Hisada, Takayoshi; Benno, Yoshimi
Green tea is one of the most popular beverages in the world. Its beneficial health effects and components have been extensively reviewed. However, little is known about the influence of green tea consumption on the human intestinal microbiota (HIM), which plays a crucial role in human health. Ten volunteers who did not usually consume green tea, drank it for 10 days and then stopped drinking it for 7 days. Their fecal samples were collected at three time points: before beginning the 10-day green-tea regime, at the conclusion of that 10 days, and 7 days after stopping the regime. Their fecal samples were analyzed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism with specific primer-restriction enzyme systems for HIM and by using a real-time PCR method for the Bifidobacterium species. Although the HIM of each subject was relatively stable, the proportion of Bifidobacterium species played an important role in the classification of their fecal microbiota. Although there were inter-individual differences in the Bifidobacterium species, an overall tendency for the proportion of bifidobacteria to increase because of green tea consumption was noted. However, little change was observed in the composition of Bifidobacterium species in each sample. This suggests that the change in proportion was induced, not by an inter-species transition, but by an intra-species increase and/or decrease. In conclusion, green tea consumption might act as a prebiotic and improve the colon environment by increasing the proportion of the Bifidobacterium species.
Álvarez-Martín, Pablo; Belén Flórez, Ana; Margolles, Abelardo; del Solar, Gloria; Mayo, Baltasar
This study reports the development of several cloning vectors for bifidobacteria based on the replicon of pBC1, a cryptic plasmid from Bifidobacterium catenulatum L48 thought to replicate via the theta mode. These vectors, in which antibiotic resistance genes encoding either erythromycin or tetracycline resistance acted as selection markers, were able to replicate in a series of eight Bifidobacterium species at frequencies ranging from 4.0 × 101 to 1.0 × 105 transformants μg−1 but not in Lactococcus lactis or Lactobacillus casei. They showed a relative copy number of around 30 molecules per chromosome equivalent and a good segregational stability, with more than 95% of the cells retaining the vectors after 80 to 100 generations in the absence of selection. Vectors contain multiple cloning sites of different lengths, and the lacZα peptide gene was introduced into one of the molecules, thus allowing the easy selection of colonies harboring recombinant plasmids in Escherichia coli. The functionality of the vectors for engineering Bifidobacterium strains was assessed by cloning and examining the expression of an α-l-arabinofuranosidase gene belonging to Bifidobacterium longum. E. coli and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum recombinant clones were stable and showed an increase in α-arabinofuranosidase activity of over 100-fold compared to that of the untransformed hosts. PMID:18539807
Nakai, Hiroyuki; Baumann, Martin J; Petersen, Bent O; Westphal, Yvonne; Schols, Henk; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Hachem, Maher A; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Duus, Jens Ø; Svensson, Birte
A gene cluster involved in maltodextrin transport and metabolism was identified in the genome of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, which encoded a maltodextrin-binding protein, three maltodextrin ATP-binding cassette transporters and five glycosidases, all under the control of a transcriptional regulator of the LacI-GalR family. Enzymatic properties are described for recombinant maltose phosphorylase (MalP) of glycoside hydrolase family 65 (GH65), which is encoded by malP (GenBank: AAV43670.1) of this gene cluster and produced in Escherichia coli. MalP catalyses phosphorolysis of maltose with inversion of the anomeric configuration releasing beta-glucose 1-phosphate (beta-Glc 1-P) and glucose. The broad specificity of the aglycone binding site was demonstrated by products formed in reverse phosphorolysis using various carbohydrate acceptor substrates and beta-Glc 1-P as the donor. MalP showed strong preference for monosaccharide acceptors with equatorial 3-OH and 4-OH, such as glucose and mannose, and also reacted with 2-deoxy glucosamine and 2-deoxy N-acetyl glucosamine. By contrast, none of the tested di- and trisaccharides served as acceptors. Disaccharide yields obtained from 50 mmbeta-Glc 1-P and 50 mm glucose, glucosamine, N-acetyl glucosamine, mannose, xylose or l-fucose were 99, 80, 53, 93, 81 and 13%, respectively. Product structures were determined by NMR and ESI-MS to be alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-Glcp (maltose), alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-GlcNp (maltosamine), alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-GlcNAcp (N-acetyl maltosamine), alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-Manp, alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)-Xylp and alpha-Glcp-(1-->4)- L-Fucp, the three latter being novel compounds. Modelling using L. brevis GH65 as the template and superimposition of acarbose from a complex with Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum GH15 glucoamylase suggested that loop 3 of MalP involved in substrate recognition blocked the binding of candidate acceptors larger than monosaccharides.
Endo, Akihito; Futagawa-Endo, Yuka; Dicks, Leon M T
The Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium population in the feces of 26 animals (16 species) were studied by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Lactobacilli were detected from a few herbivores, all carnivores and some omnivores. Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus vaginalis and Lactobacillus ingluviei were the most dominant lactobacilli in carnivores. These species were, however, not predominant in herbivores and omnivores. Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus parabuchneri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sakei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, usually present in raw plant material, were present in omnivores but not in carnivores. Bifidobacteria were detected in only four herbivores and two omnivores. Bifidobacterium pseudolongum was the only Bifidobacterium species detected in herbivores. Bifidobacteria detected in the two omnivores are phylogenetically not closely related to known species and are possible novel species in the genus.
Yeung, Timothy W; Üçok, Elif F; Tiani, Kendra A; McClements, David J; Sela, David A
Probiotic microorganisms are incorporated into a wide variety of foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals to promote human health and wellness. However, maintaining bacterial cell viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit remains a challenge. Encapsulation of bifidobacteria within food-grade hydrogel particles potentially mitigates their sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies and strains were encapsulated in core-shell microgels consisting of an alginate core and a microgel shell. Encapsulated obligate anaerobes Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum exhibited differences in viability in a strain-dependent manner, without a discernable relationship to subspecies lineage. This includes viability under aerobic storage conditions and modeled gastrointestinal tract conditions. Coating alginate microgels with chitosan did not improve viability compared to cells encapsulated in alginate microgels alone, suggesting that modifying the surface charge alone does not enhance delivery. Thus hydrogel beads have great potential for improving the stability and efficacy of bifidobacterial probiotics in various nutritional interventions.
Bottacini, Francesca; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Sánchez, Borja; Foroni, Elena; Duranti, Sabrina; Serafini, Fausta; Viappiani, Alice; Strati, Francesco; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco
Bifidobacteria are known as anaerobic/microaerophilic and fermentative microorganisms, which commonly inhabit the gastrointestinal tract of various animals and insects. Analysis of the 2,167,301 bp genome of Bifidobacterium asteroides PRL2011, a strain isolated from the hindgut of Apis mellifera var. ligustica, commonly known as the honey bee, revealed its predicted capability for respiratory metabolism. Conservation of the latter gene clusters in various B. asteroides strains enforces the notion that respiration is a common metabolic feature of this ancient bifidobacterial species, which has been lost in currently known mammal-derived Bifidobacterium species. In fact, phylogenomic based analyses suggested an ancient origin of B. asteroides and indicates it as an ancestor of the genus Bifidobacterium. Furthermore, the B. asteroides PRL2011 genome encodes various enzymes for coping with toxic products that arise as a result of oxygen-mediated respiration. PMID:23028506
Yeung, Timothy W.; Üçok, Elif F.; Tiani, Kendra A.; McClements, David J.; Sela, David A.
Probiotic microorganisms are incorporated into a wide variety of foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals to promote human health and wellness. However, maintaining bacterial cell viability during storage and gastrointestinal transit remains a challenge. Encapsulation of bifidobacteria within food-grade hydrogel particles potentially mitigates their sensitivity to environmental stresses. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum subspecies and strains were encapsulated in core-shell microgels consisting of an alginate core and a microgel shell. Encapsulated obligate anaerobes Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum exhibited differences in viability in a strain-dependent manner, without a discernable relationship to subspecies lineage. This includes viability under aerobic storage conditions and modeled gastrointestinal tract conditions. Coating alginate microgels with chitosan did not improve viability compared to cells encapsulated in alginate microgels alone, suggesting that modifying the surface charge alone does not enhance delivery. Thus hydrogel beads have great potential for improving the stability and efficacy of bifidobacterial probiotics in various nutritional interventions. PMID:27148184
Qian, L; Song, H; Cai, W
Breast milk is one of the most important sources of postnatal microbes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently used for the quantitative analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in breast milk. However, this method relies on the use of standard curves and is imprecise when quantitating target DNA of low abundance. In contrast, droplet digital PCR (DD-PCR) provides an absolute quantitation without the need for calibration curves. A comparison between DD-PCR and qRT-PCR was conducted for the quantitation of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus 16S RNA genes in human breast milk, and the impacts of selected maternal factors were studied on the composition of these two bacteria in breast milk. From this study, DD-PCR reported between 0-34,460 16S rRNA gene copies of Bifidobacterium genera and between 1,108-634,000 16S rRNA gene copies of Lactobacillus genera in 1 ml breast milk. The 16S rRNA gene copy number of Lactobacillus genera was much greater than that of Bifidobacterium genera in breast milk. DD-PCR showed a 10-fold lower limit of quantitation as compared to qRT-PCR. A higher correlation and agreement was observed between qRT-PCR and DD-PCR in Lactobacillus quantitation as compared to Bifidobacterium quantitation. Based on our DD-PCR quantitation, a low abundance of Bifidobacterium bacteria in breast milk was correlated to higher pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). However, no significant difference was observed for these two bacteria in breast milk between mothers who had vaginal deliveries and caesarean deliveries. This study suggests that DD-PCR is a better tool to quantitate the bacterial load of breast milk compared to the conventional qRT-PCR method. The number of breast milk Bifidobacterium bacteria is influenced by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI.
Dianawati, Dianawati; Mishra, Vijay
Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to ascertain the mechanism of Ca-alginate and mannitol protection of cell envelope components and secondary proteins of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb12 after freeze-drying and after 10 weeks of storage at room temperature (25°C) at low water activities (aw) of 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2. Preparation of Ca-alginate and Ca-alginate-mannitol as microencapsulants was carried out by dropping an alginate or alginate-mannitol emulsion containing bacteria using a burette into CaCl2 solution to obtain Ca-alginate beads and Ca-alginate-mannitol beads, respectively. The wet beads were then freeze-dried. The aw of freeze-dried beads was then adjusted to 0.07, 0.1, and 0.2 using saturated salt solutions; controls were prepared by keeping Ca-alginate and Ca-alginate-mannitol in aluminum foil without aw adjustment. Mannitol in the Ca-alginate system interacted with cell envelopes during freeze-drying and during storage at low aws. In contrast, Ca-alginate protected cell envelopes after freeze-drying but not during 10-week storage. Unlike Ca-alginate, Ca-alginate-mannitol was effective in retarding the changes in secondary proteins during freeze-drying and during 10 weeks of storage at low aws. It appears that Ca-alginate-mannitol is more effective than Ca-alginate in preserving cell envelopes and proteins after freeze-drying and after 10 weeks of storage at room temperature (25°C). PMID:22843535
Inturri, Rosanna; Ventura, Marco; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea
ABSTRACT We report the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum W11 (LMG P-21586) isolated from the intestinal microbiota of a healthy man. The analysis of the sequence may provide insights into the microbiological characteristics and the functional activity of this probiotic strain. PMID:28280022
Tsuchida, Sayaka; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Nguema, Pierre Philippe Mbehang; Fujita, Shiho; Kitahara, Maki; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Ngomanda, Alfred; Ohkuma, Moriya; Ushida, Kazunari
Gram-staining-positive anaerobic rods were isolated from the faeces of a wild lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon, and strain GG01(T) was taxonomically investigated. Based on phylogenetic analyses and specific phenotypic characteristics, the strain belonged to the genus Bifidobacterium. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain GG01(T) formed a single monophyletic cluster and had a distinct line of descent. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Bifidobacterium catenulatum JCM 1194(T) (98.3%) and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (98.1%) JCM 1200(T) were the most closely related to this novel strain, although it was clear that they belonged to different species. hsp60 sequences also supported these relationships. The DNA G+C content of this novel strain was 60.1 mol%. Bifidobacterium moukalabense sp. nov. (type strain GG01(T) = JCM 18751(T) = DSM 27321(T)) is proposed.
Bifidobacteria are gram-positive microorganisms widely applied in fermented dairy products due to their health-promoting effects. Bifidobacterium ssp. may also represent up to 91% of microbial gut population in the infant colon, but considerably less in adults. Fructose-6 phosphate phosphoketolase...
Inturri, Rosanna; Ventura, Marco; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Blandino, Giovanna
We report the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum W11 (LMG P-21586) isolated from the intestinal microbiota of a healthy man. The analysis of the sequence may provide insights into the microbiological characteristics and the functional activity of this probiotic strain.
Modesto, Monica; Michelini, Samanta; Stefanini, Ilaria; Sandri, Camillo; Spiezio, Caterina; Pisi, Annamaria; Filippini, Gianfranco; Biavati, Bruno; Mattarelli, Paola
Four Gram-positive-staining, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive bacterial strains were isolated from a faecal sample of a 5-year-old ring-tailed lemur (Lemur catta). The strains showed a peculiar morphology, resembling a small coiled snake, a ring shape, or forming a little 'Y' shape. The isolated strains appeared identical, and LMC 13T was chosen as a representative strain and characterized further. Strain LMC 13T showed an A3β peptidoglycan type, similar to that found in Bifidobacterium longum. The DNA base composition was 57.2 mol% G+C. Almost-complete 16S rRNA, hsp60, rpoB, dnaJ, dnaG, purF, clpC and rpoC gene sequences were obtained, and phylogenetic relationships were determined. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain LMC 13T showed the highest similarity to B. longum subsp. suis ATCC 27533T (96.65 %) and Bifidobacterium saguini DSM 23967T (96.64 %). Strain LMC 13T was located in an actinobacterial cluster and was more closely related to the genus Bifidobacteriumthan to other genera in the Bifidobacteriaceae. On the basis of these results, strain LMC 13T represents a novel species within the genus Bifidobacterium, for which the name Bifidobacterium lemurum sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is LMC 13T ( = DSM 28807T = JCM 30168T).
Modesto, M; Michelini, S; Stefanini, I; Ferrara, A; Tacconi, S; Biavati, B; Mattarelli, P
Six Gram-positive-staining, microaerophilic, non-spore-forming, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase-positive bacterial strains with a peculiar morphology were isolated from faecal samples of baby common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). Cells of these strains showed a morphology not reported previously for a bifidobacterial species, which resembled a coiled snake, always coiled or ring shaped or forming a 'Y' shape. Strains MRM 3/1(T) and MRM 4/2 were chosen as representative strains and characterized further. The bacteria utilized a wide range of carbohydrates and produced urease. Glucose was fermented to acetate and lactate. Strain MRM 3/1(T) showed a peptidoglycan type unique among members of the genus Bifidobacterium. The DNA base composition was 64.7 mol% G+C. Almost-complete 16S rRNA, hsp60, clpC and rpoB gene sequences were obtained and phylogenetic relationships were determined. Comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains MRM 3/1(T) and MRM 4/2 had the highest similarities to Bifidobacterium scardovii DSM 13734(T) (94.6%) and Bifidobacterium stellenboschense DSM 23968(T) (94.5%). Analysis of hsp60 showed that both strains were closely related to B. stellenboschense DSM 23968(T) (97.5% similarity); however, despite this high degree of similarity, our isolates could be distinguished from B. stellenboschense DSM 23968(T) by low levels of DNA-DNA relatedness (30.4% with MRM 3/1(T)). Strains MRM 3/1(T) and MRM 4/2 were located in an actinobacterial cluster and were more closely related to the genus Bifidobacterium than to other genera in the family Bifidobacteriaceae. On the basis of these results, strains MRM 3/1(T) and MRM 4/2 represent a novel species within the genus Bifidobacterium, for which the name Bifidobacterium aesculapii sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is MRM 3/1(T) ( = DSM 26737(T) = JCM 18761(T)).
O'Connell, Kerry Joan; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; O'Callaghan, John; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul; Ventura, Marco; Stanton, Catherine
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are common inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other mammals, where they ferment many diet-derived carbohydrates that cannot be digested by their hosts. To extend our understanding of bifidobacterial carbohydrate utilization, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which 11 strains of Bifidobacterium breve metabolize four distinct α-glucose- and/or α-galactose-containing oligosaccharides, namely, raffinose, stachyose, melibiose, and melezitose. Here we demonstrate that all B. breve strains examined possess the ability to utilize raffinose, stachyose, and melibiose. However, the ability to metabolize melezitose was not common to all B. breve strains tested. Transcriptomic and functional genomic approaches identified a gene cluster dedicated to the metabolism of α-galactose-containing carbohydrates, while an adjacent gene cluster, dedicated to the metabolism of α-glucose-containing melezitose, was identified in strains that are able to use this carbohydrate. PMID:23913435
Vitali, Beatrice; Turroni, Silvia; Serina, Stefania; Sosio, Margherita; Vannini, Lucia; Candela, Marco; Guerzoni, Maria Elisabetta; Brigidi, Patrizia
Nucleotide mutations inside a core region of the rpoB gene, encoding the beta subunit of RNA polymerase, were found in rifaximin-resistant mutants of Bifidobacterium. Five different missense mutations of codons 513, 516, 522 and 529 were identified. Further aspects of rifaximin resistance were investigated, using Bifidobacterium infantis BI07 as a model strain. Partial resistance of RNA polymerase of a BI07 mutant at a rifaximin concentration >10 microg/mL was observed by cell-free transcription assay. Mass spectrometry detection of rifaximin in the cellular pellet of the BI07 resistant mutant, as well as changes in biosynthesis of saturated and cyclopropane fatty acids during growth, suggested a reduction in membrane permeability for the antibiotic moiety.
Stahl, Buffy; Barrangou, Rodolphe
We present the complete genomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B420 and Bi-07. Comparative genomic analysis with the type strain DSMZ10140 revealed 40 to 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and an indel in a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus. These genetic differences provide a molecular basis for strain typing within the two main phylogenetic groups of this monomorphic species.
We present the complete genomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis B420 and Bi-07. Comparative genomic analysis with the type strain DSMZ10140 revealed 40 to 55 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and an indel in a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus. These genetic differences provide a molecular basis for strain typing within the two main phylogenetic groups of this monomorphic species. PMID:22815448
Ouwehand, Arthur C; Kurvinen, Teija; Rissanen, Päivi
Probiotics are commonly included in dairy products. These products require cold storage and transportation, which limits their use. Here, we describe the inclusion of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in a dry food matrix, an oat-based cereal bar, and its detection in faeces after consumption of this product. One week after cessation of B. lactis Bb-12 feeding, it could be identified in the faeces of five of the nine subjects.
Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca; Zomer, Aldert; Foroni, Elena; Giubellini, Vanessa; Bottacini, Francesca; Canchaya, Carlos; Claesson, Marcus J.; He, Fei; Mantzourani, Maria; Mulas, Laura; Ferrarini, Alberto; Gao, Beile; Delledonne, Massimo; Henrissat, Bernard; Coutinho, Pedro; Oggioni, Marco; Gupta, Radhey S.; Zhang, Ziding; Beighton, David; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; O'Toole, Paul W.; van Sinderen, Douwe
Bifidobacteria, one of the relatively dominant components of the human intestinal microbiota, are considered one of the key groups of beneficial intestinal bacteria (probiotic bacteria). However, in addition to health-promoting taxa, the genus Bifidobacterium also includes Bifidobacterium dentium, an opportunistic cariogenic pathogen. The genetic basis for the ability of B. dentium to survive in the oral cavity and contribute to caries development is not understood. The genome of B. dentium Bd1, a strain isolated from dental caries, was sequenced to completion to uncover a single circular 2,636,368 base pair chromosome with 2,143 predicted open reading frames. Annotation of the genome sequence revealed multiple ways in which B. dentium has adapted to the oral environment through specialized nutrient acquisition, defences against antimicrobials, and gene products that increase fitness and competitiveness within the oral niche. B. dentium Bd1 was shown to metabolize a wide variety of carbohydrates, consistent with genome-based predictions, while colonization and persistence factors implicated in tissue adhesion, acid tolerance, and the metabolism of human saliva-derived compounds were also identified. Global transcriptome analysis demonstrated that many of the genes encoding these predicted traits are highly expressed under relevant physiological conditions. This is the first report to identify, through various genomic approaches, specific genetic adaptations of a Bifidobacterium taxon, Bifidobacterium dentium Bd1, to a lifestyle as a cariogenic microorganism in the oral cavity. In silico analysis and comparative genomic hybridization experiments clearly reveal a high level of genome conservation among various B. dentium strains. The data indicate that the genome of this opportunistic cariogen has evolved through a very limited number of horizontal gene acquisition events, highlighting the narrow boundaries that separate commensals from opportunistic pathogens. PMID
Rios-Covián, David; Sánchez, Borja; Martínez, Noelia; Cuesta, Isabel; Hernández-Barranco, Ana M; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Gueimonde, Miguel
A better understanding of the interactions among intestinal microbes is needed to decipher the complex cross talk that takes place within the human gut. Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium genera are among the most relevant intestinal bacteria, and it has been previously reported that coculturing of these 2 microorganisms affects their survival. Therefore, coculturing of Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bacteroides fragilis DSMZ2151 was performed with the aim of unravelling the mechanisms involved in their interaction. To this end, we applied proteomic (2D-DIGE) analyses, and by chromatographic techniques we quantified the bacterial metabolites produced during coincubation. Coculture stimulated the growth of B. longum, retarding that of B. fragilis, with concomitant changes in the production of some proteins and metabolites of both bacteria. The combined culture promoted upregulation of the bifidobacterial pyruvate kinase and downregulation of the Bacteroides phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase - 2 enzymes involved in the catabolism of carbohydrates. Moreover, B. fragilis FKBP-type peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase, a protein with chaperone-like activity, was found to be overproduced in coculture, suggesting the induction of a stress response in this microorganism. This study provides mechanistic data to deepen our understanding of the interaction between Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium intestinal populations.
Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Ferrario, Chiara; Viappiani, Alice; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Mangifesta, Marta; Taminiau, Bernard; Delcenserie, Véronique; van Sinderen, Douwe
The Bifidobacterium genus currently encompasses 48 recognized taxa, which have been isolated from different ecosystems. However, the current phylogeny of bifidobacteria is hampered by the relative paucity of genotypic data. Here, we reassessed the taxonomy of this bacterial genus using genome-based approaches, which demonstrated that the previous taxonomic view of bifidobacteria contained several inconsistencies. In particular, high levels of genetic relatedness were shown to exist between particular Bifidobacterium taxa which would not justify their status as separate species. The results presented are here based on average nucleotide identity analysis involving the genome sequences for each type strain of the 48 bifidobacterial taxa, as well as phylogenetic comparative analysis of the predicted core genome of the Bifidobacterium genus. The results of this study demonstrate that the availability of complete genome sequences allows the reconstruction of a more robust bifidobacterial phylogeny than that obtained from a single gene-based sequence comparison, thus discouraging the assignment of a new or separate bifidobacterial taxon without such a genome-based validation. PMID:25107967
López, Patricia; Moran, Javier; Cabello, Estefanía; Suárez, Ana; González, Celestino; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.
Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 109 cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF-β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention) group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models. PMID:24971309
Shimizu, Hidenori; Benno, Yoshimi
A large number of commensal bacteria inhabit the intestinal tract, and interbacterial communication among gut microbiota is thought to occur. In order to analyze symbiotic relationships between probiotic strains and the gut microbiota, a ring with a membrane filter fitted to the bottom was used for in vitro investigations. Test strains comprising probiotic nitto strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus NT and Bifidobacterium longum NT) and type strains (L. acidophilus JCM1132(T) and B. longum JCM1217(T) ) were obtained from diluted fecal samples using the membrane filter to simulate interbacterial communication. Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus pasteurianus, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Clostridium spp. were the most abundant gut bacteria detected before coculture with the test strains. Results of the coculture experiments indicated that the test strains significantly promote the growth of Ruminococcus gnavus, Ruminococcus torques, and Veillonella spp. and inhibit the growth of Sutterella wadsworthensis. Differences in the relative abundances of gut bacterial strains were furthermore observed after coculture of the fecal samples with each test strain. Bifidobacterium spp., which was detected as the dominant strain in the fecal samples, was found to be unaffected by coculture with the test strains. In the present study, interbacterial communication using bacterial metabolites between the test strains and the gut microbiota was demonstrated by the coculture technique. The detailed mechanisms and effects of the complex interbacterial communications that occur among the gut microbiota are, however, still unclear. Further investigation of these relationships by coculture of several fecal samples with probiotic strains is urgently required.
ABSTRACT A large number of commensal bacteria inhabit the intestinal tract, and interbacterial communication among gut microbiota is thought to occur. In order to analyze symbiotic relationships between probiotic strains and the gut microbiota, a ring with a membrane filter fitted to the bottom was used for in vitro investigations. Test strains comprising probiotic nitto strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus NT and Bifidobacterium longum NT) and type strains (L. acidophilus JCM1132T and B. longum JCM1217T) were obtained from diluted fecal samples using the membrane filter to simulate interbacterial communication. Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus pasteurianus, Collinsella aerofaciens, and Clostridium spp. were the most abundant gut bacteria detected before coculture with the test strains. Results of the coculture experiments indicated that the test strains significantly promote the growth of Ruminococcus gnavus, Ruminococcus torques, and Veillonella spp. and inhibit the growth of Sutterella wadsworthensis. Differences in the relative abundances of gut bacterial strains were furthermore observed after coculture of the fecal samples with each test strain. Bifidobacterium spp., which was detected as the dominant strain in the fecal samples, was found to be unaffected by coculture with the test strains. In the present study, interbacterial communication using bacterial metabolites between the test strains and the gut microbiota was demonstrated by the coculture technique. The detailed mechanisms and effects of the complex interbacterial communications that occur among the gut microbiota are, however, still unclear. Further investigation of these relationships by coculture of several fecal samples with probiotic strains is urgently required. PMID:26486646
Wei, Pijin; Yang, Yan; Ding, Qing; Li, Xiuying; Sun, Hanxiao; Liu, Zhaobing; Huang, Junli; Gong, Yahui
α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a tridecapeptide derived from pro-opiomelanocortin that exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties by regulating the production of inflammatory mediators. This peptide has been well established in several inflammatory models, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, its extremely short duration in vivo limits its clinical application. To address this limitation, Bifidobacterium was used here as a carrier to deliver α-MSH. We utilized α-MSH-engineered Bifidobacterium against IBD, which is closely linked to immune and intestinal microbiota dysfunction. First, we constructed a Bifidobacterium longum secreting α-MSH (B. longum-α-MSH). We then tested the recombinant α-MSH expression and determined its bioactivity in HT-29 cells. To assess its effectiveness, B. longum-α-MSH was used against an ulcerative colitis (UC) model in rats induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The data showed that α-MSH expression in B. longum-α-MSH was effective, and its biological activity was similar to the synthesized one. This UC model experiment indicated that B. longum-α-MSH successfully colonized the intestinal gut, expressed bioactive α-MSH and had a significant anti-inflammatory effect. The results demonstrate the feasibility of preventing IBD by using B. longum-α-MSH.
Salazar, Nuria; López, Patricia; Garrido, Pablo; Moran, Javier; Cabello, Estefanía; Gueimonde, Miguel; Suárez, Ana; González, Celestino; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia
Fermented dairy products are the usual carriers for the delivery of probiotics to humans, Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus being the most frequently used bacteria. In this work, the strains Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 and Bifidobacterium longum IPLA E44 were tested for their capability to modulate immune response and the insulin-dependent glucose homeostasis using male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet. Three intervention groups were fed daily for 24 days with 10% skimmed milk, or with 10(9) cfu of the corresponding strain suspended in the same vehicle. A significant increase of the suppressor-regulatory TGF- β cytokine occurred with both strains in comparison with a control (no intervention) group of rats; the highest levels were reached in rats fed IPLA R1. This strain presented an immune protective profile, as it was able to reduce the production of the proinflammatory IL-6. Moreover, phosphorylated Akt kinase decreased in gastroctemius muscle of rats fed the strain IPLA R1, without affecting the glucose, insulin, and HOMA index in blood, or levels of Glut-4 located in the membrane of muscle and adipose tissue cells. Therefore, the strain B. animalis subsp. lactis IPLA R1 is a probiotic candidate to be tested in mild grade inflammation animal models.
Mäkeläinen, H; Forssten, S; Saarinen, M; Stowell, J; Rautonen, N; Ouwehand, A C
A semi-continuous, anaerobic colon simulator, with four vessels mimicking the conditions of the human large intestine, was used to study the fermentation of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS). Three XOS compounds and a xylan preparation were fermented for 48 hours by human colonic microbes. Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used as a prebiotic reference. As a result of the fermentation, the numbers of Bifidobacterium increased in all XOS and xylan simulations when compared to the growth observed in the baseline simulations, and increased levels of Bifidobacterium lactis were measured with the two XOS compounds that had larger distribution of the degree of polymerisation. Fermentation of XOS and xylan increased the microbial production of short chain fatty acids in the simulator vessels; especially the amounts of butyrate and acetate were increased. XOS was more efficient than FOS in increasing the numbers of B. lactis in the colonic model, whereas FOS increased the Bifidobacterium longum numbers more. The selective fermentation of XOS by B. lactis has been demonstrated in pure culture studies, and these results further indicate that the combination of B. lactis and XOS would form a successful, selective synbiotic combination.
Van Wey, A S; Cookson, A L; Roy, N C; McNabb, W C; Soboleva, T K; Shorten, P R
Microorganisms rarely live in isolation but are most often found in a consortium. This provides the potential for cross-feeding and nutrient competition among the microbial species, which make it challenging to predict the growth kinetics in coculture. In this paper we developed a mathematical model to describe substrate consumption and subsequent microbial growth and metabolite production for bacteria grown in monoculture. The model characterized substrate utilization kinetics of 18 Bifidobacterium strains. Some bifidobacterial strains demonstrated preferential degradation of oligofructose in that sugars with low degree of polymerization (DP) (DP≤3 or 4) were metabolized before sugars of higher DP, or vice versa. Thus, we expanded the model to describe the preferential degradation of oligofructose. In addition, we adapted the model to describe the competition between human colonic bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262 and Bifidobacterium longum LMG 11047 or Bifidobacterium breve Yakult for inulin as well as cross-feeding of breakdown products from the extracellular hydrolysis of inulin by B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262. We found that the coculture growth kinetics could be predicted based on the respective monoculture growth kinetics. Using growth kinetics from monoculture experiments to predict coculture dynamics will reduce the number of in vitro experiments required to parameterize multi-culture models.
Ejby, Morten; Fredslund, Folmer; Vujicic-Zagar, Andreja; Svensson, Birte; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Abou Hachem, Maher
Glycan utilization plays a key role in modulating the composition of the gut microbiota, but molecular insight into oligosaccharide uptake by this microbial community is lacking. Arabinoxylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) are abundant in the diet, and are selectively fermented by probiotic bifidobacteria in the colon. Here we show how selectivity for AXOS uptake is established by the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04. The binding protein BlAXBP, which is associated with an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that mediates the uptake of AXOS, displays an exceptionally broad specificity for arabinosyl-decorated and undecorated xylo-oligosaccharides, with preference for tri- and tetra-saccharides. Crystal structures of BlAXBP in complex with four different ligands revealed the basis for this versatility. Uniquely, the protein was able to recognize oligosaccharides in two opposite orientations, which facilitates the optimization of interactions with the various ligands. Broad substrate specificity was further enhanced by a spacious binding pocket accommodating decorations at different mainchain positions and conformational flexibility of a lid-like loop. Phylogenetic and genetic analyses show that BlAXBP is highly conserved within Bifidobacterium, but is lacking in other gut microbiota members. These data indicate niche adaptation within Bifidobacterium and highlight the metabolic syntrophy (cross-feeding) among the gut microbiota.
Soverini, Matteo; Rampelli, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Schnorr, Stephanie L.; Quercia, Sara; Castagnetti, Andrea; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco
Studies of the gut microbiome variation among human populations revealed the existence of robust compositional and functional layouts matching the three subsistence strategies that describe a trajectory of changes across our recent evolutionary history: hunting and gathering, rural agriculture, and urban post-industrialized agriculture. In particular, beside the overall reduction of ecosystem diversity, the gut microbiome of Western industrial populations is typically characterized by the loss of Treponema and the acquisition of Bifidobacterium as an abundant inhabitant of the post-weaning gut microbial ecosystem. In order to advance the hypothesis about the possible adaptive nature of this exchange, here we explore specific functional attributes that correspond to the mutually exclusive presence of Treponema and Bifidobacterium using publically available gut metagenomic data from Hadza hunter-gatherers and urban industrial Italians. According to our findings, Bifidobacterium provides the enteric ecosystem with a diverse panel of saccharolytic functions, well suited to the array of gluco- and galacto-based saccharides that abound in the Western diet. On the other hand, the metagenomic functions assigned to Treponema are more predictive of a capacity to incorporate complex polysaccharides, such as those found in unrefined plant foods, which are consistently incorporated in the Hadza diet. Finally, unlike Treponema, the Bifidobacterium metagenome functions include genes that permit the establishment of microbe–host immunological cross-talk, suggesting recent co-evolutionary events between the human immune system and Bifidobacterium that are adaptive in the context of agricultural subsistence and sedentary societies. PMID:27462302
Soverini, Matteo; Rampelli, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Schnorr, Stephanie L; Quercia, Sara; Castagnetti, Andrea; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Candela, Marco
Studies of the gut microbiome variation among human populations revealed the existence of robust compositional and functional layouts matching the three subsistence strategies that describe a trajectory of changes across our recent evolutionary history: hunting and gathering, rural agriculture, and urban post-industrialized agriculture. In particular, beside the overall reduction of ecosystem diversity, the gut microbiome of Western industrial populations is typically characterized by the loss of Treponema and the acquisition of Bifidobacterium as an abundant inhabitant of the post-weaning gut microbial ecosystem. In order to advance the hypothesis about the possible adaptive nature of this exchange, here we explore specific functional attributes that correspond to the mutually exclusive presence of Treponema and Bifidobacterium using publically available gut metagenomic data from Hadza hunter-gatherers and urban industrial Italians. According to our findings, Bifidobacterium provides the enteric ecosystem with a diverse panel of saccharolytic functions, well suited to the array of gluco- and galacto-based saccharides that abound in the Western diet. On the other hand, the metagenomic functions assigned to Treponema are more predictive of a capacity to incorporate complex polysaccharides, such as those found in unrefined plant foods, which are consistently incorporated in the Hadza diet. Finally, unlike Treponema, the Bifidobacterium metagenome functions include genes that permit the establishment of microbe-host immunological cross-talk, suggesting recent co-evolutionary events between the human immune system and Bifidobacterium that are adaptive in the context of agricultural subsistence and sedentary societies.
Background Bifidobacterium represents one of the largest genus within the Actinobacteria, and includes at present 32 species. These species share a high sequence homology of 16S rDNA and several molecular techniques already applied to discriminate among them give ambiguous results. The slightly higher variability of the hsp60 gene sequences with respect to the 16S rRNA sequences offers better opportunities to design or develop molecular assays, allowing identification and differentiation of closely related species. hsp60 can be considered an excellent additional marker for inferring the taxonomy of the members of Bifidobacterium genus. Results This work illustrates a simple and cheap molecular tool for the identification of Bifidobacterium species. The hsp60 universal primers were used in a simple PCR procedure for the direct amplification of 590 bp of the hsp60 sequence. The in silico restriction analysis of bifidobacterial hsp60 partial sequences allowed the identification of a single endonuclease (HaeIII) able to provide different PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns in the Bifidobacterium spp. type strains evaluated. The electrophoretic analyses allowed to confirm the different RFLP patterns. Conclusions The developed PCR-RFLP technique resulted in efficient discrimination of the tested species and subspecies and allowed the construction of a dichotomous key in order to differentiate the most widely distributed Bifidobacterium species as well as the subspecies belonging to B. pseudolongum and B. animalis. PMID:23815602
Rios-Covian, David; Arboleya, Silvia; Hernandez-Barranco, Ana M.; Alvarez-Buylla, Jorge R.; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gueimonde, Miguel
Cocultures of strains from two Bifidobacterium and two Bacteroides species were performed with exopolysaccharides (EPS) previously purified from bifidobacteria, with inulin, or with glucose as the carbon source. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004 grew in glucose but showed poor or no growth in complex carbohydrates (inulin, EPS E44, and EPS R1), whereas Bacteroides grew well in the four carbon sources tested. In the presence of glucose, the growth of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron DSM-2079 was inhibited by B. breve, whereas it remained unaffected in the presence of B. longum. Ba. fragilis DSM-2151 contributed to a greater survival of B. longum, promoting changes in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and organic acids in coculture with respect to monocultures. In complex carbohydrates, cocultures of bifidobacterium strains with Ba. thetaiotaomicron did not modify the behavior of Bacteroides nor improve the poor growth of bifidobacteria. The metabolic activity of Ba. fragilis in coculture with bifidobacteria was not affected by EPS, but greater survival of bifidobacteria at late stages of incubation occurred in cocultures than in monocultures, leading to a higher production of acetic acid than in monocultures. Therefore, cocultures of Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides can behave differently against fermentable carbohydrates as a function of the specific characteristics of the strains from each species. These results stress the importance of considering specific species and strain interactions and not simply higher taxonomic divisions in the relationship among intestinal microbial populations and their different responses to probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:24077708
Fachin, Luciano; Moryia, Juliana; Neves Gândara, Ana Lourdes; Viotto, Walkiria Hanada
The agar RCPB pH5 has been considered a good alternative for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. However, during the refrigerated storage of yoghurt it is extremely difficult to count this microorganism due to the size of the colonies, which are so small they require the aid of a stereoscope to count them. Another agar, MRS-LP, has been also recommended for counts of Bifidobacterium in the presence of yoghurt bacteria. This study evaluated the supplementation of RCPB pH5 agar with dehydrated liver extract and the salts KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO47H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO47H2O, aiming at improving the differentiation of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt after refrigerated storage, and also evaluated the selective count of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt using the agar MRS-LP. The agar MRS-LP presented the same cell recovery as non-fortified RCPB pH5 agar, used as a standard medium, thus being considered a good option for counts of Bifidobacterium in yoghurt. The fortified RCPB pH5 also presented the same recovery as the standard RCPB pH5 medium, however, the addition of dehydrated liver extract to the RCPB pH5 agar considerably increased the size of the Bifidobacterium colonies after refrigerated storage, making differentiation of the colonies much easier and reliable when compared to the standard non-fortified RPCP pH5. The addition of the salts (KH2PO4, K2HPO4, FeSO47H2O, MnSO4H2O and MgSO47H2O) had no influence on the performance of the RCPB pH5 agar. PMID:24031230
El-Soud, Neveen Helmy Abou; Said, Reem Nabil; Mosallam, Dalia Sayed; Barakat, Nahla Abdel Moniem; Sabry, Mohamed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular treatment for children diarrhea. Although there are several probiotic strains potentially useful, researches were often limited to certain strains. AIM: To test Bifidobacterium lactis on morbidity of acute diarrhea in children less than 2 years. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 children (1 - 23 months) admitted with acute diarrhea to the Pediatric Hospital, Cairo University and were randomly assigned to receive in addition to usual treatment of diarrhea according to WHO guidelines; one of two treatments either milk formula non-supplemented (n = 25) or supplemented (n = 25) with Bifidobacterium lactis 14.5 × 106 CFU/100 ml daily for one week. Primary outcomes were frequency and duration of diarrhea and hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were duration of fever and vomiting episodes. Safety and tolerance were also recorded. RESULTS: On admission, patients’ characteristics of both groups (50 cases) were similar. For children who received the probiotics for one week; mean duration of diarrhoea was shorter than in controls (3.12 ± 0.92 vs. 4.10 ± 0.94 days) (P = 0.02), number of motions per day was less than in controls (3.96 ± 0.62 vs. 4.46 ± 0.85) (P = 0.04) and discharge from hospital <2 days was more frequent than in controls (72% vs. 44%) (P = 0.048). There was no effect on fever (P = 0.63) or vomiting (P = 0.54). CONCLUSION: Bifidobacterium lactis probiotics in supplemented milk formula decreased significantly frequency, duration of diarrhea, and hospital stay than usual treatment alone in children with acute diarrhea. Additional researches on other uncommon local probiotic species should be encouraged. PMID:27275258
Background Bifidobacterium species, including Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, are among the dominant microbial populations of the human gastrointestinal tract. They are also major components of many commercial probiotic products. Resident and transient bifidobacteria are thought to have several beneficial health effects. However, our knowledge of how these bacteria interact and communicate with host cells remains poor. This knowledge is essential for scientific support of their purported health benefits and their rational inclusion in functional foods. Results This work describes the draft genome sequence of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007, a strain isolated as dominant from the feces of a healthy human. Besides several properties of probiosis, IPLA 36007 exhibited the capability of releasing aglycones from soy isoflavone glycosides. The genome contains 1,851 predicted genes, including 54 genes for tRNAs and fie copies of unique 16S, 23S and 5S rRNA genes. As key attributes of the IPLA 36007 genome we can mention the presence of a lysogenic phage, a cluster encoding type IV fimbriae, and a locus encoding a clustered, regularly interspaced, short, palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas system. Four open reading frames (orfs) encoding β-glucosidases belonging to the glycosyl hydrolase family 3, which may act on isoflavone glycosides, were encountered. Additionally, one gene was found to code for a glycosyl hydrolase of family 1 that might also have β-glucosidase activity. Conclusion The availability of the B. pseudocatenulatum IPLA 36007 genome should allow the enzyme system involved in the release of soy isoflavone aglycones from isoflavone glycosides, and the molecular mechanisms underlying the strain’s probiotic properties, to be more easily understood. PMID:25097668
von Ah, Ueli; Mozzetti, Valeria; Lacroix, Christophe; Kheadr, Ehab E; Fliss, Ismaïl; Meile, Leo
Background Bifidobacteria are found at varying prevalence in human microbiota and seem to play an important role in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Bifidobacteria are highly adapted to the human GIT which is reflected in the genome sequence of a Bifidobacterim longum isolate. The competitiveness against other bacteria is not fully understood yet but may be related to the production of antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins. In a previous study, 34 Bifidobacterium isolates have been isolated from baby faeces among which six showed proteinaceous antilisterial activity against Listeria monocytogenes. In this study, one of these isolates, RBL67, was further identified and characterized. Results Bifidobacterium isolate RBL67 was classified and characterized using a polyphasic approach. RBL67 was classified as Bifidobacterium thermophilum based on phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization characteristics, although 16S rDNA analyses and partial groEL sequences showed higher homology with B. thermacidophilum subsp. porcinum and B. thermacidophilum subsp. thermacidophilum, respectively. RBL67 was moderately oxygen-tolerant and was able to grow at pH 4 and at a temperature of 47°C. Conclusion In order to assign RBL67 to a species, a polyphasic approach was used. This resulted in the classification of RBL67 as a Bifidobacterium thermophilum strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report about B. thermophilum isolated from baby faeces since the B. thermophilum strains were related to ruminants and swine faeces before. B. thermophilum was previously only isolated from animal sources and was therefore suggested to be used as differential species between animal and human contamination. Our findings may disapprove this suggestion and further studies are now conducted to determine whether B. thermophilum is distributed broader in human faeces. Furthermore, the postulated differentiation between human and animal strains by growth above 45°C is no longer valid since B
Castro-Zavala, Adriana; Juárez-Flores, Bertha I; Pinos-Rodríguez, Juan M; Delgado-Portales, Rosa E; Aguirre-Rivera, Juan R; Alcocer-Gouyonnet, Francisco
Agave salmiana is a fructan rich species that is widely distributed in Mexico. The aim of this investigation was to extract the fructans of A. salmiana and evaluate their prebiotic effect in 48 hours in vitro cultures of Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus and to compare this effect with other available fructan sources. A significant difference in pH, optical density and biomass was found in the cultures depending on the source of fructans and the type of bacteria. It was possible to determine a dose-response effect of the A. salmiana fructans and the growth of the studied strains.
Guglielmetti, Simone; Fracassetti, Daniela; Taverniti, Valentina; Del Bo', Cristian; Vendrame, Stefano; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy; Arioli, Stefania; Riso, Patrizia; Porrini, Marisa
Bifidobacteria are gaining increasing interest as health-promoting bacteria. Nonetheless, the genus comprises several species, which can exert different effects on human host. Previous studies showed that wild blueberry drink consumption could selectively increase intestinal bifidobacteria, suggesting an important role for the polyphenols and fiber present in wild blueberries. This study evaluated the modulation of the most common and abundant bifidobacterial taxonomic groups inhabiting the human gut in the same fecal samples. The analyses carried out showed that B. adolescentis, B. breve, B. catenulatum/pseudocatelulatum, and B. longum subsp. longum were always present in the group of subjects enrolled, whereas B. bifidum and B. longum subsp. infantis were not. Furthermore, it was found that the most predominant bifidobacterial species were B. longum subsp. longum and B. adolescentis. The results obtained revealed a high interindividual variability; however, a significant increase of B. longum subsp. infantis cell concentration was observed in the feces of volunteers after the wild blueberry drink treatment. This bifidobacterial group was shown to possess immunomodulatory abilities and to relieve symptoms and promote the regression of several gastrointestinal disorders. Thus, an increased cell concentration of B. longum subsp. infantis in the human gut could be considered of potential health benefit. In conclusion, wild blueberry consumption resulted in a specific bifidogenic effect that could positively affect certain populations of bifidobacteria with demonstrated health-promoting properties.
The Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Fermentation on Antioxidant Properties of Selected in Vitro Sprout Culture of Orthosiphon aristatus (Java Tea) as a Model Study.
Hunaefi, Dase; Akumo, Divine N; Riedel, Heidi; Smetanska, Iryna
High rosmarinic acid (RA) productivity has been achieved by applying jasmonic acid and yeast extract elicitors to the in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aritatus (IOSC). The highest RA accumulation from three solvents was detected in IOSC after treatment with yeast extract (5 g/L). HPLC analysis clearly confirmed a drastic increase in RA subjected to yeast extract elicitation. Therefore, this yeast extract elicited IOSC was chosen for a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation study as a model system. This selected IOSC was subjected to different types of LAB fermentations (Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) for different periods of time 24, 48 and 72 h. The LAB fermentations consisted of solid state fermentations (SSF) and liquid state fermentations (LSF) in a Digital Control Unit (DCU) fermenter system. The aim was to determine the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant properties of the plant extract. Results indicated that all types of LAB fermentation decreased the level of RA and total phenolics, however, a slight increase in total flavonoids and flavonols was observed in SSF samples. HPLC results confirmed that the longer the fermentation, the greater the reduction in RA content. The highest reduction was obtained in the sample of LSF inoculated with L. plantarum for a period of 72 h. The temperature of fermentation (37 °C) was predicted as contributing to the declining level in RA content. The loss in RA was concomitant with a loss of total antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-like activity). These results indicate that RA is the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of this plant.
The Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM Fermentation on Antioxidant Properties of Selected in Vitro Sprout Culture of Orthosiphon aristatus (Java Tea) as a Model Study
Hunaefi, Dase; Akumo, Divine N.; Riedel, Heidi; Smetanska, Iryna
High rosmarinic acid (RA) productivity has been achieved by applying jasmonic acid and yeast extract elicitors to the in vitro sprout culture of Orthosiphon aritatus (IOSC). The highest RA accumulation from three solvents was detected in IOSC after treatment with yeast extract (5 g/L). HPLC analysis clearly confirmed a drastic increase in RA subjected to yeast extract elicitation. Therefore, this yeast extract elicited IOSC was chosen for a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation study as a model system. This selected IOSC was subjected to different types of LAB fermentations (Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 8014 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) for different periods of time 24, 48 and 72 h. The LAB fermentations consisted of solid state fermentations (SSF) and liquid state fermentations (LSF) in a Digital Control Unit (DCU) fermenter system. The aim was to determine the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant properties of the plant extract. Results indicated that all types of LAB fermentation decreased the level of RA and total phenolics, however, a slight increase in total flavonoids and flavonols was observed in SSF samples. HPLC results confirmed that the longer the fermentation, the greater the reduction in RA content. The highest reduction was obtained in the sample of LSF inoculated with L. plantarum for a period of 72 h. The temperature of fermentation (37 °C) was predicted as contributing to the declining level in RA content. The loss in RA was concomitant with a loss of total antioxidant activity (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD)-like activity). These results indicate that RA is the major contributor to the antioxidant activity of this plant. PMID:26787613
Grill, J.; Schneider, F.; Crociani, J.; Ballongue, J.
Bifidobacterium species deconjugate taurocholic, taurodeoxycholic, taurochenodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycodeoxycholic, and glycochenodeoxycholic acids. The enzyme level increases in the growth phase. No increase in activity is observed for the cytoplasmic enzyme after addition of conjugated bile acids to a stationary-phase culture. Conjugated bile salt hydrolase (BSH) was purified from Bifidobacterium longum BB536. Its apparent molecular mass in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was ca. 40,000 Da. The intact enzyme had a relative molecular weight of ca. 250,000 as determined by gel filtration chromatography, suggesting that the native BSH of B. longum is probably a hexamer. The purified enzyme is active towards both glycine and taurine conjugates of cholate, deoxycholate, and chenodeoxycholate. The pH optimum is in the range of 5.5 to 6.5. A loss of BSH activity is observed after incubation at temperatures higher than 42(deg)C; at 60(deg)C, 50% of the BSH activity is lost. The importance of free sulfhydryl groups at the enzyme active center is suggested. For B. longum BB536, no significant difference in the initial rate of deconjugation and enzymatic efficiency appears between bile salts. The enzymatic efficiency is higher for B. longum BB536 than for other genera. In this paper, a new method which permits a display of BSH activity directly on polyacrylamide gels is described; this method confirms the molecular weight obtained for B. longum BB536 BSH. PMID:16535071
Ruiz, Lorena; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Ribbera, Angela; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Ventura, Marco; Sánchez, Borja
Oxygen is one of the abiotic factors negatively affecting the survival of Bifidobacterium strains used as probiotics, mainly due to the induction of lethal oxidative damage. Aerobic conditions are present during the process of manufacture and storage of functional foods, and aerotolerance is a desired trait for bifidobacteria intended for use in industry. In the present study, the molecular response of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA4549 to aerobic conditions is presented. Molecular targets affected by oxygen were studied using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) and quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR. Globally, oxygen stress induced a shift in the glycolytic pathway toward the production of acetic acid with a concomitant increase in ATP formation. Several changes in the expression of genes coding for enzymes involved in redox reactions were detected, although the redox ratio remained unaltered. Interestingly, cells grown under aerobic conditions were characterized by higher activity of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase, which can directly detoxify molecular oxygen, and by higher NADH oxidase specific activity, which can oxidize NADH using hydrogen peroxide. In turn, this is in agreement with the glycolytic shift toward acetate production, in that more NADH molecules may be available due to the lower level of lactic acid formation. These findings further our ability to elucidate the mechanisms by which B. animalis copes with an oxygen-containing atmosphere. PMID:22101052
Yu, Zhijian; Huang, Zhen; Sao, Chongwen; Huang, Yuanjian; Zhang, Fan; Ma, Guihong; Chen, Zhong; Zeng, Zhongming; Qiwen, Deng; Zeng, Weiseng
Bifidobacterium longum is an attractive candidate for delivering biologically active proteins by the mucosal route due to its non-pathogenic and colonizing properties. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) has aroused widespread attention recently due to several epidemics, and great attention should be paid to the fact that there are currently no effective antiviral drugs or vaccines against EV71 infection. In this report, we described a recombinant B. longum that could be used to develop an oral vaccine against EV71 infection. A VP1 expression vector (pBBADs-VP1) was constructed by amplifying the EV71 VP1 gene and inserting it into the E. coli-Bifidobacterium shuttle expression vector pBBAD/Xs. Then, the expression of VP1 protein in pBBADs-VP1-transformed bacteria was demonstrated by western blot. In vivo studies indicated that oral immunization of BALB/c mice with pBBADs-VP1-transformed bacteria induced potent immune responses against EV71 infection, including virus-neutralising titers, anti-EV71-VP1 antibody and the induction of Th1 immune responses in the spleen and Peyer's patches. Importantly, immunization of mother mice with this recombinant VP1-expressing B. longum conferred protection to neonatal mice. These results demonstrate that the novel oral vaccine utilizing B. longum expressing the VP1 protein might successfully elicit a specific immune response against EV71 infection.
Guglielmetti, Simone; Ciranna, Alessandro; Mora, Diego; Parini, Carlo; Karp, Matti
The aim of this work was to construct a bifidobacterial biosensor that could be used to analyze the metabolic state of cells. We transformed by electroporation the human intestinal bacterium Bifidobacterium longum biovar longum with a vector (pGBL8b) containing the insect luciferase gene from a click beetle (Pyrophorus plagiophthalamus) and studied the basic parameters affecting light production in the bioluminescent phenotype. We detected a minimum of 4000 cells, which indicates that the insect luciferase expression in Bifidobacterium longum is extremely good, and a measurement requires only a few minutes of incubation in ambient oxygen conditions. A pH of 7.0 was optimal for incorporating the substrate d-luciferin, and the substrate saturation effect occurred at 125 microM. We employed bioluminescent B. longum for a quick test of the efficacy of different carbohydrates to preserve cell physiology under acidic conditions. The prebiotic compounds Actilight and lactulose were the most active in preventing loss of intracellular ATP during incubation at pH 3. Glucose and inulin were less active, though still effective. In sum, our results show that bioluminescent B. longum, transformed with the pGBL8b plasmid, is a valuable tool for rapidly studying the physiological state of anaerobic bacterial cells under different environmental conditions.
Moreno Muñoz, José Antonio; Chenoll, Empar; Casinos, Beatriz; Bataller, Esther; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Montava, Rebeca; Ribes, Juan Manuel; Buesa, Javier; Fàbrega, Joan; Rivero, Montserrat
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. It is well known that breast-feeding and vaccination afford infants protection. Since breast-feeding has drastically decreased in developed countries, efforts have been focused on the potential use of probiotics as preventive agents. In this study, a novel Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strain was isolated from infant feces and selected, based on its capacity to inhibit in vitro rotavirus Wa replication (up to 36.05% infectious foci reduction) and also to protect cells from virus infection (up to 48.50% infectious foci reduction) in both MA-104 and HT-29 cell lines. Furthermore, studies using a BALB/c mouse model have proved that this strain provides preliminary in vivo protection against rotavirus infection. The strain has been deposited in the Spanish Type Culture Collection under the accession number CECT 7210. This novel strain has the main properties required of a probiotic, such as resistance to gastrointestinal juices, biliary salts, NaCl, and low pH, as well as adhesion to intestinal mucus and sensitivity to antibiotics. The food safety status has been confirmed by the absence of undesirable metabolite production and in acute ingestion studies of mice. Overall, these results demonstrate that Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 can be considered a probiotic able to inhibit rotavirus infection. PMID:22003027
Natividad, Jane M. M.; Hayes, Christina L.; Motta, Jean-Paul; Jury, Jennifer; Galipeau, Heather J.; Philip, Vivek; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L.; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Bercik, Premysl
The intestinal microbiota is a key determinant of gut homeostasis, which is achieved, in part, through regulation of antimicrobial peptide secretion. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency by which members of the intestinal microbiota induce the antimicrobial peptide REGIII and to elucidate the underlying pathways. We showed that germfree mice have low levels of REGIII-γ in their ileum and colon compared to mice with different intestinal microbiota backgrounds. Colonization with a microbiota of low diversity (altered Schaedler flora) did not induce the expression of REGIII-γ as effectively as a complex community (specific pathogen free). Monocolonization with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve, but not with the nonprobiotic commensal Escherichia coli JM83, upregulated REGIII-γ expression. Induction of REGIII-γ by B. breve was abrogated in mice lacking MyD88 and Ticam1 signaling. Both live and heat-inactivated B. breve but not spent culture medium from B. breve induced the expression of REGIII-α, the human ortholog and homolog of REGIII-γ, in human colonic epithelial cells (Caco-2). Taken together, the results suggest that REGIII-γ expression in the intestine correlates with the richness of microbiota composition. Also, specific bacteria such as Bifidobacterium breve NCC2950 effectively induce REGIII production in the intestine via the MyD88-Ticam1 pathway. Treatment with this probiotic may enhance the mucosal barrier and protect the host from infection and inflammation. PMID:24096422
Natividad, Jane M M; Hayes, Christina L; Motta, Jean-Paul; Jury, Jennifer; Galipeau, Heather J; Philip, Vivek; Garcia-Rodenas, Clara L; Kiyama, Hiroshi; Bercik, Premysl; Verdu, Elena F
The intestinal microbiota is a key determinant of gut homeostasis, which is achieved, in part, through regulation of antimicrobial peptide secretion. The aim of this study was to determine the efficiency by which members of the intestinal microbiota induce the antimicrobial peptide REGIII and to elucidate the underlying pathways. We showed that germfree mice have low levels of REGIII-γ in their ileum and colon compared to mice with different intestinal microbiota backgrounds. Colonization with a microbiota of low diversity (altered Schaedler flora) did not induce the expression of REGIII-γ as effectively as a complex community (specific pathogen free). Monocolonization with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve, but not with the nonprobiotic commensal Escherichia coli JM83, upregulated REGIII-γ expression. Induction of REGIII-γ by B. breve was abrogated in mice lacking MyD88 and Ticam1 signaling. Both live and heat-inactivated B. breve but not spent culture medium from B. breve induced the expression of REGIII-α, the human ortholog and homolog of REGIII-γ, in human colonic epithelial cells (Caco-2). Taken together, the results suggest that REGIII-γ expression in the intestine correlates with the richness of microbiota composition. Also, specific bacteria such as Bifidobacterium breve NCC2950 effectively induce REGIII production in the intestine via the MyD88-Ticam1 pathway. Treatment with this probiotic may enhance the mucosal barrier and protect the host from infection and inflammation.
Yang, Haiying; Liu, Aiping; Zhang, Ming; Ibrahim, Salam A; Pang, Zhihua; Leng, Xiaojing; Ren, Fazheng
We studied the effects of two bifidobacteria strains isolated from healthy centenarians on intestinal function in mice. Bifidobacterium adolescentis BBMN23 and Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 were orally administrated to specific pathogen-free BALB/c mice at different doses (2 x 10(11), 2 x 10(9), or 2 x 10(7) CFU/kg body weight) each day for 4 weeks. Villus height, crypt depth, villus width, and villus/crypt ratio (V/C) were determined. The content of duodenal secreted immunoglobulin A (sIgA) was also evaluated. There were clear increases in height and width of duodenal villi in both treated groups. Crypt depths were deeper in animals treated with BBMN23 than in controls, while depths were reduced in animals receiving BBMN68. The V/C ratio was increased after feeding with BBMN68, while BBMN23 had no significant effect. Both strains improved the sIgA content of the duodenum. These results suggest that BBMN23 and BBMN68 may improve intestinal digestion and ability and enhance immune barrier function in the intestine.
Van der Meulen, Roel; Makras, Lefteris; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Adriany, Tom; De Vuyst, Luc
The growth of pure cultures of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262 and Bacteroides fragilis LMG 10263 on fructose and oligofructose was examined and compared to that of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 through in vitro laboratory fermentations. Gas chromatography (GC) analysis was used to determine the different fractions of oligofructose and their degradation during the fermentation process. Both B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262 and B. fragilis LMG 10263 were able to grow on oligofructose as fast as on fructose, succinic acid being the major metabolite produced by both strains. B. longum BB536 grew slower on oligofructose than on fructose. Acetic acid and lactic acid were the main metabolites produced when fructose was used as the sole energy source. Increased amounts of formic acid and ethanol were produced when oligofructose was used as an energy source at the cost of lactic acid. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed a preferential metabolism of the short oligofructose fractions (e.g., F2 and F3) for B. longum BB536. After depletion of the short fractions, the larger oligofructose fractions (e.g., F4, GF4, F5, GF5, and F6) were metabolized, too. Both Bacteroides strains did not display such a preferential metabolism and degraded all oligofructose fractions simultaneously, transiently increasing the fructose concentration in the medium. This suggests a different mechanism for oligofructose breakdown between the strain of Bifidobacterium and both strains of Bacteroides, which helps to explain the bifidogenic nature of inulin-type fructans.
Muñoz, José Antonio Moreno; Chenoll, Empar; Casinos, Beatriz; Bataller, Esther; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Montava, Rebeca; Ribes, Juan Manuel; Buesa, Javier; Fàbrega, Joan; Rivero, Montserrat
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. It is well known that breast-feeding and vaccination afford infants protection. Since breast-feeding has drastically decreased in developed countries, efforts have been focused on the potential use of probiotics as preventive agents. In this study, a novel Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis strain was isolated from infant feces and selected, based on its capacity to inhibit in vitro rotavirus Wa replication (up to 36.05% infectious foci reduction) and also to protect cells from virus infection (up to 48.50% infectious foci reduction) in both MA-104 and HT-29 cell lines. Furthermore, studies using a BALB/c mouse model have proved that this strain provides preliminary in vivo protection against rotavirus infection. The strain has been deposited in the Spanish Type Culture Collection under the accession number CECT 7210. This novel strain has the main properties required of a probiotic, such as resistance to gastrointestinal juices, biliary salts, NaCl, and low pH, as well as adhesion to intestinal mucus and sensitivity to antibiotics. The food safety status has been confirmed by the absence of undesirable metabolite production and in acute ingestion studies of mice. Overall, these results demonstrate that Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 can be considered a probiotic able to inhibit rotavirus infection.
Li, Zhaoping; Summanen, Paula H; Komoriya, Tomoe; Finegold, Sydney M
We recently demonstrated that XOS increased the counts of Bifidobacterium in vivo without increasing Lactobacillus in healthy adults. In the current study, we evaluated the effect of XOS on the growth of 35 Bifidobacterium and 29 Lactobacillus strains in in vitro conditions. Bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The growth stimulation was determined by agar dilution technique on plates containing two-fold serial dilutions of XOS (100-0.1 mg/ml). The growth of 86% of Bifidobacterium strains was stimulated at 1.56 mg/ml XOS and 100% at 6.25 mg/ml XOS. The growth of 38% of Lactobacillus strains was stimulated at 1.56 mg/ml XOS and 62% at 6.25 mg/ml XOS; 31% of Lactobacillus were not stimulated by XOS. Our results further suggest that XOS may be beneficial in stimulating intestinal Bifidobacterium without having much effect on Lactobacillus. The potential role for XOS in managing obesity should be investigated further.
Zhang, Rujiao; He, Laping; Zhang, Ling; Li, Cuiqin; Zhu, Qiujin
Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases seriously harm human health, and Bifidobacterium is the most beneficial probiotic in the gastrointestinal tract of humans. This work aimed to screen cholesterol-lowering Bifidobacterium from Guizhou Xiang Pig and evaluate its tolerance to oxygen, acid, and bile. Twenty-seven aerotolerant strains with similar colony to Bifidobacterium were isolated through incubation at 37℃ in 20% (v/v) CO2-80% (v/v) atmospheric air by using Mupirocin lithium modified MRS agar medium, modified PTYG with added CaCO3, and modified PTYG supplemented with X-gal. Ten strains with cholesterol-lowering rates above 20% (w/w) were used for further screening. The selected strains’ tolerance to acid and bile was then determined. A combination of colony and cell morphology, physiological, and biochemical experiments, as well as 16S rRNA gene-sequence analysis, was performed. Results suggested that BZ25 with excellent characteristics of high cholesterol-removal rate of 36.32% (w/w), as well as tolerance to acid and bile, was identified as Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. To further evaluate Bifidobacterium BZ25’s growth characteristic and tolerance to oxygen, culture experiments were performed in liquid medium and an agar plate. Findings suggested that BZ25 grew well both in environmental 20% (v/v) CO2-80% (v/v) atmospheric air and in 100% atmospheric air because BZ25 reached an absorbance of 1.185 at 600 nm in 100% atmospheric air. Moreover, BZ25 was aerotolerant and can grow in an agar medium under the environmental condition of 100% atmospheric air. This study can lay a preliminary foundation for the potential industrial applications of BZ25. PMID:27499662
Toh, Hidehiro; Matsubara, Takehiro; Tomida, Shuta; Mimura, Iyo; Arakawa, Kensuke; Kikusui, Takefumi
ABSTRACT Bifidobacterium lemurum DSM 28807T was isolated from the gastrointestinal tracts of ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Here, we report the first draft genome sequence of this organism. PMID:28232445
Roy, D; Daoudi, L; Azaola, A
Oligosaccharide (OS) production, cell concentration (2 x 10(9) colony-forming unit/ml), lactose concentration (25% wt/vol), reaction time (6 h), and temperature (50 degrees C) were chosen as the central condition of the central composite design (CCD) for optimizing the production process using Bifidobacterium infantis RW-8120 in skim milk. Statistical analysis (P<0.01) revealed that the most relevant variable concerning OS production and yield was the lactose concentration. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) is good for the second-order OS production model (0.92) and fairly good for the second-order nonlinear OS yield model (0.816). An increase of lactose concentration and temperature resulted in a higher OS production. The optimal values for OS production appear to be near the area associated with the central points of the modeling design except for the lactose concentration, which was 40% (wt/vol) of the final volume.
We have characterized a new strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 7953, obtained by random UV mutagenesis, which produces less acetic acid than the wild type (CECT 7954) in three different experimental settings: De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without sodium acetate, resting cells, and skim milk. Genome sequencing revealed a single Phe-Ser substitution in the acetate kinase gene product that seems to be responsible for the strain's reduced acid production. Accordingly, acetate kinase specific activity was lower in the low acetate producer. Strain CECT 7953 produced less acetate, less ethanol, and more yoghourt-related volatile compounds in skim milk than the wild type did. Thus, CECT 7953 shows promising potential for the development of dairy products fermented exclusively by a bifidobacterial strain. PMID:22389372
Duranti, Sabrina; Turroni, Francesca; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Milani, Christian; Viappiani, Alice; Mangifesta, Marta; Gioiosa, Laura; Palanza, Paola; van Sinderen, Douwe
Bifidobacteria are members of the gut microbiota, but the genetic basis for their adaptation to the human gut is poorly understood. The analysis of the 2,203,222-bp genome of Bifidobacterium adolescentis 22L revealed a nutrient acquisition strategy that targets diet/plant-derived glycans, in particular starch and starch-like carbohydrates. Starch-like carbohydrates were shown to support the growth of B. adolescentis 22L. Transcriptome profiling of 22L cultures grown under in vitro conditions or during colonization of the murine gut by RNA sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR assays revealed the expression of a set of chromosomal loci responsible for starch metabolism as well as for pilus production. Such extracellular structures include so-called sortase-dependent and type IVb pili, which may be involved in gut colonization of 22L through adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. PMID:25063659
dos Reis, Caio Vinicius; Bernardes, Amanda; Polikarpov, Igor
Xylose isomerase (EC 126.96.36.199) is a key enzyme in xylose metabolism which is industrially important for the transformation of glucose and xylose into fructose and xylulose, respectively. The Bifidobacterium adolescentis xylA gene (NC_008618.1) encoding xylose isomerase (XI) was cloned and the enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant XI was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 3350 as the precipitating agent. A complete native data set was collected to 1.7 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group P21212, with unit-cell parameters a = 88.78, b = 123.98, c = 78.63 Å. PMID:23695585
Phoem, Atchara N.; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P.
Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. PMID:25854832
Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P
Bifidobacterium longum was microencapsulated by extrusion technique and added in fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice. Microencapsulation of B. longum with Eleutherine americana extract, oligosaccharides extract, and commercial fructo-oligosaccharides was assessed for the bacterial survival after sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, and refrigeration storage. Microencapsulated B. longum with the extract and oligosaccharides extract in the food products showed better survival than free cells under adverse conditions. Sensory analysis demonstrated that the products containing co-encapsulated bacterial cells were more acceptable by consumers than free cells. Pineapple juice prepared with co-encapsulated cells had lower values for over acidification, compared with the juice with free cells added. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana could enhance functional properties of fresh milk tofu and pineapple juice.
Milani, Christian; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Bottacini, Francesca; Strati, Francesco; Arioli, Stefania; Foroni, Elena; Turroni, Francesca; van Sinderen, Douwe
Strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are extensively exploited by the food industry as health-promoting bacteria, although the genetic variability of members belonging to this taxon has so far not received much scientific attention. In this article, we describe the complete genetic makeup of the B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl12 genome and discuss the genetic relatedness of this strain with other sequenced strains belonging to this taxon. Moreover, a detailed comparative genomic analysis of B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes was performed, which revealed a closely related and isogenic nature of all currently available B. animalis subsp. lactis strains, thus strongly suggesting a closed pan-genome structure of this bacterial group. PMID:23645200
Lee, Hye-Won; Jeon, Hye-Yeon; Choi, Hye-Jeong; Kim, Na-Ri; Choung, Woo-Jae; Koo, Ye-Seul; Ko, Dam-Seul; You, SangGuan; Shim, Jae-Hoon
In this study, a novel α-amylase was cloned from Bifidobacterium longum and named BiLA. The enzyme exhibited optimal activity at 20 °C and a pH value of 5.0. Kinetic analysis using various carbohydrate substrates revealed that BiLA had the highest k(cat/)K(m) value for amylose. Interestingly, analysis of the enzymatic reaction products demonstrated that BiLA specifically catalyzed the hydrolysis of oligosaccharides and starches up to G5 from the nonreducing ends. To determine whether BiLA can be used to generate slowly digestible starch (SDS), starch was treated with BiLA, and the kinetic parameters were analyzed using porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) and amyloglucosidase (AMG). Compared to normal starch, BiLA-treated starch showed lower k(cat)/K(m) values with PPA and AMG, suggesting that BiLA is a potential candidate for the production of SDS.
Yasui, Hisako; Kiyoshima, Junko; Hori, Tetuji; Shida, Kan
Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater than that upon oral immunization with influenza virus only. These findings demonstrated that the oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 increased anti-influenza virus IgG antibodies in serum and protected against influenza virus infection. The oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 may enhance antigen-specific IgG against various pathogenic antigens taken orally and induce protection against various virus infections. PMID:10066652
Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja
We have characterized a new strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 7953, obtained by random UV mutagenesis, which produces less acetic acid than the wild type (CECT 7954) in three different experimental settings: De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without sodium acetate, resting cells, and skim milk. Genome sequencing revealed a single Phe-Ser substitution in the acetate kinase gene product that seems to be responsible for the strain's reduced acid production. Accordingly, acetate kinase specific activity was lower in the low acetate producer. Strain CECT 7953 produced less acetate, less ethanol, and more yoghourt-related volatile compounds in skim milk than the wild type did. Thus, CECT 7953 shows promising potential for the development of dairy products fermented exclusively by a bifidobacterial strain.
Chaplin, Andrei V; Efimov, Boris A; Smeianov, Vladimir V; Kafarskaia, Lyudmila I; Pikina, Alla P; Shkoporov, Andrei N
Members of genus Bifidobacterium are Gram-positive bacteria, representing a large part of the human infant microbiota and moderately common in adults. However, our knowledge about their diversity, intraspecific phylogeny and long-term persistence in humans is still limited. Bifidobacterium longum is generally considered to be the most common and prevalent species in the intestinal microbiota. In this work we studied whole genome sequences of 28 strains of B. longum, including 8 sequences described in this paper. Part of these strains were isolated from healthy children during a long observation period (up to 10 years between isolation from the same patient). The three known subspecies (longum, infantis and suis) could be clearly divided using sequence-based phylogenetic methods, gene content and the average nucleotide identity. The profiles of glycoside hydrolase genes reflected the different ecological specializations of these three subspecies. The high impact of horizontal gene transfer on genomic diversity was observed, which is possibly due to a large number of prophages and rapidly spreading plasmids. The pan-genome characteristics of the subspecies longum corresponded to the open pan-genome model. While the major part of the strain-specific genetic loci represented transposons and phage-derived regions, a large number of cell envelope synthesis genes were also observed within this category, representing high variability of cell surface molecules. We observed the cases of isolation of high genetically similar strains of B. longum from the same patients after long periods of time, however, we didn't succeed in the isolation of genetically identical bacteria: a fact, reflecting the high plasticity of microbiota in children.
Loquasto, Joseph R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G.; Stahl, Buffy; Chen, Chun
Many strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are considered health-promoting probiotic microorganisms and are commonly formulated into fermented dairy foods. Analyses of previously sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis have revealed little genetic diversity, suggesting that it is a monomorphic subspecies. However, during a multilocus sequence typing survey of Bifidobacterium, it was revealed that B. animalis subsp. lactis ATCC 27673 gave a profile distinct from that of the other strains of the subspecies. As part of an ongoing study designed to understand the genetic diversity of this subspecies, the genome of this strain was sequenced and compared to other sequenced genomes of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. animalis subsp. animalis. The complete genome of ATCC 27673 was 1,963,012 bp, contained 1,616 genes and 4 rRNA operons, and had a G+C content of 61.55%. Comparative analyses revealed that the genome of ATCC 27673 contained six distinct genomic islands encoding 83 open reading frames not found in other strains of the same subspecies. In four islands, either phage or mobile genetic elements were identified. In island 6, a novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) locus which contained 81 unique spacers was identified. This type I-E CRISPR-cas system differs from the type I-C systems previously identified in this subspecies, representing the first identification of a different system in B. animalis subsp. lactis. This study revealed that ATCC 27673 is a strain of B. animalis subsp. lactis with novel genetic content and suggests that the lack of genetic variability observed is likely due to the repeated sequencing of a limited number of widely distributed commercial strains. PMID:23995933
Hughes, K. R.; Harnisch, L. C.; Alcon-Giner, C.; Mitra, S.; Wright, C. J.; Ketskemety, J.
Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi—a process termed ‘cell shedding’. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding. Bifidobacterial-induced protection appears to be mediated by a specific bifidobacterial surface exopolysaccharide and interactions with host MyD88 resulting in downregulation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic responses to protect epithelial cells under highly inflammatory conditions. Our results reveal an important and previously undescribed role for B. breve, in positively modulating epithelial cell shedding outcomes via bacterial- and host-dependent factors, supporting the notion that manipulation of the microbiota affects intestinal disease outcomes. PMID:28123052
Gursoy, Oguz; Gokce, Ramazan; Con, Ahmet Hilmi; Kinik, Ozer
Survival of the probiotic adjunct culture Bifidobacterium longum and cheese starters during ripening of white brined cheese, effect of the probiotic culture on physicochemical properties and sensorial attributes of cheeses were investigated throughout 90 d of ripening. Bifidobacterium longum were able to survive at higher levels (>10(7 )cfu/g cheese) than the therapeutic minimum (10(6)-10(7 )cfu/g cheese) after 90 d and did not have any negative effect on the survival of Streptococcus spp. (including common cheese starters). Incorporation of the probiotic adjunct into white brined cheese and high levels of their survival rates during ripening had an insignificant effect on the composition of cheeses. Results indicated that white brined cheese is a suitable food matrix for the delivery of B. longum used in this study, and white brined cheeses with B. longum may be considered as a probiotic dairy product.
Hughes, K R; Harnisch, L C; Alcon-Giner, C; Mitra, S; Wright, C J; Ketskemety, J; van Sinderen, D; Watson, A J M; Hall, L J
Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi-a process termed 'cell shedding'. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding. Bifidobacterial-induced protection appears to be mediated by a specific bifidobacterial surface exopolysaccharide and interactions with host MyD88 resulting in downregulation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic responses to protect epithelial cells under highly inflammatory conditions. Our results reveal an important and previously undescribed role for B. breve, in positively modulating epithelial cell shedding outcomes via bacterial- and host-dependent factors, supporting the notion that manipulation of the microbiota affects intestinal disease outcomes.
Aoki, Ryo; Kamikado, Kohei; Suda, Wataru; Takii, Hiroshi; Mikami, Yumiko; Suganuma, Natsuki; Hattori, Masahira; Koga, Yasuhiro
The gut microbiota is an important contributor to the worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity and diabetes. The anti-MS effects exerted by Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 (BlaG), a highly proliferative Bifidobacterium strain in the gut, and B. longum ssp. longum JCM1217T (BloJ) were comparatively examined. BlaG treatment reduced visceral fat accumulation and improved glucose tolerance, whereas BloJ had no effect on these parameters. Gut microbial analysis revealed that BlaG exerted stronger effects on the overall bacterial structure of the gut microbiota than BloJ, including enrichment of the genus Bifidobacterium. The levels of acetate and glucagon-like peptide-1 were increased by BlaG treatment in both the gut and plasma, but not by BloJ treatment. Correlation analysis suggested that the elevation of gut acetate levels by BlaG treatment plays a pivotal role in the BlaG-induced anti-MS effects. These findings indicated that BlaG, a highly viable and proliferative probiotic, improves metabolic disorders by modulating gut microbiota, which results in the elevation of SCFAs, especially acetate. PMID:28252037
Guglielmetti, Simone; Karp, Matti; Mora, Diego; Tamagnini, Isabella; Parini, Carlo
In this study, we performed molecular characterization and sequence analysis of three plasmids from the human intestinal isolate Bifidobacterium longum biovar longum NAL8 and developed a novel vector screening system. Plasmids pNAL8H (10 kb) and pNAL8M (4.9 kb) show close sequence similarity to and the same gene organization as the already characterized B. longum plasmids. The B. longum plasmid pNAC1 was identified as being most closely related to pNAL8L (3.5 kb). However, DNA sequence analysis suggested that direct repeat-rich sites could have promoted several recombination events to diversify the two plasmid molecules. We verified the likely rolling circle replication of plasmid pNAL8L and studied the phylogenetic relationship in all the Bifidobacterium plasmids fully sequenced to date based on in silico comparative sequence analysis of their replication proteins and iteron regions. Our transformation experiments confirmed that the ColE1 replication origin from high-copy-number pUC vectors could interfere with the replication apparatus of Bifidobacterium plasmids and give rise to false positive clones. As a result, we developed a system suitable for avoiding possible interference by other functional replication modules on the vector and for screening functional replicons from wild-type plasmids.
Aoki, Ryo; Kamikado, Kohei; Suda, Wataru; Takii, Hiroshi; Mikami, Yumiko; Suganuma, Natsuki; Hattori, Masahira; Koga, Yasuhiro
The gut microbiota is an important contributor to the worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS), which includes obesity and diabetes. The anti-MS effects exerted by Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 (BlaG), a highly proliferative Bifidobacterium strain in the gut, and B. longum ssp. longum JCM1217(T) (BloJ) were comparatively examined. BlaG treatment reduced visceral fat accumulation and improved glucose tolerance, whereas BloJ had no effect on these parameters. Gut microbial analysis revealed that BlaG exerted stronger effects on the overall bacterial structure of the gut microbiota than BloJ, including enrichment of the genus Bifidobacterium. The levels of acetate and glucagon-like peptide-1 were increased by BlaG treatment in both the gut and plasma, but not by BloJ treatment. Correlation analysis suggested that the elevation of gut acetate levels by BlaG treatment plays a pivotal role in the BlaG-induced anti-MS effects. These findings indicated that BlaG, a highly viable and proliferative probiotic, improves metabolic disorders by modulating gut microbiota, which results in the elevation of SCFAs, especially acetate.
Firrman, Jenni; Liu, LinShu; Zhang, Liqing; Arango Argoty, Gustavo; Wang, Minqian; Tomasula, Peggy; Kobori, Masuko; Pontious, Sherri; Xiao, Weidong
Quercetin is one of the most abundant polyphenols found in fruits and vegetables. The ability of the gut microbiota to metabolize quercetin has been previously documented; however, the effect that quercetin may have on commensal gut microbes remains unclear. In the present study, the effects of quercetin on the commensal gut microbes Ruminococcus gauvreauii, Bifidobacterium catenulatum and Enterococcus caccae were determined through evaluation of growth patterns and cell morphology, and analysis of genetic expression profiles between quercetin treated and non-treated groups using Single Molecule RNA sequencing via Helicos technology. Results of this study revealed that phenotypically, quercetin did not prevent growth of Ruminococcus gauvreauii, mildly suppressed growth of Bifidobacterium catenulatum, and moderately inhibited growth of Enterococcus caccae. Genetic analysis revealed that in response to quercetin, Ruminococcus gauvreauii down regulated genes responsible for protein folding, purine synthesis and metabolism. Bifidobacterium catenulatum increased expression of the ABC transport pathway and decreased metabolic pathways and cell wall synthesis. Enterococcus caccae upregulated genes responsible for energy production and metabolism, and downregulated pathways of stress response, translation and sugar transport. For the first time, the effect of quercetin on the growth and genetic expression of three different commensal gut bacteria was documented. The data provides insight into the interactions between genetic regulation and growth. This is also a unique demonstration of how RNA single molecule sequencing can be used to study the gut microbiota.
Wang, Wei; Yang, Shu-Fen; Ren, Li-Hong; Zhang, Xiu-Xiu; Yu, Shui-Lian
AIM: To investigate the protective effect of bifidobacterium in endotoxin-induced intestinal injury in preweaning rats. METHODS: Preweaning rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 40 for each): a control group (group C), a model group (group E) and a treatment group (group T). Both groups E and T were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at a dose of 5 mg/kg (5 mg/L in normal saline), and group T was intragastrically administrated with bifidobacterium suspension (2.0 × 109 CFU/mL, 0.5 mL each time, twice a day, until the end of the experiment) 7 d before LPS administration. Group C was intraperitoneally injected with normal saline. After intraperitoneal injection and intragastric administration, the rats were placed back to the initial cage to receive breast feeding. The rats were killed at 2, 6, 12, 24 or 72 h, respectively, after endotoxin or physiological saline injection to collect serum and ileal tissue samples. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) contents in serum and ileum were detected at different times, and expression of ileal defensin-5 mRNA was evaluated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Serum and ileal MPO contents in group E were significantly higher than those in group C (serum contents: 107.50 ± 17.70 vs 157.14 ± 24.67, P < 0.05; ileal contents: 1.03 ± 0.21 vs 1.57 ± 0.33, P < 0.05), which peaked at 12 h and 6 h, respectively. MPO contents in group T were significantly lower than those in group E (serum contents: 114.38 ± 24.56 vs 145.25 ± 23.62, P < 0.05; ileal contents: 1.25 ± 0.24 vs 1.57 ± 0.33, P < 0.05). The expression of defensin-5 mRNA in group E was significantly higher than that in group C (0.953 ± 0.238 vs 0.631 ± 0.146, P < 0.05), which peaked at 2 h, and then decreased gradually. The expression of defensin-5 mRNA in group T was significantly lower than that in group E (0.487 ± 0.149 vs 0.758 ± 0.160, P < 0.05) apparently in 24 h. The expression of defensin-5 mRNA at 2 h in group T
Yuan, Jing; Wang, Bin; Sun, Zhongke; Bo, Xin; Yuan, Xitong; He, Xiang; Zhao, Hongqing; Du, Xinying; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Ling; Jia, Leili; Wang, Yufei; Wei, Kaihua; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xuemin; Sun, Yansong; Huang, Liuyu; Zeng, Ming
To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptation of Bifidobacterium longum to the intestinal tract, we utilized a new model for rabbit intestinal culture of B. longum and reported the changes in proteomic profiles after incubation in the in vivo environment. By 2D-PAGE coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and/or electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) analyses, proteomic profiles of B. longum strain NCC2705 grown in the in vivo and in vitro environments were compared. Confirmed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, which exhibited at least a 3-fold change or greater, 19 up-regulated proteins, 14 down-regulated proteins, and 4 proteins with mobility changes were identified during intestinal growth. These identified proteins include key stress proteins, metabolism-related proteins, and proteins related to translation. Our results indicate that some useful proteins are expressed at higher levels in cells during intestinal growth. These proteins reflected the adaptation of B. longum NCC2705 to the intestine, such as EF-Tu which contributes to the retention or attachment as a Bifidobacterium adhesin-like factor, bile salt hydrolase (BSH) which might play an important role in the molecular mechanisms for the initial interaction of probiotic with the intestinal environment, and stress proteins which defend B. longum against the action of bile salts and other harmful ingredients of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The most striking fact of our observation was that four proteins GlnA1, PurC, LuxS, and Pgk exhibit clear post-translational modification. Western blot (WB) analysis and Pro-Q Diamond staining revealed that substances of the GIT trigger Pgk and LuxS phosphorylation at Ser/Thr residues for bacteria grown in vivo. These proteins were identified for the first time as bifidobacterial phosphoproteins. Our data suggest that the phosphorylated autoinducer-2 production
Hevia, Arancha; Milani, Christian; López, Patricia; Donado, Carmen D.; Cuervo, Adriana; González, Sonia; Suárez, Ana; Turroni, Francesca; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ventura, Marco; Sánchez, Borja; Margolles, Abelardo
Accumulated evidence suggests a relationship between specific allergic processes, such as atopic eczema in children, and an aberrant fecal microbiota. However, little is known about the complete microbiota profile of adult individuals suffering from asthma. We determined the fecal microbiota in 21 adult patients suffering allergic asthma (age 39.43 ± 10.98 years old) and compare it with the fecal microbiota of 22 healthy controls (age 39.29 ± 9.21 years old) using culture independent techniques. An Ion-Torrent 16S rRNA gene-based amplification and sequencing protocol was used to determine the fecal microbiota profile of the individuals. Sequence microbiota analysis showed that the microbial alpha-diversity was not significantly different between healthy and allergic individuals and no clear clustering of the samples was obtained using an unsupervised principal component analysis. However, the analysis of specific bacterial groups allowed us to detect significantly lower levels of bifidobacteria in patients with long-term asthma. Also, in allergic individuals the Bifidobacterium adolescentis species prevailed within the bifidobacterial population. The reduction in the levels on bifidobacteria in patients with long-term asthma suggests a new target in allergy research and opens possibilities for the therapeutic modulation of the gut microbiota in this group of patients. PMID:26840903
Hayashi, Kyohei; Maekawa, Itaru; Tanaka, Kunifusa; Ijyuin, Susumu; Shiwa, Yu; Suzuki, Ippei; Niimura, Youichi; Kawasaki, Shinji
Bifidobacterium asteroides, originally isolated from honeybee intestine, was found to grow under 20% O(2) conditions in liquid shaking culture using MRS broth. Catalase activity was detected only in cells that were exposed to O(2) and grown in medium containing a haem source, and these cells showed higher viability on exposure to H(2)O(2). Passage through multiple column chromatography steps enabled purification of the active protein, which was identified as a homologue of haem catalase on the basis of its N-terminal sequence. The enzyme is a homodimer composed of a subunit with a molecular mass of 55 kDa, and the absorption spectrum shows the typical profile of bacterial haem catalase. A gene encoding haem catalase, which has an amino acid sequence coinciding with the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified protein, was found in the draft genome sequence data of B. asteroides. Expression of the katA gene was induced in response to O(2) exposure. The haem catalase from B. asteroides shows about 70-80% identity with those from lactobacilli and other lactic acid bacteria, and no homologues were found in other bifidobacterial genomes.
González, R; Blancas, A; Santillana, R; Azaola, A; Wacher, C
Fermentation conditions were developed to allow Bifidobacterium infantis to grow in the presence of air. Batch fermentations in TPYG medium, starting from anoxic conditions followed by the application of low airflow rates [0.02-0.1 air volume, per liquid media volume, per minute (vvm)], were analyzed for growth, oxygen uptake, and product formation by the bacterium. Under all aerated fermentations, B. infantis showed high aerotolerance, with a maximum oxygen-specific consumption rate of 0.34 mmol oxygen per gram dry cell weight per hour in the presence of 0.06 vvm. Similar growth yields were obtained under oxic and anoxic conditions (0.11-0.13 and 0.11 g dry cell weight per mmol glucose, respectively). Oxygen also influenced metabolite formation since lactate production and its molar relation to acetate increased and formate decreased with aeration rate. Under anoxic conditions, a maximum concentration of 8.1 mM lactate and an acetate/lactate ratio of 3.5:1 were obtained, while under oxic conditions the lactate concentration increased more than two-fold and the acetate/lactate molar ratio decreased to 1.5:1. The possibility of balancing acetate/lactate molar ratios for organoleptic purposes as well as for obtaining good growth under microaerated conditions was demonstrated.
Melanie, Hakiki; Susilowati, Agustine; Maryati, Yati
Inulin hydrolysate is a result of inulin hydrolysis by inulinase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi isolated from dahlia tuber skin in the formation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as dietary fiber. Inulin hydrolysate fermented by Bifidobacterium breve has a potential as cholesterol binder in digestive system due to dietary fiber content in inulin. This study was conducted to evaluate the best cholesterol binding capacity by the variation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) culture concentration of 10%, 20% and 30% (v/v), respectively. Fermentation process were conducted with inulin hydrolysate concentration of 25% (w/v), skim milk 7,5% (w/v) and various LAB culture concentration at 40 °C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. The results showed that the variation of LAB culture concentrations affect the cholesterol binding ability in fermented inulin hydrolysate. The fermentation process with 10% LAB culture concentration at 40°C for 48 hours resulted in the highest cholesterol binding capacity (CBC) of 13,69 mg/g at pH 7and 14,44 mg/g at pH 2 with composition of total acids of 0,787%, soluble dietary fiber of 0,396%, insoluble dietary fiber of 5,47%, total solids of 14,476%, total sugars of 472,484 mg/mL, reducing sugar of 92 mg/mL and total plate count (TPC) of 7,278 log CFU/mL, respectively.
Huang, Shi-Ping; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Wang, Peng; Zhu, Guo-Ping
Bifidobacterium longum is a very important gram-positive non-pathogenic bacterium in the human gastrointestinal tract for keeping the digestive and immune system healthy. Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) from B. longum (BlIDH), a novel member in Type II subfamily, was overexpressed, purified and biochemically characterized in detail. The active form of BlIDH was an 83-kDa homodimer. Kinetic analysis showed BlIDH was a NADP⁺-dependent IDH (NADP-IDH), with a 567- and 193-fold preference for NADP⁺ over NAD⁺ in the presence of Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), respectively. The maximal activity for BlIDH occurred at 60 °C (with Mn(2+)) and 65 °C (with Mg(2+)), and pH 7.5 (with Mn(2+)) and pH 8.0 (with Mg(2+)). Heat-inactivation profiles revealed that BlIDH retained 50% of maximal activity after incubation at 45 °C for 20 min with either Mn(2+) or Mg(2+). Furthermore, the coenzyme specificity of BlIDH can be completely reversed from NADP⁺ to NAD⁺ by a factor of 2387 by replacing six residues. This current work, the first report on the coenzyme specificity conversion of Type II NADP-IDHs, would provide better insight into the evolution of NADP⁺ use by the IDH family.
Sánchez, Borja; González-Rodríguez, Irene; Arboleya, Silvia; López, Patricia; Suárez, Ana
The use of beneficial microorganisms, the so-called probiotics, to improve human health is gaining popularity. However, not all of the probiotic strains trigger the same responses and they differ in their interaction with the host. In spite of the limited knowledge on mechanisms of action some of the probiotic effects seem to be exerted through maintenance of the gastrointestinal barrier function and modulation of the immune system. In the present work, we have addressed in vitro the response of the intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 to the strain Bifidobacterium breve IPLA20004. In the array of 84 genes involved in inflammation tested, the expression of 12 was modified by the bifidobacteria. The genes of chemokine CXCL6, the chemokine receptor CCR7, and, specially, the complement component C3 were upregulated. Indeed, HT29 cells cocultivated with B. breve produced significantly higher levels of protein C3a. The proteome of HT29 cells showed increased levels of cytokeratin-8 in the presence of B. breve. Altogether, it seems that B. breve IPLA20004 could favor the recruitment of innate immune cells to the mucosa reinforcing, as well as the physical barrier of the intestinal epithelium. PMID:25793196
Kelly, William J.; Cookson, Adrian L.; Altermann, Eric; Lambie, Suzanne C.; Perry, Rechelle; Teh, Koon Hoong; Otter, Don E.; Shapiro, Nicole; Woyke, Tanja; Leahy, Sinead C.
Ruminant animals contribute significantly to the global value of agriculture and rely on a complex microbial community for efficient digestion. However, little is known of how this microbial-host relationship develops and is maintained. To begin to address this, we have determined the ability of three Bifidobacterium species isolated from the faeces of newborn calves to grow on carbohydrates typical of a newborn ruminant diet. Genome sequences have been determined for these bacteria with analysis of the genomes providing insights into the host association and identification of several genes that may mediate interactions with the ruminant gastrointestinal tract. The present study provides a starting point from which we can define the role of potential beneficial microbes in the nutrition of young ruminants and begin to influence the interactions between the microbiota and the host. The differences observed in genomic content hint at niche partitioning among the bifidobacterial species analysed and the different strategies they employ to successfully adapt to this habitat. PMID:27468806
Wu, Guojun; Zhang, Chenhong; Wu, Huan; Wang, Ruirui; Shen, Jian; Wang, Linghua; Zhao, Yufeng; Pang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhao, Liping
ABSTRACT The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95) of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample. Intriguingly, these five B. pseudocatenulatum strains showed differential responses during the dietary intervention. Two strains were largely unaffected, while the other three were promoted to different extents by the changes in dietary carbohydrate resources. The differential responses of these strains were consistent with their functional clustering based on the COGs (Clusters of Orthologous Groups), including those involved with the ABC-type sugar transport systems, suggesting that the strain-specific genomic variations may have contributed to the niche adaption. Particularly, B. pseudocatenulatum C15, which had the most diverse types and highest gene copy numbers of carbohydrate-active enzymes targeting plant polysaccharides, had the highest abundance after the dietary intervention. These studies show the importance of understanding genomic diversity of specific members of the gut microbiota if precise nutrition approaches are to be realized. PMID:28196965
Daigle, A; Roy, D; Bélanger, G; Vuillemard, J C
Probiotic cheeses (Cheddar-like cheese) were produced with microfiltered milk standardized with cream enriched with native phosphocaseinate retentate and fermented by Bifidobacterium infantis. During the manufacture and storage of cheeses, viability of the bifidobacteria was determined. Biochemical changes such as proteolysis, sugar metabolism, and organic acids production were estimated. No bifidobacteria growth was observed during cheese-making steps. Bifidobacteria survived very well in cheeses packed in vacuum sealed bags kept at 4 degrees C for 84 d and remained above 3 x 10(6) cfu/g of cheese. No significant difference was observed between cheeses produced with or without bifidobacteria for fat, protein, moisture, salt, ash, or pH. After 12 wk of storage, more than 56% of the as1-CN was hydrolyzed in cheeses that were produced with bifidobacteria and inoculated at 10(8) cfu/g in the cream, and > 45% of hydrolysis was observed in the control cheese. However, no significant differences in the electrophoretic sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE patterns were observed in cheeses at any period of storage. At the first day after manufacture, lactose was completely hydrolyzed in cheeses made with bifidobacteria, which suggested high beta-galactosidase activity by B. infantis. Small quantities of acetic acid were detected in bifidus cheeses. The results indicated that B. infantis introduced into hard pressed cheese exhibited excellent viability during storage for 12 wk and could be metabolically active.
Garrido, Daniel; Kim, Jae Han; German, J Bruce; Raybould, Helen E; Mills, David A
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) is a common member of the infant intestinal microbiota, and it has been characterized by its foraging capacity for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). Its genome sequence revealed an overabundance of the Family 1 of solute binding proteins (F1SBPs), part of ABC transporters and associated with the import of oligosaccharides. In this study we have used the Mammalian Glycan Array to determine the specific affinities of these proteins. This was correlated with binding protein expression induced by different prebiotics including HMO. Half of the F1SBPs in B. infantis were determined to bind mammalian oligosaccharides. Their affinities included different blood group structures and mucin oligosaccharides. Related to HMO, other proteins were specific for oligomers of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and polylactosamines with different degrees of fucosylation. Growth on HMO induced the expression of specific binding proteins that import HMO isomers, but also bind blood group and mucin oligosaccharides, suggesting coregulated transport mechanisms. The prebiotic inulin induced other family 1 binding proteins with affinity for intestinal glycans. Most of the host glycan F1SBPs in B. infantis do not have homologs in other bifidobacteria. Finally, some of these proteins were found to be adherent to intestinal epithelial cells in vitro. In conclusion, this study represents further evidence for the particular adaptations of B. infantis to the infant gut environment, and helps to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process.
Oberg, Taylor S; Ward, Robert E; Steele, James L; Broadbent, Jeff R
Consumer and commercial interest in foods containing probiotic bifidobacteria is increasing. However, because bifidobacteria are anaerobic, oxidative stress can diminish cell viability during production and storage of bioactive foods. We previously found Bifidobacterium longum strain NCC2705 had significantly greater intrinsic and inducible resistance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than strain D2957. Here, we explored the basis for these differences by examining the transcriptional responses of both strains to sub-lethal H2O2 exposure for 5- or 60-min. Strain NCC2705 had 288 genes that were differentially expressed after the 5-min treatment and 114 differentially expressed genes after the 60-min treatment. In contrast, strain D2957 had only 21 and 90 differentially expressed genes after the 5- and 60-min treatments, respectively. Both strains showed up-regulation of genes coding enzymes implicated in oxidative stress resistance, such as thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase, peroxiredoxin, ferredoxin, glutaredoxin, and anaerobic ribonucleotide reductase, but induction levels were typically highest in NCC2705. Compared to D2957, NCC2705 also had more up-regulated genes involved in transcriptional regulation and more down-regulated genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism. These results provide a greater understanding of the molecular basis for oxidative stress resistance in B. longum and the factors that contribute to strain-to-strain variability in survival in bioactive food products.
O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; van Sinderen, Douwe
Summary In this study, we describe the functional characterization of the Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 gal locus, which is dedicated to the utilization of galactan, a plant‐derived polysaccharide. Using a combination of molecular approaches we conclude that the galA gene of B. breve UCC2003 encodes a β‐1,4‐endogalactanase producing galacto‐oligosaccharides, which are specifically internalized by an ABC transport system, encoded by galBCDE, and which are then hydrolysed to galactose moieties by a dedicated intracellular β‐galactosidase, specified by galG. The generated galactose molecules are presumed to be fed into the fructose‐6‐phosphate phosphoketolase pathway via the Leloir pathway, thereby allowing B. breve UCC2003 to use galactan as its sole carbon and energy source. In addition to these findings we demonstrate that GalR is a LacI‐type DNA‐binding protein, which not only appears to control transcription of the galCDEGR operon, but also that of the galA gene. PMID:21375716
Gagnon, Mérilie; Savard, Patricia; Rivière, Audrey; LaPointe, Gisèle
Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum is among the dominant species of the human gastrointestinal microbiota and could thus have potential as probiotics. New targets such as antioxidant properties have interest for beneficial effects on health. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bioaccessibility of antioxidants in milk fermented by selected B. longum subsp. longum strains during in vitro dynamic digestion. The antioxidant capacity of cell extracts from 38 strains, of which 32 belong to B. longum subsp. longum, was evaluated with the ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) method. On the basis of screening and gene sequence typing by multilocus locus sequence analysis (MLSA), five strains were chosen for fermenting reconstituted skim milk. Antioxidant capacity varied among the strains tested (P = 0.0009). Two strains of B. longum subsp. longum (CUETM 172 and 171) showed significantly higher ORAC values than the other bifidobacteria strains. However, there does not appear to be a relationship between gene sequence types and antioxidant capacity. The milk fermented by each of the five strains selected (CUETM 268, 172, 245, 247, or PRO 16-10) did not have higher initial ORAC values compared to the nonfermented milk samples. However, higher bioaccessibility of antioxidants in fermented milk (175–358%) was observed during digestion. PMID:25802836
Yuan, K-T; Yu, H-L; Feng, W-D; Chong, P; Yang, T; Xue, C-L; Yu, M; Shi, H-P
Intestinal mucositis is a common toxic side effect in cancer patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium infantis in a rat model of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, 5-FU, and 5-FU + B. infantis. A single intraperitoneal injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) was used to induce intestinal mucositis. B. infantis (1×109 cfu) was administered for 11 days, starting from 7 days before 5-FU injection. Intestinal mucositis was evaluated based on body weight, villus height, immunohistological expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), levels of the pro-inflammatory factors interleukin 1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentration. The results showed that the 5-FU + B. infantis group demonstrated a higher body weight and villus height, increased expression of PCNA, reduced expression of NF-κB and pro-inflammatory factors, and lower MPO concentration compared to the 5-FU group. These data suggest that probiotic B. infantis is effective in reducing chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis in rats.
van den Broek, L A M; van Boxtel, E L; Kievit, R P; Verhoef, R; Beldman, G; Voragen, A G J
Clones of a genomic library of Bifidobacterium adolescentis were grown in minimal medium with sucrose as sole carbon source. An enzymatic fructose dehydrogenase assay was used to identify sucrose-degrading enzymes. Plasmids were isolated from the positive colonies and sequence analysis revealed that two types of insert were present, which only differed with respect to their orientation in the plasmid. An open reading frame of 1,515 nucleotides with high homology for sucrose phosphorylases was detected on these inserts. The gene was designated SucP and encoded a protein of 56,189 Da. SucP was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. The molecular mass of SucP was 58 kDa, as estimated by SDS-PAGE, while 129 kDa was found with gel permeation, suggesting that the native enzyme was a dimer. The enzyme showed high activity towards sucrose and a lower extent towards alpha-glucose-1-phosphate. The transglucosylation properties were investigated using a broad range of monomeric sugars as acceptor substrate for the recombinant enzyme, while alpha-glucose-1-phosphate served as donor. D- and L-arabinose, D- and L-arabitol, and xylitol showed the highest production of transglucosylation products. The investigated disaccharides and trisaccharides were not suitable as acceptors. The structure of the transglucosylation product obtained with D-arabinose as acceptor was elucidated by NMR. The structure of the synthesized non-reducing dimer was alpha-Glcp(1-->1)beta-Araf.
Ribeiro, Cláudia Mello; Costa, Veruska Maia; Gomes, Maria Isabel Franchi Vasconcelos; Golim, Marjorie Assis; Modolo, José Rafael; Langoni, Hélio
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a synbiotic composed of Bifidobacterium animalis and fructooligosaccharides on female rats infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Female Wistar rats, treated or not with dexamethasone, were daily supplemented with synbiotics for 21 days. After 15 days of supplementation, the rats were orally infected with 10(4)T. gondii bradyzoites. Blood samples were collected to measure the levels of IFN-γ, IL-10 and T. gondii antibodies. All synbiotic-supplemented rats survived until the end of the experiment; however, non-supplemented dexamethasone-treated rats died between the fifth and the eighth days after T. gondii infection. Dexamethasone-treated rats supplemented with synbiotics (P<0.05) were capable of synthesizing IFN-γ, and this immunological response was essential to ensure their survival. In addition, brain cysts were found in one rat not supplemented with synbiotics. Results suggest that the synbiotic composed of B. animalis and fructooligosaccharides may be beneficial to toxoplasmosis control.
Sims, Ian M; Ryan, Jason L J; Kim, Sang H
The utilisation of various prebiotic oligosaccharides by probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was investigated in order to determine the synbiotic potential of various prebiotic/probiotic combinations. Analysis by HPLC and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography of the cell-free medium taken during growth of the three probiotic bacteria showed differences in the consumption of the various oligosaccharides. Analysis of galactooligosaccharides showed that both L. rhamnosus and B. lactis consumed mostly mono- and di-saccharide, while L. acidophilus consumed oligosaccharides up to trisaccharide. Both B. lactis and L. acidophilus utilised fructooligosaccharides and inulin, but showed different patterns of oligosaccharide consumption. Only L. rhamnosus grew on β-glucan oligosaccharides and preferentially consumed the trisaccharide. The results indicate the synbiotic potential of the various probiotic/prebiotic combinations, particularly L. acidophilus/galactooligosaccharides, L. acidophilus/fructooligosaccharides or inulin and L. rhamnosus/β-glucan oligosaccharides.
Rigo-Adrover, Maria del Mar; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José
This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life. PMID:27820846
Vieira, A T; Galvão, I; Amaral, F A; Teixeira, M M; Nicoli, J R; Martins, F S
Gout is an acute inflammatory disease characterised by the presence of uric acid crystals in the joint. This event promotes neutrophil infiltration and activation that leads to tissue damage. We investigated here whether the oral administration of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum 5(1A) (BL) could ameliorate monosodium urate crystal (MSU)-induced inflammation in a murine model of gout. Mice received oral administration of BL or saline daily for 7 days and then were injected with MSU in the knee cavity. Treatment with BL significantly alleviated the inflammatory parameters, as seen by reduced hypernociception, reduced neutrophil accumulation in the joint and myeloperoxidase activity in periarticular tissue. There was inhibition of the production of CXCL1 and interleukin(IL)-1β in joints. Levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were significantly higher in the knee tissue of mice treated with than control mice injected with MSU. In conclusion, oral BL treatment reduced the inflammatory response in an experimental murine model of gout, suggesting it may be useful as an adjuvant treatment in patients with gout.
Wittmann, Alexandra; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Frick, Julia-Stefanie
In industrialized countries bacterial intestinal infections are commonly caused by enteropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae. The interaction of the microbiota with the host immune system determines the adequacy of an appropriate response against pathogens. In this study we addressed whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium adolescentis is protective during intestinal Yersinia enterocolitica infection. Female C57BL/6 mice were fed with B. adolescentis, infected with Yersinia enterocolitica, or B. adolescentis fed and subsequently infected with Yersinia enterocolitica. B. adolescentis fed and Yersinia infected mice were protected from Yersinia infection as indicated by a significantly reduced weight loss and splenic Yersinia load when compared to Yersinia infected mice. Moreover, protection from infection was associated with increased intestinal plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell function was investigated using depletion experiments by injecting B. adolescentis fed, Yersinia infected C57BL/6 mice with anti-mouse PDCA-1 antibody, to deplete plasmacytoid dendritic cells, or respective isotype control. The B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia dissemination to the spleen was abrogated after plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion indicating a crucial function for pDC in control of intestinal Yersinia infection. We suggest that feeding of B. adolescentis modulates the intestinal immune system in terms of increased plasmacytoid dendritic cell and regulatory T-cell frequencies, which might account for the B. adolescentis-mediated protection from Yersinia enterocolitica infection.
Altmann, Friedrich; Kosma, Paul; O'Callaghan, Amy; Leahy, Sinead; Bottacini, Francesca; Molloy, Evelyn; Plattner, Stephan; Schiavi, Elisa; Gleinser, Marita; Groeger, David; Grant, Ray; Rodriguez Perez, Noelia; Healy, Selena; Svehla, Elisabeth; Windwarder, Markus; Hofinger, Andreas; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Akdis, Cezmi A; Xu, Jun; Roper, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe; O'Mahony, Liam
The Bifibobacterium longum subsp. longum 35624™ strain (formerly named Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis) is a well described probiotic with clinical efficacy in Irritable Bowel Syndrome clinical trials and induces immunoregulatory effects in mice and in humans. This paper presents (a) the genome sequence of the organism allowing the assignment to its correct subspeciation longum; (b) a comparative genome assessment with other B. longum strains and (c) the molecular structure of the 35624 exopolysaccharide (EPS624). Comparative genome analysis of the 35624 strain with other B. longum strains determined that the sub-speciation of the strain is longum and revealed the presence of a 35624-specific gene cluster, predicted to encode the biosynthetic machinery for EPS624. Following isolation and acid treatment of the EPS, its chemical structure was determined using gas and liquid chromatography for sugar constituent and linkage analysis, electrospray and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for sequencing and NMR. The EPS consists of a branched hexasaccharide repeating unit containing two galactose and two glucose moieties, galacturonic acid and the unusual sugar 6-deoxy-L-talose. These data demonstrate that the B. longum 35624 strain has specific genetic features, one of which leads to the generation of a characteristic exopolysaccharide.
Altmann, Friedrich; Kosma, Paul; O’Callaghan, Amy; Leahy, Sinead; Bottacini, Francesca; Molloy, Evelyn; Plattner, Stephan; Schiavi, Elisa; Gleinser, Marita; Groeger, David; Grant, Ray; Rodriguez Perez, Noelia; Healy, Selena; Svehla, Elisabeth; Windwarder, Markus; Hofinger, Andreas; O’Connell Motherway, Mary; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Xu, Jun; Roper, Jennifer; van Sinderen, Douwe; O’Mahony, Liam
The Bifibobacterium longum subsp. longum 35624™ strain (formerly named Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis) is a well described probiotic with clinical efficacy in Irritable Bowel Syndrome clinical trials and induces immunoregulatory effects in mice and in humans. This paper presents (a) the genome sequence of the organism allowing the assignment to its correct subspeciation longum; (b) a comparative genome assessment with other B. longum strains and (c) the molecular structure of the 35624 exopolysaccharide (EPS624). Comparative genome analysis of the 35624 strain with other B. longum strains determined that the sub-speciation of the strain is longum and revealed the presence of a 35624-specific gene cluster, predicted to encode the biosynthetic machinery for EPS624. Following isolation and acid treatment of the EPS, its chemical structure was determined using gas and liquid chromatography for sugar constituent and linkage analysis, electrospray and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry for sequencing and NMR. The EPS consists of a branched hexasaccharide repeating unit containing two galactose and two glucose moieties, galacturonic acid and the unusual sugar 6-deoxy-L-talose. These data demonstrate that the B. longum 35624 strain has specific genetic features, one of which leads to the generation of a characteristic exopolysaccharide. PMID:27656878
Lyra, Anna; Saarinen, Markku; Putaala, Heli; Olli, Kaisa; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Ouwehand, Arthur C.; Madetoja, Mari; Tiihonen, Kirsti
Gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects such as erosion and increased permeability are common during the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Our objective was to assess whether Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 protects against NSAID-induced GI side effects in a rat model. A total of 120 male Wistar rats were allocated into groups designated as control, NSAID, and probiotic. The NSAID and probiotic groups were challenged with indomethacin (10 mg/kg−1; single dose). The probiotic group was also supplemented daily with 1010 CFU of B. lactis 420 for seven days prior to the indomethacin administration. The control group rats received no indomethacin or probiotic. The permeability of the rat intestine was analysed using carbohydrate probes and the visual damage of the rat stomach mucosa was graded according to severity. B. lactis 420 significantly reduced the indomethacin-induced increase in stomach permeability. However, the protective effect on the visual mucosal damage was not significant. The incidence of severe NSAID-induced lesions was, nevertheless, reduced from 50% to 33% with the probiotic treatment. To conclude, the B. lactis 420 supplementation protected the rats from an NSAID-induced increase in stomach permeability and may reduce the formation of more serious GI mucosal damage and/or enhance the recovery rate of the stomach mucosa. PMID:22848210
Bevilacqua, Antonio; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Maddalena, Lucia; Sinigaglia, Milena
A strain of Lactobacillus plantarum and 4 strains of bifidobacteria were inoculated in apple juice and in a commercial beverage labeled as "red-fruit juice," containing citrus extracts as natural preservatives; the suitability of the probiotics was evaluated in relation to their resistance to 2 kinds of citrus extracts (biocitro and lemon extract), survival in juices at 4 and 37 °C, and inhibition of Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Cell count of L. plantarum and bifidobacteria over time was fitted through the Weibull equation, for the evaluation of the first reduction time (δ), death time, and microbiological shelf life (the break-point was set to 7 log cfu/mL). Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis experienced the highest δ-value (23.21 d) and death time (96.59 d) in the red-fruit juice at 4 °C, whereas L. plantarum was the most promising strain in apple juice at 37 °C. Biocitro and lemon extract did not exert a biocidal effect toward probiotics; moreover, the probiotics controlled the growth of Z. bailii and the combination of L. plantarum with 40 ppm of biocitro reduced the level of the yeast after 18 d by 2 log cfu/mL.
Min, Yang Won; Park, Sang Un; Jang, Yeon Sil; Kim, Young-Ho; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Ko, Seo Hyun; Joo, Nami; Kim, Sun Im; Kim, Cheol-Hyun; Chang, Dong Kyung
AIM: To investigate whether composite yogurt with acacia dietary fiber and Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) has additive effects in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A total of 130 patients were randomly allocated to consume, twice daily for 8 wk, either the composite yogurt or the control product. The composite yogurt contained acacia dietary fiber and high-dose B. lactis together with two classic yogurt starter cultures. Patients were evaluated using the visual analog scale via a structured questionnaire administered at baseline and after treatment. RESULTS: Improvements in bowel habit satisfaction and overall IBS symptoms from baseline were significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (27.16 vs 15.51, P = 0.010, 64.2 ± 17.0 vs 50.4 ± 20.5, P < 0.001; respectively). In constipation-predominant IBS, improvement in overall IBS symptoms was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (72.4 ± 18.4 vs 50.0 ± 21.8, P < 0.001). In patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS, improvement in bowel habit satisfaction from baseline was significantly higher in the test group than in the control group (32.90 vs 7.81, P = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that composite yogurt enriched with acacia fiber and B. lactis has greater therapeutic effects in patients with IBS than standard yogurt. PMID:22969230
Shu, Q; Lin, H; Rutherfurd, K J; Fenwick, S G; Prasad, J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S
The ability of a newly identified probiotic lactic acid bacterial strain, Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019), to confer protection against Salmonella typhimurium was investigated in BALB/c mice. Feeding mice with B. lactis conferred a significant degree of protection against single or multiple oral challenge with virulent S. typhimurium, in comparison to control mice that did not receive B. lactis. Protection included a ten-fold increase in survival rate, significantly higher post-challenge food intake and weight gain, and reduced pathogen translocation to visceral tissues (spleen and liver). Furthermore, the degree of pathogen translocation showed a significant inverse correlation with splenic lymphocyte proliferative responses to mitogens, blood and peritoneal cell phagocytic activity and intestinal mucosal anti-S. typhimurium antibody titers in infected mice; all of these immune parameters were enhanced in mice fed B. lactis. Together, these results suggest that dietary B. lactis can provide a significant degree of protection against Salmonella infection by enhancing various parameters of immune function that are relevant to the immunological control of salmonellosis. Thus dietary supplementation with B. lactis provides a unique opportunity for developing immune-enhancing probiotic dairy food products with proven health benefits.
Mokkala, Kati; Laitinen, Kirsi; Röytiö, Henna
Increased intestinal permeability is a predisposing factor for low-grade inflammation-associated conditions, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. Dietary components may influence intestinal barrier integrity. We hypothesized that the dietary supplements Bifidobacterium lactis 420, Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, and fish oil have beneficial impacts on intestinal barrier integrity. In addition, we hypothesized that the coadministration of these components results in synergistic benefits to the integrity of the intestinal barrier. To study this, we investigated the impact of cell-free culture supernatant from dietary supplements B lactis 420 and L rhamnosus HN001, and fish oil, separately and in combination, on intestinal permeability in a CaCo-2 cell model. Administered separately, both B lactis 420 supernatant and fish oil significantly increased the integrity of the intestinal epithelial barrier, as determined by an increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), whereas L rhamnosus did not. The TEER increase with B lactis 420 was dose dependent. Interestingly, a combination of B lactis 420 supernatant and fish oil negated the increase in TEER of the single components. mRNA expression of tight junction proteins, measured by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, was not altered, but the mRNA expression of myosin light chain kinase increased after fish oil treatment. To conclude, single dietary components, namely, B lactis 420 and fish oil, induced beneficial effects on intestinal barrier integrity in vitro, whereas a combination of 2 beneficial test compounds resulted in a null effect.
Phoem, Atchara N; Chanthachum, Suphitchaya; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang P
Microencapsulation using extrusion and emulsion techniques was prepared for Bifidobacterium longum protection against sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal juices, refrigeration storage and heat treatment. Eleutherine americana was used as the co-encapsulating agent. Hydrolysis of E. americana by gastric and intestinal juices was also determined. E. americana and its oligosaccharide extract demonstrated their resistance to low pH and partial tolerance to human α-amylase. Microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana and oligosaccharide extract prepared by the extrusion technique survived better than that by the emulsion technique under adverse conditions. Survival of microencapsulated cells after exposure to the juices and refrigeration storage was higher than free cells at Weeks 2 and 4. In addition, the viability of microencapsulated cells was better than free cells at 65 °C for 15 min. This work suggested that microencapsulated B. longum with E. americana offers the effective delivery of probiotics to colon and maintains their survival in food products. PMID:25629556
Chenoll, Empar; Casinos, Beatriz; Bataller, Esther; Buesa, Javier; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador; Fábrega, Joan; Rivero Urgell, Montserrat; Moreno Muñoz, José A.
Rotavirus is one of the main causes of acute diarrhea and enteritis in infants. Currently, studies are underway to assess the use of probiotics to improve rotavirus vaccine protection. A previous work demonstrated that the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 is able to hinder rotavirus replication both in vitro and in vivo. The present study takes a systematic approach in order to identify the molecule directly involved in rotavirus inhibition. Supernatant protease digestions revealed both the proteinaceous nature of the active substance and the fact that the molecule responsible for inhibiting rotavirus replication is released to the supernatant. Following purification by cationic exchange chromatography, active fractions were obtained and the functional compound was identified as an 11-amino acid peptide (MHQPHQPLPPT, named 11-mer peptide) with a molecular mass of 1.282 KDa. The functionality of 11-mer was verified using the synthesized peptide in Wa, Ito, and VA70 rotavirus infections of both HT-29 and MA-104 cell lines. Finally, protease activity was detected in B. longum subsp. infantis CECT 7210 supernatant, which releases 11-mer peptide. A preliminary identification of the protease is also included in the study. PMID:27199974
Falony, Gwen; Calmeyn, Thomas; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc
Four bifidobacteria, each representing a cluster of strains with specific inulin-type-fructan degradation capacities, were grown in coculture fermentations with Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262, a strain able to metabolize both oligofructose and inulin. In a medium for colon bacteria with inulin as the sole added energy source, the ability of the bifidobacteria to compete for this substrate reflected phenotypical variation. Bifidobacterium breve Yakult, a strain that was not able to degrade oligofructose or inulin, was outcompeted by B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262. Bifidobacterium adolescentis LMG 10734, a strain that could degrade oligofructose (displaying a preferential breakdown mechanism) but that did not grow on inulin, managed to become competitive when oligofructose and short fractions of inulin started to accumulate in the fermentation medium. Bifidobacterium angulatum LMG 11039(T), a strain that was previously shown to degrade all oligofructose fractions simultaneously and to be able to partially break down inulin, was competitive from the beginning of the fermentation, consuming short fractions of inulin from the moment they appeared. Bifidobacterium longum LMG 11047, representing a cluster of bifidobacteria that shared both high fructose consumption and oligofructose degradation rates and were able to perform partial breakdown of inulin, was the dominating strain in a coculture with B. thetaiotaomicron LMG 11262. These observations indicate that distinct subgroups within the large-intestinal Bifidobacterium population will be stimulated by different groups of prebiotic inulin-type fructans, a variation that could be reflected in differences concerning their health-promoting effects.
Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Mills, David A
Human milk contains high amounts of complex oligosaccharides, which can be utilized especially by Bifidobacterium species in the infant gut as a carbon and energy source. N-acetyl-D-glucosamine is a building block of these oligosaccharides, and molecular details on the release and utilization of this monosaccharide are not fully understood. In this work we have studied some of the enzymatic properties of three N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidases encoded by the genome of the intestinal isolate Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 and the gene expression of the corresponding genes during bacterial growth on human milk oligosaccharides. These enzymes belong to the glycosyl hydrolase family 20, with several homologs in bifidobacteria. Their optimum pH was 5.0 and optimum temperature was 37 °C. The three enzymes were active on the GlcNAcβ1-3 linkage found in lacto-N-tetraose, the most abundant human milk oligosaccharide. Blon_0459 and Blon_0732, but not Blon_2355, cleaved branched GlcNAcβ1-6 linkages found in lacto-N-hexaose, another oligosaccharide abundant in breast milk. Bifidobacterium infantis N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidases were induced during early growth in vitro on human milk oligosaccharides, and also during growth on lacto-N-tetraose or lacto-N-neotetraose. The up-regulation of enzymes that convert this monosaccharide into UDP-N-acetylglucosamine by human milk oligosaccharides suggested that this activated sugar is used in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. These results emphasize the complexity of human milk oligosaccharide consumption by this infant intestinal isolate, and provide new clues into this process.
Yunes, R A; Poluektova, E U; Dyachkova, M S; Klimina, K M; Kovtun, A S; Averina, O V; Orlova, V S; Danilenko, V N
Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate. Fifty eight strains were able to produce GABA. The most efficient GABA-producers were Bifidobacterium strains (up to 6 g/L). Time profiles of cell growth and GABA production as well as the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on GABA production were studied for L. plantarum 90sk, L. brevis 15f, B. adolescentis 150 and B. angulatum GT102. DNA of these strains was sequenced; the gadB and gadC genes were identified. The presence of these genes was analyzed in 14 metagenomes of healthy individuals. The genes were found in the following genera of bacteria: Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Alistipes, Odoribacter, Prevotella), Proteobacterium (Esherichia), Firmicutes (Enterococcus), Actinobacteria (Bifidobacterium). These data indicate that gad genes as well as the ability to produce GABA are widely distributed among lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (mainly in L. plantarum, L. brevis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. dentium) and other gut-derived bacterial species. Perhaps, GABA is involved in the interaction of gut microbiota with the macroorganism and the ability to synthesize GABA may be an important feature in the selection of bacterial strains - psychobiotics.
Fouhy, Fiona; O’Connell Motherway, Mary; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine; van Sinderen, Douwe; Cotter, Paul D.
Bifidobacteria have received significant attention due to their contribution to human gut health and the use of specific strains as probiotics. It is thus not surprising that there has also been significant interest with respect to their antibiotic resistance profile. Numerous culture-based studies have demonstrated that bifidobacteria are resistant to the majority of aminoglycosides, but are sensitive to β-lactams. However, limited research exists with respect to the genetic basis for the resistance of bifidobacteria to aminoglycosides. Here we performed an in-depth in silico analysis of putative Bifidobacterium-encoded aminoglycoside resistance proteins and β-lactamases and assess the contribution of these proteins to antibiotic resistance. The in silico-based screen detected putative aminoglycoside and β-lactam resistance proteins across the Bifidobacterium genus. Laboratory-based investigations of a number of representative bifidobacteria strains confirmed that despite containing putative β-lactamases, these strains were sensitive to β-lactams. In contrast, all strains were resistant to the aminoglycosides tested. To assess the contribution of genes encoding putative aminoglycoside resistance proteins in Bifidobacterium sp. two genes, namely Bbr_0651 and Bbr_1586, were targeted for insertional inactivation in B. breve UCC2003. As compared to the wild-type, the UCC2003 insertion mutant strains exhibited decreased resistance to gentamycin, kanamycin and streptomycin. This study highlights the associated risks of relying on the in silico assignment of gene function. Although several putative β-lactam resistance proteins are located in bifidobacteria, their presence does not coincide with resistance to these antibiotics. In contrast however, this approach has resulted in the identification of two loci that contribute to the aminoglycoside resistance of B. breve UCC2003 and, potentially, many other bifidobacteria. PMID:24324818
Monteagudo-Mera, A.; Arthur, J.C.; Jobin, C.; Keku, T.; Bruno-Barcena, J.M.; Azcarate-Peril, M.A
Prebiotics are selectively fermented ingredients that result in specific changes in the composition and/or activity of the gastrointestinal microbiota, thus conferring benefit(s) upon the host health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a β (1–4) galacto-oligosaccharides formulation consisting of 90% pure GOS (GOS90), on the composition and activity of the mouse gut microbiota. Germ-free mice were colonized with microbiota from four pathogen-free wt 129 mice donors (SPF), and stools were collected during a feeding trial in which GOS90 was delivered orally for 14 days. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA amplicons showed that Bifidobacterium and specific Lactobacillus, Bacteroides and Clostridiales were more prevalent in GOS90-fed mice after 14 days, although the prebiotic impact on Bifidobacterium varied among individual mice. Prebiotic feeding also resulted in decreased abundance of Bacteroidales, Helicobacter and Clostridium. High-throughput quantitative PCR showed an increased abundance of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, B. pseudocatenulatum, B. lactis and B. gallicum in the prebiotic-fed mice. Control female mice showed a higher diversity (Phylogenetic Diversity PD = 15.1 ± 3.4 in stools and PD = 13.0 ± 0.6 in intestinal contents) than control males (PD = 7.8 ± 1.6 in stool samples and PD = 9.5 ± 1.0 in intestinal contents). GOS90 did not modify inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α). Decreased butyrate, acetate and lactate concentrations in stools of prebiotic fed mice suggested an increase in colonic absorption and reduced excretion. Overall, our results demonstrate that GOS90 is capable of modulating the intestinal microbiome resulting in expansion of the probiome (autochtonous commensal intestinal bacteria considered to have a beneficial influence on health). PMID:26839072
Zhou, Bi-Ying; Liu, Mei-Chen; He, Li-Fang
The TSOL18 gene of Taenia solium was synthesized and cloned into Escherichia coli-Bifidobacteria shuttle vector pGEX-1lambdaT. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-TSOL18 was transformed into Bifidobacterium longum with electroporation. The recombinant plasmid containing TSOL18 gene was identified by restriction endonuclease analysis, PCR and DNA sequencing. The length of synthesized TSOL18 gene was 393 bp. The results indicated that the Bifidobacteria expression system pGEX-TSOL18/B. longum was successfully constructed.
Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Sánchez, Borja; Milani, Christian; Ventura, Marco; Margolles, Abelardo
For many years, bacterial exopolysaccharides (EPS) have received considerable scientific attention, mainly due to their contribution to biofilm formation and, above all, because EPS are potential virulence factors. In recent times, interest in EPS research has enjoyed a welcome boost thanks to the discovery of their ability to mediate communication processes with their surrounding environment and to their contribution to host health maintenance. In this review, we provide a fresh perspective on the genetics and activity of these polymers in members of the Bifidobacterium genus, a common gut inhabitant of humans and animals that has been associated with several health-promoting effects. Bifidobacteria can use EPS to protect themselves against the harsh conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, thus improving their persistence in the host. Indeed, the relevant function of EPS for bifidobacteria is underlined by the fact that most genomes sequenced until now contain genes related to EPS biosynthesis. A high interspecies variability in the number of genes and structural organization is denoted among species/subspecies; thus, eps clusters in this genus do not display a consensus genetic architecture. Their different G+C content compared to that of the whole genome suggests that eps genes have been acquired by horizontal transfer. From the host perspective, EPS-producing bifidobacteria are able to trigger both innate and adaptive immune responses, and they are able to modulate the composition and activity of the gut microbiota. Thus, these polymers seem to be critical in understanding the physiology of bifidobacteria and their interaction with the host. PMID:24123746
Ueda, Yoshiyasu; Takahashi, Takuya; Asahara, Takashi; Tsuji, Hirokazu; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Ma, Ji Su; Kusu, Takashi; Okumura, Ryu; Hara, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Hiroki; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nomoto, Koji; Takeda, Kiyoshi
Specific intestinal microbiota has been shown to induce Foxp3+ regulatory T cell development. However, it remains unclear how development of another regulatory T cell subset, Tr1 cells, is regulated in the intestine. Here, we analyzed the role of two probiotic strains of intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve in T cell development in the intestine. B. breve, but not L. casei, induced development of IL-10-producing Tr1 cells that express cMaf, IL-21, and Ahr in the large intestine. Intestinal CD103+ dendritic cells (DCs) mediated B. breve-induced development of IL-10-producing T cells. CD103+ DCs from Il10−/−, Tlr2−/−, and Myd88−/− mice showed defective B. breve-induced Tr1 cell development. B. breve-treated CD103+ DCs failed to induce IL-10 production from co-cultured Il27ra−/− T cells. B. breve treatment of Tlr2−/− mice did not increase IL-10-producing T cells in the colonic lamina propria. Thus, B. breve activates intestinal CD103+ DCs to produce IL-10 and IL-27 via the TLR2/MyD88 pathway thereby inducing IL-10-producing Tr1 cells in the large intestine. Oral B. breve administration ameliorated colitis in immunocompromised mice given naïve CD4+ T cells from wild-type mice, but not Il10−/− mice. These findings demonstrate that B. breve prevents intestinal inflammation through the induction of intestinal IL-10-producing Tr1 cells. PMID:22693446
Goudarzvand, Mahdi; Rasouli koohi, Samira; Khodaii, Zohreh; Soleymanzadeh Moghadam, Somayeh
Background: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease of the immune system that creates damage of Learning and memory in that. Using probiotic supplements is recommended for preventing MS disease and improving memory. This study aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and bifidobacterium B94 (BB94), on acquisition phase of spatial memory in the local demyelination of rats` hippocampus. Methods: In this study, 32 male Wistar rats were divided into control, damage group and treatment groups. Treatment groups were including (LP) and (BB94). After the induction of demyelination by 3 μl of EB into the right dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in treatment groups, 1.5×108 probiotic bacteria were administered by gavage for 28 days. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests (p≤0.05). Results: Findings demonstrated that injection of EB caused a significant increase in traveled distance (p<0.01) and also escape latency (p<0.05) compared with control group. Also, effect administrations of (LP) and (BB94) on traveled distance and escape latency were reviewed, and it was determined that administration of them do not cause significant reduction in the traveled distance compared with the lesion group. Also mentioned probiotics has no significant effect on swimming speed compared with lesion and saline groups. Conclusion: According to some studies, probiotics have a positive impact on improving the performance of spatial memory and learning, although the results of the current study could not indicate finality of this assumption. It seems that more researches is needed on this subject. PMID:27579282
Oberg, Taylor S.; Ward, Robert E.; Steele, James L.
Consumer interest in probiotic bifidobacteria is increasing, but industry efforts to secure high cell viability in foods is undermined by these anaerobes' sensitivity to oxidative stress. To address this limitation, we investigated genetic and physiological responses of two fully sequenced Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, BL-04 and DSM 10140, to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress. Although the genome sequences for these strains are highly clonal, prior work showed that they differ in both intrinsic and inducible H2O2 resistance. Transcriptome analysis of early-stationary-phase cells exposed to a sublethal H2O2 concentration detected significant (P < 0.05) changes in expression of 138 genes in strain BL-04 after 5 min and 27 genes after 20 min. Surprisingly, no significant changes in gene expression were detected in DSM 10140 at either time. Genomic data suggested that differences in H2O2 stress resistance might be due to a mutation in a BL-04 gene encoding long-chain fatty acid coenzyme A (CoA) ligase. To explore this possibility, membrane fatty acids were isolated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Results confirmed that the strains had significantly different lipid profiles: the BL-04 membrane contained higher percentages of C14:0 and C16:0 and lower percentages of C18:1n9. Alteration of the DSM 10140 membrane lipid composition using modified growth medium to more closely mimic that of BL-04 yielded cells that showed increased intrinsic resistance to lethal H2O2 challenge but did not display an inducible H2O2 stress response. The results show that deliberate stress induction or membrane lipid modification can be employed to significantly improve H2O2 resistance in B. animalis subsp. lactis strains. PMID:23772066
O'Hara, Ann M; O'Regan, Padraig; Fanning, Áine; O'Mahony, Caitlin; MacSharry, John; Lyons, Anne; Bienenstock, John; O'Mahony, Liam; Shanahan, Fergus
Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in antigen sampling and the maintenance of gut homeostasis. However, the interaction of commensal bacteria with the intestinal surface remains incompletely understood. Here we investigated immune cell responses to commensal and pathogenic bacteria. HT-29 human IECs were incubated with Bifidobacterium infantis 35624, Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 or Salmonella typhimurium UK1 for varying times, or were pretreated with a probiotic for 2 hr prior to stimulation with S. typhimurium or flagellin. Gene arrays were used to examine inflammatory gene expression. Nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, interleukin (IL)-8 secretion, pathogen adherence to IECs, and mucin-3 (MUC3) and E-cadherin gene expression were assayed by TransAM assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence, and real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α secretion by bacteria-treated peripheral blood-derived DCs were measured using ELISA. S. typhimurium increased expression of 36 of the 847 immune-related genes assayed, including NF-κB and IL-8. The commensal bacteria did not alter expression levels of any of the 847 genes. However, B. infantis and L. salivarius attenuated both IL-8 secretion at baseline and S. typhimurium-induced pro-inflammatory responses. B. infantis also limited flagellin-induced IL-8 protein secretion. The commensal bacteria did not increase MUC3 or E-cadherin expression, or interfere with pathogen binding to HT-29 cells, but they did stimulate IL-10 and TNF-α secretion by DCs. The data demonstrate that, although the intestinal epithelium is immunologically quiescent when it encounters B. infantis or L. salivarius, these commensal bacteria exert immunomodulatory effects on intestinal immune cells that mediate host responses to flagellin and enteric pathogens. PMID:16771855
Taipale, Teemu; Pienihäkkinen, Kaisu; Isolauri, Erika; Larsen, Charlotte; Brockmann, Elke; Alanen, Pentti; Jokela, Jorma; Söderling, Eva
The impact of controlled administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) on the risk of acute infectious diseases was studied in healthy newborn infants. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 109 newborn 1-month-old infants were assigned randomly to a probiotic group receiving a BB-12-containing tablet (n 55) or to a control group receiving a control tablet (n 54). Test tablets were administered to the infants twice a day (daily dose of BB-12 10 billion colony-forming units) from the age of 1-2 months to 8 months with a novel slow-release pacifier or a spoon. Breastfeeding habits, pacifier use, dietary habits, medications and all signs and symptoms of acute infections were registered. At the age of 8 months, faecal samples were collected for BB-12 determination (quantitative PCR method). The baseline characteristics of the two groups were similar, as was the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. BB-12 was recovered (detection limit log 5) in the faeces of 62% of the infants receiving the BB-12 tablet. The daily duration of pacifier sucking was not associated with the occurrence of acute otitis media. No significant differences between the groups were observed in reported gastrointestinal symptoms, otitis media or use of antibiotics. However, the infants receiving BB-12 were reported to have experienced fewer respiratory infections (65 v. 94%; risk ratio 0·69; 95% CI 0·53, 0·89; P = 0·014) than the control infants. Controlled administration of BB-12 in early childhood may reduce respiratory infections.
Pedroso, D.L.; Dogenski, M.; Thomazini, M.; Heinemann, R.J.B.; Favaro-Trindade, C.S.
In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (103 CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at −18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved. PMID:24516445
Pedroso, D L; Dogenski, M; Thomazini, M; Heinemann, R J B; Favaro-Trindade, C S
In the present study, the cells of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (BI-01) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (LAC-04) were encapsulated in cocoa butter using spray-chilling technology. Survival assays were conducted to evaluate the resistance of the probiotics to the spray-chilling process, their resistance to the simulated gastric and intestinal fluids (SGF and SIF), and their stability during 90 days of storage. The viability of the cells was not affected by microencapsulation. The free and encapsulated cells of B. animalis subsp. lactis were resistant to both SGF and SIF. The micro-encapsulated cells of L. acidophilus were more resistant to SGF and SIF than the free cells; the viability of the encapsulated cells was enhanced by 67%, while the free cells reached the detection limit of the method (10(3) CFU/g). The encapsulated probiotics were unstable when they were stored at 20 °C. The population of encapsulated L. acidophilus decreased drastically when they were stored at 7 °C; only 20% of cells were viable after 90 days of storage. The percentage of viable cells of the encapsulated B. animalis subsp.lactis, however, was 72% after the same period of storage. Promising results were obtained when the microparticles were stored at -18 °C; the freeze granted 90 days of shelf life to the encapsulated cells. These results suggest that the spray-chilling process using cocoa butter as carrier protects L. acidophilus from gastrointestinal fluids. However, the viability of the cells during storage must be improved.
Bottacini, Francesca; Lanigan, Noreen; Casey, Pat G.; Huys, Geert; Nelis, Hans J.; van Sinderen, Douwe; Coenye, Tom
In the present study we show that luxS of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 is involved in the production of the interspecies signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and that this gene is essential for gastrointestinal colonization of a murine host, while it is also involved in providing protection against Salmonella infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that a B. breve luxS-insertion mutant is significantly more susceptible to iron chelators than the WT strain and that this sensitivity can be partially reverted in the presence of the AI-2 precursor DPD. Furthermore, we show that several genes of an iron starvation-induced gene cluster, which are downregulated in the luxS-insertion mutant and which encodes a presumed iron-uptake system, are transcriptionally upregulated under in vivo conditions. Mutation of two genes of this cluster in B. breve UCC2003 renders the derived mutant strains sensitive to iron chelators while deficient in their ability to confer gut pathogen protection to Salmonella-infected nematodes. Since a functional luxS gene is present in all tested members of the genus Bifidobacterium, we conclude that bifidobacteria operate a LuxS-mediated system for gut colonization and pathogen protection that is correlated with iron acquisition. PMID:24871429
Park, Hui Gyu; Heo, Wan; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Hyun Seop; Bae, Gui Seck; Chung, Soo Hyun; Seo, Ho-Chan; Kim, Young Jun
This study was performed to characterize the ability of an active Bifidobacterium strain to produce conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and to test its possible utilization as a probiotic compatible to the ruminal condition. Bifidobacterium breve LMC520 can actively convert linoleic acid (LA) to cis-9,trans-11-CLA, which is a major isomer derived from microbial conversion. LMC520 showed reasonable tolerance under acidic conditions (pH 2.5 with 1% pepsin) and in the presence of oxgall (0-3%). The growth and CLA production of LMC520 were tested under ruminal conditions and compared with those of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens A38, which is a major CLA producer in the rumen as an intermediate in the biohydrogenation (BH) process. LMC520 converted 15% of LA to CLA under ruminal conditions, which was 2 times higher activity than that of A38, and there was no decline in CLA level during prolonged incubation of 48 h. The BH activity of LMC520 was comparable to that of A38. When LMC520 was cocultured with A38, even with slight decrease of CLA due to high BH activity by A38, but the level of CLA was maintained by the high CLA-producing activity of LMC520. This comparative study shows the potential of this strain to be applied as a functional probiotic not only for humans but also for ruminants as well as to increase CLA production.
Mäkeläinen, H; Saarinen, M; Stowell, J; Rautonen, N; Ouwehand, A C
The current screening study aimed at identifying promising prebiotic and synbiotic candidates. The fermentation of xylo-oligosaccharides, xylan, galacto-oligosaccharide, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, lactitol, gentiobiose and pullulan was investigated in vitro. The ability of these established and potential prebiotic candidates to function as a sole carbon source for probiotic (Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus), intestinal and potential pathogenic microbes (Eubacterium, Bacteroides, Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Staphylococcus) was assessed in pure cultures. Xylo-oligosaccharides were fermented with high specificity by the tested Bifidobacterium lactis strains and lactitol by lactobacilli, whereas galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharides and gentiobiose were utilised by a larger group of microbes. Xylan, polydextrose and pullulan were utilised to a limited extent by only a few of the tested microbes. The results of this screening study indicate that xylo-oligosaccharides and lactitol support the growth of a limited number of beneficial microbes in pure cultures. Such a high degree of specificity has not been previously reported for established prebiotics. Based on these results, the most promising prebiotics and synbiotic combinations can be selected for further testing.
Falony, Gwen; Lazidou, Katerina; Verschaeren, An; Weckx, Stefan; Maes, Dominique; De Vuyst, Luc
Kinetic analyses of bacterial growth, carbohydrate consumption, and metabolite production of 18 Bifidobacterium strains grown on fructose, oligofructose, or inulin were performed. A principal component analysis of the data sets, expanded with the results of a genetic screen concerning the presence of a beta-fructofuranosidase gene previously encountered in Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140(T), revealed the existence of four clusters among the bifidobacteria tested. Strains belonging to a first cluster could not degrade oligofructose or inulin. Strains in a second cluster could degrade oligofructose, displaying a preferential breakdown mechanism, but did not grow on inulin. Fructose consumption was faster than oligofructose degradation. A third cluster was composed of strains that degraded all oligofructose fractions simultaneously and could partially break down inulin. Oligofructose degradation was substantially faster than fructose consumption. A fourth, smaller cluster consisted of strains that shared high fructose consumption and oligofructose degradation rates and were able to perform partial breakdown of inulin. For all strains, a metabolic shift toward more acetate, formate, and ethanol production, at the expense of lactate production, was observed during growth on less readily fermentable energy sources. No correlation between breakdown patterns and the presence of the beta-fructofuranosidase gene could be detected. These variations indicate niche-specific adaptation of bifidobacteria and could have in vivo implications on the strain specificity of the stimulatory effect of inulin-type fructans on bifidobacteria.
Jantama, Sirima Suvarnakuta; Prasitpuriprecha, Chutinun; Kanchanatawee, Sunthorn
The viability and functionality of probiotics may be influenced by industrial production processes resulting in a decrease in probiotic efficiency that benefit the health of humans. This study aimed to investigate the probiotic characteristics of Bifidobacterium strains isolated from fecal samples of healthy Thai infants. In the present work, three local strains (BF014, BF052, and BH053) belonging to Bifidobacterium animalis showed a great resistance against conditions simulating the gastrointestinal tract. Among these, B. animalis BF052 possessed considerable probiotic properties, including high acid and bile tolerance, strong adhesion capability to Caco-2 cells, and inhibitory activity against pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae. This strain also exhibited a high survival rate compared to commercial strains during storage in a wide variety of products, including pasteurized milk, soy milk, drinking yogurt, and orange juice. The impact of food processing processes as well as the freeze-drying process, storage of freeze-dried powders, and incorporation of freeze-dried cells in food matrix on probiotic properties was also determined. The stability of the probiotic properties of the BF052 strain was not affected by food processing chain, especially its resistance in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions and its adherence ability to Caco-2 cells. It indicates that it satisfies the criteria as a potential probiotic and may be used as an effective probiotic starter in food applications. PMID:27333286
Barrangou, Rodolphe; Briczinski, Elizabeth P.; Traeger, Lindsay L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Richards, Melissa; Horvath, Philippe; Coûté-Monvoisin, Anne-Claire; Leyer, Gregory; Rendulic, Snjezana; Steele, James L.; Broadbent, Jeffery R.; Oberg, Taylor; Dudley, Edward G.; Schuster, Stephan; Romero, Dennis A.; Roberts, Robert F.
Bifidobacteria are important members of the human gut flora, especially in infants. Comparative genomic analysis of two Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains revealed evolution by internal deletion of consecutive spacer-repeat units within a novel clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus, which represented the largest differential content between the two genomes. Additionally, 47 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, consisting primarily of nonsynonymous mutations, indicating positive selection and/or recent divergence. A particular nonsynonymous mutation in a putative glucose transporter was linked to a negative phenotypic effect on the ability of the variant to catabolize glucose, consistent with a modification in the predicted protein transmembrane topology. Comparative genome sequence analysis of three Bifidobacterium species provided a core genome set of 1,117 orthologs complemented by a pan-genome of 2,445 genes. The genome sequences of the intestinal bacterium B. animalis subsp. lactis provide insights into rapid genome evolution and the genetic basis for adaptation to the human gut environment, notably with regard to catabolism of dietary carbohydrates, resistance to bile and acid, and interaction with the intestinal epithelium. The high degree of genome conservation observed between the two strains in terms of size, organization, and sequence is indicative of a genomically monomorphic subspecies and explains the inability to differentiate the strains by standard techniques such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. PMID:19376856
Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław
This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche. PMID:25470405
Carrillo, M; Estrada, E; Hazen, T C
The density of Bifidobacterium spp., fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total anaerobic bacteria, acridine orange direct counts, percentages of total bacterial community activity and respiration, and 12 physical and chemical parameters were measured simultaneously at six sites for 12 months in the Mameyes River rain forest watershed, Puerto Rico. The densities of all bacteria were higher than those reported for uncontaminated temperate rivers, even though other water quality parameters would indicate that all uncontaminated sites were oligotrophic. The highest densities for all indicator bacteria were at the site receiving sewage effluent; however, the highest elevation site in the watershed had the next highest densities. Correlations between bacterial densities, nitrates, temperature, phosphates, and total phosphorus indicated that all viable counts were related to nutrient levels, regardless of the site sampled. In situ diffusion chamber studies at two different sites indicated that E. coli could survive, remain physiologically active, and regrow at rates that were dependent on nutrient levels of the ambient waters. Bifidobacterium adolescentis did not survive at either site but did show different rates of decline and physiological activity at the two sites. Bifidobacteria show promise as a better indicator of recent fecal contamination in tropical freshwaters than E. coli or fecal coliforms; however, the YN-6 medium did not prove to be effective for enumeration of bifidobacteria. The coliform maximum contaminant levels for assessing water usability for drinking and recreation appear to be unworkable in tropical freshwaters. PMID:3901921
Quagliariello, Andrea; Aloisio, Irene; Bozzi Cionci, Nicole; Luiselli, Donata; D’Auria, Giuseppe; Martinez-Priego, Llúcia; Pérez-Villarroya, David; Langerholc, Tomaž; Primec, Maša; Mičetić-Turk, Dušanka; Di Gioia, Diana
Coeliac disease (CD) is associated with alterations of the intestinal microbiota. Although several Bifidobacterium strains showed anti-inflammatory activity and prevention of toxic gliadin peptides generation in vitro, few data are available on their efficacy when administered to CD subjects. This study evaluated the effect of administration for three months of a food supplement based on two Bifidobacterium breve strains (B632 and BR03) to restore the gut microbial balance in coeliac children on a gluten free diet (GFD). Microbial DNA was extracted from faeces of 40 coeliac children before and after probiotic or placebo administration and 16 healthy children (Control group). Sequencing of the amplified V3-V4 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA gene as well as qPCR of Bidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Bacteroides fragilis group Clostridium sensu stricto and enterobacteria were performed. The comparison between CD subjects and Control group revealed an alteration in the intestinal microbial composition of coeliacs mainly characterized by a reduction of the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, of Actinobacteria and Euryarchaeota. Regarding the effects of the probiotic, an increase of Actinobacteria was found as well as a re-establishment of the physiological Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Therefore, a three-month administration of B. breve strains helps in restoring the healthy percentage of main microbial components. PMID:27782071
Christiaen, Steven E A; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Bottacini, Francesca; Lanigan, Noreen; Casey, Pat G; Huys, Geert; Nelis, Hans J; van Sinderen, Douwe; Coenye, Tom
In the present study we show that luxS of Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 is involved in the production of the interspecies signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2), and that this gene is essential for gastrointestinal colonization of a murine host, while it is also involved in providing protection against Salmonella infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate that a B. breve luxS-insertion mutant is significantly more susceptible to iron chelators than the WT strain and that this sensitivity can be partially reverted in the presence of the AI-2 precursor DPD. Furthermore, we show that several genes of an iron starvation-induced gene cluster, which are downregulated in the luxS-insertion mutant and which encodes a presumed iron-uptake system, are transcriptionally upregulated under in vivo conditions. Mutation of two genes of this cluster in B. breve UCC2003 renders the derived mutant strains sensitive to iron chelators while deficient in their ability to confer gut pathogen protection to Salmonella-infected nematodes. Since a functional luxS gene is present in all tested members of the genus Bifidobacterium, we conclude that bifidobacteria operate a LuxS-mediated system for gut colonization and pathogen protection that is correlated with iron acquisition.
Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Sánchez, Borja; Moine, Deborah; Berger, Bernard; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel; Margolles, Abelardo
The proteome of the ropy strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis A1dOxR, compared to that of its nonropy isogenic strain, showed an overproduction of a protein involved in rhamnose biosynthesis. Results were confirmed by gene expression analysis, and this fact agreed with the high rhamnose content of the ropy exopolysaccharide. PMID:23584772
Preliminary selection for potential probiotic Bifidobacterium isolated from subjects of different Chinese ethnic groups and evaluation of their fermentation and storage characteristics in bovine milk.
Liu, W J; Chen, Y F; Kwok, L Y; Li, M H; Sun, T; Sun, C L; Wang, X N; Dan, T; Menghebilige; Zhang, H P; Sun, T S
A total of 29 strains of Bifidobacterium were isolated from 18 samples of human feces in different ethnic minority regions of China. All isolates were identified as Bifidobacterium longum (9 strains) and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (20 strains) based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were preliminarily tested for their suitability to become probiotics by assessing their ability to survive adequately at low pH conditions and their tolerance of different concentrations of bile salts and simulated gastrointestinal juices. In vitro tests were sequentially used to predict the survival of these strains in the simulated conditions in the human gastrointestinal tract. These strains were first exposed to pH 2.5 for 3h, and 7 out of the 29 strains were discriminated from the others by their high survival rates. Out of these 7 strains, 4 were found to grow and survive well at an even lower pH of 2.0 and in high bile salt concentration. Apart from the gastrointestinal survival capacity, both fermentation efficiency and storage characteristics are important criteria for selecting for suitable potential probiotic strains. Therefore, the fermentation efficiency in bovine milk and the bacterial viability during the storage in the resultant fermented milk were also evaluated for these 4 selected strains. In this study, we isolated and identified 29 novel Bifidobacterium strains. Based on our initial evaluation, at least 4 of them may serve as valuable resources for further dairy probiotic strain selection.
Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria whose presence in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is widely considered as a positive influence on human health. This is especially true in the early development of the infant GIT. Analyses of the genome sequence of Bifidobacterium longum sugges...
Saarela, M; Alakomi, H L; Mättö, J; Ahonen, A M; Puhakka, A; Tynkkynen, S
Bifidobacterial food applications are limited since bifidobacteria are sensitive to e.g. acidic conditions prevalent in many food matrices. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a low pH selection step alone or combined to UV mutagenesis could improve the viability of an acid sensitive Bifidobacterium strain, B. breve 99, in low pH food matrices. Furthermore, the potential of carriers and an oat fibre preparation to further improve the stability was studied. The best performing low pH tolerant variants in the present study were generated by UV-mutagenesis with 70-700μJ/cm(2) followed by incubation in growth medium at pH 4.5. The most promising variants regarding the low pH tolerance showed, in repeated tests with cells grown without pH control, about one Log-value better survival in pH 3.8 fruit juice after one week storage at 4°C compared to wild-type B. breve 99. Cells grown with pH control, PDX formulated and then frozen showed poorer viability in low pH fruit juice than cells grown with no pH control. For frozen concentrates pH 3.8 was too stressful and no or small differences between the variants and the wild-type strain were seen. The differences detected at pH 3.8 with the cells grown without pH control were also seen with the frozen concentrates at pH 4.5. Some improvement in the stability could be achieved by using a combination of trehalose, vitamin C and PDX as a freezing carrier material, whereas a significant improvement in the stability was seen when oat fibre was added into the fruit juice together with the frozen cells. Due to the initial very poor fruit juice tolerance of B. breve 99 the obtained improvement in the stability was not enough for commercial applications. However, the same methods could be applied to initially better performing strains to further improve their stability in the fruit juice.
Likotrafiti, Eleni; Tuohy, Kieran M; Gibson, Glenn R; Rastall, Robert A
The aims of the present study were to investigate in vitro the antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus fermentum and Bifidobacterium longum, isolated from faeces of healthy elderly individuals, against enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7) and enteropathogenic E. coli (E. coli O86), to determine the capability of the selected strains to tolerate acid and bile in vitro, to select suitable carbohydrates in order to enhance the growth and maximise antimicrobial activity of the putative probiotic organisms and examine the adhesion properties of the synbiotics. Antimicrobial activity of the putative probiotics and synbiotics was investigated by a microtitre method using cell-free culture supernatants (CFCS). Results of the antimicrobial assay showed that both putative probiotic strains produced compounds at pH 5 that lead to higher lag phases of both E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O86. When half the quantity of cell-free culture supernatants of both probiotic strains was used at pH 5, B. longum maintained the same antimicrobial effect against both strains of E. coli, whereas L. fermentum lead to a higher lag phase of E. coli O86 only. Neutralization of the culture supernatants with alkali reduced the antimicrobial effect with only cell-free supernatant of L. fermentum causing lower maximum growth rates of E. coli O157:H7 and E. coli O86. L. fermentum appeared to be acid tolerant whereas B. longum was more susceptible to acid and both isolates were bile tolerant. A short chain fructooligosaccharide (scFOS) and an isomalto-oligosaccharide (IMO) proved to be the most effective substrates, enhancing antimicrobial activity for L. fermentum and B. longum respectively. The adhesion of the synbiotic combinations showed that L. fermentum, exhibited higher percentage of adhesion when grown on glucose and as a synbiotic combination with scFOS whereas B. longum exhibited lowest percentage of adhesion when grown on both glucose and IMO.
Baffoni, Loredana; Gaggìa, Francesca; Di Gioia, Diana; Santini, Cecilia; Mogna, Luca; Biavati, Bruno
With the ban of dietary antimicrobial agents, the use of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics has attracted a great deal of attention in order to improve intestinal health and control food-borne pathogens, which is an important concern for the production of safe meat and meat products. Recently, Campylobacter jejuni has emerged as a leading bacterial cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in humans, and epidemiological evidences indicate poultry and poultry products as the main source of human infection. This work aimed at the development of a synbiotic mixture capable of modulating the gut microbiota of broiler chickens to obtain an increase of the beneficial bacteria (i.e. bifidobacteria, lactobacilli) and a competitive reduction of C. jejuni. The prebiotic compound used in the mixture was chosen after an in vivo trial: a fructooligosaccharide and a galactooligosaccharide were separately administered to broilers mixed with normal feed at a concentration of 0.5% and 3%, respectively. Quantitative PCR on DNA extracted from fecal samples revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase of Bifidobacterium spp. in broilers treated with the galactooligosaccharide, coupled to a decrease (p<0.05) of Campylobacter spp. The galactooligosaccharide was then combined with a probiotic Bifidobacterium strain (B. longum subsp. longum PCB133), possessing in vitro antimicrobial activity against C. jejuni. The strain was microencapsulated in a lipid matrix to ensure viability into the feed and resistance to stomach transit. Finally, the synbiotic mixture was administered to broiler chickens for 14 days mixed with normal feed in order to have an intake of 10(9)CFU of PCB133/day. Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., Campylobacter spp., B. longum subsp. longum and C. jejuni were quantified in fecal samples. PCB133 was recovered in feces of all animals. C. jejuni concentration in poultry feces was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in chickens administered with the synbiotic mixture. This study
Rajagopal, Kammara; Singh, Praveen Kumar; Kumar, Rajesh; Siddiqui, Kaneez Fatima
An efficient and reproducible method for transformation depends on the competency of the organism. We have developed a simple method for the preparation of competent Escherichia coli, Kluyveromyces lactis, and Bifidobacterium sp. by using a buffer containing cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and permits efficient uptake of plasmid DNA and ligation-reaction products. Cells are harvested, washed, mixed with 1-10 μg/ml CTAB, incubated, and followed by a buffer wash. For long-term storage of competent cells, bacteria may be frozen in 10% glycerol without the addition of other components. The transformation process is very simple; plasmid DNA and the cells are mixed and incubated for 5-60 min at 4 °C; no heat pulse is required, and the duration of incubation at 4 °C is not crucial.
Milani, Christian; Turroni, Francesca; Duranti, Sabrina; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Ferrario, Chiara; van Sinderen, Douwe
Bifidobacteria represent one of the dominant microbial groups that occur in the gut of various animals, being particularly prevalent during the suckling period of humans and other mammals. Their ability to compete with other gut bacteria is largely attributed to their saccharolytic features. Comparative and functional genomic as well as transcriptomic analyses have revealed the genetic background that underpins the overall saccharolytic phenotype for each of the 47 bifidobacterial (sub)species representing the genus Bifidobacterium, while also generating insightful information regarding carbohydrate resource sharing and cross-feeding among bifidobacteria. The abundance of bifidobacterial saccharolytic features in human microbiomes supports the notion that metabolic accessibility to dietary and/or host-derived glycans is a potent evolutionary force that has shaped the bifidobacterial genome. PMID:26590291
Hamaji, Yoshinori; Fujimori, Minoru; Sasaki, Takayuki; Matsuhashi, Hitomi; Matsui-Seki, Keiichi; Shimatani-Shibata, Yuko; Kano, Yasunobu; Amano, Jun; Taniguchi, Shun'ichiro
In our previous studies, a strain of the nonpathogenic, anaerobic, intestinal bacterium, Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum), was found to be localized selectively and to proliferate within solid tumors after systemic administration. In addition, B. longum transformed with the shuttle-plasmid encoding the cytosine deaminase (CD) gene expressed active CD, which deaminated the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) to the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). We also reported antitumor efficacy with the same plasmid in several animal experiments. In this study, we constructed a novel shuttle-plasmid, pAV001-HU-eCD-M968, which included the mutant CD gene with a mutation at the active site to increase the enzymatic activity. In addition, the plasmid-transformed B. longum produces mutant CD and strongly increased (by 10-fold) its 5-FC to 5-FU enzymatic activity. The use of B. longum harboring the new shuttle-plasmid increases the effectiveness of our enzyme/prodrug strategy.
Pop, Oana Lelia; Brandau, Thorsten; Schwinn, Jens; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen
Seven different types of natural polymers namely hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium-carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), starch BR-07, starch BR-08, dextrin and pullulan were used in order to develop the optimal formula for the entrapment of Bifidobacterium lactis 300B in Ca-alginate based granules. Laminar flow drip casting with Brace-Encapsulator was used in order to prepare the granules. The results showed that alginate/pullulan and alginate/HPMC formulation provide high protection for the bacterial strain used for encapsulation. These two formulations were further used to obtain freeze dried granules, for which the viability in time and at different temperatures was tested. The final results showed a higher viability than the level of the therapeutic minimum (>10(7) CFU/g) after 15 days of storage. Other parameters like entrapment efficiency, production rate, sphericity, flowability were also discussed.
Lee, K Y; Heo, T R
Bifidobacterium longum KCTC 3128 and HLC 3742 were independently immobilized (entrapped) in calcium alginate beads containing 2, 3, and 4% sodium alginate. When the bifidobacteria entrapped in calcium alginate beads were exposed to simulated gastric juices and a bile salt solution, the death rate of the cells in the beads decreased proportionally with an increase in both the alginate gel concentration and bead size. The initial cell numbers in the beads affected the numbers of survivors after exposure to these solutions; however, the death rates of the viable cells were not affected. Accordingly, a mathematical model was formulated which expressed the influences of several parameters (gel concentration, bead size, and initial cell numbers) on the survival of entrapped bifidobacteria after sequential exposure to simulated gastric juices followed by a bile salt solution. The model proposed in this paper may be useful for estimating the survival of bifidobacteria in beads and establishing optimal entrapment conditions.
Yang, Yue-Xin; He, Mei; Hu, Gang; Wei, Jie; Pages, Philippe; Yang, Xian-Hua; Bourdu-Naturel, Sophie
AIM: To investigate the effect of a fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173010 and yogurt strains (BIO®) on adult women with constipation in Beijing. METHODS: A total of 135 adult females with constipation were randomly allocated to consume for 2 wk either 100 g of the test fermented milk or 100 g of an acidified milk containing non-living bacteria (control). Stool frequency, defecation condition scores, stool consistency and food intake were recorded at baseline and after 1 and 2 wk in an intention-to-treat population of 126 subjects. In parallel, safety evaluation parameters were performed. RESULTS: At baseline, no differences were found between groups. Following consumption of test product, stool frequency was significantly increased after 1 wk (3.5 ± 1.5 vs 2.4 ± 0.6, P < 0.01) and 2 wk (4.1 ± 1.7 vs 2.4 ± 0.6, P < 0.01), vs baseline. Similarly, after 1 and 2 wk, of test product consumption, defecation condition (1.1 ± 0.9 vs 1.9 ± 1.2, P < 0.01 and 0.8 ± 1.0 vs 1.9 ± 1.2, P < 0.01, respectively) and stool consistency (1.0 ± 0.8 vs 1.5 ± 1.1, P < 0.01 and 0.6 ± 0.8 vs 1.5 ± 1.1, P < 0.01, respectively) were significantly improved. Compared with the control group, stool frequency was also significantly increased (3.5 ± 1.5 vs 2.5 ± 0.9, P < 0.01 and 4.1 ± 1.7 vs 2.6 ± 1.0, P < 0.01, respectively), and defecation condition (1.1 ± 0.9 vs 1.6 ± 1.1, P < 0.01 and 0.8 ± 1.0 vs 1.6 ± 1.1, P < 0.01, respectively) and stool consistency (1.0 ± 0.8 vs 1.4 ± 1.0, P < 0.05 and 0.6 ± 0.8 vs 1.3 ± 1.0, P < 0.01, respectively) significantly decreased after 1 and 2 wk of product consumption. During the same period, food intake did not change between the two groups, and safety parameters of the subjects were within normal ranges. CONCLUSION: This study suggests a beneficial effect of a fermented milk containing B. lactis DN-173010 on stool frequency, defecation condition and stool consistency in adult women with constipation constipated
Tanner, Sabine A; Lacroix, Christophe; Del'Homme, Christophe; Jans, Christoph; Zihler Berner, Annina; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Chassard, Christophe
Modulating the gut microbiota via dietary interventions is a common strategy to enhance the natural defence mechanisms of the host. Several in vitro studies have highlighted the probiotic potential of Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 (RBL67) selected for its anti-Salmonella effects. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of RBL67 alone and combined with fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on the gut microbiota of Göttingen minipigs. Minipigs were fed a basal diet supplemented with 8 g/d probiotic powder (1×109 CFU/g in skim milk matrix) (probiotic diet (PRO)), 8 g/d probiotic powder plus 8 g/d FOS (synbiotic diet (SYN)) or 8 g/d skim milk powder (control), following a cross-sectional study design. Faecal and caecal microbiota compositions were analysed with pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and quantitative PCR. Metabolic activity in the caecum and colon was measured by HPLC. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed that minipig faeces show close similarity to pig microbiota. During the treatments and at the time of killing of animals, RBL67 was consistently detected in faeces, caecum and colon at numbers of 105-106 16S rRNA copies/g content after feeding PRO and SYN diets. At the time of killing of animals, significantly higher Bifidobacterium numbers in the caecum and colon of SYN-fed minipigs were measured compared with PRO. Our data indicate that the Göttingen minipig may be a suitable model for gut microbiota research in pigs. Data from this first in vivo study of RBL67 colonisation suggest that the combination with FOS may represent a valuable symbiotic strategy to increase probiotic bacteria levels and survival in gastrointestinal tracts for feed and food applications.
Kavanaugh, Devon W.; O’Callaghan, John; Buttó, Ludovica F.; Slattery, Helen; Lane, Jonathan; Clyne, Marguerite; Kane, Marian; Joshi, Lokesh; Hickey, Rita M.
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that milk oligosaccharides may contribute not only to selective growth of bifidobacteria, but also to their specific adhesive ability. Human milk oligosaccharides (3′sialyllactose and 6′sialyllactose) and a commercial prebiotic (Beneo Orafti P95; oligofructose) were assayed for their ability to promote adhesion of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697 to HT-29 and Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Treatment with the commercial prebiotic or 3′sialyllactose did not enhance adhesion. However, treatment with 6′sialyllactose resulted in increased adhesion (4.7 fold), while treatment with a mixture of 3′- and 6′-sialyllactose substantially increased adhesion (9.8 fold) to HT-29 intestinal cells. Microarray analyses were subsequently employed to investigate the transcriptional response of B. longum subsp. infantis to the different oligosaccharide treatments. This data correlated strongly with the observed changes in adhesion to HT-29 cells. The combination of 3′- and 6′-sialyllactose resulted in the greatest response at the genetic level (both in diversity and magnitude) followed by 6′sialyllactose, and 3′sialyllactose alone. The microarray data was further validated by means of real-time PCR. The current findings suggest that the increased adherence phenotype of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis resulting from exposure to milk oligosaccharides is multi-faceted, involving transcription factors, chaperone proteins, adhesion-related proteins, and a glycoside hydrolase. This study gives additional insight into the role of milk oligosaccharides within the human intestine and the molecular mechanisms underpinning host-microbe interactions. PMID:23805302
He, Xuan; Dekker, James W.; Haggarty, Neill W.; Lönnerdal, Bo
ABSTRACT To investigate the impact of probiotic supplementation of infant formula on immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, and metabolism, five individually housed infant rhesus monkeys exclusively fed standard infant formula supplemented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019) from birth until 3 months of age were compared with five standard formula-fed and five breast-fed monkeys. Anthropometric measurements, serum insulin, immune parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and feces were evaluated. Consumption of B. lactis-supplemented formula reduced microbial diversity, restructured the fecal microbial community, and altered the fecal metabolome at the last two time points, in addition to increasing short-chain fatty acids in serum and urine. Circulating CCL22 was lower and threonine, branched-chain amino acids, urea, and allantoin, as well as dimethylglycine in serum and urine, were increased in the group supplemented with B. lactis compared with the standard formula-fed group. These results support a role of probiotics as effectors of gut microbial activity regulating amino acid utilization and nitrogen cycling. Future risk-benefit analyses are still needed to consolidate the existing knowledge on the long-term consequences of probiotic administration during infancy. IMPORTANCE Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular due to their perceived effects on health, despite a lack of mechanistic information on how they impart these benefits. Infant formula and complementary foods are common targets for supplementation with probiotics. However, different probiotic strains have different properties, and there is a lack of data on long-term health effects on the consumer. Given the increasing interest in supplementation with probiotics and the fact that the gastrointestinal tracts of infants are still immature, we sought to determine whether consumption of infant formula containing the probiotic
Murata, Kozue; Tomosada, Yohsuke; Villena, Julio; Chiba, Eriko; Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Aso, Hisashi; Iwabuchi, Noriyuki; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Saito, Tadao; Kitazawa, Haruki
Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4(+)CD25(high) Foxp3(+) lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-κB, p38 MAPK and PI3 K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117.
He, Xuan; Slupsky, Carolyn M; Dekker, James W; Haggarty, Neill W; Lönnerdal, Bo
To investigate the impact of probiotic supplementation of infant formula on immune parameters, intestinal microbiota, and metabolism, five individually housed infant rhesus monkeys exclusively fed standard infant formula supplemented with probiotics (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis HN019) from birth until 3 months of age were compared with five standard formula-fed and five breast-fed monkeys. Anthropometric measurements, serum insulin, immune parameters, fecal microbiota, and metabolic profiles of serum, urine, and feces were evaluated. Consumption of B. lactis-supplemented formula reduced microbial diversity, restructured the fecal microbial community, and altered the fecal metabolome at the last two time points, in addition to increasing short-chain fatty acids in serum and urine. Circulating CCL22 was lower and threonine, branched-chain amino acids, urea, and allantoin, as well as dimethylglycine in serum and urine, were increased in the group supplemented with B. lactis compared with the standard formula-fed group. These results support a role of probiotics as effectors of gut microbial activity regulating amino acid utilization and nitrogen cycling. Future risk-benefit analyses are still needed to consolidate the existing knowledge on the long-term consequences of probiotic administration during infancy. IMPORTANCE Probiotics are becoming increasingly popular due to their perceived effects on health, despite a lack of mechanistic information on how they impart these benefits. Infant formula and complementary foods are common targets for supplementation with probiotics. However, different probiotic strains have different properties, and there is a lack of data on long-term health effects on the consumer. Given the increasing interest in supplementation with probiotics and the fact that the gastrointestinal tracts of infants are still immature, we sought to determine whether consumption of infant formula containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium
MURATA, Kozue; TOMOSADA, Yohsuke; VILLENA, Julio; CHIBA, Eriko; SHIMAZU, Tomoyuki; ASO, Hisashi; IWABUCHI, Noriyuki; XIAO, Jin-zhong; SAITO, Tadao; KITAZAWA, Haruki
Bifidobacterium breve MCC-117 is able to significantly reduce the expression of inflammatory cytokines in porcine intestinal epithelial (PIE) cells and to improve IL-10 levels in CD4+CD25high Foxp3+ lymphocytes in response to heat-stable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), while the immunoregulatory effect of B. adolescentis ATCC15705 was significantly lower than that observed for the MCC-117 strain. Considering the different capacities of the two bifidobacterium strains to activate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and their differential immunoregulatory activities in PIE and immune cells, we hypothesized that comparative studies with both strains could provide important information regarding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of bifidobacteria. In this work, we demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of B. breve MCC-117 was achieved by a complex interaction of multiple negative regulators of TLRs as well as inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. We showed that B. breve MCC-117 reduced heat-stable ETEC PAMP-induced NF-κB, p38 MAPK and PI3 K activation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in PIE cells. In addition, we demonstrated that B. breve MCC-117 may activate TLR2 synergistically and cooperatively with one or more other pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), and that interactions may result in a coordinated sum of signals that induce the upregulation of A20, Bcl-3, Tollip and SIGIRR. Upregulation of these negative regulators could have an important physiological impact on maintaining or reestablishing homeostatic TLR signals in PIE cells. Therefore, in the present study, we gained insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in the immunoregulatory effect of B. breve MCC-117. PMID:24936377
Fujisawa, Tomohiko; Ohashi, Yuji; Shin, Ryoichi; Narai-Kanayama, Asako; Nakagaki, Takenori
The influence of soymilk on the fecal microbiota, particularly Bifidobacterium species, and metabolic activities were investigated in eight healthy adult humans. During the soymilk intake period, the number of bifidobacteria in feces was significantly higher (p<0.05) on day 14 of the soymilk intake period than before the intake period, whereas that of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly lower (p<0.05) on days 7 and 14 of the soymilk intake period than before the intake period. In an investigation of Bifidobacterium at the species or group level, the numbers of all species and groups studied slightly increased during the soymilk intake period. These results show that the intake of soymilk may contribute to improving the intestinal environment.
FUJISAWA, Tomohiko; OHASHI, Yuji; SHIN, Ryoichi; NARAI-KANAYAMA, Asako; NAKAGAKI, Takenori
The influence of soymilk on the fecal microbiota, particularly Bifidobacterium species, and metabolic activities were investigated in eight healthy adult humans. During the soymilk intake period, the number of bifidobacteria in feces was significantly higher (p<0.05) on day 14 of the soymilk intake period than before the intake period, whereas that of Enterobacteriaceae was significantly lower (p<0.05) on days 7 and 14 of the soymilk intake period than before the intake period. In an investigation of Bifidobacterium at the species or group level, the numbers of all species and groups studied slightly increased during the soymilk intake period. These results show that the intake of soymilk may contribute to improving the intestinal environment. PMID:28243549
Wang, Zhonggui; Wang, Jinfeng; Cheng, Yi; Liu, Xin; Huang, Ying
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain BB12 in stimulated Caco-2 cells and to characterize the factors responsible for these anti-inflammatory effects. Characterization and purification studies indicate that BB12's anti-inflammatory factors might include a 50-kDa proteinaceous compound that is stable under a variety of heat and pH conditions. PMID:21926200
Čitar, M; Hacin, B; Tompa, G; Štempelj, M; Rogelj, I; Dolinšek, J; Narat, M; Matijašić, B Bogovič
Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria are considered one of the permanent genera of the physiological human intestinal microbiota and represent an enormous pool of potential probiotic candidates. Approximately 450 isolates of presumptive Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium strains were obtained from bioptic samples of colonic and ileal mucosa from 15 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. On the basis of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis, 20 strains were selected for further taxonomic classification and characterisation, as well as assessment of probiotic properties and safety. Importantly, selected strains showed the capability of colonising different parts of the intestine. The most frequently isolated species was Lactobacillus paracasei followed by Lactobacillus fermentum. The majority of isolates were susceptible to antimicrobials of human and veterinary importance, however, tetracycline and/or erythromycin resistance was observed in Lactobacillus plantarum and L. fermentum strains. Thirteen strains were able to ferment more than 19 different carbon sources and three out of five tested strains exerted antagonistic activity against several different indicator strains. Two Lactobacillus isolates (L. paracasei L350 and L. fermentum L930 bb) and one Bifidobacterium isolate (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. animalis IM386) fulfilled in vitro selection criteria for probiotic strains and exhibited strong downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-12 and upregulation of anti-inflammatory IL-10. The selected strains represent suitable candidates for further studies regarding their positive influence on host health and could play an important role in ameliorating the symptoms of inflammatory bowel diseases.
Measurements of Intra- and Extra-Cellular 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate Indicate that Bifidobacterium Adolescentis DSM 20083T and Bifidobacterium Pseudocatenulatum DSM 20438T Do Not Actively Excrete 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate In vitro
Kopp, Markus; Dürr, Kerstin; Steigleder, Matthias; Clavel, Thomas; Rychlik, Michael
Certain intestinal bifidobacteria have the ability to synthesize folates. In vitro experiments revealed a high production, cellular accumulation, and release of reduced folate vitamers like 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and tetrahydrofolate in folate-free medium (FFM). However, it is still unclear to which extent synthesized folates are polyglutamylated and probably not available for transport, and if they are actively released by excretion. To address these questions, we characterized intra- and extra-cellular pteroylmonoglutamates and polyglutamylated 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-CH3-H4PteGlu2−4) in Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM 20083T and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum DSM 20438T in vitro. Folates were measured by means of stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA) coupled with LC-MS/MS analysis using [2H4]-5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid, [2H4]-tetrahydrofolic acid, and [2H4]-5-formyltetrahydrofolic acid as internal standards. Cell viability was examined by fluorescence microscopy. Quantitation of folate production by B. adolescentis during the stationary phase revealed a linear increase of dead cells paralleled by increasing concentration of 5-formyltetrahydrofolate and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (100% 5-CH3-H4PteGlu4) in FFM, whereas the intracellular concentrations of these vitamers remained constant. After 24 h, B. adolescentis (125 mg cells, wet weight) produced a total amount of 0.846 nmol 5-CH3-H4folate: 0.385 ± 0.059 nmol (46 ± 7%) and 0.461 ± 0.095 nmol (54 ± 11%) measured in the intracellular (viable cells; 52 ± 3% measured by fluorescence microscopy) and extracellular (lysed cells; 48 ± 3%) fraction, respectively. For B. pseudocatenulatum (124 mg cells, wet weight), 1.135 nmol 5-CH3-H4folate was produced after 24 h, and a similar proportionality between intra- and extra-cellular folate concentrations and viable/lysed cells was observed. These results indicate that the strains tested produce and accumulate 5-CH3-H4PteGlu4 for cellular metabolism, and
Keung, Hoi Yee; Li, Tsz Kai; Sham, Lok To; Cheung, Man Kit; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung; Kwan, Hoi Shan
Bifidobacteria exert beneficial effects on hosts and are extensively used as probiotics. However, due to the genetic inaccessibility of these bacteria, little is known about their mechanisms of carbohydrate utilization and regulation. Bifidobacterium breve strain JCM1192 can grow on water-insoluble yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cell wall glucans (YCWG), which were recently considered as potential prebiotics. According to the results of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry, the YCWG were composed of highly branched (1→3,1→6)-β-glucans and (1→4,1→6)-α-glucans. Although the YCWG were composed of 78.3% β-glucans and 21.7% α-glucans, only α-glucans were consumed by the B. breve strain. The ABC transporter (malEFG1) and pullulanase (aapA) genes were transcriptionally upregulated in the metabolism of insoluble yeast glucans, suggesting their potential involvement in the process. A nonsense mutation identified in the gene encoding an ABC transporter ATP-binding protein (MalK) led to growth failure of an ethyl methanesulfonate-generated mutant with yeast glucans. Coculture of the wild-type strain and the mutant showed that this protein was responsible for the import of yeast glucans or their breakdown products, rather than the export of α-glucan-catabolizing enzymes. Further characterization of the carbohydrate utilization of the mutant and three of its revertants indicated that this mutation was pleiotropic: the mutant could not grow with maltose, glycogen, dextrin, raffinose, cellobiose, melibiose, or turanose. We propose that insoluble yeast α-glucans are hydrolyzed by extracellular pullulanase into maltose and/or maltooligosaccharides, which are then transported into the cell by the ABC transport system composed of MalEFG1 and MalK. The mechanism elucidated here will facilitate the development of B. breve and water-insoluble yeast glucans as novel synbiotics.IMPORTANCE In general, Bifidobacterium strains are genetically intractable
Immunoreactive Proteins of Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCM 7952 and Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum CCDM 372 Identified by Gnotobiotic Mono-Colonized Mice Sera, Immune Rabbit Sera and Non-immune Human Sera
Górska, Sabina; Dylus, Ewa; Rudawska, Angelika; Brzozowska, Ewa; Srutkova, Dagmar; Schwarzer, Martin; Razim, Agnieszka; Kozakova, Hana; Gamian, Andrzej
The Bifidobacteria show great diversity in the cell surface architecture which may influence the physicochemical properties of the bacterial cell and strain specific properties. The immunomodulatory role of bifidobacteria has been extensively studied, however studies on the immunoreactivity of their protein molecules are very limited. Here, we compared six different methods of protein isolation and purification and we report identification of immunogenic and immunoreactive protein of two human Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum strains. We evaluated potential immunoreactive properties of proteins employing polyclonal sera obtained from germ free mouse, rabbit and human. The protein yield was isolation method-dependent and the reactivity of proteins detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting was heterogeneous and varied between different serum samples. The proteins with the highest immunoreactivity were isolated, purified and have them sequenced. Among the immunoreactive proteins we identified enolase, aspartokinase, pyruvate kinase, DnaK (B. longum ssp. longum CCM 7952) and sugar ABC transporter ATP-binding protein, phosphoglycerate kinase, peptidoglycan synthethase penicillin-binding protein 3, transaldolase, ribosomal proteins and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (B. longum ssp. longum CCDM 372). PMID:27746766
Kamalian, Nikoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd
The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different coating materials (i.e. Na-alginate and chitosan) on the viability and release behavior of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 in the simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). This study reports the viability of encapsulated B. pseudocatenulatum G4 coated using different alginate (2-4 g/100mL) and chitosan (0.2-0.8 g/100mL) concentrations. The results indicated that the highest concentration of alginate (4.4142 g/100mL) along with 0.5578 g/100mL chitosan resulted in the highest viability of B. pseudocatenulatum G4. The release behavior of the encapsulated probiotics in SGF (pH 1.5) in 2h followed by 4h in SIF (pH 7.4) was also assessed. The resistance rate of alginate-chitosan capsule in SGF was higher than SIF. The alginate-chitosan encapsulated cells had also more resistance than alginate capsules. The current study revealed that alginate encapsulated B. Pseudocatenulatum G4 exhibited longer survival than its free cells (control).
Alvarez-Martin, Pablo; Fernández, Matilde; O'Connell-Motherway, Mary; O'Connell, Kerry Joan; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; MacSharry, John; Zomer, Aldert
This work reports on the identification and molecular characterization of the two-component regulatory system (2CRS) PhoRP, which controls the response to inorganic phosphate (Pi) starvation in Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003. The response regulator PhoP was shown to bind to the promoter region of pstSCAB, specifying a predicted Pi transporter system, as well as that of phoU, which encodes a putative Pi-responsive regulatory protein. This interaction is assumed to cause transcriptional modulation under conditions of Pi limitation. Our data suggest that the phoRP genes are subject to positive autoregulation and, together with pstSCAB and presumably phoU, represent the complete regulon controlled by the phoRP-encoded 2CRS in B. breve UCC2003. Determination of the minimal PhoP binding region combined with bioinformatic analysis revealed the probable recognition sequence of PhoP, designated here as the PHO box, which together with phoRP is conserved among many high-GC-content Gram-positive bacteria. The importance of the phoRP 2CRS in the response of B. breve to Pi starvation conditions was confirmed by analysis of a B. breve phoP insertion mutant which exhibited decreased growth under phosphate-limiting conditions compared to its parent strain UCC2003. PMID:22635988
Kabier, Barka M; Mustafa, Suhaimi; Kharidah, Muhammad; Suraini, Abd-Aziz; Abdul Manap, Yazid
The nutritive value of spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida, a Sudanese cereal thin porridge, is low. This study was carried out to improve the nutritional quality of medida. The flour was soaked and malted at 30◦C to optimise the protein content. Flour malted for two days had the highest protein content. Skim milk was added to the malted brown rice flour medida and fermented using Bifidobacterium longum BB 536. Maximum count of B. longum BB 536 up to 9 log CFU/ ml was attained at 4.6 final fermentation pH. The resultant viscosity was similar to that of the spontaneously fermented brown rice flour medida. There was significant (P< 0.01) increase in both the energy density and the protein content, having increased 12 folds and 24 folds, respectively. The essential amino acids including lysine and methionine were highly augmented. The resultant medida have stable flowing characteristics and meet the whole protein and energy requirements for infants and children aged 1 - 10 years old.
Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Kirmiz, Nina; Davis, Jasmine C.; Totten, Sarah M.; Lemay, Danielle G.; Ugalde, Juan A.; German, J. Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B.; Mills, David A.
The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO. B. longum SC596 grew vigorously on HMO, and glycoprofiling revealed a preference for consumption of fucosylated HMO. Transcriptomes of SC596 during early-stage growth on HMO were more similar to growth on fucosyllactose, transiting later to a pattern similar to growth on neutral HMO. B. longum SC596 contains a novel gene cluster devoted to the utilization of fucosylated HMO, including genes for import of fucosylated molecules, fucose metabolism and two α-fucosidases. This cluster showed a modular induction during early growth on HMO and fucosyllactose. This work clarifies the genomic and physiological variation of infant-borne B. longum to HMO consumption, which resembles B. infantis. The capability to preferentially consume fucosylated HMO suggests a competitive advantage for these unique B. longum strains in the breast-fed infant gut. PMID:27756904
Babot, Jaime D; Argañaraz-Martínez, Eloy; Lorenzo-Pisarello, María J; Apella, María C; Perez Chaia, Adriana
Plant lectins, which are proteins/glycoproteins present in a wide range of vegetables, fruits, cereals and beans, are resistant to digestive enzymes and food cooking temperatures. They bind reversibly to specific glycosidic residues expressed on the membrane of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and cause anti-nutritional effects in humans and animals. Soybean lectin (SBA) has been detected in poultry diets, and its ability to bind to the intestinal epithelium has been reported. The development of new methods for removing SBA from feeds or to prevent interaction with the intestinal mucosa is of interest. In this study, the in vitro cytotoxicity of SBA on IEC of chicks was demonstrated for the first time. The LD50, assessed after 2 h exposure of IEC to SBA, was 6.13 μg mL(-1) The ability of Bifidobacterium infantis CRL1395 to bind SBA on the bacterial envelope was confirmed, and prevention of IEC cytotoxicity by lectin removal was demonstrated. Safety of B. infantis CRL1395, resistance to gastrointestinal stress and adhesion were also determined. It was concluded that the early administration of B. infantis CRL1395 to chicks would effectively reduce the toxicity of SBA. Besides, it would favour the colonization of the gut with a beneficial microbiota.
Tehrani, Maryam Hajnorouzali; Akhlaghi, Najmeh; Talebian, Leila; Emami, Jaber; Keyhani, Siamak Etzad
Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a probiotic drop containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Lactobacillus reuteri on salivary counts of Streptococcus mutans (SM) and Lactobacillus (LB) in children 3–6 years of age. Settings and Design: Sixty-one healthy children were randomly allocated into two parallel blocks in this double-blind, randomized controlled trial (IRCT2014120320202N1) from May to June 2015. Subjects and Methods: Finally 53 participants consumed five drops of placebo (n = 23) or probiotic (n = 30) every night for 2 weeks. Before intervention and 1 day after completion of the intervention, unstimulated salivary samples were collected, and microbiologic evaluations were carried out. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods Wilcoxon signed ranks, Mann–Whitney, and logistic regression. Results: SM level decreased significantly in probiotic group after intervention (P = 0.045), and there were significant differences in salivary SM counts after intervention between two groups (P = 0.04). In probiotic group, LB counts decreased significantly after intervention (P = 0.048); however, there were no significant differences between two groups (P = 0.216). Conclusions: Use of this probiotic drop decreased salivary counts of SM; however, LB counts did not change. In addition, use of the drop in children with higher salivary counts appeared to be more effective. PMID:27994413
TAKAHASHI, Shota; ANZAWA, Daisuke; TAKAMI, Kazuyo; ISHIZUKA, Akihiro; MAWATARI, Takashi; KAMIKADO, Kohei; SUGIMURA, Haruhi; NISHIJIMA, Tomohiko
Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis GCL2505 (B. lactis GCL2505) is able to survive passage through the intestine and then proliferate, leading to an increase in the amount of gut bifidobacteria. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of B. lactis GCL2505 on abdominal visceral fat storage in overweight and mildly obese Japanese adults. This clinical study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparative trial performed for 12 weeks. Healthy Japanese subjects (N=137) with body mass indices ranging from 23 to 30 kg/m2 consumed either fermented milk containing B. lactis GCL2505 or a placebo every day, and then visceral and subcutaneous abdominal fat areas were measured by computed tomography as the primary endpoints. The number of fecal bifidobacteria was also measured. Visceral fat area, but not subcutaneous fat area, was significantly reduced from baseline at 8 and 12 weeks in the GCL2505 group, compared with the placebo group. The total number of fecal bifidobacteria was significantly increased in the GCL2505 group. These results indicate that B. lactis GCL2505 reduces abdominal visceral fat, a key factor associated with metabolic disorders. This finding suggests that this probiotic strain can potentially serve as a specific functional food to achieve visceral fat reduction in overweight or mildly obese individuals. PMID:27867803
Holko, I; Hrabě, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V
Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages.
Falck, Peter; Precha-Atsawanan, Suthsiri; Grey, Carl; Immerzeel, Peter; Stålbrand, Henrik; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Karlsson, Eva Nordberg
To compare xylans from forestry with agricultural origins, hardwood xylan (birch) and cereal arabinoxylan (rye) were hydrolyzed using two variants of the xylanase RmXyn10A, full-length enzyme and catalytic module only, from Rhodothermus marinus . Cultivations of four selected bacterial species, using the xylooligosaccharide (XOS) containing hydrolysates as carbon source, showed selective growth of Lactobacillus brevis DSMZ 1264 and Bifidobacterium adolescentis ATCC 15703. Both strains were confirmed to utilize the XOS fraction (DP 2-5), whereas putative arabinoxylooligosaccharides from the rye arabinoxylan hydrolysate were utilized by only B. adolescentis. Escherichia coli did not grow, despite its capability to grow on the monosaccharides arabinose and xylose. It was also shown that Pediococcus parvulus strain 2.6 utilized neither xylose nor XOS for growth. In summary, RmXyn10A or its catalytic module proved suitable for high-temperature hydrolysis of hardwood xylan and cereal arabinoxylan, producing XOS that could qualify as prebiotics for use in functional food products.
Wang, Linlin; Hu, Lujun; Xu, Qi; Yin, Boxing; Fang, Dongsheng; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei
Constipation is one of the most common gastrointestinal complaints worldwide. This study was performed to determine whether Bifidobacterium adolescentis exerts inter-strain differences in alleviating constipation induced by loperamide in BALB/c mice and to analyze the main reasons for these differences. BALB/c mice underwent gavage with B. adolescentis (CCFM 626, 667, and 669) once per day for 17 days. The primary outcome measures included related constipation indicators, and the secondary outcome measures were the basic biological characteristics of the strains, the concentration changes of short-chain fatty acids in feces, and the changes in the fecal flora. B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 relieved constipation symptoms by adhering to intestinal epithelial cells, growing quickly in vitro and increasing the concentrations of propionic and butyric acids. The effect of B. adolescentis on the gut microbiota in mice with constipation was investigated via 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis. The results revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus increased and the amount of Clostridium decreased in the B. adolescentis CCFM 669 and 667 treatment groups. In conclusion, B. adolescentis exhibits strain-specific effects in the alleviation of constipation, mostly due to the strains’ growth rates, adhesive capacity and effects on the gut microbiome and microenvironment. PMID:28230723
Hayes, C L; Natividad, J M M; Jury, J; Martin, R; Langella, P; Verdu, E F
Probiotics have been proposed as a therapy for inflammatory bowel disease, but variations in strains, formulations, and protocols used in clinical trials have hindered the creation of guidelines for their use. Thus, preclinical insight into the mechanisms of specific probiotic strains and mode of administration would be useful to guide future clinical trial design. In this study, live, heat inactivated (HI), and spent culture medium preparations of the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve NCC2950 were administered to specific pathogen free C57BL/6 mice before or during colitis, as well as before colitis reactivation. Five days of 3.5% dextran sulphate sodium in drinking water was used to induce colitis. Pretreatment with live B. breve reduced disease severity, myeloperoxidase activity, microscopic damage, cytokine production, interleukin (IL)-12/IL-10 ratio, and lymphocyte infiltration in the colon. B. breve did not attenuate on-going colitis. After acute colitis, disease symptoms were normalised sooner with live and HI B. breve treatment; however, reactivation of colitis was not prevented. These findings indicate that the efficacy of a probiotic to modulate intestinal inflammation is dependent on the formulation as well as state of inflammation when administered. Overall, live B. breve was most efficacious in preventing acute colitis. Live and HI B. breve also promoted recovery from diarrhoea and colon bleeding after a bout of acute colitis.
Shamekhi, Fatemeh; Shuhaimi, Mustafa; Ariff, Arbakariya; Manap, Yazid A
The purpose of this study was to improve the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 10140 during freeze-drying process by microencapsulation, using a special pediatric prebiotics mixture (galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides). Probiotic microorganisms were encapsulated with a coat combination of prebiotics-calcium-alginate prior to freeze-drying. Both encapsulated and free cells were then freeze-dried in their optimized combinations of skim milk and prebiotics. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to produce a coating combination as well as drying medium with the highest cell viability during freeze-drying. The optimum encapsulation composition was found to be 2.1 % Na-alginate, 2.9 % prebiotic, and 21.7 % glycerol. Maximum survival predicted by the model was 81.2 %. No significant (p > 0.05) difference between the predicted and experimental values verified the adequacy of final reduced models. The protection ability of encapsulation was then examined over 120 days of storage at 4 and 25 °C and exposure to a sequential model of infantile GIT conditions including both gastric conditions (pH 3.0 and 4.0, 90 min, 37 °C) and intestinal conditions (pH 7.5, 5 h, 37 °C). Significantly improved cell viability showed that microencapsulation of B. lactis 10140 with the prebiotics was successful in producing a stable symbiotic powdery nutraceutical.
Kawabata, Kyuichi; Sugiyama, Yuta; Sakano, Taiken; Ohigashi, Hajime
The gut microbiota is capable of the bioconversion of flavonoids whereas influences of probiotic anaerobes on the bioactivities of flavonoids and vice versa are still unclear. Here, we investigated functional interactions with respect to the anti-inflammatory activity between flavonols and probiotic bacteria. Ten enteric (6 probiotic and 4 indigenous) bacteria were incubated with flavonols (galangin, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, and fisetin) under anaerobic conditions, and the supernatants were assessed for their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccaride-stimulated RAW264 cells. Although the conditioned medium from the flavonol mono-culture and almost all of the tested co-cultures failed to inhibit NO production, the medium from the Bifidobacterium adolescentis/flavonols (galangin, quercetin, and fisetin) co-culture highly suppressed NO production. This activity increased during the 1-6 H incubation in a time-dependent manner and was not observed in the co-culture using heat-inactivated B. adolescentis. Interestingly, when the B. adolescentis cell number was increased, the supernatant from the mono-culture of the bacteria showed NO suppression, suggesting that B. adolescentis may produce NO suppressant(s), and flavonols may have a promoting effect. These findings indicate that flavonols have a prebiotic-like effect on the anti-inflammatory activity of B. adolescentis.
Briczinski, Elizabeth P.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Dudley, Edward G.; Roberts, Anastasia M.; Roberts, Robert F.
Several probiotic strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis are widely supplemented into food products and dietary supplements due to their documented health benefits and ability to survive within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and acidified dairy products. The strain specificity of these characteristics demands techniques with high discriminatory power to differentiate among strains. However, to date, molecular approaches, such as pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR, have been ineffective at achieving strain separation due to the monomorphic nature of this subspecies. Previously, sequencing and comparison of two B. animalis subsp. lactis genomes (DSMZ 10140 and Bl-04) confirmed this high level of sequence similarity, identifying only 47 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and four insertions and/or deletions (INDELs) between them. In this study, we hypothesized that a sequence-based typing method targeting these loci would permit greater discrimination between strains than previously attempted methods. Sequencing 50 of these loci in 24 strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis revealed that a combination of nine SNPs/INDELs could be used to differentiate strains into 14 distinct genotypic groups. In addition, the presence of a nonsynonymous SNP within the gene encoding a putative glucose uptake protein was found to correlate with the ability of certain strains to transport glucose and to grow rapidly in a medium containing glucose as the sole carbon source. The method reported here can be used in clinical, regulatory, and commercial applications requiring identification of B. animalis subsp. lactis at the strain level. PMID:19801460
Cheng, D-L; Hashimoto, K; Uda, Y
Three strains of Bifidobacterium sp., B. pseudocatenulatum, B. adolescentis, and B. longum were studied for their ability to digest glucosinolates, sinigrin (SNG) and glucotropaeolin (GTL), in vitro. All strains digested both glucosinolates during 24-48 h cultivation, accompanied by a decline in the medium pH from 7.1 to 5.2. The digestion of glucosinolates by a cell-free extract prepared from sonicated cells of B. adolescentis, but not cultivated broth, increased in the presence of 0.5 mM l-ascorbic acid. Also, a time-dependent formation of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) was observed when the cell-free extract was incubated with 0.25 mM SNG for 120 min at pH 7.0. These reaction features suggest that the digestive activity may have been due to an enzyme similar to myrosinase, an enzyme of plant origin. GC-MS analysis of the Bifidobacterial cultured broth showed that the major products were 3-butenenitrile (BCN) and phenylacetonitrile (PhACN), from SNG and GTL, respectively and nitriles, probably due to a decrease in the pH of the media. AITC and benzyl isothiocyanate (BzITC) were barely detectable in the broth. It was concluded that the three species of Bifidobacteria could be involved in digestive degradation of glucosinolates in the human intestinal tract.
Javed, Najma H.; Alsahly, Musaad B.; Khubchandani, Jagdish
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. It has been proposed that modifying the bacterial flora in intestine with probiotics may decrease the inflammatory process and prevent relapses in UC. We investigated the possible protective and therapeutic effects of a single strand of probiotic, Bifidobacterium infantis (BI), on colonic inflammation, in rats with regular feedings. Two groups of Lewis rats were prepared (n = 8). The first group was the control, sham-fed group (n = 4). The other group was the experimental BI-fed group (n = 4). Colitis was induced in both groups by intrarectal administration of TNBS under light anesthesia. The sham-fed colitis induced groups received a daily oral gavage feeding of 1.0 mL distilled water, whereas the B. infantis-fed group received 0.205 g of B. infantis dissolved in 1.0 mL distilled water daily. The change in body weight and food and water intake was recorded over the course of each study and analyzed. The rats were euthanized and tissues from the descending colon were harvested and analyzed microscopically and histologically. Results of our study indicated significant reduction in inflammation, mucosal damage, and preservation of goblet cells, as compared to the control animals. Modulation of gastrointestinal (GI) flora suggests a promising field in developing strategies for prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases by dietary modifications. PMID:27127686
Sagar, Seil; Vos, Arjan P; Morgan, Mary E; Garssen, Johan; Georgiou, Niki A; Boon, Louis; Kraneveld, Aletta D; Folkerts, Gert
Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of interventions that target the intestinal microbiota as a treatment approach for asthma. This study is aimed at exploring the therapeutic effects of long-term treatment with a combination of Bifidobacterium breve with non-digestible oligosaccharides on airway inflammation and remodeling. A murine ovalbumin-induced chronic asthma model was used. Pulmonary airway inflammation; mRNA expression of pattern recognition receptors, Th-specific cytokines and transcription factors in lung tissue; expression of Foxp3 in blood Th cells; in vitro T cell activation; mast cell degranulation; and airway remodeling were examined. The combination of B. breve with non-digestible oligosaccharides suppressed pulmonary airway inflammation; reduced T cell activation and mast cell degranulation; modulated expression of pattern recognition receptors, cytokines and transcription factors; and reduced airway remodeling. The treatment induced regulatory T cell responses, as shown by increased Il10 and Foxp3 transcription in lung tissue, and augmented Foxp3 protein expression in blood CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells. This specific combination of beneficial bacteria with non-digestible oligosaccharides has strong anti-inflammatory properties, possibly via the induction of a regulatory T cell response, resulting in reduced airway remodeling and, therefore, may be beneficial in the treatment of chronic inflammation in allergic asthma.
Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Kirmiz, Nina; Davis, Jasmine C; Totten, Sarah M; Lemay, Danielle G; Ugalde, Juan A; German, J Bruce; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Mills, David A
The infant intestinal microbiota is often colonized by two subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum: subsp. infantis (B. infantis) and subsp. longum (B. longum). Competitive growth of B. infantis in the neonate intestine has been linked to the utilization of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). However, little is known how B. longum consumes HMO. In this study, infant-borne B. longum strains exhibited varying HMO growth phenotypes. While all strains efficiently utilized lacto-N-tetraose, certain strains additionally metabolized fucosylated HMO. B. longum SC596 grew vigorously on HMO, and glycoprofiling revealed a preference for consumption of fucosylated HMO. Transcriptomes of SC596 during early-stage growth on HMO were more similar to growth on fucosyllactose, transiting later to a pattern similar to growth on neutral HMO. B. longum SC596 contains a novel gene cluster devoted to the utilization of fucosylated HMO, including genes for import of fucosylated molecules, fucose metabolism and two α-fucosidases. This cluster showed a modular induction during early growth on HMO and fucosyllactose. This work clarifies the genomic and physiological variation of infant-borne B. longum to HMO consumption, which resembles B. infantis. The capability to preferentially consume fucosylated HMO suggests a competitive advantage for these unique B. longum strains in the breast-fed infant gut.
Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Hernández-Barranco, Ana; Margolles, Abelardo; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G
The growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis IPLA 4549 and its derivative with acquired resistance to bile, B. animalis subsp. lactis 4549dOx, was evaluated in batch cultures with glucose or the glucose disaccharide maltose as the main carbon source. The acquisition of bile salt resistance caused a change in growth pattern for both sugars, which mainly resulted in a preferential use of maltose compared to glucose, whereas the mother strain used both carbohydrates in a similar way. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were performed to determine the amounts of glucose consumption and organic acid and ethanol formation from glucose by buffered resting cells taken at different points during growth. Resting cells of the bile-adapted strain generally consumed less glucose than those of the nonadapted one but showed an enhanced production of ethanol and higher acetic acid-to-lactic acid as well as formic acid-to-lactic acid ratios. These findings suggest a shift in the catabolism of carbohydrates promoted by the acquisition of bile resistance that may cause changes in the redox potential and improvements in the cellular ATP yield.
Wang, J; Zhao, H; Kong, W; Jin, C; Zhao, Y; Qu, Y; Xiao, X
It was found that the intestinal bacteria balance would be deteriorated by rhubarb especially in long term treatment. Bifidobacteria is one of the most common species of probiotics in human intestine. The suppression of this particular probiotic, such as Bifidobacterium adolescentis, one of the dominant anaerobes in the intestines of humans, might lead to imbalance of intestinal flora and is considered to be potentially riskful for human health. Hence, the inhibitory effects of the five main components of hydroxyanthraquinones (HAQs) contained in rhubarb on B. adolescentis growth were investigated by microcalorimetry to discover the suppression potential of rhubarb and the structure-function relationship of such HAQs. The value of the maximum power- output (P(max)) and slope (k) of the thermogenic growth curves of B. adolescentis were found of decrease in the presence of the five HAQs, while the peak time (T(p)) of the thermogenic curves were found to be delayed. The sequence of antimicrobial activity of the five HAQs is rhein>emodin>aloe-emodin>chrysophanol>physicion. The functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl and hydroxylmethyl on phenyl ring in HAQs could improve the antimicrobial activity. The influence of substituent groups on anti- B. adolescentis activity might be related with the polarity and the sequence was carboxyl>hydroxyl>hydroxylmethyl>methyl and methoxyl.
Garrido, Daniel; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Lemay, Danielle G.; Sela, David A.; German, J. Bruce; Mills, David A.
Breast milk enhances the predominance of Bifidobacterium species in the infant gut, probably due to its large concentration of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). Here we screened infant-gut isolates of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium bifidum using individual HMO, and compared the global transcriptomes of representative isolates on major HMO by RNA-seq. While B. infantis displayed homogeneous HMO-utilization patterns, B. bifidum were more diverse and some strains did not use fucosyllactose (FL) or sialyllactose (SL). Transcriptomes of B. bifidum SC555 and B. infantis ATCC 15697 showed that utilization of pooled HMO is similar to neutral HMO, while transcriptomes for growth on FL were more similar to lactose than HMO in B. bifidum. Genes linked to HMO-utilization were upregulated by neutral HMO and SL, but not by FL in both species. In contrast, FL induced the expression of alternative gene clusters in B. infantis. Results also suggest that B. bifidum SC555 does not utilize fucose or sialic acid from HMO. Surprisingly, expression of orthologous genes differed between both bifidobacteria even when grown on identical substrates. This study highlights two major strategies found in Bifidobacterium species to process HMO, and presents detailed information on the close relationship between HMO and infant-gut bifidobacteria. PMID:26337101
Pedreschi, Romina; Campos, David; Noratto, Giuliana; Chirinos, Rosana; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis
The ability of three known probiotic strains (two lactobacilli and one bifidobacterium) to ferment fructooligosaccharides (FOS) from yacon roots (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. Endl) was compared to commercial FOS in this study. Results indicate that Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL-1910, Lactobacillus plantarum NRRL B-4496, and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 15696 were able to ferment yacon root FOS. FOS consumption apparently depended on the degree of polymerization and the initial FOS composition. L. plantarum NRRL B-4496 and L. acidophilus NRRL B-1910 completely utilized 1-kestose molecules, while B. bifidum was able to utilize 1-kestose molecules as well as molecules with a higher degree of polymerization.
Wang, Hai; Wu, Hongping; Wang, Kejun; Cao, Zhichen; Yu, Kun; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing
Lysozyme is one kind of antimicrobial proteins and often used as feed additive which can defend against pathogenic bacteria and enhance immune function of animals. In this study, we have injected the lentiviral vector expressing recombinant human lysozyme (rhLZ) gene into the blastoderm of chicken embryo to investigate the effect of recombinant human lysozyme on postnatal intestinal microbiota distribution and growth performance of chicken. Successfully, we generated 194 transgenic chickens identified by Southern blot with a positive transgenic rate of 24%. The average concentration of rhLZ was 29.90 ± 6.50 μg/mL in the egg white. Lysozyme in egg white of transgenic chickens had a significantly higher antibacterial activity than those of non-transgenic chickens by lysoplate assay (P < 0.05). The feces of transgenic and non-transgenic chickens were collected and five types of bacteria (Lactobacillus, Salmonella, Bifidobacterium, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) were isolated and cultured to detect the impact of rhLZ on gut microbiota. Among the five bacteria, the number of Bifidobacterium in the intestine of those transgenic was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Moreover, the growth traits of the transgenic and non-transgenic chickens were analyzed. It was found that the 6-week shank length, 6-week weight and 18-week weight of transgenic chickens were significantly increased than that of non-transgenic chickens. The results demonstrated that rhLZ-transgenic chicken could promote the growth of Bifidobacterium in the intestine and improve the postnatal growth of chicken.
Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.
Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P
Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ≥10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h.
Centanni, Manuela; Bergmann, Simone; Turroni, Silvia; Hammerschmidt, Sven; Chhatwal, Gursharan Singh; Brigidi, Patrizia
The capacity to intervene with the host plasminogen system has recently been considered an important component in the interaction process between Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis and the human host. However, its significance in the bifidobacterial microecology within the human gastrointestinal tract is still an open question. Here we demonstrate that human plasminogen favors the B. animalis subsp. lactis BI07 adhesion to HT29 cells. Prompting the HT29 cell capacity to activate plasminogen, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) modulated the plasminogen-mediated bacterium-enterocyte interaction, reducing the bacterial adhesion to the enterocytes and enhancing migration to the luminal compartment. PMID:22287006
Vinderola, G; Zacarías, M F; Bockelmann, W; Neve, H; Reinheimer, J; Heller, K J
The aim of this work was to investigate how production and freeze-drying conditions of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis INL1, a probiotic strain isolated from breast milk, affected its survival and resistance to simulated gastric digestion during storage in food matrices. The determination of the resistance of bifidobacteria to simulated gastric digestion was useful for unveiling differences in cell sensitivity to varying conditions during biomass production, freeze-drying and incorporation of the strain into food products. These findings show that bifidobacteria can become sensitive to technological variables (biomass production, freeze-drying and the food matrix) without this fact being evidenced by plate counts.
Dalziel, Julie E.; Anderson, Rachel C.; Peters, Jason S.; Lynch, Amy T.; Spencer, Nick J.; Dekker, James; Roy, Nicole C.
Attention is increasingly being focussed on probiotics as potential agents to restore or improve gastrointestinal (GI) transit. Determining mechanism of action would support robust health claims. The probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 reduces transit time, but its mechanisms of action and effects on motility patterns are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in GI motility induced by an extract of HN019 on distinct patterns of colonic motility in isolated rat large intestine, compared with a known promotility modulator, prucalopride. The large intestines from male Sprague Dawley rats (3–6 months) were perfused with Kreb's buffer at 37°C in an oxygenated tissue bath. Isometric force transducers recorded changes in circular muscle activity at four independent locations assessing contractile propagation between the proximal colon and the rectum. HN019 extract was perfused through the tissue bath and differences in tension and frequency quantified relative to pre-treatment controls. Prucalopride (1 μM) increased the frequency of propagating contractions (by 75 ± 26%) in the majority of preparations studied (10/12), concurrently decreasing the frequency of non-propagating contractions (by 50 ± 11%). HN019 extract had no effect on contractile activity during exposure (n = 8). However, following wash out, contraction amplitude of propagating contractions increased (by 55 ± 18%) in the distal colon, while the frequency of non-propagating proximal contractions decreased by 57 ± 7%. The prokinetic action of prucalopride increased the frequency of synchronous contractions along the length of colon, likely explaining increased colonic rate of transit in vivo. HN019 extract modified motility patterns in a different manner by promoting propagating contractile amplitude and inhibiting non-propagations, also demonstrating prokinetic activity consistent with the reduction of constipation by B. lactis HN019 in humans. PMID:28184185
Georgieva, Ralitsa; Yocheva, Lyubomira; Tserovska, Lilia; Zhelezova, Galina; Stefanova, Nina; Atanasova, Akseniya; Danguleva, Antonia; Ivanova, Gergana; Karapetkov, Nikolay; Rumyan, Nevenka; Karaivanova, Elena
Antimicrobial activity and antibiotic susceptibility were tested for 23 Lactobacillus and three Bifidobacterium strains isolated from different ecological niches. Agar-well diffusion method was used to test the antagonistic effect (against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Candida albicans) of acid and neutralized (pH 5.5) lyophilized concentrated supernatants (cell-free supernatant; CFS) and whey (cell-free whey fractions; CFW) from de Man–Rogosa–Sharpe/trypticase-phytone-yeast broth and skim milk. Acid CFS and CFW showed high acidification rate-dependent bacterial inhibition; five strains were active against C. albicans. Neutralized CFS/CFW assays showed six strains active against S. aureus (L. acidophilus L-1, L. brevis 1, L. fermentum 1, B. animalis subsp. lactis L-3), E. coli (L. bulgaricus 6) or B. cereus (L. plantarum 24-4В). Inhibition of two pathogens with neutralized CFS (L. bulgaricus 6, L. helveticus 3, L. plantarum 24-2L, L. fermentum 1)/CFW (L. plantarum 24-5D, L. plantarum 24-4В) was detected. Some strains maintained activity after pH neutralization, indicating presence of active substances. The antibiotics minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the Epsilometer test method. All strains were susceptible to ampicillin, gentamicin, erythromycin and tetracycline. Four lactobacilli were resistant to one antibiotic (L. rhamnosus Lio 1 to streptomycin) or two antibiotics (L. acidophilus L-1 and L. brevis 1 to kanamycin and clindamycin; L. casei L-4 to clindamycin and chloramphenicol). Vancomycin MICs > 256 μg/mL indicated intrinsic resistance for all heterofermentative lactobacilli. The antimicrobially active strains do not cause concerns about antibiotic resistance transfer and could be used as natural biopreservatives in food and therapeutic formulations. PMID:26019620
Ha, Go Eun; Chang, Oun Ki; Jo, Su-Mi; Han, Gi-Sung; Park, Beom-Young; Ham, Jun-Sang; Jeong, Seok-Geun
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was evaluated for the low-molecular-weight fraction (<3 kDa) obtained from milk fermentation by Bifidobacterium longum KACC91563. The ACE inhibitory activity in this fraction was 62.3%. The peptides generated from the <3 kDa fraction were identified by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization quantitative time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Of the 28 peptides identified, 11 and 16 were identified as β-casein (CN) and αs1-CN, respectively. One peptide was identified as κ-CN. Three peptides, YQEPVLGPVRGPFPIIV, QEPVLGPVRGPFPIIV, and GPVRGPFPIIV, from β-CN corresponded to known antihypertensive peptides. We also found 15 peptides that were identified as potential antihypertensive peptides because they included a known antihypertensive peptide fragment. These peptides were as follows: RELEELNVPGEIVE (f1-14), YQEPVLGPVRGPFP (f193-206), EPVLGPVRGPFPIIV (f195-206), PVLGPVRGPFPIIV (f196-206), VLGPVRGPFPIIV (f197-206), and LGPVRGPFPIIV (f198-206) for β-CN; and APSFSDIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f176-199), SFSDIPNPIGSENSEKT- TMPLW (f178-199), FSDIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f179-199), SDIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f180-199), DIPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f181-199), IPNPIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f182-199), PIGSENSEKTTMPLW (f185-199), IGSENSEKTTMPLW (f186-199), and SENSEKTTMPLW (f188-199) for αs1-CN. From these results, B. longum could be used as a starter culture in combination with other lactic acid bacteria in the dairy industry, and/or these peptides could be used in functional food manufacturing as additives for the development of a product with beneficial effects for human health. PMID:26877633
Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe
Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4(+) lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4(+) Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability.
Martín, Rebeca; Laval, Laure; Chain, Florian; Miquel, Sylvie; Natividad, Jane; Cherbuy, Claire; Sokol, Harry; Verdu, Elena F.; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan; Bermudez-Humaran, Luis G.; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe
Growing evidence supports the efficacy of many probiotic strains in the management of gastrointestinal disorders associated with deregulated intestinal barrier function and/or structure. In particular, bifidobacteria have been studied for their efficacy to both prevent and treat a broad spectrum of animal and/or human gut disorders. The aim of the current work was thus to evaluate effects on intestinal barrier function of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494, a strain used in fermented dairy products. A chronic dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced low-grade inflammation model causing gut dysfunction in mice was used in order to study markers of inflammation, intestinal permeability, and immune function in the presence of the bacterial strain. In this chronic low-grade inflammation mice model several parameters pointed out the absence of an over active inflammation process. However, gut permeability, lymphocyte populations, and colonic cytokines were found to be altered. B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 was able to protect barrier functions by restoring intestinal permeability, colonic goblet cell populations, and cytokine levels. Furthermore, tight junction (TJ) proteins levels were also measured by qRT-PCR showing the ability of this strain to specifically normalize the level of several TJ proteins, in particular for claudin-4. Finally, B. lactis strain counterbalanced CD4+ lymphocyte alterations in both spleen and mesenteric lymphoid nodes. It restores the Th1/Th2 ratio altered by the DNBS challenge (which locally augments CD4+ Th1 cells) by increasing the Th2 response as measured by the increase in the production of major representative Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10). Altogether, these data suggest that B. animalis ssp. lactis CNCM-I2494 may efficiently prevent disorders associated with increased barrier permeability. PMID:27199937
Meile, Leo; Rohr, Lukas M.; Geissmann, Thomas A.; Herensperger, Monique; Teuber, Michael
A d-xylulose 5-phosphate/d-fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase (Xfp) from the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis was purified to homogeneity. The specific activity of the purified enzyme with d-fructose 6-phosphate as a substrate is 4.28 Units per mg of enzyme. Km values for d-xylulose 5-phosphate and d-fructose 6-phosphate are 45 and 10 mM, respectively. The native enzyme has a molecular mass of 550,000 Da. The subunit size upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (90,000 Da) corresponds with the size (92,529 Da) calculated from the amino acid sequence of the isolated gene (named xfp) encoding 825 amino acids. The xfp gene was identified on the chromosome of B. lactis with the help of degenerated nucleotide probes deduced from the common N-terminal amino acid sequence of both the native and denatured enzyme. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the cloned gene with sequences in public databases revealed high homologies with hypothetical proteins (26 to 55% identity) in 20 microbial genomes. The amino acid sequence derived from the xfp gene contains typical thiamine diphosphate (ThDP) binding sites reported for other ThDP-dependent enzymes. Two truncated putative genes, pta and guaA, were localized adjacent to xfp on the B. lactis chromosome coding for a phosphotransacetylase and a guanosine monophosphate synthetase homologous to products of genes in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, xfp is transcribed in B. lactis as a monocistronic operon. It is the first reported and sequenced gene of a phosphoketolase. PMID:11292814
Zacarías, M F; Reinheimer, J; Forzani, L; Grangette, C; Vinderola, G
The mouse has been largely used for the study of the protective capacity of probiotics against intestinal infections caused by Salmonella. In this work we aimed at comparing the mortality and translocation assay for the study of the protective capacity of the human breast milk-derived strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis INL1 on a model of gut infection by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Different doses of S. Typhimurium FUNED and B. animalis subsp. lactis INL 1 were administered to Balb/c mice in a mortality or a translocation assay. The survival of the control group in the mortality assay resulted to be variable along experiments, and then we preferred to use a translocation assay where the preventive administration of 109 cfu of bifidobacteria/mouse for 10 consecutive days significantly reduced the number of infected animals and the levels of translocation to liver and spleen, with enhanced secretory immunoglobulin A and interleukin 10 production in the small and large intestine, respectively. Ten days of B. animalis subsp. lactis strain INL1 administration to mice significantly reduced both the incidence and the severity of Salmonella infection in a mouse model of translocation. This work provided the first evidence that a translocation assay, compared to a mortality assay, could be more useful to study the protective capacity of probiotics against Salmonella infection, as more information can be obtained from mice and less suffering is conferred to animals due to the fact that the mortality assay is shorter than the latter. These facts are in line with the guidelines of animal research recently established by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research.
Khaskheli, Gul Bahar; Zuo, FangLei; Yu, Rui; Chen, ShangWu
Bifidobacteria are probiotics that are incorporated live into various dairy products. They confer health-promotive effects via gastrointestinal tract colonization. However, to provide their health-beneficial properties, they must battle the various abiotic stresses in that environment, such as bile salts, acids, oxygen, and heat. In this study, Bifidobacterium longum salt- and heat-stress tolerance was enhanced by homologous overexpression of a small heat shock protein (sHsp). A positive contribution of overproduced sHsp to abiotic stress tolerance was observed when the bacterium was exposed to heat and salt stresses. Significantly higher survival of B. l ongum NCC2705 overexpressing sHsp was observed at 30 and 60 min into heat (55 °C) and salt (5 M NaCl) treatment, respectively. Thermotolerance analysis at 47 °C with sampling every 2 h also revealed the great potential tolerance of the engineered strain. Cell density and acid production rate increased for the sHsp-overexpressing strain after 8 and 10 h of both heat and salt stresses. In addition, tolerance to bile salts, low pH (3.5) and low temperature (4 °C) was also increased by homologous overexpression of the sHsp hsp20 in B. l ongum. Results revealed that hsp20 overexpression in B longum NCC2705 plays a positive cross-protective role in upregulating abiotic responses, ensuring the organism's tolerance to various stress conditions; therefore, sHsp-overexpressing B. l ongum is advised for fermented dairy foods and other probiotic product applications.
Shu, Q; Gill, H S
The protective effects of the probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were investigated in murine challenge infection models. BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice were fed milk-based diets supplemented with B. lactis HN019 (3 x 10(8) cfu/g) for 7 days prior to and following oral challenge with E. coli O157:H7. Behavioral parameters (morbidity, feed intake) were measured for 7 days following challenge; immunological responses (phagocytosis, antibody) and pathogen translocation were measured in a sub-sample of ostensibly healthy animals 1 week post-challenge. Results showed that HN019-fed mice maintained significantly higher post-challenge feed intake and exhibited a lower cumulative morbidity rate, compared to control mice which did not receive the probiotic. Significantly higher proportions of phagocytically active cells in the blood and peritoneum, and higher intestinal tract IgA anti-E. coli antibody responses, were recorded among HN019-fed mice compared to controls. Among HN019-fed mice, pathogen translocation was identified in one of five BALB/c and one of five C57 mice; the comparative figures in control mice were two of five and three of five, respectively, and the mean bacterial burdens in these mice were over 100-fold higher than in HN019-fed mice. These results demonstrate that HN019 can reduce the severity of infection due to the enterohemolytic pathogen E. coli O157:H7, and suggest that this reduction may be associated with enhanced immune protection conferred by the probiotic.
Gill, H S; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Gopal, P K
Consumption of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been suggested to confer a range of health benefits including stimulation of the immune system and increased resistance to malignancy and infectious illness. In the present study, the effects of feeding Lactobacillus rhamnosus (HN001, DR20), Lactobacillus acidophilus (HN017) and Bifidobacterium lactis (HN019, DR10) on in vivo and in vitro indices of natural and acquired immunity in healthy mice were examined. Mice were fed daily with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis (10(9) colony forming units) and their immune function was assessed on day 10 or day 28. Supplementation with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis resulted in a significant increase in the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leucocytes and peritoneal macrophages compared with the control mice. The proliferative responses of spleen cells to concanavalin A (a T-cell mitogen) and lipopolysaccharide (a B-cell mitogen) were also significantly enhanced in mice given different LAB. Spleen cells from mice given L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis also produced significantly higher amounts of interferon-gamma in response to stimulation with concanavalin A than cells from the control mice. LAB feeding had no significant effect on interleukin-4 production by spleen cells or on the percentages of CD4+, CD8+ and CD40+ cells in the blood. The serum antibody responses to orally and systemically administered antigens were also significantly enhanced by supplementation with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus or B. lactis. Together, these results suggest that supplementation of the diet with L. rhamnosus (HN001), L. acidophilus (HN017) or B. lactis (HN019) is able to enhance several indices of natural and acquired immunity in healthy mice.
Dalziel, Julie E; Anderson, Rachel C; Peters, Jason S; Lynch, Amy T; Spencer, Nick J; Dekker, James; Roy, Nicole C
Attention is increasingly being focussed on probiotics as potential agents to restore or improve gastrointestinal (GI) transit. Determining mechanism of action would support robust health claims. The probiotic bacterium Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 reduces transit time, but its mechanisms of action and effects on motility patterns are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in GI motility induced by an extract of HN019 on distinct patterns of colonic motility in isolated rat large intestine, compared with a known promotility modulator, prucalopride. The large intestines from male Sprague Dawley rats (3-6 months) were perfused with Kreb's buffer at 37°C in an oxygenated tissue bath. Isometric force transducers recorded changes in circular muscle activity at four independent locations assessing contractile propagation between the proximal colon and the rectum. HN019 extract was perfused through the tissue bath and differences in tension and frequency quantified relative to pre-treatment controls. Prucalopride (1 μM) increased the frequency of propagating contractions (by 75 ± 26%) in the majority of preparations studied (10/12), concurrently decreasing the frequency of non-propagating contractions (by 50 ± 11%). HN019 extract had no effect on contractile activity during exposure (n = 8). However, following wash out, contraction amplitude of propagating contractions increased (by 55 ± 18%) in the distal colon, while the frequency of non-propagating proximal contractions decreased by 57 ± 7%. The prokinetic action of prucalopride increased the frequency of synchronous contractions along the length of colon, likely explaining increased colonic rate of transit in vivo. HN019 extract modified motility patterns in a different manner by promoting propagating contractile amplitude and inhibiting non-propagations, also demonstrating prokinetic activity consistent with the reduction of constipation by B. lactis HN019 in humans.
Miyazaki, K; Masuoka, N; Kano, M; Iizuka, R
A questionnaire survey found that women suffering from abnormal bowel movements have many skin problems such as a high frequency of dry skin. Although there are similarities between the structure and barrier function mechanism of the gut and skin, experimental data are insufficient to show an association between the intestinal environment and skin conditions. Phenols, for example phenol and p-cresol, as metabolites of aromatic amino acids produced by gut bacteria, are regarded as bioactive toxins and serum biomarkers of a disturbed gut environment. Recent studies have demonstrated that phenols disturb the differentiation of monolayer-cultured keratinocytes in vitro, and that phenols produced by gut bacteria accumulate in the skin via the circulation and disrupt keratinocyte differentiation in hairless mice. Human studies have demonstrated that restriction of probiotics elevated serum free p-cresol levels and harmed skin conditions (reduced skin hydration, disrupted keratinisation). In contrast, daily intake of the prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) restored serum free p-cresol levels and skin conditions in adult women. Moreover, a double-blind placebo-controlled trial demonstrated that the daily intake of fermented milk containing the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve strain Yakult and prebiotic GOS reduced serum total phenol levels and prevented skin dryness and disruption of keratinisation in healthy adult women. It is concluded that phenols produced by gut bacteria are one of the causes of skin problems. Probiotics and/or prebiotics, such as B. breve strain Yakult and/or GOS, are expected to help maintain a healthy skin by decreasing phenols production by gut microbiota. These findings support the hypothesis that probiotics and prebiotics provide health benefits to the skin as well as the gut.
Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Moreno, F. Javier; Sanz, María L.; Sanz, Yolanda
Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 was isolated from stools of a breast-fed infant. Although, this strain is generally considered an adult-type bifidobacterial species, it has also been shown to have pre-clinical efficacy in obesity models. In order to understand the molecular basis of its adaptation to complex carbohydrates and improve its potential functionality, we have analyzed its genome and transcriptome, as well as its metabolic output when growing in galacto-oligosaccharides derived from lactulose (GOS-Lu) as carbon source. B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 shows strain-specific genome regions, including a great diversity of sugar metabolic-related genes. A preliminary and exploratory transcriptome analysis suggests candidate over-expression of several genes coding for sugar transporters and permeases; furthermore, five out of seven beta-galactosidases identified in the genome could be activated in response to GOS-Lu exposure. Here, we also propose that a specific gene cluster is involved in controlling the import and hydrolysis of certain di- and tri-saccharides, which seemed to be those primarily taken-up by the bifidobacterial strain. This was discerned from mass spectrometry-based quantification of different saccharide fractions of culture supernatants. Our results confirm that the expression of genes involved in sugar transport and metabolism and in the synthesis of leucine, an amino acid with a key role in glucose and energy homeostasis, was up-regulated by GOS-Lu. This was done using qPCR in addition to the exploratory information derived from the single-replicated RNAseq approach, together with the functional annotation of genes predicted to be encoded in the B. pseudocatenulatum CETC 7765 genome. PMID:27199952
Gagnon, Mélanie; Kheadr, Ehab E; Dabour, Nassra; Richard, Denis; Fliss, Ismaïl
The effectiveness of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum RBL 71 as a probiotic against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection was studied using a murine model. BALB/c mice were fed the probiotic for 7 days before or after single challenge with E. coli O157:H7. Fecal B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 and E. coli O157:H7 counts obtained by selective culturing methods were assessed for 1 week before and after infection while feed intake, body weight and composition were monitored during 1 week after infection. Histology of gut tissue (jejunum, ileum and colon) and production of fecal IgA antibodies and serum IgG+IgM antibodies to E. coli O157:H7 were analyzed until 1 and 2 weeks post-infection, respectively. The pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7, marked by body weight loss and intestinal histopathological changes in the infected group, was significantly reduced in the B. thermacidophilum-treated group. Feeding B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 for 7 days before infection resulted in greater post-challenge feed intake and weight gain and lower fecal levels of E. coli O157:H7. Post-infection levels of anti-E. coli O157:H7-specific IgA in feces and IgG+IgM in serum were higher in mice fed bifidobacteria. Intestinal injuries were also attenuated and reaction of the lymphoid component in the mucosa of the ileum was greater in the bifidobacteria-fed group. A lesser degree of protection against E. coli O157:H7 infection was observed when bifidobacteria were given during the 7 days after E. coli O157:H7 infection. These results demonstrate that feeding the probiotic B. thermacidophilum RBL 71 to mice can reduce the severity of E. coli O157:H7 infection, and suggest that this strain represents a good candidate for the prevention of enteric infections in human.
Jiang, Yunyun; Ren, Fazheng; Liu, Songling; Zhao, Liang; Guo, Huiyuan; Hou, Caiyun
Acid stress can affect the viability of probiotics, especially Bifidobacterium. This study aimed to improve the acid tolerance of Bifidobacterium longum BBMN68 using adaptive evolution. The stress response, and genomic differences of the parental strain and the variant strain were compared by acid stress. The highest acid-resistant mutant strain (BBMN68m) was isolated from more than 100 asexual lines, which were adaptive to the acid stress for 10(th), 20(th), 30(th), 40(th), and 50(th) repeats, respectively. The variant strain showed a significant increase in acid tolerance under conditions of pH 2.5 for 2 h (from 7.92 to 4.44 log CFU/ml) compared with the wildtype strain (WT, from 7.87 to 0 log CFU/ml). The surface of the variant strain was also smoother. Comparative whole-genome analysis showed that the galactosyl transferase D gene (cpsD, bbmn68_1012), a key gene involved in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, was altered by two nucleotides in the mutant, causing alteration in amino acids, pI (from 8.94 to 9.19), and predicted protein structure. Meanwhile, cpsD expression and EPS production were also reduced in the variant strain (p < 0.05) compared with WT, and the exogenous WT-EPS in the variant strain reduced its acid-resistant ability. These results suggested EPS was related to acid responses of BBMN68.
García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika
The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption.
Booyens, J; Labuschagne, M C; Thantsha, M S
There has been much research on the effects of garlic (Allium sativum) on numerous pathogens, but very few, if any, studies on its effect on beneficial, probiotic bifidobacteria. We have recently shown that garlic exhibits antibacterial activity against bifidobacteria. The mechanism by which garlic kills bifidobacteria is yet to be elucidated. This study sought to determine the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on selected Bifidobacterium species using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and SDS-PAGE analysis. SEM micrographs revealed unusual morphological changes such as cell elongation, cocci-shaped cells with cross-walls, and distorted cells with bulbous ends. With TEM, observed changes included among others, condensation of cytoplasmic material, disintegration of membranes, and loss of structural integrity. SDS-PAGE analysis did not reveal any differences in whole-cell protein profiles of untreated and garlic clove extract-treated cells. The current study is the first to reveal the mechanism of action of garlic clove extract on probiotic Bifidobacterium species. The results indicate that garlic affects these beneficial bacteria in a manner similar to that exhibited in pathogens. These results therefore further highlight that caution should be taken especially when using raw garlic and probiotic bifidobacteria simultaneously as viability of these bacteria could be reduced by allicin released upon crushing of garlic cloves, thereby limiting the health benefits that the consumer anticipate to gain from probiotics.
Background Probiotics are used to provide health benefits. The present study tested the effect of a probiotic yoghurt on faecal output of beta-defensin and immunoglobulin A in a group of young healthy women eating a defined diet. Findings 26 women aged 18-21 (median 19) years residing in a hostel were given 200 ml normal yoghurt every day for a week, followed by probiotic yoghurt containing Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® (109 in 200 ml) for three weeks, followed again by normal yoghurt for four weeks. Stool samples were collected at 0, 4 and 8 weeks and assayed for immunoglobulin A and human beta-defensin-2 by ELISA. All participants tolerated both normal and probiotic yoghurt well. Human beta-defensin-2 levels in faeces were not altered during the course of the study. On the other hand, compared to the basal sample, faecal IgA increased during probiotic feeding (P = 0.0184) and returned to normal after cessation of probiotic yoghurt intake. Conclusions Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12® increased secretory IgA output in faeces. This property may explain the ability of probiotics to prevent gastrointestinal and lower respiratory tract infections. PMID:22196482
Patterson, Elaine; Wall, Rebecca; Lisai, Sara; Ross, R. Paul; Dinan, Timothy G.; Cryan, John F.; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Banni, Sebastiano; Quigley, Eamonn M.; Shanahan, Fergus; Stanton, Catherine
This study focused on the mechanisms that fatty acid conjugating strains - Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258 and Bifidobacterium breve DPC 6330 - influence lipid metabolism when ingested with α-linolenic acid (ALA) enriched diet. Four groups of BALB/c mice received ALA enriched diet (3% (w/w)) either alone or in combination with B. breve NCIMB 702258 or B. breve DPC 6330 (109 CFU/day) or unsupplemented control diet for six weeks. The overall n-3 PUFA score was increased in all groups receiving the ALA enriched diet. Hepatic peroxisomal beta oxidation increased following supplementation of the ALA enriched diet with B. breve (P < 0.05) and so the ability of the strains to produce c9t11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was identified in adipose tissue. Furthermore, a strain specific effect of B. breve NCIMB 702258 was found on the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Liver triglycerides (TAG) were reduced following ALA supplementation, compared with unsupplemented controls (P < 0.01) while intervention with B. breve further reduced liver TAG (P < 0.01), compared with the ALA enriched control. These data indicate that the interactions of the gut microbiota with fatty acid metabolism directly affect host health by modulating n-3 PUFA score and the ECS. PMID:28265110
RIBEIRO, Claudia de Mello; ZORGI, Nahiara Esteves; MEIRELES, Luciana Regina; GARCIA, João Luis; de ANDRADE, Heitor Franco
Toxoplasmosis is frequently acquired through the oral route by the ingestion of cysts or oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii. Once ingested, the parasites penetrate the intestinal epithelial cells and rapidly disseminate to all organs in the host. During T. gondii infection, the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in stimulating a protective immune response against the parasite. In this sense the use of probiotics is worthy of note since they are live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the host through stimulation of the immune response that can be important in the control of T. gondii proliferation and dissemination in the host. In the present study, the action of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis was investigated in C57BL/6 mice infected with oocysts of ME49 strain of T. gondii. The probiotic had an immunomodulatory action, inducing CD19 lymphocyte proliferation and consequently increasing anti-T. gondii antibody level.Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactisprovided protection in supplemented mice, compared to the control group. In addition, supplemented animals had milder inflammatory process in the small intestine, indicating that the probiotic protects the intestinal mucosa during infection with T. gondii. It was concluded that the probioticB. animalis subsp. lactis induces humoral immune response capable of providing protection against T. gondii infection. PMID:27074320
Kang, Joo Yeon; Lee, Do Kyung; Ha, Nam Joo; Shin, Hea Soon
Rotavirus is worldwide cause of severe gastroenteritis including severe diarrhea and fatal dehydration in infants and young children. There is an available vaccination program for preventing rotavirus infection, but it has limits and restrictions. Probiotics therapy could be an alternative method of antiviral prevention and modulation against rotavirus infection. In this study, we screened the antiviral activity of probiotic bacteria such as 3 Lactobacillus spp. and 14 Bifidobacterium spp. isolated from young Korean. Three of the bacteria, Lactobacillus ruminis SPM0211, Bifidobacterium longum SPM1205, and SPM1206, inhibited human strain Wa rotavirus infection in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, these bacterial strains inhibited rotavirus replication in a rotavirus-infected neonatal mouse model. To clarify the mechanism of inhibition, we investigated gene expression of Interferon (IFN)-signaling components and IFN-inducible antiviral effectors. All 3 probiotics increased IFN-α and IFN-β levels compared with the control. Gene expression of IFNsignaling components and IFN-inducible antiviral effectors also increased. Overall, these results indicate that L. ruminis SPM0211, B. longum SPM1205 and 1206 efficiently inhibit rotavirus replication in vitro and in vivo. Especially, the antiviral effect of Lactobacillus ruminis SPM0211 is worthy of notice. This is the first report of L. ruminis with antiviral activity. Anti-rotaviral effects of the 3 probiotics are likely due to their modulation of the immune response through promoting type I IFNs, which are key regulators in IFN signaling pathway.
Ribeiro, Claudia de Mello; Zorgi, Nahiara Esteves; Meireles, Luciana Regina; Garcia, João Luis; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de
Toxoplasmosis is frequently acquired through the oral route by the ingestion of cysts or oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii. Once ingested, the parasites penetrate the intestinal epithelial cells and rapidly disseminate to all organs in the host. During T. gondii infection, the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in stimulating a protective immune response against the parasite. In this sense the use of probiotics is worthy of note since they are live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on the host through stimulation of the immune response that can be important in the control of T. gondii proliferation and dissemination in the host. In the present study, the action of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis was investigated in C57BL/6 mice infected with oocysts of ME49 strain of T. gondii. The probiotic had an immunomodulatory action, inducing CD19 lymphocyte proliferation and consequently increasing anti-T. gondii antibody level. Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis provided protection in supplemented mice, compared to the control group. In addition, supplemented animals had milder inflammatory process in the small intestine, indicating that the probiotic protects the intestinal mucosa during infection with T. gondii. It was concluded that the probiotic B. animalis subsp. lactis induces humoral immune response capable of providing protection against T. gondii infection.
Stenman, L K; Waget, A; Garret, C; Klopp, P; Burcelin, R; Lahtinen, S
Alterations of the gut microbiota and mucosal barrier are linked with metabolic diseases. Our aim was to investigate the potential benefit of the potential probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis 420 in reducing high-fat diet-induced body weight gain and diabetes in mice. In the obesity model, C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet (60 energy %) for 12 weeks, and gavaged daily with B. lactis 420 (109 cfu) or vehicle. In the diabetes model, mice were fed a high-fat, ketogenic diet (72 energy % fat) for 4 weeks, with a 6-week subsequent treatment with B. lactis 420 (108-1010 cfu/day) or vehicle, after which they were analysed for body composition. We also analysed glucose tolerance, plasma lipopolysaccharide and target tissue inflammation using only one of the B. lactis 420 groups (109 cfu/day). Intestinal bacterial translocation and adhesion were analysed in a separate experiment using an Escherichia coli gavage. Body fat mass was increased in both obese (10.7 ± 0.8 g (mean ± standard error of mean) vs. 1.86 ± 0.21 g, P<0.001) and diabetic mice (3.01 ± 0.4 g vs. 1.14 ± 0.15 g, P<0.001) compared to healthy controls. Treatment with B. lactis 420 significantly decreased fat mass in obese (7.83 ± 0.67 g, P=0.007 compared to obese with vehicle) and diabetic mice (1.89 ± 0.16 g, P=0.02 for highest dose). This was reflected as reduced weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 decreased plasma lipopolysaccharide levels (P<0.001), liver inflammation (P=0.04), and E. coli adhesion in the distal gut (P<0.05). In conclusion, B. lactis 420 reduces fat mass and glucose intolerance in both obese and diabetic mice. Reduced intestinal mucosal adherence and plasma lipopolysaccharide suggest a mechanism related to reduced translocation of gut microbes.
González-Rodríguez, Irene; Gaspar, Paula; Sánchez, Borja; Gueimonde, Miguel; Neves, Ana Rute
Bifidobacteria are widely used as probiotics in several commercial products; however, to date there is little knowledge about their carbohydrate metabolic pathways. In this work, we studied the metabolism of glucose and lactose in the widely used probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 by in vivo 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The metabolism of [1-13C]glucose was characterized in cells grown in glucose as the sole carbon source. Moreover, the metabolism of lactose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1 of the glucose or the galactose moiety was determined in suspensions of cells grown in lactose. These experiments allowed the quantification of some intermediate and end products of the metabolic pathways, as well as determination of the consumption rate of carbon sources. Additionally, the labeling patterns in metabolites derived from the metabolism of glucose specifically labeled with 13C on carbon 1, 2, or 3 in cells grown in glucose or lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the glucose moiety ([1-13Cglucose]lactose), lactose specifically labeled in carbon 1 of the galactose moiety ([1-13Cgalactose]lactose), and [1-13C]glucose in lactose-grown cells were determined in cell extracts by 13C NMR. The NMR analysis showed that the recovery of carbon was fully compatible with the fructose 6-phosphate, or bifid, shunt. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase, acetate kinase, fructose 6-phosphate phosphoketolase, and pyruvate formate lyase differed significantly between glucose and lactose cultures. The transcriptional analysis of several putative glucose and lactose transporters showed a significant induction of Balat_0475 in the presence of lactose, suggesting a role for this protein as a lactose permease. This report provides the first in vivo experimental evidence of the metabolic flux distribution in the catabolic pathway of glucose and lactose in bifidobacteria and shows that the bifid shunt is the only pathway
Liu, Ying; Zhou, Mei; Luo, Dan; Wang, Lijun; Hong, Yuankai; Yang, Yepeng; Sha, Yinlin
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New approach using the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum as a vehicle to deliver QDs into the deep tissue of solid tumors in vivo was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bifidobacterium bifidum delivery system has intrinsic biocompatibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The targeting efficacy was improved by folic acids. -- Abstract: Semiconductor nanocrystals, so-called quantum dots (QDs), promise potential application in bioimaging and diagnosis in vitro and in vivo owing to their high-quality photoluminescence and excellent photostability as well as size-tunable spectra. Here, we describe a biocompatible, comparatively safe bacteria-based system that can deliver QDs specifically into solid tumor of living animals. In our strategy, anaerobic bacterium Bifidobacterium bifidum (B. bifidum) that colonizes selectively in hypoxic regions of animal body was successfully used as a vehicle to load with QDs and transported into the deep tissue of solid tumors. The internalization of lipid-encapsuled QDs into B. bifidum was conveniently carried by electroporation. To improve the efficacy and specificity of tumor targeting, the QDs-carrying bacterium surface was further conjugated with folic acids (FAs) that can bind to the folic acid receptor overexpressed tumor cells. This new approach opens a pathway for delivering different types of functional cargos such as nanoparticles and drugs into solid tumor of live animals for imaging, diagnosis and therapy.
Background The study of a production chain of raw milk cheeses (St Marcellin, Vercors area, France) led to the isolation of two Bifidobacterium populations: B. crudilactis and B. mongoliense, that were able to grow along the production chain. The aims of this study were to further detect and characterize these bacteria along the process and evaluate the ability of some strains to survive or grow in adverse conditions. Results Using PCR coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism, B. crudilactis and B. mongoliense were detected in respectively 77% and 30% of St Marcellin cheeses from production chain after 21 days of ripening. They were present in more than half of all analyzed retail cheeses with counts going from 1.6 to 5 log cfu g-1 for B. crudilactis and 1.4 to 7 log cfu g-1 for B. mongoliense. Bifidobacterium mongoliense was sensitive to pH 2, with an observed decrease of at least 3 log for both studied strains (FR49/f/2 and FR41/2) after 1 h incubation. At pH 3, no significant decrease was observed. Good survival was observed for the same strains in presence of pancreatic juice with a decrease of less than one log. Survival of strain FR49/f/2 was better than FR41/2 with a decrease of 3 logarithms (in presence of 1% bile salts) and almost 2 logarithms (in presence of 0.5% bile salts). The genotypic analyses using total DNA-DNA hybridization, GC% content, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequencing analysis (MLSA) confirmed the classification of Bifidobacterium. crudilactis and B. mongoliense into two different clusters well separated from other bifidobacteria clusters. Conclusions According to the observed characteristics such as survival in adverse conditions and their ability to grow under 12°C during the manufacturing process of the cheeses, which has never been described for bifidobacteria and which is a very interesting technological asset, these B. crudilactis and B. mongoliense strains should be further investigated for a potential
Moya-Pérez, Angela; Neef, Alexander; Sanz, Yolanda
Background/Objectives The role of intestinal dysbiosis in obesity-associated systemic inflammation via the cross-talk with peripheral tissues is under debate. Our objective was to decipher the mechanisms by which intervention in the gut ecosystem with a specific Bifidobacterium strain reduces systemic inflammation and improves metabolic dysfunction in obese high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice. Methods Adult male wild-type C57BL-6 mice were fed either a standard or HFD, supplemented with placebo or Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765, for 14 weeks. Lymphocytes, macrophages and cytokine/chemokine concentrations were quantified in blood, gut, liver and adipose tissue using bead-based multiplex assays. Biochemical parameters in serum were determined by ELISA and enzymatic assays. Histology was assessed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Microbiota was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. Results B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 reduced obesity-associated systemic inflammation by restoring the balance between regulatory T cells (Tregs) and B lymphocytes and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines of adaptive (IL-17A) and innate (TNF-α) immunity and endotoxemia. In the gut, the bifidobacterial administration partially restored the HFD-induced alterations in microbiota, reducing abundances of Firmicutes and of LPS-producing Proteobacteria, paralleled to reductions in B cells, macrophages, and cytokines (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-17A), which could contribute to systemic effects. In adipose tissue, bifidobacterial administration reduced B cells whereas in liver the treatment increased Tregs and shifted different cytokines (MCP-1 plus ILP-10 in adipose tissue and INF-γ plus IL-1β in liver). In both tissues, the bifidobacteria reduced pro-inflammatory macrophages and, TNF-α and IL-17A concentrations. These effects were accompanied by reductions in body weight gain and in serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels and improved oral glucose
Bird, Anthony R; Vuaran, Michelle; Crittenden, Ross; Hayakawa, Takashi; Playne, Martin J; Brown, Ian L; Topping, David L
Pigs were fed a freeze-dried probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis CSCC 1941) plus a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) and a fructooligosaccharide (FOS) separately or together. Fecal output and total and individual major short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and excretion were higher and pH was lower with HAMS than with FOS relative to when they were fed a low-amylose maize starch (LAMS; control). Fecal bifidobacteria numbers and total excretion were equally higher during feeding of FOS or HAMS and highest with HAMS + FOS. When probiotic supplementation was stopped, bifidobacteria numbers declined rapidly when they were fed LAMS, more slowly with FOS or HAMS, and were maintained with HAMS + FOS. The data confirm that both HAMS and FOS are prebiotics and suggest that they act through different mechanisms and that they are most effective in combination. However only HAMS raises fecal SCFA.
Okazaki, Yukako; Sitanggang, Novita Vivi; Sato, Satoko; Ohnishi, Nanae; Inoue, Junji; Iguchi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Toshiro; Tomotake, Hiroyuki; Harada, Kazuki; Kato, Norihisa
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with burdock powder and Aspergillus awamori-fermented burdock powder at 5% on the intestinal luminal environment and body fat in rats fed a high-fat (HF) diet. Food intake and growth were unaffected by dietary manipulation. Consumption of the burdock and fermented burdock diets significantly elevated fecal IgA and mucins (indices of intestinal immune and barrier functions) and reduced fecal lithocholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) (p<0.05). The fermented burdock diet markedly elevated cecal Bifidobacterium and organic acids, including lactate, acetate, propionate, and butyrate, and reduced fecal deoxycholic acid (a risk factor for colon cancer) and perirenal adipose tissue weight (p<0.05), but the burdock diet did not. These results suggest that consumption of fermented burdock improves the intestinal luminal environment and suppresses obesity in rats fed a HF diet.
Alekseeva, M G; Mavletova, D A; Kolchina, N V; Nezametdinova, V Z; Danilenko, V N
Previously, we identified six serine/threonine protein kinases (STPK) of Bifidobacterium and named them Pkb1-Pkb6. In the present study, we optimized methods for isolation of the six STPK catalytic domains proteins of B. longum B379M: a method for isolation of Pkb3 and Pkb4 in native conditions, a method for isolation of Pkb5 in denaturing conditions, and a method for isolation of Pkb1, Pkb2, and Pkb6 from inclusion bodies. The dialysis conditions for the renaturation of the proteins were optimized. All of the enzymes were isolated in quantities sufficient for study of the protein activity. The proteins were homogeneous according to SDS-PAGE. The autophosphorylation ability of Pkb1, Pkb3, Pkb4, and Pkb6 was investigated for the first time. Autophosphorylation was detected only for the Pkb3 catalytic domain.
Lee, Ju-Hoon; O'Sullivan, Daniel J
Bifidobacterium longum DJO10A is a recent human isolate with probiotic characteristics and contains two plasmids, designated pDOJH10L and pDOJH10S. The complete sequences of both these plasmids have now been determined and consist of two circular DNA molecules of 10,073 and 3,661 bp, with G+C contents of 62.2% and 66.2%, respectively. Plasmid pDOJH10L is a cointegrate plasmid consisting of DNA regions exhibiting very high sequence identity to two other B. longum plasmids, pNAC2 (98%) and pKJ50 (96%), together with another region. Interestingly, the rolling circular replication (RCR) regions of both the pNAC2- and pKJ50-like plasmids were disrupted during the recombination event leading to a further recombination event to acquire a functional replicon. This consists of a new fused rep gene and an RCR-type ori consisting of a conserved DnaA box in an AT-rich region followed by four contiguous repeated sequences consistent with an iteron structure and an inverted repeat. The smaller pDOJH10S had no sequence similarity to any other characterized plasmid from bifidobacteria. In addition, it did not contain any features consistent with RCR, which is the replication mechanism proposed for all the bifidobacteria plasmids characterized to date. It did exhibit sequence similarity with several theta replication-related replication proteins from other gram-positive, high-G+C bacteria, with the closest match from a Rhodococcus rhodochrous plasmid, suggesting a theta mechanism of replication. S1 nuclease analysis of both plasmids in B. longum DJO10A revealed single-strand DNA intermediates for pDOJH10L, which is consistent for RCR, but none were detected for pDOJH10S. As the G+C content of pDOJH10S is similar to that of Rhodococcus rhodochrous (67%) and significantly higher than that of B. longum (60.1%), it may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer from a Rhodococcus species, as both genera are members of the Actinomycetes and are intestinal inhabitants. An
Oral Combination Vaccine, Comprising Bifidobacterium Displaying Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 3 and Interferon-α, Induces Strong Cellular Immunity Specific to Nonstructural Protein 3 in Mice.
Kitagawa, Koichi; Omoto, Chika; Oda, Tsugumi; Araki, Ayame; Saito, Hiroki; Shigemura, Katsumi; Katayama, Takane; Hotta, Hak; Shirakawa, Toshiro
We previously generated an oral hepatitis C virus (HCV) vaccine using Bifidobacterium displaying the HCV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) polypeptide. NS3-specific cellular immunity is important for viral clearance and recovery from HCV infection. In this study, we enhanced the cellular immune responses induced by our oral HCV vaccine, Bifidobacterium longum 2165 (B. longum 2165), by combining interferon-α (IFN-α) as an adjuvant with the vaccine in a mouse experimental model. IFN-α is a widely used cytokine meeting the standard of care (SOC) for HCV infection and plays various immunoregulatory roles. We treated C57BL/6N mice with B. longum 2165 every other day and/or IFN-α twice a week for a month and then analyzed the immune responses using spleen cells. We determined the induction of NS3-specific cellular immunity by cytokine quantification, intracellular cytokine staining, and a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) assay targeting EL4 tumor cells expressing NS3/4A protein (EL4-NS3/4A). We also treated mice bearing EL4-NS3/4A tumor with the combination therapy in vivo. The results confirmed that the combination therapy of B. longum 2165 and IFN-α induced significantly higher IFN-γ secretion, higher population of CD4(+)T and CD8(+)T cells secreting IFN-γ, and higher CTL activity against EL4-NS3/4A cells compared with the control groups of phosphate-buffered saline, B. longum 2165 alone, and IFN-α alone (p < 0.05). We also confirmed that the combination therapy strongly enhanced tumor growth inhibitory effects in vivo with no serious adverse effects (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the combination of B. longum 2165 and IFN-α could induce a strong cellular immunity specific to NS3 protein as a combination therapy augmenting the current SOC immunotherapy against chronic HCV infection.
de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Suárez, Adolfo; Fernández-García, María; Margolles, Abelardo; Gueimonde, Miguel; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia
According to the FAO/WHO, in vitro criteria for selection of probiotics for food application consist of testing survival when confronted with gastrointestinal tract (GIT) challenge and the ability to colonize the colon. We used a model that simulated GIT transit using sequential immersion in gastric and duodenal juices of human origin to evaluate survival of bile-adapted Bifidobacterium strains. Bifidobacterium animalis tolerated gastric juice, whereas Bifidobacterium longum showed poor survival under these conditions. In contrast, B. animalis strains were more sensitive to duodenal juice than B. longum. The percentage of survival after GIT transit simulation (GITTS), determined both by plate counts and fluorescent probes, was significantly higher for bile-adapted strains than for corresponding parental ones. This suggests that use of bile-adapted strains is a suitable approach for increasing survival of bifidobacteria under the harsh conditions of the upper GIT. However, the bile resistance phenotype was not related to improvement of adhesion capacity, after GITTS, of the intestinal cell line HT29-MTX which constitutively produces mucus. This work shows that sequential GITTS with human juices modified the in vitro adhesion properties of the strains challenged with colonocyte-like cells.
Miller, Larry E.; Lehtoranta, Liisa; Lehtinen, Markus J.
Elderly people have increased susceptibility to infections and cancer that are associated with decline in cellular immune function. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis ssp. lactis HN019 (HN019) supplementation on cellular immune activity in healthy elderly subjects. We conducted a systematic review of Medline and Embase for controlled trials that reported polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell phagocytic capacity or natural killer (NK) cell tumoricidal activity following B. lactis HN019 consumption in the elderly. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval between probiotic and control groups for each outcome. A total of four clinical trials were included in this analysis. B. lactis HN019 supplementation was highly efficacious in increasing PMN phagocytic capacity with an SMD of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 1.11, p < 0.001) and moderately efficacious in increasing NK cell tumoricidal activity with an SMD of 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.08 to 0.78, p = 0.02). The main limitations of this research were the small number of included studies, short-term follow-up, and assessment of a single probiotic strain. In conclusion, daily consumption of B. lactis HN019 enhances NK cell and PMN function in healthy elderly adults. PMID:28245559
Vieira, Angélica T; Rocha, Victor M; Tavares, Luciana; Garcia, Cristiana C; Teixeira, Mauro M; Oliveira, Sérgio C; Cassali, Geovanni D; Gamba, Conrado; Martins, Flaviano S; Nicoli, Jacques R
Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) a common cause of pneumonia leads to intense lung injury and mortality that are correlated with infective exacerbations. Probiotics are a class of microorganisms that have immunomodulatory effects to benefit health. We investigated whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium longum 5(1A) induces protection in mice against lung infection induced by Kp and the potential involved mechanisms. Kp infection induced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, neutrophil recruitment, significant bacterial load in the lung and 50% lethality. However, treatment with live B. longum 5(1A) induced faster resolution of inflammation associated with an increased production of IL-10, decreased lung damage with significantly reduction of bacterial burden that contributed to rescue 100% of mice from death. We found that these effects could be attributed, at least in part, to activation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) adapter protein Mal, since B. longum 5(1A) treatment in Mal-deficient infected mice did not show the protection observed in wild type infected mice. Thus, we propose that live B. longum 5(1A) activates TLR-signaling pathway that results in ROS production and protects the host against pneumonia-induced death by finely tuning the inflammatory response and contributing to faster return to lung homeostasis.
Herfel, Tina M; Jacobi, Sheila K; Lin, Xi; Jouni, Zeina E; Chichlowski, Maciej; Stahl, Chad H; Odle, Jack
Intestinal microbiota of infants differ in response to gestational age, delivery mode and feeding regimen. Dietary supplementation of probiotic bacteria is one method of promoting healthy populations. We examined the impact of a novel probiotic strain of Bifidobacterium longum (AH1206) on the health, growth and development of neonatal pigs as a model for infants. Day-old pigs were fed milk-based formula containing AH1206 at 0, 10⁹, or 10¹¹ CFU/d for 18 d (n=10/treatment). Differences were not detected in growth, organ weights or body temperatures (P>0.1); however pigs fed the high dose showed a small (2%) reduction in feed intake. Bacterial translocation was not affected as indicated by total anaerobic and aerobic counts (CFU) in samples of spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (P>0.1). Feeding AH1206 had no effects on fecal consistency, but increased the density of B. longum in the cecum. Ileal TNF expression tended to increase (P=0.08) while IL-10 expression increased linearly (P=0.01) with supplementation. Based upon findings in the suckling piglet model, we suggest that dietary supplementation with B. longum (AH1206) may be safe for human infants based on a lack of growth, development or deleterious immune-related effects observed in piglets.
Nilsson, Ulf; Nyman, Margareta
Background Propionic and butyric acids are important nutrients for the mucosal cells and may therefore increase the nutritional status and reduce the permeability of the colonic mucosa. These acids have also been suggested to counteract diseases in the colon, e.g. ulcerative colitis and colon cancer. Different substrates lead to different amounts and patterns of carboxylic acids (CAs). Objective To study the effect of probiotics on CA formation in the hindgut of rats given inulin. Design The rats were given inulin, marketed as highly soluble by the producer, together with the probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis (Bb-12), Lactobacillus salivarius (UCC500) or Lactobacillus rhamnosus (GG), or a mixture of all three. Results Rats fed inulin only had comparatively high proportions of propionic and butyric acids throughout the hindgut. When diets were supplemented with Bb-12 and UCC500, the caecal pool of CAs increased compared with inulin only. In the caecum the proportion of butyric acid generally decreased when the rats were fed probiotics. In the distal colon the proportion of propionic and butyric acid was lower, while that of lactic acid was generally higher. The caecal pH in rats fed GG and Bb-12 was lower than expected from the concentration of CAs. Further, rats fed GG had the lowest weight gain and highest caecal tissue weight. Conclusions It is possible to modify the formation of CAs by combining inulin with probiotics. Different probiotics had different effects.
Zhu, De-Quan; Liu, Fei; Sun, Yu; Yang, Li-Mei; Xin, Li; Meng, Xiang-Chen
Objective Bifidobacteria are one of the predominant bacterial species in the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and play a vital role in the host’s health by acting as probiotics. However, how they regulate themselves to adapt to GIT of their host remains unknown. Methods Eighteen bifidobacterial strains were used to analyze their adaptive capacities towards simulated GIT environment. The strain with highest survival rate and adhesion ability was selected for comparative genome as well as transcriptomic analysis. Results The Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis KLDS 2.0603 strain was demonstrated to have the highest survival rate and adhesion ability in simulated GIT treatments. The comparative genome analysis revealed that the KLDS 2.0603 has most similar whole genome sequence compared with BB-12 strain. Eleven intergenic sRNAs were identified after genomes prediction and transcriptomic analysis of KLDS 2.0603. Transcriptomic analysis also showed that genes (mainly sRNAs targeted genes) and sRNAs were differentially expressed in different stress conditions, suggesting that sRNAs might play a crucial role in regulating genes involved in the stress resistance of this strain towards environmental changes. Conclusions This study first provided deep and comprehensive insights into the regulation of KLDS 2.0603 strain at transcription and post-transcription level towards environmental. PMID:25706951
Bustamante, Mariela; Oomah, B Dave; Rubilar, Mónica; Shene, Carolina
Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7.5:0.6:7.5%, w/w/w), respectively. These ternary blends protected the probiotics and enhanced their resistance to simulated gastric juice and bile solution. Probiotics encapsulated with the ternary blends incorporated in instant juice powder exhibited high viability (>9Log10CFU/g) after 45days refrigerated storage. Encapsulation with the ternary blends reduced particle size of the probiotic powders thereby offering additional functional benefits. Our results reveal that chia seed and flaxseed are excellent sources of probiotic encapsulating agents.
Varga, Elisabeth; Malachova, Alexandra; Nguyen, Nhung Thi; Lorenz, Cindy; Haltrich, Dietmar; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard
Glycosylation plays a central role in plant defense against xenobiotics, including mycotoxins. Glucoconjugates of Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol-3-O-β-d-glucoside (DON-3G), often cooccur with their parental toxins in cereal-based food and feed. To date, only limited information exists on the occurrence of glucosylated mycotoxins and their toxicological relevance. Due to a lack of analytical standards and the requirement of high-end analytical instrumentation for their direct determination, hydrolytic cleavage of β-glucosides followed by analysis of the released parental toxins has been proposed as an indirect determination approach. This study compares the abilities of several fungal and recombinant bacterial β-glucosidases to hydrolyze the model analyte DON-3G. Furthermore, substrate specificities of two fungal and two bacterial (Lactobacillus brevis and Bifidobacterium adolescentis) glycoside hydrolase family 3 β-glucosidases were evaluated on a broader range of substrates. The purified recombinant enzyme from B. adolescentis (BaBgl) displayed high flexibility in substrate specificity and exerted the highest hydrolytic activity toward 3-O-β-d-glucosides of the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol, and HT-2 toxin. A Km of 5.4 mM and a Vmax of 16 μmol min−1 mg−1 were determined with DON-3G. Due to low product inhibition (DON and glucose) and sufficient activity in several extracts of cereal matrices, this enzyme has the potential to be used for indirect analyses of trichothecene-β-glucosides in cereal samples. PMID:25979885
Miyauchi, Eiji; Ogita, Tasuku; Miyamoto, Junki; Kawamoto, Seiji; Morita, Hidetoshi; Ohno, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Takuya; Tanabe, Soichi
Although some bacterial strains show potential to prevent colitis, their mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the anti-colitic mechanisms of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis JCM 1222T, focusing on the relationship between interleukin (IL)-17A secreting CD4+ T cells and intestinal epithelial costimulatory molecules in mice. Oral administration of JCM 1222T to mice alleviated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. The expression of type 1 helper T (Th1)- and IL-17 producing helper T (Th17)-specific cytokines and transcriptional factors was suppressed by JCM 1222T treatment. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from colitic mice induced IL-17A production from CD4+ T cells in a cell-cell contact-dependent manner, and this was suppressed by oral treatment with JCM 1222T. Using blocking antibodies for costimulatory molecules, we revealed that epithelial costimulatory molecules including CD80 and CD40, which were highly expressed in IECs from colitic mice, were involved in IEC-induced IL-17A response. Treatment of mice and intestinal epithelial cell line Colon-26 cells with JCM 1222T decreased the expression of CD80 and CD40. Collectively, these data indicate that JCM 1222T negatively regulate epithelial costimulatory molecules, and this effect might be attributed, at least in part, to suppression of IL-17A in DSS-induced colitis. PMID:24255712
Burns, Patricia; Alard, Jeanne; Hrdỳ, Jiri; Boutillier, Denise; Páez, Roxana; Reinheimer, Jorge; Pot, Bruno; Vinderola, Gabriel; Grangette, Corinne
Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a central role in the development and perpetuation of chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and therefore is key target for interventions with high quality and functional probiotics. The local production of stable probiotic formulations at limited cost is considered an advantage as it reduces transportation cost and time, thereby increasing the effective period at the consumer side. In the present study, we compared the anti-inflammatory capacities of the Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) INL1, a probiotic strain isolated in Argentina from human breast milk, with the commercial strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BB12. The impact of spray-drying, a low-cost alternative of bacterial dehydration, on the functionality of both bifidobacteria was also investigated. We showed for both bacteria that the spray-drying process did not impact on bacterial survival nor on their protective capacities against acute and chronic colitis in mice, opening future perspectives for the use of strain INL1 in populations with IBD.
Martinez, Rafael C R; Aynaou, Azz-Eddine; Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk A; De Martinis, Elaine C P; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Venema, Koen; Saad, Susana M I; Smidt, Hauke
Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698 were previously demonstrated in piglets. Here, its potential as a human probiotic was studied in vitro, using the TIM-1 system, which is fully validated to simulate the human upper gastrointestinal tract. To evaluate the effect of the food matrix composition on the survival of L. amylovorus DSM 16698 in TIM-1, the microorganism was inoculated alone or with prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS), partially skimmed milk (PSM) and/or commercial probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12). Samples were collected from TIM-1 for six hours, at one-hour intervals and L. amylovorus populations were enumerated on MRS agar plates with confirmation of identity of selected isolates by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprinting. The cumulative survival for L. amylovorus alone (control) was 30% at the end of the experiment (t=6h). Co-administration of L. amylovorus with GOS, PSM and/or Bb-12 increased its survival in comparison with the control significantly from the 4th hour after ingestion onwards (P<0.05). Furthermore, by the use of High Performance Anion Exchange Chromatography, both L. amylovorus and Bb-12 were observed to promptly degrade GOS compounds in samples collected from TIM-1, as assessed at t=2h. Hence, food matrix composition interfered with survival and growth of L. amylovorus during passage through TIM-1, providing leads towards optimization of probiotic properties in vivo.
Sharifpour, Mohammad Farouq; Mardani, Karim; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar
Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis were used for molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Apis mellifera. Eighteen honeybee workers were collected from three different apiaries in West Azerbaijan. LABs from the gut of honeybees were isolated and cultured using routine biochemical procedures. Genomic DNA was extracted from LABs and a fragment of 1540 bp in size of 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested using HinfI endonuclease and digested products with different RFLP patterns were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp. are were the most abundant LABs in honeybee gut. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were closely clustered with high similarity percentage with the same bacteria isolated from honeybees’ gut elsewhere. It was concluded that LABs isolated from honeybees had low sequence divergence in comparison with LABs isolated from other sources such as dairy products. PMID:28144419
Ogué-Bon, Eva; Khoo, Christina; Hoyles, Lesley; McCartney, Anne L; Gibson, Glenn R; Rastall, Robert A
The fermentability of rice bran (RB), alone or in combination with one of two probiotics, by canine faecal microbiota was evaluated in stirred, pH-controlled, anaerobic batch cultures. RB enhanced the levels of bacteria detected by probes Bif164 (bifidobacteria) and Lab158 (lactic acid bacteria); however, addition of the probiotics did not have a significant effect on the predominant microbial counts compared with RB alone. RB sustained levels of Bifidobacterium longum 05 throughout the fermentation; in contrast, Lactobacillus acidophilus 14 150B levels decreased significantly after 5-h fermentation. RB fermentation induced changes in the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile. However, RB combined with probiotics did not alter the SCFA levels compared with RB alone. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of samples obtained at 24 h showed a treatment effect with RB, which was not observed in the RB plus probiotic systems. Overall, the negative controls displayed lower species richness than the treatment systems and their banding profiles were distinct. This study illustrates the ability of a common ingredient found in pet food to modulate the canine faecal microbiota and highlights that RB may be an economical alternative to prebiotics for use in dog food.
Characterisation of the Poly-(Vinylpyrrolidone)-Poly-(Vinylacetate-Co-Crotonic Acid) (PVP:PVAc-CA) Interpolymer Complex Matrix Microparticles Encapsulating a Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Probiotic Strain.
Mamvura, C I; Moolman, F S; Kalombo, L; Hall, A N; Thantsha, M S
The method of producing poly-(vinylpyrrolidone)-poly-(vinylacetate-co-crotonic acid) (PVP:PVAc-CA) interpolymer complex matrix microparticles in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), encapsulating bacteria, has recently been developed. This study was aimed at probing the external and internal structure of these microparticles, which can be used in food. The encapsulation efficiency and distribution of encapsulated Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 within these microparticles were also investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed irregular, mostly small, smooth microparticles with no visible bacterial cells on the surface. However, some of the microparticles appeared to have porous surfaces. The results of a Microtrac S3500 particle size analyzer showed that the PVP:PVAc-CA interpolymer complex matrix microparticles encapsulating B. lactis Bb12 had an average particle size of 166.1 μm (<350 μm designated standard size for microparticles). The D 10, D 50 and D 90 values for these microparticles were 48.16, 166.06 and 382.55 μm, respectively. Both SEM and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a high density of bacterial cells within the microparticles. An average encapsulation efficiency of 96% was achieved. Consequently, the microparticles have the potential to be evenly distributed in foods, deliver adequate amounts of probiotics and produce minimal adverse effects on the texture and mouth feel of the foods into which they are incorporated.
Su, Ran; Zhu, Xiao-Li; Fan, Dai-Di; Mi, Yu; Yang, Chan-Yuan; Jia, Xin
Alginate (ALg)-human-like collagen (HLC) microspheres were prepared by the technology of electrostatic droplet generation in order to develop a biocompatible vehicle for probiotic bacteria. Microparticles were spherical with mean particle size of 400μm. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of ALg-HLC microspheres could reach 92-99.2%. Water-soluble and fibrous human-like collagen is combined with sodium alginate through intermolecular hydrogen bonding and electrostatic force which were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thus the matrix of ALg-HLC was very stable. Bifidobacterium longum BIOMA 5920, as a kind of probiotic bacteria, was encapsulated with alginate-human-like collagen to survive and function in simulated gastrointestinal juice. Microparticles were very easy to degradation in simulated intestinal juices. After incubation in simulated gastric (pH 2.0, 2h), the encapsulated B. longum BIOMA 5920 numbers were 4.81 ± 0.38 log cfu/g.
Ling, Zongxin; Liu, Xia; Cheng, Yiwen; Luo, Yueqiu; Yuan, Li; Li, Lanjuan; Xiang, Charlie
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is one of the most common complications of most types of antibiotics. Our aim was to determine the efficacy of Clostridium butyricum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and their mixture for AAD treatment in mice. AAD models were administered with single probiotic strain and probiotic mixture for short term and long term to evaluate the changes of the composition and diversity of intestinal microbiota, histopathology of the colon, and the systemic inflammation. Our data indicated that long-term probiotic therapy, but not short-term course, exerted beneficial effects on the restoration of the intestinal microbiota, the recovery of the tissue architecture, and attenuation of systemic inflammation. All predominant fecal bacteria reached normal level after the long-term probiotic mixture treatment, while IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α also returned to normal level. However, the efficacy for AAD was time dependent and probiotic strain specific. Short-term administration of probiotic strains or mixture showed no apparent positive effects for AAD. In addition, the beneficial effects of C. butyricum combined with B. infantis probiotic mixture were superior to their single strain. This research showed that supplementation with C. butyricum combined with B. infantis probiotic mixture may be a simple and effective method for AAD treatment. PMID:25802855
Parvaneh, Kolsoom; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sabran, Mohd Redzwan; Karimi, Golgis; Hwei, Angela Ng Min; Abdul-Majeed, Saif; Ahmad, Zuraini; Ibrahim, Zuriati; Jamaluddin, Rosita
Probiotics are live microorganisms that exert beneficial effects on the host, when administered in adequate amounts. Mostly, probiotics affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of the host and alter the composition of gut microbiota. Nowadays, the incidence of hip fractures due to osteoporosis is increasing worldwide. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats have fragile bone due to estrogen deficiency and mimic the menopausal conditions in women. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) on bone mass density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), bone remodeling, bone structure, and gene expression in OVX rats. The rats were randomly assigned into 3 groups (sham, OVX, and the OVX group supplemented with 1 mL of B. longum 108–109 colony forming units (CFU)/mL). B. longum was given once daily for 16 weeks, starting from 2 weeks after the surgery. The B. longum supplementation increased (p < 0.05) serum osteocalcin (OC) and osteoblasts, bone formation parameters, and decreased serum C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) and osteoclasts, bone resorption parameters. It also altered the microstructure of the femur. Consequently, it increased BMD by increasing (p < 0.05) the expression of Sparc and Bmp-2 genes. B. longum alleviated bone loss in OVX rats and enhanced BMD by decreasing bone resorption and increasing bone formation. PMID:26366421
Shakirova, Laisana; Grube, Mara; Gavare, Marita; Auzina, Lilija; Zikmanis, Peteris
Changes in the cell surface hydrophobicity (CSH) of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and the survival of these cells were examined in response to varied cultivation conditions and adverse environmental conditions. An inverse linear relationship (P < 0.01) was detected between the CSH of intact L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 and survival of cells subjected to subsequent freezing/thawing, long-term storage or exposure to mineral and bile acids. The observed relationships were supported by significant correlations between the CSH and changes in composition of the cell envelopes (proteins, lipids and carbohydrates) of L. acidophilus La5 and B. lactis Bb12 examined using FT-IR spectroscopy and conventional biochemical analysis methods. The results also suggest that the estimates of hydrophobicity, being a generalized characteristic of cell surfaces, are important parameters to predict the ability of intact probiotic bacteria to endure extreme environments and therefore should be monitored during cultivation. A defined balance of cell components, which can be characterized by the reduced CSH values, apparently helps to ensure the resistance, improved viability and hence the overall probiotic properties of bacteria.
Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P
The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of varying sodium chloride concentrations (0-5%) on viability and membrane integrity of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum, using conventional technique and flow cytometry. Double staining of cells by carboxyfluorescein diacetate (cFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) enabled to evaluate the effect of NaCl on cell esterase activity and membrane integrity. Observations from conventional culture technique were compared with findings from flow cytometric analysis on the metabolic activities of the cells and a correlation was observed between culturability and dye extrusion ability of L. casei and B. longum. However, a certain population of L. acidophilus was viable as per the plate count method but its efflux activity was compromised. Esterase activity of most bacteria reduced significantly (P < 0.05) during one week storage at NaCl concentrations greater than 3.5%. The study revealed that L. casei was least affected by higher NaCl concentrations among the three probiotic bacteria, as opposed to B. longum where the cF extrusion performance was greatly reduced during 1 wk storage. The metabolic activity and salt resistance of L. casei was found to be highest among the bacteria studied.
Sharifpour, Mohammad Farouq; Mardani, Karim; Ownagh, Abdulghaffar
Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and phylogenetic analysis were used for molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria (LABs) isolated from Apis mellifera. Eighteen honeybee workers were collected from three different apiaries in West Azerbaijan. LABs from the gut of honeybees were isolated and cultured using routine biochemical procedures. Genomic DNA was extracted from LABs and a fragment of 1540 bp in size of 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were digested using HinfI endonuclease and digested products with different RFLP patterns were subjected to nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results revealed that Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria spp. are were the most abundant LABs in honeybee gut. Phylogenetic analysis showed that both Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were closely clustered with high similarity percentage with the same bacteria isolated from honeybees' gut elsewhere. It was concluded that LABs isolated from honeybees had low sequence divergence in comparison with LABs isolated from other sources such as dairy products.
Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Vezza, Teresa; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Margolles, Abelardo; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gálvez, Julio
Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bifidobacteria, particularly Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, are used in the functional food industry as promising probiotics with purported beneficial effects. We used three isogenic strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis, with different EPS producing phenotypes (mucoid-ropy and non-ropy), in order to determine their capability to survive the murine gastrointestinal tract transit, as well as to evaluate their role in improving clinical outcomes in a chemically-induced colitis model. The three strains were able to survive in the intestinal tract of C57BL/6J mice during the course of the intervention study. Furthermore, the disease activity index (DAI) of the animal group treated with the ropy strain was significantly lower than of the DAI of the placebo group at the end of the treatment. However, no significant differences were found among the three strains. The analysis of several immune parameters, such as TNFα and IL-10 quantified in blood plasma and lymphocyte populations enumerated in mesenteric nodes, showed some significant variations among the four experimental animal groups. Remarkably, a higher capability of the ropy strain to increase regulatory T-cells in mesenteric lymphoid nodes was demonstrated, suggesting a higher ability of this strain to regulate inflammatory responses at mucosal level. Our data indicate that strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis producing EPS that confer a mucoid-ropy phenotype could represent promising candidates to perform further studies targeting intestinal inflammatory processes.
Schiavi, Elisa; Gleinser, Marita; Molloy, Evelyn; Groeger, David; Frei, Remo; Ferstl, Ruth; Rodriguez-Perez, Noelia; Ziegler, Mario; Grant, Ray; Moriarty, Thomas Fintan; Plattner, Stephan; Healy, Selena; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Akdis, Cezmi A; Roper, Jennifer; Altmann, Friedrich; van Sinderen, Douwe; O'Mahony, Liam
The immune-modulating properties of certain bifidobacterial strains, such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum 35624 (B. longum 35624), have been well described, although the strain-specific molecular characteristics associated with such immune-regulatory activity are not well defined. It has previously been demonstrated that B. longum 35624 produces a cell surface exopolysaccharide (sEPS), and in this study, we investigated the role played by this exopolysaccharide in influencing the host immune response. B. longum 35624 induced relatively low levels of cytokine secretion from human dendritic cells, whereas an isogenic exopolysaccharide-negative mutant derivative (termed sEPS(neg)) induced vastly more cytokines, including interleukin-17 (IL-17), and this response was reversed when exopolysaccharide production was restored in sEPS(neg) by genetic complementation. Administration of B. longum 35624 to mice of the T cell transfer colitis model prevented disease symptoms, whereas sEPS(neg) did not protect against the development of colitis, with associated enhanced recruitment of IL-17(+) lymphocytes to the gut. Moreover, intranasal administration of sEPS(neg) also resulted in enhanced recruitment of IL-17(+) lymphocytes to the murine lung. These data demonstrate that the particular exopolysaccharide produced by B. longum 35624 plays an essential role in dampening proinflammatory host responses to the strain and that loss of exopolysaccharide production results in the induction of local TH17 responses.
Burns, Patricia; Alard, Jeanne; Hrdỳ, Jiri; Boutillier, Denise; Páez, Roxana; Reinheimer, Jorge; Pot, Bruno; Vinderola, Gabriel; Grangette, Corinne
Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a central role in the development and perpetuation of chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and therefore is key target for interventions with high quality and functional probiotics. The local production of stable probiotic formulations at limited cost is considered an advantage as it reduces transportation cost and time, thereby increasing the effective period at the consumer side. In the present study, we compared the anti-inflammatory capacities of the Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) INL1, a probiotic strain isolated in Argentina from human breast milk, with the commercial strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BB12. The impact of spray-drying, a low-cost alternative of bacterial dehydration, on the functionality of both bifidobacteria was also investigated. We showed for both bacteria that the spray-drying process did not impact on bacterial survival nor on their protective capacities against acute and chronic colitis in mice, opening future perspectives for the use of strain INL1 in populations with IBD. PMID:28233848
Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Sánchez, Borja; Álvarez-Martín, Pablo; López, Patricia; Martínez-Álvarez, Noelia; Delley, Michele; Martí, Marc; Varela, Encarna; Suárez, Ana; Antolín, María; Guarner, Francisco; Berger, Bernard
Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are extracellular carbohydrate polymers synthesized by a large variety of bacteria. Their physiological functions have been extensively studied, but many of their roles have not yet been elucidated. We have sequenced the genomes of two isogenic strains of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis that differ in their EPS-producing phenotype. The original strain displays a nonmucoid appearance, and the mutant derived thereof has acquired a mucoid phenotype. The sequence analysis of their genomes revealed a nonsynonymous mutation in the gene Balat_1410, putatively involved in the elongation of the EPS chain. By comparing a strain from which this gene had been deleted with strains containing the wild-type and mutated genes, we were able to show that each strain displays different cell surface characteristics. The mucoid EPS synthesized by the strain harboring the mutation in Balat_1410 provided higher resistance to gastrointestinal conditions and increased the capability for adhesion to human enterocytes. In addition, the cytokine profiles of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and ex vivo colon tissues suggest that the mucoid strain could have higher anti-inflammatory activity. Our findings provide relevant data on the function of Balat_1410 and reveal that the mucoid phenotype is able to alter some of the most relevant functional properties of the cells. PMID:26362981
Miller, Larry E; Lehtoranta, Liisa; Lehtinen, Markus J
Elderly people have increased susceptibility to infections and cancer that are associated with decline in cellular immune function. The objective of this work was to determine the efficacy of Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis ssp. lactis HN019 (HN019) supplementation on cellular immune activity in healthy elderly subjects. We conducted a systematic review of Medline and Embase for controlled trials that reported polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell phagocytic capacity or natural killer (NK) cell tumoricidal activity following B. lactis HN019 consumption in the elderly. A random effects meta-analysis was performed with standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval between probiotic and control groups for each outcome. A total of four clinical trials were included in this analysis. B. lactis HN019 supplementation was highly efficacious in increasing PMN phagocytic capacity with an SMD of 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 1.11, p < 0.001) and moderately efficacious in increasing NK cell tumoricidal activity with an SMD of 0.43 (95% confidence interval: 0.08 to 0.78, p = 0.02). The main limitations of this research were the small number of included studies, short-term follow-up, and assessment of a single probiotic strain. In conclusion, daily consumption of B. lactis HN019 enhances NK cell and PMN function in healthy elderly adults.
O' Connell Motherway, Mary; Watson, Debbie; Bottacini, Francesca; Clark, Tyson A; Roberts, Richard J; Korlach, Jonas; Garault, Peggy; Chervaux, Christian; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T; Smokvina, Tamara; van Sinderen, Douwe
Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 is a component of a commercialized fermented dairy product for which beneficial effects on health has been studied by clinical and preclinical trials. To date little is known about the molecular mechanisms that could explain the beneficial effects that bifidobacteria impart to the host. Restriction-modification (R-M) systems have been identified as key obstacles in the genetic accessibility of bifidobacteria, and circumventing these is a prerequisite to attaining a fundamental understanding of bifidobacterial attributes, including the genes that are responsible for health-promoting properties of this clinically and industrially important group of bacteria. The complete genome sequence of B. animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494 is predicted to harbour the genetic determinants for two type II R-M systems, designated BanLI and BanLII. In order to investigate the functionality and specificity of these two putative R-M systems in B. animalis subsp. lactis CNCM I-2494, we employed PacBio SMRT sequencing with associated methylome analysis. In addition, the contribution of the identified R-M systems to the genetic accessibility of this strain was assessed.
Falony, Gwen; Vlachou, Angeliki; Verbrugghe, Kristof; De Vuyst, Luc
In vitro coculture fermentations of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and two acetate-converting, butyrate-producing colon bacteria, Anaerostipes caccae DSM 14662 and Roseburia intestinalis DSM 14610, with oligofructose as the sole energy source, were performed to study interspecies interactions. Two clearly distinct types of cross-feeding were identified. A. caccae DSM 14662 was not able to degrade oligofructose but could grow on the fructose released by B. longum BB536 during oligofructose breakdown. R. intestinalis DSM 14610 could degrade oligofructose, but only after acetate was added to the medium. Detailed kinetic analyses of oligofructose breakdown by the last strain revealed simultaneous degradation of the different chain length fractions, in contrast with the preferential degradation of shorter fractions by B. longum BB536. In a coculture of both strains, initial oligofructose degradation and acetate production by B. longum BB536 took place, which in turn also allowed oligofructose breakdown by R. intestinalis DSM 14610. These and similar cross-feeding mechanisms could play a role in the colon ecosystem and contribute to the combined bifidogenic/butyrogenic effect observed after addition of inulin-type fructans to the diet.
Salazar, Nuria; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Prieto, Alicia; Calle, Luis P; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G
Bifidobacteria are natural members of the human intestinal microbiota and some strains are being used as probiotics. Adaptation to bile can allow them to increase survival in gastrointestinal conditions, thus improving their viability. Bifidobacterium longum NB667 and the cholate-resistant strain B. longum IPLA B667dCo produced exopolysaccharides (EPS) that were partially characterized. Analysis by size exclusion chromatography-multiangle laser light scattering indicated that the EPS crude fractions of both strains contained two polymer peaks of different molar mass. On the basis of chromatographic techniques both peaks appeared to be heteropolysaccharides. The smaller peak was mainly composed of glucose, galactose and rhamnose whose molar ratios and linkage types showed slight variations between the EPS fractions of both strains. The bigger peak consisted of glucose and galactose; the monosaccharide composition was identical in the EPS fractions of the two microorganisms, but their infrared spectra presented some differences regarding compounds other than carbohydrates that seem to be associated to the polymer. Differences in the composition of EPS fractions did not affect the capability of crude EPS from B. longum to be fermented by the human intestinal microbiota in fecal batch cultures.
Liu, Meng-Yun; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Dai, Wen-Kui; Huang, Jian-Qiong; Li, Yin-Hu; Zhang, Juan; Qiu, Chuang-Zhao; Wei, Chun; Zhou, Qian; Sun, Xin; Feng, Xin; Li, Dong-Fang; Wang, He-Ping; Zheng, Yue-Jie
AIM To determine whether oral administration of Bifidobacterium infantis CGMCC313-2 (B. infantis CGMCC313-2) inhibits allergen-induced airway inflammation and food allergies in a mouse model. METHODS Ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma and β-lactoglobulin-induced food allergy mouse models were used in this study. Following oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization, histopathologic changes in the lung and intestine were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. In the allergic asthma mouse model, we evaluated the proportion of lung-infiltrating inflammatory cells. OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum and cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were also assessed. In the food allergy mouse model, the levels of total IgE and cytokines in serum were measured. RESULTS Oral administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2 during or after allergen sensitization suppressed allergic inflammation in lung and intestinal tissues, while the proportion of infiltrating inflammatory cells was significantly decreased in the BALF of allergic asthma mice. Moreover, B. infantis CGMCC313-2 decreased the serum levels of total IgE in food allergy mice, and reductions in IgE and IgG1 were also observed in OVA-induced allergic asthma mice. The expression of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 in both serum and BALF was suppressed following the administration of B. infantis CGMCC313-2, while an effect on serum IL-10 levels was not observed. CONCLUSION B. infantis CGMCC313-2 inhibits the secretion of allergen-induced IgE, IL-4 and IL-13, and attenuates allergic inflammation.
Merenstein, Daniel J; Tan, Tina P; Molokin, Aleksey; Smith, Keisha Herbin; Roberts, Robert F; Shara, Nawar M; Mete, Mihriye; Sanders, Mary Ellen; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria
Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in sufficient doses, provide health benefits on the host. The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires phase I safety studies for probiotics when the intended use of the product is as a drug. The purpose of the study was to determine the safety of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis (B. lactis) strain BB-12 (BB-12)-supplemented yogurt when consumed by a generally healthy group of adults who were prescribed a 10-day course of antibiotics for a respiratory infection. Secondary aims were to assess the ability of BB-12 to affect the expression of whole blood immune markers associated with cell activation and inflammatory response. A phase I, double-blinded, randomized controlled study was conducted in compliance with FDA guidelines for an Investigational New Drug (IND). Forty participants were randomly assigned to consume 4 ounces of either BB-12 -supplemented yogurt or non-supplemented control yogurt daily for 10 d. The primary outcome was to assess safety and tolerability, assessed by the number of reported adverse events. A total of 165 non-serious adverse events were reported, with no differences between the control and BB-12 groups. When compared to the control group, B lactis fecal levels were modestly higher in the BB-12-supplemented group. In a small subset of patients, changes in whole blood expression of genes associated with regulation and activation of immune cells were detected in the BB-12-supplemented group. BB-12-supplemented yogurt is safe and well tolerated when consumed by healthy adults concurrently taking antibiotics. This study will form the basis for future randomized clinical trials investigating the potential immunomodulatory effects of BB-12-supplemented yogurt in a variety of disease states.
Lewis, Marie C; Patel, Dilip V; Fowler, Jenni; Duncker, Swantje; Zuercher, Adrian W; Mercenier, Annick; Bailey, Mick
Weaning is associated with a major shift in the microbial community of the intestine, and this instability may make it more acquiescent than the adult microbiota to long-term changes. Modulation achieved through dietary interventions may have potentially beneficial effects on the developing immune system, which is driven primarily by the microbiota. The specific aim of the present study was to determine whether immune development could be modified by dietary supplementation with the human probiotic Bifidobacterium lactis NCC2818 in a tractable model of weaning in infants. Piglets were reared by their mothers before being weaned onto a solid diet supplemented with B. lactis NCC2818, while sibling controls did not receive supplementation. Probiotic supplementation resulted in a reduction in IgA (P<0·0005) and IgM (P<0·009) production by mucosal tissues but had no effect on IgG production (P>0·05). Probiotic-supplemented pigs had more mast cells than unsupplemented littermates (P<0·0001), although numbers in both groups were low. In addition, the supplemented piglets made stronger serum IgG responses to fed and injected antigens (P<0·05). The present findings are consistent with B. lactis NCC2818 reducing intestinal permeability induced by weaning, and suggest that the piglet is a valuable intermediate between rodent models and human infants. The results also strongly suggest that measures of the effect of probiotic supplementation on the immune system need to be interpreted carefully as proxy measures of health benefit. However, they are useful in developing an understanding of the mechanism of action of probiotic strains, an important factor in predicting favourable health outcomes of nutritional intervention.
Gilad, Ofir; Jacobsen, Susanne; Stuer-Lauridsen, Birgitte; Pedersen, Martin Bastian; Garrigues, Christel; Svensson, Birte
Recent studies have demonstrated that xylo-oligosaccharides (XOS), which are classified as emerging prebiotics, selectively enhance the growth of bifidobacteria in general and of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains in particular. To elucidate the metabolism of XOS in the well-documented and widely used probiotic strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, a combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach was applied, involving DNA microarrays, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) analyses of samples obtained from cultures grown on either XOS or glucose. The analyses show that 9 of the 10 genes that encode proteins predicted to play a role in XOS catabolism (i.e., XOS-degrading and -metabolizing enzymes, transport proteins, and a regulatory protein) were induced by XOS at the transcriptional level, and the proteins encoded by three of these (β-d-xylosidase, sugar-binding protein, and xylose isomerase) showed higher abundance on XOS. Based on the obtained results, a model for the catabolism of XOS in BB-12 is suggested, according to which the strain utilizes an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system (probably for oligosaccharides) to bind XOS on the cell surface and transport them into the cell. XOS are then degraded intracellularly through the action of xylanases and xylosidases to d-xylose, which is subsequently metabolized by the d-fructose-6-P shunt. The findings obtained in this study may have implications for the design of a synbiotic application containing BB-12 and the XOS used in the present study. PMID:20851982
Wang, Huan; Gong, Jing; Wang, Wenfeng; Long, Yanqin; Fu, Xiaochao; Fu, Yu; Qian, Wei; Hou, Xiaohua
Background and Aims Research has increasingly suggested that gut flora plays an important role in the development of post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Studies of the curative effect of probiotics for IBS have usually been positive but not always. However, the differences of treatment effects and mechanisms among probiotic stains, or mixture of them, are not clear. In this study, we compared the effects of different probiotics (Befidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus or mixture of the three) on intestinal sensation, barrier function and intestinal immunity in PI-IBS mouse model. Methods PI-IBS model was induced by Trichinella spiralis infection in mice. Different probiotics were administered to mice after 8 weeks infection. Visceral sensitivity was measured by scores of abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) and the threshold intensity of colorectal distention. Colonic smooth muscle contractile response was assessed by contraction of the longitudinal muscle strips. Plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) and d-lactate were determined by an enzymatic spectrophotometry. Expression of tight junction proteins and cytokines in ileum were measured by Western blotting. Results Compared to control mice, PI-IBS mice treated either alone with Befidobacterium or Lactobacillus (but not Streptococcus), or the mixture of the three exhibited not only decreased AWR score and contractile response, but also reduced plasma DAO and D-lactate. These probiotic treatments also suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 and IL-17 and promoted the expression of major tight junction proteins claudin-1 and occludin. The mixture of the three probiotic strains performed better than the individual in up-regulating these tight junction proteins and suppressing IL-17 expression. Conclusions Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, but not Streptococcus, alleviated visceral hypersensitivity and recovered intestinal barrier function as well as inflammation in PI-IBS mouse model
Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Stone, Jason D.; Turner, Stephanie M.; Anzalone, Anthony J.; Eimerbrink, Micah J.; Pane, Marco; Amoruso, Angela; Rowlands, David S.; Oliver, Jonathan M.
Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium (B.) breve BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU) concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583). Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic–placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise. PMID:27754427
Mutual Cross-Feeding Interactions between Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum NCC2705 and Eubacterium rectale ATCC 33656 Explain the Bifidogenic and Butyrogenic Effects of Arabinoxylan Oligosaccharides.
Rivière, Audrey; Gagnon, Mérilie; Weckx, Stefan; Roy, Denis; De Vuyst, Luc
Arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are a promising class of prebiotics that have the potential to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and the production of butyrate in the human colon, known as the bifidogenic and butyrogenic effects, respectively. Although these dual effects of AXOS are considered beneficial for human health, their underlying mechanisms are still far from being understood. Therefore, this study investigated the metabolic interactions between Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum NCC2705 (B. longum NCC2705), an acetate producer and arabinose substituent degrader of AXOS, and Eubacterium rectale ATCC 33656, an acetate-converting butyrate producer. Both strains belong to prevalent species of the human colon microbiota. The strains were grown on AXOS during mono- and coculture fermentations, and their growth, AXOS consumption, metabolite production, and expression of key genes were monitored. The results showed that the growth of both strains and gene expression in both strains were affected by cocultivation and that these effects could be linked to changes in carbohydrate consumption and concomitant metabolite production. The consumption of the arabinose substituents of AXOS by B. longum NCC2705 with the concomitant production of acetate allowed E. rectale ATCC 33656 to produce butyrate (by means of a butyryl coenzyme A [CoA]:acetate CoA-transferase), explaining the butyrogenic effect of AXOS. Eubacterium rectale ATCC 33656 released xylose from the AXOS substrate, which favored the B. longum NCC2705 production of acetate, explaining the bifidogenic effect of AXOS. Hence, those interactions represent mutual cross-feeding mechanisms that favor the coexistence of bifidobacterial strains and butyrate producers in the same ecological niche. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the bifidogenic and butyrogenic effects of AXOS.
Novakova, Jitka; Džunková, Mária; Musilova, Sarka; Vlkova, Eva; Kokoska, Ladislav; Moya, Andrés; D'Auria, Giuseppe
The major risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the use of antibiotics owing to the disruption of the equilibrium of the host gut microbiota. To preserve the beneficial resident probiotic bacteria during infection treatment, the use of molecules with selective antibacterial activity enhances the efficacy by selectively removing C. difficile. One of them is the plant alkaloid 8-hydroxyquinoline (8HQ), which has been shown to selectively inhibit clostridia without repressing bifidobacteria. Selective antimicrobial activity is generally tested by culture techniques of individual bacterial strains. However, the main limitation of these techniques is the inability to describe differential growth dynamics of more bacterial strains in co-culture within the same experiment. In the present study, we combined fluorescent in situ hybridization and flow cytometry to describe the changes in active and non-active cells of a mixed culture formed by the opportunistic pathogen C. difficile CECT 531 and the beneficial Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum CCMDMND BL1 after exposure to 8HQ. It was observed that without 8HQ, the proportion of both strains was almost equal, oscillating between 22.7 and 77.9 % during a time lapse of 12 h, whereas with 8HQ the proportion of active C. difficile decreased after 4 h, and persisted only between 8.8 and 17.5 %. In contrast, bifidobacterial growth was not disturbed by 8HQ. The results of this study showed the selective inhibitory effect of 8HQ on clostridial and bifidobacterial growth dynamics, and the potential of this compound for the development of selective agents to control CDIs.
Zhou, Huicong; He, Zhiliang; Wang, Changdong; Xie, Tingting; Liu, Lin; Liu, Chuanyang; Song, Fangzhou; Ma, Yongping
The herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV TK/GCV) system is one of the best studied cancer suicide gene therapy systems. Our previous study showed that caspase 3 expression was upregulated and bladder tumor growth was significantly reduced in rats treated with a combination of Bifidobacterium (BF) and HSV TK/GCV (BF-rTK/GCV). However, it was raised whether the BF-mediated recombinant thymidine kinase combined with ganciclovir (BF-rTK/GCV) was safe to administer via venous for cancer gene therapy. To answer this question, the antitumor effects of BF-rTK/GCV were mainly evaluated in a xenograft nude mouse model bearing MKN-45 gastric tumor cells. The immune response, including analysis of cytokine profiles, was analyzed to evaluate the safety of intramuscular and intravenous injection of BF-rTK in BALB/c mice. The results suggested that gastric tumor growth was significantly inhibited in vivo by BF-rTK/GCV. However, the BF-rTK/GCV had no effect on mouse body weight, indicating that the treatment was safe for the host. The results of cytokine profile analysis indicated that intravenous injection of a low dose of BF-rTK resulted in a weaker cytokine response than that obtained with intramuscular injection. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis showed that intravenous administration did not affect the expression of immune-associated TLR2 and TLR4. Finally, the BF-rTK/GCV inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in mouse model, which is helpful for inhibiting of tumor angiogenesis. That meant intravenous administration of BF-rTK/GCV was an effective and safe way for cancer gene therapy. PMID:27275821
Wang, Hai Kuan; Ng, Yi Kai; Koh, Eileen; Yao, Lina; Chien, Ang Sze; Lin, Hui Xin; Lee, Yuan Kun
Bifidobacteria are anaerobes and are difficult to culture in conventional fermentation system. It was observed that Bacillus subtilis natto enhanced growth of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis v9 by about 3-fold in a whole soybean solid-state co-fermentation, in a non-anaerobic condition. For the purpose of understanding the metabolic interactions between Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9 and Ba. subtilis natto, the transcriptome of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9 and Ba. subtilis natto was analyzed in single and mixed cultures using RNA-Seq. Compared with the single culture, 459 genes of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9 were up regulated and 21 were down regulated in the mixed culture with Ba. subtilis natto, with more than 2-fold difference. Predictive metagenomic analyses suggested that Ba. subtilis natto up regulated transport functions, complex carbohydrates and amino acid metabolism, DNA repair, oxydative stress-related functions, and cell growth of Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9. In the mixed culture with Bif. animalis subsp. lactis v9, only 3 transcripts of Ba. subtilis natto were over-expressed and 3115 were under-expressed with more than 2-fold difference. The highest down-regulated genes were those involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The data presented here demonstrated a parasitic-like interaction regulated at the transcription level, between Ba. subtilis natto and Bif. animalis subsp. lactis in the mixed culture. The over-expression of genes involved in substrate uptake and metabolism in Bif. animalis subsp. lactis in the mixed culture nevertheless, led to its higher cell concentration in the nutrient rich whole soybean medium.
Taipale, T; Pienihäkkinen, K; Salminen, S; Jokela, J; Söderling, E
A randomized clinical trial studied the effects of early administration of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (BB-12) on oral colonization of (1) mutans streptococci (MS), and (2) BB-12. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, infants (n = 106) received probiotic bacteria (BB-12 group), xylitol (X group), or sorbitol (S group). Test tablets were administered twice a day (from the age of 1-2 months) with a novel slow-release pacifier or a spoon (daily dose of BB-12 10(10) CFU, polyol 200-600 mg). Samples were collected from mucosa/teeth at the age of 8 months and 2 years for BB- 12 determination (qPCR) and plate culturing of MS (MSB, TYCSB), lactobacilli (Rogosa) and yeasts (Sabouraud). The MS levels of the mothers were determined (Dentocult SM Strip Mutans). The baseline characteristics of the three groups were similar. Mean duration of tablet delivery was 14.9 ± 6.7 months. In all groups, >90% of the mothers showed high MS counts (log CFU ≥5). MS colonization percentages of the children at the age of 2 years were rather low (BB-12 group: 6%; X group: 31%; S group: 10%; p < 0.05). The levels of lactobacilli and yeasts did not differ between the groups. BB-12 cell counts barely exceeding the detection limit were found in three of the oral samples of the 8-month-old children; however, the 2-year samples did not contain BB-12. The early administration of BB-12 did not result in permanent oral colonization of this probiotic or significantly affect MS colonization in the children.
Merenstein, Daniel J; D'Amico, Frank; Palese, Caren; Hahn, Alexander; Sparenborg, Jessy; Tan, Tina; Scott, Hillary; Polzin, Kayla; Kolberg, Lore; Roberts, Robert
The present study investigated the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bf-6 (LMG 24 384) (Bf-6)-supplemented yogurt on colonic transit time (CTT). A triple-blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, two-period cross-over trial was conducted with sixty-eight women with a self-reported history of straining during bowel movements or hard or lumpy stools in the past 2 years. As per regulatory requirements for probiotic studies, eligible women were generally healthy and not actively constipated at the time of enrolment. Participants consumed both Bf-6 and placebo yogurts for 14 d each in a randomised order, with a 6-week washout period between the treatments. The primary outcome, CTT, was assessed via Sitz marker X-rays. The average CTT was 42·1 h for the active period and 43·3 h for the control period (mean difference 1·2 h, 95 % CI - 4·9, 7·4). Since the statistical tests for the cross-over study implied that the mean CTT for the active and control periods in period 2 were biased, the standard protocol suggests examining the results of only period 1 as a traditional randomised controlled trial. This showed that the mean CTT was 35·2 h for the active period v. 52·9 h for the control period (P= 0·015). Bootstrapping demonstrated that both the mean and median differences remained significant (P= 0·016 and P= 0·045, respectively). Few adverse events were noted, with no differences among the active and control periods. The paired analysis showed no differences between the active and control periods during the cross-over trial. Further trials should be conducted in populations with underlying problems associated with disordered transit to determine the potential value of probiotic supplementation more accurately.
Jung, Il-Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun
To understand the role of intestinal microflora in expressing the pharmacological effect of ginsenoside Rb1, the metabolic activity of ginsenoside Rb1 by 148 fecal specimens was measured and its metabolizing β-glucosidase was cloned. The average activities for p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and ginsenoside Rb1 were 0.097±0.059 μmol/min/mg and 0.311±0.118 pmol/min/mg, respectively. These enzyme activities were not different between male and female, or between ages. A gene encoding β-D-glucosidase (BglX) was cloned from Bifidobacterium longum H-1, which transformed ginsenoside Rb1 to compound K. The probe for cloning was synthesized from the genes encoding a β-D-glucosidase of previously reported B. longum DJO10A. The sequences of the cloned gene revealed 2364 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein containing 787 amino acids (molecular weight of 95 kDa). The gene exhibited 99% homology (identities) to that of B. longum. The cloned gene was expressed under T7 promoter of the expression vector, pET-39b(+), in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), and the expressed enzyme was purified by using HiTrap immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) HP. The enzyme potently biotransformed ginsenoside Rb1, loganin, arctiin and arbutin to ginsenoside Rd, loganetin, arctigenin and hydroquinone, respectively, but was not active in the case of hesperidin, and kakkalide. This is the first report on cloning and expression of β-D-glucosidase from B. longum. Based on these findings, ginsenoside Rb1 may be metabolized to bioactive compound(s) by exo-β-D-glucosidase(s) produced from the intestinal bacteria and its pharmacological effects may be dependent on intestinal bacterial exo-β-D-glucosidase(s) activity.
Bermudez-Brito, Miriam; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Matencio, Esther; Bernal, Maria J; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel
Dendritic cells (DCs) constitute the first point of contact between gut commensals and our immune system. Despite growing evidence of the immunomodulatory effects of probiotics, the interactions between the cells of the intestinal immune system and bacteria remain largely unknown. Indeed,, the aim of this work was to determine whether the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and its cell-free culture supernatant (CFS) have immunomodulatory effects in human intestinal-like dendritic cells (DCs) and how they respond to the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and also to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in these interactions. Human DCs were directly challenged with B. breve/CFS, S. typhi or a combination of these stimuli for 4 h. The expression pattern of genes involved in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway and cytokine secretion was analyzed. CFS decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human intestinal DCs challenged with S. typhi. In contrast, the B. breve CNCM I-4035 probiotic strain was a potent inducer of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines tested, i.e., TNF-α, IL-8 and RANTES, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokines including IL-10. CFS restored TGF-β levels in the presence of Salmonella. Live B.breve and its supernatant enhanced innate immune responses by the activation of TLR signaling pathway. These treatments upregulated TLR9 gene transcription. In addition, CFS was a more potent inducer of TLR9 expression than the probiotic bacteria in the presence of S. typhi. Expression levels of CASP8 and IRAK4 were also increased by CFS, and both treatments induced TOLLIP gene expression. Our results indicate that the probiotic strain B. breve CNCM I-4035 affects the intestinal immune response, whereas its supernatant exerts anti-inflammatory effects mediated by DCs. This supernatant may protect immune system from highly infectious agents such as Salmonella typhi and can down-regulate pro
Zhou, J S; Gill, H S
The possibility that intestinal microflora contribute to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has raised issues regarding the safety of probiotic organisms, especially those with immunostimulating properties, in individuals with such immune dysfunctions. In this study, the effect of consumption of probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001(HN001) and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (HN019) on the induction and progression of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) was investigated in CBA/CaH (H-2k) mice. HN001 or HN019 in skim milk were fed to mice daily (1-1.5 x 10(8) cfu/mouse/day) for 5 to 9 weeks. A mild form of EAT was induced by subcutaneous injection of mouse thyroglobulin (MTg) with either Freund's adjuvant (complete and incomplete, CFA and IFA) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The proliferative responses of spleen lymphocyte to MTg stimulation in vitro and the presence (and degree) of mononuclear cell infiltration in thyroid gland tissues were examined to assess the development and severity of EAT. The levels of serum anti-MTg antibodies (IgG1 and IgG2a) and spleen weight index were determined to detect the presence of autoimmune responses of mice receiving MTg. Results showed that 8 weeks after immunization, 16.67-50% of the mice developed mild EAT with lymphocyte infiltration in the thyroid glands. Probiotic feeding did not induce full-blown EAT. There were no differences in spleen weight index or the proliferative spleenocytes in response to PMA between mice that received MTg alone and mice that received MTg and probiotic LAB strains.
Zhou, J S; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S
The mucus layer (mucin) coating the surface of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) plays an important role in the mucosal barrier system. Any damage or disturbance of this mucin layer will compromise the host's mucosal defence function. In the present study, the ability of three potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001, Lactobacillus acidophilus HN017, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019) to degrade mucin in vitro was evaluated, in order to assess their potential pathogenicity and local toxicity. The LAB strains were incubated in medium containing hog gastric mucin (HGM, 0.3%) at 37 degrees C for 48 h, following which any decrease in carbohydrate and protein concentration in the ethanol-precipitated portion of the culture medium was determined, using phenol-sulphuric acid and bicinchonic acid (BCA) protein assays, respectively. The change in molecular weight of mucin glycoproteins, following incubation with the test strains, was monitored by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In order to expose any ability of the test strains to degrade mucin visually and more directly, the test strains were also cultured on agarose containing 0.3% HGM and incubated anaerobically for 72 h at 37 degrees C. No significant change in the carbohydrate or protein concentration in mucin substrates was found following incubation with the test strains. No mucin fragments were derived from the mucin suspension incubated with test strains, and no mucinolysis zone was identified on agarose. These results demonstrate that the potential probiotic LAB strains tested here were unable to degrade gastrointestinal mucin in vitro, which suggests that these novel probiotic candidates are likely to be non-invasive and non-toxic at the mucosal interface.
Zhou, J S; Shu, Q; Rutherfurd, K J; Prasad, J; Birtles, M J; Gopal, P K; Gill, H S
The general safety of immune-enhancing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20), Lb. acidophilus HN017, and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 (DR10) was investigated in a feeding trial. Groups of BALB/c mice were orally administered test LAB strains or the commercial reference strain Lb. acidophilus LA-1 at 2.5 x 10(9), 5 x 10(10) or 2.5 x 10(12) colony forming units (CFU)/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. Throughout this time, their feed intake, water intake, and live body weight were monitored. At the end of the 4 week observation period, samples of blood, liver, spleen, kidney, mesenteric lymph nodes, and gut tissues (ileum, caecum, and colon) were collected to determine: haematological parameters (red blood cell and platelet counts, haemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration); differential leukocyte counts; blood biochemistry (plasma total protein, albumin, cholesterol, and glucose); mucosal histology (epithelial cell height, mucosal thickness, and villus height); and bacterial translocation to extra-gut tissues (blood, liver, spleen, kidney and mesenteric lymph nodes). DNA finger printing techniques were used to identify any viable bacterial strains recovered from these tissues. The results demonstrated that 4 weeks consumption of these LAB strains had no adverse effects on animals' general health status, haematology, blood biochemistry, gut mucosal histology parameters, or the incidence of bacterial translocation. A few viable LAB cells were recovered from the tissues of animals in both control and test groups, but DNA fingerprinting did not identify any of these as the inoculated strains. The results obtained in this study suggest that the potentially probiotic LAB strains HN001, HN017, and HN019 are non-toxic for mice and are therefore likely to be safe for human use.
Zhou, J S; Rutherfurd, K J; Gill, H S
Platelet aggregation contributes to the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis, and aggregation of platelets induced by lactobacilli is thought to be an important contributory factor in the development and progression of Lactobacillus endocarditis. The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of immunity-enhancing probiotic strains Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on the activation and aggregation of human blood platelets. Whole blood samples from healthy individuals were incubated in vitro with HN001 or HN019 and subsequently labeled with platelet-specific monoclonal antibodies, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-CD41a (expressed on normal platelets), and phycoerythrin-streptavidin-conjugated anti-CD62p (expressed on activated platelets) before analysis by flow cytometry. Platelet-rich plasma was used to assist the gating of the platelet cluster. ADP and epinephrine were used as the physiological platelet activation agonists. Platelet aggregation-inducing strain Streptococcus sanguis 133-79 was used as a positive control strain. The mean fluorescence intensity of phycoerythrin and the percentage of platelets expressing the CD62p marker were used to assess the degree of platelet activation. The percentage of CD62p-positive platelets and the light scatter profiles of the agonist-activated platelets were used to identify the occurrence and degree of platelet aggregation. HN001 and HN019 had no effect on spontaneous platelet activation and aggregation; they also failed to exacerbate the platelet aggregation activity induced by ADP and epinephrine. Therefore, these test probiotic strains HN001 and HN019 are less likely to participate in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis or other thrombotic disorders with regard to platelet aggregation factors.
Bang, Seo-Hyeon; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Shim, Juwon; Hong, Sung-Woon; Kim, Dong-Hyun
To understand the metabolism of flavonoid rhamnoglycosides by human intestinal microbiota, we measured the metabolic activity of rutin and poncirin (distributed in many functional foods and herbal medicine) by 100 human stool specimens. The average α-Lrhamnosidase activities on the p-nitrophenyl-α-L-rhamnopyranoside, rutin, and poncirin subtrates were 0.10 ± 0.07, 0.25 ± 0.08, and 0.15 ± 0.09 pmol/min/mg, respectively. To investigate the enzymatic properties, α-L-rhamnosidase-producing bacteria were isolated from the specimens, and the α-L-rhamnosidase gene was cloned from a selected organism, Bifidobacterium dentium, and expressed in E. coli. The cloned α-L-rhamnosidase gene contained a 2,673 bp sequcence encoding 890 amino acid residues. The cloned gene was expressed using the pET 26b(+) vector in E. coli BL21, and the expressed enzyme was purified using Ni(2+)-NTA and Q-HP column chromatography. The specific activity of the purified α-L-rhamnosidase was 23.3 μmol/min/mg. Of the tested natural product constituents, the cloned α-L-rhamnosidase hydrolyzed rutin most potently, followed by poncirin, naringin, and ginsenoside Re. However, it was unable to hydrolyze quercitrin. This is the first report describing the cloning, expression, and characterization of α-L-rhamnosidase, a flavonoid rhamnoglycosidemetabolizing enzyme, from bifidobacteria. Based on these findings, the α-L-rhamnosidase of intestinal bacteria such as B. dentium seem to be more effective in hydrolyzing (1-->6) bonds than (1-->2) bonds of rhamnoglycosides, and may play an important role in the metabolism and pharmacological effect of rhamnoglycosides.
Mutual Cross-Feeding Interactions between Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum NCC2705 and Eubacterium rectale ATCC 33656 Explain the Bifidogenic and Butyrogenic Effects of Arabinoxylan Oligosaccharides
Rivière, Audrey; Gagnon, Mérilie; Weckx, Stefan; Roy, Denis
Arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) are a promising class of prebiotics that have the potential to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria and the production of butyrate in the human colon, known as the bifidogenic and butyrogenic effects, respectively. Although these dual effects of AXOS are considered beneficial for human health, their underlying mechanisms are still far from being understood. Therefore, this study investigated the metabolic interactions between Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum NCC2705 (B. longum NCC2705), an acetate producer and arabinose substituent degrader of AXOS, and Eubacterium rectale ATCC 33656, an acetate-converting butyrate producer. Both strains belong to prevalent species of the human colon microbiota. The strains were grown on AXOS during mono- and coculture fermentations, and their growth, AXOS consumption, metabolite production, and expression of key genes were monitored. The results showed that the growth of both strains and gene expression in both strains were affected by cocultivation and that these effects could be linked to changes in carbohydrate consumption and concomitant metabolite production. The consumption of the arabinose substituents of AXOS by B. longum NCC2705 with the concomitant production of acetate allowed E. rectale ATCC 33656 to produce butyrate (by means of a butyryl coenzyme A [CoA]:acetate CoA-transferase), explaining the butyrogenic effect of AXOS. Eubacterium rectale ATCC 33656 released xylose from the AXOS substrate, which favored the B. longum NCC2705 production of acetate, explaining the bifidogenic effect of AXOS. Hence, those interactions represent mutual cross-feeding mechanisms that favor the coexistence of bifidobacterial strains and butyrate producers in the same ecological niche. In conclusion, this study provides new insights into the bifidogenic and butyrogenic effects of AXOS. PMID:26319874
Plaza-Diaz, Julio; Gomez-Llorente, Carolina; Abadia-Molina, Francisco; Saez-Lara, Maria Jose; Campaña-Martin, Laura; Muñoz-Quezada, Sergio; Romero, Fernando; Gil, Angel; Fontana, Luis
We have previously described the safety and immunomodulatory effects of Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM I-4036 in healthy volunteers. The scope of this work was to evaluate the effects of these probiotic strains on the hepatic steatosis of obese rats. We used the Zucker rat as a genetic model of obesity. Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats received one of three probiotic strains, a mixture of L. paracasei CNCM I-4034 and B. breve CNCM I-4035, or a placebo for 30 days. An additional group of Zucker-lean+/fa rats received a placebo for 30 days. No alterations in intestinal histology, in the epithelial, lamina propria, muscular layers of the ileal or colonic mucosa, or the submucosae, were observed in any of the experimental groups. Triacylglycerol content decreased in the liver of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that were fed L. rhamnosus, B. breve, or the mixture of B. breve and L. paracasei. Likewise, the area corresponding to neutral lipids was significantly smaller in the liver of all four groups of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received probiotics than in rats fed the placebo. Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats exhibited significantly greater serum LPS levels than Zucker-lean+/fa rats upon administration of placebo for 30 days. In contrast, all four groups of obese Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received LAB strains exhibited serum LPS concentrations similar to those of Zucker-lean+/fa rats. Serum TNF-α levels decreased in the Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats that received B. breve, L. rhamnosus, or the mixture, whereas L. paracasei feeding decreased IL-6 levels in the serum of Zucker-Leprfa/fa rats. In conclusion, the probiotic strains reduced hepatic steatosis in part by lowering serum LPS, and had an anti-inflammatory effect in obese Zucker rats. PMID:24852284
Smith, Tracey J; Rigassio-Radler, Diane; Denmark, Robert; Haley, Timothy; Touger-Decker, Riva
College students are susceptible to upper respiratory infections (URI) due to inadequate sleep, stress and close living quarters. Certain probiotic strains modulate immune function and may improve health-related quality of life (HRQL) during URI. The present study recruited apparently healthy college students and assessed the effect of probiotics on HRQL outcomes (i.e. self-reported duration, symptom severity and functional impairment of URI) in those who developed URI. Missed school and work days due to URI were also considered. Subjects (n 231) were apparently healthy college students living on campus in residence halls at the Framingham State University (Framingham, MA, USA), and were randomised to receive placebo (n 117) or probiotic-containing powder (daily dose of minimum 1 billion colony-forming units of each Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® (LGG®) and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® (BB-12®); n 114) for 12 weeks. Subjects completed The Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 to assess HRQL during URI. The final analyses included 198 subjects (placebo, n 97 and probiotics, n 101). The median duration of URI was significantly shorter by 2 d and median severity score was significantly lower by 34% with probiotics v. placebo (P,0·001), indicating a higher HRQL during URI. Number of missed work days was not different between groups (P=0·429); however, the probiotics group missed significantly fewer school days (mean difference = 0·2 d) compared to the placebo group (P=0·002). LGG® and BB-12® may be beneficial among college students with URI for mitigating decrements in HRQL. More research is warranted regarding mechanisms of action associated with these findings and the cost-benefit of prophylactic supplementation.
In vitro fermentation of sugar beet arabino-oligosaccharides by fecal microbiota obtained from patients with ulcerative colitis to selectively stimulate the growth of Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.
Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Holck, Jesper; Meyer, Anne S; Licht, Tine Rask
The potential prebiotic properties of arabino-oligosaccharides (AOS) derived from sugar beet pulp was studied using mixed cultures of human fecal bacteria from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), in remission or with active disease, and in healthy controls. These results were compared to those for fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), which are known to have a prebiotic effect. Fermentation studies were carried out using a small-scale static batch system, and changes in the fecal microbial communities and metabolites were monitored after 24 h by quantitative real-time PCR and short-chain fatty acid analysis. With a few minor exceptions, AOS affected the communities similarly to what was seen for FOS. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. were selectively increased after fermentation of AOS or FOS by fecal microbiota derived from UC patients. The stimulation of growth of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. was accompanied by a high production of acetate and hence a decrease of pH. The fermentation of AOS may help improve the inflammatory conditions in UC patients through stimulation of bacteria eliciting anti-inflammatory responses and through production of acetate. AOS may therefore represent a new prebiotic candidate for reduction of the risk of flare-ups in UC patients. However, human trials are needed to confirm a health-promoting effect.
Masco, L; Huys, G; De Brandt, E; Temmerman, R; Swings, J
A total of 58 probiotic products obtained worldwide, which were claimed to contain Bifidobacterium strains (including 22 yoghurts, 5 dairy fruit drinks, 28 food supplements and 3 pharmaceutical preparations) were investigated in parallel using a culture-dependent and a culture-independent approach. Three isolation media previously reported as selective for Bifidobacterium were evaluated for their suitability in the quality analysis of these products. Subsequently, possible bifidobacterial colonies were picked from the best medium and identified by means of rep-PCR fingerprinting using the BOX primer (BOX-PCR). Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, formerly classified as Bifidobacterium lactis, was most frequently found, but strains belonging to Bifidobacterium longum biotypes longum and infantis, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium breve were recovered also. In parallel, all products were also subjected to culture-independent analysis which involved a nested-PCR step on total bacterial DNA extracted directly from the product, followed by separation of the amplicons by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and subsequent identification of species from the band patterns. By conventional cultivation, 70.7% of the products analysed were found to contain culturable bifidobacteria whereas by culture-independent DGGE analysis members of the genus Bifidobacterium could be detected in 96.5% of the analysed products. Genotypic characterization of a number of bifidobacterial isolates at the strain level by means of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed a relatively high degree of genomic homogeneity among the Bifidobacterium strains currently used in the probiotic industry.
Jin, Junhua; Zhang, Bing; Guo, Huiyuan; Cui, Jianyun; Jiang, Lu; Song, Shuhui; Sun, Min; Ren, Fazheng
To analyze the mechanism of the acid tolerance response (ATR) in Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum BBMN68, we optimized the acid-adaptation condition to stimulate ATR effectively and analyzed the change of gene expression profile after acid-adaptation using high-throughput RNA-Seq. After acid-adaptation at pH 4.5 for 2 hours, the survival rate of BBMN68 at lethal pH 3.5 for 120 min was increased by 70 fold and the expression of 293 genes were upregulated by more than 2 fold, and 245 genes were downregulated by more than 2 fold. Gene expression profiling of ATR in BBMN68 suggested that, when the bacteria faced acid stress, the cells strengthened the integrity of cell wall and changed the permeability of membrane to keep the H+ from entering. Once the H+ entered the cytoplasm, the cells showed four main responses: First, the F0F1-ATPase system was initiated to discharge H+. Second, the ability to produce NH3 by cysteine-cystathionine-cycle was strengthened to neutralize excess H+. Third, the cells started NER-UVR and NER-VSR systems to minimize the damage to DNA and upregulated HtpX, IbpA, and γ-glutamylcysteine production to protect proteins against damage. Fourth, the cells initiated global response signals ((p)ppGpp, polyP, and Sec-SRP) to bring the whole cell into a state of response to the stress. The cells also secreted the quorum sensing signal (AI-2) to communicate between intraspecies cells by the cellular signal system, such as two-component systems, to improve the overall survival rate. Besides, the cells varied the pathways of producing energy by shifting to BCAA metabolism and enhanced the ability to utilize sugar to supply sufficient energy for the operation of the mechanism mentioned above. Based on these reults, it was inferred that, during industrial applications, the acid resistance of bifidobacteria could be improved by adding BCAA, γ-glutamylcysteine, cysteine, and cystathionine into the acid-stress environment. PMID:23236393
Kuo, Shiu-Ming; Chan, Wan-Chun; Hu, Zihua
Prebiotic plus probiotic (synbiotic) supplementations promote fermentation and have shown anti-inflammatory activity in colonic epithelium. However, in many instances, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have demonstrated adverse effects after prebiotic supplementation at a dose well tolerated by normal individuals. To test the hypothesis that the host inflammation affects the colonic epithelial response to increased fermentation, the gene expression of colonic epithelium was analyzed. In a 1-way experimental design to test the effect of supplements in wild-type mice using the standard diet formulated by the American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G) as the control diet, fermentable fiber inulin (5%) in the absence or presence of the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis (Bb12) (10(8) CFU/kg diet) showed limited effects on gene expression as determined by whole-genome microarray. Bb12 supplementation alone was known not to increase fermentation and here instead significantly upregulated genes in nucleic acid metabolic processes. The effects of the synbiotic diet were then determined in mice exposed to LPS-induced inflammation in a 2-way experimental design testing the effect of diet and LPS. The microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses on the wild-type mice revealed that LPS-induced changes in the colonic epithelium were 4- to 10-fold less in the synbiotic diet group compared with the control diet group. Unlike the wild-type mice, anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 10 (IL10)-null mice (susceptible to IBD) given the synbiotic diet, compared with those given the control diet, had 3- to 40-fold increased expression of inflammation-related genes such as Cxcl1 (chemokine C-X-C motif ligand 1) and S100a9 (S100 calcium binding protein A9) in the absence and presence of LPS exposure. These contrasting intestinal epithelial responses to increased fermentation in wild-type and IL10-null mice are similar
Fibi, Silvia; Klose, Viviana; Mohnl, Michaela; Weber, Barbara; Haslberger, Alexander G; Sattler, Verity Ann
To ensure quality management during the production processes of probiotics and for efficacy testing in vivo, accurate tools are needed for the identification and quantification of probiotic strains. In this study, a strain-specific qPCR assay based on Suppression Subtractive Hybridisation (SSH) for identifying unique sequences, was developed to quantify the strain Bifidobacterium animalis BAN in broiler feed. Seventy potential BAN specific sequences were obtained after SSH of the BAN genome, with a pool of closely related strain genomes and subsequent differential screening by dot blot hybridisation. Primers were designed for 30 sequences which showed no match with any sequence database entry, using BLAST and FASTA. Primer specificity was assessed by qPCR using 45 non-target strains and species in a stepwise approach. Primer T39_S2 was the only primer pair without any unspecific binding properties and it showed a PCR efficiency of 80% with a Cq value of 17.32 for 20 ng BAN DNA. Optimised feed-matrix dependent calibration curve for the quantification of BAN was generated, ranging from 6.28 × 10(3)cfu g(-1) to 1.61 × 10(6)cfu g(-1). Limit of detection of the qPCR assay was 2 × 10(1)cfu g(-1) BAN. Applicability of the strain-specific qPCR assay was confirmed in a spiking experiment which added BAN to the feed in two concentrations, 2 × 10(6)cfu g(-1) and 2 × 10(4)cfu g(-1). Results showed BAN mean recovery rates in feed of 1.44 × 10(6) ± 4.39 × 10(5)cfu g(-1) and 1.59 × 10(4) ± 1.69 × 10(4)cfu g(-1), respectively. The presented BAN-specific qPCR assay can be applied in animal feeding trials, in order to control the correct inclusion rates of the probiotic to the feed, and it could further be adapted, to monitor the uptake of the probiotic into the gastrointestinal tract of broiler chickens.
Patole, Sanjay; Keil, Anthony D.; Chang, Annie; Nathan, Elizabeth; Doherty, Dorota; Simmer, Karen; Esvaran, Meera; Conway, Patricia
Background Probiotic supplementation significantly reduces the risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and all cause mortality in preterm neonates. Independent quality assessment is important before introducing routine probiotic supplementation in this cohort. Aim To assess product quality, and confirm that Bifidobacterium breve (B. breve) M-16V supplementation will increase fecal B. breve counts without adverse effects. Methods and Participants Strain identity (16S rRNA gene sequencing), viability over 2 year shelf-life were confirmed, and microbial contamination of the product was ruled out. In a controlled trial preterm neonates (Gestation <33 weeks) ready to commence or on feeds for <12 hours were randomly allocated to either B. breve M-16V (3×109 cfu/day) or placebo (dextrin) supplementation until the corrected age 37 weeks. Stool samples were collected before (S1) and after 3 weeks of supplementation (S2) for studying fecal B. breve levels using quantitative PCR (Primary outcome). Secondary outcomes included total fecal bifidobacteria and NEC≥Stage II. Categorical and continuous outcomes were analysed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests, and McNemar and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests for paired comparisons. Results A total of 159 neonates (Probiotic: 79, Placebo: 80) were enrolled. Maternal and neonatal demographic characteristics were comparable between the groups. The proportion of neonates with detectable B. breve increased significantly post intervention: Placebo: [S1:2/66 (3%), S2: 25/66 (38%), p<0.001] Probiotic: [S1: 29/74 (40%), S2: 67/74 (91%), p<0.001]. Median S1 B. breve counts in both groups were below detection (<4.7 log cells.g−1), increasing significantly in S2 for the probiotic group (log 8.6) while remaining <4.7 log in the control group (p<0.001). There were no adverse effects including probiotic sepsis and no deaths. NEC≥Stage II occurred in only 1 neonate (placebo group). Conclusion B. breve M-16V is a suitable probiotic strain for
Waitzberg, Dan L; Quilici, Flávio A; Michzputen, Sender; Friche Passos, Maria do Carmo
Objetivo: determinar la eficacia de la leche fermentada con Bifidobacterium lactis CNCM I-2429 en la reducción de el malestar gastrointestinal (GI) en adultos sanos. Métodos: se realizó una búsqueda sistemática en la literatura para identificar estudios que informaron del uso de B. animalis spp. lactis para molestias/ confort GI en adultos sanos. Se identificaron un total de 5.329 registros, de estos se evaluaron 99 artículos de texto completo. Las búsquedas de ensayos adicionales se realizaron utilizando los nombres de los autores de cada estudio identificado y varias bases de datos relevantes. La selección de los estudios se llevó a cabo de acuerdo con las guías de Artículos de Información Preferidos para Revisiones Sistemáticas y Meta-Análisis (PRISMA). Los estudios eran incluidos si eran ensayos randomizados controlados, si los sujetos de estudio eran adultos sanos y si el grupo de intervención recibió B. lactis CNCM I-2494. Se excluyeron los estudios que no eran randomizados, que incluían adultos que no estaban sanos, que incluían el uso de cualquier otra intervención o si comparaban diferentes productos sin un grupo placebo. La calidad metodológica de los estudios se evaluó utilizando la Escala de Calidad de Oxford y la Evaluación Cochrane de ocultamiento. No fue posible un metaanálisis. Resultados: la estrategia de búsqueda identificó dos estudios que incluyeron un total de 538 mujeres sanas, con edades entre 18 a 60 años, de peso normal o sobrepeso (IMC de 18-30 kg/m2). En uno de los estudios las molestias GI disminuyeron significativamente en el grupo de probióticos frente al grupo control, sin diferencias en el otro. El porcentaje de respondedores para el bienestar GI fue mayor en el grupo de probióticos frente al grupo control en el primer estudio, pero no en el segundo. Los síntomas GI se redujeron significativamente en el grupo probiótico frente al grupo control en ambos estudios. La función intestinal solo se evaluó en
Relationship between acid tolerance and cell membrane in Bifidobacterium, revealed by comparative analysis of acid-resistant derivatives and their parental strains grown in medium with and without Tween 80.
Yang, Xu; Hang, Xiaomin; Zhang, Min; Liu, Xianglong; Yang, Hong
The acid tolerance is particularly important for bifidobacteria to function as probiotics because they usually encounter acidic environments in food products and gastrointestinal tract passage. In this study, two acid-resistant derivatives Bifidobacterium longum JDY1017dpH and Bifidobacterium breve BB8dpH, which displayed a stable acid-resistant phenotype, were generated. The relationship between acid tolerance and cell membrane was investigated by comparing the two acid-resistant derivatives and their parental strains grown in medium with and without Tween 80. The fold increase in acid tolerance of the two acid-resistant derivatives relative to their parental strains was much higher when cells were grown in medium with Tween 80 (10(4) ~ 10(5)-fold) than without Tween 80 (181- and 245-fold). Moreover, when cells were grown in medium with Tween 80, the two acid-resistant derivatives exhibited more C18:1 and cycC19:0, higher mean fatty acid chain length, lower membrane fluidity, and higher expression of cfa gene encoding cyclopropane fatty acid synthase than their parental strains. No significant differences in cell membrane were observed between the two acid-resistant derivatives and their parental strains when cells were grown in medium without Tween 80. The present study revealed that, when cells were grown in medium with Tween 80, the significant fold increase in acid tolerance of the two acid-resistant derivatives was mainly ascribed to the pronounced changes in cell membrane compared with their parental strains. Results presented here could provide a basis for developing new strategies of cell membrane modification to enhance acid tolerance in bifidobacteria.
Duranti, Sabrina; Gaiani, Federica; Mancabelli, Leonardo; Milani, Christian; Grandi, Andrea; Bolchi, Angelo; Santoni, Andrea; Lugli, Gabriele Andrea; Ferrario, Chiara; Mangifesta, Marta; Viappiani, Alice; Bertoni, Simona; Vivo, Valentina; Serafini, Fausta; Barbaro, Maria Raffaella; Fugazza, Alessandro; Barbara, Giovanni; Gioiosa, Laura; Palanza, Paola; Cantoni, Anna Maria; de'Angelis, Gian Luigi; Barocelli, Elisabetta; de'Angelis, Nicola; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco; Turroni, Francesca
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with a substantial alteration of specific gut commensals, some of which may be involved in microbiota-mediated protection. In this study, microbiota cataloging of UC patients by 16S rRNA microbial profiling revealed a marked reduction of bifidobacteria, in particular the Bifidobacterium bifidum species, thus suggesting that this taxon plays a biological role in the aetiology of UC. We investigated this further through an in vivo trial by testing the effects of oral treatment with B. bifidum PRL2010 in a wild-type murine colitis model. TNBS-treated mice receiving 10(9) cells of B. bifidum PRL2010 showed a marked reduction of all colitis-associated histological indices as well as maintenance of mucosal integrity as it was shown by the increase in the expression of many tight junction-encoding genes. The protective role of B. bifidum PRL2010, as well as its sortase-dependent pili, appears to be established through the induction of an innate immune response of the host. These results highlight the importance of B. bifidum as a microbial biomarker for UC, revealing its role in protection against experimentally induced colitis.
Fissore, Eliana N; Santo Domingo, Cinthia; Gerschenson, Lía N; Giannuzzi, Leda
The effect of different fractions enriched in soluble fiber obtained from artichoke using citric acid or citric acid/hemicellulase on the selective growth of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 was evaluated. Gompertz modeling of Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 growth showed a higher specific growth rate (μ: 0.16 h(-1)) in the presence of fractions isolated from stems using hemicellulase (fraction A) than in the presence of glucose (μ: 0.09 h(-1)). In the case of Bifidobacterium bifidum 11863, the highest μ was obtained for the microorganism grown in the presence of fraction A and for the fraction isolated from stems without hemicellulase, their rate being twice that observed for glucose (0.04 h(-1)). The positive prebiotic activity scores observed with respect to Escherichia coli 25922 indicated that fibers assayed are metabolized as well as glucose by Lactobacillus plantarum 8114 and Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 11863 and that they are selectively metabolized by these microorganisms. The potential capacity to selectively stimulate the growth of intestinal bacteria associated with health shown by fraction A can be ascribed to its high inulin and low methylation degree pectin contents.
The Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 gene BIF_00092, assigned to encode a β-d-xylosidase (BXA43) of glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43), was cloned with a C-terminal His-tag and expressed in Escherichia coli. BXA43 was purified to homogeneity from the cell lysate and found to be a dual-specificity exo-hydrolase active on para-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside (pNPX), para-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside (pNPA), β-(1 → 4)-xylopyranosyl oligomers (XOS) of degree of polymerisation (DP) 2–4, and birchwood xylan. A phylogenetic tree of the 92 characterised GH43 enzymes displayed five distinct groups (I − V) showing specificity differences. BXA43 belonged to group IV and had an activity ratio for pNPA:pNPX of 1:25. BXA43 was stable below 40°C and at pH 4.0–8.0 and showed maximum activity at pH 5.5 and 50°C. Km and kcat for pNPX were 15.6 ± 4.2 mM and 60.6 ± 10.8 s-1, respectively, and substrate inhibition became apparent above 18 mM pNPX. Similar kinetic parameters and catalytic efficiency values were reported for β-d-xylosidase (XynB3) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus T‒6 also belonging to group IV. The activity of BXA43 for xylooligosaccharides increased with the size and was 2.3 and 5.6 fold higher, respectively for xylobiose and xylotetraose compared to pNPX. BXA43 showed clearly metal inhibition for Zn2+ and Ag+, which is different to its close homologues. Multiple sequence alignment and homology modelling indicated that Arg505Tyr506 present in BXA43 are probably important for binding to xylotetraose at subsite +3 and occur only in GH43 from the Bifidobacterium genus. PMID:24025736
Thum, Caroline; Roy, Nicole C; McNabb, Warren C; Otter, Don E; Cookson, Adrian L
This study was conducted to investigate the catabolism and fermentation of caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) by selected bifidobacteria isolated from 4 breast-fed infants. Seventeen bifidobacterial isolates consisting of 3 different species (Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum) were investigated. A CMO-enriched fraction (CMOF) (50% oligosaccharides, 10% galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), 20% lactose, 10% glucose and 10% galactose) from caprine cheese whey was added to a growth medium as a sole source of fermentable carbohydrate. The inclusion of the CMOF was associated with increased bifidobacterial growth for all strains compared to glucose, lactose, GOS, inulin, oligofructose, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose. Only one B. bifidum strain (AGR2166) was able to utilize the sialyl-CMO, 3'-sialyl-lactose and 6'-sialyl-lactose, as carbohydrate sources. The inclusion of CMOF increased the production of acetic and lactic acid (P < 0.001) after 36 h of anaerobic fermentation at 37°C, when compared to other fermentable substrates. Two B. bifidum strains (AGR2166 and AGR2168) utilised CMO, contained in the CMOF, to a greater extent than B. breve or B. longum subsp longum isolates, and this increased CMO utilization was associated with enhanced sialidase activity. CMOF stimulated bifidobacterial growth when compared to other tested fermentable carbohydrates and also increased the consumption of mono- and disaccharides, such as galactose and lactose present in the CMOF. These findings indicate that the dietary consumption of CMO may stimulate the growth and metabolism of intestinal Bifidobacteria spp. including B. bifidum typically found in the large intestine of breast-fed infants. PMID:26587678
O'Connell, Kerry Joan; O'Connell Motherway, Mary; Liedtke, Andrea; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.; Ross, R. Paul; Stanton, Catherine; Zomer, Aldert
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of mammals, including humans, where their growth is presumed to be dependent on various diet- and/or host-derived carbohydrates. To understand transcriptional control of bifidobacterial carbohydrate metabolism, we investigated two genetic carbohydrate utilization clusters dedicated to the metabolism of raffinose-type sugars and melezitose. Transcriptomic and gene inactivation approaches revealed that the raffinose utilization system is positively regulated by an activator protein, designated RafR. The gene cluster associated with melezitose metabolism was shown to be subject to direct negative control by a LacI-type transcriptional regulator, designated MelR1, in addition to apparent indirect negative control by means of a second LacI-type regulator, MelR2. In silico analysis, DNA-protein interaction, and primer extension studies revealed the MelR1 and MelR2 operator sequences, each of which is positioned just upstream of or overlapping the correspondingly regulated promoter sequences. Similar analyses identified the RafR binding operator sequence located upstream of the rafB promoter. This study indicates that transcriptional control of gene clusters involved in carbohydrate metabolism in bifidobacteria is subject to conserved regulatory systems, representing either positive or negative control. PMID:24705323
Effect of galactooligosaccharides and Bifidobacterium animalis Bb-12 on growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, microbial community structure, and metabolite production in an in vitro colonic model set up with human or pig microbiota.
Martinez, Rafael C R; Cardarelli, Haíssa R; Borst, Wendy; Albrecht, Simone; Schols, Henk; Gutiérrez, Odette P; Maathuis, Annet J H; de Melo Franco, Bernadette D G; De Martinis, Elaine C P; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Venema, Koen; Saad, Susana M I; Smidt, Hauke
A validated in vitro model of the large intestine (TIM-2), set up with human or pig faeces, was used to evaluate the impact of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 16698, administered alone (i), in the presence of prebiotic galactooligosaccharides (GOS) (ii), and co-administered with probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12) (iii) on GOS degradation, microbial growth (L. amylovorus, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria and total bacteria) and metabolite production. High performance anion exchange chromatography revealed that GOS degradation was more pronounced in TIM-2 inoculated with pig faeces than with human faeces. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiling of PCR-amplified 16S rRNA genes detected a more complex Lactobacillus spp. community in pig faecal material than in human faecal inoculum. According to 16S rRNA gene-targeted qPCR, GOS stimulated the growth of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in faecal material from both materials. The cumulative production of short chain fatty acids and ammonia was higher (P < 0.05) for pig than for human faeces. However, lactate accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) in the human model and increased after co-administration with GOS and Bb-12. This study reinforced the notion that differences in microbiota composition between target host organisms need to be considered when animal data are extrapolated to human, as is often done with pre- and probiotic intervention studies.
Takei, Saki; Omoto, Chika; Kitagawa, Koichi; Morishita, Naoya; Katayama, Takane; Shigemura, Katsumi; Fujisawa, Masato; Kawabata, Masato; Hotta, Hak; Shirakawa, Toshiro
More than 170 million people worldwide are chronic HCV (Hepatitis C virus) carriers, and about 30% of them will develop progressive liver disease, such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. A combination of pegylated interferon-α with ribavirin, the standard treatment for HCV infection, has been effective in fewer than 50% of patients infected with HCV genotype 1. A strong T cell response against the nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is important for recovery from acute HCV infection, and an early multi-specific CD4+ helper and CD8+ cytotoxic T cell response is critical for HCV clearance. In the present study, we successfully constructed a genetically modified Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) displaying recombinant HCV-NS3 peptides containing some CD4 and CD8 epitopes located in the HCV-NS3 region as an oral vaccine against chronic HCV infection. The oral administration of this vaccine could induce NS3-specific immune responses in mice through intestinal mucosal immunity. Our findings suggest that this novel oral vaccine has great potential as a novel oral vaccine against chronic HCV infection.
Moles, Laura; de Andrés, Javier; Montes, María Teresa; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Sáenz de Pipaón, Miguel; Espinosa-Martos, Irene
The preterm infant gut has been described as immature and colonized by an aberrant microbiota. Therefore, the use of probiotics is an attractive practice in hospitals to try to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. The objective of this pilot study was to elucidate if administration of two probiotic strains isolated from human milk to preterm infants led to their presence in feces. In addition, the evolution of a wide spectrum of immunological compounds, including the inflammatory biomarker calprotectin, in both blood and fecal samples was also assessed. For this purpose, five preterm infants received two daily doses (~109 CFU) of a 1 : 1 mixture of Bifidobacterium breve PS12929 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS12934. Bacterial growth was detected by culture-dependent techniques in all the fecal samples. The phylum Firmicutes dominated in nearly all fecal samples while L. salivarius PS12934 was detected in all the infants at numerous sample collection points and B. breve PS12929 appeared in five fecal samples. Finally, a noticeable decrease in the fecal calprotectin levels was observed along time. PMID:25759843
Kang, Jo-Eun; Kim, Tae-Jung; Moon, Gi-Seong
1,4-Dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (DHNA) is a bifidogenic growth stimulator (BGS) and could be a functional food ingredient since bifidobacteria are beneficial for human health. For that reason, lactic acid bacteria producing DHNA have been screened. A lactic acid bacterium LP1 strain isolated from a natural cheese was confirmed to produce DHNA, analyzed by a HPLC method. The strain was identified as Lactobacillus casei by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The cell-free supernatant of fermented whey produced by L. casei LP1 presented the BGS activity for three bifidobacterial strains such as Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis KCTC 3127, Bifidobacterium bifidum KCTC 3202, and Bifidobacterium breve KCTC 3220 which were human-originated. To the best of our knowledge, a L. casei strain which can produce DHNA was firstly identified in this study.
Chávarri, María; Marañón, Izaskun; Ares, Raquel; Ibáñez, Francisco C; Marzo, Florencio; Villarán, María del Carmen
Chitosan was used as a coating material to improve encapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in calcium alginate beads. Chitosan-coated alginate microspheres were produced to encapsulate Lactobacillus gasseri (L) and Bifidobacterium bifidum (B) as probiotics and the prebiotic quercetin (Q) with the objective of enhancing survival of the probiotic bacteria and keeping intact the prebiotic during exposure to the adverse conditions of the gastro-intestinal tract. The encapsulation yield for viable cells for chitosan-coated alginate microspheres with quercetin (L+Q and B+Q) was very low. These results, together with the study about the survival of microspheres with quercetin during storage at 4 degrees C, demonstrated that probiotic bacteria microencapsulated with quercetin did not survive. Owing to this, quercetin and L. gasseri or B. bifidum were microencapsulated separately. Microencapsulated L. gasseri and microencapsulated B. bifidum were resistant to simulated gastric conditions (pH 2.0, 2h) and bile solution (3%, 2h), resulting in significantly (p<0.05) improved survival when compared with free bacteria. This work showed that the microencapsulation of L. gasseri and B. bifidum with alginate and a chitosan coating offers an effective means of delivery of viable bacterial cells to the colon and maintaining their survival during simulated gastric and intestinal juice.
Short communication: the complete genome sequence of Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies animalis ATCC 25527(T) and comparative analysis of growth in milk with B. animalis subspecies lactis DSM 10140(T).
Loquasto, J R; Barrangou, R; Dudley, E G; Roberts, R F
The objective of this work was to sequence the genome of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. animalis ATCC 25527(T), the subspecies most closely related to B. animalis ssp. lactis, some strains of which are widely added to dairy foods as probiotics. The complete 1,932,963-bp genome was determined by a combination of 454-shotgun sequencing and PCR gap closing, and the completed assembly was verified by comparison with a KpnI optical map. Comparative analysis of the B. animalis ssp. animalis ATCC 25527(T) and B. animalis ssp. lactis DSM 10140(T) genomes revealed high degrees of synteny and sequence homology. Comparative genomic analysis revealed 156 and 182 genes that were unique to and absent in the B. animalis ssp. animalis genome, respectively. Among these was a set of unique clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated genes and a novel CRISPR locus containing 30 spacers in the genome of B. animalis ssp. animalis. Although previous researchers have suggested that one of the defining phenotypic differences between B. animalis ssp. animalis and B. animalis ssp. lactis is the ability of the latter to grow in milk and milk-based media, the differential gene content did not provide insights to explain these differences. Furthermore, growth and acid production in milk and milk-based media did not differ significantly between B. animalis ssp. lactis (DSM 10140(T) and Bl04) and B. animalis ssp. animalis (ATCC 25527(T)). Growth of these strains in supplemented milk suggested that growth was limited by a lack of available low-molecular-weight nitrogen in the 3 strains examined.
Eales, Jacqui; Gibson, Peter; Whorwell, Peter; Kellow, John; Yellowlees, Ann; Perry, Richard H. J.; Edwards, Mary; King, Sarah; Wood, Hannah; Glanville, Julie
Background: It has been suggested that probiotics may improve gastrointestinal discomfort. Not all probiotics exhibit the same effects and consequently meta-analyses on probiotics should be confined to well-defined strains or strain combinations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a probiotic fermented milk (PFM) that includes Bifidobacterium lactis (B. lactis) CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria on gastrointestinal discomfort in the general adult population. Methods: Double-blind randomized controlled trials in the general adult population comparing PFM with a control dairy product for at least 4 weeks were searched from multiple literature databases (up to February 2015). Meta-analyses using random-effects models, with individual participant data were undertaken to calculate an odds ratio (OR) or standard mean difference (SMD), with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: The search strategy identified 12,439 documents. Overall, three trials with a total of 598 adults (female = 96.5%) met the inclusion criteria. Consumption of the PFM product was associated with a significant improvement in overall gastrointestinal discomfort compared with the control product (OR = 1.48; 95% CI 1.07–2.05), with a number needed to treat (NNT) of 10.24 (95% CI 5.64–55.93). PFM was also superior to the control in reducing digestive symptoms, as measured using a composite score (SMD = −0.21; 95% CI −0.37 to −0.05). Sensitivity analyses produced similar results, and the heterogeneity between studies was minimal. Conclusions: This meta-analysis shows that the consumption of PFM with B. lactis CNCM I-2494 and lactic acid bacteria is associated with a modest but consistent and significant improvement of outcomes related to gastrointestinal discomfort in healthy adults. PMID:28286561
Influence of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus La-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 and inulin on the technological, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory features of creamy goat cheese.
Barbosa, Ilsa C; Oliveira, Maria E G; Madruga, Marta S; Gullón, Beatriz; Pacheco, Maria T B; Gomes, Ana M P; Batista, Ana S M; Pintado, Maria M E; Souza, Evandro L; Queiroga, Rita C R E
The effects of the addition of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 and inulin on the quality characteristics of creamy goat cheese during refrigerated storage were evaluated. The manufactured cheeses included the addition of starter culture (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris - R-704) (CC); starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05 and inulin (CLA); starter culture, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CBB); or starter culture, L. acidophilus LA-05, B. lactis BB-12 and inulin (CLB). In the synbiotic cheeses (CLA, CBB and CLB), the counts of L. acidophilus LA-05 and B. lactis BB-12 were greater than 6log CFU g(-1), the amount of inulin was greater than 6 g per 100 g, and the firmness was reduced. The cheeses evaluated had high brightness values (L*), with a predominance of yellow (b*). CC had higher contents of proteins, lipids and minerals compared to the other cheeses. There was a decrease in the amount of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and an increase of medium-chain (MCFAs) and long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) in the synbiotic cheeses compared to CC. The amount of conjugated linoleic acid increased in CLA, CBB and CLB. The highest depth of proteolysis and the greatest changes in the release of free amino acids were found in CLB. The addition of inulin and probiotics, alone or in co-culture, did not affect the cheese acceptance. Inulin and probiotics can be used together for the production of creamy goat cheese without negatively affecting the general quality characteristics of the product, and to add value because of its synbiotic potential.
Yang, Xu; Hang, Xiaomin; Tan, Jing; Yang, Hong
Bifidobacteria are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, and their application has increased dramatically in recent years due to their health-promoting effects. The ability of bifidobacteria to tolerate acidic environments is particularly important for their function as probiotics because they encounter such environments in food products and during passage through the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, we generated a derivative, Bifidobacterium breve BB8dpH, which displayed a stable, acid-resistant phenotype. To investigate the possible reasons for the higher acid tolerance of B. breve BB8dpH, as compared with its parental strain B. breve BB8, a combined transcriptome and physiological approach was used to characterize differences between the two strains. An analysis of the transcriptome by RNA-sequencing indicated that the expression of 121 genes was increased by more than 2-fold, while the expression of 146 genes was reduced more than 2-fold, in B. breve BB8dpH. Validation of the RNA-sequencing data using real-time quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the RNA-sequencing results were highly reliable. The comparison analysis, based on differentially expressed genes, suggested that the acid tolerance of B. breve BB8dpH was enhanced by regulating the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production, synthesis of cell envelope components (peptidoglycan and exopolysaccharide), synthesis and transport of glutamate and glutamine, and histidine synthesis. Furthermore, an analysis of physiological data showed that B. breve BB8dpH displayed higher production of exopolysaccharide and lower H(+)-ATPase activity than B. breve BB8. The results presented here will improve our understanding of acid tolerance in bifidobacteria, and they will lead to the development of new strategies to enhance the acid tolerance of bifidobacterial strains.
Fermented milk containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 improves gastrointestinal well-being and digestive symptoms in women reporting minor digestive symptoms: a randomised, double-blind, parallel, controlled study.
Guyonnet, Denis; Schlumberger, Armelle; Mhamdi, Leila; Jakob, Stefan; Chassany, Olivier
The ability of probiotics to improve bowel habits or transit time has been shown in healthy populations. Additional data are required to support the use of specific probiotics to improve gastrointestinal (GI) well-being. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of consuming fermented milk (FM) on GI well-being, digestive symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) amongst women without diagnosed GI disorders. In this double-blind, controlled, parallel-design study, subjects were randomised to ingest daily either 2 x 125 g FM containing Bifidobacterium lactis DN-173 010 and yoghurt strains or a control non-fermented dairy product for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week wash-out period. GI well-being and digestive symptoms were assessed weekly. HRQoL was measured every 4 weeks. Data were analysed using analysis of covariance and logistic regression, correcting for baseline values on the full analysis set population of 197 women (aged 18-60 years). The percentage of women reporting an improvement in their GI well-being was significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the FM group v. the control group (OR 1.69; 95 % CI 1.17, 2.45). A significantly (P < 0.05) more pronounced decrease in the composite score of digestive symptoms was observed in the FM group when comparing with the control group (least squares mean - 0.57; 95 % CI - 1.12, - 0.02). Among HRQoL dimensions, the digestive comfort score was significantly (P < 0.05) improved in the FM group compared with the control group. The present study showed that the daily consumption of a specific FM is able to improve GI well-being and digestive symptoms in adult women without GI disorders.
Effect of the probiotic strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on defecation frequency in healthy subjects with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.
Eskesen, Dorte; Jespersen, Lillian; Michelsen, Birgit; Whorwell, Peter J; Müller-Lissner, Stefan; Morberg, Cathrine M
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis, BB-12®, on two primary end points - defecation frequency and gastrointestinal (GI) well-being - in healthy adults with low defecation frequency and abdominal discomfort. A total of 1248 subjects were included in a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomised to 1 or 10 billion colony-forming units/d of the probiotic strain BB-12® or a matching placebo capsule once daily for 4 weeks. Subjects completed a diary on bowel habits, relief of abdominal discomfort and symptoms. GI well-being, defined as global relief of abdominal discomfort, did not show significant differences. The OR for having a defecation frequency above baseline for ≥50% of the time was 1·31 (95% CI 0·98, 1·75), P=0·071, for probiotic treatment overall. Tightening the criteria for being a responder to an increase of ≥1 d/week for ≥50 % of the time resulted in an OR of 1·55 (95% CI 1·22, 1·96), P=0·0003, for treatment overall. A treatment effect on average defecation frequency was found (P=0·0065), with the frequency being significantly higher compared with placebo at all weeks for probiotic treatment overall (all P<0·05). Effects on defecation frequency were similar for the two doses tested, suggesting that a ceiling effect was reached with the one billion dose. Overall, 4 weeks' supplementation with the probiotic strain BB-12® resulted in a clinically relevant benefit on defecation frequency. The results suggest that consumption of BB-12® improves the GI health of individuals whose symptoms are not sufficiently severe to consult a doctor (ISRCTN18128385).
Effect of probiotic Bifidobacterium longum BB536 [corrected] in relieving clinical symptoms and modulating plasma cytokine levels of Japanese cedar pollinosis during the pollen season. A randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Xiao, J Z; Kondo, S; Yanagisawa, N; Takahashi, N; Odamaki, T; Iwabuchi, N; Iwatsuki, K; Kokubo, S; Togashi, H; Enomoto, K; Enomoto, T
Probiotic microorganisms have been shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic inflammation and food allergy, but their efficacy remains controversial. This study tested the effect of a yogurt supplemented with a probiotic strain Bifidobacterium longum BB536 in the treatment of Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCPsis). Forty subjects with a clinical history of JCPsis were given yoghurt either containing BB536 (BB536 yoghurt) or without BB536 (placebo yoghurt) at 2 X 100 g per day for 14 weeks, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Subjective symptoms and self-care measures were recorded daily and blood samples were taken before and during the intervention (at weeks 4, 9, and 14) to measure the blood parameter levels related to JCPsis. Yoghurt supplemented with BB536 significantly alleviated eye symptoms compared with placebo yoghurt (odds ratio 0.31; 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.97; p = 0.044). Although no statistically significant differences were detected, nasal symptoms such as itching, rhinorrhea, and blockage, as well as throat symptoms tended to be relieved with the BB536 yoghurt. BB536 tended to suppress the decreasing blood levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-y) and the increasing blood eosinophil rates; a significantly higher IFN-gamma level was observed for the difference from baseline at week 4. A decreased trend in the difference from baseline levels of JCP-specific IgE levels was also observed at week 4 in the BB536 group compared with the placebo group. In conclusion, these results suggest that intake of BB536-supplemented yoghurt may relieve JCPsis symptoms, probably through a modulating effect on Th balance.
Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium BB12, and Lactobacillus casei DN001 modulate gene expression of subset specific transcription factors and cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of obese and overweight people.
Zarrati, Mitra; Shidfar, Farzad; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Mofid, Vahid; Hossein zadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad; Bidad, Katayoon; Najafi, Forouzan; Gheflati, Zahra; Chamari, Maryam; Salehi, Eisa
Probiotics are believed to have interaction with immune cells through sustained effects on gene expression of different cytokines and transcription factors. The present randomized doubled-blind controlled clinical trial was performed recruiting 75 individuals with BMI 25-35, who were randomly assigned to the following three groups: Group 1 (n = 25) who consumed regular yogurt as part of a low calorie diet [RLCD], group 2 (n = 25) who received probiotic yogurt with a LCD [PLCD] and group 3 (n = 25) who consumed probiotic yogurt without LCD [PWLCD] for 8 week. Participants in PLCD and PWLCD groups received 200 g/day yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium Bb12, and lactobacillus casei DN001 10(8) cfu/gr. The expression of the FOXP3, T-bet, GATA3, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and ROR-γt in PBMCs genes were assessed, before and after intervention. In three groups, ROR-γt expression was reduced (P = 0.007) and FOXP3 was increased (P < 0.001). The expression of TNFα, TGFβ, and GATA3 genes did not change among all groups after intervention. Interestingly, the expression of T-bet gene, which was significantly decreased in PLCD and PWLCD groups (P < 0.001), whereas gene expression of IFN-γ decreased in all three groups. Our results suggest that weight loss diet and probiotic yogurt had synergistic effects on T-cell subset specific gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells among overweight and obese individuals.
de Vries, Wytske; Stouthamer, A. H.
For six strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (Lactobacillus bifidus), fermentation balances of glucose, lactose, galactose, mannitol, and xylose were determined. Products formed were acetate, l(+)-lactate, ethyl alcohol, and formate. l(+)-Lactate dehydrogenase of all strains studied was found to have an absolute requirement for fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The phosphoroclastic enzyme could not be demonstrated in cell-free extracts. Cell suspensions fermented pyruvate to equimolar amounts of acetate and formate. Alcohol dehydrogenase was shown in cell-free extracts. Possible explanations have been suggested for the differences in fermentation balances found for different strains and carbon sources. By enzyme determinations, it was shown that bifidobacteria convert mannitol to fructose-6-phosphate by an inducible polyol dehydrogenase and fructokinase. For one strain of B. bifidum, molar growth yields of glucose, lactose, galactose, and mannitol were determined. The mean value of Y (ATP), calculated from molar growth yields and fermentation balances, was 11.3. PMID:5674058
Xylo-oligosaccharides alone or in synbiotic combination with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis induce bifidogenesis and modulate markers of immune function in healthy adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, factorial cross-over study.
Childs, Caroline E; Röytiö, Henna; Alhoniemi, Esa; Fekete, Agnes A; Forssten, Sofia D; Hudjec, Natasa; Lim, Ying Ni; Steger, Cara J; Yaqoob, Parveen; Tuohy, Kieran M; Rastall, Robert A; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Gibson, Glenn R
Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics are dietary ingredients with the potential to influence health and mucosal and systemic immune function by altering the composition of the gut microbiota. In the present study, a candidate prebiotic (xylo-oligosaccharide, XOS, 8 g/d), probiotic (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07, 109 colony-forming units (CFU)/d) or synbiotic (8 g XOS+109 CFU Bi-07/d) was given to healthy adults (25-65 years) for 21 d. The aim was to identify the effect of the supplements on bowel habits, self-reported mood, composition of the gut microbiota, blood lipid concentrations and immune function. XOS supplementation increased mean bowel movements per d (P= 0·009), but did not alter the symptoms of bloating, abdominal pain or flatulence or the incidence of any reported adverse events compared with maltodextrin supplementation. XOS supplementation significantly increased participant-reported vitality (P= 0·003) and happiness (P= 0·034). Lowest reported use of analgesics was observed during the XOS+Bi-07 supplementation period (P= 0·004). XOS supplementation significantly increased faecal bifidobacterial counts (P= 0·008) and fasting plasma HDL concentrations (P= 0·005). Bi-07 supplementation significantly increased faecal B. lactis content (P= 0·007), lowered lipopolysaccharide-stimulated IL-4 secretion in whole-blood cultures (P= 0·035) and salivary IgA content (P= 0·040) and increased IL-6 secretion (P= 0·009). XOS supplementation resulted in lower expression of CD16/56 on natural killer T cells (P= 0·027) and lower IL-10 secretion (P= 0·049), while XOS and Bi-07 supplementation reduced the expression of CD19 on B cells (XOS × Bi-07, P= 0·009). The present study demonstrates that XOS induce bifidogenesis, improve aspects of the plasma lipid profile and modulate the markers of immune function in healthy adults. The provision of XOS+Bi-07 as a synbiotic may confer further benefits due to the discrete effects of Bi-07 on the gut
Kostadinova, Atanaska I.; Meulenbroek, Laura A. P. M.; van Esch, Betty C. A. M.; Hofman, Gerard A.; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette E. M.; Knippels, Léon M. J.
Oral tolerance is a promising approach for allergy prevention in early life, but it strongly depends on allergen exposure and proper immune environment. Small tolerance-inducing peptides and dietary immunomodulatory components may comprise an attractive method for allergy prevention in at-risk infants. This study aimed to investigate whether early oral exposure to β-lactoglobulin-derived peptides (BLG-peptides) and a specific synbiotic mixture of short- and long- chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS/lcFOS, FF) and Bifidobacterium breve (Bb) M-16V (FF/Bb) can prevent cow’s milk allergy (CMA). Three-week-old female C3H/HeOuJ mice were orally exposed to phosphate buffered saline (PBS), whey protein, or a mixture of four synthetic BLG-peptides combined with a FF/Bb-enriched diet prior to intragastric sensitization with whey protein and cholera toxin. To assess the acute allergic skin response and clinical signs of allergy, mice were challenged intradermally with whole whey protein. Serum immunoglobulins were analyzed after a whey protein oral challenge. Cytokine production by allergen-reactivated splenocytes was measured and changes in T cells subsets in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and intestinal lamina propria were investigated. Pre-exposing mice to a low dosage of BLG-peptides and a FF/Bb-enriched diet prior to whey protein sensitization resulted in a significant reduction of the acute allergic skin response to whey compared to PBS-pretreated mice fed a control diet. Serum immunoglobulins were not affected, but anaphylactic symptom scores remained low and splenocytes were non-responsive in whey-induced cytokine production. In addition, preservation of the Th1/Th2 balance in the small intestine lamina propria was a hallmark of the mechanism underlying the protective effect of the BLG-peptides–FF/Bb intervention. Prior exposure to BLG-peptides and a FF/Bb-enriched diet is a promising approach for protecting the intestinal Th1/Th2 balance and reducing the
Osswald, Annika; Westermann, Christina; Sun, Zhongke; Riedel, Christian U.
Health-promoting effects have been attributed to a number of Bifidobacterium sp. strains. These effects as well as the ability to colonise the host depend on secreted proteins. Moreover, rational design of protein secretion systems bears the potential for the generation of novel probiotic bifidobacteria with improved health-promoting or therapeutic properties. To date, there is only very limited data on secretion signals of bifidobacteria available. Using in silico analysis, we demonstrate that all bifidobacteria encode the major components of Sec-dependent secretion machineries but only B. longum strains harbour Tat protein translocation systems. A reporter plasmid for secretion signals in bifidobacteria was established by fusing the coding sequence of the signal peptide of a sialidase of Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 to the phytase gene appA of E. coli. The recombinant strain showed increased phytase activity in spent culture supernatants and reduced phytase levels in crude extracts compared to the control indicating efficient phytase secretion. The reporter plasmid was used to screen seven predicted signal peptides in B. bifidum S17 and B. longum E18. The tested signal peptides differed substantially in their efficacy to mediate protein secretion in different host strains. An efficient signal peptide was used for expression and secretion of a therapeutically relevant protein in B. bifidum S17. Expression of a secreted cytosine deaminase led to a 100-fold reduced sensitivity of B. bifidum S17 to 5-fluorocytosine compared to the non-secreted cytosine deaminase suggesting efficient conversion of 5-fluorocytosine to the cytotoxic cancer drug 5-fluorouracil by cytosine deaminase occurred outside the bacterial cell. Selection of appropriate signal peptides for defined protein secretion might improve therapeutic efficacy as well as probiotic properties of bifidobacteria. PMID:26086721
Bunesova, Vera; Musilova, Sarka; Geigerova, Martina; Pechar, Radko; Rada, Vojtech
An international standard already exists for the selective enumeration of bifidobacteria in milk products. This standard uses Transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (TOS) propionate agar supplemented with mupirocin. However, no such standard method has been described for the selective enumeration of bifidobacteria in probiotic supplements, where the presence of bifidobacteria is much more variable than in milk products. Therefore, we enumerated bifidobacteria by colony count technique in 13 probiotic supplements using three media supplemented with mupirocin (Mup; 100mg/l): TOS, Bifidobacteria selective medium (BSM) and modified Wilkins-Chalgren anaerobe agar with soya peptone (WSP). Moreover, the potential growth of bifidobacterial strains often used in probiotic products was performed in these media. All 13 products contained members of the genus Bifidobacterium, and tested mupirocin media were found to be fully selective for bifidobacteria. However, the type strain Bifidobacterium bifidum DSM 20456 and collection strain B. bifidum DSM 20239 showed statistically significant lower counts on TOS Mup media, compared to BSM Mup and WSP Mup media. Therefore, the TOS Mup medium recommended by the ISO standard cannot be regarded as a fully selective and suitable medium for the genus Bifidobacterium. In contrast, the BSM Mup and WSP Mup media supported the growth of all bifidobacterial species.
Neschislyaev, V A; Stolbova, M G; Mokin, P A; Orlova, E V; Ershov, A E
The composition and technology of complex probiotic in hard gelatin capsules was developed in Perm Branch "Biomed" of "Microgen" State Company. The preparation contains three production strains: Lactobacillus plantarum 8P-A3, L. acidophilus K3W24 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 1. Laboratory and experimental (preclinical) study of the probiotic included investigation of the antagonistic activity, "acute" and "chronic" toxicity, the effect of the preparation on histology and hematology of laboratory animals. The result of these studies suggested of the probiotic had high inhibitory activity against pathogenic microflora when compared with probiotic monopreparations and had no toxic effects on laboratory animals.
de Vries, Wytske; Stouthamer, A. H.
Cell-free extracts of 17 strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (Lactobacillus bifidus) were examined for the presence of aldolase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase. All strains turned out to lack aldolase, an enzyme unique to glycolysis, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, characteristic of the hexosemonophosphate pathway. In all strains, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase could be demonstrated. It can be concluded that bifidobacteria ferment glucose via a pathway which is different from those found in members of the genus Lactobacillus. The results strengthen the previous suggestions that classification of the bifidobacteria in the genus Lactobacillus is not justified. PMID:6020562
Lamoureux, L; Roy, D; Gauthier, S F
Yogurts were prepared by using yogurt cultures combined to mixed cultures of bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium animalis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium longum) and by adding a preincubation step (1.5 h at 50 degrees C) with bifidobacteria to the conventional method of manufacture in order to produce oligosaccharides. The survival of bifidobacteria was drastically affected during storage of yogurts, except for products containing B. animalis, in which viable counts remained at >10(6) cfu/g after 28 d of storage at 4 degrees C. Oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of 3 were produced during the preincubation step (0.31 to 0.68%), and the amount in the final products varied according to the species of bifidobacteria inoculated during the preincubation step or the concentration of bifidobacteria used as second inoculum during the fermentation process. In fact, the higher concentration of oligosaccharides measured at the end of the fermentation process (0.72%) and the 28 d-storage period (0.67%) was obtained for yogurts containing B. infantis. However, yogurts containing B. breve showed higher beta-galactosidase activities and had lower lactose concentrations after the fermentation process and the storage period than the other yogurts. The use of a mixed cultures of bifidobacteria (B. animalis, B. infantis, or B. breve) thus allows the production of yogurts in which bifidobacteria can survive in relatively high cell numbers and contain appreciable amount of oligosaccharides.
Yu, Hyung-Seok; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Jeon, Hye-Lin; Eom, Su Jin; Yoo, Mi-Young; Lim, Sang-Dong; Paik, Hyun-Dong
Benzoic acid is occasionally used as a raw material supplement in food products and is sometimes generated during the fermentation process. In this study, the production of naturally occurring yogurt preservatives was investigated for various starter cultures and incubation temperatures, and considered food regulations. Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, and Bifidobacterium breve were used as yogurt starter cultures in commercial starters. Among these strains, L. rhamnosus and L. paracasei showed the highest production of benzoic acid. Therefore, the use of L. rhamnosus, L. paracasei, S. thermophilus, and different incubation temperatures were examined to optimize benzoic acid production. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a central composite design was performed for various incubation temperatures (35-44℃) and starter culture inoculum ratios (0-0.04%) in a commercial range of dairy fermentation processes. The optimum conditions were 0.04% L. rhamnosus, 0.01% L. paracasei, 0.02% S. thermophilus, and 38.12℃, and the predicted and estimated concentrations of benzoic acid were 13.31 and 13.94 mg/kg, respectively. These conditions maximized naturally occurring benzoic acid production during the yogurt fermentation process, and the observed production levels satisfied regulatory guidelines for benzoic acid in dairy products.
Ruiz, Lorena; Delgado, Susana; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja
Bifidobacteria are commensal microoganisms found in the gastrointestinal tract. Several strains have been attributed beneficial traits at local and systemic levels, through pathogen exclusion or immune modulation, among other benefits. This has promoted a growing industrial and scientific interest in bifidobacteria as probiotic supplements. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating this cross-talk with the human host remain unknown. High-throughput technologies, from functional genomics to transcriptomics, proteomics, and interactomics coupled to the development of both in vitro and in vivo models to study the dynamics of the intestinal microbiota and their effects on host cells, have eased the identification of key molecules in these interactions. Numerous secreted or surface-associated proteins or peptides have been identified as potential mediators of bifidobacteria-host interactions and molecular cross-talk, directly participating in sensing environmental factors, promoting intestinal colonization, or mediating a dialogue with mucosa-associated immune cells. On the other hand, bifidobacteria induce the production of proteins in the intestine, by epithelial or immune cells, and other gut bacteria, which are key elements in orchestrating interactions among bifidobacteria, gut microbiota, and host cells. This review aims to give a comprehensive overview on proteinaceous molecules described and characterized to date, as mediators of the dynamic interplay between bifidobacteria and the human host, providing a framework to identify knowledge gaps and future research needs. PMID:27536282
Homayouni, A.; Ehsani, M. R.; Azizi, A.; Razavi, S. H.; Yarmand, M. S.
A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) experiment was applied in triplicates to evaluate the survival of four probiotic strains in simulated ice cream conditions. The growth and survival rate of these probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium longum) in varying amount of sucrose (10, 15, 20 and 25%), oxygen scavenging components (0.05% L-cysteine and 0.05% L-ascorbate) and temperatures (4 and -20°C) during different periods of time (1, 2 and 3 months) were evaluated in MRS-broth medium. Optical density at 580 nm was used to measure growth. Lactobacilli strains proved to be highly resistant in comparison with Biffidobacteria strains. The viable cell number of Lactobacillus casei in different sucrose concentrations, different oxidoreduction potentials and refrigeration temperature was 1x1010, 2x108 and 5x107 cfu mL-1, respectively. Growth and survival rate of Lactobacillus casei showed to be the highest.
Makino, Hiroshi; Kushiro, Akira; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Gawad, Agata; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Martin, Rocio; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Knol, Jan; Tanaka, Ryuichiro
Objectives Bifidobacterium species are one of the major components of the infant's intestine microbiota. Colonization with bifidobacteria in early infancy is suggested to be important for health in later life. However, information remains limited regarding the source of these microbes. Here, we investigated whether specific strains of bifidobacteria in the maternal intestinal flora are transmitted to their infant's intestine. Materials and Methods Fecal samples were collected from healthy 17 mother and infant pairs (Vaginal delivery: 12; Cesarean section delivery: 5). Mother's feces were collected twice before delivery. Infant's feces were collected at 0 (meconium), 3, 7, 30, 90 days after birth. Bifidobacteria isolated from feces were genotyped by multilocus sequencing typing, and the transitions of bifidobacteria counts in infant's feces were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results Stains belonging to Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, and Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, were identified to be monophyletic between mother's and infant's intestine. Eleven out of 12 vaginal delivered infants carried at least one monophyletic strain. The bifidobacterial counts of the species to which the monophyletic strains belong, increased predominantly in the infant's intestine within 3 days after birth. Among infants delivered by C-section, monophyletic strains were not observed. Moreover, the bifidobacterial counts were significantly lower than the vaginal delivered infants until 7 days of age. Conclusions Among infants born vaginally, several Bifidobacterium strains transmit from the mother and colonize the infant's intestine shortly after birth. Our data suggest that the mother's intestine is an important source for the vaginal delivered infant's intestinal microbiota. PMID:24244304
van Zanten, Gabriella C.; Knudsen, Anne; Röytiö, Henna; Forssten, Sofia; Lawther, Mark; Blennow, Andreas; Lahtinen, Sampo J.; Jakobsen, Mogens; Svensson, Birte; Jespersen, Lene
Background Prebiotics, probiotics and synbiotics can be used to modulate both the composition and activity of the gut microbiota and thereby potentially affecting host health beneficially. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight synbiotic combinations on the composition and activity of human fecal microbiota using a four-stage semicontinuous model system of the human colon. Methods and Findings Carbohydrates were selected by their ability to enhance growth of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (NCFM) and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 (Bl-04) under laboratory conditions. The most effective carbohydrates for each probiotic were further investigated, using the colonic model, for the ability to support growth of the probiotic bacteria, influence the composition of the microbiota and stimulate formation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA).The following combinations were studied: NCFM with isomaltulose, cellobiose, raffinose and an oat β-glucan hydrolysate (OBGH) and Bl-04 with melibiose, xylobiose, raffinose and maltotriose. All carbohydrates showed capable of increasing levels of NCFM and Bl-04 during fermentations in the colonic model by 103–104 fold and 10–102 fold, respectively. Also the synbiotic combinations decreased the modified ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes (calculated using qPCR results for Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, Clostridium perfringens cluster I, Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectale group and Clostridial cluster XIV) as well as significantly increasing SCFA levels, especially acetic and butyric acid, by three to eight fold, as compared to the controls. The decreases in the modified ratio of Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes were found to be correlated to increases in acetic and butyric acid (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study show that all synbiotic combinations investigated are able to shift the predominant bacteria and the
Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J.; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A.; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G.; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J.
The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained. PMID:23455335
Wakabayashi, Hiroyuki; Yamauchi, Koji; Sato, Takumi; Xiao, Jin-Zhong; Abe, Fumiaki; Iwatsuki, Keiji
Lactoferrin is an iron-binding glycoprotein found in the milk of most mammals for which various biological functions have been reported, such as antimicrobial activity and bifidogenic activity. In this study, we compared the bifidogenic activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and pepsin hydrolysate of bLF (bLFH), isolated bifidogenic peptide from bLFH, and investigated the bifidogenic spectra of bLF, bLFH, and its active peptide against 42 bifidobacterial strains comprising nine species. Against Bifidobacterium breve ATCC 15700T, minimal effective concentrations of bLF and bLFH were 300 and 10 μg/ml. Against Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697T, the minimal effective concentration of bLFH was 30 μg/ml, and bLF did not show bifidogenic activity within 300 μg/ml. As an active peptide, a heterodimer of A1-W16 and L43-A48 linked by a disulfide bond was isolated. Previously, this peptide was identified as having antibacterial activity. An amino acid mixture with the same composition as this peptide showed no bifidogenic activity. The strains of each species whose growth was highly promoted (>150%) by this peptide at 3.75 μM were as follows: B. breve (7 out of 7 strains [7/7]), B. longum subsp. infantis (5/5), Bifidobacterium bifidum (2/5), B. longum subsp. longum (1/3), Bifidobacterium adolescentis (3/6), Bifidobacterium catenulatum (1/4), Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum (0/4), Bifidobacterium dentium (0/5), and Bifidobacterium angulatum (0/3). Growth of none of the strains was highly promoted by bLF at 3.75 μM. We demonstrated that bLFH showed stronger bifidogenic activity than natural bLF, especially against infant-representative species, B. breve and B. longum subsp. infantis; furthermore, we isolated its active peptide. This is the first report about a bifidogenic peptide derived from bLF. PMID:23315725
Park, Byeoung-Soo; Kim, Jun-Ran; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Kyoung Soon; Takeoka, Gary R; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Jeong-Han
The growth-inhibiting activity of anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid and lapachol identified in the inner bark of taheebo, Tabebuia impetiginosa, toward 10 human intestinal bacteria was evaluated by using a paper disk diffusion bioassay and compared to those of seven lapachol congeners (1,4-naphthoquinone, naphthazarin, menadione, lawsone, plumbagin, juglone, and dichlone) as well as two commercially available antibiotics, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Anthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid exhibited very strong growth inhibition of Clostridium paraputrificum at 1 microg/disk while 100 microg/disk of lapachol was needed for moderate growth inhibition of the same organism. These two isolates exhibited weak inhibition of Clostridium perfringens and Escherichia coli at 100 microg/disk while no adverse effects were observed on the growth of Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus casei at 1000 microg/disk. Structure-activity relationships indicate that a methyl group in the C-2 position of 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives might play an important role in antibacterial activity.
Chapla, Digantkumar; Pandit, Pratima; Shah, Amita
The selective production of xylooligosaccharides (XOS) was carried out using partially purified xylanase from Aspergillus foetidus MTCC 4898. Corncob xylan was extracted using a mild alkali treatment which yielded 178.73±5.8 g of xylan/kg of corncobs. Partially purified β-xylosidase free xylanase was found efficient in releasing xylooligosaccharides from corncob xylan. Maximum yield of xylooligosaccharides was 6.73±0.23 mg/ml after 8 h of reaction time using 20 U of xylanase at 45°C. Purification of XOS was done using activated charcoal column chromatography. The purified XOS preparation contained mainly xylobiose and xylotriose. XOS mixture was found suitable for food industry looking at its high thermal stability at low pH. Prebiotic effect of XOS was evaluated by in vitro fermentation of XOS using known probiotic strains viz. Bifidobacterium adolescentis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus. The results of this study revealed better growth of Bifidobacterium spp. on XOS than Lactobacillus spp.
Guérin, Daniel; Vuillemard, Jean-Christophe; Subirade, Muriel
Bifidobacterium cells were encapsulated in a mixed gel composed of alginate, pectin, and whey proteins. Two kinds of capsules were obtained: gel beads without membranes and gel beads with two membranes formed by the transacylation reaction. In vitro studies were carried out to determine the effects of simulated gastric pH and bile salts on the survival of free and encapsulated Bifidobacterium bifidum. The protective effects of gel beads without membranes and gel beads coated with two membranes formed by the transacylation reaction were evaluated. After 1 h in an acidic solution (pH 2.5), the free-cell counts decreased by 4.75 log units, compared with a <1-log decrease for entrapped cells. The free cells did not survive after 2 h of incubation at pH 2.5, while immobilized-cell counts decreased by about 2 log units. After incubation (1 or 3 h) in 2 and 4% bile salt solutions, the bifidobacterium mortality level for membrane-free gel beads (4 to 7 log units) was higher than that for free cells (2 to 3 log units). However, counts of bifidobacteria immobilized in membrane-coated gel beads decreased by <2 log units. Cell encapsulation in membrane-coated protein-polysaccharide gel beads could be used to increase the survival of healthy probiotic bacteria during their transit through the gastrointestinal tract.
Nagaraj, Anup; Ganta, Shravani; Sidiq, Mohsin; Pareek, Sonia; Vishnani, Preeti; Acharya, Siddharth; Singh, Kushpal
Objectives: Probiotic approaches are being considered to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms and are an alternative and promising way to combat infections by using harmless bacteria to displace pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available freeze dried powdered probiotics on mutans streptococci count among 12–15 year-old Indian schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in two phases of in-vitro (phase I) and in-vivo (phase II) study, which was a double blind, randomized and placebo controlled clinical trial. A total of 33 schoolchildren between 12–15 years were included in the study. They were randomly allocated to three groups. Group A included 11 children using freeze dried Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium lactis. Group B included 11 children using freeze dried lactic acid bacillus only. Group C included 11 children using placebo powder. The study was conducted over a period of three weeks and examination and sampling of the subjects were done on days 0 (baseline), seven, 14 and 21. Results: For both the intervention groups A and B, statistically significant reduction (P<0.05) in salivary mutans streptococci counts was recorded up to the second week. Conclusion: Oral administration of probiotics showed a short-term effect on reduction of mutans streptococci count and showed a preventive role in caries development. PMID:27252756
Cox, A J; West, N P; Horn, P L; Lehtinen, M J; Koerbin, G; Pyne, D B; Lahtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W
Use of probiotic-containing foods and probiotic supplements is increasing; however, few studies document safety and tolerability in conjunction with defined clinical end points. This paper reports the effects of 150 days of supplementation with either a single- (Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04) or a double-strain (Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bi-07) probiotic on routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures in healthy active adults. Pre- to post-intervention changes in laboratory measures were determined and compared between supplement and placebo groups. Overall there were few differences in routine haematology and clinical chemistry measures between supplement and placebo groups post-intervention. Exceptions included plasma calcium (P=0.03) and urea (P=0.015); however, observed changes were small and within assay-specific laboratory reference ranges. These data provide evidence supporting the use of these probiotic supplements over a period of 5 months in healthy active adults without obvious safety or tolerability issues.
Putaala, Heli; Salusjärvi, Tuomas; Nordström, Malin; Saarinen, Markku; Ouwehand, Arthur C; Bech Hansen, Egon; Rautonen, Nina
Controversy exists as to whether contact between a probiotic bacterial cell and an epithelial cell in the gut is needed to confer beneficial effects of probiotics, or whether metabolites from probiotics are sufficient to cause this effect. To address this question, Caco-2 cells were treated with cell-free supernatants of four probiotics, Bifidobacterium lactis 420, Bifidobacterium lactis HN019, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33, and by a cell-free supernatant of a pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC). Tight junction integrity as well as expression of cyclo-oxygenases, which are prostaglandin-producing enzymes, were measured. Probiotic-specific as well as EHEC-specific effects on tight junction integrity and cyclo-oxygenase expression were evident, indicating that live bacterial cells were not necessary for the manifestation of the effects. B. lactis 420 cell-free supernatant increased tight junction integrity, while EHEC cell-free supernatant induced damage on tight junctions. In general, EHEC and probiotics had opposite effects upon cyclo-oxygenase expression. Furthermore, B. lactis 420 cell-free supernatant protected the tight junctions from EHEC-induced damage when administered prior to the cell-free supernatant of EHEC. These results indicate that probiotics produce bioactive metabolites, suggesting that consumption of specific probiotic bacteria might be beneficial in protecting intestinal epithelial cells from the deleterious effects of pathogenic bacteria.
McFarland, Lynne V.
Clostridium difficile infections are a global clinical concern and are one of the leading causes of nosocomial outbreaks. Preventing these infections has benefited from multidisciplinary infection control strategies and new antibiotics, but the problem persists. Probiotics are effective in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea and may also be a beneficial strategy for C. difficile infections, but randomized controlled trials are scarce. This meta-analysis pools 21 randomized, controlled trials for primary prevention of C. difficile infections (CDI) and four trials for secondary prevention of C. difficile recurrences and assesses the efficacy of specific probiotic strains. Four probiotics significantly improved primary CDI prevention: (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus casei DN114001, a mixture of L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and a mixture of L. acidophilus, L. casei and L. rhamnosus). None of the tested probiotics significantly improved secondary prevention of CDI. More confirmatory randomized trials are needed to establish if probiotics are useful for preventing C. difficile infections. PMID:27025619
Sugiyama, Yuta; Katoh, Toshihiko; Honda, Yuji; Gotoh, Aina; Ashida, Hisashi; Kurihara, Shin; Yamamoto, Kenji; Katayama, Takane
We have recently generated a highly efficient 1,2-α-l-fucosynthase (BbAfcA N423H mutant) by protein engineering of 1,2-α-l-fucosidase from Bifidobacterium bifidum JCM 1254. This synthase could specifically introduce H-antigens (Fucα1-2Gal) into the non-reducing ends of oligosaccharides and in O-linked glycans in mucin glycoprotein. In the present study, we show an extended application of the engineered 1,2-α-l-fucosynthase by demonstrating its ability to insert Fuc residues into N- and O-glycans in fetuin glycoproteins, GM1 ganglioside, and a plant-derived xyloglucan nonasaccharide. This application study broadens the feasibility of this novel H-antigen synthesis technique in functional glycomics.
López-Molina, Dorotea; Navarro-Martínez, María Dolores; Rojas Melgarejo, Francisco; Hiner, Alexander N P; Chazarra, Soledad; Rodríguez-López, José Neptuno
A high molecular weight inulin has been prepared from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) agroindustrial wastes using environmentally benign aqueous extraction procedures. Physico-chemical analysis of the properties of artichoke inulin was carried out. Its average degree of polymerization was 46, which is higher than for Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, and dahlia inulins. GC-MS confirmed that the main constituent monosaccharide in artichoke inulin was fructose and its degradation by inulinase indicated that it contained the expected beta-2,1-fructan bonds. The FT-IR spectrum was identical to that of chicory inulin. These data indicate that artichoke inulin will be suitable for use in a wide range of food applications. The health-promoting prebiotic effects of artichoke inulin were demonstrated in an extensive microbiological study showing a long lasting bifidogenic effect on Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521 cultures and also in mixed cultures of colonic bacteria.
De Palma, G; Kamanova, J; Cinova, J; Olivares, M; Drasarova, H; Tuckova, L; Sanz, Y
DC maturation and functions are influenced by microbial and environmental stimuli, which could contribute to immune dysfunction. Here, we have investigated the role of enterobacteria (Escherichia coli CBL2 and Shigella CBD8) isolated from CD patients, bifidobacteria (Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 and Bifidobacterium bifidum CECT 7365), and gliadins on phenotypic and functional features of MDDCs and in coculture with Caco-2 cells. The ultimate goal of our study is to understand the roles played by specific components of the gut microbiota in CD. Enterobacteria induced marked alterations in MDDC morphology, inducing podosome dissolution and dendrites, and activated MDDC adhesion and spreading. Enterobacteria also induced inflammatory cytokine production (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-12), partially resembling the gliadin-induced Th1-type cytokine profile. B. longum CECT 7347 and B. bifidum CECT 7365 induced minor MDDC morphological changes and activated adhesion and spreading and inflammatory cytokine production to a lesser extent compared with enterobacteria. B. longum CECT 7347 also induced lower CD86 and CD40 expression on MDDCs than the two enterobacteria. The aforementioned bifidobacterial strain also reduced gliadin-induced IFN-γ production and increased IL-10 secretion when both stimuli were combined. Similar trends were detected for MDDCs cocultured with Caco-2 cells. B. longum CECT 7347 reversed the gliadin-reduced ZO-1 expression in Caco-2 cells. Thus, our results suggest that specific components of the gut microbiota may influence phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs differently and their interactions with epithelial cells. This could ultimately define the role of DCs in CD progression.
Background The consumption of foods containing probiotic and prebiotic ingredients is growing consistently every year, and in view of the limited number of studies investigating their effect in the elderly. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of a symbiotic shake containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum and fructooligosaccharides on glycemia and cholesterol levels in elderly people. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted on twenty volunteers (ten for placebo group and ten for symbiotic group), aged 50 to 60 years. The criteria for inclusion in the study were: total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL; triglycerides > 200 mg/dL and glycemia > 110 mg/dL. Over a total test period of 30 days, 10 individuals (the symbiotic group) consumed a daily dose of 200 mL of a symbiotic shake containing 108 UFC/mL Lactobacillus acidophilus, 108 UFC/mL Bifidobacterium bifidum and 2 g oligofructose, while 10 other volunteers (the placebo group) drank daily the same amount of a shake that did not contain any symbiotic bacteria. Blood samples were collected 15 days prior to the start of the experiment and at 10-day intervals after the beginning of the shake intake. The standard lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL cholesterol) and glycemia, or blood sugar levels, were evaluated by an enzyme colorimetric assay. Results The results of the symbiotic group showed a non-significant reduction (P > 0.05) in total cholesterol and triglycerides, a significant increase (P < 0.05) in HDL cholesterol and a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting glycemia. No significant changes were observed in the placebo group. Conclusion The consumption of symbiotic shake resulted in a significant increase in HDL and a significant decrease of glycemia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00123456 PMID:22356933
Santacruz, Arlette; Marcos, Ascensión; Wärnberg, Julia; Martí, Amelia; Martin-Matillas, Miguel; Campoy, Cristina; Moreno, Luis A; Veiga, Oscar; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Garagorri, Jesús M; Azcona, Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; García-Fuentes, Miguel; Collado, Maria C; Sanz, Yolanda
The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an obesity treatment program on the gut microbiota and body weight of overweight adolescents. Thirty-six adolescents (13-15 years), classified as overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force BMI criteria, were submitted to a calorie-restricted diet (10-40%) and increased physical activity (15-23 kcal/kg body weight/week) program over 10 weeks. Gut bacterial groups were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR before and after the intervention. A group of subjects (n=23) experienced >4.0 kg weight loss and showed significant BMI (P=0.030) and BMI z-score (P=0.035) reductions after the intervention, while the other group (n=13) showed <2.0 kg weight loss. No significant differences in dietary intake were found between both groups. In the whole adolescent population, the intervention led to increased Bacteroides fragilis group (P=0.001) and Lactobacillus group (P=0.030) counts, and to decreased Clostridium coccoides group (P=0.028), Bifidobacterium longum (P=0.031), and Bifidobacterium adolescentis (P=0.044) counts. In the high weight-loss group, B. fragilis group and Lactobacillus group counts also increased (P=0.001 and P=0.007, respectively), whereas C. coccoides group and B. longum counts decreased (P=0.001 and P=0.044, respectively) after the intervention. Total bacteria, B. fragilis group and Clostridium leptum group, and Bifidobacterium catenulatum group counts were significantly higher (P<0.001-0.036) while levels of C. coccoides group, Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were significantly lower (P<0.001-0.008) in the high weight-loss group than in the low weight-loss group before and after the intervention. These findings indicate that calorie restriction and physical activity have an impact on gut microbiota composition related to body weight loss, which also seem to be influenced by the individual's microbiota.
Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul
The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states. PMID:27594848
Kunz, C; Rudloff, S
About a century ago, pediatricians observed that in feces of breast-fed infants, compared to those of bottle-fed infants, Bifidobacterium bifidum was the predominant microorganism. It was shown thereafter that aminosugar-containing oligosaccharides are growth factors for a specific strain of Bifidobacterium. Meanwhile, more than 130 lactose-derived oligosaccharides have been identified in human milk. Some of these oligosaccharides like Lacto-N-Tetraose and Lacto-N-Fucopentaose I and II do not occur in minute amounts but in concentrations up to 1-2 g/L. As the total amount of complex oligosaccharides is between 3-6 g/L those components have to be considered as major human milk constituents. There is striking evidence that human milk oligosaccharides are potent inhibitors of bacterial adhesion to epithelial surfaces, an initial stage of infective processes. Therefore, these oligosaccharides are considered to be soluble receptor analogues of epithelial cell surfaces participating in the non-immunological defense system of human milk-fed infants.
Arboleya, Silvia; Watkins, Claire; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R Paul
The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been shown to have a vital role in various aspects of human health. Indeed, several studies have linked alterations in the gut microbiota with the development of different diseases. Among the vast gut bacterial community, Bifidobacterium is a genus which dominates the intestine of healthy breast-fed infants whereas in adulthood the levels are lower but relatively stable. The presence of different species of bifidobacteria changes with age, from childhood to old age. Bifidobacterium longum, B. breve, and B. bifidum are generally dominant in infants, whereas B. catenulatum, B. adolescentis and, as well as B. longum are more prevalent in adults. Increasingly, evidence is accumulating which shows beneficial effects of supplementation with bifidobacteria for the improvement of human health conditions ranging from protection against infection to different extra- and intra-intestinal positive effects. Moreover, bifidobacteria have been associated with the production of a number of potentially health promoting metabolites including short chain fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid and bacteriocins. The aim of this mini-review is to describe the bifidobacteria compositional changes associated with different stages in life, highlighting their beneficial role, as well as their presence or absence in many disease states.
Aljewicz, Marek; Siemianowska, Ewa; Cichosz, Grażyna; Tońska, Elżbieta
The use of probiotic cultures in the production of Dutch-type cheeses did not lead to significant changes in their chemical composition but it lowered their acidity. The availability of calcium and magnesium analyzed by in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis was 19 and 35%, respectively; the availability of phosphorus was significantly higher, at >90%. The use of probiotic cultures significantly increased the availability of calcium (~2.5%), phosphorus (~6%), and magnesium (~18%). The in vitro method supports accurate determination of the effect of the Lactobacillus spp. cultures on the availability of mineral compounds ingested with Dutch-type cheese.
Background Constipation during pregnancy is a common problem. Nowadays only few effective interventions are published preventing or treating constipation during pregnancy. However, their use is limited due to side-effects. This uncontrolled intervention study was performed to determine if a mixture of probiotics in the treatment of constipation during pregnancy is effective. Methods Women aged ≥ 18 years with functional constipation were included at the Obstetrical outpatient clinic and midwife practices. Patients received during four weeks a daily dose of Ecologic®Relief (Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium lactis W52, Bifidobacterium longum W108, Lactobacillus casei W79, Lactobacillus plantarum W62 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus W71 (total 4*109 CFU)). For all analyses, the non-parametric paired Wilcoxon test was used. Primary outcome measure was change in defecation frequency. Secondary outcome measures were stool consistency, sensation of incomplete evacuation, sensation of anorectal obstruction, manual manoeuvres to facilitate defecation, abdominal pain, adverse effects, presence of reflux episodes and intake of Bisacodyl. Results 20 women were included. Defecation frequency significantly increased from 3.1 at baseline to 6.7 in week four (p < 0.01). Compared to baseline, a significant decrease in 1) sensation of anorectal obstruction from 90.0% to 45.0% (p < 0.01), 2) sensation of incomplete evacuation from 90.0% to 40.0% (p < 0.01), 3) straining during defecation from 100% to 65% (p = 0.01), 4) episodes of abdominal pain from 60% to 20% (p = 0.01) and 5) the presence of reflux episodes from 60% to 20% in week four (p = 0.01) was found. Other secondary outcomes did not decrease significantly. No side effects were reported. Conclusions Ecologic®Relief is effective in the treatment of constipation during pregnancy. A randomised placebo controlled trial is required to confirm these data. PMID:23035837
Makino, H; Martin, R; Ishikawa, E; Gawad, A; Kubota, H; Sakai, T; Oishi, K; Tanaka, R; Ben-Amor, K; Knol, J; Kushiro, A
Bifidobacteria are considered to be one of the most important beneficial intestinal bacteria for infants, contributing to the priming of the mucosal immune system. These microbes can also be detected in mother's milk, suggesting a potential role of human milk in the colonisation of infant's gut. However, little is known about the timing of bacteria appearance in human milk, and whether human milk is the first source of inoculation. Here, we investigated whether specific strains are shared sustainably between maternal milk and infant's gut. Faecal samples and human milk were collected from 102 healthy mother-infant pairs (infant's faeces: meconium, 7, 30 days of age; mother's milk: once before delivery, colostrum, 7, 30 days after delivery). Bifidobacterial strains were isolated from these samples, and were discriminated by means of multilocus sequencing typing. No bifidobacteria were detected from human milk collected before delivery, or colostrum. Strains were isolated only from human milk samples obtained 7 days after birth or later. On the other hand, bifidobacterial strains were obtained from infant's faeces throughout the study period, sometimes as early as the first day of life (meconium). We have found that bifidobacterial species belonging to Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum could be identified as monophyletic between infant's faeces and their mother's milk. These strains were confirmed to be sustainably shared between maternal milk and infant's gut. Moreover, monophyletic strains were isolated at the same time point or earlier from infant's faeces than from human milk, and none were isolated earlier from human milk than from infant's faeces. Although it remains unclear whether human milk is the first source of microbes for infants, our results confirm that human milk is a reservoir of bifidobacteria, and specific strains are shared between infant's intestine and human milk during breastfeeding.
MIAO, Junjie; LANG, Chunhui; KANG, Zhiyuan; ZHU, Hong; WANG, Shijie; LI, Ming
Fermented milk supplemented with two probiotic strains (Bifidobacterium lactis Bi-07 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM) and a prebiotic (isomaltooligosaccharide) was orally administered to Wistar rats for 30 days using three dosages. A commercial yogurt was used as a placebo. After treatment, the total protein, hemoglobin, and albumin levels in serum were significantly increased in female rats compared with those in the control group (p<0.05), whereas no significant change occurred in the male rats. A significant decrease in serum glucose levels was observed in male rats administered a low dosage of the tested fermented milk (p<0.05). The serum triglyceride level was significantly decreased in both male and female rats (p<0.05). No significant differences were found between rats groups in body weight, food intake, food utilization rate, red blood cell counts, white blood cell counts, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and total cholesterol. These results suggest that the fermented milk supplemented with synbiotics altered the nutritive status of the host animal and contributed to their health. However, such potent health-promoting effects could be deeply associated with the dose and sex specific. Therefore, different physiological targets and population characteristics should be managed with different combinations of probiotics and prebiotics. PMID:27200262
Erkaya, Tuba; Şengul, Mustafa
In this study, the chemical composition, proteolysis and in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme-(ACE)-inhibitory and antioxidant activities of white cheeses made using probiotic adjunct cultures (Bifidobacterium bifidum DSMZ 20456 and Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079) were investigated. The cheeses were ripened in a vacuum package or brine for 120 d at 4 °C. The cheese samples maintained the probiotic characteristics of the viable cells as >106 cfu/g even after ripening for 120 d. The proteolysis degrees in terms of water-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen (WSN/TN), trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen (TCA-SN/TN) and phosphotungstic acid-soluble nitrogen/total nitrogen (PTA-SN/TN) values in the cheeses increased throughout the ripening. The highest levels of proteolysis were found in cheese made using Lb. acidophilus DSMZ 20079 and ripened in a vacuum package. ACE-inhibitory activity of the water soluble extracts (WSEs) of the cheeses increased significantly (P < 0·05) throughout the ripening (IC50 values 82·78-140·99 μg/ml). Use of Lb. acidophilus DSMZ 20079 and packaging under vacuum significantly increased the percentage of ACE inhibiting activity. WSEs had DPPH scavenging activity (the IC50 values were 2·41-5·39 mg/ml and the inhibition values were 5·10-10·38%), increasing up to 60 d ripening. In the present study, it was observed that Lb. acidophilus DSMZ 20079 was more effective than Bifido. bifidum DSMZ 20456 in terms of the cheese characteristics investigated.
Minami, J; Odamaki, T; Hashikura, N; Abe, F; Xiao, J Z
The objective of this work was to study the residential characteristics of bifidobacteria, which can be classified as either human-residential bifidobacteria (HRB) or non-HRB. We investigated the growth of different strains of HRB and non-HRB in human breast milk with the aim of understanding the mechanisms involved in the unique habitation of each taxon. The growth of 37 strains of different bifidobacterial species or subspecies in breast milk was investigated by incubating each under anaerobic conditions at 37 (°)C. The tolerance of each strain to either egg white or human lysozyme was compared. Among the infant-type HRB strains, all strains of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis and Bifidobacterium breve grew well in breast milk, but the growth characteristics of B. longum subsp. longum and B. bifidum were strain-dependent. In contrast, the tested strains of adult-type HRB and non-HRB generally failed to grow and died after incubation in breast milk. Most infant-type HRB strains were tolerant to high concentrations of lysozyme, while adult-type HRB strains possessed intermediate tolerance to lysozyme, and non-HRB strains were susceptible to lysozymes of egg white or human origin. These data suggest that breast milk lysozyme content plays a central role in the exclusion of non-HRB, while other factors, together with lysozyme content, are involved in the growth inhibition of adult-type strains in human milk. Our results suggest that infant-type HRB strains would be suitable candidates for use as infant probiotics.
MacPherson, Chad W.; Shastri, Padmaja; Mathieu, Olivier; Tompkins, Thomas A.; Burguière, Pierre
Genome-wide transcriptional analysis in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) can aid in elucidating the impact of single versus multi-strain probiotic combinations on immunological and cellular mechanisms of action. In this study we used human expression microarray chips in an in vitro intestinal epithelial cell model to investigate the impact of three probiotic bacteria, Lactobacillus helveticus R0052 (Lh-R0052), Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033 (Bl-R0033) and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 (Bb-R0071) individually and in combination, and of a surface-layer protein (SLP) purified from Lh-R0052, on HT-29 cells’ transcriptional profile to poly(I:C)-induced inflammation. Hierarchical heat map clustering, Set Distiller and String analyses revealed that the effects of Lh-R0052 and Bb-R0071 diverged from those of Bl-R0033 and Lh-R0052-SLP. It was evident from the global analyses with respect to the immune, cellular and homeostasis related pathways that the co-challenge with probiotic combination (PC) vastly differed in its effect from the single strains and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments. The multi-strain PC resulted in a greater reduction of modulated genes, found through functional connections between immune and cellular pathways. Cytokine and chemokine analyses based on specific outcomes from the TNF-α and NF-κB signaling pathways revealed single, multi-strain and Lh-R0052-SLP specific attenuation of the majority of proteins measured (TNF-α, IL-8, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10), indicating potentially different mechanisms. These findings indicate a synergistic effect of the bacterial combinations relative to the single strain and Lh-R0052-SLP treatments in resolving toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-induced inflammation in IEC and maintaining cellular homeostasis, reinforcing the rationale for using multi-strain formulations as a probiotic. PMID:28099447
Wang, I-K; Wu, Y-Y; Yang, Y-F; Ting, I-W; Lin, C-C; Yen, T-H; Chen, J-H; Wang, C-H; Huang, C-C; Lin, H-C
Inflammatory markers such as interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are elevated in dialysis patients and can predict cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Endotoxin is an important source and also another marker of inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of oral probiotics on serum levels of endotoxemia and cytokines in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. The decline of residual renal function, peritonitis episodes, and cardiovascular events were also recorded. From July 2011 to June 2012, a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in PD patients. The intervention group received one capsule of probiotics containing 10(9) cfu Bifobacterium bifidum A218, 10(9) cfu Bifidobacterium catenulatum A302, 10(9) cfu Bifidobacterium longum A101, and 10(9) cfu Lactobacillus plantarum A87 daily for six months, while the placebo group received similar capsules containing maltodextrin for the same duration. Levels of serum TNF-α, interferon gamma, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, and endotoxin were measured before and six months after intervention. 39 patients completed the study (21 in the probiotics group and 18 in the placebo group). In patients receiving probiotics, levels of serum TNF-α, IL-5, IL-6, and endotoxin significantly decreased after six months of treatment, while levels of serum IL-10 significantly increased. In contrast, there were no significant changes in levels of serum cytokines and endotoxin in the placebo group after six months. In addition, the residual renal function was preserved in patients receiving probiotics. In conclusion, probiotics could significantly reduce the serum levels of endotoxin, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6), IL-5, increase the serum levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10), and preserve residual renal function in PD patients.
Probiotic Supplements Beneficially Affect Tryptophan–Kynurenine Metabolism and Reduce the Incidence of Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Trained Athletes: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Trial
Strasser, Barbara; Geiger, Daniela; Schauer, Markus; Gostner, Johanna M.; Gatterer, Hannes; Burtscher, Martin; Fuchs, Dietmar
Background: Prolonged intense exercise has been associated with transient suppression of immune function and an increased risk of infections. In this context, the catabolism of amino acid tryptophan via kynurenine may play an important role. The present study examined the effect of a probiotic supplement on the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and the metabolism of aromatic amino acids after exhaustive aerobic exercise in trained athletes during three months of winter training. Methods: Thirty-three highly trained individuals were randomly assigned to probiotic (PRO, n = 17) or placebo (PLA, n = 16) groups using double blind procedures, receiving either 1 × 1010 colony forming units (CFU) of a multi-species probiotic (Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, Bifidobacterium lactis W51, Enterococcus faecium W54, Lactobacillus acidophilus W22, Lactobacillus brevis W63, and Lactococcus lactis W58) or placebo once per day for 12 weeks. The serum concentrations of tryptophan, phenylalanine and their primary catabolites kynurenine and tyrosine, as well as the concentration of the immune activation marker neopterin were determined at baseline and after 12 weeks, both at rest and immediately after exercise. Participants completed a daily diary to identify any infectious symptoms. Results: After 12 weeks of treatment, post-exercise tryptophan levels were lowered by 11% (a significant change) in the PLA group compared to the concentrations measured before the intervention (p = 0.02), but remained unchanged in the PRO group. The ratio of subjects taking the placebo who experienced one or more URTI symptoms was increased 2.2-fold compared to those on probiotics (PLA 0.79, PRO 0.35; p = 0.02). Conclusion: Data indicate reduced exercise-induced tryptophan degradation rates in the PRO group. Daily supplementation with probiotics limited exercise-induced drops in tryptophan levels and reduced the incidence of URTI, however, did not benefit athletic performance. PMID
Macpherson, Chad; Audy, Julie; Mathieu, Olivier; Tompkins, Thomas A
A commercially available product containing three probiotic bacterial strains (Lactobacillus helveticus R0052, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis R0033, and Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071) was previously shown in animal trials to modulate both TH1 and TH2 immune responses. Clinical studies on this combination of bacteria have also shown positive health effects against seasonal winter diseases and rotavirus infection. The goal of this study was to use a well-established in vitro intestinal epithelial (HT-29) cell model that has been shown to constitutively express double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) sensors (Toll-like receptor 3 [TLR3], retinoic acid-inducible gene I, melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5, and dsRNA-activated protein kinase). By using the HT-29 cell model, we wanted to evaluate whether or not this combination of three bacteria had the capacity to immune modulate the host cell response to a dsRNA ligand, poly(I·C). Using a custom-designed, two-color expression microarray targeting genes of the human immune system, we investigated the response of HT-29 cells challenged with poly(I·C) both in the presence and in the absence of the three probiotic bacteria. We observed that the combination of the three bacteria had a major impact on attenuating the expression of genes connected to proinflammatory TH1 and antiviral innate immune responses compared to that obtained by the poly(I·C)-only challenge. Major pathways through which the multistrain combination may be eliciting its immune-modulatory effect include the TLR3 domain-containing adapter-indu