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Sample records for nda efficacy supplement

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Saffron Supplementation: Current Clinical Findings.

    PubMed

    Broadhead, G K; Chang, A; Grigg, J; McCluskey, P

    2016-12-09

    Saffron (Crocus savitus) is a Middle-Eastern herb with strong antioxidant properties. Its major constituents, safranal, crocin, and crocetin, are also antioxidants and bear structural similarities to other well-known natural antixodant substances, such as zeaxanthin. Given the role of oxidative stress in many diseases, considerable interest has been shown into the potential role of saffron supplementation as a treatment for a range of diseases. In vitro and animal studies have provided evidence that saffron and its constituents may be potent therapies for a range of pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and cardiac ischemia. Whether these findings translate into clinical efficacy, however, has as of yet been incompletely assessed. This makes assessing the role of saffron supplementation in these diseases difficult. Here, we review the current human clinical evidence supporting saffron supplementation as a treatment for a range of pathologies and the underlying science supporting its use.

  2. Efficacy of twice weekly iron supplementation in anemic adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Shobha, S; Sharada, D

    2003-12-01

    Two hundred and forty four girls with different hemoglobin levels were selected, of which forty-one were non-anemic. The rest were graded as mildly, moderately or severely anemic and supplemented with 60 mg of iron daily or twice weekly for twelve weeks. There was no significant difference in the increase in hemoglobin levels between daily and twice weekly-supplemented subjects at the end of the study. Unpleasant side effects of supplementation were experienced by 57.8% of the daily supplemented subjects as against 5.9% of twice weekly-supplemented ones. Twice weekly supplementation could be recommended for overcoming anemia in adolescent girls.

  3. Efficacy of Ginseng Supplements on Fatigue and Physical Performance: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement as reported by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs that investigated the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement compared with placebos were included. The main outcome measures were fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement. Out of 155 articles meeting initial criteria, 12 RCTs involving 630 participants (311 participants in the intervention group and 319 participants in the placebo group) were included in the final analysis. In the fixed-effect meta-analysis of four RCTs, there was a statistically significant efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16 to 0.52). However, ginseng supplements were not associated with physical performance enhancement in the fixed-effect meta-analysis of eight RCTs (SMD = −0.01; 95% CI = −0.29 to 0.27). We found that there was insufficient clinical evidence to support the use of ginseng supplements on reducing fatigue and enhancing physical performance because only few RCTs with a small sample size have been published so far. Further lager RCTs are required to confirm the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction. PMID:27822924

  4. Efficacy of Ginseng Supplements on Fatigue and Physical Performance: a Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bach, Hoang Viet; Kim, Jeongseon; Myung, Seung Kwon; Cho, Young Ae

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement as reported by randomized controlled trials (RCTs). RCTs that investigated the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement compared with placebos were included. The main outcome measures were fatigue reduction and physical performance enhancement. Out of 155 articles meeting initial criteria, 12 RCTs involving 630 participants (311 participants in the intervention group and 319 participants in the placebo group) were included in the final analysis. In the fixed-effect meta-analysis of four RCTs, there was a statistically significant efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction (standardized mean difference, SMD = 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16 to 0.52). However, ginseng supplements were not associated with physical performance enhancement in the fixed-effect meta-analysis of eight RCTs (SMD = -0.01; 95% CI = -0.29 to 0.27). We found that there was insufficient clinical evidence to support the use of ginseng supplements on reducing fatigue and enhancing physical performance because only few RCTs with a small sample size have been published so far. Further lager RCTs are required to confirm the efficacy of ginseng supplements on fatigue reduction.

  5. Daily iron supplementation is more efficacious than twice weekly iron supplementation for the treatment of childhood anemia in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Desai, Meghna R; Dhar, Ritesh; Rosen, Daniel H; Kariuki, Simon K; Shi, Ya Ping; Kager, Piet A; Ter Kuile, Feiko O

    2004-05-01

    A recent meta-analysis of 14 clinical trials indicated that daily compared with intermittent iron supplementation resulted in significantly greater hematological improvement in pregnant women. No such definitive beneficial effect was demonstrated in preschool children. We compared the efficacy of daily and twice weekly iron supplementation for 6 wk under supervised and unsupervised conditions in the treatment of mild and moderate anemia [hemoglobin (Hb) 50-109 g/L] in children aged 2-59 mo living in a malaria-endemic area of western Kenya. The study was a cluster-randomized trial using a factorial design; participants were aware of the treatment assigned. All children (n = 1049) were administered a single dose of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine at enrollment followed by 6 wk of daily supervised iron supplementation [3-6 mg/(kg.d)], twice weekly supervised iron supplementation [6-12 mg/(kg.wk)], daily unsupervised iron supplementation, or twice weekly unsupervised iron supplementation. In the supervised groups, Hb concentrations at 6 and 12 wk (6 wk postsupplementation) were significantly higher in children given iron daily rather than twice weekly [mean (95% CI) difference at 6-wk: 4.2 g/L (2.1, 6.4); 12-wk: 4.4 g/L (1.8, 7.0)]. Among the unsupervised groups, Hb concentrations were not different at 6 wk [mean (95% CI) difference: 0.86 g/L (-1.4, 3.1)], but significantly higher at 12 wk for those assigned daily iron [mean (95% CI) difference: 3.4 g/L (0.79, 6.0), P = 0.02]. In this malarious area and after initial antimalarial treatment, 6 wk of daily iron supplementation results in better hematological responses than twice weekly iron supplementation in the treatment of anemia in preschool children, regardless of whether adherence can be ensured.

  6. Iron supplements: scientific issues concerning efficacy and implications for research and programs.

    PubMed

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2002-04-01

    Iron supplementation remains an important strategy for the prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia and can produce substantial improvements in the functional performance of iron deficient individuals and populations. Many potential benefits of iron supplementation require further exploration, including its effect on vitamin A and iodine metabolism. There is strong evidence that vitamin A and riboflavin deficiencies affect iron utilization from supplements and are important on a global scale, but little evidence that folate and vitamin B-12 deficiencies play a major causal role in the global burden of anemia. The efficacy of multiple micronutrient supplements for the prevention and treatment of anemia must be further evaluated. Because weekly supplementation with iron is effective at improving iron status, this option should be thoroughly explored and evaluated in the context of programs for the prevention and the treatment of iron deficiency and anemia. More conformation is warranted concerning the number of tablets that must be consumed in different situations, and the efficacy of supplying other micronutrients weekly with iron. Weekly supplementation programs may improve the logistical and economic constraints that currently limit the provision of supplements to the many target population groups for whom they are recommended, but usually fail to reach. Further work is required to clarify the purpose, delivery and outcomes of iron supplementation programs.

  7. Safety, Efficacy, and Legal Issues Related to Dietary Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the effects of dietary supplements on collegiate and adult populations. Anabolic steroids, amphetamines, and other drugs have been used for decades to improve athletic performance. However, the legal issues and dangers associated with these drugs have resulted in reluctance by many athletes to use them. Because dietary…

  8. Efficacy trials of a micronutrient dietary supplement in schoolchildren and pregnant women in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Latham, Michael C; Ash, Deborah M; Makola, Diklar; Tatala, Simon R; Ndossi, Godwin D; Mehansho, Haile

    2003-12-01

    Traditionally, the main strategies used to control micronutrient deficiencies have been food diversification, consumption of medicinal supplements, and food fortification. In Tanzania, we conducted efficacy trials using a dietary supplement as a fourth approach. These were randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy trials conducted separately first in children and later in pregnant women. The dietary supplement was a powder used to prepare an orange-flavored beverage. In the school trial, children consumed 25 g per school day attended. In the pregnancy trial, women consumed the contents of two 25-g sachets per day with meals. This dietary supplement, unlike most medicinal supplements, provided 11 micronutrients, including iron and vitamin A, in physiologic amounts. In both trials we compared changes in subjects consuming either the fortified or the nonfortified supplement. Measures of iron and vitamin A status were similar in the groups at the baseline examination, but significantly different at follow-up, always in favor of the fortified groups. Children receiving the fortified supplement had significantly improved anthropometric measures when compared with controls. At four weeks postpartum, the breast milk of a supplemented group of women had significantly higher mean retinol content than did the milk of mothers consuming the nonfortified supplement. The advantages of using a fortified dietary supplement, compared with other approaches, include its ability to control several micronutrient deficiencies simultaneously; the use of physiologic amounts of nutrients, rather than megadoses that require medical supervision; and the likelihood of better compliance than with the use of pills because subjects liked the beverage used in these trials.

  9. A Review of the Efficacy, Safety, and Clinical Implications of Naturally Derived Dietary Supplements for Dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Thaipitakwong, Thanchanit; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2017-02-01

    Dyslipidemia is recognized as a major cause of cardiovascular disease. A number of evidence-based guidelines recommend conventional synthetic drugs as standard therapy for dyslipidemia in clinical practice. However, antihyperlipidemic drugs have some serious side effects. Naturally derived dietary supplements are becoming attractive as an alternative strategy because of their high efficacy and safety, as supported by numerous data. Moreover, they could be considered an initial treatment for dyslipidemia. The aims of this literature review were to demonstrate the efficacy, safety, and clinical implications of dietary supplements for treating dyslipidemia. We reviewed the literature, including data from in vitro, in vivo, and human studies, and clinical guideline recommendations. We classified dietary supplements by their proposed mechanisms of action on lipid metabolism and also collected daily dosage recommendations, interactions with concurrent drugs and/or foods, dosage forms, and examples of commercially available products. Various types of naturally derived dietary supplements exhibit lipid-improving properties. Efficacy and safety are acceptable; however, their use in clinical practice will require further well-designed investigations and the support of scientific data.

  10. ARIES NDA Robot operators` manual

    SciTech Connect

    Scheer, N.L.; Nelson, D.C.

    1998-05-01

    The ARIES NDA Robot is an automation device for servicing the material movements for a suite of Non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. This suite of instruments includes a calorimeter, a gamma isotopic system, a segmented gamma scanner (SGS), and a neutron coincidence counter (NCC). Objects moved by the robot include sample cans, standard cans, and instrument plugs. The robot computer has an RS-232 connection with the NDA Host computer, which coordinates robot movements and instrument measurements. The instruments are expected to perform measurements under the direction of the Host without operator intervention. This user`s manual describes system startup, using the main menu, manual operation, and error recovery.

  11. Expectancy, self-efficacy, and placebo effect of a sham supplement for weight loss in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to one of three conditions: 1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement; 2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo; or 3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the three groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy. PMID:24695007

  12. Expectancy, Self-Efficacy, and Placebo Effect of a Sham Supplement for Weight Loss in Obese Adults.

    PubMed

    Tippens, Kimberly M; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Gregory, William L; Connelly, Erin; Hanes, Douglas; Oken, Barry; Calabrese, Carlo

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the role of expectancy in the placebo effect of a sham dietary supplement for weight loss in 114 obese adults with metabolic syndrome. All participants received lifestyle education and were randomized to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) a daily placebo capsule and told that they were taking an active weight loss supplement, (2) daily placebo and told they had a 50% random chance of receiving either the active or placebo, or (3) no capsules. At 12 weeks, weight loss and metabolic outcomes were similar among the 3 groups. Participants in both groups that took capsules showed decreased weight loss self-efficacy and increased expectations of benefit from dietary supplements. Participants not taking capsules showed the opposite. Adverse events were more frequently reported in groups taking capsules than those who were not. These findings suggest that supplements without weight loss effects may have nocebo effects through diminished self-efficacy.

  13. Efficacy of daily and weekly iron supplementation on iron status in exclusively breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Yurdakök, Kadriye; Temiz, Fatih; Yalçin, S Songül; Gümrük, Fatma

    2004-05-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) remains the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in infants worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily and weekly iron supplementation for 3 months to improve the iron status in 4-month-old, exclusively breast-fed healthy infants. Infants 4 months of age were eligible for the open, randomized controlled trial if their mothers intended to continue exclusive breast-feeding until the infants were 6 months of age. Infants or mothers with iron deficiency (ID) or IDA on admission were excluded. The infants (n = 79) were randomly assigned to three groups, the first group receiving daily (1 mg/kg daily), the second group weekly (7 mg/kg weekly), and the third group no iron supplementation. Anthropometric measurements were taken on admission and at 6 and 7 months of age. Iron status was analyzed on admission and monthly for 3 months. Both hematologic parameters and anthropometric measurements were found to be similar among the three groups during the study period. Seven infants (31.8%) in the control group, six (26.0%) in the daily group, and three (13.6%) in the weekly group developed ID or IDA (P > 0.05). Infants whose mothers had ID or IDA during the study period were more likely to develop ID or IDA independently from iron supplementation. Serum ferritin levels decreased between 4 and 6 months of age in the control and daily groups; the weekly group showed no such decrease. In all groups, the mean levels of serum ferritin were significantly increased from 6 months to 7 months of age during the weaning period. In this study, which had a limited number of cases, weekly or daily iron supplementation was not found to decrease the likelihood of IDA. In conclusion, exclusively breast-fed infants with maternal IDA appeared to be at increased risk of developing IDA.

  14. Efficacy and safety of protein supplements for U.S. Armed Forces personnel: consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Austin, Krista G; Lieberman, Harris R; Askew, E Wayne

    2013-11-01

    To provide evidence-based guidance regarding the efficacy and safety of dietary protein supplement (PS) use by members of the U.S. Armed Forces, a panel of internationally recognized experts in the fields of protein metabolism and dietary supplement research was convened by the Department of Defense Center Alliance for Dietary Supplement Research and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command. To develop a consensus statement, potential benefits, risks, and strategies to optimize military performance through PS use were considered in the context of specific warfighter populations and occupational demands. To maintain muscle mass, strength, and performance during periods of substantial metabolic demand and concomitant negative energy balance the panel recommended that warfighters consume 1.5-2.0 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) of protein. However, if metabolic demand is low, such as in garrison, protein intake should equal the current Military Dietary Reference Intake (0.8-1.5 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)). Although PS use generally appears to be safe for healthy adults, warfighters should be educated on PS quality, given quality-control and contamination concerns with commercial dietary supplements. To achieve recommended protein intakes, the panel strongly urges consumption of high-quality protein-containing whole foods. However, when impractical, the use of PSs (20-25 g per serving or 0.25-0.3 g · kg(-1) per meal), particularly after periods of strenuous physical activity (e.g., military training, combat patrols, and exercise), is acceptable. The committee acknowledges the need for further study of protein requirements for extreme, military-specific environmental conditions and whether unique metabolic stressors associated with military service alter protein requirements for aging warfighters.

  15. Efficacy of an oral hyaluronate and collagen supplement as a preventive treatment of elbow dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Martí-Angulo, Simón; García-López, Núria; Díaz-Ramos, Ana

    2014-12-01

    One hundred and five Labrador dogs were randomly divided into two groups to determine the number of animals that develop elbow dysplasia when treated with an oral supplement compared to untreated ones. Efficacy of the oral treatment was also evaluated once illness was diagnosed. The supplement (Hyaloral) contained hyaluronic acid, hydrolysed collagen, glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, and gamma oryzanol. Clinical evaluation of the elbow joints was completed at months 3, 6, 12, and 20 by orthopaedic evaluations, radiography, serologic and blood analysis, and veterinarian evaluation of dysplasia symptoms. All side effects were recorded. In the control group, 33.3% of the dogs developed radiographic evidence of elbow dysplasia compared to 18.5% in the treated group. Symptoms of dysplasia at 12 months differed between the treated (12.5%) and control (61.5%) animals, and were significantly different at 20 months (p < 0.05). Differences in lameness along with movement and swelling of the elbows between groups were observed after 12 months. The treated group had improved significantly by the last visit (p < 0.05). No adverse side effects were reported. In conclusion, oral treatment with Hyaloral may have a potential cumulative action that provides protection against dysplasia and significantly improves symptoms of elbow dysplasia.

  16. The Efficacy of Supplemental Early Literacy Instruction by Community-Based Tutors for Preschoolers Enrolled in Head Start

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Sanders, Elizabeth A.; Gonzalez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to test the efficacy of a supplemental phonological awareness focused intervention delivered by community-based paraeducators with preschool children (M = 4.73 years) in eight Head Start classrooms in the rural Midwest. Participating children were randomly assigned to small groups within classrooms, which were…

  17. The efficacy of vitamin D supplementation during a prolonged submarine patrol.

    PubMed

    Gasier, Heath G; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Colin R; McAdams, Douglas C; Lutz, Laura J; McClung, James P

    2014-09-01

    Submariners spend prolonged periods submerged without sunlight exposure and may benefit from vitamin D supplementation to maintain vitamin D status. The primary objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of daily vitamin D supplementation on maintenance of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) during a 3-month submarine patrol. Submariners were randomly divided into three groups: placebo (n = 16), 1,000 IU/day (n = 20), or 2,000 IU/day (n = 17). Anthropometrics, self-reported dietary calcium and vitamin D intake, serum markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) parameters of the tibia were determined before and after the patrol. Prior to departure, 49 % of the subjects were vitamin D insufficient (<50 nmol/L). Following the patrol, 25(OH)D increased in all groups (p < 0.001): 3.3 ± 13.1 (placebo), 4.6 ± 11.3 (1,000 IU/day), and 13 ± 14 nmol/L (2,000 IU/day). The changes in 25(OH)D levels were dependent upon the baseline concentration of 25(OH)D and body mass (p < 0.001). Osteocalcin increased by 38 % (p < 0.01), and pQCT analyses revealed small, yet significant increases in indices of tibial structure and strength (p < 0.05) that were independent of supplementation. These data suggest that vitamin D status was low prior to the patrol, and the subsequent changes in vitamin D status were dependent on the baseline 25(OH)D levels and body mass. Furthermore, short-term skeletal health does not appear to be negatively affected by 3 months of submergence in spite of a suboptimal response to vitamin D supplementation.

  18. Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Cefalu, William T; Ye, Jianping; Wang, Zhong Q

    2008-06-01

    Botanical products are widely used in nutritional supplementation for promotion of health or prevention of diseases. With the high prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes, abnormalities in carbohydrate metabolism are common in the general population and obtaining glycemic control is important in reducing the complications of diabetes. If shown to be effective, botanical products have a unique position in potentially aiding the general public in regard to obesity and diabetes. They can be obtained "over-the-counter" and may have less side effects compared to many synthetic drugs. Although most of the popular botanicals have a long history in folk medicine, there is paucity of data regarding their efficacy and safety, particularly as it relates to human studies. In this review, we discuss the data that was available in the literature for nine botanicals that are frequently promoted to help manage blood glucose. They are Bitter Melon (Momordica charantia), Fenugreek (trigonella foenum graecum), Gymnema Sylvestre, Ivy Gourd (Coccinia indica), Nopal or Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia streptacantha), Ginseng, Aloe Vera, Russian Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus), and Garlic (Allium sativum). The discussion is emphasized on the clinical aspect of these botanicals. Due to the lack of sufficient evidence from clinical studies for any of the botanicals reviewed, it is premature to actively recommend use of any particular herb to treat either glucose or other risk factors. Thus, well defined randomized clinical trials are warranted in this area.

  19. [Comparison of the efficacy of two different iron supplements for anemia prevention in piglets].

    PubMed

    Vermeer, J E M; Kuijpers, A H C; Elbers, A R W

    2002-02-15

    In a randomized, confirmatory study performed between July and October 2000 the efficacy of two iron products in preventing iron deficiency anaemia was compared. A total of 102 newborn piglets from ten litters were treated intramuscularly with 200 mg iron as iron dextran per ml, or 200 mg iron as gleptoferron per ml. For true comparison, piglets within a litter of a sow were subdivided into pairs on the basis of birth weight (one pair of the two heaviest piglets, et cetera). Within a pair, treatment with the iron supplements was randomly allocated. One group of piglets was injected at an age of 1 day (experiment 1) and the other group of piglets was injected at an age of 3 days (experiment 2). The piglets were weighed and blood samples were taken at an age of 18 days (experiment 1) or at an age of 19 days (experiment 2). Average daily weight gain and haemoglobin concentrations of both treatment groups were compared. Both products were very effective in preventing anaemia. No significant differences could be found between the two formulations. It can be concluded that iron-dextran and gleptoferron can be used with similar effect for anaemia prevention in piglets.

  20. Efficacy of some antioxidants supplementation in reducing oxidative stress post sodium tungstate exposure in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, S; Flora, S J S

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective efficacy of some antioxidants against sodium tungstate induced oxidative stress in male wistar rats. Animals were sub-chronically exposed to sodium tungstate (100ppm in drinking water) for three months except for control group. In the same time, many rats were supplemented orally with different antioxidants (alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), n-acetylcysteine (NAC), quercetin or naringenin (0.30mM)) for five consecutive days a week for the same mentioned period before. Exposure to sodium tungstate significantly (P<0.05) inhibit blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, liver and blood reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels in tissues. ALA acid and NAC supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure increased GSH and also, was beneficial in the recovery of altered superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, besides, significantly reducing blood and tissue reactive oxygen species and TBARS levels. The results suggest a more pronounced efficacy of ALA acid and NAC supplementation than quercetin or naringenin supplementation post sodium tungstate exposure in preventing induced oxidative stress in rats.

  1. Review: efficacy of alginate supplementation in relation to appetite regulation and metabolic risk factors: evidence from animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, M; Pedersen, C; Kristensen, M; Frost, G; Astrup, A

    2013-02-01

    This review provides a critical update on human and animal studies investigating the effect of alginate supplementation on appetite regulation, glycaemic and insulinemic responses, and lipid metabolism with discussion of the evidence on potential mechanisms, efficacy and tolerability. Dependent on vehicle applied for alginate supplementation, the majority of animal and human studies suggest that alginate consumption does suppress satiety and to some extent energy intake. Only one long-term intervention trial found effects on weight loss. In addition, alginates seem to exhibit beneficial influence on postprandial glucose absorption and insulin response in animals and humans. However, alginate supplementation was only found to have cholesterol-lowering properties in animals. Several mechanisms have been suggested for the positive effect observed, which involve delayed gastric emptying, increased viscosity of digesta and slowed nutrient absorption in the small intestine upon alginate gel formation. Despite reasonable efficacy and tolerability from the acute or short-term studies, we still realize there is a critical need for development of optimal alginate types and vehicles as well as studies on further long-term investigation on alginate supplementation in humans before inferring that it could be useful in the management of obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  2. Efficacy of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) supplement in management of constipation among nursing home residents

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Constipation is a significant problem in the elderly, specifically nursing home and/or extended-care facility residents are reported to suffer from constipation. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are beneficial probiotic organisms that contribute to improved nutrition, microbial balance, and immuno-enhancement of the intestinal tract, as well as diarrhea and constipation effect. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of this LAB supplement in the management of nursing home residents. Methods Nineteen subjects (8M, 11F; mean age 77.1 ± 10.1) suffering with chronic constipation were assigned to receive LAB (3.0 × 1011 CFU/g) twice (to be taken 30 minutes after breakfast and dinner) a day for 2 weeks in November 2008. Subjects draw up a questionnaire on defecation habits (frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool), and we collected fecal samples from the subjects both before entering and after ending the trial, to investigate LAB levels and inhibition of harmful enzyme activities. Results were tested with SAS and Student's t-test. Results Analysis of questionnaire showed that there was an increase in the frequency of defecation and amount of stool excreted in defecation habit after LAB treatment, but there were no significant changes. And it also affects the intestinal environment, through significantly increase (p < 0.05) fecal LAB levels. In addition, tryptophanase and urease among harmful enzyme activities of intestinal microflora were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after LAB treatment. Conclusion LAB, when added to the standard treatment regimen for nursing home residents with chronic constipation, increased defecation habit such as frequency of defecation, amount and state of stool. So, it may be used as functional probiotics to improve human health by helping to prevent constipation. PMID:20137076

  3. Confidence in the Efficacy and Safety of Dietary Supplements Among United States Active Duty Army Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-10

    including vitamins, minerals, combination products, antioxidants, herbals , protein and amino acid supplements , and purported steroid analogs) and...rarely or never” harm the user. Likewise, individuals who use herbal supplements or OTC weight-loss aids were found to be more likely to perceive...Sun C, Willsie SK: Herbal products and dietary supplements : a survey of use, attitudes, and knowledge among older adults. J Am Osteopath Assoc 2007

  4. Efficacy of daily vs. weekly supplementation of iron in schoolchildren with low iron status.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Imran Akhtar; Rahman, M Ataur; Jaleel, Anila

    2004-10-01

    Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is still a major nutritional and public health problem in developing countries. The prevalence among young children and pregnant women is particularly high. Daily oral supplementation with medicinal iron is considered an effective strategy for reducing the incidence of IDA but non-compliance is a major problem with this strategy. We undertook this study to compare the results of once-weekly vs. daily oral iron supplementation in schoolchildren. Sixty children ranging between 5 and 10 years with iron deficiency anemia were selected from a school in Karachi, Pakistan and were divided into two equal groups, i.e., daily and weekly supplementation groups. Hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), and serum ferritin were determined before the start of the study. Ferrous sulfate (200 mg) was given daily to the daily supplementation group and once-weekly to the weekly supplementation group for 2 months. When post-supplementation values of the above-mentioned parameters were determined, a significant improvement was observed in all parameters in both groups. It is concluded that once-weekly iron supplementation is as effective as daily supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Moreover, weekly iron supplementation is cost effective and has no or fewer side-effects.

  5. Vitamin D Status and Efficacy of Vitamin D Supplementation in Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Soo-Nyung; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2016-01-01

    Recent literature has highlighted the possible role of vitamin D in atopic dermatitis (AD), and that vitamin D supplementation might help to treat AD. This study determined the relationship between vitamin D level and AD, and assessed the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases up to May 2015. Observational studies and randomized controlled trials were included based on the available data on the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level and quantified data available for severity assessed using the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD) index or Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI) score. Compared with healthy controls, the serum 25(OH)D level was lower in the AD patients of all ages (standardized mean difference = −2.03 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI) = −2.52 to −0.78), and predominantly in the pediatric AD patients (standardized mean difference = −3.03 ng/mL; 95% CI = −4.76 to −1.29). In addition, the SCORAD index and EASI score decreased after vitamin D supplementation (standardized mean difference = −5.85; 95% CI = −7.66 to −4.05). This meta-analysis showed that serum vitamin D level was lower in the AD patients and vitamin D supplementation could be a new therapeutic option for AD. PMID:27918470

  6. Efficacy of a Supplemental Phonemic Awareness Curriculum to Instruct Preschoolers with Delays in Early Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Howard; Olszewski, Arnold; Haring, Christa; Greenwood, Charles R.; McCune, Luke; Carta, Judith; Atwater, Jane; Guerrero, Gabriela; Schneider, Naomi; McCarthy, Tanya; Kelley, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Children who do not develop early literacy skills, especially phonological awareness (PA) and alphabet knowledge, prior to kindergarten are at risk for reading difficulties. We investigated a supplemental curriculum with children demonstrating delays in these skills. Method: A cluster randomized design with 104 preschool-age children in…

  7. Efficacy of progesterone supplementation during early pregnancy in cows: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Leyan; Robinson, Robert; Shi, Zhendan; Mann, George

    2016-05-01

    Progesterone is a critical hormone during early pregnancy in the cow. As a result, a number of studies have investigated the effects of progesterone supplementation on pregnancy rates. In this study, a meta-analysis using a univariate binary random effects model was carried out on 84 specific treatments reported in 53 publications involving control (n = 9905) and progesterone-treated (n = 9135) cows. Although the results of individual studies showed wide variations (-40% to +50% point changes), progesterone treatment resulted in an overall increase in pregnancy rate odds ratio (OR = 1.12; P < 0.01). Improvements in pregnancy rate were only observed in cows treated at natural estrus (OR = 1.41, P < 0.01) and not following synchronization of estrus or ovulation. Although treatment between Days 3 to 7 postinsemination was beneficial (OR = 1.15; P < 0.01), treatment earlier or later than this was not. Progesterone supplementation was beneficial in cows of lower fertility (<45% control pregnancy rate) but not in cows with higher fertility. These results indicated that the benefit of progesterone supplementation on fertility of cows required exogenous progesterone supplementation to start between Day 3 to 7 and the appropriate reproductive status (i.e., lower fertility, natural estrus) of the treated cows.

  8. Efficacy of Probiotic Supplementation Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Eradication: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jiaqi; Yan, Qiong; Yang, Chun; Xia, Guodong; Zhou, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Background Traditional Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapies have shown efficacies below 80% in several studies, and their use has been accompanied by antibiotic-related side effects. Some recent studies have reported that supplementing standard therapies with probiotics can improve the efficacy and tolerability of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. Objective To assess the effects of probiotic supplementation on the eradication rates and therapy-related adverse event rates of anti-Helicobacter pylori regimens. Methods We searched PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials and the Chinese Biomedical Database for eligible randomized controlled trials published through July, 2015. Review Manager 5.3 was used for all statistical analyses. Results Thirteen randomized controlled trials involving a total of 2306 patients were included in our analysis. Intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis performed using a fixed-effects model (test for heterogeneity I2 = 45%) showed that the pooled relative risk (RR) of eradication was significantly higher in the probiotic supplementation group than in the control group [RR 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–1.20, P<0.00001]. The incidence of total antibiotic-related side effects was lower in the probiotic supplementation group than in the control group, and the pooled RR (studies n = 9) was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.54–0.94, P = 0.02), as determined using a random-effects model (heterogeneity test I2 = 59%). Certain adverse events, such as nausea and vomiting (RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.35–0.95, P = 0.03), diarrhea (RR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31–0.84, P = 0.008) and constipation (RR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.28–0.80, P = 0.005), were reported at lower rates in the probiotic supplementation group than in the control group. Subgroup analysis showed that eradication rates were significantly improved in both adults (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.09–1.19, P<0.00001) and children (RR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05–1.47, P = 0.01) in

  9. Measuring the Impact of a Supplemental Civic Education Program on Students' Civic Attitude and Efficacy Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piñgul, Ferdinand S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the impact of Project Citizen Philippines, an extra-classroom civic education program, on its 3rd and 4th year high school participants' civic attitude and efficacy beliefs. Three hundred forty three participants and 107 non-participants from various public high schools in the Philippines' National Capital Region were compared…

  10. Fish oil supplementation enhanced CPT-11 (irinotecan) efficacy against MCF7 breast carcinoma xenografts and ameliorated intestinal side-effects

    PubMed Central

    Hardman, W E; Moyer, M P; Cameron, I L

    1999-01-01

    The cancer chemotherapeutic efficacy of the topoisomerase I inhibitor, CPT-11 (irinotecan) is often limited by the induction of severe delayed diarrhoea. In animal studies, CPT-11 use is associated with histopathological damage to the mucosa of the small and large intestines. Results from the present study demonstrate that 60 mg CPT-11 per kg body weight (i.v. q4d × 6) halted the growth, but did not cause significant regression, of MCF7 human breast carcinoma xenografts in mice fed a diet containing 7% corn oil. However, when the diet of the MCF7-bearing mice was supplemented with 3% or 6% fish oil, the same CPT-11 treatment caused significant regression of the MCF7 xenograft. Histomorphometric analyses of intestinal mucosa of mice treated with CPT-11 and fed the diet containing 7% corn oil indicated that treatment with CPT-11 induced structural changes in the intestinal mucosa which persisted at least 5 days after the last dose of CPT-11. The intestinal mucosal architecture of mice that were treated with CPT-11 and fed the diets containing fish oil was largely unchanged from the architecture of the group of mice which did not receive CPT-11. These findings indicate that fish oil supplements may be a useful adjunct to CPT-11 treatment. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10507768

  11. Ascorbic acid supplementation does not improve efficacy of meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid treatment in lead-exposed suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Varnai, Veda Marija; Piasek, Martina; Blanusa, Maja; Juresa, Dijana; Sarić, Marija; Kostial, Krista

    2003-10-01

    It was suggested that ascorbic acid as a natural chelating agent can influence lead toxicokinetics and improve chelating properties of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in adult rats. In this paper potential benefits of ascorbic acid supplementation, alone or combined with DMSA, in decreasing lead retention in suckling rats were evaluated. Such data in young mammals are not available. L-Ascorbic acid (daily dose 650 mg/kg b.wt.) and/or DMSA (daily dose 91 mg/kg b.wt.) were administered orally to suckling Wistar rats either during ongoing 8-day oral lead exposure (as acetate; daily dose 2 mg lead/kg b.wt.) or after 3-day lead exposure (total dose 12 mg lead/kg b.wt.). Lead concentrations were analysed in the carcass (skeleton), liver, kidneys and brain by atomic absorption spectrometry. By ascorbic acid supplementation lead retention was not reduced under either lead exposure condition. Lead concentration was even increased in the carcass. Treatment with DMSA under both exposure conditions significantly reduced lead in all analysed tissues. Combined treatment with ascorbic acid and DMSA during ongoing lead exposure was substantially less effective than DMSA treatment alone, and did not affect DMSA efficacy when administered after lead exposure. It was concluded that ascorbic acid administered either during or after lead exposure in suckling rats has no beneficial effect on either lead retention or DMSA chelation effectiveness.

  12. Efficacy of Systemic Vitamin C Supplementation in Reducing Corneal Opacity Resulting from Infectious Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Wun; Yoo, Woong-Sun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Chung, In-Young; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the effect of vitamin C supplementation on reducing the size of corneal opacity resulting from infectious keratitis. The study included 82 patients (82 affected eyes), admitted for infectious keratitis from January 2009 to August 2013, who were followed for more than 3 months. Patients were divided into control, oral vitamin C (3 g/d), and intravenous vitamin C (20 g/d) groups during hospitalization. Corneal opacity sizes were measured using anterior segment photographs and Image J program (version 1.27; National Institutes of Health, Jinju, South Korea) at admission, discharge, and final follow-up. The corneal opacity size used for analysis was the measured opacity size divided by the size of the whole cornea. The corneal opacity size decreased by 0.03 ± 0.10 in the oral vitamin C group, 0.07 ± 0.22 in the intravenous vitamin C group, and 0.02 ± 0.15 in the control group. Intravenous vitamin C reduced the corneal opacity size more than oral vitamin C (P = 0.043). Intravenous vitamin C produced greater reduction in corneal opacity size in younger patients (P = 0.015) and those with a hypopyon (P = 0.036). Systemic vitamin C supplementation reduced the size of corneal opacity resulting from infectious keratitis. Intravenous vitamin C was more beneficial than oral supplementation, especially in younger patients and those with hypopyon. PMID:25415664

  13. SAFETY AND EFFICACY OF HIGH DOSE DAILY VITAMIN D3 SUPPLEMENTATION IN CHILDREN AND YOUNG ADULTS WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Kelly A.; Bertolaso, Chiara; Schall, Joan I.; Smith-Whitley, Kim; Stallings, Virginia A.

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal vitamin D (vitD) status (<32 ng/ml) is ubiquitous among African American children with type SS sickle cell disease (SCD-SS). The vitD supplemental dose to normalize vitD status is unknown. Five to 20-year-old African-American children with (n=21) and without (n=23) SCD-SS were randomized to vitD3 supplementation (4,000 or 7,000 IU/day) and evaluated at 6- and 12-weeks for changes in vitD and SCD status. A dose was considered unsafe if serum calcium was elevated associated with elevated serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)). At baseline 95% of subjects with SCD-SS and 87% of healthy controls had suboptimal vitD status (mean ± SD, 19.2 ± 7.2 and 22.3 ± 9.3 ng/ml, respectively). After 12-weeks supplementation, both D3 doses were safe and well tolerated. Neither group achieved the a priori efficacy criterion of 25(OH)D ≥ 32 ng/ml in >80% of subjects (45% in SCD-SS and 63% in controls). However for both subjects with SCD-SS and healthy subjects by 12-weeks, deficient (< 20 ng/ml) vitD status was eliminated only in those receiving 7,000 IU/d. For subjects with SCD-SS, by 12-weeks there was a significant (all P<0.05) increase in fetal hemoglobin, decrease in HS-CRP, and reduction in the percentage of subjects with a high platelet count. PMID:25985241

  14. An amphetamine isomer whose efficacy and safety in humans has never been studied, β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA), is found in multiple dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Bloszies, Clayton; Yee, Caleb; Gerona, Roy

    2016-01-01

    The amphetamine isomer β-methylphenylethylamine (BMPEA) was first synthesized in the early 1930s, but its efficacy and safety in humans has not been studied. Recently, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) detected BMPEA in dietary supplements labelled as containing Acacia rigidula. Over a year after the FDA reported its findings, we analyzed Acacia rigidula dietary supplements to determine if BMPEA had been removed. Supplements were analyzed using liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Diluted methanolic extract from each supplement was run three times and each data set obtained was analyzed using Agilent MassHunter Qualitative Analysis. The presence of BMPEA was confirmed by accurate mass, retention time and mass spectra match against a reference standard. Quantification of BMPEA was determined using an eight-point calibration curve of spiked standard to a matrix blank. Twenty-one brands of Acacia rigidula supplements were analyzed. More than half (11/21; 52.4%) of the Acacia rigidula supplement brands contained BMPEA. The stimulant was present at quantities such that consumers following recommended maximum daily servings would consume a maximum of 93.7 mg of BMPEA per day. Consumers of Acacia rigidula supplements may be exposed to pharmacological dosages of an amphetamine isomer that lacks evidence of safety in humans. The FDA should immediately warn consumers about BMPEA and take aggressive enforcement action to eliminate BMPEA in dietary supplements. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A Bridge to Developing Efficacious Science Teachers of "All" Students: Community-Based Service-Learning Supplemented with Explicit Discussions and Activities about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Neporcha

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the effects of community-based service-learning (CBSL), supplemented with discussions and activities about diversity, on the self-efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers regarding equitable science teaching and learning for diverse student groups. The study was conducted with 81 preservice teachers enrolled in four…

  16. Sago supplementation for exercise performed in a thermally stressful environment: Rationale, efficacy and opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Che Jusoh, Mohd Rahimi; Stannard, Stephen R.; Mündel, Toby

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sago (Metroxylin sagu), a carbohydrate (CHO) based dietary staple of Southeast Asia is easily digestible and quickly absorbed, and thus has potential to be prescribed as an affordable pre-and post-exercise food in this part of the world. Compared to other CHO staples, research into the physiological response to sago ingestion is sparse, and only a few recent studies have investigated its value before, during, and after exercise. The purpose of this review is to describe the published literature pertaining to sago, particularly as a supplement in the peri-exercise period, and suggest further avenues of research, principally in an environment/climate which would be experienced in Southeast Asia i.e. hot/humid. PMID:28349080

  17. Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Report No. 4 is precursory to Report No. 5 {open_quotes}Determination of the Quantity and Locations of the Pu Currently Retained in the Cimarron Fuel Plant Systems{close_quotes} which will be presented upon completion of the decontamination of the Cimarron Plutonium Fuel Fabrication Facility. This report presents the Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) procedures which were developed and used by Sequoyah Fuels Corporation (successor to Kerr-McGee Nuclear Corporation) to measure equipment hold-up of plutonium materials for inventory purposes during operation of the plant. These procedures are also used to measure plutonium contamination on the equipment removed from the Material Balance Areas (MBA`s) during final decontamination. Report No. 5 will compare the measurements taken during this final decontamination period to previous inventory hold-up measurements, the date will be statistically analyzed, and a long-term assessment of the performance of the NDA equipment will be described.

  18. Efficacy and safety of fortification and supplementation with vitamin B12: biochemical and physiological effects.

    PubMed

    Carmel, Ralph

    2008-06-01

    Long known as an uncommon but serious medical disorder requiring medical management, vitamin B12 deficiency is now seen to be common worldwide, but it is in a quite different form than traditionally envisioned. Most of the newly recognized deficiency is subclinical in nature, its health impact and natural history are uncertain, and its prevalence has been greatly inflated by also including persons with "low-normal" vitamin B12 levels, few of whom are deficient. The spread of folic acid fortification has also introduced concerns about folate's potentially adverse neurologic consequences in persons with undetected vitamin B12 deficiency. Fortification with vitamin B12 may prove more complicated than fortification with folic acid, however, because the bioavailability of vitamin B12 is limited. Bioavailability for those who need the vitamin B12 the most is especially poor, because they often have malabsorption affecting either classical intrinsic factor-mediated absorption or food-vitamin B12 absorption. Moreover, new evidence shows that many elderly persons respond poorly to daily oral doses under 500 microg (1 microg = 0.74 nmol), even if they do not have classical malabsorption, which suggests that proposed fortification with 1 to 10 microg may be ineffective. Those least in need of vitamin B12 usually have normal absorption and are thus at greatest risk for whatever unknown adverse effects of high-dose fortification might emerge, such as the effects of excess accumulation of cyanocobalamin. Studies are needed to define the still unproven health benefits of vitamin B12 fortification, the optimal levels of fortification, the stability of such fortification, interactions with other nutrients, and any possible adverse effects on healthy persons. The answers will permit formulation of appropriately informed decisions about mandatory fortification or (because fortification may prove a poor choice) about targeted supplementation in subpopulations with special needs for

  19. Efficacy of vitamins B supplementation on mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Meng; Yu, Jin-Tai; Wang, Hui-Fu; Jiang, Teng; Wang, Jun; Meng, Xiang-Fei; Tan, Chen-Chen; Wang, Chong; Tan, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Despite B vitamin supplementation playing an important role in cognitive function, the exact effect remains unknown. The aim of this study was to systematically review and quantitatively synthesize the efficacy of treatment with vitamins B supplementation in slowing the rate of cognitive, behavioral, functional and global decline in individuals with MCI or AD. A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, clinicaltrials. gov, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Cognitive Improvement Group specialized registry was conducted on April 2014, with no limit of date. Five trials met the eligibility criteria and were selected for this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed moderate beneficial effects of vitamins B supplementation on memory (SMD 0.60, 95% CI 0.20, 1.00), whereas no significant difference on general cognitive function (WMD -0.10, 95% CI -0.80, 0.59), executive function (SMD 0.05, 95% CI -0.11, 0.21) and attention (WMD -0.03, 95% CI -1.20, 1.14) were found in MCI patients. In addition, no significantly cognitive benefits on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-cog) (WMD 1.01, 95% CI -0.68, 2.70) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) (WMD -0.22, 95% CI -1.00, 0.57), functional (SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.05, 0.31), behavioral (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.16, 0.25) or global (WMD 0.07, 95% CI -0.48, 0.62) change were observed in AD patients. Collectively, weak evidence of benefits was observed for the domains of memory in patients with MCI. Nevertheless, future standard RCTs are still needed to determine whether it was still significant in larger populations. However, the data does not yet provide adequate evidence of an effect of vitamins B on general cognitive function, executive function and attention in people with MCI. Similarly, folic acid alone or vitamins B in combination are unable to stabilize or slow decline in cognition, function, behavior, and

  20. Los Alamos safeguards program overview and NDA in safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Keepin, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Over the years the Los Alamos safeguards program has developed, tested, and implemented a broad range of passive and active nondestructive analysis (NDA) instruments (based on gamma and x-ray detection and neutron counting) that are now widely employed in safeguarding nuclear materials of all forms. Here very briefly, the major categories of gamma ray and neutron based NDA techniques, give some representative examples of NDA instruments currently in use, and cite a few notable instances of state-of-the-art NDA technique development. Historical aspects and a broad overview of the safeguards program are also presented.

  1. Efficacy of supplementation of selected medicinal mushrooms with inorganic selenium salts.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemysław; Mleczek, Mirosław; Siwulski, Marek; Gąsecka, Monika; Kozak, Lidia; Rissmann, Iwona; Mikołajczak, Patrycja

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of supplementation with inorganic forms of selenium (Na2SeO4 and Na2SeO3) in concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5 mM of three medicinal mushroom species: Agrocybe aegerita, Hericium erinaceus and Ganoderma lucidum. Tested mushroom species grew in Se additions of 0-0.6 mM (A. aegerita and H. erinaceus), while growth of G. lucidum bodies was observed for 0-0.8 mM. For the latter mushroom species, the total Se content was the highest. Content of Seorg was diverse; for control bodies it was the highest for G. lucidum (only organic forms were present), lower for A. aegerita (84% organic forms) and the lowest for H. erinaceus (56% organic forms). Accumulation of Se(IV) was generally significantly higher than Se(VI) for all tested mushroom species. There was no significant decrease of A. aegerita or G. lucidum biomass with the exception of G. lucidum bodies growing under 0.8 mM of Se species addition (15.51 ± 6.53 g). Biomass of H. erinaceus bodies was the highest under 0.2 (197.04 ± 8.73 g), control (191.80 ± 6.06 g) and 0.1 mM (185.04 ± 8.73 g) of both inorganic salts. The addition to the medium of Se salts brought about macroscopic changes in the fruiting bodies of the examined mushrooms. Concentrations exceeding 0.4 mM caused diminution of carpophores or even their total absence. In addition, colour changes of fruiting bodies were also recorded. At Se concentrations of 0.4 and 0.6 mM, A. aegerita fruiting bodies were distinctly lighter and those of H. erinaceus changed colour from purely white to white-pink.

  2. Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

    PubMed

    Alsina, Estefania; Macri, Elisa V; Lifshitz, Fima; Bozzini, Clarisa; Rodriguez, Patricia N; Boyer, Patricia M; Friedman, Silvia M

    2016-06-01

    Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fat (%) was similar among all rats; but HOSO-F showed the lowest intestinal, epididymal and perirenal fat. However, bone mineral content and density, and bone yield stress and modulus of elasticity were unchanged. Growing hypercholesterolemic rats fed HOSO with P or F improved serum lipids and fat distribution, but did not influence material bone quality.

  3. A Bridge to Developing Efficacious Science Teachers of All Students: Community-Based Service-Learning Supplemented with Explicit Discussions and Activities about Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cone, Neporcha

    2009-08-01

    This study explored the effects of community-based service-learning (CBSL), supplemented with discussions and activities about diversity, on the self-efficacy beliefs of preservice elementary teachers regarding equitable science teaching and learning for diverse student groups. The study was conducted with 81 preservice teachers enrolled in four sections of an elementary science methods course over a semester. Employing a mixed-methods research design, data were collected using pretests-posttests with the study sample and semistructured interviews with a subsample. The results support the value of preservice teachers engaging in CBSL experiences, supplemented with discussions and activities about diversity, as a way to improve their self-efficacy beliefs regarding equitable science teaching and learning of all students.

  4. Efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in prevention of cardiovascular disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Woong; Oh, Seung-Won; Park, Sang Min; Koo, Bon-Kwon; Park, Byung-Joo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Design Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Data sources and study selection PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Scopus, CINAHL, and ClinicalTrials.gov searched in June and November 2012. Two authors independently reviewed and selected eligible randomised controlled trials, based on predetermined selection criteria. Results Out of 2240 articles retrieved from databases and relevant bibliographies, 50 randomised controlled trials with 294 478 participants (156 663 in intervention groups and 137 815 in control groups) were included in the final analyses. In a fixed effect meta-analysis of the 50 trials, supplementation with vitamins and antioxidants was not associated with reductions in the risk of major cardiovascular events (relative risk 1.00, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.02; I2=42%). Overall, there was no beneficial effect of these supplements in the subgroup meta-analyses by type of prevention, type of vitamins and antioxidants, type of cardiovascular outcomes, study design, methodological quality, duration of treatment, funding source, provider of supplements, type of control, number of participants in each trial, and supplements given singly or in combination with other supplements. Among the subgroup meta-analyses by type of cardiovascular outcomes, vitamin and antioxidant supplementation was associated with a marginally increased risk of angina pectoris, while low dose vitamin B6 supplementation was associated with a slightly decreased risk of major cardiovascular events. Those beneficial or harmful effects disappeared in subgroup meta-analysis of high quality randomised controlled trials within each category. Also, even though supplementation with vitamin B6 was associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular death in high quality trials, and vitamin E supplementation with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction

  5. 21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph...

  6. Evaluation Series on Safety and Efficacy of Nutritional Supplements in Newly Diagnosed Hyperglycemia: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Thacker, Hemant; Bantwal, Ganapati; Jain, Sunil; Kalra, Sanjay; Kale, Shailaja; Saboo, Banshi; Gupta, Jugal B.; Sivam, Sakthivel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is endemic with developing economies contributing to the bulk of this pandemic. Despite the evidence of incremental benefit of glycemic control starting early in life, acceptance of and adherence to modern medications remain suboptimal. Aims: To determine the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)-lowering efficacy and safety of nutritional supplement, PreCrea®, in adult Indians with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia. Materials and Methods: Double-blind, randomized study conducted in six diabetes centers in India. A total of 193 treatment-naïve subjects with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) >100 mg/dL were randomized into either PreCrea® 600 mg (n = 90) or matched placebo (n = 89) capsules twice daily, along with lifestyle modification, for 12 weeks. The main outcomes were changes in HbA1c and FPG levels, attainment of the American Diabetes Association (ADA)-defined goals for HbA1c, and clinical and biochemical measures of safety. Results: At 12 weeks, mean HbA1c in PreCrea® group reduced by 0.91% compared with 0.08% increase in the placebo group (P < .001). The reductions in the mean FPG at week 4 (P < .001) and week 12 (P = 0.04) were significant compared to the baseline. ADA goal of HbA1c <7% increased from 15.5% at the baseline to 35.6% at week 12 in PreCrea® subjects. Clinical safety and biochemical safety did not change. Hypoglycemia and weight gain were not observed with PreCrea®. Conclusions: Nearly 1% point reduction in HbA1c at week 12 with PreCrea® is comparable with most first-line glucose-lowering drugs. The safety and tolerability of PreCrea® highlights its potential as a first-line therapy in newly detected hyperglycemia. PMID:27042609

  7. Smear layer removal efficacy of combination of herbal extracts in two different ratios either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation: An in vitro scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen; Gyanani, Hitesh; Kamatagi, Laxmikant

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the combination of two natural extracts in varying ratios for removal of smear layer either alone or supplemented with sonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Fifty extracted single-rooted teeth were collected, disinfected and decoronated below the cementoenamel junction to obtain standardized root length of 10 mm. Root canals were instrumented using rotary files at working length 1 mm short of the apex. Specimens were divided into six groups according to the irrigation protocol as follows: Group A – Distilled water, Group B – 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, Group C – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio, Group D – Herbal extracts in 1:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation, Group E – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio, Group F – Herbal extracts in 2:1 ratio supplemented with sonic agitation. Specimens were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated under scanning electron microscope for smear layer removal efficacy. Obtained scores were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: Among all, Group B showed the best results followed by Group F. Remaining other groups showed inferior outcome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The combination of two extracts in 2:1 ratio was slightly better than 1:1 ratio and the smear layer removal efficacy was further improved when accompanied with sonic agitation. PMID:26430300

  8. The effect of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on cardiometabolic health: Rationale, design, and methods of a controlled feeding efficacy trial in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Cassie M; Davy, Brenda M; Halliday, Tanya M; Hulver, Mathew W; Neilson, Andrew P; Ponder, Monica A; Davy, Kevin P

    2015-11-01

    Prediabetes is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). An elevated lipopolysaccharide concentration, associated with dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, has been implicated in the development of both T2D and CVD. Selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics reduces intestinal permeability and endotoxin concentrations, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in rodents. The effect of prebiotic supplementation on cardio-metabolic function in humans at risk for T2D is not known. The primary aim of this trial is to determine the influence of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility in adults at risk for T2D. We hypothesize that prebiotic supplementation with inulin will improve insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility. We will randomize 48 adults (40-75 yrs) with prediabetes or a score ≥ 5 on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk screener to 6 weeks of prebiotic supplementation with inulin (10 g/day) or placebo. Subjects will be provided with all food for the duration of the study, to avoid potential confounding through differences in dietary intake between individuals. Intestinal permeability, serum endotoxin concentrations, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and fecal bacterial composition will be measured at baseline and following treatment. The identification of prebiotic supplementation with inulin as an efficacious strategy for reducing cardio-metabolic risk in individuals at risk of T2D could impact clinical practice by informing dietary recommendations and increasing acceptance of prebiotics by the scientific and medical community.

  9. The Effect of Prebiotic Supplementation with Inulin On Cardiometabolic Health: Rationale, Design, and Methods Of A Controlled Feeding Efficacy Trial in Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cassie M.; Davy, Brenda M.; Halliday, Tanya M.; Hulver, Mathew W.; Neilson, Andrew P.; Ponder, Monica A.; Davy, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Prediabetes is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation that increases the risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). An elevated lipopolysaccharide concentration, associated with dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota, has been implicated in the development of both T2D and CVD. Selective modulation of the intestinal microbiota with prebiotics reduces intestinal permeability and endotoxin concentrations, inflammation, and metabolic dysfunction in rodents. The effect of prebiotic supplementation on cardio-metabolic function in those at risk for T2D is not known. The primary aim of this trial is to determine the influence of prebiotic supplementation with inulin on insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility in adults at risk for T2D. We hypothesize that prebiotic supplementation with inulin will improve insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility. We will randomize 48 adults (40–75 yrs) with prediabetes or a score ≥5 on the American Diabetes Association (ADA) risk screener to 6 weeks of prebiotic supplementation with inulin (10 g/day) or placebo. Subjects will be provided with all food for the duration of the study, to avoid potential confounding through differences in dietary intake between individuals. Intestinal permeability, serum endotoxin concentrations, insulin sensitivity, skeletal muscle metabolic flexibility, endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and fecal bacterial composition will be measured at baseline and following treatment. The identification of prebiotic supplementation with inulin as an efficacious strategy for reducing cardio-metabolic risk in individuals at risk of T2M could impact clinical practice by informing dietary recommendations and increasing acceptance of prebiotics by the scientific and medical community. PMID:26520413

  10. Effect of Medicinal Plant By-products Supplementation to Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Economic Efficacy in the Late Fattening Period of Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. J.; Kim, D. H.; Guan, Le Luo; Ahn, S. K.; Cho, K. W.; Lee, Sung S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of medicinal plant by-products (MPB) supplementation to a total mixed ration (TMR) on growth, carcass characteristics and economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. Twenty seven steers (body weight [BW], 573±57 kg) were assigned to 3 treatment groups so that each treatment based on BW contained 9 animals. All groups received ad libitum TMR throughout the feeding trial until slaughter (from 24 to 30 months of age) and treatments were as follows: control, 1,000 g/kg TMR; treatment 1 (T1), 970 g/kg TMR and 30 g/kg MPB; treatment 2 (T2), 950 g/kg TMR and 50 g/kg MPB. Initial and final BW were not different among treatments. Resultant data were analyzed using general linear models of SAS. Average daily gain and feed efficiency were higher (p<0.05) for T1 than control, but there was no difference between control and T2. Plasma albumin showed low-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, whereas non-esterified fatty acid was high-, intermediate- and high-level (p<0.05) for control, T1 and T2, respectively. Carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and rib eye muscle area were not affected by MPB supplementation, whereas quality and yield grades were highest (p<0.05) for T1 and T2, respectively. Daily feed costs were decreased by 0.5% and 0.8% and carcass prices were increased by 18.1% and 7.6% for T1 and T2 compared to control, resulting from substituting TMR with 30 and 50 g/kg MPB, respectively. In conclusion, the substituting TMR by 30 g/kg MPB may be a potential feed supplement approach to improve economic efficacy in the late fattening period of Hanwoo steers. PMID:26580440

  11. Review of the safety and efficacy of vitamin A supplementation in the treatment of children with severe acute malnutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend for children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), high-dose vitamin A (VA) supplements be given on day 1 of admission, and on days 2 and 14 in the case of clinical signs of vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Daily low-dose VA follows, delivered in a pre...

  12. An Open-Label Evaluator Blinded Study of the Efficacy and Safety of a New Nutritional Supplement in Androgenetic Alopecia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Anna J.; Hughes, Olivia Bosshardt; Canazza, Agnese

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a novel oral supplement, Forti5®, containing green tea extract, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, cholecalciferol, melatonin, beta-sitosterol, and soy isoflavones, and in the management of subjects with androgenetic alopecia. Design: A prospective case series of 10 subjects. Setting: Open-label, evaluator-blinded, proof-of-concept study. Participants: Ten adult subjects with androgenetic alopecia completed the study. Subjects were not allowed to use oral or topical hair growth products in the 24 weeks preceding the study or during the study. The nutritional supplement was administered at a dosage of two tablets daily for 24 weeks. Measurements: Clinical evaluations were performed at baseline and at 24 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated using hair mass index measured by cross section trichometer, terminal hair count measured with dermoscopy and Investigator Global Photography Assessment. Results: Overall 80 percent of subjects (8/10) were rated as improved after 24 weeks of supplementation (mean change of +1.4 equivalent to slightly-to-moderately increased). Forty percent of subjects (4/10) were rated as moderately improved (2+), and 10 percent (1/10) were rated as greatly improved (3+). There was a significant improvement in terminal hair count (mean increase of 5.9% or 4.2 more terminal hairs in the area examined, p=0.014) and in Hair Mass Index (mean increase of 9.5% or 4.5 higher Hair Mass Index, p=0.003). Conclusion: These preliminary results indicate that Forti5® a novel nutritional supplement that contains cholecalciferol, omega 3 and 6 fatty acids, melatonin, antioxidants, and botanical 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. PMID:28367262

  13. Fabricating defensible reference standards for the NDA lab

    SciTech Connect

    Ceo, R.N.; May, P.K.

    1997-11-01

    Nondestructive analysis (NDA) is performed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in support of the enriched uranium operations. Process materials are analyzed using gamma ray- and neutron-based instruments including segmented gamma scanners, solution assay systems, and an active well coincidence counter. Process wastes are also discarded based on results of these measurements. Good analytical practice, as well as applicable regulations, mandates that these analytical methods be calibrated using reference materials traceable to the national standards base. Reference standards for NDA instruments are not commercially available owing to the large quantities of special nuclear materials involved. Instead, representative materials are selected from each process stream, then thoroughly characterized by methods that are traceable to the national standards base. This paper discusses the process materials to be analyzed, reference materials selected for calibrating each NDA instrument, and details of their characterization and fabrication into working calibrations standards. Example calibration curves are also presented. 4 figs.

  14. The relationship between maternal self-efficacy, compliance and outcome in a trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Barker, M; D'Angelo, S; Ntani, G; Lawrence, W; Baird, J; Jarman, M; Vogel, C; Inskip, H; Cooper, C; Harvey, N C

    2017-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial of vitamin D during pregnancy, we demonstrated that women with lower self-efficacy were more likely to experience practical problems with taking the trial medication and that this was associated with lower compliance and achieved 25(OH)-vitamin D concentrations.

  15. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: The Efficacy of Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Alleviating Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Associated with Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Manfrini, Enrico; Ferri, Emanuele; La Ferla, Barbara; Schiano, Irene; Michelotti, Angela; Nobile, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim. The efficacy of supplementation treatment with two multispecies probiotic formulates on subjects diagnosed with IBS-C and the assessment of their gut microbiota were investigated. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, three-arm parallel group trial was carried out on 150 IBS-C subjects divided into three groups (F_1, F_2, and F_3). Each group received a daily oral administration of probiotic mixtures (for 60 days) F_1 or F_2 or placebo F_3, respectively. Fecal microbiological analyses were performed by species-specific qPCR to assess the different amount of probiotics. Results. The percentage of responders for each symptom was higher in the probiotic groups when compared to placebo group during the treatment period (t60) and was maintained quite similar during the follow-up period (t90). Fecal analysis demonstrated that probiotics of the formulations increased during the times of treatment only in fecal DNA from subjects treated with F_1 and F_2 and not with F_3, and the same level was maintained during the follow-up period. Conclusions. Multispecies probiotic supplementations are effective in IBS-C subjects and induce a different assessment in the composition of intestinal microbiota. This clinical study is registered with the clinical study registration number ISRCTN15032219. PMID:27595104

  16. Efficacy of Enteral Supplementation Enriched with Glutamine, Fiber, and Oligosaccharide on Mucosal Injury following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Iyama, Satoshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Tatsumi, Hiroomi; Hashimoto, Akari; Tatekoshi, Ayumi; Kamihara, Yusuke; Horiguchi, Hiroto; Ibata, Soushi; Ono, Kaoru; Murase, Kazuyuki; Takada, Kohichi; Sato, Yasushi; Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Miyanishi, Koji; Akizuki, Emi; Nobuoka, Takayuki; Mizugichi, Toru; Takimoto, Rishu; Kobune, Masayoshi; Hirata, Koichi; Kato, Junji

    2014-01-01

    The combination of glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharides (GFO) is thought to be beneficial for alleviating gastrointestinal mucosal damage caused by chemotherapy. A commercial enteral supplementation product (GFO) enriched with these 3 components is available in Japan. We performed a retrospective study to test whether oral GFO decreased the severity of mucosal injury following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Of 44 HSCT patients, 22 received GFO and 22 did not. Severity of diarrhea/mucositis, overall survival, weight loss, febrile illness/documented infection, intravenous hyperalimentation days/hospital days, engraftment, acute and chronic GVHD, and cumulative incidence of relapse were studied. Sex, age, performance status, diagnosis, disease status, and treatment variables were similar in both groups. There were fewer days of diarrhea grade 3–4 in patients receiving GFO than in those who did not (0.86 vs. 3.27 days); the same was true for days of mucositis grade 3–4 (3.86 vs. 6.00 days). Survival at day 100 was 100% in the GFO group, but only 77.3% for the patients not receiving GFO (p = 0.0091, log-rank test). Weight loss and the number of days of intravenous hyperalimentation were better in the GFO group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.0014, respectively). Although not significant, less gut bacterial translocation with Enterococcus species developed in the GFO group (p = 0.0728) than in the non-GFO group. Other outcomes were not affected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative clinical study of GFO supplementation to alleviate mucosal injury after allo-HSCT. We conclude that glutamine, fiber and oligosaccharide supplementation is an effective supportive therapy to decrease the severity of mucosal damage in HSCT. PMID:25493082

  17. Soaking increases the efficacy of supplemental microbial phytase in a low-phosphorus corn-soybean meal diet for growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Bollinger, D W; Ledoux, D R; Ellersieck, M R; Veum, T L

    1997-05-01

    Sixty-three crossbred barrows averaging 18.7 kg initial BW were used in a 6-wk study of the effects of soaking on the efficacy of supplemental microbial phytase (Natuphos, BASF) in a low-P corn-soybean meal diet. The basal corn-soybean meal diet contained .06% available P, .32% total P, and .55% Ca with no added inorganic P. The basal diet was supplemented with 0, 250, or 500 phytase units (PU)/kg of diet. The diet was fed dry or soaked (2 parts water:1 part diet and mixed for 2 h at 30 degrees C before feeding) in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A positive control diet was supplemented with inorganic P and provided .23% available P, .48% total P, and .60% Ca. Pigs were individually penned and fed their respective diets to appetite in four equal meals daily. There were no soaking x phytase interactions (P > .1 to .6) for growth performance criteria. Daily gain and gain/feed ratio were increased (P < .01) by soaking and increased linearly (P < .01) by phytase. Daily feed intake was increased linearly (P < .01) by phytase. There were soaking x phytase quadratic interactions (P < .01) for apparent P absorption criteria because soaking the 250 PU/kg diet increased P absorption similar to that obtained with the 500 PU/kg diet fed dry. Apparent P absorption criteria were increased by soaking (P < .01) and were increased linearly (P < .001) and quadratically (P < .03) by phytase. Phytase reduced fecal P excretion 37 to 40% with dry feeding (P < .03) and 48 to 49% with soaking (P < .01).

  18. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism. PMID:27338456

  19. Efficacy of Folic Acid Supplementation in Autistic Children Participating in Structured Teaching: An Open-Label Trial.

    PubMed

    Sun, Caihong; Zou, Mingyang; Zhao, Dong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie

    2016-06-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are recognized as a major public health issue. Here, we evaluated the effects of folic acid intervention on methylation cycles and oxidative stress in autistic children enrolled in structured teaching. Sixty-six autistic children enrolled in this open-label trial and participated in three months of structured teaching. Forty-four children were treated with 400 μg folic acid (two times/daily) for a period of three months during their structured teaching (intervention group), while the remaining 22 children were not given any supplement for the duration of the study (control group). The Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) and Psychoeducational Profile-third edition (PEP-3) were measured at the beginning and end of the treatment period. Folic acid, homocysteine, and glutathione metabolism in plasma were measured before and after treatment in 29 autistic children randomly selected from the intervention group and were compared with 29 age-matched unaffected children (typical developmental group). The results illustrated folic acid intervention improved autism symptoms towards sociability, cognitive verbal/preverbal, receptive language, and affective expression and communication. Furthermore, this treatment also improved the concentrations of folic acid, homocysteine, and normalized glutathione redox metabolism. Folic acid supplementation may have a certain role in the treatment of children with autism.

  20. Setup and organisation of a NDA-system procurement project

    SciTech Connect

    Botte, John; Gielen, Paul

    2007-07-01

    Belgoprocess is momentarily in the process of purchasing its fifth NDA-system. Measurement systems are, although based on general designs, not from the shelf items but tailor-made sophisticated and highly automated devices. It is obvious that such a project cannot be carried out by solely a NDA team, but needs a multifunctional team. This team combines NDA expertise with experts in civil works, electrical and mechanical engineering, procurement, IT, safety and legal administration. From less positive experiences in the past, Belgoprocess learned a lot and has now a systematic in place. This systematic structures the project from definition of requirements to operation, a two to three year process. This paper defines the phases of a NDA project and gives for each phase some do's and don'ts. A second subject is the writing and handling of the vast but needed and required documentation. It gives a brief overview of the over thirty documents and files needed. The described, integrated and formal approach reduces the risk of failing projects, systems not meeting the expectations or denied qualification. It puts clear agreements in place, smoothening the relationship between company, supplier and authorities. (authors)

  1. Efficacy of growth hormone supplementation with gonadotrophins in vitro fertilization for poor ovarian responders: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaoying; Ruan, Jian; He, Lian-Ping; Hu, Weihua; Xu, Qinyang; Tang, Jingwen; Jiang, Jian; Han, Jun; Peng, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is involved in the regulation of male and female infertility. Several clinical studies reveal that adjuvant GH treatment has a possible role in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), especially in poor ovarian responders (POR) undergoing IVF/ICSI. Recent studies suggest that GH addition in POR patients significantly improves the rate of clinical pregnancy and live birth. Databases including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Central China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and Google Scholar were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or controlled clinical trials (CCTs) on the effectiveness of GH supplementation with gonadotrophins in IVF/ICSI for POR. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality. Meta Analyst Beta 3.13 software was used to meta-analysis. Eleven studies (six RCTs and five CCTs) and 3788 subjects (613 subjects in cases group and 3175 subjects in controls group) were included in our study. The results of meta-analysis showed that GH addition significantly increased serum E2 level on the day of HCG (OR = 0.55; 95% CI = 0.127-0.973) and MII oocyte number (OR = 0.827; 95% CI = 0.470-1.184). Furthermore, GH addition significantly improved the number of 2PN (OR = 0.934; 95% CI = 0.206-1.661) and obtained embryos (OR = 0.934; 95% CI = 0.206-1.661). However, no significant difference was found for the overall implantation rate was 8.8% (95% CI = -0.062-0.237) and clinical pregnancy rate was 5.1% (95% CI = -0.033-0.134). The present result revel that GH supplementation for IVF/ICSI in POR increases the probability of serum E2 level on the day of HCG, the number of MII oocyte, 2PN and obtained embryos. However, GH addition does not increase implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rates. Due to the limited quantity and quality of the included studies as well as the difference in methodology, we

  2. Emerging Supplements in Sports

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Bryan C.; Lavallee, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Nutritional supplements advertised as ergogenic are commonly used by athletes at all levels. Health care professionals have an opportunity and responsibility to counsel athletes concerning the safety and efficacy of supplements on the market. Evidence Acquisition: An Internet search of common fitness and bodybuilding sites was performed to identify supplement promotions. A search of MEDLINE (2000–August, 2011) was performed using the most commonly identified supplements, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. The search terms supplement, ergogenic aid, and performance were also used. Results: Six common and newer supplements were identified, including glutamine, choline, methoxyisoflavone, quercetin, zinc/magnesium aspartate, and nitric oxide. Conclusions: Controlled studies have not determined the effects of these supplements on performance in athletes. Scientific evidence is not available to support the use of these supplements for performance enhancement. PMID:23016081

  3. A brief history of NDA at the IAEA.

    SciTech Connect

    Sprinkle, J. K.; Sinkule, B. J.; Hsue, S.-T.; Abhold, M. E.

    2001-01-01

    Nearly 30 years ago, the first portable nondestructive assay instrument, a SAM-II, was brought to Vienna for IAEA consideration. This initial foray into the usage of nondestructive assay (NDA) as an independent assessment tool has materialized into one of the important tools for IAEA inspections. NDA instruments have several inherent advantages for inspectors; their measurements generate no radioactive waste, provide immediate answers, do not require specialized operators, and can be either taken to the items to be measured (portable instruments), or the items for measurement can be brought to the instruments, such as can be applied in on-site IAEA laboratories or off-site IAEA lab at Siebersdorf. The SAM-II was a small, lightweight, battery-powered, gamma-ray instrument used for uranium enrichment measurements. It was also found to be usehl for locating nuclear material, distinguishing between uranium and plutonium, and determining the active length of items like fuel pins. However it was not well suited for determining the amount of bulk material present, except for small containers of low-density materials. A 6-sided neutron coincidence counter, easily disassembled so it could be shipped and carried by airplane, was developed for bulk measurements of plutonium. The HLNCC (High Level Neutron Coincidence Counter) was immediately useful for quantitative measurements of pure plutonium oxide. However, the IAEA had to make a trade-off between the ease of use of NDA instruments on-site, and the problems of obtaining small samples for shipment to an independent lab for more accurate analysis. NDA does not create radioactive waste, so as waste handling has become more cautious and more regulated, NDA looks better and better. After acceptance of NDA by the IAEA for routine use, the follow-up question was naturally, 'How much better can this measurement be made?' The Program for Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards (POTAS) supported multiple and varied efforts in this

  4. A neutron method for NDA analysis in the SAPPHIRE Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, K.D.

    1995-01-09

    The implementation of Project SAPPHIRE, the top secret mission to the Republic of Kazakhstan to recover weapons grade nuclear materials, consisted of four major elements: (1) the re-packing of fissile material from Kazakh containers into suitable US containers; (2) nondestructive analyses (NDA) to quantify the U-235 content of each container for Nuclear Criticality Safety and compliance purposes; (3) the packaging of the fissile material containers into 6M/2R drums, which are internationally approved for shipping fissile material; and (4) the shipping or transport of the recovered fissile material to the United States. This paper discusses the development and application of a passive neutron counting technique used in the NDA phase of SAPPHIRE operations to analyze uranium/beryllium (U/Be) alloys and compounds for U-235 content.

  5. Efficacy of an Exercise and Nutritional Supplement Program on Physical Performance and Nutritional Status in Older Adults With Mobility Limitations Residing at Senior Living Facilities.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Michael P; Nelson, Miriam E; Sacheck, Jennifer M; Reid, Kieran F; Kirn, Dylan; Fielding, Roger A; Chui, Kenneth K H; Folta, Sara C

    2017-01-17

    This cluster-randomized trial was designed to determine the efficacy of a 6-month exercise-nutritional supplement program (ENP) on physical function and nutritional status for older adults and the feasibility of implementing this program in a senior living setting. Twenty senior living facilities were randomized to either a three day per week group-based ENP led by a trained facility staff member or a health education program (SAP). Participants (N=121) completed a short physical performance battery, 400 meter walk, handgrip strength test, and mini-nutrition assessment. 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], Insulin-like growth-factor 1 (IGF-1) and activity level were also measured. The ENP did not significantly improve physical function or nutritional status compared with the SAP. Compared with baseline, participants in the ENP engaged in 39 minutes less physical activity per week at 6-months. Several facility characteristics hindered implementation of the ENP. This study highlights the complexity of implementing an evidence-based program in a field setting.

  6. Performance of NDA techniques on a vitrified waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, J.R.; Veazey, G.W.; Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.; Ricketts, T.E.; Nakaoka, R.K.

    1997-11-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is currently considering the use of vitrified transuranic (TRU)-waste forms for the final disposition of several waste materials. To date, however, little nondestructive assay (NDA) data have been acquired in the general NDA community to assist in this endeavor. This paper describes the efforts to determine constraints and operating parameters for using NDA instrumentation on vitrified waste. The present study was conducted on a sample composed of a plutonium-contaminated ash, similar to that found in the RFETS inventory, and a borosilicate-based glass. The vitrified waste item was fabricated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) using methods and equipment similar to those being proposed by RFETS to treat their ash material. The focus of this study centered on the segmented gamma scanner (SGS) with 1/2-inch collimation, a technique that is presently available at RFETS. The accuracy and precision of SGS technology was evaluated, with particular attention to bias issues involving matrix geometry, homogeneity, and attenuation. Tomographic gamma scanning was utilized in the determination of the waste form homogeneity. A thermal neutron technique was also investigated and comparisons made with the gamma results.

  7. Spent Fuel NDA Research Path for the Sweden Encapsulation-Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J.; Trellue, Holly R.; Liljenfeldt, Henrik

    2015-01-22

    This set of slides provides a description of research performed to date on spent fuel NDA: Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project, and NDA analysis and research planned for CLINK. The general purpose is strengthening the technical toolkit of safeguard inspectors. Data mining is being applied to determine the optimal mathematical structure to match the complexity of spent fuel NDA signals and to enable a range of quantities to be estimated.

  8. Efficacy and safety of Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: A randomized trial of two different levels of dosing on maternal and neonatal Vitamin D outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Masoodi, Shariq Rashid; Shafi, Shafia; Hameed, Iqra; Dar, Maqsood Ahmad; Bashir, Mir Iftikhar; Wani, Arshad Iqbal; Shah, Zaffar Amin; Parveen, Shameema; Zargar, Abdul Hamid; Shah, Parviz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Pregnant women represent a typical group susceptible to dietary and mineral deficiencies. This study was sought to assess the efficacy and safety of various doses of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation during pregnancy and ratify the inadequacy of the recommended daily allowance for Vitamin D in vulnerable groups. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 pregnant women were included in this open-label, parallel group, prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. Study subjects were assigned to four treatment groups: Group 1 (n = 26), 1000 IU of Vitamin D daily; Group 2 (n = 21), 30,000 IU of Vitamin D monthly; Group 3 (n = 27), 2000 IU of Vitamin D daily; and Group 4 (n = 26), 60,000 IU Vitamin D monthly. Group 1 and 2 were further analyzed together as Group 1K (1000 IU daily and 30,000 IU monthly), and Group 3 and 4 as Group 2K (2000 IU daily and 60,000 IU monthly). The analysis was done on an intention to treat basis. Results: A total of 87 patients completed the study; 21 in Group 1, 25 in Group 2, 18 in Group 3, and 23 in Group 4. The levels of 25(OH)D at baseline ranged from 1.3 to 58.0 with a mean of 24.2 ± 15.1 ng/ml. Postsupplementation, 25(OH)D levels ranged from 11.5 to 70.3 with a mean of 40.2 ± 12.2 ng/ml. The postsupplementation levels of 25(OH)D were higher in Group 2K (42.86 ± 12.83) than in Group 1K (36.96 ± 10.56) with P value of 0.023. Conclusion: We concluded that Vitamin D supplementation with 2000 IU/day or 60,000 IU/month is very effective and safe in achieving Vitamin D sufficiency in pregnant women. PMID:27186550

  9. Safety and efficacy of tocotrienol supplementation for bone health in postmenopausal women: protocol for a dose–response double-blinded placebo-controlled randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Mo, Huanbiao; Yang, Shengping; Wang, Shu; Felton, Carol K; Tomison, Michael D; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Osteoporosis is a major health concern in postmenopausal women, and oxidative stress contributes to the development of bone loss. Cellular studies and ovariectomised rat model mimicking bone loss in postmenopausal women show the bone-protective effect of tocotrienols (TTs) with antioxidant capability. We aim to access the safety and efficacy of TT consumption for bone health in postmenopausal women. Methods and analysis In this 12-week randomised double-blinded placebo-controlled trial for the effects of dietary TT supplementation in postmenopausal women, postmenopausal women aged 45 years and older with at least 1 year after menopause and bone mineral density T-score at the spine and/or hip 2.5 or more below the reference values will be randomly assigned to 3 daily supplements: (1) placebo group receiving 860 mg olive oil, (2) low TT group receiving 430 mg of 70% pure TTs (containing 300 mg TT) and (3) high TT group receiving 860 mg of 70% pure TTs (600 mg TT). The primary outcome measure will be urinary N-terminal telopeptide. The secondary outcome measures will be serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, osteoprotegerin, urinary 8-hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine and quality of life. At 0, 6 and 12 weeks, the following will be assessed: (1) primary and secondary outcome measures; (2) serum TT and tocopherol concentrations; (3) physical activity and food frequency questionnaires. Liver function will be monitored every 6 weeks for safety. ‘Intent-to-treat’ principle will be employed for data analysis. A model of repeated measurements with random effect error terms will be applied. Analysis of covariance, χ2 analysis and regression will be used for comparisons. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Bioethics Committee of the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center. The findings of this trial will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal in the areas of bone or

  10. Hepatoprotective efficacy of Nigella sativa seeds dietary supplementation against lead acetate-induced oxidative damage in rabbit - Purification and characterization of glutathione peroxidase.

    PubMed

    El-Far, Ali H; Korshom, Mahdy A; Mandour, Abdelwahab A; El-Bessoumy, Ashraf A; El-Sayed, Yasser S

    2017-03-03

    Lead (Pb) is a toxic ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induces hepatotoxicity in both animals and humans. The ability of Nigella saliva seeds (NSS) in ameliorating lead acetate (PbAc)-induced hepatic oxidative damage was investigated using a rabbit model. Forty New Zealand rabbits were given feed and water ad libitum. They were allocated randomly into four groups: control; PbAc (5g/L drinking water); NSS (20g/kg diet) and NSS+PbAc groups. After two months, liver samples were collected and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) contents. Purification and characterization of GPx were also evaluated. PbAc exposure significantly (p<0.05) increased MDA (lipid peroxidation biomarker) and reduced the GSH levels and the GST and GPx activities. Concurrently supplemented NSS significantly (p<0.05) decreased MDA levels and restored the GSH, GST, and GPx contents successfully. Electrophoretically, the homogeneous GPx preparation from the liver had a specific activity of 30.44 U/mg protein and a yield of 1.31%. The Km values for cumene hydroperoxide were 4.76μM in control, PbAc and NSS+PbAc groups, and 4.09μM in NSS group. The GPx reaction had a temperature optimum 40°C, pH optimum 8 and molecular weight 21 kDa. The obtained data indicated the potent efficacy of NSS against PbAc-induced oxidative stress; that was mediated through induction and activation of antioxidants, particularly GPx and scavenging free radicals. Moreover, the purified hepatic GPx is characterized as a selenoprotein (Se-GPx).

  11. Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyi; Liu, Wen; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tieyun; Tian, Haoming

    2016-06-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: -30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -54.87 to -5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: -0.41%; 95% CI: -0.55% to -0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue.

  12. Efficacy of Aloe Vera Supplementation on Prediabetes and Early Non-Treated Diabetic Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Liu, Wen; Liu, Dan; Zhao, Tieyun; Tian, Haoming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate evidence for the efficacy of aloe vera on managing prediabetes and early non-treated diabetes mellitus. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials until 28 January 2016. A total of five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 415 participants were included. Compared with the controls, aloe vera supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of fasting blood glucose (FBG) (p = 0.02; weighed mean difference [WMD]: −30.05 mg/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −54.87 to −5.23 mg/dL), glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (p < 0.00001; WMD: −0.41%; 95% CI: −0.55% to −0.27%), triglyceride (p = 0.0001), total cholesterol (TC) (p < 0.00001), and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) (p < 0.00001). Aloe vera was superior to placebo in increasing serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels (p = 0.04). Only one adverse event was reported. The evidence from RCTs showed that aloe vera might effectively reduce the levels of FBG, HbA1c, triglyceride, TC and LDL-C, and increase the levels of HDL-C on prediabetes and early non-treated diabetic patients. Limited evidence exists about the safety of aloe vera. Given the small number and poor quality of RCTs included in the meta-analysis, these results are inconclusive. A large-scale, well-designed RCT is needed to further address this issue. PMID:27347994

  13. Supplements and athletes.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, John A

    2004-09-01

    Supplements have become a staple with athletes. Athletes take supplements to enhance their performance through replenishment of real and perceived deficiencies, anabolic action of stimulants, increased energy and alertness, and for weight control. Physicians who deal with athletes should be aware of the supplements being utilized by athletes, the athletes' desired effects and the efficacy of the supplement, the adverse effects, and whether the supplement is banned by leagues or organizations in which the athletes are competing. For those athletes who are regularly drug tested for performance enhancers, it is important to remember that one cannot be 100% sure that any supplement will not result in a positive drug test, because there is no independent agency certifying purity.

  14. The efficacy of bait supplements for improving the rate of discovery of bait stations in the field by the formosan subterranean termite (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests of four different bait supplements were conducted in City Park, New Orleans, Louisiana. The four bait supplements tested included two different formulations of decayed material, a sports drink, and the combination of an application of an aqueous solution of Summon Preferred Food SourceTM...

  15. Results from the first Waste and Residue NDA Measurements School

    SciTech Connect

    Ensslin, N.; Abhold, M.; Coop, K.; Prettyman, T.; Rinard, P.; Sheppard, G.; Smith, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    The first Waste and Residue Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements School was given at Los Alamos on June 3--7, 1996. This school is a new part of the DOE Office of Safeguards and Security, Safeguards Training Program, with additional instructor support from the National Transuranic Waste Program, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Westinghouse savannah River Company, Pajarito Scientific Corporation, and Canberra Industries. The school was attended by 22 safeguards and waste measurement personnel from DOE facilities, and included lectures on waste characterization requirements, the WIPP Performance Demonstration Program, waste and residue NDA techniques, and a workshop discussion on waste assay issues. Hands-on training modules with 55-gallon-drum waste assay systems were held using a Segmented Gamma-ray Scanner, a Tomographic Gamma-ray Scanner, two Add-a-Source Waste-Drum Assay Systems, a Californium Shuffler, and a Differential Die-away system that included Combined Thermal-Epithermal Neutron Interrogation (CTEN). This paper will describe the new school and report on the measurement results obtained during the school with the above-mentioned waste-drum assay systems.

  16. Development of reference materials for SNF NDA systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klann, R. T.

    2000-02-29

    The Department of Energy has over 200 different fuel types which will be placed in a geologic repository for ultimate disposal. At the present time, DOE EM is responsible for assuring safe existing conditions, achieving interim storage, and preparing for final disposition. Each task is governed by regulations which dictate a certain degree of knowledge regarding the contents and condition of the fuel. This knowledge and other associated characteristics are referred to as data needs. It is the stance of DOE EM, that personnel and economic resources are not available to obtain the necessary data to characterize such individual fuel type for final disposal documentation purposes. In addition, it is beyond the need of DOE to do so. This report describes the effort to classify the 200+ fuel types into a subset of fuel types for the purpose of non-destructive analysis (NDA) measurement system development and demonstration testing in support of the DOE National Spent Nuclear Fuel (NSNFP) Program. The fuel types have been grouped into 37 groups based on fuel composition, fuel form, assembly size, enrichment, and other characteristics which affect NDA measurements (e.g., neutron poisons).

  17. Quality assurance in the enriched uranium operations NDA facility

    SciTech Connect

    May, P.K.; Ceo, R.N.

    1997-11-01

    The Nondestructive Analysis (NDA) Facility at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has characterized process wastes for Enriched Uranium Operations since 1978. Since that time, over 50,000 items have been analyzed. Analysis results are used to determine whether or not recovery of uranium from process wastes is economically feasible. Our instrument complement includes one large segmented gamma scanner (SGS), two smaller SGS, two solution assay systems (SAS), and Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC). The large SGS is used for analyzing High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters ant 208-L drums filled with combustible contaminated waste. The smaller SGS are used to analyze 4-L containers of ash and leached residues. The SAS are used to analyze 125 ml bottles of aqueous or organic waste solutions that may contain uranium. The gamma-based NDA techniques are used to identify which process wastes can be discarded, and which must be recycled. The AWCC is used to analyze high-density materials which are not amenable to gamma-ray analysis. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  18. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial to Assess Tolerance and Efficacy of Navy Bean and Rice Bran Supplementation for Lowering Cholesterol in Children

    PubMed Central

    Borresen, Erica C.; Jenkins-Puccetti, NaNet; Schmitz, Katie; Brown, Dustin G.; Pollack, Austin; Fairbanks, Amanda; Wdowik, Melissa; Rao, Sangeeta; Nelson, Tracy L.; Luckasen, Gary; Ryan, Elizabeth P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Navy beans and rice bran demonstrate efficacy to regulate serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults; however, the cardiovascular disease (CVD) protective properties of these foods in children are unknown and merit investigation. Objective: The objectives were to determine whether cooked navy bean powder (NBP) and/or heat-stabilized rice bran (RB) supplementation is tolerable, improves dietary fiber intake in children, and modulates lipid profiles. Methods: Children aged 8 to 13 years at risk for CVD due to abnormal lipids were recruited. Elevated cholesterol levels were defined as total cholesterol ≥180 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <60 mg/dL; low-density lipoprotein (LDL) ≥100 mg/dL and HDL <60 mg/dL; or non-HDL >100 mg/dL and HDL <60 mg/dL. Participants completed a pilot 4-week, randomized controlled, 4-arm dietary intervention. They consumed study-provided muffins or a smoothie daily that included 0 g NBP or RB (control), 17.5 g NBP, 15 g RB, or a combination 9 g NBP + 8 g RB. Fasting blood was collected at baseline and week 4. Participants also completed 3-day food logs and gastrointestinal health questionnaires. Results: Thirty-eight children completed the trial (n = 9 control, n = 10 NBP, n = 9 RB, and n = 10 NBP + RB groups). Only 3 participants withdrew due to noncompliance of required food consumption. Participants in the intervention groups significantly increased intake of NBP and RB at week 4 (p≤.01). The NBP and NBP + RB groups increased total fiber intake from baseline to week 4 (p=.02 and p=<.01, respectively). HDL-cholesterol was higher in NBP-group participants compared to control at week 4 (P = .02). Conclusion: Increasing NBP and/or RB intake is tolerable for children, and our findings suggest higher daily intakes are needed for a longer duration to induce favorable changes across multiple serum lipid parameters. PMID:28345013

  19. Efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of β-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U β-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, β-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p < 0.05). Dietary treatments did not influence the total tract digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy. Enzyme supplementation reduced (p < 0.05) the population of faecal coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission.

  20. A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled, Multi-center, Extension Trial Evaluating the Efficacy of a New Oral Supplement in Women with Self-perceived Thinning Hair

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this six-month, randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled study was to determine if the administration of a new oral supplement will promote terminal hair growth. Design: A randomized, double-blind study. Setting: Two private practices (dermatology and facial plastics). Participants: Women 21 to 75 years of age with self-perceived thinning hair. Measurements: The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in terminal and vellus hairs in a 4cm2 target area of the scalp after 90 and 180 days of treatment. Secondary endpoints were change in hair diameter and responses to Quality of Life and Self-Assessment questionnaires. Results: Subjects treated with the new oral supplement achieved a significant increase in the number of baseline terminal hairs at 90 and 180 days (for each, p<0.0001, respectively) and were significantly greater then placebo (p<0.0001). Treatment with the new oral supplement was also associated with a significant increase in baseline terminal hair diameter after 90 (p=0.006) and 180 days of treatment (p=0.001) which was significantly greater than placebo at the end of the study (p=0.003). Improvements in hair growth and hair diameter were associated with significant improvement in most responses to Self-Assessment and Quality of Life Questionnaire responses. There were no adverse events. Conclusion: The daily administration of a new oral supplement was associated with significant increases in the number of terminal and vellus hairs and hair diameter. Most study participants believed the use of the oral supplement resulted in significant improvement in skin and hair quality and quality of life. PMID:26705444

  1. RUMINATIONS ON NDA MEASUREMENT UNCERTAINTY COMPARED TO DA UNCERTAINTY

    SciTech Connect

    Salaymeh, S.; Ashley, W.; Jeffcoat, R.

    2010-06-17

    It is difficult to overestimate the importance that physical measurements performed with nondestructive assay instruments play throughout the nuclear fuel cycle. They underpin decision making in many areas and support: criticality safety, radiation protection, process control, safeguards, facility compliance, and waste measurements. No physical measurement is complete or indeed meaningful, without a defensible and appropriate accompanying statement of uncertainties and how they combine to define the confidence in the results. The uncertainty budget should also be broken down in sufficient detail suitable for subsequent uses to which the nondestructive assay (NDA) results will be applied. Creating an uncertainty budget and estimating the total measurement uncertainty can often be an involved process, especially for non routine situations. This is because data interpretation often involves complex algorithms and logic combined in a highly intertwined way. The methods often call on a multitude of input data subject to human oversight. These characteristics can be confusing and pose a barrier to developing and understanding between experts and data consumers. ASTM subcommittee C26-10 recognized this problem in the context of how to summarize and express precision and bias performance across the range of standards and guides it maintains. In order to create a unified approach consistent with modern practice and embracing the continuous improvement philosophy a consensus arose to prepare a procedure covering the estimation and reporting of uncertainties in non destructive assay of nuclear materials. This paper outlines the needs analysis, objectives and on-going development efforts. In addition to emphasizing some of the unique challenges and opportunities facing the NDA community we hope this article will encourage dialog and sharing of best practice and furthermore motivate developers to revisit the treatment of measurement uncertainty.

  2. Efficacy of using a combination of rendered protein products as an undegradable intake protein supplement for lactating, winter-calving, beef cows fed bromegrass hay.

    PubMed

    Encinias, A M; Lardy, G P; Leupp, J L; Encinias, H B; Reynolds, L P; Caton, J S

    2005-01-01

    Seventy-two (36 in each of two consecutive years) lactating, British-crossbred cows (609 +/- 19 kg) were used to evaluate effects of feeding a feather meal-blood meal combination on performance by beef cows fed grass hay. Bromegrass hay (9.6% CP, DM basis) was offered ad libitum and intake was measured daily in individual Calan electronic headgates. Acclimation to Calan gates began approximately 20 d after parturition, and treatments were initiated 21 d later. Cows were assigned randomly to one of four treatments (DM basis) for 60 d: 1) nonsupplemented control (CON), 2) energy control (ENG; 790 g/d; 100% beet pulp), 3) degradable intake protein (DIP; 870 g/d; 22% beet pulp and 78% sunflower meal), or 4) undegradable intake protein (UIP; 800 g/d; 62.5% sunflower meal, 30% hydrolyzed feather meal, and 7.5% blood meal). Net energy concentrations of supplements were formulated to provide similar NE(m) intakes (1.36 Mcal/d). The DIP and UIP supplements were calculated to supply similar amounts of DIP (168 g/d) and to supply 64 and 224 g/d of UIP, respectively. Forage DMI (kg/d) decreased in supplemented vs. nonsupplemented (P = 0.03) and DIP vs. UIP (P = 0.001); however, when expressed as a percentage of BW, forage DMI was not different (P = 0.23). Supplemented cows tended (P = 0.17) to lose less BW than CON. Body condition change was not affected (P = 0.60) by postpartum supplementation. No differences were noted in milk production (P = 0.29) or in calf gain during the supplementation period (P = 0.74). Circulating insulin concentrations were not affected by treatment (P = 0.42). In addition, supplementation did not affect circulating concentrations of NEFA (P = 0.18) or plasma urea nitrogen (P = 0.38). Results of the current study indicate that supplementation had little effect on BW, BCS, milk production, or calf BW when a moderate-quality forage (9.6% CP) was fed to postpartum, winter-calving cows in optimal body condition (BCS > 5). Supplemental UIP did not enhance

  3. Sports Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Parents for Kids for Teens Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q& ... Sports Supplements? How Some Common Supplements Affect the Body Will Supplements ... improving your sports performance is probably on your mind. Lots of people wonder if taking sports supplements ...

  4. Efficacy of whey protein supplementation on resistance exercise-induced changes in muscle strength, lean mass, and function in mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whey protein supplementation may augment resistance exercise-induced increases in muscle strength and mass. Further studies are required to determine whether this effect extends to functionally compromised older adults. The objectives of the study were to compare the effects of whey protein concent...

  5. Antimicrobial effect of the Biotronic® Top3 supplement and efficacy in protecting rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from infection by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Menanteau-Ledouble, Simon; Krauss, Ines; Goncalves, Rui Alexandre; Weber, Barbara; Santos, Gonçalo Abreu; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2017-03-18

    Demand for more environmentally friendly practices have led to the adoption of several feed supplements by the fish farming industry. In the present study, we investigated a commercially available formula that includes a mixture of three compounds: organic acids, a phytochemical and Biomin® Permeabilizing Complex. This mixture demonstrated antimicrobial properties in vitro and was able to inhibit growth of multiple species of aquatic bacterial pathogens, including Aeromonas salmonicida. Bacterial challenge was performed using A. salmonicida and three exposure routes: intra-peritoneal injection, immersion, and cohabitation. Mortality rates following infection by injection were significantly decreased in the fish that had received the supplemented feed. Fish infected through the other routes did not show a significant difference in mortality. In term of farming performance, while the fish that had received the feed supplement showed an improvement in weight gain and final weight, these changes were not found to be statistically significant. Similarly, no significant difference was observed in the feed conversion ratio. The results of this study suggest that this feed supplement may be effective at protecting rainbow trout from fish furunculosis.

  6. The efficacy of micronutrient supplementation in reducing the prevalence of anaemia and deficiencies of zinc and iron among adolescents in Sri Lanka

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of combined iron and zinc over the iron- or zinc-only supplementation in correcting deficiency and possible interactive effects in a group of adolescent school children. Subjects and methods: Schoolchildren (n=821) of 12–16 years of age were randomized into ...

  7. The Efficacy of Instructor-Guided Supplemental Instruction as a Strategy for Helping Reading-Deficient College Students Improve Testing and Assessment Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartley-Lukula, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    This research project examined whether the use of Instructor-guided Supplemental Instruction as a classroom scaffolding technique, might help improve testing and assessment reading outcomes for reading-deficient college students. The study was completed at Tennessee State University in Nashville, Tennessee over the 16-week Fall, 2012 semester…

  8. Folate/Folic Acid Knowledge, Intake, and Self-Efficacy of College-Aged Women: Impact of Text Messaging and Availability of a Folic Acid-Containing Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampersaud, Gail C.; Sokolow, Andrew; Gruspe, Abigail; Colee, James C.; Kauwell, Gail P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of educational text messages (TMs) on folate/folic acid knowledge and consumption among college-aged women, and to evaluate the impact of providing folic acid supplements on folate/folic acid intake among college-aged women. Participants: A total of 162 women (18-24 years) recruited from a university. Methods: The…

  9. An overview of herb and dietary supplement efficacy, safety and government regulations in the United States with suggested improvements. Part 1 of 5 series.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy Christine

    2016-11-03

    This is the first of five review articles investigating dietary supplements (DS; includes herbs) that now exceed over 50,000 in the Office of Dietary Supplement's "Dietary Supplement Label Database." Four review articles follow summarizing published medical case reports of DS related to liver toxicity, kidney toxicity, heart toxicity, and cancer. The most popular DS were vitamin or mineral supplements (43%) followed by specialty supplements (20%), botanicals (20%; herbs), and sports supplements (16%). The 2013 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers revealed 1692 fatalities due to drugs, and zero deaths due to DS. Less than 1 percent of Americans experience adverse events related to DS, and the majority was classified as minor, with many of these related to caffeine, yohimbe, or other stimulant ingredients. The number one adulterant in DS is drugs, followed by New Dietary Ingredients (NDI) not submitted to the FDA - both are illegal and not DS, but rather "tainted products marketed as dietary supplements." The three main categories of DS prone to medical problems are those for sexual enhancement, weight loss, and sports performance/body building. DS are regulated in the U.S. by several federal agencies with overlapping jurisdiction - the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC); enforced by the State Attorneys General Offices (AGO) and Department of Justice (DOJ); and monitored (not regulated) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The FDA can remove a DS from the market for phase IV post-marketing surveillance adverse event reports, adulteration (drugs, NDI, synthetic substances), contamination, misidentification, mislabeling or false claims, and not meeting good manufacturing practices (GMP). The FTC and state AGO can also enforce laws against deceptive marketing practices. Suggested improvements to current regulatory requirements are included along with online DS Toxic Tables in the

  10. Efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status and its biomarkers, nutritional status, and physical and cognitive function among prefrail older adults: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Badrasawi, M; Shahar, Suzana; Zahara, AM; Nor Fadilah, R; Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Background Frailty is a biological syndrome of decreased reserve and resistance to stressors due to decline in multiple physiological systems. Amino acid deficiency, including L-carnitine, has been proposed to be associated with its pathophysiology. Nevertheless, the efficacy of L-carnitine supplementation on frailty status has not been documented. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of 10-week L-carnitine supplement (1.5 g/day) on frailty status and its biomarkers and also physical function, cognition, and nutritional status among prefrail older adults in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Methodology This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted among 50 prefrail subjects randomized into two groups (26 in L-carnitine group and 24 in placebo group). Outcome measures include frailty status using Fried criteria and Frailty Index accumulation of deficit, selected frailty biomarkers (interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and insulin-like growth factor-1), physical function, cognitive function, nutritional status and biochemical profile. Results The results indicated that the mean scores of Frailty Index score and hand grip test were significantly improved in subjects supplemented with L-carnitine (P<0.05 for both parameters) as compared to no change in the placebo group. Based on Fried criteria, four subjects (three from the L-carnitine group and one from the control group) transited from prefrail status to robust after the intervention. Conclusion L-carnitine supplementation has a favorable effect on the functional status and fatigue in prefrail older adults. PMID:27895474

  11. The efficacy of vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation in hen diets to alleviate egg quality deterioration associated with high temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirunda, D F; Scheideler, S E; McKee, S R

    2001-09-01

    Supplementation of hen diets with vitamin E was investigated as a means to alleviate egg quality deterioration associated with high temperature exposure. One hundred eighty layers (60 birds/diet) were randomly placed on diets supplemented with vitamin E at 20, 60, and 120 IU/kg feed. After 2 wk on feed, one-half of the birds were maintained at environmental temperatures of 21 C, whereas the other half were acclimated over 3 d to increasing environmental temperatures reaching 34 C. Birds were exposed to 21 or 34 C for 2 wk (five hens per cage x six replications). Egg production, feed intake, and egg weights were determined daily. Twenty eggs were collected from each treatment group and analyzed for vitamin E content in yolk, percentage egg solids, yolk color, yolk pH, albumen pH, foaming ability of albumen proteins, emulsification capacity of yolk, yolk viscosity, yolk color, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS). Results suggested that high temperature exposure (HTE) caused a reduction in feed intake, egg production, Haugh units, egg weights, VMS, yolk and albumen solids, foam stability, angel cake volume, yolk color, and emulsification capacity. Supplementation of HTE hen diets with 60 IU vitamin E/kg feed improved feed intake, egg production, VMS, yolk and albumen solids, foam stability, and angel cake volume. However, egg weight, emulsification capacity, yolk color, yolk index, and yolk viscosity were not improved by vitamin E supplementation of HTE hens. Vitamin E levels in the yolk were lower from HTE hens compared with controls at all levels of vitamin E supplementation.

  12. Parenteral iron supplementation.

    PubMed

    Kumpf, V J

    1996-08-01

    Indications for the use of parenteral iron are limited to conditions in which the oral supplementation of iron is not possible or fails. An overview of iron balance and iron requirements is presented to describe situations in which iron supplementation may be required. When parenteral iron supplementation is required, careful attention to proper dosing and administration is necessary to optimize efficacy and safety. The purpose of this article is to review the literature regarding the clinical use of parenteral iron therapy and provide guidelines on dosing and administration. Methods of iron dextran administration, including the IV and intramuscular injection of undiluted drug and total dose infusion, are compared. Complications associated with the use of parenteral iron are also be reviewed. Finally, the use of iron supplementation in patients receiving parenteral nutrition care explored.

  13. Mobile Nondestructive Assay (NDA) Measurements of Standard Waste Boxes (SWB)

    SciTech Connect

    Mozhayev, Andrey V.; Berg, Randal K.; Haggard, Daniel L.; Hilliard, James R.; Mapili, Gabriel M.

    2006-11-01

    A mobile NDA system was composed and qualified for Safeguards measurements of multiple standard waste boxes (SWB) generated as a result of clean-out activities at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The system included a neutron slab counter and high purity germanium (HPGe) detector. PC/FRAM software was used to determine the isotopic composition of plutonium residue contained in the waste in order to interpret two independent measurement results provided by total neutron counting and gamma energy analysis (GEA). The measurement procedure developed to estimate transuranic (TRU) content of boxes was based on assumptions about characteristics of the matrix and material distribution. The neutron slab counter was calibrated with various plutonium working standards that were placed in a surrogate SWB specifically made to simulate miscellaneous waste debris. Transmission measurements with a californium source were used to correct for the matrix effects. An In-Situ Object Counting System (ISOCS) was used to acquire spectra from SWBs and ISOCS software was applied to generate the efficiency curve of the HPGe detector. Infinite energy extrapolation was introduced to correct GEA results for self-attenuation. The gamma and neutron results obtained on multiple SWBs are compared and discussed in the paper. Revised measurement positions for the detector and the transmission source are also suggested based on experience gained during the measurements.

  14. Efficacy of bait supplements for improving the rate of discovery of bait stations in the field by formosan subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Mary L; Lyn, Margaret; Williams, Kelley S; Lovisa, Mary P; De Lucca, Anthony J; Lax, Alan R

    2009-06-01

    Field tests of four different bait supplements were conducted in City Park, New Orleans, LA. The four bait supplements tested included two different formulations of decayed material, a sports drink, and the combination of an application of an aqueous solution of Summon Preferred Food Source disks with the disk itself. Although all the bait supplements in this study resulted in a slightly greater number of treated stations discovered compared with control stations, only the application of the aqueous solution combined with the disk caused a significant increase in the number of stations discovered by termites. This treatment resulted in a significantly greater rate of discovery of treated stations versus control stations after only 14 d in the field. Termites were able to discover six times as many treated as control stations after 14 d, 9 times as many after 28 d, and 12 times as many after 42 d. These findings provide evidence that the diffusion of an aqueous solution into the soil underneath monitoring stations significantly decreased the length of time required for termites to infest stations.

  15. Chitinolytic Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 isolated from Chilika lake, India enhances plant growth and biocontrol efficacy through chitin supplementation against Rhizoctonia solani.

    PubMed

    Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Malviya, Nityanand; Solanki, Manoj Kumar; Shrivastava, Pooja; Sivakumar, G

    2015-08-01

    A chitinolytic actinomycete Streptomyces vinaceusdrappus S5MW2 was isolated from water sample of Chilika lake, India and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. It showed in vitro antifungal activity against the sclerotia producing pathogen Rhizoctonia solani in a dual culture assay and by chitinase enzyme production in a chitin supplemented minimal broth. Moreover, isolate S5MW2 was further characterized for biocontrol (BC) and plant growth promoting features in a greenhouse experiment with or without colloidal chitin (CC). Results of greenhouse experiment showed that CC supplementation with S5MW2 showed a significant growth of tomato plants and superior disease reduction as compared to untreated control and without CC treated plants. Moreover, higher accumulation of chitinase also recovered in the CC supplemented plants. Significant effect of CC also concurred with the Analysis of Variance of greenhouse parameters. These results show that the a marine antagonist S5MW2 has BC efficiency against R. solani and chitinase enzyme played important role in plant resistance.

  16. A family 11 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) improves the efficacy of a recombinant cellulase used to supplement barley-based diets for broilers at lower dosage rates.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, T; Ponte, P I P; Guerreiro, C I P D; Santos, H M; Falcão, L; Freire, J P B; Ferreira, L M A; Prates, J A M; Fontes, C M G A; Lordelo, M M

    2008-09-01

    1. Exogenous microbial beta-1,3-1,4-glucanases and hemicellulases contribute to improving the nutritive value of cereals rich in soluble non-starch polysaccharides for poultry. 2. In general, plant cell wall hydrolases display a modular structure comprising a catalytic module linked to one or more non-catalytic carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs). Based on primary structure similarity, CBMs have been classified in 50 different families. CBMs anchor cellulases and hemicellulases into their target substrates, therefore eliciting efficient hydrolysis of recalcitrant polysaccharides. 3. A study was undertaken to investigate the effects of a family 11 beta-glucan-binding domain in the function of recombinant derivatives of cellulase CtLic26A-Cel5E of Clostridium thermocellum that were used to supplement a barley-based diet at lower dosage rates. 4. The results showed that birds fed on diets supplemented with the recombinant CtLic26A-Cel5E modular derivative containing the family 11 CBM or the commercial enzyme mixture Rovabio Excel AP tended to display improved performance when compared to birds fed diets not supplemented with exogenous enzymes. 5. It is suggested that at lower than previously reported enzyme dosage (10 U/kg vs 30 U/kg of basal diet), the beta-glucan-binding domain also elicits the function of the recombinant CtLic26A-Cel5E derivatives. 6. Finally, the data suggest that exogenous enzymes added to barley-based diets act primarily in the proximal section of the gastrointestinal tract.

  17. Beaming Structures of Jupiter's Decametric Radiation from LWA1, NDA, and URAN2 Simultaneous Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, M.; Lecacheux, A.; Higgins, C. A.; Clarke, T.; Panchenko, M.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Frantsuzenko, A. V.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Imai, K.

    2015-12-01

    From December 2014 to March 2015, Jupiter's decametric (DAM) radio observations were carried out by using simultaneously three powerful low-frequency radio telescopes: Long Wavelength Array One (LWA1), Socorro, USA; Nançay Decameter Array (NDA), Nançay, France; and URAN2 telescope, Poltava, Ukraine. Baselines are 10000, 8600, and 2400 kilometers for LWA1-URAN2, NDA-LWA1, and URAN2-NDA, respectively. One Io-B and two Io-A emissions were simultaneously observed. Using cross-correlation analysis of obtained spectrograms, it was found that, as a function of lag time in a pair of two stations, Io-B (mainly S-bursts) and Io-A (L-bursts) show different kinds of cross-correlation coefficients, with sharp and broad peaks, respectively. By measuring lag times between LWA1-URAN2, NDA-LWA1, and URAN2-NDA pairs, it can be tested if either flashlight- or beacon-like beaming is emanated from Jupiter. Measurements of beaming width are also analyzed. Most probable beaming scenarios for Io-B and -A events are suggested.

  18. The Effect of Probiotic Plus Prebiotic Supplementation on the Tolerance and Efficacy of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Quadruple Therapy: a Randomized Prospective Double Blind Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Shafaghi, Afshin; Pourkazemi, Aydin; Khosravani, Mohsen; Fakhrie Asl, Saba; Amir Maafi, Alireza; Atrkar Roshan, Zahra; Abaspour Rahimabad, Jafar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Standard anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) treatment fails in the eradication of the organism in almost 10-35% of the patients and has different side effects. Recent studies have proposed that probiotic supplementations with or without prebiotic may improve the eradication rate and diminish the side effects, although it is still a controversial issue. We aimed to investigate the effect of probiotic with prebiotic supplementation on the eradication rate and side effects of anti H. pylori quadruple therapy. METHODS 76 patients with a positive biopsy specimen for H. pylori were enrolled. They were randomized to receive quadruple therapy of bismuth, clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and omeprazole for 14 days and also the synbiotic or the placebo. We asked them to answer study questionnaires at the beginning and during the treatment. Finally, urea breath test was done 8 weeks after the treatment. RESULTS The eradication rate was significantly better in the synbiotic group by intention-to-treat analysis (p<0.05). Treatment side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, flatulence, constipation, and taste abnormality were similar in both groups but anorexia was significantly better in the synbiotic group (p <0.05). CONCLUSION The eradication rate was significantly better in the synbiotic group by intention-to-treat analysis (p<0.05). Treatment side effects such as diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, flatulence, but could improve the eradication by augmenting the treatment tolerance and compliance. PMID:27698967

  19. Operations Manual for the Portable NDA II Equipment (Version 2.2)

    SciTech Connect

    Bandong, B B; Wong, J L; Valentine, J D; Decman, D J

    2002-06-27

    This document describes the operation and use of the Portable Nondestructive Assay (NDA) II equipment for use in the determination of {sup 235}U enrichment of uranium of various chemical forms and contained in different vessels. The Portable NDA II is the next generation NDA equipment assembled by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the Department of Energy's Highly Enriched Uranium-Transparency Implementation Program (HEU-TIP). Presented in this document is an overview of the enrichment measurement methodology, instructions for the assembly and disassembly of the equipment, description of and user's guide for the UMeter enrichment meter software and a section on system troubleshooting. Also included herewith are facility-specific information and parameters for each of the HEU-processing sites subject to the HEU Transparency Implementation Program.

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba-Moringa oleifera-Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2016-04-01

    This 60-day, 30-subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45-measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86-item self-reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of -2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI.

  1. Safety and Efficacy of Banaba–Moringa oleifera–Green Coffee Bean Extracts and Vitamin D3 in a Sustained Release Weight Management Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Kaats, Gilbert R.; Preuss, Harry G.

    2016-01-01

    This 60‐day, 30‐subject pilot study examined a novel combination of ingredients in a unique sustained release (Carbopol matrix) tablet consumed twice daily. The product was composed of extracts of banaba leaf, green coffee bean, and Moringa oleifera leaf and vitamin D3. Safety was assessed using a 45‐measurement blood chemistry panel, an 86‐item self‐reported Quality of Life Inventory, bone mineral density, and cardiovascular changes. Efficacy was assessed by calculating a body composition improvement index (BCI) based on changes in dual energy X‐ray absorptiometry measured fat mass (FM) and fat‐free mass (FFM) as well as between the study group (SG) and a historical placebo group. No changes occurred in any blood chemistry measurements. Positive changes were found in the Quality of Life (QOL) inventory composite scores. No adverse effects were observed. Decreases occurred in FM (p = 0.004) and increases in FFM (p = 0.009). Relative to the historical placebo group, the SG lost more FM (p < 0.0001), gained more FFM (p = <0.0001), and had a negative BCI of −2.7 lb. compared with a positive BCI in the SG of 3.4 lb., a 6.1 discordance (p = 0.0009). The data support the safety and efficacy of this unique product and demonstrate importance of using changes in body composition versus scale weight and BMI. © 2016 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:26871553

  2. Efficacy of Cistanche Tubulosa and Laminaria Japonica Extracts (MK-R7) Supplement in Preventing Patterned Hair Loss and Promoting Scalp Health

    PubMed Central

    Seok, Joon; Kim, Tae Su; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung Pyo; Kang, Myung Hwa; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2015-01-01

    Cistanche tubulosa and Laminaria japonica have been reported to have anti-oxidative, anticoagulant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. They are expected to be a promising candidates for promoting hair growth and treating dandruff and scalp inflammation as a consequence. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) in promoting hair health in patients with mild to moderate patterned hair loss. Using phototrichogram (Folliscope 4.0, LeadM, Seoul, Korea), we compared the density and diameter of hairs in patients receiving a placebo or Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks of the study. In order to determine the efficacy of treatment on dandruff and scalp inflammation, investigator's assessment score and patient's subjective score were also performed. We found a statistically significant increase in the hair density of the test group (n = 45, MK-R7 400 mg) after 16 weeks of consuming the MK-R7 (test group: 23.29 n/cm2 ± 24.26, control: 10.35 n/cm2 ± 20.08, p < 0.05). In addition, we found a statistically significant increase in hair diameter in the test group compared to control group at week 16 (test group: 0.018 mm ± 0.015, control: 0.003 mm ± 0.013, p < 0.05). There were also significant outcomes regarding the investigator's visual assessment and patient's subjective score of dandruff and scalp inflammation in the test group compared to those in control group. Based on the results of this clinical study, we conclude that Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) are promising substances for promoting health of the scalp and hair. PMID:25954733

  3. The efficacy of vitamin C supplementation on reducing total serum cholesterol in human subjects: a review and analysis of 51 experimental trials

    PubMed Central

    McRae, Marc P.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective Observational studies in humans have shown an inverse relationship between plasma vitamin C concentration and total serum cholesterol. However, experimental studies have shown inconsistent results regarding the ability of vitamin C to reduce total serum cholesterol. Methods Published reports of trials studying the effects of vitamin C on serum lipids were identified by a search of Medline from 1966 to 2004. Data from 51 experimental studies comprising of 1666 pooled subjects were selected for analysis. Results A very strong negative association was observed between baseline total serum cholesterol and the percent change in cholesterol (r = −0.585, p<0.001). When subjects were divided into 4 groups based on their baseline total serum cholesterol levels, the following weighted mean percent changes in cholesterol from baseline were observed: normal cholesterol (<199mg/dl): 0.91±6.8% (n=508); borderline high cholesterol (200–239mg/dl): 3.90±5.78% (n=605); high cholesterol (240–279mg/dl): 11.40±7.96% (n=300); severe cholesterol (>280mg/dl): 14.30±8.36% (n=253). A significant inverse relationship was found between the baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations and mean percent change in total cholesterol from baseline (r = −0.500, p<0.005). It was also observed that the high and severe baseline cholesterol groups possessed lower baseline plasma vitamin C concentrations than those in the normal cholesterol groups (0.79 and 0.55 versus 1.24 mg/dl respectively). Conclusion This finding strengthens the hypothesis that the cholesterol lowering and cardio-protective benefit of vitamin C supplementation may be in its ability to elevate plasma vitamin C concentrations in those patients who initially possess lower than normal vitamin C plasma concentrations. PMID:19674666

  4. The impacts of standardized information management processes on NDA and NDE waste characterization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lemons, C.J.; Conrad, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    The evolution of standards-based information management has not fully penetrated nondestructive assay and nondestructive examination operating platforms. Interoperability concepts, which are fundamental to successful information management architecture and structure, are sweeping the markets and redefining the computing industries. The need for the federal government to improve its effectiveness from an informed position has invoked Information Management (IM) concepts into the federal government`s strategies and policies. These strategies and policies are becoming regulatory mandates which are to be imposed contractually, directly delegating responsibility to the contractors to ensure compliance. Participants in the waste clean-up arena will need to ensure that their analyses systems and reporting practices fulfill these emerging life-cycle information management requirements, both to meet the customer`s need and to protect themselves from legal liability. The challenge today faced by the NDA/NDE industry is to adopt these IM concepts, and utilize them in the assay systems and structures. The robust systems developed to perform the NDA/NDE analyses must be equally robust to address these regulatory and contractual mandates. The greatest impact of the regulations in the NDA/NDE arena will be to actually standardize and produce standards-based analyses reports that include integration capability with all the elements of NDA/NDE processes and be interchangeable with all other ancillary processes.

  5. Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements can play an important role in health. For example, calcium and vitamin D are important for keeping bones ...

  6. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried outmore » to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.« less

  7. Creating NDA working standards through high-fidelity spent fuel modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Skutnik, Steven E; Gauld, Ian C; Romano, Catherine E; Trellue, Holly

    2012-01-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) is developing advanced non-destructive assay (NDA) techniques for spent nuclear fuel assemblies to advance the state-of-the-art in safeguards measurements. These measurements aim beyond the capabilities of existing methods to include the evaluation of plutonium and fissile material inventory, independent of operator declarations. Testing and evaluation of advanced NDA performance will require reference assemblies with well-characterized compositions to serve as working standards against which the NDA methods can be benchmarked and for uncertainty quantification. To support the development of standards for the NGSI spent fuel NDA project, high-fidelity modeling of irradiated fuel assemblies is being performed to characterize fuel compositions and radiation emission data. The assembly depletion simulations apply detailed operating history information and core simulation data as it is available to perform high fidelity axial and pin-by-pin fuel characterization for more than 1600 nuclides. The resulting pin-by-pin isotopic inventories are used to optimize the NDA measurements and provide information necessary to unfold and interpret the measurement data, e.g., passive gamma emitters, neutron emitters, neutron absorbers, and fissile content. A key requirement of this study is the analysis of uncertainties associated with the calculated compositions and signatures for the standard assemblies; uncertainties introduced by the calculation methods, nuclear data, and operating information. An integral part of this assessment involves the application of experimental data from destructive radiochemical assay to assess the uncertainty and bias in computed inventories, the impact of parameters such as assembly burnup gradients and burnable poisons, and the influence of neighboring assemblies on periphery rods. This paper will present the results of high fidelity assembly depletion modeling and uncertainty analysis from independent

  8. Impact of Nuclear Data Uncertainties on Calculated Spent Fuel Nuclide Inventories and Advanced NDA Instrument Response

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jianwei; Gauld, Ian C.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel (NGSI-SF) project is nearing the final phase of developing several advanced nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments designed to measure spent nuclear fuel assemblies for the purpose of improving nuclear safeguards. Current efforts are focusing on calibrating several of these instruments with spent fuel assemblies at two international spent fuel facilities. Modelling and simulation is expected to play an important role in predicting nuclide compositions, neutron and gamma source terms, and instrument responses in order to inform the instrument calibration procedures. As part of NGSI-SF project, this work was carried out to assess the impacts of uncertainties in the nuclear data used in the calculations of spent fuel content, radiation emissions and instrument responses. Nuclear data is an essential part of nuclear fuel burnup and decay codes and nuclear transport codes. Such codes are routinely used for analysis of spent fuel and NDA safeguards instruments. Hence, the uncertainties existing in the nuclear data used in these codes affect the accuracies of such analysis. In addition, nuclear data uncertainties represent the limiting (smallest) uncertainties that can be expected from nuclear code predictions, and therefore define the highest attainable accuracy of the NDA instrument. This work studies the impacts of nuclear data uncertainties on calculated spent fuel nuclide inventories and the associated NDA instrument response. Recently developed methods within the SCALE code system are applied in this study. The Californium Interrogation with Prompt Neutron instrument was selected to illustrate the impact of these uncertainties on NDA instrument response.

  9. A randomized controlled study of the efficacy of six-month supplementation with concentrated fish oil rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in first episode schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pawełczyk, Tomasz; Grancow-Grabka, Marta; Kotlicka-Antczak, Magdalena; Trafalska, Elżbieta; Pawełczyk, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    Short-term clinical trials of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) as add-on therapy in patients with schizophrenia revealed mixed results. The majority of these studies used an 8- to 12-week intervention based on ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid. A randomized placebo-controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of 26-week intervention, composed of either 2.2 g/day of n-3 PUFA, or olive oil placebo, with regard to symptom severity in first-episode schizophrenia patients. Seventy-one patients (aged 16-35) were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to the study arms. The primary outcome measure of the clinical evaluation was schizophrenia symptom severity change measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Mixed models repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences between the study arms regarding total PANSS score change favouring n-3 PUFA (p = 0.016; effect size (ES) = 0.29). A fifty-percent improvement in symptom severity was achieved significantly more frequently in the n-3 PUFA group than in the placebo group (69.4 vs 40.0%; p = 0.017). N-3 PUFA intervention was also associated with an improvement in general psychopathology, measured by means of PANSS (p = 0.009; ES = 0.32), depressive symptoms (p = 0.006; ES = 0.34), the level of functioning (p = 0.01; ES = 0.31) and clinical global impression (p = 0.046; ES = 0.29). The findings suggest that 6-month intervention with n-3 PUFA may be a valuable add-on therapy able to decrease the intensity of symptoms and improve the level of functioning in first-episode schizophrenia patients.

  10. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Herbals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin

    2006-01-01

    This is the fourth in a series of six articles to discuss the major classes of dietary supplements (vitamins; minerals; amino acids; herbs or botanicals; metabolites, constituents/extracts, or combinations). The major focus is on efficacy of such dietary supplements to enhance exercise or sport performance. PMID:18500959

  11. Efficacy of a supplemental candy coproduct as an alternative carbohydrate source to lactose on growth performance of newly weaned pigs in a commercial farm condition.

    PubMed

    Guo, J Y; Phillips, C E; Coffey, M T; Kim, S W

    2015-11-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of a supplemental candy coproduct (Chocolate Candy Feed [CCF]; International Ingredient Corp., St. Louis, MO), an alternative carbohydrate source to dietary lactose, on growth performance and on health status of nursery pigs. Crossbred pigs ( = 1,408; 21 d of age and 7.1 ± 0.3 kg BW; Smithfield Premium Genetics, Rose Hill, NC) were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (16 pens/treatment and 22 pigs/pen) in a randomized complete block design: 0, 15, 30, and 45% of lactose replaced by CCF based on equal amounts of total sugars. The experimental period was divided into 3 phases: phase I (1.8 kg diet/pig for 11 ± 1 d), phase II (6.8 kg diet/pig for 17 ± 2 d), and phase III (until 49 d after weaning). Pigs received a common phase III diet. The levels of lactose, supplied by whey permeate (79.3 ± 0.8% lactose), were 20, 8, and 0% in phase I, II, and III, respectively. All experimental diets contained the same levels of essential AA and energy (ME) for each phase. Fecal scores were observed on d 5, 7, and 9 after weaning. Blood samples were taken at the end of phase I and II to measure blood urea N. The duration of phase I tended to linearly decrease ( = 0.063) with increasing CCF. In phase I, the ADFI increased ( < 0.05) with increasing CCF whereas ADG and G:F did not change. In phase II, the duration and ADFI did not change whereas ADG linearly decreased ( < 0.05) with increasing CCF. However, the G:F was not changed as CCF increased. During phase I and II together, the duration was linearly decreased ( < 0.05) as CCF increased, whereas no difference in growth performance was observed. Overall, ADFI, ADG, and G:F were not affected by replacing whey permeate with CCF in diets, indicating no adverse effects of a candy coproduct as a carbohydrate substitute to lactose on growth performance of nursery pigs. Blood urea N did not change in phase I but tended to linearly increase ( = 0.088) in phase II as CCF increased. There were no

  12. Nepali Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC.

    This volume is intended as a supplement to Nepali language instruction. It contains songs, numerals, dialogues in Devanagari script, a Nepali-English, English-Nepali glossary, and an English-Nepali surveyor technical glossary. (AM)

  13. Calcium supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... TYPES OF CALCIUM SUPPLEMENTS Forms of calcium include: Calcium carbonate: Over-the-counter (OTC) antacid products, such as Tums and Rolaids, contain calcium carbonate. These sources of calcium do not cost much. ...

  14. Creatine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Matthew; Trojian, Thomas H

    2013-01-01

    Creatine monohydrate is a dietary supplement that increases muscle performance in short-duration, high-intensity resistance exercises, which rely on the phosphocreatine shuttle for adenosine triphosphate. The effective dosing for creatine supplementation includes loading with 0.3 g·kg·d for 5 to 7 days, followed by maintenance dosing at 0.03 g·kg·d most commonly for 4 to 6 wk. However loading doses are not necessary to increase the intramuscular stores of creatine. Creatine monohydrate is the most studied; other forms such as creatine ethyl ester have not shown added benefits. Creatine is a relatively safe supplement with few adverse effects reported. The most common adverse effect is transient water retention in the early stages of supplementation. When combined with other supplements or taken at higher than recommended doses for several months, there have been cases of liver and renal complications with creatine. Further studies are needed to evaluate the remote and potential future adverse effects from prolonged creatine supplementation.

  15. [Desorption behaviors of 4-nitrophenol on hyper-cross-linked polymer resin NDA-701].

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-hong; Huang, Ben-sheng; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Wei-ming

    2011-05-01

    Desorption behaviors of loaded 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) on hyper-cross-linked polymer resin NDA-701 were studied. The molar ratio of NaOH and 4-NP desorbed (M(NAOH/4-NP)) selection experiments were carried out at two different reaction temperature(303 K and 333 K). Desorption kinetics characteristic of4-NP on NDA-701 in the batch and fixed-bed mode were examined at different reaction temperature and M(NaOH/4-NP) values. The results showed that optimal M(NaOH/4-NP) values were 1.2 and 100% 4-NP could be desorbed from NDA-701 at two different temperature. When the M(NaOH/4-NP) was lower than 1.2, the desorption efficiency increases with the increase of temperature, but the function of temperature decrease with increasing of M(NaH/4-NP) values for desorption ratio. The information indicated that desorption thermodynamic characteristic of NDA-701 was controlled by M(NaOH/4-NP) values. Desorption kinetics in the alkaline system can be well described by pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and desorption rate is increased with the increase of desorption temperatures, the k2 value increase from 0.010 g x (mmol x min)(-1) to 0.035 g x (mmol x min)(-1) when desorption temperature increase from 303 K to 333 K. Nevertheless, higher M(NaOH/4-NP) values could not promote desorption rate if only M(NaOH/4-NP) value was larger than the optimal molar ratio of NaOH and 4-NP. When M(NaOH/4-NP) values increase from 1.2 to 5.0, the k2 value increase from 0.038 g x (mmol x min)(-1) to 0.044 g x (mmol x min)(-1) merely at 333 K. the results indicated that desorption kinetic characteristic of NDA-701 was controlled by temperature. NDA-701 can be completely recovered using 2 times Bed Volume of 2% NaOH solution at the temperature of 333 K, comparing with field application, implying that more energy and cost can be saved in comparison with the actual desorption process in the industry.

  16. Dietary supplements in weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Johanna T; Allison, David B; Coates, Paul M

    2005-05-01

    We summarize evidence on the role of dietary supplements in weight reduction, with particular attention to their safety and benefits. Dietary supplements are used for two purposes in weight reduction: (a) providing nutrients that may be inadequate in calorie-restricted diets and (b) for their potential benefits in stimulating weight loss. The goal in planning weight-reduction diets is that total intake from food and supplements should meet recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels without greatly exceeding them for all nutrients, except energy. If nutrient amounts from food sources in the reducing diet fall short, dietary supplements containing a single nutrient/element or a multivitamin-mineral combination may be helpful. On hypocaloric diets, the addition of dietary supplements providing nutrients at a level equal to or below recommended dietary allowance/adequate intake levels or 100% daily value, as stated in a supplement's facts box on the label, may help dieters to achieve nutrient adequacy and maintain electrolyte balance while avoiding the risk of excessive nutrient intakes. Many botanical and other types of dietary supplements are purported to be useful for stimulating or enhancing weight loss. Evidence of their efficacy in stimulating weight loss is inconclusive at present. Although there are few examples of safety concerns related to products that are legal and on the market for this purpose, there is also a paucity of evidence on safety for this intended use. Ephedra and ephedrine-containing supplements, with or without caffeine, have been singled out in recent alerts from the Food and Drug Administration because of safety concerns, and use of products containing these substances cannot be recommended. Dietitians should periodically check the Food and Drug Administration Web site ( www.cfsan.fda.gov ) for updates and warnings and alert patients/clients to safety concerns. Dietetics professionals should also consult authoritative sources for

  17. Evaluating criticality safety of TRU waste with NDA measurements and risk analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hochel, R.C.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Sigg, R.A.; Winn, W.G.; Chay, S.C.

    1994-09-01

    The criticality safety of {sup 239}Pu in 55-gal. drums stored in TRU waste containers (concrete culverts) was evaluated using NDA neutron and gamma measurements and risk analyses. The neutron measurements yielded a {sup 239}Pu mass and k{sub eff} for a culvert, which contains up to 14 drums. The gamma measurements helped reveal and correct for any interfering neutron sources in the waste. Conservation probabilistic risk analyses were developed for both drums and culverts.

  18. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  19. Common dietary supplements for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Saper, Robert B; Eisenberg, David M; Phillips, Russell S

    2004-11-01

    Over-the-counter dietary supplements to treat obesity appeal to many patients who desire a "magic bullet" for weight loss. Asking overweight patients about their use of weight-loss supplements and understanding the evidence for the efficacy, safety, and quality of these supplements are critical when counseling patients regarding weight loss. A schema for whether physicians should recommend, caution, or discourage use of a particular weight-loss supplement is presented in this article. More than 50 individual dietary supplements and more than 125 commercial combination products are available for weight loss. Currently, no weight-loss supplements meet criteria for recommended use. Although evidence of modest weight loss secondary to ephedra-caffeine ingestion exists, potentially serious adverse effects have led the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to ban the sale of these products. Chromium is a popular weight-loss supplement, but its efficacy and long-term safety are uncertain. Guar gum and chitosan appear to be ineffective; therefore, use of these products should be discouraged. Because of insufficient or conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid, ginseng, glucomannan, green tea, hydroxycitric acid, L-carnitine, psyllium, pyruvate, and St. John's wort in weight loss, physicians should caution patients about the use of these supplements and closely monitor those who choose to use these products.

  20. Analysis of historical delta values for IAEA/LANL NDA training courses

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, William; Santi, Peter; Swinhoe, Martyn; Bonner, Elisa

    2009-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) by providing training for IAEA inspectors in neutron and gamma-ray Nondestructive Assay (NDA) of nuclear material. Since 1980, all new IAEA inspectors attend this two week course at LANL gaining hands-on experience in the application of NDA techniques, procedures and analysis to measure plutonium and uranium nuclear material standards with well known pedigrees. As part of the course the inspectors conduct an inventory verification exercise. This exercise provides inspectors the opportunity to test their abilities in performing verification measurements using the various NDA techniques. For an inspector, the verification of an item is nominally based on whether the measured assay value agrees with the declared value to within three times the historical delta value. The historical delta value represents the average difference between measured and declared values from previous measurements taken on similar material with the same measurement technology. If the measurement falls outside a limit of three times the historical delta value, the declaration is not verified. This paper uses measurement data from five years of IAEA courses to calculate a historical delta for five non-destructive assay methods: Gamma-ray Enrichment, Gamma-ray Plutonium Isotopics, Passive Neutron Coincidence Counting, Active Neutron Coincidence Counting and the Neutron Coincidence Collar. These historical deltas provide information as to the precision and accuracy of these measurement techniques under realistic conditions.

  1. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O.

    1996-09-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

  2. A preliminary evaluation of certain NDA techniques for RH-TRU characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwell, J.K.; Yoon, W.Y.; Peterson, H.K.

    1997-11-01

    This report presents the results of modeling efforts to evaluate selected NDA assay methods for RH-TRU waste characterization. The target waste stream was Content Code 104/107 113-liter waste drums that comprise the majority of the INEL`s RH-TRU waste inventory. Two NDA techniques are treated in detail. One primary NDA technique examined is gamma-ray spectrometry to determine the drum fission and activation product content, and fuel sample inventory calculations using the ORIGEN code to predict the total drum inventory. A heavily shielded and strongly collimated HPGe spectrometer system was designed using MCNP modeling. Detection limits and expected precision of this approach were estimated by a combination of Monte Carlo modeling and synthetic gamma-ray spectrum generation. This technique may allow the radionuclide content of these wastes to be determined with relative standard deviations of 20 to 50% depending on the drum matrix and radionuclide. The INEL Passive/Active Neutron (PAN) assay system is the second primary technique considered. A shielded overpack for the 113-liter CC104/107 RH-TRU drums was designed to shield the PAN detectors from excessive gamma radiation. MCNP modeling suggests PAN detection limits of about 0.06 g {sup 235}U and 0.04 g {sup 239}Pu during active assays. 12 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Optimization of the Nano-Dust Analyzer (NDA) for operation under solar UV illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O`Brien, L.; Grün, E.; Sternovsky, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of the Nano-Dust Analyzer (NDA) instrument is analyzed for close pointing to the Sun, finding the optimal field-of-view (FOV), arrangement of internal baffles and measurement requirements. The laboratory version of the NDA instrument was recently developed (O'Brien et al., 2014) for the detection and elemental composition analysis of nano-dust particles. These particles are generated near the Sun by the collisional breakup of interplanetary dust particles (IDP), and delivered to Earth's orbit through interaction with the magnetic field of the expanding solar wind plasma. NDA is operating on the basis of impact ionization of the particle and collecting the generated ions in a time-of-flight fashion. The challenge in the measurement is that nano-dust particles arrive from a direction close to that of the Sun and thus the instrument is exposed to intense ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The performed optical ray-tracing analysis shows that it is possible to suppress the number of UV photons scattering into NDA's ion detector to levels that allow both high signal-to-noise ratio measurements, and long-term instrument operation. Analysis results show that by avoiding direct illumination of the target, the photon flux reaching the detector is reduced by a factor of about 103. Furthermore, by avoiding the target and also implementing a low-reflective coating, as well as an optimized instrument geometry consisting of an internal baffle system and a conical detector housing, the photon flux can be reduced by a factor of 106, bringing it well below the operation requirement. The instrument's FOV is optimized for the detection of nano-dust particles, while excluding the Sun. With the Sun in the FOV, the instrument can operate with reduced sensitivity and for a limited duration. The NDA instrument is suitable for future space missions to provide the unambiguous detection of nano-dust particles, to understand the conditions in the inner heliosphere and its temporal

  4. Cardiovascular effects of calcium supplements.

    PubMed

    Reid, Ian R

    2013-07-05

    Calcium supplements reduce bone turnover and slow the rate of bone loss. However, few studies have demonstrated reduced fracture incidence with calcium supplements, and meta-analyses show only a 10% decrease in fractures, which is of borderline statistical and clinical significance. Trials in normal older women and in patients with renal impairment suggest that calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. To further assess their safety, we recently conducted a meta-analysis of trials of calcium supplements, and found a 27%-31% increase in risk of myocardial infarction, and a 12%-20% increase in risk of stroke. These findings are robust because they are based on pre-specified analyses of randomized, placebo-controlled trials and are consistent across the trials. Co-administration of vitamin D with calcium does not lessen these adverse effects. The increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements is consistent with epidemiological data relating higher circulating calcium concentrations to cardiovascular disease in normal populations. There are several possible pathophysiological mechanisms for these effects, including effects on vascular calcification, vascular cells, blood coagulation and calcium-sensing receptors. Thus, the non-skeletal risks of calcium supplements appear to outweigh any skeletal benefits, and are they appear to be unnecessary for the efficacy of other osteoporosis treatments.

  5. Podophyllum hexandrum as a potential botanical supplement for the medical management of nuclear and radiological emergencies (NREs) and free radical-mediated ailments: leads from in vitro/in vivo radioprotective efficacy evaluation.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rajesh; Chawla, Raman; Dhaker, Atlar Singh; Adhikari, Manish; Sharma, Jyoti; Singh, Shikha; Gupta, Damodar; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh K; Tripathi, Rajender P

    2010-03-01

    Management of radiation-induced reactive oxygen/nitrogen species requires a holistic approach to mitigate the deleterious effects of free radicals. Flora of the Himalayas, which prevails under extreme climatic conditions, has been explored for its potential utility to develop radioprotective drugs. The Himalayan high altitude medicinal plant, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle, was selected on the basis of its unique properties, and a novel fractionated nonpolar extract (REC-2003) was prepared and evaluated for radioprotective efficacy, in vitro as well as in vivo. The free radical scavenging activity of REC-2003 was found to be > 75% (20 μg/ml) with maximum superoxide scavenging activity (57.56 ± 1.38%) recorded at 1 mg/ml concentration (tetrazolium-based estimation). More than 30% inhibition of nitric oxide radicals was observed at concentrations > 0.5 mg/ml, while hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (deoxy-D-ribose assay) exhibited a dose-dependent (100-600 μg/ml) increase. Significantly high (90%) protection to human erythrocytes was observed at 75 μg/ml, which was found to be the most optimized dose. Similarly, more than 90% inhibition was observed against lipid peroxidation (evaluated by estimating levels of malondialdehyde). The significant antihemolytic potential of REC-2003 could be attributed to its ability to scavenge free radicals, reduce peroxidative stress on lipid membranes, and render protection to DNA (evaluated using plasmid relaxation assay). All these activities holistically contributed toward the radioprotective ability. REC-2003 (8 mg/kg BW; intraperitoneal (i.p.), -30 min) rendered > 80% total-body protection in Swiss Albino Strain 'A' mice [against lethal radiation (10 Gy)] in a 30-day survival assay. Phytochemical characterization of the constituents of REC-2003 revealed the presence of polyphenolics (flavonoids). The characterized constituents also included the aryl-tetralin lignans like podophyllotoxin, its glycoside, 4'-demethyl derivative

  6. Herbal supplements: Facts and myths--talking to your patients about herbal supplements.

    PubMed

    Messina, Barbara Ann M

    2006-08-01

    The use of herbal supplements in the United States is steadily growing and raises concerns about safety, efficacy, and how they affect safe patient care. The direct health risks associated with herbal supplements include hypertension, prolonged bleeding, and the potential for drug-herb interactions. These potential drug interactions are of particular concern for patients undergoing anesthesia. This article provides a review of literature on the 10 most popular herbal supplements and addresses the herbal supplements' reported use, possible adverse effect(s), patient teaching, possible drug interaction(s), and recommendations regarding discontinuation before surgery.

  7. Erythrityl tetranitrate; drug efficacy study implementation; revocation of exemption; opportunity for a hearing--FDA. Notice.

    PubMed

    1998-06-23

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revoking the temporary exemption that has allowed single-entity coronary vasodilator drug products containing erythrityl tetranitrate to remain on the market beyond the time limits scheduled for implementation of the Drug Efficacy Study. FDA is announcing that the products lack substantial evidence of effectiveness and is offering an opportunity for a hearing on a proposal to withdraw approval of any applicable new drug applications (NDA's) or abbreviated new drug applications (ANDA's).

  8. Production of NDA Working Reference Materials for the Capability Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, P.D. Jr.; Marshall, R.S.

    1998-11-17

    The production of Non Destructive Assay (NDA) Working Reference Materials (WRMs) that are traceable to nationally recognized standards was undertaken to support implementation of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Nondestructive Waste Assay Capability Evaluation Project (CEP). The WRMs produced for the CEP project consist of Increased Am/Pu mass ration (IAP) and depleted Uranium (DU) WRMs. The CEP IAP/DU WRM set provides radioactive material standards for use in combination with 55 gallon drum waste matrix surrogates for the assessment of waste NDA assay system performance. The Production of WRMs is a meticulous process that is not without certain trials and tribulations. Problems may arise at any of the various stages of WRM production which include, but are not limited to; material characterization (physical, chemical, and isotopic), material blend parameters, personnel radiation exposure, gas generation phenomenon, traceability to national standards, encapsulation, statistical evaluation of the data, and others. Presented here is an overall description of the process by which the CEP WRMs were produced and certified as well as discussions pertaining to some of the problems encountered and how they were solved.

  9. Herbal Products and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... of dietary supplement that contains one or more herbs.Herbal health products and supplements are available in ... wort.Are herbal health products and supplements safe?Herbs aren't necessarily safer than the ingredients in ...

  10. 75 FR 21298 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; VIMPAT -NDA 22-253

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; VIMPAT --NDA 22-253 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice....

  11. 75 FR 21299 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; VIMPAT-NDA 22-254

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; VIMPAT--NDA 22-254 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice....

  12. Portable NDA equipment for enrichment measurements for the HEU transparency program

    SciTech Connect

    Decman, D J; Glaser, J; Hernandez, J M; Luke, S J

    1999-07-20

    In October 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) and MINATOM agreed to use portable non-destructive assay (NDA) equipment to measure the {sup 235}U enrichment of material subject to the HEU Transparency agreement. A system based on the ''enrichment meter'' method and high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors had been previously developed for this application. Instead, sodium iodide (NaI) detectors were chosen to measure {sup 235}U enrichment because HPGe systems might reveal sensitive information. Although the accuracy of the NaI systems is less than an HPGe system, it still satisfies the transparency requirements. The equipment consists of a collimated NaI detector, a Canberra Inspector Multi-channel Analyzer, and a laptop computer. The units have been used to confirm the enrichment of material at Russian facilities since January 1997. This paper compares the performance of the NaI systems with the HPGe system and discusses some significant differences.

  13. Portable NDA Equipment for Enrichment Measurements in the HEU Transparency Program

    SciTech Connect

    Decman, D J; Bandong, B B; Wong, J L; Valentine, J D; Luke, S J

    2008-06-02

    The Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Transparency Program has used portable nondestructive assay (NDA) equipment to measure the {sup 235}U enrichment of material subject to the transparency agreement since 1997. The equipment is based on the 'enrichment meter' method and uses low-resolution sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detectors. Although systems using high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors can produce more accurate results we have found that the results with NaI(Tl) detectors are quite adequate for the requirements of the transparency agreement. This paper will describe the details of the equipment's operation, calibration, testing, and deployment in Russia. We will also provide a comparison of the units originally deployed in 1997 with the upgraded systems that were deployed in 2003.

  14. [Insufficient evidence supporting iron supplementation in anaemia during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M; Mol, Ben Willem J

    2012-01-01

    The Royal Dutch Organization of Midwives (KNOV) recently presented their practice guideline 'Anaemia in midwifery practice'. The guideline identified available evidence on diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of anaemia in pregnancy. Anaemia based on iron deficiency and subsequent treatment with iron supplementation are probably the most frequent aspects of care for pregnant women. However, there is surprisingly enough no evidence of the efficacy of iron supplementation treatment on relevant clinical outcomes in pregnant women with anaemia. We plead to make the next guideline a multidisciplinary one. Such a guideline may lead to a large pragmatic trial evaluating the efficacy of iron supplementation treatment for patients with anaemia.

  15. Nutritional supplements and ergogenic AIDS.

    PubMed

    Liddle, David G; Connor, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    Performance enhancing drugs, ergogenic aids, and supplements come in many forms. The financial, personal, social, and health-related impact of these substances has wide and varied consequences. This article reviews common substances and practices used by athletes. It discusses the history, use, effects, and adverse effects of androgenic anabolic steroids, peptide hormones, growth factors, masking agents, diuretics, volume expanders, β-blockers, amphetamines, caffeine, other stimulants, and creatine. The evidence base behind the use, safety, and efficacy of these items as well as testing for these substances is discussed.

  16. How the NDA Provides Transparency and Visibility of the Technical Deliverability of the R and D Programme - 13303

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, Ian; James, Paula; Brownridge, Melanie; McMinn, Mervin

    2013-07-01

    The Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) was created under the UK Energy Act 2004 to ensure the UK historic civil public sector nuclear legacy sites are decommissioned safely, securely, cost effectively and in ways that protect the environment. The delivery will involve carrying out many unique projects within a high hazard environment requiring the very highest standards in safety, security and environmental management. Unique problems require unique solutions and there is a substantial amount of research and development required for each project. The NDA's R and D strategic objective is to ensure that delivery of the NDA's mission is technically underpinned by sufficient and appropriate research and development. This drives a requirement to provide transparency and visibility of the technical deliverability of the programme through the technical baseline and accompanying research and development requirements. The NDA need to have confidence in the technical deliverability of the Site License Companies (SLCs) plans, provide overall visibility of R and D across the NDA Estate and ensure that appropriate R and D is being carried out in a timely manner. They need to identify where coordinated R and D programmes may be advantageous as a result of common needs, risks and opportunities and ensure key R and D needs across NDA are identified, prioritised and work programmes are costed and scheduled in the Lifetime Plans for individual sites and SLCs. Evidence of the Site License Company's approach and their corresponding technical underpinning programmes is achieved through submission of a number of outputs collectively known as TBuRDs (Technical Baseline and Underpinning Research and Development Requirements). This paper is a summary of the information generated by an independent review of those TBuRDs. It highlights some of the key messages, synergies and common R and D activities across the estate. It demonstrates the value of a consistent approach to collecting R

  17. [Isoflavone-containing dietary supplements].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Leane; Soukup, Sebastian T; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; Vollmer, Günter; Kulling, Sabine E

    2017-03-01

    Isoflavones (IFs) from soy and other legumes have weak estrogenic properties. Isolated IFs are available as dietary supplements and advertised to alleviate symptoms of menopause. The present chapter provides an overview of the occurrence, the chemical structure of IFs and their metabolites, the market situation and reviews the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of IF-containing dietary supplements.The biological effectiveness of IFs is attributable to the activation of the estrogen receptor (ER). Studies on the influence of IFs on endogenous estrogen levels in women show inconsistent results. So far, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has rejected all submitted health claims for IFs due to insufficient scientific evidence for any of the postulated health effects. Based on the results of their recent risk assessment, the EFSA concluded that the available human studies did not support the hypothesis of adverse effects of isolated IFs on the human mammary gland, uterus or thyroid in healthy postmenopausal women. However, the assessment does not allow a general statement on the safety of IF-containing dietary supplements. Studies in animal models are often not comparable with the complex interactions in humans due to differences in the metabolism of IFs, in the developmental stage at time of consumption and in the temporarily restricted uptake of IFs during certain stages of life.

  18. Quantitative NDA measurements of advanced reprocessing product materials containing uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden

    The ability of inspection agencies and facility operators to measure powders containing several actinides is increasingly necessary as new reprocessing techniques and fuel forms are being developed. These powders are difficult to measure with nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques because neutrons emitted from induced and spontaneous fission of different nuclides are very similar. A neutron multiplicity technique based on first principle methods was developed to measure these powders by exploiting isotope-specific nuclear properties, such as the energy-dependent fission cross sections and the neutron induced fission neutron multiplicity. This technique was tested through extensive simulations using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code and by one measurement campaign using the Active Well Coincidence Counter (AWCC) and two measurement campaigns using the Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC) with various (alpha,n) sources and actinide materials. Four potential applications of this first principle technique have been identified: (1) quantitative measurement of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and americium materials; (2) quantitative measurement of mixed oxide (MOX) materials; (3) quantitative measurement of uranium materials; and (4) weapons verification in arms control agreements. This technique still has several challenges which need to be overcome, the largest of these being the challenge of having high-precision active and passive measurements to produce results with acceptably small uncertainties.

  19. Efficacy of High-Dose Supplementation With Oral Vitamin D3 on Depressive Symptoms in Dialysis Patients With Vitamin D3 Insufficiency: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Ying; Lian, Yueying; Li, Ning; Liu, Hong; Li, Guanzeng

    2016-06-01

    Psychological problems are common among end-stage renal disease patients undergoing dialysis. We aim to evaluate whether high-dose vitamin D3 (VD3) supplementation has beneficial effects on depressive symptoms in dialysis patients. This prospective, randomized, and double-blind trial includes 746 dialysis patients with depression treated in 3 hospitals in Southeast China. Depression was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria. Patients were randomly assigned to 52-week treatment of oral 50,000 IU/wk VD3 (cholecalciferol) (test group) or a placebo (control group). The presence of depressive symptoms was evaluated using the Chinese version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) II both before and after treatment. Sociodemographic data, clinical data, nutritional indexes, inflammatory biomarkers, and plasma VD3 concentrations were also determined. Finally, 726 patients completed the experiments, including 362 tested patients and 364 controls. After 52 weeks, the depressive symptoms were not significantly improved in the test group (mean BDI II scores changed from -1.1 ± 0.3 to -3.1 ± 0.6) versus the control group. Multivariable logistic regression showed BDI scores were not significantly improved in the test group versus the control group with adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity index, dialysis modality, or (OH)D levels (multivariable-adjusted mean change or MAMC [95% confidence interval (CI)], -2.3 [-2.48 to -1.83]) in the whole dialysis population. After stratification by depression types, the findings do support a significant relationship between the VD3 supplementation and the improvement in BDI II scores in dialysis patients with vascular depression (MAMC [95% CI], -4.4 [-5.08 to -2.76]), but the effect was not significant for major depressive disorders (MAMC [95% CI], -0.9 [-1.52 to -0.63]). The high-dose VD3 supplementation did not significantly reduce the depressive symptoms in our total dialysis population, but

  20. Food modification versus oral liquid nutrition supplementation.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J

    2009-01-01

    Oral liquid nutrition supplements (ONS) are widely used in community, residential and healthcare settings. ONS are intended for individuals whose nutrient requirements cannot be achieved by conventional diet or food modification, or for the management of distinctive nutrient needs resulting from specific diseases and/or conditions. ONS appear to be most effective in patients with a body mass index of efficacy of food-based versus ONS nutrition interventions.

  1. Suppression of NDA-type alternative mitochondrial NAD(P)H dehydrogenases in arabidopsis thaliana modifies growth and metabolism, but not high light stimulation of mitochondrial electron transport.

    PubMed

    Wallström, Sabá V; Florez-Sarasa, Igor; Araújo, Wagner L; Escobar, Matthew A; Geisler, Daniela A; Aidemark, Mari; Lager, Ida; Fernie, Alisdair R; Ribas-Carbó, Miquel; Rasmusson, Allan G

    2014-05-01

    The plant respiratory chain contains several pathways which bypass the energy-conserving electron transport complexes I, III and IV. These energy bypasses, including type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases and the alternative oxidase (AOX), may have a role in redox stabilization and regulation, but current evidence is inconclusive. Using RNA interference, we generated Arabidopsis thaliana plants simultaneously suppressing the type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenase genes NDA1 and NDA2. Leaf mitochondria contained substantially reduced levels of both proteins. In sterile culture in the light, the transgenic lines displayed a slow growth phenotype, which was more severe when the complex I inhibitor rotenone was present. Slower growth was also observed in soil. In rosette leaves, a higher NAD(P)H/NAD(P)⁺ ratio and elevated levels of lactate relative to sugars and citric acid cycle metabolites were observed. However, photosynthetic performance was unaffected and microarray analyses indicated few transcriptional changes. A high light treatment increased AOX1a mRNA levels, in vivo AOX and cytochrome oxidase activities, and levels of citric acid cycle intermediates and hexoses in all genotypes. However, NDA-suppressing plants deviated from the wild type merely by having higher levels of several amino acids. These results suggest that NDA suppression restricts citric acid cycle reactions, inducing a shift towards increased levels of fermentation products, but do not support a direct association between photosynthesis and NDA proteins.

  2. Development of Safe and Effective Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Regulated differently than drugs or foods, the market for botanical dietary supplements continues to grow worldwide. The recently implemented U.S. FDA regulation that all botanical dietary supplements must be produced using good manufacturing practice is an important step toward enhancing the safety of these products, but additional safeguards could be implemented, and unlike drugs, there are currently no efficacy requirements. To ensure a safe and effective product, botanical dietary supplements should be developed in a manner analogous to pharmaceuticals that involves identification of mechanisms of action and active constituents, chemical standardization based on the active compounds, biological standardization based on pharmacological activity, preclinical evaluation of toxicity and potential for drug–botanical interactions, metabolism of active compounds, and finally, clinical studies of safety and efficacy. Completing these steps will enable the translation of botanicals from the field to safe human use as dietary supplements. PMID:26125082

  3. Dietary supplement research portfolio at the NIH, 2009-2011.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cazarin, Mary L; Wambogo, Edwina A; Regan, Karen S; Davis, Cindy D

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. dietary supplement market increased by 7.5% in 2012 compared with 2011, reaching $32.5 billion in sales. Therefore, federally supported research on dietary supplements is important to determine their health effects, safety, and efficacy. A portfolio analysis was performed across the NIH and the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) for fiscal years (FYs) 2009-2011 by using the databases Human Nutrition Research Information Management (HNRIM) and Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS). The results indicated that total NIH dietary supplement-related funding for FYs 2009-2011 was $855 million ($295 million in 2009, $311 million in 2010, and $249 million in 2011). The institutes and centers with the highest investment in dietary supplement research were as follows: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ($135 million); the National Cancer Institute ($188 million); the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine ($99 million); the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases ($68 million); the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences ($58 million); and the ODS ($32 million). The dietary supplement ingredients receiving the most funding were botanicals (22%), vitamins (20%), lipids (14%), and minerals and trace elements (10%). The top 3 outcome research areas were cancer (61% of total dietary supplement investment), cardiovascular disease (47%), and women's reproductive health (38%). In FYs 2009, 2010, and 2011, the ODS provided 3.5%, 3.6%, and 4.1%, respectively, of the NIH investment in dietary supplement research. ODS funding focused on cellular, enzymatic, or molecular mechanisms (64% of total ODS funding). This portfolio analysis demonstrates that the NIH has committed substantial funding to dietary supplement research in an effort to expand the scientific knowledge base on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements.

  4. Integrating dietary supplements into cancer care.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Moshe; Abrams, Donald I; Ladas, Elena J; Deng, Gary; Hardy, Mary; Capodice, Jillian L; Winegardner, Mary F; Gubili, J K; Yeung, K Simon; Kussmann, Heidi; Block, Keith I

    2013-09-01

    Many studies confirm that a majority of patients undergoing cancer therapy use self-selected forms of complementary therapies, mainly dietary supplements. Unfortunately, patients often do not report their use of supplements to their providers. The failure of physicians to communicate effectively with patients on this use may result in a loss of trust within the therapeutic relationship and in the selection by patients of harmful, useless, or ineffective and costly nonconventional therapies when effective integrative interventions may exist. Poor communication may also lead to diminishment of patient autonomy and self-efficacy and thereby interfere with the healing response. To be open to the patient's perspective, and sensitive to his or her need for autonomy and empowerment, physicians may need a shift in their own perspectives. Perhaps the optimal approach is to discuss both the facts and the uncertainty with the patient, in order to reach a mutually informed decision. Today's informed patients truly value physicians who appreciate them as equal participants in making their own health care choices. To reach a mutually informed decision about the use of these supplements, the Clinical Practice Committee of The Society of Integrative Oncology undertook the challenge of providing basic information to physicians who wish to discuss these issues with their patients. A list of leading supplements that have the best suggestions of benefit was constructed by leading researchers and clinicians who have experience in using these supplements. This list includes curcumin, glutamine, vitamin D, Maitake mushrooms, fish oil, green tea, milk thistle, Astragalus, melatonin, and probiotics. The list includes basic information on each supplement, such as evidence on effectiveness and clinical trials, adverse effects, and interactions with medications. The information was constructed to provide an up-to-date base of knowledge, so that physicians and other health care providers would

  5. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  6. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05) concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols. PMID:24067389

  7. Calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk: 5 years on.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Mark J; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2013-10-01

    Calcium supplements have been widely used by older men and women. However, in little more than a decade, authoritative recommendations have changed from encouraging the widespread use of calcium supplements to stating that they should not be used for primary prevention of fractures. This substantial shift in recommendations has occurred as a result of accumulated evidence of marginal antifracture efficacy, and important adverse effects from large randomized controlled trials of calcium or coadministered calcium and vitamin D supplements. In this review, we discuss this evidence, with a particular focus on increased cardiovascular risk with calcium supplements, which we first described 5 years ago. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D marginally reduce total fractures but do not prevent hip fractures in community-dwelling individuals. They also cause kidney stones, acute gastrointestinal events, and increase the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Any benefit of calcium supplements on preventing fracture is outweighed by increased cardiovascular events. While there is little evidence to suggest that dietary calcium intake is associated with cardiovascular risk, there is also little evidence that it is associated with fracture risk. Therefore, for the majority of people, dietary calcium intake does not require close scrutiny. Because of the unfavorable risk/benefit profile, widespread prescribing of calcium supplements to prevent fractures should be abandoned. Patients at high risk of fracture should be encouraged to take agents with proven efficacy in preventing vertebral and nonvertebral fractures.

  8. Supplements for Diabetes Mellitus: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Zera; Piracha, Fawad; Anderson, Leeann; Mazzola, Nissa

    2016-09-11

    The primary approach to controlling diabetes involves diet and lifestyle modification combined with pharmacologic interventions. Patients who are interested in exploring dietary supplements in the management of diabetes may have questions about which supplement to choose and whether any issues will arise with their current medication regimen. After reading this review, the pharmacist should be able to identify supplements that may provide benefit to improve diabetes management, understand what potential harm to the patient may occur, and be able to assist the patient in choosing high-quality supplements. This review will focus on the safety and efficacy data surrounding nicotinamide, ginseng, fenugreek, vitamin D, chromium, and cinnamon. These supplements are commonly listed in general circulation periodicals with claims to improve blood sugar management. Efficacy data showed a modest decrease in fasting plasma glucose of -0.96 mmol/dL (-17.29 mg/dL) for fenugreek and -24.59 mg/dL for cinnamon. It remains to be seen whether supplementation with these products can affect outcomes such as morbidity and mortality. Despite many studies being available, the majority lack uniformity across multiple dimensions, including varying participant characteristics, inconsistent formulations of supplement and dose, and differing study durations. This, coupled with variation in quality and purity of commercially available products, prevents universal recommendation for use in diabetes management.

  9. Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.

    PubMed

    Bishop, David

    2010-12-01

    highlighted in this review needs to be conducted using team-sport athletes and using team-sport-relevant testing (e.g. single- and multiple-sprint performance). It should also be considered that there is no guarantee that dietary supplements that improve isolated performance (i.e. single-sprint or jump performance) will remain effective in the context of a team-sport match. Thus, more research is also required to investigate the effects of dietary supplements on simulated or actual team-sport performance. A second aim of this review was to investigate any health issues associated with the ingestion of the more commonly promoted dietary supplements. While most of the supplements described in the review appear safe when using the recommended dose, the effects of higher doses (as often taken by athletes) on indices of health remain unknown, and further research is warranted. Finally, anecdotal reports suggest that team-sport athletes often ingest more than one dietary supplement and very little is known about the potential adverse effects of ingesting multiple supplements. Supplements that have been demonstrated to be safe and efficacious when ingested on their own may have adverse effects when combined with other supplements. More research is required to investigate the effects of ingesting multiple supplements (both on performance and health).

  10. Will iron supplementation given during menstruation improve iron status better than weekly supplementation?

    PubMed

    Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Dillon, Drupadi; Khusun, Helda

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of two different iron supplements administered either on a weekly basis or during menstruation, a 16-week community experimental study was carried out among postmenarcheal female adolescent students in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Forty eight students received a placebo tablet weekly, 48 other students got an iron tablet weekly and 41 students took an iron tablet for four consecutive days during their menstruation cycle. All subjects were given deworming tablets before supplementation. Haemoglobin, serum ferritin, height, weight, mid-upper arm circumference and dietary intake were assessed before and after intervention. The supplementation contributed to a significant improvement in the iron status of the intervention groups compared to the placebo group (P < 0.05). In the menstruation group, the haemoglobin concentrations of the anaemic subjects improved significantly (P < 0.05) while for the non-anaemic subjects, serum ferritin concentrations also increased significantly (P < 0.05). In the weekly group for anaemic and nonanaemic subjects, there was a significant increase in both haemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations (P < 0.05). This study revealed that weekly supplementation of iron tablets continued for 16 weeks contributed a higher improvement to haemoglobin concentration, compared with supplementing iron tablets for four consecutive days during menstruation for four menstrual cycles. This suggests that weekly iron supplementation is preferable.

  11. Family Living Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Debbie

    This family living supplement contains 125 supplemental ideas and strategies designed to help vocational home economics teachers increase student motivation and enrich the teaching process. Ideas and strategies are organized into seven sections. These are career planning, securing a job, and career success; managing financial resources, buying…

  12. In sickness and in health: the widespread application of creatine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gualano, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton; Lancha-Jr, Antonio Herbert; Brightbill, Charles E; Rawson, Eric S

    2012-08-01

    There is an extensive and still growing body of the literature supporting the efficacy of creatine (Cr) supplementation. In sports, creatine has been recognized as the most effective nutritional supplement in enhancing exercise tolerance, muscle strength and lean body mass. From a clinical perspective, the application of Cr supplementation is indeed exciting. Evidences of benefits from this supplement have been reported in a broad range of diseases, including myopathies, neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, rheumatic diseases, and type 2 diabetes. In addition, after hundreds of published studies and millions of exposures creatine supplementation maintains an excellent safety profile. Thus, we contend that the widespread application of this supplement may benefit athletes, elderly people and various patient populations. In this narrative review, we aimed to summarize both the ergogenic and therapeutic effects of Cr supplementation. Furthermore, we reviewed the impact of Cr supplementation on kidney function.

  13. Should supplemental antioxidant administration be avoided during chemotherapy and radiation therapy?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite nearly two decades of research investigating the use of dietary antioxidant supplementation during conventional chemotherapy and radiation therapy, controversy remains about the efficacy and safety of this complementary treatment. Several studies of concurrent antioxidant administration with...

  14. Supplemental instruction in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundeberg, Mary A.

    This study was designed to measure some effects of supplemental instruction in chemistry. Supplemental instruction is a peer-led cooperative learning program that encourages students to develop conceptual understanding by articulating both understandings and misconceptions in a think-aloud fashion. Supplemental instruction was offered three hours weekly outside of class and lab time for students in four classes of General Organic and Biological Chemistry. Over a two-year period 108 students volunteered to participate in this program; 45 students did not participate. As measured by final grades in chemistry and responses to a questionnaire, supplemental instruction was effective in increasing students' achievement in chemistry. Further research is needed to determine the in-depth effects of supplemental instruction on students' learning, problem solving, and self-esteem.

  15. Beware of Fraudulent 'Dietary Supplements'

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Supplements Dietary Supplements More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  16. Herbs, Supplements and Alternative Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Medication > Other Treatments > Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Share: Print Page Text ... magazine: meds-other, In this section Medication Other Treatments Herbs, Supplements, and Alternative Medicines Types of Dietary Supplements ...

  17. Dietary Supplements are Not all Safe and Not all Food: How the Low Cost of Dietary Supplements Preys on the Consumer.

    PubMed

    Sax, Joanna K

    2015-01-01

    Dietary supplements are regulated as food, even though the safety and efficacy of some supplements are unknown. These products are often promoted as 'natural.' This leads many consumers to fail to question the supplements' safety, and some consumers even equate 'natural' with safe. But, 'natural' does not mean safe. For example, many wild berries and mushrooms are dangerous although they are natural. Another example is tobacco--a key ingredient in cigarettes: it is natural, but overwhelming studies have established the harm of cigarette smoke. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires safety and efficacy testing prior to market entry for drugs. In contrast, the FDA only has limited ability to regulate the entry of new dietary supplements into the marketplace because supplements are treated as food. Two main arguments support the current regulatory structure of dietary supplements: (1) cost and (2) access. But lower cost and increased access to dietary supplements do not necessary have any relationship to safety and efficacy. Manufacturers' marketing techniques tout the health benefits of their supplements. Meanwhile, consumers are ingesting supplements without scientific studies indicating whether or not they are harmful. The FDA Food Safety and Modernization Act, signed into law on January 4, 2011, did not address the safety concerns regarding dietary supplements. This article discusses the regulatory deficiencies concerning dietary supplements and proposes novel solutions to address this specific sector of the food supply. This article advocates for the use of scientific data to support a multi-tiered classification system to ensure that dietary supplements on the market are safe.

  18. Supplements for exotic pets.

    PubMed

    Mejia-Fava, Johanna; Colitz, Carmen M H

    2014-09-01

    The use of supplements has become commonplace in an effort to complement traditional therapy and as part of long-term preventive health plans. This article discusses historical and present uses of antioxidants, vitamins, and herbs. By complementing traditional medicine with holistic and alternative nutrition and supplements, the overall health and wellness of exotic pets can be enhanced and balanced. Further research is needed for understanding the strengths and uses of supplements in exotic species. Going back to the animals' origin and roots bring clinicians closer to nature and its healing powers.

  19. Simultaneous observations of solar sporadic radio emission by the radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA within the frequency range 8-42 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Brazhenko, A.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V.; Zarka, P.; Denis, L.; Bulatzen, V.; Frantzusenko, A.; Rucker, H.; Stanislavskyy, A.

    2012-09-01

    From 25 June till 12 August 2011 sporadic solar radio emission was observed simultaneously by three separate radio telescopes: UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine), URAN-2 (Poltava, Ukraine) and NDA (Nancay, France). During these observations some interesting phenomena were observed. Some of them are discussed in this paper.

  20. FDA 101: Dietary Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers ... Knowledge About Vitamins More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food Medical ...

  1. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    MedlinePlus

    ... able to synthesize additional vitamin D through routine sunlight exposure. However, published reports of cases of vitamin ... a vitamin supplement or from adequate exposure to sunlight. A number of factors decrease the amount of ...

  2. Supplements to Textbook Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Ken

    1994-01-01

    Describes the many kinds of materials that English teachers can draw upon to enrich and expand students' experiences with literature. Outlines ancillary materials used to supplement the study of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar." (HB)

  3. Dietary Supplements for Toddlers

    MedlinePlus

    ... about which supplements are needed and the amounts. Iron Deficiency Iron deficiency does occur among some young children and ... need to receive at least 15 milligrams of iron a day in their food, but many fail ...

  4. Iron supplements (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The mineral iron is an essential nutrient for humans because it is part of blood cells, which carry oxygen to all body cells. There is no conclusive evidence that iron supplements contribute to heart attacks.

  5. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Minerals

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Melvin H

    2005-01-01

    Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation. PMID:18500950

  6. Dietary supplements and sports performance: minerals.

    PubMed

    Williams, Melvin H

    2005-06-11

    Minerals are essential for a wide variety of metabolic and physiologic processes in the human body. Some of the physiologic roles of minerals important to athletes are their involvement in: muscle contraction, normal hearth rhythm, nerve impulse conduction, oxygen transport, oxidative phosphorylation, enzyme activation, immune functions, antioxidant activity, bone health, and acid-base balance of the blood. The two major classes of minerals are the macrominerals and the trace elements. The scope of this article will focus on the ergogenic theory and the efficacy of such mineral supplementation.

  7. Iron supplementation for the control of iron deficiency in populations at risk.

    PubMed

    Viteri, F E

    1997-06-01

    Iron supplementation, mostly with a therapeutic orientation, has been a key strategy for the short-term control of iron deficiency and ferropenic anemia. It has been used almost exclusively in antenatal clinics, but in spite of its confirmed efficacy in supervised trials, it has proven ineffective in practice in most developing countries. Poor effectiveness has been attributed to various factors including insufficient dose and time of supplementation and poor adherence. These problems have led to the administration of high iron doses, which have proven equally ineffective in practice. This paper introduces four concepts: (1) that iron supplementation targeted to pregnant women should cover the full reproductive cycle, from prepregnancy to at least the end of lactation instead of only the pregnant women; (2) that entering pregnancy with iron deficiency contributes to the failure of antenatal iron supplementation and that prepregnancy iron reserves increase the effectiveness of antenatal supplementation; (3) that medium- to long-term weekly ingestion of proper iron-folate supplements, with a preventive aim and directed to all risk groups, should be community based rather than health service based but supervised by the latter (in this sense, preventive supplementation is equal to targeted iron fortification); and (4) that preventive supplementation, based on weekly dosing, has proven efficacious. Problem-oriented research to evaluate the sustainability and medium- to long-term efficacy of these concepts is called for. The bases for the concepts and suggestions are summarized in this paper.

  8. Weekly iron supplementation does not block increases in serum zinc due to weekly zinc supplementation in Bangladeshi infants.

    PubMed

    Baqui, Abdullah H; Walker, Christa L Fischer; Zaman, K; El Arifeen, Shams; Chowdhury, Hafizur Rahman; Wahed, Mohammed A; Black, Robert E; Caulfield, Laura E

    2005-09-01

    Because infants and young children in many developing countries are deficient in both iron and zinc, and zinc can affect iron metabolism, evaluation of optimum strategies to simultaneously supplement iron and zinc is an important public health priority. This study evaluated the efficacy of weekly supplementation of iron or zinc or both on iron, zinc, and copper status in Bangladeshi infants. In a double-blind, randomized, controlled community trial, 6-mo-old infants were assigned to receive weekly supplements of 1 mg riboflavin (control, n = 82) or 1 mg riboflavin + 20 mg iron (n = 83), 20 mg zinc (n = 83), or both (n = 85) for 6 mo. Hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptor, zinc, and copper concentrations were measured at baseline and at the end of intervention. Serum Zn increased in both groups receiving zinc; the increase was greatest among children with low baseline serum zinc concentration. Iron status indicators did not differ among the groups before or after 6 mo of supplementation. Supplementation with either zinc or iron decreased serum copper after 6 mo. Joint supplementation did not alter the individual effects of iron or zinc supplementation in these Bangladeshi children. However, the dosing regimen may not have been adequate to achieve the desired biochemical effects.

  9. Dietary Supplementation with Olive Oil or Fish Oil and Vascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Particulate Matter Exposure in Human Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...

  10. Psychology: Teacher Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    This supplement provides teachers with tests, quizzes, answers to questions in the text, and general teaching information for using the student text, "Psychology," by Rebecca Stark. Quizzes included are on the topics of human development; the nervous system; the brain; cognitive development; sensation and perception; conditioning; learning;…

  11. Caffeine and Creatine Content of Dietary Supplements Consumed by Brazilian Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Suelen Galante; de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Alvares, Thiago Silveira

    2016-08-01

    Caffeine and creatine are ingredients in the most popular dietary supplements consumed by soccer players. However, some products may not contain the disclosed amounts of the ingredients listed on the label, compromising the safe usage and the effectiveness of these supplements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the content of caffeine and creatine in dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players. The results obtained were compared with the caffeine content listed on the product label. Two batches of the supplement brands consumed by ≥ 50% of the players were considered for analysis. The quantification of caffeine and creatine in the supplements was determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography system with UV detector. Nine supplements of caffeine and 7 supplements of creatine met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Eight brands of caffeine and five brands of creatine showed significantly different values (p < .05) as compared with the values stated on the label. There were no significant differences between the two batches of supplements analyzed, except for one caffeine supplement. It can be concluded that caffeine and creatine dietary supplements consumed by Brazilian soccer players present inaccurate values listed on the label, although most presented no difference among batches. To ensure consumer safety and product efficacy, accurate information on caffeine and creatine content should be provided on all dietary supplement labels.

  12. Examples of Dietary Supplement Interactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... is absorbed by the body.Supplement: Saw PalmettoPossible drug-supplement interaction with:Birth control pills. Can decrease effects of estrogen in the body, which can reduce the effectiveness of birth control ...

  13. Dietary Supplements: What Is Safe?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and side effects of dietary supplements Dietary supplement advertising and promotion Talking with your doctor about dietary ... Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, Answers, and Hope. Available Every ...

  14. Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Vitamin Supplements: Healthy or Hoax? Updated:Jun 12,2015 Can vitamin and mineral supplements really make you healthier? Overwhelmed ...

  15. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  16. Development of an NDA system for high-level waste from the Chernobyl new safe confinement construction site

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-yoon; Browne, Michael C; Rael, Carlos D; Carroll, Colin J; Sunshine, Alexander; Novikov, Alexander; Lebedev, Evgeny

    2010-01-01

    In early 2009, preliminary excavation work has begun in preparation for the construction of the New Safe Confinement (NSC) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in Ukraine. The NSC is the structure that will replace the present containment structure and will confine the radioactive remains of the ChNPP Unit-4 reactor for the next 100 years. It is expected that special nuclear material (SNM) that was ejected from the Unit-4 reactor during the accident in 1986 could be uncovered and would therefore need to be safeguarded. ChNPP requested the assistance of the United States Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) with developing a new non-destructive assay (NDA) system that is capable of assaying radioactive debris stored in 55-gallon drums. The design of the system has to be tailored to the unique circumstances and work processes at the NSC construction site and the ChNPP. This paper describes the Chernobyl Drum Assay System (CDAS), the solution devised by Los Alamos National Laboratory, Sonalysts Inc., and the ChNPP, under NNSA's International Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP). The neutron counter measures the spontaneous fission neutrons from the {sup 238}U, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 244}Cm in a waste drum and estimates the mass contents of the SNMs in the drum by using of isotopic compositions determined by fuel burnup. The preliminary evaluation on overall measurement uncertainty shows that the system meets design performance requirements imposed by the facility.

  17. [ERGOGENIC SPORT SUPPLEMENTS FOR ATHLETES].

    PubMed

    Arieli, Rakefet; Lahav, Yair

    2016-06-01

    Use of performance-enhancing supplements occurs at all levels of sports, from recreational athletes to professional athletes. Although some supplements do enhance athletic performance, many have no proven benefits and have adverse effects. Nutritional supplements are categorized into the following categories: I. Apparently Effective. II. Possibly Effective. III. Too Early To Tell. IV. Apparently Ineffective. This article will review 4 ergogenic supplements which are categorized in the first category--"Apparently Effective"--1) Buffer agents 2) Creatine 3) Caffeine and 4 Nitric Oxide. Given the widespread use of performance enhancing supplements, physicians, and dietitians should be prepared to counsel athletes about their effectiveness, safety and legality.

  18. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  19. Supplementation patterns in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Nieman, D C; Gates, J R; Butler, J V; Pollett, L M; Dietrich, S J; Lutz, R D

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to study the use of supplements in a large group of endurance runners (no. = 347) who had participated in the 1987 Los Angeles Marathon. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for nutrient content and supplement usage. The runners' supplementation patterns with respect to demographics, dietary quality, training habits, and race performance were investigated. In general, no significant associations were found between supplement use and the aforementioned variables. Use of supplements, especially vitamins C and E, calcium, and zinc, increased with age (p less than .05). Daily use of at least one type of supplement was reported by 29% of the runners; 48% reported use of at least one type of supplement within the 3-day period.

  20. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements. A clinical review for physicians caring for older people.

    PubMed

    Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Suominen, Merja H; Bell, J Simon; Strandberg, Timo E

    2016-12-01

    Evidence for the safety and effectiveness of dietary supplements is mixed. The extent to which older people use dietary supplements concomitantly with conventional medications is often under-appreciated by physicians. We conducted a literature review on clinical considerations associated with dietary supplement use, focusing on benefits and harms, motivations for use and contribution to polypharmacy among older people. Vitamin D ≥ 800 IU has demonstrated benefits in fracture prevention. Vitamins A, E, and β-carotene have been associated with an increase in total mortality in several meta-analyses. A range of non-vitamin dietary supplements have been studied in randomized controlled trials but their efficacy remains largely unclear. Supplement use has been associated with a range of adverse events and drug interactions yet physicians rarely initiate discussions about their use with older patients. Older people may take dietary supplements to exercise control over their health. Given the contribution of supplements to polypharmacy, supplements may be targeted for "deprescribing" if the risk of harm is judged to outweigh benefits. This is best done as part of a comprehensive, patient-centered approach. A respectful and non-judgmental discussion may result in a shared decision to reduce polypharmacy through cessation of dietary supplements. KEY MESSAGES Herbal medications and other dietary supplements are highly prevalent among older people. Physicians are often unaware that their patients use herbal medications and other dietary supplements concomitantly with conventional medications. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements contribute to high rates of polypharmacy, particularly among older people with multimorbidity. Herbal medications and other dietary supplements can interact with conventional medications and be associated with a range of adverse events. Physicians need to be patient-centered and non-judgmental when initiating discussions about

  1. The clinical content of preconception care: nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Paula M; Nelson, Lauren; Shellhaas, Cynthia S; Dunlop, Anne L; Long, Richard; Andrist, Sara; Jack, Brian W

    2008-12-01

    Women of child-bearing age should achieve and maintain good nutritional status prior to conception to help minimize health risks to both mothers and infants. Many women may not be aware of the importance of preconception nutrition and supplementation or have access to nutrition information. Health care providers should be knowledgeable about preconception/pregnancy-related nutrition and take the initiative to discuss this information during preconception counseling. Women of reproductive age should be counseled to consume a well-balanced diet including fruits and vegetables, iron and calcium-rich foods, and protein-containing foods as well as 400 microg of folic acid daily. More research is critically needed on the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and the role of obesity in birth outcomes. Preconception counseling is the perfect opportunity for the health care provider to discuss a healthy eating guideline, dietary supplement intake, and maintaining a healthy weight status.

  2. Flavonoids, the emerging dietary supplement against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Athira, K V; Madhana, Rajaram Mohanrao; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-03-25

    The letter illustrates the emerging potential of flavonoids as dietary supplement to ameliorate cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and refers to the recent article on ''Anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory effects of naringin on cisplatin-induced renal injury in the rat'' by Chtourou et al. They demonstrated that supplementation of naringin, a flavanone glycoside, found in grape and citrus fruit species, can attenuate cisplatin-induced renal dysfunction via restoration of redox balance and suppression of inflammation, NF-κB activation and apoptosis. The chemotherapeutic efficacy of cisplatin has always compelled the researchers to find solution to ameliorate its side effects. In recent years, numerous candidates have been evaluated for their protective potential against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and flavonoids have come up with promising results. The future prospects might be promising with a proper refinement and collective integration of the preclinical and clinical research in the field of flavonoid supplementation to cisplatin therapy.

  3. Nutritional Supplements for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Michael H.; Mulqueen, Jilian

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation has demonstrated evidence of efficacy in meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials in ADHD. The benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acid appear small compared to the effect sizes observed for traditional pharmacological treatments of ADHD. Some evidence suggests that polyunsaturated fatty acid formulations with higher eicosapentaenoic acid may be more effective in improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Iron and zinc supplementation may have benefit in reducing ADHD symptoms in children with or at high risk of deficiency. Data demonstrating efficacy of iron, zinc or magnesium in non-nutrient deficient ADHD populations is lacking. Many other natural supplements are widely utilized in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side-effects. PMID:25220092

  4. Herbals and natural dietary supplements in psychiatric practice.

    PubMed

    Chiappedi, Matteo; Bejor, Maurizio

    2010-06-01

    There is some evidence that links the increase of mental disorders' prevalence with a deterioration of Western countries' nutritional habits and it is found that the use of herbal and "natural" food supplements to treat different disorders is increasing. With factors such as chronic illness, poor health, emotional distress, and quality of life influencing the desire for complementary medicine, patients with comorbid medical and psychiatric problems seem likely to turn to this approach. We reviewed the most commonly used herbal and dietary supplements for which a certain efficacy on psychiatric symptoms or disorders has been claimed, checking current Pubmed-indexed literature (the most important being St. John's wort, Omega-3 fatty acids, valerian, Kava, Ginkgo, folate, B vitamins, SAMe, Inositol). There is an evidence of efficacy for some of these herbs an supplements, but current studies are often insufficient to reach a final conclusion; still patents are being requested and registered. Many different areas (including efficacy, tolerability, optimal dosing, adequate shelf life, drug and non-pharmacological interactions) need to be thoroughly studied; moreover political decisions need to be scientifically guided in order to best serve psychiatric patients' interests and to prevent the usage of expensive and sometimes un-useful therapies. This implies that a scientific strategy has to be used to rule out any third-part economical interest which could in any way influence therapeutic choices.

  5. Supplementing national menu labeling.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G; White, Lexi C

    2012-12-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's forthcoming national menu labeling regulations are designed to help curb the national obesity epidemic by requiring calorie counts on restaurants' menus. However, posted calories can be easily ignored or misunderstood by consumers and fail to accurately describe the healthiness of foods. We propose supplemental models that include nutritional information (e.g., fat, salt, sugar) or specific guidance (e.g., "heart-healthy" graphics). The goal is to empower restaurant patrons with better data to make healthier choices, and ultimately to reduce obesity prevalence.

  6. Hyperkalemia from Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Villgran, Vipin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte problem in patients with chronic kidney disease. It is typically caused by medications in patients with poor kidney function. Patients with comorbodities such as heart failure and diabetes are predisposed to electrolyte problems. Salt substitutes and dietary supplements are uncommon causes of hyperkalemia, but we propose that they are under-recognized and underdiagnosed causes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Our case report and literature review illustrates that a careful dietary history is essential in patients presenting with electrolyte disorders, especially hyperkalemia. PMID:27924248

  7. Supplementing managed competition.

    PubMed

    Higgins, W

    President Clinton's proposal for health care reform calls for managed competition within global expenditure targets. However, it is unlikely that health plans will have sufficient leverage with providers to negotiate arrangements consistent with expenditure targets in nonurban areas. This paper describes a reimbursement system based on competitive prospective payment and capitation (CPPC) which can supplement managed competition in less populous areas or replace managed competition should that strategy prove unsuccessful. The CPPC system is capable of enforcing an expenditure target while encouraging the formation of capitated networks and creating strong incentives for efficiency. It is generally compatible with the Clinton administration's version of managed competition.

  8. Special Supplement Introduction: Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Fernyhough, Charles; Waters, Flavie

    2014-01-01

    This Special Supplement presents reports from 11 working groups of the interdisciplinary International Consortium on Hallucination Research meeting in Durham, UK, September 2013. Topics include psychological therapies for auditory hallucinations, culture and hallucinations, hallucinations in children and adolescents, visual hallucinations, interdisciplinary approaches to the phenomenology of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), AVHs in persons without need for care, a multisite study of the PSYRATS instrument, subtypes of AVHs, the Hearing Voices Movement, Research Domain Criteria for hallucinations, and cortical specialization as a route to understanding hallucinations. PMID:24936079

  9. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  10. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF FOOD SUPPLEMENTS.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Magdalena; Kubicka, Marcelina M; Kamińska, Dorota; Długaszewska, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Many specialists note that the food offered today - as a result of very complex technological processing - is devoid of many components that are important for the organism and the shortages have to be supplemented. The simplest for it is to consume diet supplements that provide the missing element in a concentrated form. In accordance with the applicable law, medicinal products include all substances or mixtures of substances that are attributed with properties of preventing or treating diseases with humans or animals. Permits to admit supplements to the market are issued by the Chief Sanitary Inspector and the related authorities; permits for medicines are issued by the Chief Pharmaceutical Inspector and the Office for Registration of Medicinal Products, Medical Devices and Biocidal Products. Therefore, admittance of a supplement to the market is less costly and time consuming_than admittance of a medicine. Supplements and medicines may contain the same component but medicines will have a larger concentration than supplements. Sale of supplements at drug stores and in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids or powders makes consumer often confusing supplements with medicines. Now there are no normative documents specifying limits of microbiological impurities in diet supplements. In Polish legislation, diet supplements are subject to legal acts concerning food. Medicines have to comply with microbiological purity requirements specified in the Polish Pharmacopeia. As evidenced with the completed tests, the proportion of diet supplement samples with microbiological impurities is 6.5%. Sales of diet supplements have been growing each year, they are consumed by healthy people but also people with immunology deficiencies and by children and therefore consumers must be certain that they buy safe products.

  11. Bodybuilding supplementation and tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Ali, M S; Batley, H; Ahmed, F

    2015-07-10

    Supplementation is a key component in bodybuilding and is increasingly being used by amateur weight lifters and enthusiasts to build their ideal bodies. Bodybuilding supplements are advertised to provide nutrients needed to help optimise muscle building but they can contain high amounts of sugar. Supplement users are consuming these products, while not being aware of their high sugar content, putting them at a higher risk of developing dental caries. It is important for dental professionals to recognise the increased risk for supplement users and to raise awareness, provide appropriate preventative advice and be knowledgeable of alternative products to help bodybuilders reach their goals, without increasing the risk of dental caries.

  12. Nutritional Supplementation and Meal Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Jim

    For the competitive athlete and the serious recreational athlete, nutritional supplementation can have a positive effect on training and on performance. There are many fad supplements on the market, and many that have come and gone. However, two nutrients have withstood the test of time and many tests in research laboratories around the world, and they continue to have positive training- and performance-enhancing effects. Carbohydrates are commonly supplemented to improve energy availability and to replace valuable muscle and liver glycogen stores. Protein supplementation usually is associated with building muscle tissue.

  13. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    PubMed

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  14. Chromium picolinate supplementation for diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fox, G N; Sabovic, Z

    1998-01-01

    Chromium picolinate is a widely available nutritional supplement marketed for a plethora of afflictions. There is some evidence, including results from human studies, that it has a role in glucose homeostasis. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman with an 18-year history of type 1 diabetes mellitus whose glycosylated hemoglobin (Hb A1c) declined from 11.3% to 7.9% 3 months after initiation of chromium picolinate, 200 micrograms 3 times daily. Chromium picolinate continues to fall squarely within the scope of "alternative medicine," with both unproven benefits and unknown risks. It deserves closer scrutiny with additional prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to evaluate its efficacy in improving outcomes in patients with diabetes. A brief review of the literature was done to assist physicians who are being called upon to counsel and treat patients who are engaging in alternative therapies.

  15. Effects of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marya, R K; Rathee, S; Lata, V; Mudgil, S

    1981-01-01

    Serum calcium, inorganic phosphate and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase (HLAP) have been estimated in maternal and cord sera of 120 pregnant women at labour. 75 women who did not take any vitamin D supplements during pregnancy showed statistically significant hypocalcaemia, hypophosphataemia and elevation of HLAP. Hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia were present in cord blood, too. 25 women who had received 1,200 U vitamin D/day throughout the 3rd trimester, showed significantly lower HLAP levels and increased fetal birth weight but there was no other improvement in maternal or cord blood chemistry. Administration of vitamin D in two large doses of 600,000 U each in the 7th and 8th months of pregnancy in 20 women proved more efficacious. Statistically significant improvement was observed in all the three biochemical parameters in maternal as well as cord sera. Fetal birth weight was also significantly greater with this mode of therapy.

  16. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J; Conlin, Jeremy L; Evans, Louise G; Hu, Jianwei; Blanc, Pauline C; Lafleur, Adrienne M; Menlove, Howard O; Schear, Melissa A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Croft, Stephen; Fensin, Michael L; Freeman, Corey R; Koehler, William E; Mozin, V; Sandoval, N P; Lee, T H; Cambell, L W; Cheatham, J R; Gesh, C J; Hunt, A; Ludewigt, B A; Smith, L E; Sterbentz, J

    2010-09-15

    This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

  17. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  18. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  19. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  20. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  1. 32 CFR 651.24 - Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental EAs and supplemental EISs. 651.24 Section 651.24 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents §...

  2. Basis for regulation of selenium supplements in animal diets.

    PubMed

    Ullrey, D E

    1992-12-01

    Selenium was discovered 174 yr ago but, until 1957, was given little notice by biologists or was vilified as an agent that caused toxicity in grazing ruminants and horses in the northern Great Plains. After its status as an essential nutrient was established, Se received intense scrutiny, and hundreds of papers have been published dealing with its metabolic functions and the consequences of a Se deficiency. Because regions of Se deficiency are so extensive in the United States, great efforts have been made to gain Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for Se supplementation of animal diets. Initially, these efforts were thwarted by concern that Se might be carcinogenic. After this concern was resolved, researchers established supplemental Se levels that were efficacious, safe for animals, safe for humans that eat animal products, and protective of the environment. First approval of Se supplements was given in 1974 for supplementation of swine or growing chicken diets at .1 ppm. Supplements for turkey diets were approved at .2 ppm. Ultimately, in 1987, levels of supplemental Se in diets for chickens, turkeys, ducks, swine, sheep, and cattle were approved at .3 ppm. However, FDA regulations do not mention horses or zoo animals, and those who would ensure the welfare of these species by supplementing Se-deficient diets may be in violation of FDA interpretation of the law. In addition, the association of Se with death and deformities in aquatic birds at the Kesterson Reservoir in California has led to pressure on the FDA to reverse the 1987 amendments to the feed additive regulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Too Little, Too Late: Ineffective Regulation of Dietary Supplements in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in the United States consume dietary supplements hoping to maintain or improve their health; however, extensive research has failed to demonstrate the efficacy of numerous supplements in disease prevention. In addition, concerns about the safety of routine and high-dose supplementation have been raised. The Food and Drug Administration regulates dietary supplement quality, safety, and labeling, and the Federal Trade Commission monitors advertisements and marketing; still, vast enforcement challenges remain, and optimal governmental oversight has not been achieved. If the composition and quality of ingredients cannot be reliably ensured, the validity of research on dietary supplements is questionable. Moreover, the health of the US public is put at risk. PMID:25602879

  4. Zinc Supplementation in Children with Asthma Exacerbation

    PubMed Central

    Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak

    2016-01-01

    Zinc deficiency has demonstrated an association with the risk of asthma. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of zinc supplementation in reducing the severity of childhood asthma exacerbation. A number of 42 children with asthma exacerbation admitted to the hospital were randomized to receive either zinc bis-glycinate (30 mg elemental zinc/day) or a placebo in adjuvant to the standard treatment. The pediatric respiratory assessment measure (PRAM) was used to measure the asthma severity. The primary outcome was a change in asthma severity from the baseline to the end of study. The study found that PRAM score in the zinc group showed a more rapid decrease compared to the control group at the 24-hour (2.2±1.3 vs. 1.2±1.3; P = 0.015) and 48-hour (3.4±2.0 vs. 2.2±1.8; P = 0.042) intervals. At admission, overall mean serum zinc level was 63.8 mg/dL and 57.1% of children had zinc deficiency with no difference in prevalence between groups. PRAM scores did not differ between children with low and normal zinc status. In conclusion, zinc supplementation as the adjuvant therapy to the standard treatment during asthma exacerbation resulted in rapid lessening of severity. PMID:28058103

  5. Performance enhancement with supplements: incongruence between rationale and practice

    PubMed Central

    Petróczi, Andrea; Naughton, Declan P; Mazanov, Jason; Holloway, Allison; Bingham, Jerry

    2007-01-01

    Background Athletes are expected to consider multiple factors when making informed decision about nutritional supplement use. Besides rules, regulations and potential health hazards, the efficacy of different nutritional supplements in performance enhancement is a key issue. The aim of this paper was to find evidence for informed decision making by investigating the relationship between specific performance-related reasons for supplement use and the reported use of nutritional supplements. Methods The 'UK Sport 2005 Drug Free Survey' data (n = 874) were re-analysed using association [χ2] and 'strength of association' tests [ϕ] to show the proportion of informed choices and to unveil incongruencies between self-reported supplement use and the underlying motives. Results Participants (n = 520) reported supplement use in the pattern of: vitamin C (70.4%), creatine (36.1%), whey protein (30.6%), iron (29.8%), caffeine (23.8%), and ginseng (8.3%) for the following reasons: strength maintenance (38.1%), doctors' advice (24.2%), enhancing endurance (20.0%), ability to train longer (13.3%), and provided by the governing body (3.8%). Of thirty possible associations between the above supplements and reasons, 11 were predictable from literature precedents and only 8 were evidenced and these were not strong (ϕ < .7). The best associations were for the ability to train longer with creatine (reported by 73.9%, χ2 = 49.14, p < .001; ϕ = .307, p < .001), and maintaining strength with creatine (reported by 62.6%, χ2 = 97.08, p < .001; ϕ = .432, p < .001) and whey protein (reported by 56.1%, χ2 = 97.82, p < .001; ϕ = .434, p < .001). Conclusion This study provided a platform for assessing congruence between athletes' reasons for supplement use and their actual use. These results suggest that a lack of understanding exists in supplement use. There is an urgent need to provide accurate information which will help athletes make informed choices about the use of supplements

  6. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  7. Drugs, Herbs and Supplements: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/druginformation.html Drugs, Herbs and Supplements To use the sharing features on ... approved labels included in drug packages, see DailyMed . Herbs and Supplements Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies ...

  8. Military-specific application of nutritional supplements: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Brink, Will

    2015-01-01

    The Soldiers of America's military endure numerous physical and mental challenges that demand strict physical fitness regimens, extreme mental agility, and a perpetual readiness to deploy at a moment's notice. The chronicity of these stressors has the potential to dramatically reduce performance - both directly and indirectly.  Because of this risk, many Soldiers turn to nutritional supplements with hopes of optimizing performance. Increasing amounts of research have demonstrated that various supplements may enhance overall physical prowess, health, and offer quicker recovery in the face of corporal or psychological extremes. Most individuals, including many medical and nutrition professionals, possess only an elementary comprehension of nutritional supplements and their effect on Soldiers in training or combat environments. Nevertheless, a grasp of these details is required for safety and optimal benefits. Various compounds have been evaluated - to include evidence within the military setting - and found to augment endurance, increase cognitive function, decrease knee pain, or offer hearing or lung protection in the face of high-energy impulses. These efficacious outcomes may serve to augment the health and longevity of these Soldiers; however, continued research is needed for efficacy and long-term safety within specific environments.

  9. Vitamin E levels during early iron supplementation in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Bauer, Sofia; Shainkin-Kestenbaum, Ruth; Shiff, Yakov; Bental, Yoram; Dolfin, Tzipora; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2009-05-01

    On the basis of preliminary data, this larger bi-institutional continuation trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of early iron supplementation in preterm infants calls attention to the levels of vitamin E, a marker of antioxidant activity, during iron treatment. A total of 116 preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive at 2 or 4 weeks of age ( N = 62, N = 54, respectively) 5 mg/kg/d of nonionic iron polymaltose complex concomitantly with a daily dose of 25 IU vitamin E (as dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate) from 2 weeks of age. Vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) levels, iron, ferritin, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were recorded from 2 to 8 weeks of age. The morbidities of prematurity associated with free radicals formation were also documented. A gradual increase of alpha-tocopherol levels within physiological range (0.8 to 3.5 mg/dL) was found in the 2-week and 4-week groups during the study period with no difference among the groups ( P > 0.05 for all comparisons). At 8 weeks of age, iron and ferritin levels, hemoglobin concentration, and reticulocyte count were higher in the 2-week group. No correlation was observed between timing of both iron and vitamin E supplement and hemolysis or morbidities associated with prematurity. Thus, treatment of iron with vitamin E supplement at 2 weeks of age is, in our experience, an efficacious and safe treatment for improving anemia in preterm infants.

  10. Military-specific application of nutritional supplements: a brief overview

    PubMed Central

    Hoedebecke, Kyle; Brink, Will

    2015-01-01

    The Soldiers of America's military endure numerous physical and mental challenges that demand strict physical fitness regimens, extreme mental agility, and a perpetual readiness to deploy at a moment's notice. The chronicity of these stressors has the potential to dramatically reduce performance - both directly and indirectly.  Because of this risk, many Soldiers turn to nutritional supplements with hopes of optimizing performance. Increasing amounts of research have demonstrated that various supplements may enhance overall physical prowess, health, and offer quicker recovery in the face of corporal or psychological extremes. Most individuals, including many medical and nutrition professionals, possess only an elementary comprehension of nutritional supplements and their effect on Soldiers in training or combat environments. Nevertheless, a grasp of these details is required for safety and optimal benefits. Various compounds have been evaluated - to include evidence within the military setting - and found to augment endurance, increase cognitive function, decrease knee pain, or offer hearing or lung protection in the face of high-energy impulses. These efficacious outcomes may serve to augment the health and longevity of these Soldiers; however, continued research is needed for efficacy and long-term safety within specific environments. PMID:25949806

  11. Nutritional Supplements in Canine Dermatoses

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Lowell

    1987-01-01

    Nutritionally-related dermatoses of dogs have received considerable attention in the veterinary community in the past few years and most of this attention has centered on the role of vitamin E, vitamin A, zinc, and the essential fatty acids. Nutritional supplements for dogs abound in the marketplace yet few actually meet the requirements of a pet with a skin problem. Many more are not formulated strictly for dermatological cases but rather as general supplements to augment the nutritional needs of pets. The potential actions of these different nutrients are discussed and comparisons made of the different commercial supplements. PMID:17422880

  12. Dietary supplements for improving body composition and reducing body weight: where is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Manore, Melinda M

    2012-04-01

    Weight-loss supplements typically fall into 1 of 4 categories depending on their hypothesized mechanism of action: products that block the absorption of fat or carbohydrate, stimulants that increase thermogenesis, products that change metabolism and improve body composition, and products that suppress appetite or give a sense of fullness. Each category is reviewed, and an overview of the current science related to their effectiveness is presented. While some weight-loss supplements produce modest effects (<2 kg weight loss), many have either no or few randomized clinical trials examining their effectiveness. A number of factors confound research results associated with the efficacy of weight-loss supplements, such as small sample sizes, short intervention periods, little or no follow-up, and whether the supplement is given in combination with an energy-restricted diet or increased exercise expenditure. There is no strong research evidence indicating that a specific supplement will produce significant weight loss (>2 kg), especially in the long term. Some foods or supplements such as green tea, fiber, and calcium supplements or dairy products may complement a healthy lifestyle to produce small weight losses or prevent weight gain over time. Weight-loss supplements containing metabolic stimulants (e.g., caffeine, ephedra, synephrine) are most likely to produce adverse side effects and should be avoided.

  13. Prophylactic Supplementation of Caprylic Acid in Feed Reduces Salmonella Enteritidis Colonization in Commercial Broiler Chicks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella Enteritidis is a major foodborne pathogen for which chickens serve as reservoir hosts. Reducing Salmonella Enteritidis carriage in chickens would reduce contamination of poultry meat and eggs with this pathogen. We investigated the prophylactic efficacy of feed supplemented with caprylic ...

  14. A Prekindergarten Curriculum Supplement for Enhancing Mainstream American English Knowledge in Nonmainstream American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jan R.; Rosin, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a curriculum supplement designed to enhance awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE) in African American English- (AAE-) speaking prekindergarten children. Method: Children in 2 Head Start classrooms participated in the study. The experimental classroom received the Talking…

  15. Recent Advances in Berry Supplementation and Age-Related Cognitive Decline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To summarize recent findings and current concepts in the beneficial effects of berry consumption on brain function during aging. Berryfruit supplementation has continued to demonstrate efficacy in reversing age-related cognitive decline in animal studies. In terms of the mechanisms behind the effe...

  16. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Behavioral Economic Supplement to Brief Motivational Interventions for College Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James G.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Skidmore, Jessica R.; Borsari, Brian; Barnett, Nancy P.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral economic theory suggests that a reduction in substance use is most likely when there is an increase in rewarding substance-free activities. The goal of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the incremental efficacy of a novel behavioral economic supplement (Substance-Free Activity Session [SFAS]) to a…

  18. To supplement or not to supplement: a metabolic network framework for human nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Nogiec, Christopher D; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology.

  19. To Supplement or Not to Supplement: A Metabolic Network Framework for Human Nutritional Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Nogiec, Christopher D.; Kasif, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Flux balance analysis and constraint based modeling have been successfully used in the past to elucidate the metabolism of single cellular organisms. However, limited work has been done with multicellular organisms and even less with humans. The focus of this paper is to present a novel use of this technique by investigating human nutrition, a challenging field of study. Specifically, we present a steady state constraint based model of skeletal muscle tissue to investigate amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis. We implement several in silico supplementation strategies to study whether amino acid supplementation might be beneficial for increasing muscle contractile protein synthesis. Concurrent with published data on amino acid supplementation's effect on protein synthesis in a post resistance exercise state, our results suggest that increasing bioavailability of methionine, arginine, and the branched-chain amino acids can increase the flux of contractile protein synthesis. The study also suggests that a common commercial supplement, glutamine, is not an effective supplement in the context of increasing protein synthesis and thus, muscle mass. Similar to any study in a model organism, the computational modeling of this research has some limitations. Thus, this paper introduces the prospect of using systems biology as a framework to formally investigate how supplementation and nutrition can affect human metabolism and physiology. PMID:23967053

  20. Prevalence and predictors of children's dietary supplement use: the 2007 National Health Interview Survey1234

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Johanna; Nahin, Richard L; Rogers, Gail T; Barnes, Patricia M; Jacques, Paul M; Sempos, Christopher T; Bailey, Regan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the characteristics of US children who are dietary supplement users. Objective: We described the prevalence and predictors of and reasons for giving children dietary supplements. Design: The study included children <18 y of age who participated in the Complementary and Alternative Medicine supplement of the National Health Interview Survey of 2007 whose proxies provided complete information on child dietary supplement use. Results: A total of 37% of subjects used dietary supplements, 31% of subjects used multivitamin mineral (MVM) products exclusively, 4% of subjects used single vitamins or minerals solely or in combination with MVMs, and 2% of subjects used nonvitamin, nonmineral products either solely or in combination with other supplements. Users were more likely than nonusers to be Asian, white, or non-Hispanic; belong to families with higher parental education and income levels; reside in areas other than the South; be in good, very good, or excellent health; have private health insurance; and have a usual place at which they received conventional medical care. Children (3%) with the most disease burden and health care were more likely to use supplements than were healthier children. Supplements were given for the prevention or treatment of many illnesses and conditions. Neither the caregiver's reasons nor specific supplements used were consistently associated with particular conditions. Conclusions: The 37% of US children who used any type of dietary supplements differed from nonusers in family socioeconomic status and many other health-related characteristics. Users were given supplements to prevent or treat many illnesses and conditions for which there is only limited evidence of their efficacy. PMID:23576049

  1. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2017-02-12

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time.

  2. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  3. Modulation of Estrogen Chemical Carcinogenesis by Botanical Supplements used for Postmenopausal Women’s Health

    PubMed Central

    Snelten, Courtney S.; Dietz, Birgit; Bolton, Judy L.

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has been associated with long-term estrogen exposure including traditional hormone therapy (HT, formally hormone replacement therapy). To avoid traditional HT and associated risks, women have been turning to botanical supplements such as black cohosh, red clover, licorice, hops, dong gui, and ginger to relieve menopausal symptoms despite a lack of efficacy evidence. The mechanisms of estrogen carcinogenesis involve both hormonal and chemical pathways. Botanical supplements could protect women from estrogen carcinogenesis by modulating key enzymatic steps [aromatase, P4501B1, P4501A1, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging] in estradiol metabolism leading to estrogen carcinogenesis as outlined in Figure 1. This review summarizes the influence of popular botanical supplements used for women’s health on these key steps in the estrogen chemical carcinogenesis pathway, and suggests that botanical supplements may have added chemopreventive benefits by modulating estrogen metabolism. PMID:24223609

  4. Dietary supplements and hypertension: potential benefits and precautions.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Carly B; Glisson, James K; Minor, Deborah S

    2012-07-01

    Dietary supplements (DSs) are used extensively in the general population and many are promoted for the natural treatment and management of hypertension. Patients with hypertension often choose to use these products either in addition to or instead of pharmacologic antihypertensive agents. Because of the frequent use of DS, both consumers and health care providers should be aware of the considerable issues surrounding these products and factors influencing both efficacy and safety. In this review of the many DSs promoted for the management of hypertension, 4 products with evidence of possible benefits (coenzyme Q10, fish oil, garlic, vitamin C) and 4 that were consistently associated with increasing blood pressure were found (ephedra, Siberian ginseng, bitter orange, licorice). The goals and objectives of this review are to discuss the regulation of DS, evaluate the efficacy of particular DS in the treatment of hypertension, and highlight DS that may potentially increase blood pressure.

  5. Environmental Report 2000 Data Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Biermann, A H; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Grayson, A R; Harrach, R J; Larson, J M; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Nisbet, B; Ring Peterson, S; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Williams, R A

    2001-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 2000'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air surveillance, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, groundwater, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  6. Multivitamin supplementation and multiple births.

    PubMed

    Werler, M M; Cragan, J D; Wasserman, C R; Shaw, G M; Erickson, J D; Mitchell, A A

    1997-07-11

    It is well established that maternal multivitamin supplementation reduces the risk of neural tube defects and evidence suggests that it may be associated with other reproductive outcomes. The present study was prompted by a report from a randomized trial in Hungary which showed a 40% increase in multiple births among periconceptional vitamin users. Retrospectively collected data on multivitamin supplementation were obtained on multiple and singleton births from three separate studies: Atlanta Birth Defects Case-Control Study (ABDCCS) malformed and nonmalformed infants born 1968-1980, California Birth Defects Monitoring Program (CBDMP) malformed and nonmalformed infants born 1987-1989, and Boston University Slone Epidemiology Unit Birth Defects Study (SEU-BDS) malformed infants born 1987-1994. Supplementation was divided into three mutually exclusive categories based on timing: "periconceptional" use--before through at least the third month after conception; "early" use--beginning in the first month and continuing through at least the third month after conception; and "later" use--beginning in the second or third month after conception. For periconceptional use, four of five datasets showed a 30 to 60% greater prevalence of supplementation among mothers of multiple births. In contrast, this pattern was not evident for "early" and "later" use. Overall, the study findings are tentative, due to a lack of consistency across all five datasets and they should not alter recent recommendations related to folate supplementation for the prevention of neural tube defects.

  7. Environmental Report 1999 Data Supplement

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, J M; Biermann, A H; Harrach, R J; Althouse, P E; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Brandstetter, E R; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Christofferson, E; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Garcia, L M; Giesing, T A; Grayson, A R; Hall, L C; MacQueen, D H; Mathews, S; Peterson, S R; Taffet, M J; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, R J; Williams, R A

    2000-09-01

    This Data Supplement to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) annual ''Environmental Report 1999'' was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy. The main volume is intended to provide all information on LLNL's environmental impact and compliance activities that is of interest to most readers. The Data Supplement supports main volume summary data and is essentially a detailed data report that provides individual data points, where applicable. Some summary data are also included in the Data Supplement, and more detailed accounts are given of sample collection and analytical methods. The two volumes are organized in a parallel fashion to aid the reader in cross-referencing between them. This supplement includes more detailed information to support the nine chapters in the main volume that cover monitoring of air, air effluent, sewerable water, surface water, ground water, soil and sediment, vegetation and foodstuff, environmental radiation, and quality assurance. The other five chapters in the main volume have no supporting information in the Data Supplement. As in our previous annual reports, data are presented in Systeme International (SI) units. In particular, the primary units used for radiological results are becquerels and sieverts for activity and dose, with curies and rem used secondarily (1 Bq = 2.7 x 10{sup -11} Ci; 1 Sv = 100 rem).

  8. Combined Supplementation of Choline and Docosahexaenoic Acid during Pregnancy Enhances Neurodevelopment of Fetal Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Megur Ramakrishna Bhat, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Choline is an essential nutrient for humans which plays an important role in structural integrity and signaling functions. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, highly enriched in cell membranes of the brain. Dietary intake of choline or DHA alone by pregnant mothers directly affects fetal brain development and function. But no studies show the efficacy of combined supplementation of choline and DHA on fetal neurodevelopment. The aim of the present study was to analyze fetal neurodevelopment on combined supplementation of pregnant dams with choline and DHA. Pregnant dams were divided into five groups: normal control [NC], saline control [SC], choline [C], DHA, and C + DHA. Saline, choline, and DHA were given as supplements to appropriate groups of dams. NC dams were undisturbed during entire gestation. On postnatal day (PND) 40, brains were processed for Cresyl staining. Pups from choline or DHA supplemented group showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in number of neurons in hippocampus when compared to the same in NC and SC groups. Moreover, pups from C + DHA supplemented group showed significantly higher number of neurons (p < 0.001) in hippocampus when compared to the same in NC and SC groups. Thus combined supplementation of choline and DHA during normal pregnancy enhances fetal hippocampal neurodevelopment better than supplementation of choline or DHA alone. PMID:28210506

  9. Psychology of Supplementation in Sport and Exercise: Motivational Antecedents and Biobehavioral Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Rafer; Arent, Shawn

    Research concerning the physiological and biobehavioral effects of supplements commonly used in sport or exercise settings has multiplied rapidly over the last decade. However, less attention has been directed to understanding the motivational pathways leading to sport and exercise supplement use. This chapter summarizes known usage rates for sport/fitness supplements and describes motivational theories and constructs that may be of use for understanding individuals' use of these substances. In this respect, we contend that researchers should consider behavioral approaches, the theory of planned behavior, balance theory, achievement goal theory, social physique anxiety, and muscle dysmorphia as useful for developing an understanding of the psychological influences on supplement use. For some of the latter theories/constructs, research has already shown support for their explanatory abilities, whereas research is scant and the utility for understanding sport/exercise supplement use is yet to be determined for many of the theories. In addition to describing the motivation behind supplement use, this chapter summarizes the biobehavioral effects of a select group of supplements commonly used to improve performance, fitness, or health. Specifically, we consider psychobiological effects of caffeine, creatine, Ginkgo biloba, and St. John's wort related to enhanced arousal, improved memory and cognition, enhanced brain function and protection, and reduced depression. There is promising initial evidence for the efficacy of these compounds in producing favorable psychological outcomes, although certain shortcomings of many studies on these compounds must be taken into account before reaching definitive conclusions.

  10. Vitamin D Supplementation and Immune Response to Antarctic Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwart, S. R.; Mehta, S. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Bourbeau, Y.; Locke, J. P.; Pierson, D. L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining vitamin D status without sunlight exposure is difficult without supplementation. This study was designed to better understand interrelationships between periodic cholecalciferol(vitamin D3) supplementation and immune function in Antarctic workers. The effect of 2 oral dosing regimens of vitamin D3 supplementation on vitamin D status and markers of immune function were evaluated in people in Antarctica with no ultraviolet light exposure for 6 mo. Participants were given a 2,000-IU (50 g) daily (n=15) or 10,000-IU (250 g) weekly (n=14) vitamin D3 supplement for 6 mo during a winter in Antarctica. Biological samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. Vitamin D intake, markers of vitamin D and bone metabolism, and latent virus reactivation were determined. After 6 mo the mean (SD) serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentration increased from 56 plus or minus 17 to 79 plus or minus 16 nmol/L and 52 plus or minus 10 to 69 plus or minus 9 nmol/L in the 2,000-IU/d and 10,000-IU/wk groups (main effect over time P less than 0.001). Participants with a greater BMI (participant BMI range = 19-43 grams per square meter) had a smaller increase in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 after 6 mo supplementation (P less than 0.05). Participants with high serum cortisoland higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were less likely to shed Epstein-Barr virus in saliva (P less than 0.05). The doses given raised vitamin D status in participants not exposed to sunlight for 6 mo, and the efficacy was influenced by baseline vitamin D status and BMI. The data also provide evidence that vitamin D, interacting with stress, can reduce risk of latent virus reactivation during the winter in Antarctica.

  11. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  12. Physician-Patient Communication about Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Tarn, Derjung M.; Paterniti, Debora A.; Good, Jeffrey S.; Coulter, Ian D.; Galliher, James M.; Kravitz, Richard L.; Karlamangla, Arun; Wenger, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Describe the content and frequency of provider-patient dietary supplement discussions during primary care office visits. Methods Inductive content analysis of 1477 transcribed audio-recorded office visits to 102 primary care providers was combined with patient and provider surveys. Encounters were collected in Los Angeles, California (2009–2010), geographically-diverse practice settings across the United States (2004–2005), and Sacramento, CA (1998–1999). Results Providers discussed 738 dietary supplements during encounters with 357 patients (24.2% of all encounters in the data). They mentioned: 1) reason for taking the supplement for 46.5% of dietary supplements; 2) how to take the supplement for 28.2%; 3) potential risks for 17.3%; 4) supplement effectiveness for 16.7%; and 5) supplement cost or affordability for 4.2%. Of these five topics, a mean of 1.13 (SD=1.2) topics were discussed for each supplement. More topics were reviewed for non-vitamin non-mineral supplements (mean 1.47 (SD=1.2)) than for vitamin/mineral supplements (mean 0.99 (SD=1.1); p<0.001). Conclusion While discussions about supplements are occurring, it is clear that more discussion might be needed to inform patient decisions about supplement use. Practice Implication Physicians could more frequently address topics that may influence patient dietary supplement use, such as the risks, effectiveness, and costs of supplements. PMID:23466249

  13. Supplement Use of Elite Australian Swimmers.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Gregory; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the influence the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS) Sport Supplement Program had on supplement practices of elite Australian swimmers, comparing those guided by the Program with others in the same national team. Thirty-nine elite swimmers (13 AIS, 26 Other; 20 female, 19 male; age 21.8 ± 3.3 y) completed a questionnaire investigating supplement use. Ninety-seven percent of swimmers reported taking supplements or sports foods over the preceding 12 months. AIS swimmers reported using more total brands (p = .02) and supplements considered Ergogenic (p = .001) than Other swimmers who used more supplements considered to be lacking scientific support (p = .028). Swimmers rated the risk of a negative outcome from the use of supplements available in Australia (Mdn = 3.0) as less than the risk of supplements from international sources (Mdn = 4.0; p < .001). AIS swimmers were more likely to report dietitians (p < .001) and sports physicians (p = .017) as advisors of their supplement use. Other swimmers more frequently reported fellow athletes as a source of supplement advice (p = .03). AIS swimmers sourced a greater percentage of their supplements from an organized program (94 ± 16%) compared with Other (40 ± 32%; p < .001) who sourced a greater percentage (30 ± 30%) of their dietary supplements from supermarkets. These findings suggest that swimmers influenced by this sport supplement program more frequently use supplements that are recommended by allied health trained individuals, classified as evidence based and provided by the program.

  14. [Psychotherapy and efficacy].

    PubMed

    Papp, Barbara; Péley, Bernadette

    2015-01-25

    Evaluation of the efficacy in psychotherapy dates back to the beginnings of psychotherapy itself. However, it is not an easy task to undertake efficacy evaluation because it is expensive and several methodological difficulties may be also present. The authors discuss some questions related efficacy evaluation in psychotherapy, including criteria for selecting the cases and the actual target of evaluation. In addition, the authors analyze the narrative psychological content analysis method which includes the analysis of psychological features and their changes of texts written by the patient about him- or herself. They conclude that this method can open novel perspectives in psychotherapy.

  15. A critical appraisal of probiotics (as drugs or food supplements) in gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Passariello, Annalisa; Agricole, Pascal; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2014-06-01

    Probiotics may be registered as food supplements or drugs. This article summarizes differences in European regulations of probiotics registered as food supplements and drugs, as well as issues related to the quality of probiotic products. For registration as a drug, the European Medicines Agency demands extensive and detailed quality, efficacy and safety evidence; whereas compulsory analyses requested for food supplements consist only in a nutritional analysis. As a result, the quality of those probiotics registered as drugs, compared to food supplements, is in general controlled with higher standards. Despite these differences and whatever the status of the probiotic product, its efficacy and safety has to be documented in well conducted randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Furthermore, this paper reviews recent evidence on the use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases, evaluating all the existing information up to January 2014. In all eligible published studies in which use of probiotics for gastrointestinal diseases were investigated and reported, no language limitations were applied. Special focus is placed on RCTs (or their meta-analyses) showing positive results, so that the findings may be applicable to everyday clinical practice. Currently, the best documented clinical areas appear to be probiotics efficacy for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children and for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea both in children and in adults. In other gastrointestinal conditions, some promising observations are emerging, but no definitive conclusions can be reached at present.

  16. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements123

    PubMed Central

    McIver, David J; Grizales, Ana Maria; Brownstein, John S; Goldfine, Allison B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is widespread in the United States. Although it has been suggested in both in vitro and small in vivo human studies that chromium has potentially beneficial effects in type 2 diabetes (T2D), chromium supplementation in diabetes has not been investigated at the population level. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the use and potential benefits of chromium supplementation in T2D by examining NHANES data. Methods: An individual was defined as having diabetes if he or she had a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) value of ≥6.5%, or reported having been diagnosed with diabetes. Data on all consumed dietary supplements from the NHANES database were analyzed, with the OR of having diabetes as the main outcome of interest based on chromium supplement use. Results: The NHANES for the years 1999–2010 included information on 62,160 individuals. After filtering the database for the required covariates (gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, body mass index, diabetes diagnosis, supplement usage, and laboratory HbA1c values), and when restricted to adults, the study cohort included 28,539 people. A total of 58.3% of people reported consuming a dietary supplement in the previous 30 d, 28.8% reported consuming a dietary supplement that contained chromium, and 0.7% consumed supplements that had “chromium” in the title. Compared with nonusers, the odds of having T2D (HbA1c ≥6.5%) were lower in persons who consumed chromium-containing supplements within the previous 30 d than in those who did not (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.86; P = 0.001). Supplement use alone (without chromium) did not influence the odds of having T2D (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.03; P = 0.11). Conclusions: Over one-half the adult US population consumes nutritional supplements, and over one-quarter consumes supplemental chromium. The odds of having T2D were lower in those who, in the previous 30 d, had consumed supplements containing chromium. Given the

  17. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitamin D requirements have become one of the most highly debated and controversial topics in nutrition. Recommendations for vitamin D intake during pregnancy are a central part of this discussion. The publication of a controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women by Hollis and cow...

  18. Supplemental Instruction in Developmental Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Julie M.; Evans, Ruby

    2006-01-01

    Mirroring the changing demographics of the nation, the community college student population continues to grow in size and diversity. Almost half of all students who enter these institutions need at least one remedial course--which is often developmental mathematics. Developed in 1973, Supplemental Instruction (SI) has quickly gained recognition as…

  19. How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary “choices” were ...

  20. Laboratory Animal Welfare Supplement IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluckstein, Fritz P., Comp.

    This document is the fourth supplement to a 1984 bibliography on laboratory animal welfare. Items presented were selected because they represent some of the most significant of those providing recent information or because they were considered useful. The period covered is October, 1986 through October, 1987. Monographs, conference proceedings,…

  1. Apprenticeship Related and Supplemental Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farland, Ronnald; Anderson, Bill

    An overview is provided of apprenticeship programs offered by the California community colleges. First, the report describes apprenticeships, indicating that modern programs include school-based supplemental instruction to ensure that apprentices possess skills and knowledge beyond just the manual tasks related to the occupation that are learned…

  2. Putting science behind botanical supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the goals and activities of the Center for Research on Botanical Dietary Supplements at Iowa State University and the University of Iowa, a multidisciplinary effort to investigate the bioactivity and bioavailability of three genera of medicinal plants: Echinacea, Hypericum, and...

  3. New supplements to infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  4. A Supplement for Teaching Beowulf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milosh, Joseph

    1970-01-01

    Suggests supplementing the teaching of "Beowulf" to high school students with (1) translation and grammatical analysis of parts of the original lines, (2) study of Anglo-Saxon poetic techniques, and (3) students' imitation of old English poetic techniques in New English. (SW)

  5. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes: part 1, hierarchical listing; part 2, access vocabulary, and part 3, deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for terms new to this supplement.

  6. NASA Thesaurus Supplement: A three part cumulative supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The three part cumulative NASA Thesaurus Supplement to the 1982 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes Part 1, Hierarchical Listing, Part 2, Access Vocabulary, and Part 3, Deletions. The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies for new terms and includes new term indications for entries new to this supplement.

  7. Oral strategies to supplement older adults' dietary intakes: comparing the evidence.

    PubMed

    Silver, Heidi J

    2009-01-01

    Despite the current global obesity crisis, undernutrition remains prevalent among older adults worldwide. This review compares the efficacy of the main oral strategies used to increase older adults' energy and nutrient intakes, i.e., meal enhancement, multivitamin/multimineral supplementation and oral liquid nutrition supplements. Well-designed long-term investigations that are adequately powered to differentiate effects on nutritional, clinical, functional, and cost outcomes are much needed before scientific and clinical consensus can be reached on where and when to implement any strategy as the optimal choice for improving dietary intakes in a specific older adult population.

  8. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Sprouse, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug–botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug–botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug–botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism. PMID:26438626

  9. Pharmacokinetic Interactions between Drugs and Botanical Dietary Supplements.

    PubMed

    Sprouse, Alyssa A; van Breemen, Richard B

    2016-02-01

    The use of botanical dietary supplements has grown steadily over the last 20 years despite incomplete information regarding active constituents, mechanisms of action, efficacy, and safety. An important but underinvestigated safety concern is the potential for popular botanical dietary supplements to interfere with the absorption, transport, and/or metabolism of pharmaceutical agents. Clinical trials of drug-botanical interactions are the gold standard and are usually carried out only when indicated by unexpected consumer side effects or, preferably, by predictive preclinical studies. For example, phase 1 clinical trials have confirmed preclinical studies and clinical case reports that St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) induces CYP3A4/CYP3A5. However, clinical studies of most botanicals that were predicted to interact with drugs have shown no clinically significant effects. For example, clinical trials did not substantiate preclinical predictions that milk thistle (Silybum marianum) would inhibit CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and/or CYP3A4. Here, we highlight discrepancies between preclinical and clinical data concerning drug-botanical interactions and critically evaluate why some preclinical models perform better than others in predicting the potential for drug-botanical interactions. Gaps in knowledge are also highlighted for the potential of some popular botanical dietary supplements to interact with therapeutic agents with respect to absorption, transport, and metabolism.

  10. Protein supplementation in U.S. military personnel.

    PubMed

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    Protein supplements (PSs) are, after multivitamins, the most frequently consumed dietary supplement by U.S. military personnel. Warfighters believe that PSs will improve health, promote muscle strength, and enhance physical performance. The estimated prevalence of regular PS use by military personnel is nearly 20% or more in active-duty personnel, which is comparable to collegiate athletes and recreationally active adults, but higher than that for average U.S. civilians. Although the acute metabolic effects of PS ingestion are well described, little is known regarding the benefits of PS use by warfighters in response to the metabolic demands of military operations. When dietary protein intake approaches 1.5 g · kg(-1) · d(-1), and energy intake matches energy expenditure, the use of PSs by most physically active military personnel may not be necessary. However, dismounted infantry often perform operations consisting of long periods of strenuous physical activity coupled with inadequate dietary energy and protein intake. In these situations, the use of PSs may have efficacy for preserving fat-free mass. This article reviews the available literature regarding the prevalence of PS use among military personnel. Furthermore, it highlights the unique metabolic stressors affecting U.S. military personnel and discusses potential conditions during which protein supplementation might be beneficial.

  11. Dietary supplements and functional foods: 2 sides of a coin?

    PubMed

    Halsted, Charles H

    2003-04-01

    Dietary supplements are used by more than one-half of the adult US population. In contrast to pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements may be sold in the United States with little regulation other than listing of ingredients and the potential health benefits. By contrast, herbal products in Germany are carefully regulated by the same standards as drugs, and efforts are under way to standardize their regulation in the entire European Union. Most herbal users do not inform their physicians that they are taking these supplements, and most physicians do not inquire. Although some herbal products have clinically proven benefits, it is increasingly apparent that many contain potentially toxic substances, particularly in relation to interactions with drugs. Hence, it is essential that practicing physicians develop a working knowledge of herbals-specifically, about claims for their usage and potential or proven efficacies and toxicities-and that they incorporate such knowledge into the evaluation and management of their patients. By contrast, functional foods-integral components of the diet that are understood to contribute added health benefits-are the subject of intense and widespread research in food and nutritional science. Examples include many polyphenolic substances, carotenoids, soy isoflavones, fish oils, and components of nuts that possess antioxidant and other properties that decrease the risk of vascular diseases and cancer. Practicing physicians are advised to stay abreast of these emerging findings in order to best advise their patients on the value of health-promoting diets in disease prevention.

  12. 7 CFR 1710.110 - Supplemental financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... supplemental financing according to their plant revenue ratio (PRR), as defined in § 1710.2, based on the most recent year-end data available on the date of loan approval, as follows: PRR Supplemental loan...

  13. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  14. Muscle Mass and Weight Gain Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bill

    There are numerous sports supplements available that claim to increase lean body mass. However, for these sports supplements to exert any favorable changes in lean body mass, they must influence those factors regulating skeletal muscle hypertrophy (i.e., satellite cell activity, gene transcription, protein translation). If a given sports supplement does favorably influence one of these regulatory factors, the result is a positive net protein balance (in which protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown). Sports supplement categories aimed at eliciting a positive net protein balance include anabolic hormone enhancers, nutrient timing pre- and postexercise workout supplements, anticatabolic supplements, and nitric oxide boosters. Of all the sports supplements available, only a few have been subject to multiple clinical trials with repeated favorable outcomes relative to increasing lean body mass. This chapter focuses on these supplements and others that have a sound theoretical rationale in relation to increasing lean body mass.

  15. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: When ... Coordinator in your area . File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal . Learn more about ...

  16. Dietary supplement use among participants of a databank and biorepository at a comprehensive cancer centre

    PubMed Central

    Luc, LeQuyen; Baumgart, Charlotte; Weiss, Edward; Georger, Lesley; Ambrosone, Christine B; Zirpoli, Gary; McCann, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Objective We assessed the prevalence, patterns and predictors of dietary supplement use among participants of the databank and biorepository (DBBR) at a comprehensive cancer centre in western New York. Design Archived epidemiological questionnaire data were obtained from the DBBR at Roswell Park Cancer Institute. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression explored the prevalence, patterns and predictors of lifetime use of four common supplements (multivitamins, vitamin C, vitamin E and calcium) and use of multivitamins, sixteen single vitamins/minerals and eighteen herbal/specialty supplements within the previous 10 years. Setting Western New York, USA. Subjects DBBR participants (n 8096) enrolled between December 2003 and July 2012 were included in these analyses: 66.9 % (n 5418) with cancer, 65.6 % (n 5309) women, mean age for patients ν. cancer-free controls 59.9 (sd 12.6) years and 50.7 (sd 15.4) years, respectively. Results Overall, 54.4 % of DBBR participants reported lifetime use of one or more supplements and 63.1 % reported use of one or more supplements within the previous 10 years (excluding multivitamins). Multivitamin use was high in this sample (lifetime: 64.1 %; 10 years: 71.3 %; current: 51.8 %). Supplementation was higher among cancer-free controls than cancer patients. Vitamin C, calcium and fish oil were the most common single vitamin, mineral and specialty product, respectively. Conclusions A consistently high and increasing proportion of dietary supplement use over time remains clear. Supplementation is prevalent among cancer patients and may even be higher than predicted in cancer-free individuals. Further studies should assess the safety and efficacy of specific supplements in reducing disease risk. PMID:24866812

  17. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental treatment....

  18. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental treatment....

  19. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental treatment....

  20. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental treatment....

  1. 40 CFR 141.809 - Supplemental treatment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment. (a) Any supplemental drinking water treatment units installed onboard existing or new aircraft... the manufacturer's plans and specifications and FAA requirements. (b) Water supplemental treatment and... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental treatment....

  2. 43 CFR 7.32 - Supplemental definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RESOURCES Department of the Interior Supplemental Regulations § 7.32 Supplemental definitions. For purposes of this subpart, the following definitions will be used: (a) Site of religious or cultural importance... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplemental definitions. 7.32 Section...

  3. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In an application to register on the Supplemental Register under section 23 of the Act, the...

  4. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In an application to register on the Supplemental Register under section 23 of the Act, the...

  5. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In an application to register on the Supplemental Register under section 23 of the Act, the...

  6. High dietary supplement intakes among Flemish preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Huybrechts, Inge; Maes, Lea; Vereecken, Carine; De Keyzer, Willem; De Bacquer, Dirk; De Backer, Guy; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplement use among Flemish preschoolers and to investigate associations between dietary supplement use and socio-economic variables of the parents. Parentally reported 3-day estimated dietary records (n=696) were used to calculate mean daily nutrient intakes, using Software for Intake Distribution Estimation (Cside). Socio-demographic information and frequency of dietary supplement use were collected via parental questionnaires, including a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) (n=1847). The results from the FFQ revealed that more than 30% of the children used dietary supplements in the past month. Children of more highly educated parents and children of non-smokers were significantly more likely to use supplements than their counterparts. The types most frequently used were multi-vitamin/mineral supplements. Except for vitamin D, mean dietary intakes derived from foods alone was higher than the minimum recommendations for both supplement and non-supplement users. The youngest group of supplement users even exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for zinc (7 mg). However, for vitamin D, dietary supplements could help meet dietary recommendations for this micronutrient. In conclusion, the results indicated that dietary supplement use by healthy children who typically achieve their micronutrient requirements by foods alone could cause excessive intakes. Future studies should investigate potential harms and benefits of dietary supplementation use among preschoolers.

  7. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  8. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  9. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  10. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  11. 14 CFR 91.211 - Supplemental oxygen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplemental oxygen. 91.211 Section 91.211... Requirements § 91.211 Supplemental oxygen. (a) General. No person may operate a civil aircraft of U.S. registry... the required minimum flight crew is provided with and uses supplemental oxygen for that part of...

  12. 12 CFR 619.9335 - Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive retirement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive retirement plan. 619.9335 Section 619.9335 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9335 Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive...

  13. 12 CFR 619.9335 - Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive retirement plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive retirement plan. 619.9335 Section 619.9335 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9335 Supplemental retirement plan or supplemental executive...

  14. [Trade of food supplement: food or drug supplement?

    PubMed

    Siracusa, Margherita; Petrelli, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    The aporia is obvious: food supplement, classified and regulated by food law, sometimes have the characteristics and the typical effects of medicines. In addition, these are produced by pharmaceutical companies and, through the scientific officer, are prescribed by doctors and dispensed by pharmacies. This study will attempt to retrace the winding, and sometimes overlapping, regulatory pathways of the legislation on food supplement, food and medicines. It will be important object the particular application of the precautionary principle behind the legislation on food supplement: application "in posterior", so the controls on the purity of the product and the possible effects resulting from the assumption is carried out ex post trade. So we try to disentangle the intricate legislation with the national (and European) Court contributions. In particular, after a brief analysis of the rulings of the Competition and Market Authority on misleading advertising and by the Supreme Court in relation to crimes against health damage, it will come to the analysis of interpretative problems of a purely criminal law nature, in light of the recent proposal for reform about agribusiness crimes. Finally, it will be inevitable to analyze briefly the recent implementation of the d.lgs. n. 17/2004 concerning the distance trade of non-prescription medicines. There is no doubt that now, internet represents the preferred distribution channel for pharmaceutical products (including food supplement) and the most tempting "place" (because of control difficulties) for the realization of criminal conduct. The conclusion will be that the need to achieve more targeted and homogeneous regulatory measures, while also having to protect - public and individual - health through the protection of the legal security in one with the protection of the right to information.

  15. Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Uncertainties Impact on Physical Inventory Difference (ID) and Material Balance Determination: Sources of Error, Precision/Accuracy, and ID/Propagation of Error (POV)

    SciTech Connect

    Wendelberger, James G.

    2016-10-31

    These are slides from a presentation made by a researcher from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following topics are covered: sources of error for NDA gamma measurements, precision and accuracy are two important characteristics of measurements, four items processed in a material balance area during the inventory time period, inventory difference and propagation of variance, sum in quadrature, and overview of the ID/POV process.

  16. Conceptual Development of a Measure to Assess Pharmacists' Knowledge of Herbal and Dietary Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Mahady, Gail B.; Popovich, Nicholas G.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To describe the conceptual development of a measure for assessing pharmacist knowledge of herbal and dietary supplements. Methods A standardized approach to constructing a multiple-choice competency examination following 8 pre-specified criteria (eg, specifying the target spectrum of herbal and dietary supplements) was used to create an item bank. The quality of each item was evaluated by 5 herbal and dietary supplement content experts based on specific criteria in 3 rounds of review. Results From 122 initial items, 56 items were retained for the item bank representing 4 content areas: efficacy/effectiveness, safety, drug-supplement interactions, and regulation. The experts tended to agree that the constructed items represented a wide range of difficulty. Conclusion The initial development of a conceptually based item bank/measure of pharmacist herbal and dietary supplement knowledge lays the groundwork for a large-scale validation study. The measure should be useful as a standalone tool and as a component of a knowledge, attitude, and behavior survey for the assessment of pharmacist traits related to herbal and dietary supplements. PMID:18698390

  17. Belief in the efficacy of alternative medicine among general practitioners in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Knipschild, P; Kleijnen, J; ter Riet, G

    1990-01-01

    A survey among 293 GPs in the Netherlands showed that many believe in the efficacy of common alternative procedures. High scores were especially found for manual therapy, yoga, acupuncture, hot bath therapy and homoeopathy. Other procedures, such as iridology, faith healing and many food supplements, were considered less useful.

  18. Efficacy of a First-Grade Responsiveness-to-Intervention Prevention Model for Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Compton, Donald L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Bouton, Bobette; Barquero, Laura A.; Cho, Eunsoo

    2013-01-01

    This randomized control trial examined the efficacy of a multitiered supplemental tutoring program within a first-grade responsiveness-to-intervention prevention model. Struggling first-grade readers (n = 649) were screened and progress monitored at the start of the school year. Those identified as unresponsive to general education Tier 1 (n =…

  19. Motivational Interviewing Skills are Positively Associated with Nutritionist Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Scott C.; Carbonneau, Kira; Lockner, Donna; Kibbe, Debra; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between physical and social self-concepts, motivational interviewing (MI), and nutrition assessment skills with dimensions of counseling self-efficacy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics. Participants: Sixty-five WIC…

  20. Safety and Efficacy of Glucomannan for Weight Loss in Overweight and Moderately Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Keithley, Joyce K.; Swanson, Barbara; Mikolaitis, Susan L.; DeMeo, Mark; Zeller, Janice M.; Fogg, Lou; Adamji, Jehan

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few safe and effective dietary supplements are available to promote weight loss. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of glucomannan, a water-soluble fiber supplement, for achieving weight loss in overweight and moderately obese individuals consuming self-selected diets. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to take 1.33 grams of glucomannan or identically looking placebo capsules with 236.6 mL (8 ounces) of water one hour before breakfast, lunch, and dinner for 8 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was change in body weight after 8 weeks. Other efficacy outcomes were changes in body composition, hunger/fullness, and lipid and glucose concentrations. Safety outcomes included gastrointestinal symptoms/tolerance and serum liver enzymes and creatinine levels. Results. A total of 53 participants (18–65 years of age; BMI 25–35 kg/m2) were enrolled and randomized. The two groups did not differ with respect to baseline characteristics and compliance with the study supplement. At 8 weeks, there was no significant difference between the glucomannan and placebo groups in amount of weight loss (−.40 ± .06 and −.43 ± .07, resp.) or other efficacy outcomes or in any of the safety outcomes. Conclusions. Glucomannan supplements administered over 8 weeks were well tolerated but did not promote weight loss or significantly alter body composition, hunger/fullness, or lipid and glucose parameters. This trial is registered with NCT00613600. PMID:24490058

  1. Using Small-Scale Randomized Controlled Trials to Evaluate the Efficacy of New Curricular Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drits-Esser, Dina; Bass, Kristin M.; Stark, Louisa A.

    2014-01-01

    How can researchers in K-12 contexts stay true to the principles of rigorous evaluation designs within the constraints of classroom settings and limited funding? This paper explores this question by presenting a small-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT) designed to test the efficacy of curricular supplemental materials on epigenetics. The…

  2. Efficacy of Computer-Assisted Instruction for the Development of Early Literacy Skills in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaruso, Paul; Rodman, Alyson

    2011-01-01

    Two studies examined the efficacy of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) to supplement a phonics-based reading curriculum for preschoolers and kindergartners in an urban public school system. The CAI programs provided exercises in phonological awareness and basic phonics skills. We compared treatment classes using CAI with control classes…

  3. Synthetic Androgens as Designer Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed. PMID:26074745

  4. Synthetic androgens as designer supplements.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jan Felix; Parr, Maria Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are some of the most common performance enhancing drugs (PED) among society. Despite the broad spectrum of adverse effects and legal consequences, AAS are illicitly marketed and distributed in many countries. To circumvent existing laws, the chemical structure of AAS is modified and these designer steroids are sold as nutritional supplements mainly over the Internet. Several side effects are linked with AAS abuse. Only little is known about the pharmacological effects and metabolism of unapproved steroids due to the absence of clinical studies. The large number of designer steroid findings in dietary supplements and the detection of new compounds combined with legal loopholes for their distribution in many countries show that stricter regulations and better information policy are needed.

  5. The role of calcium supplementation in healthy musculoskeletal ageing : An expert consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF).

    PubMed

    Harvey, N C; Biver, E; Kaufman, J-M; Bauer, J; Branco, J; Brandi, M L; Bruyère, O; Coxam, V; Cruz-Jentoft, A; Czerwinski, E; Dimai, H; Fardellone, P; Landi, F; Reginster, J-Y; Dawson-Hughes, B; Kanis, J A; Rizzoli, R; Cooper, C

    2017-02-01

    The place of calcium supplementation, with or without concomitant vitamin D supplementation, has been much debated in terms of both efficacy and safety. There have been numerous trials and meta-analyses of supplementation for fracture reduction, and associations with risk of myocardial infarction have been suggested in recent years. In this report, the product of an expert consensus meeting of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) and the International Foundation for Osteoporosis (IOF), we review the evidence for the value of calcium supplementation, with or without vitamin D supplementation, for healthy musculoskeletal ageing. We conclude that (1) calcium and vitamin D supplementation leads to a modest reduction in fracture risk, although population-level intervention has not been shown to be an effective public health strategy; (2) supplementation with calcium alone for fracture reduction is not supported by the literature; (3) side effects of calcium supplementation include renal stones and gastrointestinal symptoms; (4) vitamin D supplementation, rather than calcium supplementation, may reduce falls risk; and (5) assertions of increased cardiovascular risk consequent to calcium supplementation are not convincingly supported by current evidence. In conclusion, we recommend, on the basis of the current evidence, that calcium supplementation, with concomitant vitamin D supplementation, is supported for patients at high risk of calcium and vitamin D insufficiency, and in those who are receiving treatment for osteoporosis.

  6. Efficacy of climate forcings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.; Nazarenko, L.; Lacis, A.; Schmidt, G. A.; Russell, G.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bell, N.; Cairns, B.; Canuto, V.; Chandler, M.; Cheng, Y.; Del Genio, A.; Faluvegi, G.; Fleming, E.; Friend, A.; Hall, T.; Jackman, C.; Kelley, M.; Kiang, N.; Koch, D.; Lean, J.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K.; Menon, S.; Miller, R.; Minnis, P.; Novakov, T.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, Ja.; Perlwitz, Ju.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Shindell, D.; Stone, P.; Sun, S.; Tausnev, N.; Thresher, D.; Wielicki, B.; Wong, T.; Yao, M.; Zhang, S.

    2005-09-01

    We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the "efficacy" of different forcings, where the efficacy is the global temperature response per unit forcing relative to the response to CO2 forcing. Anthropogenic CH4 has efficacy ˜110%, which increases to ˜145% when its indirect effects on stratospheric H2O and tropospheric O3 are included, yielding an effective climate forcing of ˜0.8 W/m2 for the period 1750-2000 and making CH4 the largest anthropogenic climate forcing other than CO2. Black carbon (BC) aerosols from biomass burning have a calculated efficacy ˜58%, while fossil fuel BC has an efficacy ˜78%. Accounting for forcing efficacies and for indirect effects via snow albedo and cloud changes, we find that fossil fuel soot, defined as BC + OC (organic carbon), has a net positive forcing while biomass burning BC + OC has a negative forcing. We show that replacement of the traditional instantaneous and adjusted forcings, Fi and Fa, with an easily computed alternative, Fs, yields a better predictor of climate change, i.e., its efficacies are closer to unity. Fs is inferred from flux and temperature changes in a fixed-ocean model run. There is remarkable congruence in the spatial distribution of climate change, normalized to the same forcing Fs, for most climate forcing agents, suggesting that the global forcing has more relevance to regional climate change than may have been anticipated. Increasing greenhouse gases intensify the Hadley circulation in our model, increasing rainfall in the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), Eastern United States, and East Asia, while intensifying dry conditions in the subtropics including the Southwest United States, the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and an expanding Sahel. These features survive in model simulations that use all estimated forcings for the period 1880-2000. Responses to localized forcings, such

  7. Particle Suspension Mechanisms - Supplemental Material

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, M B

    2011-03-03

    This supplemental material provides a brief introduction to particle suspension mechanisms that cause exfoliated skin cells to become and remain airborne. The material presented here provides additional context to the primary manuscript and serves as background for designing possible future studies to assess the impact of skin cells as a source of infectious aerosols. This introduction is not intended to be comprehensive and interested readers are encouraged to consult the references cited.

  8. Vitamin D Supplementation in Submariners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-02

    vitamin D3 (vit D3 ) or pre- vitamin D2 (vit D2 ) that are both acquired from the environment, but has...skin) (From Diet) Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) UV light Vitamin D2 (Ergocalciferol) Liver 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D (Calcidiol) Kidney 1,25-Dihydroxy...Gallagher JC, Haynatzki G. Effect of vitamins D2 and D3 supplement use on serum 25OHD concentration in elderly women in summer and winter.

  9. Creatine supplementation and swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Leenders, N M; Lamb, D R; Nelson, T E

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if oral creatine (CR) ingestion, compared to a placebo (PL), would enable swimmers to maintain a higher swimming velocity across repeated interval sets over 2 weeks of supplementation. Fourteen female and 18 male university swimmers consumed a PL during a 2-week baseline period. Using a randomized, double-blind design, during the next 2 weeks subjects consumed either CR or PL. Swimming velocity was assessed twice weekly during 6 X 50-m swims and once weekly during 10 X 25-yd swims. There was no effect of CR on the 10 X 25-yd interval sets for men and women and no effect on the 6 X 50-m interval sets for women. In contrast, for men, CR significantly improved mean overall swimming velocity in the 6 X 50-m interval after 2 weeks of supplementation, whereas PL had no effect. Although ineffective in women, CR supplementation apparently enables men to maintain a faster mean overall swimming velocity during repeated swims each lasting about 30 s; however, CR was not effective for men in repeated swims each lasting about 10 - 15 s.

  10. Probability, plausibility, and adequacy evaluations of the Oriente Study demonstrate that supplementation improved child growth.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Martorell, Reynaldo

    2010-02-01

    This article presents evidence that the high-nutrient supplement in the Oriente study (Atole) improved child growth. The evidence is presented at 4 levels. There was a causal effect of the intervention on child length, as assessed by probability analyses of the randomized, controlled trial (P < 0.05). The plausibility analyses, which included an examination of wasting, showed that the nutritional impact was due to the Atole, especially in those who were <3 y old and who suffered from diarrhea. The adequacy analyses revealed excellent biological efficacy of the Atole at the individual level. At the level of the whole population, the efficacy of impact was much less, because many children did not participate fully in the supplementation program. The external validity of the biological impact is likely to be good for populations with similar diets and medical care.

  11. Simultaneous observations of solar sporadic radio emission by the radio telescopes UTR-2, URAN-2 and NDA within the frequency range 8-41MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rucker, H. O.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Briand, C.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Zarka, P.; Denis, L.; Bulatzen, V. G.; Frantzusenko, A. V.; Stanislavskyy, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    From 25 June till 12 August 2011 sporadic solar radio emission was observed simultaneously by three separate radio telescopes: UTR-2 (Kharkov, Ukraine), URAN-2 (Poltava, Ukraine) and NDA (Nancay, France). During these observations several type II bursts with double and triple harmonics were registered, as well as type II bursts with complex herringbone structure. The events of particular interest were type II bursts registered on 9 and 11 August 2011. These bursts had opposite sign of circular polarization at different parts of their dynamic spectra. In our opinion we registered the emissions, which came from the different parts of the shock propagating through the solar corona. We have observed also groups of type III bursts merged into one burst, type III bursts with triple harmonics and type III bursts with "split" polarization. In addition some unusual solar bursts were registered: storms of strange narrow-band (up to 500kHz) bursts with high polarization degree (about 80%), decameter spikes of extremely short durations (200-300ms), "tadpole-like" bursts with durations of 1-2s and polarization degree up to 60%.

  12. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduce performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Akter, M; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-04-11

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance was investigated in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0, 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe x phytase interaction significantly influenced the FI, BWG and FCR. The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe x phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  13. Results and lessons from clinical trials using dietary supplements for cancer: direct and indirect investigations.

    PubMed

    Moyad, M A

    2001-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials are generally regarded as the standard of study designs to determine potential causality. The inclusion of a placebo group in these trials, when appropriate, is generally needed to access the efficacy of a drug or dietary supplement. The recent increasing use of dietary supplements and herbal medications by patients makes it imperative to reevaluate the past findings of clinical studies. Several large-scale trials of dietary supplements have been tested in various populations to determine their effect on cancer prevention. Other trials have focused on patients already diagnosed with cancer. In the latter case, it is difficult to involve a placebo because of the serious nature of the disease. Nevertheless, much has been gleaned from these trials directly and indirectly. Overall, when analyzing primary endpoints in these trials, the results have been discouraging and even support the nonuse of certain supplements because of potential adverse effects. Other secondary endpoints in these same trials have revealed some potential encouraging and discouraging data. Individuals who currently qualify for the potential use of dietary supplements for cancer may be restricted to those who have a deficiency in a certain compound despite adequate dietary sources or lifestyle changes. Those individuals with a smoking history or other unhealthy lifestyle seem to have the most to gain or lose from taking certain dietary supplements for cancer. The time seems more than ripe to evaluate past adequate trials with supplements, such as beta-carotene, N-acetyl-cysteine, selenium, shark cartilage, vitamin C, vitamin E, and others. Again, these studies have been disappointing, but they provide insight for the clinician and patient of what to potentially expect when using these supplements for cancer. In addition, indirect trials for other conditions (cardiovascular) may provide future insight into possible results for future cancer prevention trials.

  14. Effect of complementary food supplementation on breastfeeding and home diet in rural Bangladeshi children12

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Kristen M; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Chowdhury, Zaynah T; Mehra, Sucheta; de Pee, Saskia; Ahmed, Tahmeed; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complementary food supplements (CFSs) can enhance growth where stunting is common, but substitution for the usual diet may reduce observed benefits. Objective: We aimed to characterize dietary diversity from home foods in a CFS efficacy trial and determine whether supplementation reduced breastfeeding frequency or displaced home foods. Design: In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, children (n = 5499) received, for 1 y starting at age 6 mo, periodic child feeding counseling for mothers (control) or counseling plus 1 of 4 CFSs fed as a daily snack. Breastfeeding status and past 24-h diet were assessed at enrollment and every 3 mo thereafter until 18 mo of age. A 7–food group dietary diversity score (DDS) was calculated from home foods only, and a DDS ≥4 constituted minimum dietary diversity (MDD). Results: Most children (97%) were breastfed through 18 mo of age, and 24-h breastfeeding frequency did not differ by supplementation group. Child dietary diversity was low; only 51% of children met the MDD by 18 mo. Rice, potatoes, and biscuits (cookies) were the most frequently consumed foods, whereas the legumes, dairy, eggs, and vitamin A–rich fruit and vegetable food groups were each consumed by <50% of children. The odds of meeting the MDD through the consumption of home foods were equal or greater in the supplemented groups compared with the control group at all ages. High socioeconomic status and any maternal education were associated with increased odds of MDD at age 18 mo, whereas child sex and household food security were not associated with MDD. Conclusions: In a setting where daily complementary food supplementation improved linear growth, there was no evidence that supplementation displaced breastfeeding or home foods, and the supplementation may have improved dietary diversity. Pathways by which supplementation with fortified foods may enhance dietary diversity, such as an improved appetite and increased body size

  15. Dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Reza; Knabe, Darrell A; Tekwe, Carmen D; Dahanayaka, Sudath; Ficken, Martin D; Fielder, Susan E; Eide, Sarah J; Lovering, Sandra L; Wu, Guoyao

    2013-03-01

    Dietary intake of glutamate by postweaning pigs is markedly reduced due to low feed consumption. This study was conducted to determine the safety and efficacy of dietary supplementation with monosodium glutamate (MSG) in postweaning pigs. Piglets were weaned at 21 days of age to a corn and soybean meal-based diet supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 % MSG (n = 25/group). MSG was added to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. At 42 days of age (21 days after weaning), blood samples (10 mL) were obtained from the jugular vein of 25 pigs/group at 1 and 4 h after feeding for hematological and clinical chemistry tests; thereafter, pigs (n = 6/group) were euthanized to obtain tissues for histopathological examinations. Feed intake was not affected by dietary supplementation with 0-2 % MSG and was 15 % lower in pigs supplemented with 4 % MSG compared with the 0 % MSG group. Compared with the control, dietary supplementation with 1, 2 and 4 % MSG dose-dependently increased plasma concentrations of glutamate, glutamine, and other amino acids (including lysine, methionine, phenylalanine and leucine), daily weight gain, and feed efficiency in postweaning pigs. At day 7 postweaning, dietary supplementation with 1-4 % MSG also increased jejunal villus height, DNA content, and antioxidative capacity. The MSG supplementation dose-dependently reduced the incidence of diarrhea during the first week after weaning. All variables in standard hematology and clinical chemistry tests, as well as gross and microscopic structures, did not differ among the five groups of pigs. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with up to 4 % MSG is safe and improves growth performance in postweaning pigs.

  16. Effects of commercially available dietary supplements on resting energy expenditure: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Roger A; Conn, Carole A; Mermier, Christine M

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans.

  17. Effects of Commercially Available Dietary Supplements on Resting Energy Expenditure: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Roger A.; Conn, Carole A.; Mermier, Christine M.

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available dietary products advertised to promote weight loss are an underresearched but heavily purchased commodity in the United States. Despite only limited evidence, interest in dietary supplements continues to increase. This work uniquely summarizes the current evidence evaluating the efficacy of several over-the-counter thermogenic products for their effects on resting energy expenditure. Currently, there is some evidence suggesting dietary products containing select ingredients can increase energy expenditure in healthy young people immediately following consumption (within 6 hours). It is unclear if supplement-induced increases in metabolic rate provide additional benefit beyond that provided by dietary constituents that contain similar ingredients. It is also unclear if dietary supplements are effective for weight loss in humans. PMID:24967272

  18. Biological and Chemical Standardization of a Hop (Humulus lupulus) Botanical Dietary Supplement

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M.; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F.; Bolton, Judy L.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus, L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin (6-PN), and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol (IX) and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol (XN), all of which were measured using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy. PMID:24861737

  19. Hypertensive Retinopathy Associated With Use of the Ephedra-Free Weight-Loss Herbal Supplement Hydroxycut

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Scott L.; Moawad, Fouad J.; Hartzel, Joshua D.; Iglesias, Melissa; Jackson, William L.

    2006-01-01

    The use of performance-enhancing and weight-loss supplements is prevalent in the United States, and over the past decade, there has been growing concern with regard to the safety and efficacy of these products. It is well documented that ephedra-based products are associated with adverse reactions, including serious cardiovascular and neurologic injuries. With new restrictions placed on such products, companies are now marketing caffeine-based ephedra-free herbal supplements. Less is known about the potential side effects of these products. We present the case of a 42-year-old, previously healthy man who developed malignant hypertension and hypertensive retinopathy while taking Hydroxycut, a caffeine-based ephedra-free supplement. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of hypertensive retinopathy associated with the use of Hydroxycut. Given the lack of investigative studies in regard to their safety and efficacy, judicious care should be taken with the use of all herbal supplements, including those designated as ephedra-free. Readers are encouraged to respond to George Lundberg, MD, Editor of MedGenMed, for the editor's eye only or for possible publication via email: glundberg@medscape.net PMID:17406200

  20. Oral protein-energy supplements for children with chronic disease: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Poustie, Vanessa J; Watling, Ruth M; Smyth, Rosalind L

    2003-11-01

    Growth failure and poor nutritional status are features of children with chronic disease. Oral protein-energy supplements are one of a number of interventions provided with the aim of improving nutritional status in these children. The present paper describes a Cochrane systematic review assessing the efficacy of these products in children with chronic disease. The objective was to examine the evidence that in children with chronic disease oral protein-energy supplements alter nutrient intake, nutritional indices, survival and quality of life. All randomised controlled trials of the use of oral protein-energy supplements in children with chronic disease were identified through searching electronic databases and hand searching the abstract books of nutrition conferences. Studies identified were independently assessed for eligibility and methodological quality, and data on outcomes of interest were combined in a meta-analysis where possible. Two trials were eligible for inclusion in the review, both of which were undertaken with children with cystic fibrosis. No statistical differences could be found between treatment and control groups when data from both studies were combined. Oral protein-energy supplements are widely used to improve the nutritional status of children with chronic disease. No conclusions can be drawn on the efficacy of these products based on the limited data available. Further randomised controlled trials are required to investigate the use of these products in children with chronic disease. Until further data are available, these products should be used with caution.

  1. Biological and chemical standardization of a hop (Humulus lupulus) botanical dietary supplement.

    PubMed

    Krause, Elizabeth; Yuan, Yang; Hajirahimkhan, Atieh; Dong, Huali; Dietz, Birgit M; Nikolic, Dejan; Pauli, Guido F; Bolton, Judy L; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-06-01

    Concerned about the safety of conventional estrogen replacement therapy, women are using botanical dietary supplements as alternatives for the management of menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Before botanical dietary supplements can be evaluated clinically for safety and efficacy, botanically authenticated and standardized forms are required. To address the demand for a standardized, estrogenic botanical dietary supplement, an extract of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was developed. Although valued in the brewing of beer, hop extracts are used as anxiolytics and hypnotics and have well-established estrogenic constituents. Starting with a hop cultivar used in the brewing industry, spent hops (the residue remaining after extraction of bitter acids) were formulated into a botanical dietary supplement that was then chemically and biologically standardized. Biological standardization utilized the estrogen-dependent induction of alkaline phosphatase in the Ishikawa cell line. Chemical standardization was based on the prenylated phenols in hops that included estrogenic 8-prenylnaringenin, its isomer 6-prenylnaringenin, and pro-estrogenic isoxanthohumol and its isomeric chalcone xanthohumol, all of which were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The product of this process was a reproducible botanical extract suitable for subsequent investigations of safety and efficacy.

  2. Evidence-Based Approach to Fiber Supplements and Clinically Meaningful Health Benefits, Part 2

    PubMed Central

    McRorie, Johnson W.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fiber that is intrinsic and intact in fiber-rich foods (eg, fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains) is widely recognized to have beneficial effects on health when consumed at recommended levels (25 g/d for adult women, 38 g/d for adult men). Most (90%) of the US population does not consume this level of dietary fiber, averaging only 15 g/d. In an attempt to bridge this “fiber gap,” many consumers are turning to fiber supplements, which are typically isolated from a single source. Fiber supplements cannot be presumed to provide the health benefits that are associated with dietary fiber from whole foods. Of the fiber supplements on the market today, only a minority possess the physical characteristics that underlie the mechanisms driving clinically meaningful health benefits. In this 2-part series, the first part (previous issue) described the 4 main characteristics of fiber supplements that drive clinical efficacy (solubility, degree/rate of fermentation, viscosity, and gel formation), the 4 clinically meaningful designations that identify which health benefits are associated with specific fibers, and the gel-dependent mechanisms in the small bowel that drive specific health benefits (eg, cholesterol lowering, improved glycemic control). The second part (current issue) of this 2-part series will focus on the effects of fiber supplements in the large bowel, including the 2 mechanisms by which fiber prevents/relieves constipation (insoluble mechanical irritant and soluble gel-dependent water-holding capacity), the gel-dependent mechanism for attenuating diarrhea and normalizing stool form in irritable bowel syndrome, and the combined large bowel/small bowel fiber effects for weight loss/maintenance. The second part will also discuss how processing for marketed products can attenuate efficacy, why fiber supplements can cause gastrointestinal symptoms, and how to avoid symptoms for better long-term compliance. PMID:25972619

  3. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-03-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a

  4. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a

  5. 77 FR 12310 - Drugs for Human Use; Drug Efficacy Study Implementation; Prescription Drugs That Contained...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... (ANDA) (other than an over-the-counter (OTC) product that complies with an applicable OTC monograph), is...; IRS drug products require an approved NDA or ANDA, as appropriate. Furthermore, labeling for drug... an approved NDA or ANDA is unlawful as of the effective date of this notice. This notice is...

  6. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  7. Fingerprinting of Materials: Technical Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1992-01-01

    This supplement to the Guidelines for Maintaining a Chemical Fingerprinting Program has been developed to assist NASA personnel, contractors, and sub-contractors in defining the technical aspects and basic concepts which can be used in chemical fingerprinting programs. This material is not meant to be totally inclusive to all chemical fingerprinting programs, but merely to present current concepts. Each program will be tailored to meet the needs of the individual organizations using chemical fingerprinting to improve their quality and reliability in the production of aerospace systems.

  8. Efficacy of phosphatidylcholine in the modulation of motion sickness susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. L.; Ryan, P.; Homick, J. L.

    1985-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of pharmacological doses of phosphatidylcholine (lecithin) in the modulation of motion sickness induced by exposure to coriolis stimulation in a rotating chair. Subjects received daily dietary supplements of 25 grams of lecithin (90 percent phosphatidylcholine) and were tested for their susceptibility to motion sickness after 4 h, 2 d, and 21 d. A small but statistically significant increase in susceptibility (+15 percent) was noted 4 h after supplemental phosphatidylcholine, with four of nine subjects demonstrating a marked increase in susceptibility. This finding was attributed to choline's stimulatory action on cholinergic systems, an action which opposes that of the classical antimotion sickness drug scopolamine. Chronic lecithin loading revealed a trend towards reduced susceptibility, possibly indicating the occurrence of adaptive mechanisms such as receptor down-regulation. Withdrawal from lecithin loading, perhaps coupled with anticholinergic treatment, might prove to be a potent prophylactic regimen and ought to be tested.

  9. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    SUBJECT TERMS Vitamin E deficiency in burn patients and supplementation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei...to 26 Sep 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0429 5c. PROGRAM

  10. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

  11. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

    PubMed Central

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L.; Chriqui, Jamie F.

    2015-01-01

    Under the current version of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), participants can purchase virtually any food or beverage (collectively, food). Research indicates that SNAP recipients may have worse dietary quality than income-eligible nonparticipants. Policymakers have urged the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to pilot SNAP purchasing restrictions intended to support a healthier diet, and state legislators have proposed similar bills. The USDA rejected these invitations, stating that it would be administratively and logistically difficult to differentiate among products, amid other concerns. However, the USDA’s Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) do just that. Further, state governments define and differentiate among foods and beverages for tax purposes. This paper reviews several factors intended to inform future policy decisions: the science indicating that SNAP recipients have poorer diet quality than income-eligible nonparticipants; the public’s support for revising the SNAP program; federal, state, and city legislators’ formal proposals to amend SNAP based on nutrition criteria and the USDA’s public position in opposition to these proposals; state bills to amend eligible foods purchasable with SNAP benefits; state retail food tax laws; and the retail administration and program requirements for both WIC and SNAP. The paper finds that the government has a clear ability to align SNAP benefits with nutrition science and operationalize this into law. PMID:26091926

  12. Herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor J

    2009-11-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements (HDS) are commonly used in the United States and throughout the world. The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act and public standards set through the U.S. Pharmacopeia provide regulatory framework for these products. These regulations help to ensure the safety of grandfathered and new HDS coming onto the market, and the opportunity to identify and take action against unsafe products that have been distributed. The clinical patterns of presentation and severity of HDS-associated hepatotoxicity can be highly variable, even for the same product. In addition, accurate causality assessment in cases of suspected HDS hepatotoxicity is confounded by infrequent ascertainment of product intake by healthcare providers, under-reporting of HDS use by patients, the ubiquity of HDS and the complexity of their components, and the possibility for product adulteration. Additional measures to prevent HDS-induced hepatotoxicity include greater consumer and provider awareness, increased spontaneous reporting, and reassessment of regulations regarding the manufacturing, distribution, and marketing of these products.

  13. Nutritional supplements as radioprotectors -- A review and proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.

    1998-12-31

    The scientific literature contains several reports that show nutritional substances, such as vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (plant chemicals), provide substantial radioprotective effects in animal studies. Incorporating these substances to the human diet, already voluntarily practiced by a large segment of the population, in addition to providing other favorable health effects, may also provide a radioprotective effect. This potential radioprotective effect would be very useful in mitigating the effects of occupational radiation exposure to astronauts (especially future Mars explorers), airline crews, nuclear workers, both commercial and government, and populations exposed to nuclear accidents, e.g. Chernobyl. This paper reviews the existing evidence of radioprotective effects by nutritional supplements and proposes that their efficacy be evaluated, first with animal studies, followed by human tests with astronauts and cosmonauts on long-term missions, such as to the Mir space station and the International Space Station (ISS).

  14. Resveratrol supplementation improves inflammatory biomarkers in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Faghihzadeh, Forouzan; Adibi, Peyman; Rafiei, Rahmatollah; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2014-10-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the world. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound with antioxidant capacity that shows beneficial effects on down-regulation of inflammatory mediators and metabolic disorders. We hypothesized that supplementation with resveratrol can further improve the efficacy of lifestyle modifications in the management of NAFLD. In this randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial, 50 NAFLD patients were supplemented with either a 500-mg resveratrol capsule or a placebo capsule for 12 weeks. Both groups were advised to follow an energy-balanced diet and received physical activity recommendations. Serum liver enzymes, inflammatory markers, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, and physical activity were assessed at both baseline and the end of the study. In both groups, anthropometric measurements (weight, body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, and steatosis grade improved (P < 005). Resveratrol supplementation was associated with a significant reduction in liver enzyme alanine aminotransferase, inflammatory cytokines, nuclear factor κB activity, serum cytokeratin-18, and hepatic steatosis grade, as compared with placebo supplementation (P < .05). For the treatment of NAFLD, our results showed that 12 weeks of supplementation of 500 mg resveratrol, along with lifestyle modification, is superior to lifestyle modification alone. This is at least partially due to the attenuation of inflammatory markers and hepatocellular apoptosis. More studies are needed to confirm and increase the clinical application of the present results.

  15. Iron supplementation as a strategy for the control of iron deficiency and ferropenic anemia.

    PubMed

    Viteri, F E

    1999-09-01

    Iron supplementation is a public health strategy designed for the prevention of iron deficiency and its consecutive anemia. It should be targeted, safe, flexible, long term and ideally, community based under the supervision of the health sector. It must be differentiated from iron therapy, even though, in the intermediate and long term it corrects mild-moderate deficiency of iron and ferropenic anemia. It should complement other measures for the control of iron deficiency. A summary of results comparing daily and intermittent iron supplementation (every 3-days in rats, and weekly in humans) is presented, including studies in an animal model, human supplementary-iron absorption studies, clinical research and field studies. It is concluded that intermittent iron supplementation is efficacious and, that in the long term it achieves an increase in iron reserves while avoiding sustained oxidative stress caused by current practices of excess daily iron supplementation, particularly in the developing world. The stage is set for long-term weekly iron supplementation programs in large population groups to determine its sustainability and effectiveness.

  16. Long-term flaxseed oil supplementation diet protects BALB/c mice against Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Saini, Archana; Harjai, Kusum; Mohan, Harsh; Punia, Raj Pal Singh; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2010-02-01

    Intense host immune response to infection contributes significantly to the pathology of pneumococcal pneumonia. Therefore, the regulation of host immune response is critical for the successful outcome of pneumonia in such patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of n-3 PUFA, i.e. flaxseed oil supplementation for short (4 weeks) as well as long (9 weeks) term, on the course of S. pneumoniae D39 serotype 2 infection in mice. The efficacy of flaxseed oil supplementation was investigated in terms of survival of animals and production of various inflammatory molecules (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide) in the lung homogenate of animals. This was correlated with bacteriological and histopathological parameters. The immunomodulation was studied in terms of cytokines in the lungs following infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Results suggest that long-term flaxseed supplementation protected the mice against bacterial colonization of lungs with Streptococcus pneumoniae with reduced histopathological involvement of lung tissue. Moderate pneumonia was observed in supplemented, infected mice compared to severe pneumonia seen in control mice. This was accompanied by decreased inflammatory markers (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide) as the disease progressed. In addition, difference in the levels of pro-inflammatory (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines was observed in the flaxseed fed animals. On the contrary, short-term supplementation did not show such an effect on lung colonization.

  17. Chromium supplements for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: limited evidence of effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Costello, Rebecca B; Dwyer, Johanna T; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-07-01

    Some adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) believe that chromium-containing supplements will help control their disease, but the evidence is mixed. This narrative review examines the efficacy of chromium supplements for improving glycemic control as measured by decreases in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Using systematic search criteria, 20 randomized controlled trials of chromium supplementation in T2DM patients were identified. Clinically meaningful treatment goals were defined as an FPG of ≤7.2 mmol/dL, a decline in HbA1c to ≤7%, or a decrease of ≥0.5% in HbA1c. In only a few randomized controlled trials did FPG (5 of 20), HbA1c (3 of 14), or both (1 of 14) reach the treatment goals with chromium supplementation. HbA1c declined by ≥0.5% in 5 of 14 studies. On the basis of the low strength of existing evidence, chromium supplements have limited effectiveness, and there is little rationale to recommend their use for glycemic control in patients with existing T2DM. Future meta-analyses should include only high-quality studies with similar forms of chromium and comparable inclusion/exclusion criteria to provide scientifically sound recommendations for clinicians.

  18. NASA Thesaurus supplement: A four part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus (supplement 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The four-part cumulative supplement to the 1988 edition of the NASA Thesaurus includes the Hierarchical Listing (Part 1), Access Vocabulary (Part 2), Definitions (Part 3), and Changes (Part 4). The semiannual supplement gives complete hierarchies and accepted upper/lowercase forms for new terms.

  19. Study of Solar-Terrestrial Connections in the Highlight of Simultaneous Observations with STEREO and UTR-2, URAN, NDA Ground-Based Radio Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Rucker, H. O.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Lecacheux, A.; Falkovich, I. S.

    In the present paper new opportunities, which will be appeared at simultaneous observations by STEREO and ground-based radio telescopes (UTR-2, URAN, NDA), in study of solar sporadic phenomena, having essential effects on the Earth, are discussed. CMEs, which manifest themselves in radio emission as Type II and Type IY bursts, are the most important of them. Studying of these bursts during simultaneous observations with the help of STEREO and ground-based radio telescopes will allow to find the direction of CME movement, 3D images of CME, its beaming pattern, bulk energy of both CME and shock before it, particle acceleration sites and directions of propagation of accelerated particles. Analyses of radio observations of active and quiet Sun will allow to understand pre-CME conditions in the solar corona and will give an opportunity to forecast CME appearance. Observations of different types of sporadic radio emissions (Type III bursts, drift pairs, s-bursts, bursts in absorption etc.) with high sensitivity, high frequency and time resolutions in decameter range by ground-based radio telescopes and detection of regions, where this radio emission goes out from (using STEREO results), will allow to diagnose the coronal plasmas (to define their density, magnetic fields, parameters of inhomogenieties) at altitudes 0.5-2Rs and to build adequate model of CME formation and its evolution. Using of interplanetary scintillation methods tested on UTR-2 and URAN radio telescope as well as in situ measurements on STEREO will give the information about both CME structure and shock associated with it, about spectra of density fluctuations and turbulences connected with CME at distances about 1a.u. from the Sun.

  20. 37 CFR 1.625 - Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate; procedure after conclusion. 1.625 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Supplemental Examination of Patents § 1.625...

  1. 37 CFR 1.625 - Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conclusion of supplemental examination; publication of supplemental examination certificate; procedure after conclusion. 1.625 Section 1... COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Supplemental Examination of Patents § 1.625...

  2. Does folic acid supplementation prevent or promote colorectal cancer? Results from model-based predictions.

    PubMed

    Luebeck, E Georg; Moolgavkar, Suresh H; Liu, Amy Y; Boynton, Alanna; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2008-06-01

    Folate is essential for nucleotide synthesis, DNA replication, and methyl group supply. Low-folate status has been associated with increased risks of several cancer types, suggesting a chemopreventive role of folate. However, recent findings on giving folic acid to patients with a history of colorectal polyps raise concerns about the efficacy and safety of folate supplementation and the long-term health effects of folate fortification. Results suggest that undetected precursor lesions may progress under folic acid supplementation, consistent with the role of folate role in nucleotide synthesis and cell proliferation. To better understand the possible trade-offs between the protective effects due to decreased mutation rates and possibly concomitant detrimental effects due to increased cell proliferation of folic acid, we used a biologically based mathematical model of colorectal carcinogenesis. We predict changes in cancer risk based on timing of treatment start and the potential effect of folic acid on cell proliferation and mutation rates. Changes in colorectal cancer risk in response to folic acid supplementation are likely a complex function of treatment start, duration, and effect on cell proliferation and mutations rates. Predicted colorectal cancer incidence rates under supplementation are mostly higher than rates without folic acid supplementation unless supplementation is initiated early in life (before age 20 years). To the extent to which this model predicts reality, it indicates that the effect on cancer risk when starting folic acid supplementation late in life is small, yet mostly detrimental. Experimental studies are needed to provide direct evidence for this dual role of folate in colorectal cancer and to validate and improve the model predictions.

  3. Interactions of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this systematic review was to examine the benefits, harms and pharmacokinetic interactions arising from the co-administration of commonly used dietary supplements with cardiovascular drugs. Many patients on cardiovascular drugs take dietary supplements for presumed benefits and may be at risk for adverse supplement-drug interactions. Methods The Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements and MEDLINE were searched from the inception of the review to October 2011. Grey literature was also reviewed. Two reviewers independently screened records to identify studies comparing a supplement plus cardiovascular drug(s) with the drug(s) alone. Reviewers extracted data using standardized forms, assessed the study risk of bias, graded the strength of evidence and reported applicability. Results Evidence was obtained from 65 randomized clinical trials, 2 controlled clinical trials and 1 observational study. With only a few small studies available per supplement, evidence was insufficient for all predefined gradable clinical efficacy and harms outcomes, such as mortality and serious adverse events. One long-term pragmatic trial showed no benefit from co-administering vitamin E with aspirin on a composite cardiovascular outcome. Evidence for most intermediate outcomes was insufficient or of low strength, suggesting no effect. Incremental benefits were noted for triglyceridemia with omega-3 fatty acid added to statins; and there was an improvement in levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with garlic supplementation when people also consumed nitrates Conclusions Evidence of low-strength indicates benefits of omega-3 fatty acids (plus statin, or calcium channel blockers and antiplatelets) and garlic (plus nitrates or warfarin) on triglycerides and HDL-C, respectively. Safety concerns, however, persist. PMID:22651380

  4. Updated cost-effectiveness analysis of supplemental glutamine for parenteral nutrition of intensive-care patients

    PubMed Central

    Pradelli, L; Povero, M; Muscaritoli, M; Eandi, M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Intravenous (i.v.) glutamine supplementation of parenteral nutrition (PN) can improve clinical outcomes, reduce mortality and infection rates and shorten the length of hospital and/or intensive care unit (ICU) stays compared with standard PN. This study is a pharmacoeconomic analysis to determine whether i.v. glutamine supplementation of PN remains both a highly favourable and cost-effective option for Italian ICU patients. Subjects/Methods: A previously published discrete event simulation model was updated by incorporating the most up-to-date and clinically relevant efficacy data (a clinically realistic subgroup analysis from a published meta-analysis), recent cost data from the Italian health-care system and the latest epidemiology data from a large Italian ICU database (covering 230 Italian ICUs and more than 77 000 patients). Sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results. Results: Parenteral glutamine supplementation can significantly improve ICU efficiency in Italy, as the additional cost of supplemented treatment is more than completely offset by cost savings in hospital care. Supplementation was more cost-effective (cost-effectiveness ratio (CER)=€35 165 per patient discharged alive) than standard, non-supplemented PN (CER=€40 156 per patient discharged alive), and it resulted in mean cost savings of €4991 per patient discharged alive or €1047 per patient admitted to the hospital. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of these results. Conclusions: Alanyl-glutamine supplementation of PN is a clinically and economically attractive strategy for ICU patients in Italy and may be applicable to selected ICU patient populations in other countries. PMID:25469466

  5. Effect of Selenium Supplementation on Recurrent Hyperthyroidism Caused by Graves' Disease: A Prospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Wang, B; Chen, S R; Hou, X; Wang, X F; Zhao, S H; Song, J Q; Wang, Y G

    2016-09-01

    The effect of selenium supplementation on recurrent hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease is unclear. Our study aimed to assess the efficacy of selenium supplementation therapy on recurrent Graves' disease. Forty-one patients with recurrent Graves' disease were enrolled in this study. All patients received the routine treatment using methimazole (MMI), while patients allocated to the selenium group received additional selenium therapy for 6 months. The influence of selenium supplementation on the concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), anti-TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were assessed. The remission rate was also compared between 2 groups. There was no obvious difference in the demographic data and the levels of serum FT4, FT3, TSH, and TRAb between the 2 groups at baseline. Both FT4 and FT3 decreased more at 2 months in the selenium group than the controls, while the TSH level increased more in patients receiving selenium supplementation (p<0.05). The TRAb level was significantly lower in patients receiving selenium supplementation (2.4 IU/l vs. 5.6 IU/l, p=0.04). The percentages of patients with normal TRAb level at 6 months was also significantly higher in the selenium group (19.0 vs. 0%, p=0.016). Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed patients receiving selenium supplementation had a significantly higher rate of remission than controls (Log-rank test p=0.008). In conclusion, selenium supplementation can enhance the effect of antithyroid drugs in patients with recurrent Graves' disease. Randomized trials with large number of participants are needed to validate the finding above.

  6. Weekly supplementation with iron and vitamin A during pregnancy increases hemoglobin concentration but decreases serum ferritin concentration in Indonesian pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Muslimatun, S; Schmidt, M K; Schultink, W; West, C E; Hautvast, J A; Gross, R; Muhilal

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether weekly iron supplementation was as effective as the national daily iron supplementation program in Indonesia in improving iron status at near term in pregnancy. In addition, we examined whether weekly vitamin A and iron supplementation was more efficacious than weekly supplementation with iron alone. One group of pregnant women (n = 122)was supplemented weekly with iron (120 mg Fe as FeSO4) and folic acid (500 microg); another group (n = 121) received the same amount of iron and folic acid plus vitamin A [4800 retinol equivalents (RE)]. A third ("daily") group (n = 123), participating in the national iron plus folic acid supplementation program, was also recruited. Data on subjects with complete biochemical data are reported (n = 190). At near term, hemoglobin concentrations increased, whereas serum ferritin concentrations decreased significantly in the weekly vitamin A and iron group, suggesting that vitamin A improved utilization of iron for hematopoiesis. Iron status in the weekly iron group was not different from that of the "daily" group. However, iron status decreased with daily supplementation if <50 iron tablets were ingested. Serum transferrin receptor concentrations increased in all groups (P < 0.01). Serum retinol concentrations were maintained in the weekly vitamin A and iron group, but decreased in the other two groups (P < 0.01). Thus, delivery of iron supplements on a weekly basis can be as effective as ona daily basis if compliance can be ensured. Addition of vitamin A to the supplement improved hemoglobin concentration.

  7. Levels of supplementation for grazing beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Eriton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain.

  8. Supplemental report on cost estimates'

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-29

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers have completed an analysis of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fiscal Year (FY) 1993 budget request for its Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) program. The results were presented to an interagency review group (IAG) of senior-Administration officials for their consideration in the budget process. This analysis included evaluations of the underlying legal requirements and cost estimates on which the ERWM budget request was based. The major conclusions are contained in a separate report entitled, ''Interagency Review of the Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Program.'' This Corps supplemental report provides greater detail on the cost analysis.

  9. 18 CFR 740.13 - Supplemental instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplemental instructions. 740.13 Section 740.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.13 Supplemental instructions. As deemed appropriate, the...

  10. 18 CFR 740.13 - Supplemental instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Supplemental instructions. 740.13 Section 740.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.13 Supplemental instructions. As deemed appropriate, the...

  11. 18 CFR 740.13 - Supplemental instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental instructions. 740.13 Section 740.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.13 Supplemental instructions. As deemed appropriate, the...

  12. 18 CFR 740.13 - Supplemental instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental instructions. 740.13 Section 740.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.13 Supplemental instructions. As deemed appropriate, the...

  13. 15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-ORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports. Notwithstanding other regulations, a supplemental report in letter form referring to the appropriate NOAA file number, if assigned, must be made to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather...

  14. 15 CFR 908.7 - Supplemental reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RECORDS AND SUBMITTING REPORTS ON WEATHER MODIFICATION ACTIVITIES § 908.7 Supplemental reports. Notwithstanding other regulations, a supplemental report in letter form referring to the appropriate NOAA file number, if assigned, must be made to the Administrator immediately if any report of weather...

  15. 7 CFR 1955.82 - State supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State supplements. 1955.82 Section 1955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Management of Property § 1955.82 State supplements....

  16. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits § 246.10...

  17. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits § 246.10...

  18. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits § 246.10...

  19. 7 CFR 246.10 - Supplemental foods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supplemental foods. 246.10 Section 246.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND CHILDREN Participant Benefits § 246.10...

  20. 18 CFR 740.13 - Supplemental instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental instructions. 740.13 Section 740.13 Conservation of Power and Water Resources WATER RESOURCES COUNCIL STATE WATER MANAGEMENT PLANNING PROGRAM § 740.13 Supplemental instructions. As deemed appropriate, the...

  1. 19 CFR 204.4 - Supplemental investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental investigations. 204.4 Section 204.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF EFFECTS OF IMPORTS ON AGRICULTURAL PROGRAMS § 204.4 Supplemental investigations. An...

  2. 40 CFR 152.132 - Supplemental distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental distribution. 152.132... Supplemental distribution. The registrant may distribute or sell his registered product under another person's name and address instead of (or in addition to) his own. Such distribution and sale is...

  3. 33 CFR 87.5 - Supplemental signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental signals. 87.5 Section 87.5 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INLAND NAVIGATION RULES ANNEX IV: DISTRESS SIGNALS § 87.5 Supplemental signals. Attention is drawn to the...

  4. Enhanced Nutrition Education Instead of Consuming Supplements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, Todd; Kidd, Kellie; Jensen, Nancy; Jensen, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Fueled by the internet, instantaneous videos, and the emphasis to look "right" or always win athletic competitions, many students are seeking information on nutrition and dietary supplements. Classroom observations reveal student interest and discussions are among the highest when the topic is dietary supplements. Teachers and coaches provide an…

  5. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  6. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  7. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  8. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  9. 47 CFR 87.527 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.527 Section 87.527 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Automatic Weather Stations (AWOS/ASOS) § 87.527 Supplemental eligibility. (a) Licenses will be granted...

  10. 13 CFR 400.215 - Supplemental Guarantees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 400.215 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.215 Supplemental Guarantees. The Board will allow the structure of a guaranteed loan to include one or more Supplemental Guarantees that cover the...

  11. Compliance Supplement. OMB Circular A-133.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Management and Budget, Washington, DC.

    This document is a supplement to Circular A-133 (1990) from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which extended the government's "single audit process" for agencies that administer federal financial assistance programs to higher education institutions and non-profit organizations. This supplement is based on the 1996 Amendments …

  12. 47 CFR 87.321 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.321 Section 87.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aviation Support Stations § 87.321 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant must certify as to...

  13. 47 CFR 87.321 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.321 Section 87.321 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Aviation Support Stations § 87.321 Supplemental eligibility. Each applicant must certify as to...

  14. 28 CFR 51.28 - Supplemental contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental contents. 51.28 Section 51... SECTION 5 OF THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965, AS AMENDED Contents of Submissions § 51.28 Supplemental..., is provided in addition to that required by § 51.27. (a) Demographic information. (1) Total...

  15. USDA dietary supplement ingredient database, release 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL),Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC), Agricultural Research Service (ARS), USDA, in collaboration with the Office of Dietary Supplements, National Institutes of Health (ODS/NIH) and other federal agencies has developed a Dietary Supplement Ingredient ...

  16. 47 CFR 87.419 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.419 Section 87.419 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.419 Supplemental eligibility. Only one control tower or RCO will...

  17. 47 CFR 87.419 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.419 Section 87.419 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.419 Supplemental eligibility. Only one control tower or RCO will...

  18. 47 CFR 87.419 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.419 Section 87.419 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.419 Supplemental eligibility. Only one control tower or RCO will...

  19. 47 CFR 87.419 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.419 Section 87.419 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.419 Supplemental eligibility. Only one control tower or RCO will...

  20. 47 CFR 87.419 - Supplemental eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supplemental eligibility. 87.419 Section 87.419 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Airport Control Tower Stations § 87.419 Supplemental eligibility. Only one control tower or RCO will...

  1. 38 CFR 36.4359 - Supplemental loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental loans. 36...) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4359 Supplemental loans. (a) Any loan for the alteration, repair, improvement, extension, replacement, or...

  2. 38 CFR 36.4359 - Supplemental loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental loans. 36...) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4359 Supplemental loans. (a) Any loan for the alteration, repair, improvement, extension, replacement, or...

  3. 24 CFR 242.89 - Supplemental loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental loans. 242.89 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.89 Supplemental loans. A loan, advance of...

  4. 24 CFR 242.89 - Supplemental loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental loans. 242.89 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.89 Supplemental loans. A loan, advance of...

  5. 38 CFR 36.4359 - Supplemental loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental loans. 36...) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4359 Supplemental loans. (a) Any loan for the alteration, repair, improvement, extension, replacement, or...

  6. 24 CFR 242.89 - Supplemental loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental loans. 242.89 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.89 Supplemental loans. A loan, advance of...

  7. 24 CFR 242.89 - Supplemental loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Supplemental loans. 242.89 Section... DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.89 Supplemental loans. A loan, advance of...

  8. 16 CFR 500.24 - Supplemental statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supplemental statements. 500.24 Section 500.24 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR... PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.24 Supplemental statements. Nothing contained in the regulations in...

  9. Dietary Supplements: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... product. How can I be a smart supplement shopper? Be a savvy supplement user. Here’s how: • When ... gov/Safety/ReportaProblem/ConsumerComplaintCoordinators • File a safety report online through the Safety Reporting Portal at: http://www. ...

  10. The impact of cGMP compliance on consumer confidence in dietary supplement products.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Richard; FitzGerald, Libby Harvey

    2006-04-03

    The FDA estimates that US citizens spend more than $ 8.5 billion a year on dietary supplements and world wide the market is estimated at more than $ 60 billion. However, although a majority of consumers express confidence in the safety of these products, 74% believe the government should be more involved in ensuring that these products are safe and efficacious. Recent regulatory initiatives such as the imminent adoption of cGMPs for dietary supplements in the US, implementation of cGMPs in Canada and the recent EU dietary supplement initiative represent legislative and industry response to public clamor for more comprehensive oversight of dietary supplements. Regardless of mandated practices, the majority of dietary supplement manufacturers have done an excellent job of protecting the safety and quality of their products. The promulgation of these cGMPs will help ensure consumers that equal standards are followed throughout the industry. For some companies with established processes based on existing food or pharmaceutical cGMP regulations, the transition will be relatively painless while, for many, it will represent a significant increase in the level of documentation and testing. However, consumers deserve and demand that products meet standards for safety and quality and the implementation of cGMPs for these products are an important first step. Although the cGMPs are designed to ensure products are safe from a standpoint of identity, purity, quality, strength and composition, they do not address preclinical or clinical testing of ingredients for safety or efficacy. This would involve ingredients meeting the requirements of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status or going through the New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) process.

  11. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project : Status Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown author

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year's objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  12. Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project. Status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) prescribes several approaches to achieve its goal of doubling the salmon and steelhead runs of the Columbia River. Among those approaches are habitat restoration, improvements in adult and juvenile passage at dams and artificial propagation. Supplementation will be a major part of the new hatchery programs. The purpose of the Regional Assessment of Supplementation Project (RASP) is to provide an overview of ongoing and planned supplementation activities, to construct a conceptual framework and model for evaluating the potential benefits and risks of supplementation and to develop a plan for better regional coordination of research and monitoring and evaluation of supplementation. RASP has completed its first year of work. Progress toward meeting the first year`s objectives and recommendations for future tasks are contained in this report.

  13. Effect of Prenatal Zinc Supplementation on Birthweight

    PubMed Central

    Oosthuizen, Jacques; Beatty, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Although iron and zinc deficiencies are known to occur together and also appear to be high in Ghana, a few supplementation studies addressed this concurrently in pregnancy. In a double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 600 pregnant women in Ghana were randomly assigned to receive either a combined supplement of 40 mg of zinc as zinc gluconate and 40 mg of iron as ferrous sulphate or 40 mg of elemental iron as ferrous sulphate. Overall, there was no detectable difference in the mean birthweight between the study groups, although the effect of iron-zinc supplementation on the mean birthweight was masked by a strong interaction between the type of supplement and the iron status of participants [F (1,179)=5.614, p=0.019]. Prenatal iron-zinc supplementation was effective in increasing the mean birthweight among anaemic and iron-deficient women but not among women with elevated iron stores in early pregnancy. PMID:19902797

  14. Dietary germanium biotite supplementation enhances the induction of antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine in pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-A; Jung, Bock-Gie; Jung, Myunghwan; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Bong-Joo

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the potential ability of germanium biotite (GB) to stimulate the production of antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). To this aim, we measured the total FMDV-specific antibody responses and IgM production after vaccination against FMD both experimentally and in the field. GB supplementation with FMDV vaccination stimulated the production of anti-FMDV antibodies, and effectively increased IFN-γ and TNF-α levels. These results suggest that GB may be a novel alternative feed supplement that can serve as a boosting agent and an immunostimulator for increasing the efficacy of FMDV vaccination in pigs.

  15. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective when taken with St. John’s Wort, an herbal supplement. Depending on the medication involved, the results can ... warfarin (a prescription blood thinner), ginkgo biloba (an herbal supplement), aspirin and vitamin E (a supplement) can each ...

  16. Mixing Medications and Dietary Supplements Can Endanger Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective when taken with St. John’s Wort, an herbal supplement. Depending on the medication involved, the results OMCvoeeurd- ... a prescrip- tion blood thinner), ginkgo biloba (an herbal supplement), aspirin and vita- min E (a supplement) can ...

  17. Calcium Supplements: A Risk Factor for Heart Attack?

    MedlinePlus

    ... that calcium supplements may increase the risk of heart attack. Is this true? Answers from Rekha Mankad, M. ... calcium supplements may increase your risk of a heart attack. Other doctors believe that calcium supplements have little ...

  18. Determinants of dietary supplement use--healthy individuals use dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Kofoed, Christina L F; Christensen, Jane; Dragsted, Lars O; Tjønneland, Anne; Roswall, Nina

    2015-06-28

    The prevalence of dietary supplement use varies largely among populations, and previous studies have indicated that it is high in the Danish population compared with other European countries. The diversity in supplement use across countries indicates that cultural and environmental factors could influence the use of dietary supplements. Only few studies investigating the use of dietary supplements have been conducted in the Danish population. The present cross-sectional study is based on 54,948 Danes, aged 50-64 years, who completed self-administrated questionnaires on diet, dietary supplements and lifestyle between 1993 and 1997. A health index including smoking, physical activity, alcohol and diet, and a metabolic risk index including waist circumference, urinary glucose and measured hypertension were constructed. Logistic regression was used to investigate these determinants in relation to the intake of dietary supplements. We found that 71 % of the participants were dietary supplement users; female sex, older age groups and higher educated participants were more likely to be users of any dietary supplements. One additional point in the health index was associated with 19, 16 and 9 % higher likelihood of being user of any, more common and less common supplements, respectively. In the metabolic risk index, one additional point was associated with 17 and 16 % lower likelihood of being user of any supplement and more common supplements, respectively. No significant association was found for less common supplement use. In conclusion, those with the healthiest lifestyle were more likely to use dietary supplements. Thus, lifestyle and dietary composition should be considered as confounders on supplement use and health outcomes.

  19. Efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, female Ictalurus punctatus X male Ictalurus furcatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    study was conducted to examine the efficacy of crystalline lysine in alternative diets for pond-raised hybrid catfish, ' Ictalurus punctatus × ' Ictalurus furcatus. Two 28% protein alternative diets supplemented with l-lysine HCl at the required level based on 62% (previously published value) or 10...

  20. Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy: an update

    PubMed Central

    Dharmasena, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se) has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealed several possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1) inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2) profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab) and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab); 3) prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4) neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5) inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6) inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) achieved euthyroidism faster than those

  1. Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, P M

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines whether mineral supplements are necessary for athletes, and whether these supplements will enhance performance. Macrominerals (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace minerals (zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, and iron) are described. Calcium supplements are important for the health of bones. Athletes tend to have enhanced calcium status as assessed by bone mineral density, with the notable exception of female amenorrhoeic athletes. Magnesium status is adequate for most athletes, and there is no evidence that magnesium supplements can enhance performance. Phosphorus status is adequate for athletes. Phosphorus supplementation over an extended period of time can result in lowered blood calcium, however, some studies have shown that acute 'phosphate loading' will enhance performance. Athletes may have a zinc deficiency induced by poor diet and loss of zinc in sweat and urine. Limited data exist on the relationship of performance and zinc status. Widespread deficiencies in copper have not been documented, and there are no data to suggest that copper supplementation will enhance performance. There is no reason to suspect a selenium deficiency in athletes. The relationship between selenium status and performance has not been established, but selenium may play a role as an antioxidant. Because of the low intakes of chromium for the general population, there is a possibility that athletes may be deficient. Exercise may create a loss in chromium because of increased excretion into the urine. Many athletes, particularly female, are iron depleted, but true iron deficiencies are rare. Iron depletion does not affect exercise performance but iron deficiency anaemia does. Iron supplements have not been shown to enhance performance except where iron deficiency anaemia exists. In conclusion, poor diets are perhaps the main reason for any mineral deficiencies found in athletes, although in certain cases exercise could contribute to the deficiency. Mineral

  2. Efficacy testing of disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Tomasino, Stephen F

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) has the responsibility for regulating antimicrobial products, including sporicides, used to treat and decontaminate inanimate surfaces. In response to the anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) attacks of 2001 and the associated need for verifying the performance of chemicals for building decontamination, the EPA initiated research in late 2003 to evaluate and improve efficacy test methods for sporicides. The OPP Microbiology Laboratory located at the Environmental Science Center, Ft. Meade, MD is the lead laboratory. Through funding provided by EPA's Office of Research and Development (Safe Buildings Program), a collaborative research plan has been established to address several key issues. Research is currently being conducted on 2 fronts: (1) the evaluation of quantitative methodology for assessing the efficacy of sporicides, and (2) the development and comparative testing of selected modifications to improve the AOAC Sporicidal Activity Test (AOAC Method 966.04). Future studies will include the evaluation of candidate surrogates of B. anthracis using a quantitative method, and a multilaboratory validation study of a quantitative method-surrogate combination. The General Referee is serving as the Principal Investigator for all research described in this report, and has the overall responsibility for the technical conduct of the projects. In cases where the General Referee has oversight of projects that involve official collaborative studies and validation support from AOAC INTERNATIONAL, AOAC officials and the Committee Chair will determine the appropriate mechanism for formal study review. The 2003 General Referee report provides the background on the development and direction of the research projects. The preliminary data, general conclusions, next steps, and recommendations are provided in this report.

  3. Dietary supplements and their future in health care: commentary on draft guidelines proposed by the Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Umhau, John C; Garg, Keva; Woodward, Albert M

    2012-03-01

    The Dietary Supplement and Health and Education Act of 1994 gives the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) responsibility for oversight of the dietary supplement industry. Recent draft guidelines proposed by the FDA to insure the safety of new dietary ingredients would significantly alter the ability of manufacturers to bring new dietary ingredients to market, and may cause many products introduced since 1994 to be discontinued. These changes will have an impact on health care, but with limited research on dietary supplements and how their use affects the health care system, there is no way to predict what their overall effect on health will be. Since the natural raw materials for dietary supplements are often inexpensive and generally cannot be patented, manufactures have little incentive to conduct the research which might otherwise be warranted. Appropriate clinical trials that evaluate the use and efficacy of various supplements may be critical for our health care system. If inexpensive dietary supplements are found to be safe and effective, such research could yield significant cost savings as well as health benefits.

  4. Creatine supplementation. Its role in human performance.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, W J; Volek, J S

    1999-07-01

    Creatine supplementation is the most popular nutritional supplement today. Although many questions remain regarding the use and benefits of creatine supplementation, a fast-growing body of literature is starting to define both its acute and chronic effects on human and physiologic performance. The initial data indicate that this energetic boost of the phosphagen energy system also helps to enhance strength and power training. Few documented side effects have been demonstrated in the medical and scientific literature, but further investigation is still required as to long-term use (i.e., beyond several months).

  5. Quantitative determination of vinpocetine in dietary supplements

    PubMed Central

    French, John M. T.; King, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Current United States regulatory policies allow for the addition of pharmacologically active substances in dietary supplements if derived from a botanical source. The inclusion of certain nootropic drugs, such as vinpocetine, in dietary supplements has recently come under scrutiny due to the lack of defined dosage parameters and yet unproven short- and long-term benefits and risks to human health. This study quantified the concentration of vinpocetine in several commercially available dietary supplements and found that a highly variable range of 0.6–5.1 mg/serving was present across the tested products, with most products providing no specification of vinpocetine concentrations. PMID:27319129

  6. Nutritional supplements in the surgical patient.

    PubMed

    Stohs, Sidney J; Dudrick, Stanley J

    2011-08-01

    This article presents an overview of the current knowledge, status, and use of supplements by patients before surgical operations, together with the benefits expected of the supplements by the patients. The indications, potential advantages and disadvantages, and the relationships with various aspects of the preoperative preparation and postoperative management of surgical patients are discussed, with emphasis on the significant percentage of this population that is deficient in fundamental nutrients. Recent revisions and recommendations for some of the macronutrients are presented, together with a summary of federal regulations and an oversight of supplements.

  7. Selenium species in selenium fortified dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Niedzielski, Przemyslaw; Rudnicka, Monika; Wachelka, Marcin; Kozak, Lidia; Rzany, Magda; Wozniak, Magdalena; Kaskow, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of dietary supplements available on the Polish market. The supplements comprised a large group of products with selenium content declared by the producer. The study involved determination of dissolution time under different conditions and solubility as well as content and speciation of selenium. The total content was determined as well as organic selenium and the inorganic forms Se(IV) and Se(VI). The organic selenium content was calculated as the difference between total Se and inorganic Se. The values obtained were compared with producers' declarations. The work is the first such study of selenium supplements available on the market of an EU Member State.

  8. Long-term intermittent multiple micronutrient supplementation enhances hemoglobin and micronutrient status more than iron + folic acid supplementation in Bangladeshi rural adolescent girls with nutritional anemia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faruk; Khan, Moududur R; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Karim, Rezaul; Williams, Gail; Torlesse, Harriet; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Dalmiya, Nita; Banu, Cadi P; Nahar, Badrun

    2010-10-01

    Previous short-term supplementation studies showed no additional hematologic benefit of multiple micronutrients (MMN) compared with iron + folic acid (IFA) in adolescent girls. This study examines whether long-term once- or twice-weekly supplementation of MMN can improve hemoglobin (Hb) and micronutrient status more than twice-weekly IFA supplementation in anemic adolescent girls in Bangladesh. Anemic girls (n = 324) aged 11-17 y attending rural schools were given once- or twice-weekly MMN or twice-weekly IFA, containing 60 mg iron/dose in both supplements, for 52 wk in a randomized double-blind trial. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 26 and 52 wk. Intent to treat analysis showed no significant difference in the Hb concentration between treatments at either 26 or 52 wk. However, after excluding girls with hemoglobinopathy and adjustment for baseline Hb, a greater increase in Hb was observed with twice-weekly MMN at 26 wk (P = 0.045). Although all 3 treatments effectively reduced iron deficiency, once-weekly MMN produced significantly lower serum ferritin concentrations than the other treatments at both 26 and 52 wk. Both once- and twice-weekly MMN significantly improved riboflavin, vitamin A, and vitamin C status compared with IFA. Overall, once-weekly MMN was less efficacious than twice-weekly MMN in improving iron, riboflavin, RBC folic acid, and vitamin A levels. Micronutrient supplementation beyond 26 wk was likely important in sustaining improved micronutrient status. These findings highlight the potential usefulness of MMN intervention in this population and have implications for programming.

  9. Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is mandated by Congress to be the agency that collects, analyzes, and disseminates impartial, comprehensive data about energy including the volume consumed, its customers, and the purposes for which it is used. The Federal Buildings Supplemental Survey (FBSS) was conducted by EIA in conjunction with DOE`s Office of Federal Energy Management Programs (OFEMP) to gain a better understanding of how Federal buildings use energy. This report presents the data from 881 completed telephone interviews with Federal buildings in three Federal regions. These buildings were systematically selected using OFEMP`s specifications; therefore, these data do not statistically represent all Federal buildings in the country. The purpose of the FBSS was threefold: (1) to understand the characteristics of Federal buildings and their energy use; (2) to provide a baseline in these three Federal regions to measure future energy use in Federal buildings as required in EPACT; and (3) to compare building characteristics and energy use with the data collected in the CBECS.

  10. Lessons Learned in Engineering. Supplement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, James C.; Ryan, Robert S.; Schultzenhofer, Luke A.

    2011-01-01

    This Contractor Report (CR) is a compilation of Lessons Learned in approximately 55 years of engineering experience by each James C. Blair, Robert S. Ryan, and Luke A. Schutzenhofer. The lessons are the basis of a course on Lessons Learned that has been taught at Marshall Space Flight Center. The lessons are drawn from NASA space projects and are characterized in terms of generic lessons learned from the project experience, which are further distilled into overarching principles that can be applied to future projects. Included are discussions of the overarching principles followed by a listing of the lessons associated with that principle. The lesson with sub-lessons are stated along with a listing of the project problems the lesson is drawn from, then each problem is illustrated and discussed, with conclusions drawn in terms of Lessons Learned. The purpose of this CR is to provide principles learned from past aerospace experience to help achieve greater success in future programs, and identify application of these principles to space systems design. The problems experienced provide insight into the engineering process and are examples of the subtleties one experiences performing engineering design, manufacturing, and operations. The supplemental CD contains accompanying PowerPoint presentations.

  11. Metals Content in Herbal Supplements.

    PubMed

    Barrella, Michelle Vieira; Heringer, Otavio Arruda; Cardoso, Priscylla Maria Martins; Pimentel, Elisangela Flavia; Scherer, Rodrigo; Lenz, Dominik; Endringer, Denise C

    2017-02-01

    Obesity has become an international epidemic. To evaluate the level of metals in extracts of plants prescribed as weight loss supplements, different brands containing Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, Citrus aurantium L., Cordia ecalyculata Vell, Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil, Cissus quadrangularis L., Senna alexandrina Mill were purchased in local market, hot acid digested, and analyzed while metal content by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, ICP-OES. Quality assurance and quality control tests were carried out in order to monitor and control the reliability of the analytical method. For each metal evaluated, a calibration curve was prepared with certified reference material. The recovery test was performed for each batch of samples. Analyses were performed in triplicate. Quantification of aluminum, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, vanadium, and zinc were determined. The metals most frequently detected were manganese (15.3-329,60 mg kg(-1)) aluminum (11.76-342.4 mg kg(-1)), and iron (11.14-73.01 mg kg(-1)) with higher levels in products containing C. sinensis China origin, I. paraguariensis Brazilian origin, C. quadrangularis, and C. aurantium China origin, respectively. To ensure safety consumption, an adequacy of the certification of Brazilian suppliers for herbal weight loss products is indispensable.

  12. Cyclosporine and herbal supplement interactions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, D; Lunardon, L; Bellia, G

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA.

  13. Cyclosporine and Herbal Supplement Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, D.; Lunardon, L.; Bellia, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cyclosporine (CyA) is a well-known immunosuppressant with a narrow therapeutic window. Its bioavailability is affected by many other traditional drugs and herbal extracts. Cytochrome P-450 isoenzymes CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 and protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are involved in CyA bioavailability. Interactions of CyA with herbal extracts are not well known, but, given their increased concomitant use, it is important to know which extracts, many of which are commonly self-prescribed, can affect CyA blood concentrations. Decreased CyA blood concentration has been shown with St John's wort in case reports and, in vivo animal studies, with ginger, liquorice, scutellariae radix, and quercetin. Increased CyA concentration has been reported in patients with grapefruit juice, chamomile, or berberine, and with cannabidiol or resveratrol in animal studies. Effects of Echinacea and Serenoa repens on CyA levels have not been shown consistently, but concomitant use should be avoided. Although findings from animal studies cannot be directly translated into humans, avoiding concomitant use of herbal extracts is prudent until human clinical studies have ruled out any possible interaction. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully about their use of herbal supplements before CyA administration, and those receiving CyA should be warned about possible interactions between herbal preparations and CyA. PMID:24527031

  14. Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, P. J.; Stochl, R. J.

    1995-07-01

    The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3 x 10(exp -4) Newton/sq meter (1 x 10(exp -6) torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K (200 R) and 361 K (650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 cu meter (120 gallon) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH2 and LN2 ground storage dewars.

  15. Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dempsey, P.J.; Stochl, R.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3{times}10{sup -4} N/m{sup 2}(1 x 10{sup -6} torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K(200 R) and 361 K(650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 m{sup 3} (120 gal) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH{sub 2} and LN{sub 2} ground storage dewars.

  16. Supplemental multilayer insulation research facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, P. J.; Stochl, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Supplemental Multilayer Insulation Research Facility (SMIRF) provides a small scale test bed for conducting cryogenic experiments in a vacuum environment. The facility vacuum system is capable of simulating a Space Shuttle launch pressure profile as well as providing a steady space vacuum environment of 1.3 x 10(exp -4) Newton/sq meter (1 x 10(exp -6) torr). Warm side boundary temperatures can be maintained constant between 111 K (200 R) and 361 K (650 R) using a temperature controlled shroud. The shroud can also simulate a typical lunar day-night temperature profile. The test hardware consists of a cryogenic calorimeter supported by the lid of the vacuum chamber. A 0.45 cu meter (120 gallon) vacuum jacketed storage/supply tank is available for conditioning the cryogen prior to use in the calorimeter. The facility was initially designed to evaluate the thermal performance of insulation systems for long-term storage in space. The facility has recently been used to evaluate the performance of various new insulation systems for LH2 and LN2 ground storage dewars.

  17. Important considerations for treatment with dietary supplement versus prescription niacin products.

    PubMed

    Backes, James M; Padley, Robert J; Moriarty, Patrick M

    2011-03-01

    Niacin is a water-soluble B vitamin (B3) known to have favorable effects on multiple lipid parameters, including raising high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and lowering triglycerides (TGs), lipoprotein(a), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although LDL-C remains the primary target of lipid-altering therapy, current guidelines emphasize HDL-C and other modifiable lipid factors as key secondary targets. Thus, niacin is considered an important therapeutic option to help reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with mixed dyslipidemia who, in addition to high LDL-C, have elevated TGs and low HDL-C. Although available prescription niacin products, including immediate-release niacin (IR; Niacor) and an extended-release niacin formulation (Niaspan), have demonstrated safety and efficacy in randomized clinical trials, confusion remains among health care providers and their patients regarding the various commercially available nonprescription dietary supplement niacin products. These dietary supplements, which include IR, sustained-release (SR), and "no-flush" or "flush-free" niacin products, are not subject to the same stringent US Food and Drug Administration regulations as prescription drugs. In fact, both the American Heart Association and the American Pharmacists Association recommend against the use of dietary supplement niacin as a substitute for prescription niacin. Although some dietary supplement IR and SR niacin products have demonstrated a lipid response in clinical trials, products labeled as "no-flush" or "flush-free" that are intended to avoid the common niacin-associated adverse effect of flushing generally contain minimal or no free, pharmacologically active niacin and therefore lack beneficial lipid-modifying effects. To clarify important differences between available prescription and dietary supplement niacin products, this article contrasts current regulatory standards for dietary supplements and prescription

  18. Safety and Health Benefits of Novel Dietary Supplements Consisting Multiple Phytochemicals, Vitamins, Minerals and Essential Fatty Acids in High Fat Diet Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Ramprasath, Vanu Ramkumar; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to determine safety and efficacy of health supplements "Beyond Tangy Tangerine," a multivitamin/mineral complex and combination of multivitamin/mineral complex, "Osteofx," a bone healthy supplement and "Ultimate Essential Fatty Acids" in Sprague Dawley rats consuming high-fat diets. Initially a pilot study was conducted which confirmed palatability and acceptability of supplements. In a second study, rats (n = 15/group) were randomized to Control; Multivitamin/mineral complex (2 g/kg BW) or Combination (2 g Multivitamin/mineral complex, 1.5 g Bone healthy supplement and 0.34 g Essential fatty acids/kg BW). No differences were observed in BW change, feed intake, organ weights or bone mineral composition with supplementations compared to control. Multivitamin/mineral complex supplementation decreased abdominal white adipose tissue weights (WAT) (p = .005), total (p = .033) and fat mass (p = .040), plasma IL-6 (p = .016) and ALKP (p = .038) and elevated plasma calcium (p < .001), phosphorus (p = .038), total protein (p = .002), albumin (p = .014) and globulin (p = .018), compared to control. Similarly, combination supplementation reduced WAT (p < .001), total (p = .023) and fat mass (p = .045), plasma triglycerides (p = .018), IL-6 (p = .002) and ALKP (p < .001) with increases in plasma calcium (p = .031), phosphorus (p < .001) compared to control. Results indicate that consuming either supplement can be considered safe and improves overall health by reducing inflammation, abdominal fat mass and plasma triglycerides, as well as promote bone health.

  19. Over-the-Counter Medication and Herbal or Dietary Supplement Use in College: Dose Frequency and Relationship to Self-Reported Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stasio, Michael J.; Curry, Kim; Sutton-Skinner, Kelly M.; Glassman, Destinee M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: A growing number of researchers have examined the use of over-the-counter (OTC) medications and herbal or dietary supplements among college students. There is concern about the efficacy and safety of these products, particularly because students appear to use them at a higher rate than does the general public. Participants and Methods:…

  20. Effects of protein supplementation on muscular performance and resting hormonal changes in college football players.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Kang, Jie; Falvo, Michael J; Faigenbaum, Avery D

    2007-01-01

    The effect of protein supplementation on athletic performance and hormonal changes was examined in 21 experienced collegiate strength/power athletes participating in a 12-week resistance training program. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a protein supplement (PR; n = 11) or a placebo (PL; n = 10) group. During each testing session subjects were assessed for strength (one repetition maximum [1-RM] bench press and squat), power (Wingate anaerobic power test) and body composition. Resting blood samples were analyzed at weeks 0 (PRE), 6 (MID) and 12 (POST) for total testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, and IGF-1. No difference was seen in energy intake between PR and PL (3034 ± 209 kcal and 3130 ± 266 kcal, respectively), but a significant difference in daily protein intake was seen between PR (2.00 g·kg body mass[BM](-1)·d(-1)) and PL (1.24 g·kgBM(-1)·d(-1)). A greater change (p < 0.05) in the ∆ 1-RM squat was seen in PR (23.5 ± 13.6 kg) compared to PL (9.1 ± 11.9 kg). No other significant strength or power differences were seen between the groups. Cortisol concentrations were significantly lower at MID for PL and this difference was significantly different than PR. No significant changes were noted in resting growth hormone or IGF-1 concentrations in either group. Although protein supplementation appeared to augment lower body strength development, similar upper body strength, anaerobic power and lean tissue changes do not provide clear evidence supporting the efficacy of a 12-week protein supplementation period in experienced resistance trained athletes. Key pointsCollegiate strength/power athletes may not meet daily recommended energy or protein needs.When athletes are provided a protein supplement they appear to meet the recommended daily protein intake for strength/power athletes.Protein supplementation did augment lower body strength development in experienced strength/power athletes.Results of upper body strength, anaerobic power and lean

  1. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  2. Tips for Older Dietary Supplement Users

    MedlinePlus

    ... by the government for safety or effectiveness before marketing. Also, unlike drugs, supplements are not intended to ... Others: American Dietetic Association American Pharmacists Association Food Marketing Institute International Food Information Council Foundation National Council ...

  3. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... lease having a well with indicated hydrocarbons; the reservoir may or may not be interpreted to extend... Mexico Planning Areas. (e) The Director may disclose the classification of blocks in supplemental...

  4. 49 CFR 388.8 - Supplemental agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplemental agreements. 388.8 Section 388.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY..., 1986]...

  5. Household and personal factors are sources of heterogenity in intestinal parasite clearance among Mexican children 6-15 months of age supplemented with vitamin A and zinc.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Punitha; Lawa, Ha'i Raga; Rosado, Jorge L; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Khatun, Mohsina; Santos, José I; Utzinger, Jürg; Long, Kurt Z

    2016-04-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out among Mexico children aged 6-15 months to determine how household characteristics modify vitamin A and zinc supplementation efficacy on Ascaris lumbricoides, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar infection durations. Children assigned to receive vitamin A every 2 months, a daily zinc supplement, a combined vitamin A-zinc supplement or a placebo were followed for 1 year. Parametric hazard models were fit to infection durations stratified by personal and household factors. Children supplemented with vitamin A and zinc combined from households lacking piped water and children in all three treatment arms from households with dirt floors had longer G. intestinalis and A. lumbricoides infection durations than their counterparts, respectively. Shorter E. histolytica/E.dispar durations were found among zinc-supplemented children of mothers who had <6 years of education and no indoor bathrooms. Heterogeneity in supplementation efficacy among children may reflect differences in exposure risk and baseline immune responses.

  6. A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women12

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Anisur; Raqib, Rubhana; Lönnerdal, Bo; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known. Objective: We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation. Methods: In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models. Results: At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness. Conclusion: Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and

  7. The use of selected nutrition supplements and complementary and alternative medicine in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Hanje, A James; Fortune, Brett; Song, Ming; Hill, Daniell; McClain, Craig

    2006-06-01

    Almost all patients with liver disease, especially advanced liver disease, have some evidence of malnutrition, including mineral/vitamin deficiency. A major health trend in the United States has been the significant growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including nutrition supplements and herbal agents. In the 1990s, the United States government created the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), as well as the Office on Dietary Supplements, to extend our knowledge in these areas. CAM users are often highly educated and frequently use CAM therapy for chronic diseases, including chronic liver disease. Indeed, most studies suggest that patients with chronic liver disease frequently use nutrition supplements and CAM agents in addition to their traditional medicines. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the role of nutrition supplements and herbals in liver disease. This article will focus mainly on 7 selected agents (vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, silymarin, and glycyrrhizin), for which there have been not only in vitro and animal studies but also human clinical trials, and we will review both potential efficacy and safety issues.

  8. Absorption and bioeffects of an isoflavone-based supplementation in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Pampaloni, Barbara; Bartolini, Silvia; Bartolini, Elisa; Ottanelli, Silva; Masi, Laura; Romani, Annalisa; Tanini, Annalisa; Vignolini, Pamela; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of isoflavones rich diets can improve several postmenopausal complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the absorption and the efficacy of isoflavonic supplementation in the treatment of menopausal symptoms. 36 postmenopausal women received 75 mg/day of isoflavones in the form of tablets, for six months. 21 subjects concluded the treatment. Plasmatic and urinary samples were collected before and after the treatment, along with a dietary interview. Isoflavones were determined in biological samples and in commercial administered supplements by a HPLC/DAD system. Results showed the presence of genistein (from 0.043 to 1.820 micromol/L) in plasma samples, and of genistein (from 2.486 to 20.363 micromol/24h) and daidzein (from 11.106 to 98.091 micromol/24h) in the urines of the treated women. In the 21 completers the Greene Climateric scale value for hot flushes changed from 3 to 1 or 0. No changes of the endometrial thickness and of the breast tissue were detected. The analysis of the supplement content in the tablets was in agreement with what declared by the producer. Administration of isoflavone supplements produced a decrease of symptoms in this cohort of postmenopausal women monitored for isoflavone absorption. PMID:22461255

  9. The Use of Selected Nutrition Supplements and Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hanje, A. James; Fortune, Brett; Song, Ming; Hill, Daniell; McClain, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Almost all patients with liver disease, especially advanced liver disease, have some evidence of malnutrition, including mineral/vitamin deficiency. A major health trend in the United States has been the significant growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including nutrition supplements and herbal agents. In the 1990s, the United States government created the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), as well as the Office on Dietary Supplements, to extend our knowledge in these areas. CAM users are often highly educated and frequently use CAM therapy for chronic diseases, including chronic liver disease. Indeed, most studies suggest that patients with chronic liver disease frequently use nutrition supplements and CAM agents in addition to their traditional medicines. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the role of nutrition supplements and herbals in liver disease. This article will focus mainly on 7 selected agents (vitamin E, zinc, magnesium, S-adenosylmethionine, betaine, silymarin, and glycyrrhizin), for which there have been not only in vitro and animal studies but also human clinical trials, and we will review both potential efficacy and safety issues. PMID:16772543

  10. Interaction of carbamazepine with herbs, dietary supplements, and food: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sophia Yui Kau; Gao, Qiong; Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ.

  11. Antioxidant supplementation for the prevention of kwashiorkor in Malawian children: randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Ciliberto, Heather; Ciliberto, Michael; Briend, Andreé; Ashorn, Per; Bier, Dennis; Manary, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in preventing kwashiorkor in a population of Malawian children at high risk of developing kwashiorkor. Design Prospective, double blind, placebo controlled trial randomised by household. Setting 8 villages in rural southern Malawi. Participants 2372 children in 2156 households aged 1-4 years were enrolled; 2332 completed the trial. Intervention Daily supplementation with an antioxidant powder containing riboflavin, vitamin E, selenium, and N-acetylcysteine in a dose that provided about three times the recommended dietary allowance of each nutrient or placebo for 20 weeks. Main outcome measures The primary outcome was the incidence of oedema. Secondary outcomes were the rates of change for weight and length and the number of days of infectious symptoms. Results 62 children developed kwashiorkor (defined by the presence of oedema); 39/1184 (3.3%) were in the antioxidant group and 23/1188 (1.9%) were in the placebo group (relative risk 1.70, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 2.42). The two groups did not differ in rates of weight or height gain. Children who received antioxidant supplementation did not experience less fever, cough, or diarrhoea. Conclusions Antioxidant supplementation at the dose provided did not prevent the onset of kwashiorkor. This finding does not support the hypothesis that depletion of vitamin E, selenium, cysteine, or riboflavin has a role in the development of kwashiorkor. PMID:15851401

  12. Composition of Lutein Ester Regioisomers in Marigold Flower, Dietary Supplement, and Herbal Tea.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M; Rabalski, Iwona

    2015-11-11

    Characterization of lutein and its esters in a health product is necessary for its efficacy. In the current study lutein ester regioisomers were quantified and identified in several dietary supplements and herbal teas in comparison with marigold flower, the commercial source of lutein. The products were extracted with three solvents and separated on a C30 column. The separated esters were identified/confirmed with LC-MS in APCI+ve mode with the use of synthetic lutein esters. The total content of lutein esters substantially varied among marigold flowers (167-5752 μg/g), supplements (88,000-110,700 μg/g), and herbal teas (12.4-91.3 μg/g). Lutein supplement had a lutein profile similar to that of marigold flower, whereas herbal tea showed an extremely different profile. Lutein dipalmitate was the dominant compound in supplements and marigold flowers followed by lutein 3'-O-myristate-3-O-palmitate and lutein 3'-O-palmitate-3-O-myristate. Lutein was the major compound in marigold herbal tea with small amounts of lutein mono- and diesters. Differences in the concentration and composition of lutein compounds among marigold products could indicate distinct product quality and lutein bioavailability.

  13. Interaction of Carbamazepine with Herbs, Dietary Supplements, and Food: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is a first-line antiepileptic drug which may be prone to drug interactions. Systematic review of herb- and food-drug interactions on CBZ is warranted to provide guidance for medical professionals when prescribing CBZ. Method. A systematic review was conducted on six English databases and four Chinese databases. Results. 196 out of 3179 articles fulfilled inclusion criteria, of which 74 articles were reviewed and 33 herbal products/dietary supplement/food interacting with CBZ were identified. No fatal or severe interactions were documented. The majority of the interactions were pharmacokinetic-based (80%). Traditional Chinese medicine accounted for most of the interactions (n = 17), followed by food (n = 10), dietary supplements (n = 3), and other herbs/botanicals (n = 3). Coadministration of 11 and 12 of the studied herbal products/dietary supplement/food significantly decreased or increased the plasma concentrations of CBZ. Regarding pharmacodynamic interaction, Xiao-yao-san, melatonin, and alcohol increased the side effects of CBZ while caffeine lowered the antiepileptic efficacy of CBZ. Conclusion. This review provides a comprehensive summary of the documented interactions between CBZ and herbal products/food/dietary supplements which assists healthcare professionals to identify potential herb-drug and food-drug interactions, thereby preventing potential adverse events and improving patients' therapeutic outcomes when prescribing CBZ. PMID:24023584

  14. Soy-Based Multiple Amino Acid Oral Supplementation Increases the Anti-Sarcoma Effect of Cyclophosphamide

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chien-An; Chen, Chin-Chu; Wang, Nai-Phog; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The use of a mixture of amino acids caused a selective apoptosis induction against a variety of tumor cell lines, reduced the adverse effects of anti-cancer drugs and increased the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic agents. We evaluated the effects and underlying mechanisms of soy-derived multiple amino acids’ oral supplementation on the therapeutic efficacy of low-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) and on tumor growth, apoptosis, and autophagy in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice that were injected with sarcoma-180 (S-180) cells. 3-methyladenine or siRNA knockdown of Atg5 was used to evaluate its effect on sarcoma growth. A comparison of mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and oral saline and mice with implanted sarcoma cells, CTX, and an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement indicated that the soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement significantly decreased overall sarcoma growth, increased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase 3 expression, and apoptosis, and depressed LC3 II-mediated autophagy. Treatment with 3-methyladenine or Atg5 siRNA elicited similar responses as CTX plus soy-derived multiple amino acid in downregulating autophagy and upregulating apoptosis. A low dose of CTX combined with an oral soy-derived multiple amino acid supplement had a potent anti-tumor effect mediated through downregulation of autophagy and upregulation of apoptosis. PMID:27043621

  15. The estimation of mineral contents in oriental supplements consumed by elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hansang; Lee, Namju; Kim, Jongkyu

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: to examine macro (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus) and trace mineral (iron) concentration in oriental supplements (OS), and to define OS prevalence in elite athletes. Participants of this study were 928 varsity athletes (male: 680, female: 248) with 23 sports types. Recent 3-month dietary supplements (DS) and OS practice was surveyed during training period, and mineral concentration in 72 randomly collected OS samples were analyzed. DS use was 41% and OS use was 20% in university elite athletes. Most common OS use informants were parents (74%). OS intake reason was for health maintenance (37%), energy supplement (25%), and recovery improvement (15%). Moreover, health maintenance was higher in females (47%) than males (32%) while energy supplement was higher in males (28%) than females (18%) (χ(2)(8) = 17.676, p = 0.024). Beliefs in OS efficacy and importance were significantly higher in female athletes compared to male athletes (p < 0.05). Macro mineral concentration in OS was calcium (7.54 ppm), magnesium (4.63 ppm), and phosphorus (205.34 ppb) and trace mineral concentration in OS was iron (8.10 ppb), which was a small amount. An association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration in calcium, phosphorus, and iron was found, but no association between OS intake and magnesium. In conclusion, an association between OS intake reason and mineral concentration differed by the ingredients. Minerals in OS were very small amount, which would be improved for mineral balance in elite athletes.

  16. Clinical studies on chromium picolinate supplementation in diabetes mellitus--a review.

    PubMed

    Broadhurst, C Leigh; Domenico, Philip

    2006-12-01

    Chromium (Cr) picolinate (CrPic) is a widely used nutritional supplement for optimal insulin function. A relationship among Cr status, diabetes, and associated pathologies has been established. Virtually all trials using CrPic supplementation for subjects with diabetes have demonstrated beneficial effects. Thirteen of 15 clinical studies (including 11 randomized, controlled studies) involving a total of 1,690 subjects (1,505 in CrPic group) reported significant improvement in at least one outcome of glycemic control. All 15 studies showed salutary effects in at least one parameter of diabetes management, including dyslipidemia. Positive outcomes from CrPic supplementation included reduced blood glucose, insulin, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels and reduced requirements for hypoglycemic medication. The greater bioavailability of CrPic compared with other forms of Cr (e.g., niacin-bound Cr or CrCl(3)) may explain its comparatively superior efficacy in glycemic and lipidemic control. The pooled data from studies using CrPic supplementation for type 2 diabetes mellitus subjects show substantial reductions in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, which equate to a reduced risk for disease complications. Collectively, the data support the safety and therapeutic value of CrPic for the management of cholesterolemia and hyperglycemia in subjects with diabetes.

  17. Levels of Supplementation for Grazing Beef Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Ériton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

  18. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    and we have completed 9 subjects out of proposed 42 subjects for 3 years. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vitamin E deficiency in burn patients and...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn...NUMBER Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Enkhbaatar P, Sousse Linda

  19. Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0429 TITLE: Vitamin E Supplementation in Burn Patients PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Perenlei Enkhbaatar, MD., PhD...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Our recent findings demonstrate that burn injury significantly depleted stores of vitamin E in adipose tissue of children by nearly...oxidative stress. The objectives of our proposal were to a) attenuate alpha-tocopherol depletion in burn patients by vitamin E supplementation, b) to

  20. Vitamin D Supplements in the Indian Market

    PubMed Central

    Lhamo, Y.; Chugh, Preeta Kaur; Tripathi, C. D.

    2016-01-01

    It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5%) or alfacalcidiol (43%) as tablets (51.1%) and capsules (35.2%). Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large. PMID:27168680

  1. Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products.

  2. Idaho Supplementation Studies : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.; Plaster, Kurtis; Hassemer, Peter

    1996-12-01

    Idaho Supplementation Studies (ISS) will help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, in Idaho as part of a program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife affected by the development and operation of hydroelectric power plants on the Columbia River. The objectives are to: (1) monitor and evaluate the effects of supplementation on presmolt and smolt numbers and spawning escapements of naturally produced salmon; (2) monitor and evaluate changes in natural productivity and genetic composition of target and adjacent populations following supplementation; and (3) determine which supplementation strategies provide the quickest and highest response in natural production without adverse effects on productivity. Field work began in 1991 with the collection of baseline data from treatment and some control streams. Full implementation began in 1992 with baseline data collection on treatment and control streams and releases of supplementation fish into several treatment streams. Field methods included snorkeling to estimate chinook salmon parr populations, PIT tagging summer parr to estimate parr-to-smolt survival, multiple redd counts to estimate spawning escapement and collect carcass information. Screw traps were used to trap and PIT tag outmigrating chinook salmon during the spring and fall outmigration. Weirs were used to trap and enumerate returning adult salmon in select drainages.

  3. Vitamin D Supplements in the Indian Market.

    PubMed

    Lhamo, Y; Chugh, Preeta Kaur; Tripathi, C D

    2016-01-01

    It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5%) or alfacalcidiol (43%) as tablets (51.1%) and capsules (35.2%). Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large.

  4. Prospective study of the modified atkins diet in combination with a ketogenic liquid supplement during the initial month.

    PubMed

    Kossoff, Eric H; Dorward, Jennifer L; Turner, Zahava; Pyzik, Paula L

    2011-02-01

    The modified Atkins diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate treatment for intractable childhood epilepsy. As data suggest that a stricter diet onset can be more effective, we added a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month. Thirty children with intractable epilepsy were prospectively started on the modified Atkins diet in combination with a daily 400-calorie KetoCal shake. At 1 month, 24 (80%) children had >50% seizure reduction, of which 11 (37%) had >90% seizure reduction. There was no significant loss of efficacy during the second month after KetoCal was discontinued. The use of this ketogenic supplement increased daily fat intake and thus the ketogenic ratio (1.8:1 versus 1.0:1 in the modified Atkins diet alone, P = .0002), but did not change urinary or serum ketosis. The addition of a ketogenic supplement to the modified Atkins diet during its initial month appears to be beneficial.

  5. The data do not seem to support a benefit to BCAA supplementation during periods of caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Dieter, Brad P; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon; Aragon, Alan A

    2016-01-01

    J Int Soc Sports Nutr 13:1-015-0112-9, 2016 describe the efficacy of branched chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation and resistance training for maintaining lean body mass during a calorie-restricted diet, and claim that this occurs with concurrent losses in fat mass. However, the reported results appear to be at odds with the data presented on changes in fat mass. This letter discusses the issues with the paper.

  6. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Avigan, Mark I.; Mozersky, Robert P.; Seeff, Leonard B.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized. PMID:26950122

  7. Scientific and Regulatory Perspectives in Herbal and Dietary Supplement Associated Hepatotoxicity in the United States.

    PubMed

    Avigan, Mark I; Mozersky, Robert P; Seeff, Leonard B

    2016-03-03

    In the United States (US), the risk of hepatotoxicity linked to the widespread use of certain herbal products has gained increased attention among regulatory scientists. Based on current US law, all dietary supplements sold domestically, including botanical supplements, are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a special category of foods. Under this designation, regulatory scientists do not routinely evaluate the efficacy of these products prior to their marketing, despite the content variability and phytochemical complexity that often characterizes them. Nonetheless, there has been notable progress in the development of advanced scientific methods to qualitatively and quantitatively measure ingredients and screen for contaminants and adulterants in botanical products when hepatotoxicity is recognized.

  8.  Hepatotoxicity associated with dietary energy supplements: use and abuse by young athletes.

    PubMed

    Avelar-Escobar, Giovanni; Méndez-Navarro, Jorge; Ortiz-Olvera, Nayeli X; Castellanos, Guillermo; Ramos, Roberto; Gallardo-Cabrera, Víctor E; Vargas-Alemán, José de Jesús; Díaz de León, Oscar; Rodríguez, Elda V; Dehesa-Violante, Margarita

    2012-01-01

     In recent years there has been a significant increase in the consumption of dietary energy supplements (DES) associated with the parallel advertising against obesity and favoring high physical performance. We present the case and outcome of a young patient who developed acute mixed liver injury (hepatocellular and cholestatic) after ingestion of various "over the counter" products to increase muscle mass and physical performance (NO Xplode®, creatine, L-carnitine, and Growth Factor ATN®). The diagnosis was based on the exclusion of other diseases and liver biopsy findings. The dietary supplement and herbal multivitamins industry is one with the highest growth rates in the market, with annual revenues amounting to billions and constantly lacking scientific or reproducible evidence about the efficacy and/or safety of the offered products. Furthermore, and contrary to popular belief, different forms of injury associated with these natural substances have been documented particularly in the liver, supporting the need of a more strict regulation.

  9. NDA BATCH 2002-02

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-09

    QC sample results (daily background checks, 20-gram and 100-gram SGS drum checks) were within acceptable criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on 5 drums with IDs LL85101099TRU, LL85801147TRU, LL85801109TRU, LL85300999TRU and LL85500979TRU. All replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. Note that the batch covered 5 weeks of SGS measurements from 23-Jan-2002 through 22-Feb-2002. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-02 generated using gamma spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with established control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable. An Expert Review was performed on the data packet between 28-Feb-02 and 09-Jul-02 to check for potential U-235, Np-237 and Am-241 interferences and address drum cases where specific scan segments showed Se gamma ray transmissions for the 136-keV gamma to be below 0.1 %. Two drums in the batch showed Pu-238 at a relative mass ratio more than 2% of all the Pu isotopes.

  10. NDA Batch 2002-13

    SciTech Connect

    Hollister, R

    2009-09-17

    QC sample results (daily background check drum and 100-gram SGS check drum) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives for TRU Waste Characterization. Replicate runs were performed on drum LL85501243TRU. Replicate measurement results are identical at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria. HWM NCAR No. 02-1000168 issued on 17-Oct-2002 regarding a partially dislodged Cd sheet filter on the HPGe coaxial detector. This physical geometry occurred on 01-Oct-2002 and was not corrected until 10-Oct-2002, during which period is inclusive of the present batch run of drums. Per discussions among the Independent Technical Reviewer, Expert Reviewer and the Technical QA Supervisor, as well as in consultation with John Fleissner, Technical Point of Contact from Canberra, the analytical results are technically reliable. All QC standard runs during this period were in control. Data packet for SGS Batch 2002-13 generated using passive gamma-ray spectroscopy with the Pu Facility SGS unit is technically reasonable. All QC samples are in compliance with establiShed control limits. The batch data packet has been reviewed for correctness, completeness, consistency and compliance with WIPP's Quality Assurance Objectives and determined to be acceptable.

  11. NDA BATCH 2008-05

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2009-12-03

    QC sample results (daily background check drums and 100-gram standard) were within acceptance criteria established by WIPPs Quality Assurance objectives for TRU Waste characterization. Replicate run was performed on the following drums LL85234292 and LL85101617. Replicate measurement results are acceptable at the 95% confidence level as established by WIPP criteria.

  12. 28 CFR 91.64 - Supplemental EA or EIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental EA or EIS. 91.64 Section 91.64 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GRANTS FOR CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES... Supplemental EA or EIS. (a) OJP's duty to supplement. OJP shall prepare supplements to either...

  13. Reticence, Accuracy and Efficacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreskes, N.; Lewandowsky, S.

    2015-12-01

    James Hansen has cautioned the scientific community against "reticence," by which he means a reluctance to speak in public about the threat of climate change. This may contribute to social inaction, with the result that society fails to respond appropriately to threats that are well understood scientifically. Against this, others have warned against the dangers of "crying wolf," suggesting that reticence protects scientific credibility. We argue that both these positions are missing an important point: that reticence is not only a matter of style but also of substance. In previous work, Bysse et al. (2013) showed that scientific projections of key indicators of climate change have been skewed towards the low end of actual events, suggesting a bias in scientific work. More recently, we have shown that scientific efforts to be responsive to contrarian challenges have led scientists to adopt the terminology of a "pause" or "hiatus" in climate warming, despite the lack of evidence to support such a conclusion (Lewandowsky et al., 2015a. 2015b). In the former case, scientific conservatism has led to under-estimation of climate related changes. In the latter case, the use of misleading terminology has perpetuated scientific misunderstanding and hindered effective communication. Scientific communication should embody two equally important goals: 1) accuracy in communicating scientific information and 2) efficacy in expressing what that information means. Scientists should strive to be neither conservative nor adventurous but to be accurate, and to communicate that accurate information effectively.

  14. Use of silicon for skin and hair care: an approach of chemical forms available and efficacy*

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Lidiane Advincula; Addor, Flavia; Campos, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia

    2016-01-01

    Silicon is the second most abundant element on Earth, and the third most abundant trace element in human body. It is present in water, plant and animal sources. On the skin, it is suggested that silicon is important for optimal collagen synthesis and activation of hydroxylating enzymes, improving skin strength and elasticity. Regarding hair benefits, it was suggested that a higher silicon content in the hair results in a lower rate of hair loss and increased brightness. For these beneficial effects, there is growing interest in scientific studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of using dietary supplements containing silicon. Its use aims at increasing blood levels of this element and improving the skin and its annexes appearance. There are different forms of silicon supplements available and the most important consideration to be made in order to select the best option is related to safety and bioavailability. Silicon supplements are widely used, though there is wide variation in silicon bioavailability, ranging from values below 1% up to values close to 50%, depending on the chemical form. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific literature related to the different chemical forms of silicon supplements available and the limitations and recent progress in this field. According to reported studies, among the different chemical forms available, the orthosilicic acid (OSA) presents the higher bioavailability, whereas the others forms have absorption inversely proportional to the degree of polymerization. However, clinical studies evaluating safety and efficacy are still lacking. PMID:27438201

  15. Determinants of dietary supplements use among adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Sien, Yeo Pei; Sahril, Norhafizah; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta; Zaki, Nor Azian Mohd; Abdul Ghaffar, Suhaila

    2014-09-01

    Dietary supplements use is relatively widespread in some countries but knowledge of supplements consumption in Malaysia is limited, more so among adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the determinants of dietary supplements use among Malaysian adolescents using multiple logistic regressions analysis. Data from the Malaysia School-based Nutrition Survey 2012 based on a 2-stage stratified sampling was used. The prevalence of vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements intake among adolescents was 54.1% and 40.2%, respectively. Usage was significantly higher among younger adolescents and among boys. Dietary supplements were also taken mostly by those who thought they were underweight. The most common vitamin/mineral supplements and food supplements consumed were vitamin C and bee products. The main reason for taking supplements was parents' instruction. These findings can be useful for developing health communications on supplement use targeted to adolescents and their parents.

  16. Efficacy Study of a Pre-Algebra Supplemental Program in Rural Mississippi: Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Tedra F.; Arens, Sheila A.; Stewart, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Mastering mathematics is important for all students, not only because such success increases college and career options and prospects for future income, but also because mathematics literacy helps citizens and policy leaders to make sound judgments (NMAP, 2008). Research suggests that the rural achievement gap can be addressed with modifiable…

  17. Pro-inflammatory properties of shark cartilage supplement.

    PubMed

    Merly, Liza; Smith, Sylvia L

    2015-04-01

    The erosion and breakdown of cartilage is generally recognized to be an integral manifestation of arthritic disease, which is often accompanied by the development and progression of inflammation associated with it. Commercial shark cartilage (SC) is a popular dietary supplement taken for the prevention and/or control of chronic disease, including arthritis. The efficacy of SC in maintaining joint health remains questionable; there is a lack of sufficient reliable information on its effect on immunocompetent cells, and the potential health risks involved have not been adequately assessed. Our earlier in vitro studies showed that SC extracts induce a Th1-type inflammatory cytokine response in human leucocytes, and collagen type II alpha 1 protein was shown to be an active cytokine-inducing component in SC. In this study, we further define the cellular response to SC stimulation by classifying leucocytes into primary and secondary responders employing enriched leucocyte subpopulations. Inhibitors of specific signaling pathways were used to verify the functional effect of SC on specific pathway(s) utilized. Results indicate the monocyte/macrophage as the initially responding cell, followed by lymphocytes and the production of interferon-γ. Chemokines, MCP-1 and RANTES, were produced at significant levels in stimulated leucocyte cultures. Initial cellular activation is likely followed by activation of Jun Kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathways. This study presents evidence of significant immunological reactivity of components of commercial SC supplement, which could pose a potential health risk for consumers, particularly those with underlying inflammatory disease such as irritable bowel syndrome and arthritis.

  18. Risk assessment of dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Boobis, Alan R

    2007-01-01

    Risk assessment of dietary supplements shares many of the requirements of that for other chemicals, although there are some important differences. Amongst these is the essential nature of some nutrients so that it may be necessary to balance the need to minimize toxicological risk with the need to avoid deficiency. There may also be limitations on experimental design, in that high doses may not be achievable for nutritional reasons and available human data on toxicological hazard is likely to be very limited. Prior to embarking on a risk assessment the problem needs to be formulated. This involves risk assessors, risk managers and relevant stakeholders. A key decision is whether a risk assessment is necessary and, if so, what is required of the assessment. This will shape the nature and output of the assessment. Risk assessment itself is a scientific process comprising four steps, hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Hazard identification involves determining the range of toxicological effects that might be caused by the substance, whilst hazard characterization establishes dose-response relationships, toxicological and species relevance of the findings and establishes health based guidance values. Exposure assessment involves predicting or measuring the level, pattern and duration of intake of the substance by exposed individuals. This may require dietary consumption data. Finally, risk characterization is the process whereby all of the prior information is integrated to reach conclusions in a form appropriate to the question posed. The nature of the output can take several different forms, and may be qualitative or quantitative. There are some cross-cutting issues in risk assessment, primarily on uncertainty and variability. The sources of uncertainty at each step of the risk assessment should be clearly identified and quantified to the extent possible. Variability requires that the risk assessment should

  19. Botanical and Dietary Supplements for Menopausal Symptoms: What Works, What Doesn’t

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

    2006-01-01

    All women reach menopause and approximately two-thirds of women develop menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes. Hormone therapy long was considered the first line of treatment for vasomotor symptoms. However, given the results of the Women’s Health Initiative, many women are reluctant use exogenous hormones for symptomatic treatment and are turning to botanicals and dietary supplement (BDS) products for relief. Despite the fact that there is limited scientific evidence describing efficacy and long term safety of such products, many women find these “natural treatments” appealing. Peri- and postmenopausal women are amongst the highest users of these products, but 70% of women do not tell their health care providers about their use. Compounding this issue is the fact that few clinicians ask their patients about use of BDS, largely because they have not been exposed to alternative medical practices in their training and are unfamiliar with these products. This paper reviews the botanicals and dietary supplements commonly used in menopause, (such as black cohosh, red clover, soy products, among others) as well as the available data on efficacy and safety. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1966 to December 2004 using terms related to botanical and dietary supplements and menopausal symptoms for peri- or postmenopausal women. Abstracts from relevant meetings as well as reference books and websites on herbal supplements were also searched. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were used if available; open trials and comparison group studies were used when RCTs were not available. The evidence to date suggests that black cohosh is safe and effective for reducing menopausal symptoms, primarily hot flashes and possibly mood disorders. Phytoestrogen extracts, including soy foods and red clover appear to have at best only minimal effect on menopausal symptoms but have positive health effects on plasma lipid concentrations and may reduce heart disease. St. John

  20. Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID): Preliminary USDA studies on composition of adult multivitamin/mineral supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS), the National Center for Health Statistics, and other government agencies to design and populate a Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). This analytically based, publicly available database wi...

  1. 78 FR 11967 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Updated Trafficking Definition and Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... / Thursday, February 21, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 271, 273, and 281 RIN 0584-AD97 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP): Updated Trafficking Definition and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-- Food Distribution...

  2. Salmon Supplementation Studies in Idaho Rivers (Idaho Supplementation Studies) : Experimental Design, 1991 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, Edward C.; Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1991-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to help determine the utility of supplementation as a potential recovery tool for decimated stocks of spring and summer chinook salmon in Idaho. The goals are to assess the use of hatchery chinook to restore or augment natural populations, and to evaluate the effects of supplementation on the survival and fitness of existing natural populations.

  3. Obesity and hormonal contraceptive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Jennifer A; Burke, Anne E

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern affecting an increasing proportion of reproductive-aged women. Avoiding unintended pregnancy is of major importance, given the increased risks associated with pregnancy, but obesity may affect the efficacy of hormonal contraceptives by altering how these drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized or eliminated. Limited data suggest that long-acting, reversible contraceptives maintain excellent efficacy in obese women. Some studies demonstrating altered pharmacokinetic parameters and increased failure rates with combined oral contraceptives, the contraceptive patch and emergency contraceptive pills suggest decreased efficacy of these methods. It is unclear whether bariatric surgery affects hormonal contraceptive efficacy. Obese women should be offered the full range of contraceptive options, with counseling that balances the risks and benefits of each method, including the risk of unintended pregnancy.

  4. Analysis of commercial kidney stone probiotic supplements

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Melissa L.; Shaw, Karen J.; Jackson, Shelby B.; Daniel, Steven L.; Knight, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the levels of Oxalobacter formigenes in probiotic supplements marketed by ™PRO Lab, Ltd, Toronto, Canada, and capsules of Oxalo™ purchased from Sanzyme Ltd, Hyderabad, India, and to measure the ability of these preparations to degrade oxalate in vitro. METHODS Probiotic supplements and pure cultures of O. formigenes were cultured in a number of media containing oxalate. OD595 was used to measure bacterial growth and ion chromatography was used to measure loss of oxalate in culture media. O. formigenes specific and degenerate Lactobacillus primers to the oxalate decarboxylase gene (oxc) were used in PCR. RESULTS Incubating probiotic supplements in different media did not result in growth of oxalate-degrading organisms. PCR indicated the absence of organisms harboring the oxc gene. Culture and 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated the ™PRO Lab supplement contained viable Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (GenBank accession no. KJ095656.1), while Oxalo™ contained several Bacillus species and Lactobacillus plantarum. CONCLUSION The probiotic supplement sold over the internet by ™PRO Lab, Ltd and Sanzyme Ltd did not contain identifiable O. formigenes or viable oxalate-degrading organisms, and they are unlikely to be of benefit to calcium oxalate kidney stone patients. PMID:25733259

  5. Creatine and Caffeine: Considerations for Concurrent Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Eric T; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E

    2015-12-01

    Nutritional supplementation is a common practice among athletes, with creatine and caffeine among the most commonly used ergogenic aids. Hundreds of studies have investigated the ergogenic potential of creatine supplementation, with consistent improvements in strength and power reported for exercise bouts of short duration (≤ 30 s) and high intensity. Caffeine has been shown to improve endurance exercise performance, but results are mixed in the context of strength and sprint performance. Further, there is conflicting evidence from studies comparing the ergogenic effects of coffee and caffeine anhydrous supplementation. Previous research has identified independent mechanisms by which creatine and caffeine may improve strength and sprint performance, leading to the formulation of multi-ingredient supplements containing both ingredients. Although scarce, research has suggested that caffeine ingestion may blunt the ergogenic effect of creatine. While a pharmacokinetic interaction is unlikely, authors have suggested that this effect may be explained by opposing effects on muscle relaxation time or gastrointestinal side effects from simultaneous consumption. The current review aims to evaluate the ergogenic potential of creatine and caffeine in the context of high-intensity exercise. Research directly comparing coffee and caffeine anhydrous is discussed, along with previous studies evaluating the concurrent supplementation of creatine and caffeine.

  6. Vitamin supplementation benefits in master athletes.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien

    2014-03-01

    Master athletes are more than 35 years of age and continue to train as hard as their young counterparts despite the aging process. All life long, they are capable of accomplishing exceptional sporting performances. For these participants in endurance events, matching energy intake and expenditure is critical to maintain health and performance. The proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein must be optimized to provide enough calories to sustain the energy requirements of competition or training, and for recovery. In addition, endurance athletes must include adequate vitamins and minerals in their diets to maintain healthy immune function. Vitamins and minerals may be sufficient in the diets of endurance athletes, who have a high energy intake. This would make it unnecessary to use vitamin and mineral supplements. Furthermore, one major limitation for these athletes is the management of oxidative stress, which, when in excess, can be deleterious for the organism. For individuals exposed to oxidative stress, micronutritional supplementations rich in vitamins and minerals can be also an alternative strategy. Although these supplementations are increasingly used by master athletes, very few data are available on their effects on oxidative stress, muscle recovery, and physical performance. The potential benefits of supplement use in athletes are thus questionable. Some studies indicate no benefits, while others highlight potential negative side effects of vitamin supplementation. Additional studies are warranted in order to design adapted prescriptions in antioxidant vitamins and minerals.

  7. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. ); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. . Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

  8. Combined analysis of pharmacokinetic and efficacy data of preclinical studies with statins markedly improves translation of drug efficacy to human trials.

    PubMed

    van de Steeg, E; Kleemann, R; Jansen, H T; van Duyvenvoorde, W; Offerman, E H; Wortelboer, H M; Degroot, J

    2013-12-01

    Correct prediction of human pharmacokinetics (PK) and the safety and efficacy of novel compounds based on preclinical data, is essential but often fails. In the current study, we aimed to improve the predictive value of ApoE*3Leiden (E3L) transgenic mice regarding the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of various statins in humans by combining pharmacokinetic with efficacy data. The efficacy of five currently marketed statins (atorvastatin, simvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, and rosuvastatin) in hypercholesterolemic patients (low-density lipoprotein ≥ 160 mg/dl) was ranked based on meta-analysis of published human trials. Additionally, a preclinical combined PK efficacy data set for these five statins was established in E3L mice that were fed a high-cholesterol diet for 4 weeks, followed by 6 weeks of drug intervention in which statins were supplemented to the diet. Plasma and tissue levels of the statins were determined on administration of (radiolabeled) drugs (10 mg/kg p.o.). As expected, all statins reduced plasma cholesterol in the preclinical model, but a direct correlation between cholesterol lowering efficacy of the different statins in mice and in humans did not reach statistical significance (R(2) = 0.11, P < 0.57). It is noteworthy that, when murine data were corrected for effective liver uptake of the different statins, the correlation markedly increased (R(2) = 0.89, P < 0.05). Here we show for the first time that hepatic uptake of statins is related to their cholesterol-lowering efficacy and provide evidence that combined PK and efficacy studies can substantially improve the translational value of the E3L mouse model in the case of statin treatment. This strategy may also be applicable for other classes of drugs and other preclinical models.

  9. Timing of magnesium supplementation administered through drinking water to improve fresh and stored pork quality.

    PubMed

    Frederick, B R; van Heugten, E; See, M T

    2004-05-01

    was variable, supplementation for 2 d before slaughter was considered most efficacious because of the following: decreased fluid loss from the SM, and lower lipid oxidation formation in the LM during retail storage; a darker, more desirable LM color after 25 d of vacuum-packaged storage; and cost reductions compared with longer durations.

  10. Associations between intestinal mucosal function and changes in plasma zinc concentration following zinc supplementation1

    PubMed Central

    Wessells, K. Ryan; Hess, Sonja Y.; Rouamba, Noel; Ouédraogo, Zinewendé P.; Kellogg, Mark; Goto, Rie; Duggan, Christopher; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Subclinical environmental enteropathy is associated with malabsorption of fats, carbohydrates, and vitamins A, B12 and folate; however, little information is available on mineral absorption. We therefore investigated the relationship between intestinal mucosal function (measured by the lactulose:mannitol permeability test and plasma citrulline concentration), and zinc absorption, as estimated by the change in plasma zinc concentration (PZC) following short-term zinc or placebo supplementation. Methods We conducted a randomized, partially-masked, placebo-controlled trial among 282 apparently healthy children 6–23 mo of age in Burkina Faso. After completing baseline intestinal function tests, participants received either 5 mg zinc, as zinc sulfate, or placebo, daily for 21 d. Results At baseline, mean ± SD PZC was 62.9 ± 11.9 µg/dL; median (IQR) urinary lactulose:mannitol (L:M) recovery ratio and plasma citrulline concentration were 0.04 (0.03 – 0.07) and 11.4 (9.0 – 15.6) µmol/L, respectively. Change in PZC was significantly greater in the zinc supplemented versus placebo group (15.6 ± 13.3 µg/dL vs. 0.02 ± 10.9 µg/dL; P < 0.0001), and was negatively associated with initial urinary L:M recovery ratio (−1.1 µg/dL per 50% increase in urinary L:M recovery ratio; P = 0.014); this latter relationship did not differ between supplementation groups (P = 0.26). Baseline plasma citrulline concentration was not associated with change in PZC. Conclusions Although altered intestinal permeability may reduce dietary zinc absorption, it likely does not undermine the efficacy of zinc supplementation, given the large increases in PZC following short-term zinc supplementation observed in this study, even among those with increased urinary L:M recovery ratios. PMID:23689263

  11. A Review of Clinical Trials Conducted With Oral, Multicomponent Dietary Supplements for Improving Photoaged Skin.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Jay; Le Moigne, Anne; Dispensa, Lisa; Buchner, Larry

    2015-12-01

    Although the FDA does not require documentation of efficacy of dietary supplements, prospective clinical studies, including randomized controlled trials, have been conducted with individual micronutrients alone and in combination with other ingredients for promoting skin health. Proposed mechanisms include antioxidation, anti-inflammation, photoprotection, collagen formation, reductions in matrix metalloproteinases, and other effects on photoaging. Literature searches were conducted to identify clinical trials assessing multicomponent dietary supplement formulations on photoaging outcomes. Sixteen studies of various nutrient and non-nutrient ingredients, including essential micronutrients (vitamins, minerals), plant extracts (polyphenols, carotenoids), and marine- or animal-derived ingredients, were identified. Studies were single center, 2-12 months in duration, primarily enrolled women, and evaluated numerous outcomes, including investigator/subject assessments and instrumental/objective measures. Methods to control for potential confounders were implemented in some studies, including limiting sun exposure, cosmetic procedures, and changes in dietary habits/body weight. Given the range of different products, clinical/methodologic heterogeneity, insufficient detail in reporting, and lack of comparable outcome measures, quantitative analysis of results was not possible. Results of individual studies revealed significant improvements from baseline for the dietary supplement group(s) on ≥ 1 endpoint across all studies; significant differences from placebo were observed in 7 of 12 controlled studies (although only 1 study designated a prospectively defined primary endpoint). Most products had only been tested in 1 study; confirmatory studies were rarely conducted per the publicly available literature. Meaningful assessment of dietary supplements, which typically contain nutrients found in the diet, requires unique methodologic considerations and endpoints

  12. Nutrigenomic Analysis of Diet-Gene Interactions on Functional Supplements for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Francis C; Bagchi, Manashi; Sen, Chandan; Roy, Sashwati; Bagchi, Debasis

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology combined with the wealth of information generated by the Human Genome Project have fostered the emergence of nutrigenomics, a new discipline in the field of nutritional research. Nutrigenomics may provide the strategies for the development of safe and effective dietary interventions against the obesity epidemic. According to the World Health Organization, more than 60% of the global disease burden will be attributed to chronic disorders associated with obesity by 2020. Meanwhile in the US, the prevalence of obesity has doubled in adults and tripled in children during the past three decades. In this regard, a number of natural dietary supplements and micronutrients have been studied for their potential in weight management. Among these supplements, (–)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract isolated from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, and the micronutrient niacin-bound chromium(III) (NBC) have been shown to be safe and efficacious for weight loss. Utilizing cDNA microarrays, we demonstrated for the first time that HCA-supplementation altered the expression of genes involved in lipolytic and adipogenic pathways in adipocytes from obese women and up-regulated the expression of serotonin receptor gene in the abdominal fat of rats. Similarly, we showed that NBC-supplementation up-regulated the expression of myogenic genes while suppressed the expression of genes that are highly expressed in brown adipose tissue in diabetic obese mice. The potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed beneficial effects of these supplements as elucidated by the state-of-the-art nutrigenomic technologies will be systematically discussed in this review. PMID:19452041

  13. Cognitive effects of creatine ethyl ester supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jonathan; Kritikos, Minos; Tiplady, Brian

    2009-12-01

    Supplementation with creatine-based substances as a means of enhancing athletic performance has become widespread. Until recently, however, the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive performance has been given little attention. This study used a new form of creatine--creatine ethyl ester--to investigate whether supplementation would improve performance in five cognitive tasks, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Creatine dosing led to an improvement over the placebo condition on several measures. Although creatine seems to facilitate cognition on some tasks, these results require replication using objective measures of compliance. The improvement is discussed in the context of research examining the influence of brain energy capacity on cognitive performance.

  14. Dietary supplement intake in national-level Sri Lankan athletes.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Angela; Samarasinghe, Yasas; Senanayake, Dhammika; Lanerolle, Pulani

    2010-02-01

    Intake of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in developed countries. This study evaluated the use of dietary supplements in athletes from a developing country. Dietary supplementation practices of 113 national-level athletes age 15-35 yr in Sri Lanka were assessed. All athletes from track-and-field, badminton, football, swimming, cycling, and karate squads who consented to participate in the study were administered an anonymous questionnaire by an interviewer. Information on number of supplements taken, frequency of use, nature of product, rationale, sources of advice, and reasons for taking supplements was obtained. Most athletes (94%) consumed dietary supplements. On average, 3.7 products/day were consumed. Footballers had significantly lower intake of supplements than other athletes (footballers 71%, others 98%; p < .05). They also consumed fewer products per day (footballers 0.7, others 3.5; p < .05). Popular supplements included multivitamins, vitamin E, calcium, energy foods and drinks, and creatine. Multiple supplement use was common, with 29% athletes taking 4 products/day. The athletes sought advice on supplement use from sports doctors (45%), team coaches (40%), or friends (15%). Most took supplements to improve performance (79%), and 19% claimed to take supplements to improve their overall health status. Dietary supplement use is widespread among national-level Sri Lankan athletes. The ad hoc use of supplements indicates that educational intervention in the sporting community is essential.

  15. Evaluation of Herbal and Dietary Supplement Resource Term Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Nivedha; Adam, Terrance J.; Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Melton, Genevieve B.; Zhang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular in places like North America and Europe where western medicine is primarily practiced. People are consuming herbal and dietary supplements along with western medications simultaneously. Sometimes, supplements and drugs react with one another via antagonistic or potentiation actions of the drug or supplement resulting in an adverse event. Unfortunately, it is not easy to study drug-supplement interactions without a standard terminology to describe herbal and dietary supplements. This pilot study investigated coverage of supplement databases to one another as well as coverage by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and RxNorm for supplement terms. We found that none of the supplement databases completely covers supplement terms. UMLS, MeSH, SNOMED CT, RxNorm and NDF-RT cover 54%, 40%, 32%, 22% and 14% of supplement concepts, respectively. NDF-RT provides some value for grouping supplements into drug classes. Enhancing our understanding of the gap between the traditional biomedical terminology systems and supplement terms could lead to the development of a comprehensive terminology resources for supplements, and other secondary uses such as better detection and extraction of drug-supplement interactions. PMID:26262159

  16. Lipid-based nutrient supplements and linear growth in children under 2 years: a review.

    PubMed

    Matsungo, Tonderayi M; Kruger, Herculina S; Smuts, Cornelius M; Faber, Mieke

    2017-03-13

    The prevalence of stunting remains high in low- and middle-income countries despite adoption of comprehensive nutrition interventions, particularly in low-income countries. In the present paper, we review current evidence on the acceptability and efficacy of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on preventing stunting in children under 2 years, discuss the factors that affect their efficacy, highlight the implications of the current findings at pragmatic level and identify research priorities. Although the present paper is not a generic systematic review, we used a systematic approach to select relevant literature. The review showed that there is growing interest in the potential benefits of using SQ-LNS to prevent growth faltering. Acceptability studies showed that SQ-LNS are generally well accepted. However, results on the efficacy of SQ-LNS on improving linear growth or preventing growth faltering in infants and young children are still inconclusive. Factors that may affect efficacy include the duration of the trial, composition and dosage of SQ-LNS given, and baseline demographics and nutritional status of research participants. Future research should focus on controlled and long-term follow-up trials to obtain more conclusive results. In the long term, there will be need for studies to investigate how provision of SQ-LNS can be integrated with existing strategies to prevent stunting in low- and middle-income settings.

  17. Effectiveness of a breastfeeding self-efficacy intervention: do hospital practices make a difference?

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Keiko; Taguri, Masataka; Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Wakutani, Kiriko; Awano, Masayo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Jimba, Masamine

    2014-01-01

    Breastfeeding self-efficacy interventions are important for improving breastfeeding outcomes. However, the circumstances that may influence the effectiveness of the interventions are unclear, especially in the context of hospitals with suboptimal infant feeding practices. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a self-efficacy intervention on breastfeeding self-efficacy and exclusive breastfeeding, and further assessed the difference in its effect by hospital-routine type. In this intervention study with a control group, 781 pregnant women were recruited from 2 "Baby-Friendly"-certified hospitals (BFH) and 2 non-Baby-Friendly Hospitals (nBFH) in Japan, and were allocated to an intervention or control group. Participants in the intervention group were provided with a breastfeeding self-efficacy workbook in their third trimester. The primary outcome was breastfeeding self-efficacy and the secondary outcome was infant feeding status. All analyses were stratified by the type of hospital, BFH or nBFH. In BFHs, the intervention improved both breastfeeding self-efficacy through 4 weeks postpartum (p = 0.037) and the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 4 weeks postpartum (AOR 2.32, 95 % CI 1.01-5.33). In nBFHs, however, no positive effect was observed on breastfeeding self-efficacy (p =  0.982) or on the exclusive breastfeeding rate at 4 weeks postpartum (AOR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.52-1.81); in nBFHs, supplementation was provided for breastfed infants and the mother and infant were separated in the vast majority of cases. Infant feeding status at 12 weeks was not improved in either hospital type. The intervention improved breastfeeding self-efficacy and exclusive breastfeeding at 4 weeks postpartum only in BFHs. When breastfeeding self-efficacy interventions are implemented, hospital infant feeding practices may need to be optimized beforehand.

  18. Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, James; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Dela Peña, Ike

    2016-01-01

    Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a "safer" approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments.

  19. Natural Product-Derived Treatments for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Safety, Efficacy, and Therapeutic Potential of Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, James; Ahn, Hyung Seok; Cheong, Jae Hoon; dela Peña, Ike

    2016-01-01

    Typical treatment plans for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) utilize nonpharmacological (behavioral/psychosocial) and/or pharmacological interventions. Limited accessibility to behavioral therapies and concerns over adverse effects of pharmacological treatments prompted research for alternative ADHD therapies such as natural product-derived treatments and nutritional supplements. In this study, we reviewed the herbal preparations and nutritional supplements evaluated in clinical studies as potential ADHD treatments and discussed their performance with regard to safety and efficacy in clinical trials. We also discussed some evidence suggesting that adjunct treatment of these agents (with another botanical agent or pharmacological ADHD treatments) may be a promising approach to treat ADHD. The analysis indicated mixed findings with regard to efficacy of natural product-derived ADHD interventions. Nevertheless, these treatments were considered as a “safer” approach than conventional ADHD medications. More comprehensive and appropriately controlled clinical studies are required to fully ascertain efficacy and safety of natural product-derived ADHD treatments. Studies that replicate encouraging findings on the efficacy of combining botanical agents and nutritional supplements with other natural product-derived therapies and widely used ADHD medications are also warranted. In conclusion, the risk-benefit balance of natural product-derived ADHD treatments should be carefully monitored when used as standalone treatment or when combined with other conventional ADHD treatments. PMID:26966583

  20. Multivitamin supplements for pregnant women. New insights.

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Eric; Nava-Ocampo, Alejandro A.; Koren, Gideon

    2004-01-01

    QUESTION: One of my patients is planning pregnancy and has started taking multivitamin supplements. She is experiencing gastric discomfort. What are the alternatives? ANSWER: Gastric discomfort is usually related to iron intake; pregnant women could use supplements with less iron. Pregnant women need 0.4 to 1.0 mg of folic acid daily. If they have a family history of neural tube defects (NTDs), insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, or epilepsy, or are currently taking valproic acid, carbamazepine, or antifolates (eg, sulfonamides), they are at intermediate-to-high risk of having babies with NTDs and need 4.0 to 5.0 mg of folic acid daily. PMID:15171671

  1. Supplemented vaccination with tandem repeat M2e virus-like particles enhances protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses in chickens.

    PubMed

    Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Suk Chan; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2016-01-27

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses derived from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 have been continuously circulating globally, severely affecting the public health and poultry industries. The matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a universal cross-protective influenza vaccine that provides more effective control over HPAI H5 viruses harboring variant hemagglutinin (HA)-antigens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e presented on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) either alone or as a supplement against HPAI H5 viruses in a chicken model. Chickens immunized with M2e5x VLPs alone induced M2e-specific antibodies but were not protected against HPAI H5. The homo- and cross-protective efficacy of M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination of chickens was also examined. Importantly, supplementation with M2e5x VLPs induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific for M2e and different viruses as well as provided improved protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses. Considering the limited efficacy of inactivated vaccines, supplement vaccination with M2e5x VLPs may be an effective measure for preventing outbreaks of HPAI viruses that have the ability to constantly change their antigenic properties in poultry.

  2. Supplemented vaccination with tandem repeat M2e virus-like particles enhances protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Suk Chan; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Youn-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses derived from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 have been continuously circulating globally, severely affecting the public health and poultry industries. The matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a universal cross-protective influenza vaccine that provides more effective control over HPAI H5 viruses harboring variant hemagglutinin (HA)-antigens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e presented on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) either alone or as a supplement against HPAI H5 viruses in a chicken model. Chickens immunized with M2e5x VLPs alone induced M2e-specific antibodies but were not protected against HPAI H5. The homo- and cross-protective efficacy of M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination of chickens was also examined. Importantly, supplementation with M2e5x VLPs induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific for M2e and different viruses as well as provided improved protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses. Considering the limited efficacy of inactivated vaccines, supplement vaccination with M2e5x VLPs may be an effective measure for preventing outbreaks of HPAI viruses that have the ability to constantly change their antigenic properties in poultry. PMID:26691568

  3. Quality assurance issues in the use of dietary supplements, with special reference to protein supplements.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Ronald J

    2013-11-01

    The use of dietary supplements is widespread in the general population, in athletes and recreational exercisers, and in military personnel. A wide array of supplements is available, but protein-containing products are consistently among the most popular, especially among those who engage in resistance training. There are significant risks associated with the use of unregulated dietary supplements. Risks include the absence of active ingredients, the presence of harmful substances (including microbiological agents and foreign objects), the presence of toxic agents, and the presence of potentially dangerous prescription-only pharmaceuticals. There is ample evidence of athletes who have failed doping tests because of the use of dietary supplements. There is also growing evidence of risks to health and of serious adverse events, including a small number of fatalities, as a result of supplement use. The risk associated with the use of protein powders produced by major manufacturers is probably low, and the risk can be further reduced by using only products that have been tested under one of the recognized supplement quality assurance programs that operate in various countries. Nevertheless, a small risk remains, and athletes, soldiers, and other consumers should conduct a cost-benefit analysis before using any dietary supplements.

  4. From biological to program efficacy: promoting dialogue among the research, policy, and program communities.

    PubMed

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most.

  5. From Biological to Program Efficacy: Promoting Dialogue among the Research, Policy, and Program Communities12

    PubMed Central

    Habicht, Jean-Pierre; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2014-01-01

    The biological efficacy of nutritional supplements to complement usual diets in poor populations is well established. This knowledge rests on decades of methodologic research development and, more recently, on codification of methods to compile and interpret results across studies. The challenge now is to develop implementation (delivery) science knowledge and achieve a similar consensus on efficacy criteria for the delivery of these nutrients by public health and other organizations. This requires analysis of the major policy instruments for delivery and well-designed program delivery studies that examine the flow of a nutrient through a program impact pathway. This article discusses the differences between biological and program efficacy, and why elucidating the fidelity of delivery along the program impact pathways is essential for implementing a program efficacy trial and for assessing its internal and external validity. Research on program efficacy is expanding, but there is a lack of adequate frameworks to facilitate the process of harmonizing concepts and vocabulary, which is essential for communication among scientists, policy planners, and program implementers. There is an urgent need to elaborate these frameworks at national and program levels not only for program efficacy studies but also for the broader research agenda to support and improve the science of delivering adequate nutrition to those who need it most. PMID:24425719

  6. [Nutritional supplementation in children and adolescents practicing fencing].

    PubMed

    Chalcarz, Wojciech; Radzimirska-Graczyk, Monika

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of nutritional supplementation during the days of training and the days free of training in children and adolescents who attend sports schools, Questionnaires on the use of nutritional supplementation were filled in by 141 children and adolescents who practice fencing. The factor gender-age had statistically significant impact only on using mineral supplementation by the studied students. Using ergogenic aids as well as using vitamin and mineral supplements or other kind of supplementation was rare in the studied population, but was more frequent during the days of training. Nutritional supplementation was always used by higher percentage of boys than girls.

  7. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs. PMID:27070596

  8. Bioavailability of different dietary supplemental methionine sources in animals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuai; Wong, Eric A; Gilbert, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Dietary methionine is indispensable for animal maintenance, growth and development. L-methionine (L-Met), and its synthetic forms DL-methionine (DL-Met) and 2-hydroxy-4 (methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) are common supplemental methionine sources in animal diets. There are different characteristics for cellular absorption, transport, metabolism and bio-efficiency between these three dietary methionine sources. Moreover, there are differences in their utilization among various species such as chickens, pigs and ruminants. As a methionine precursor, HMTBA is efficacious in the promotion of growth in animals. It is absorbed mainly by monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1), coupled with the activity of the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), while DL-Met uptake occurs via multiple carrier-mediated systems. Liver, kidney and small intestine can metabolize D-Met and HMTBA to L-Met through oxidation and transamination. In ruminants, the non-hepatic tissues act as major sites of HMTBA conversion, which are different from that in chickens and pigs. HMTBA also has additional benefits in anti-oxidation. Understanding the characteristics of uptake and metabolism of different methionine sources will greatly benefit the industry and bioscience research.

  9. [Supplement of Dongyuan acupuncture-moxibustion therapy and clinical records].

    PubMed

    Jia, Yunfang; Hou, Xianning; Zhang, Xuaoping; Xing, Haijiao; Zhang, Xin; Du, Yuzhu; Jia, Chunsheng

    2016-02-01

    Professor JIA Chunsheng believes that "Dongyuan's acupuncture therapy" proposed by GAO Wu could not entirely reflect LI Dongyuan's academic thought of acupuncture and moxibustion. Hence, we collected all of the academic works of LI Dongyuan and extracted the texts relevant with acupuncture-moxibustion therapy, titled as Dongyuan's acupuncture-moxibustion therapy. This process contributed to the deeper study on Dongyuan's acupuncture and moxibustion academic thought. By the influence of Dongyuan's acupuncture-moxibustion academic thought, in association with his clinical experience for dozens of years, Professor JIA Chunsheng proposed that acupuncture and moxibustion should pay attention to the regulation and tonification of spleen and kidney. In clinical practice, Zhongwan (CV 12), bilateral Tianshu (ST 25), Qihai (CV 6) and Guanyuan (CV 4) are commonly selected to consolidate the root, cultivate the primary and treat the spleen and kidney simultaneously. The locations of the above selected points are distributed like a star. This "star-like point selection method" points to the importance of the spleen and kidney (the primary qi). For many diseases, especially the disorders of internal injury, the star-like acupuncture therapy is commonly used and the relevant acupoints are supplemented. The good clinical efficacy has been achieved.

  10. Potential for amino acids supplementation during inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Coëffier, Moïse; Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Déchelotte, Pierre

    2010-03-01

    The pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is multifactorial and involves interactions of gut luminal content with mucosal barrier and especially immune cells. Malnutrition is a frequent issue during IBD flares, especially in Crohn's disease (CD) patients, and nutritional support is frequently used to treat malnutrition but also in an attempt to modulate intestinal inflammation. The use of oral or enteral nutrition intervention in IBDs may be effective, alone or in combination with drugs, to achieve and maintain remission. However, standard diets are less effective than new-generation biotherapies and could be improved by supplementation with specific immunomodulatory amino acids. Experimental studies evaluating glutamine, the preferential substrate for enterocytes, are promising. Some clinical studies with oral glutamine in CD are until now disappointing, but new formulations and targeting could enhance glutamine efficacy at the site of mucosal lesions. The role of arginine, involved in nitric oxide and polyamines synthesis, still remains debated. However, the effects of these amino acids in IBD have been poorly documented in humans. Other candidates like glycine, cysteine, histidine, or taurine should also be evaluated in the future.

  11. Hepatotoxicity by Dietary Supplements: A Tabular Listing and Clinical Characteristics.

    PubMed

    García-Cortés, Miren; Robles-Díaz, Mercedes; Ortega-Alonso, Aida; Medina-Caliz, Inmaculada; Andrade, Raul J

    2016-04-09

    Dietary supplements (DS) are extensively consumed worldwide despite unproven efficacy. The true incidence of DS-induced liver injury (DSILI) is unknown but is probably under-diagnosed due to the general belief of safety of these products. Reported cases of herbals and DS-induced liver injury are increasing worldwide. The aim of this manuscript is to report a tabular listing with a description of DS associated with hepatotoxicity as well as review the phenotype and severity of DSILI. Natural remedies related to hepatotoxicity can be divided into herbal product-induced liver injury and DS-induced liver injury. In this article, we describe different DS associated with liver injury, some of them manufactured DS containing several ingredients (Herbalife™ products, Hydroxycut™, LipoKinetix™, UCP-1 and OxyELITE™) while others have a single ingredient (green tea extract, linoleic acid, usnic acid, 1,3-Dimethylamylamine, vitamin A, Garcinia cambogia and ma huang). Additional DS containing some of the aforementioned ingredients implicated in liver injury are also covered. We have also included illicit androgenic anabolic steroids for bodybuilding in this work, as they are frequently sold under the denomination of DS despite being conventional drugs.

  12. Randomised placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis for prevention of severe anaemia and malaria in Tanzanian infants.

    PubMed

    Menendez, C; Kahigwa, E; Hirt, R; Vounatsou, P; Aponte, J J; Font, F; Acosta, C J; Schellenberg, D M; Galindo, C M; Kimario, J; Urassa, H; Brabin, B; Smith, T A; Kitua, A Y; Tanner, M; Alonso, P L

    1997-09-20

    The impact of iron supplementation and malaria chemoprophylaxis was investigated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study involving 832 infants born in a malaria-hyperendemic area of Tanzania in 1995. Infants were randomly assigned to receive daily oral iron (2 mg/kg) and weekly Deltaprim (3-125 mg pyrimethamine plus 25 mg dapsone), daily iron plus weekly placebo, or daily and weekly placebo. Daily supplementation was provided from 8 to 24 weeks of age, while weekly chemoprophylaxis was given from 8 to 48 weeks. The 2 groups that received iron supplementation had a lower frequency of severe anemia (packed cell volume under 25%) than those who received placebo (0.62 versus 0.87 cases per person-year; protective efficacy, 28.8%), but iron supplementation did not have a significant effect on malaria incidence (0.87 versus 1.00 cases per person-year; protective efficacy, 12.8%). Infants who received malaria prophylaxis had lower frequencies of both severe anemia (0.45 versus 1.04 episodes per person-year; protective efficacy, 57.3%) and malaria (0.53 versus 1.43 episodes per person-year; protective efficacy, 60.5%) than those who received placebo. However, after the end of the intervention period, children who had received malaria prophylaxis had higher rates of severe anemia and malaria than those in the non-chemoprophylaxis groups (relative risks, 2.2 and 1.8, respectively). These findings indicate that malaria chemoprophylaxis during the first year of life can impair the development of natural immunity, while iron supplementation effectively prevents severe anemia without increasing susceptibility to malaria.

  13. Clinical effects of an oral supplement rich in antioxidants on skin radiance in women

    PubMed Central

    Dumoulin, Marion; Gaudout, David; Lemaire, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental factors impact the skin aging resulting in decrease of skin radiance. Nutrition and particularly antioxidants could help to fight against skin degradation. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an oral supplement rich in specific antioxidants, SkinAx2TM, on the improvement of the skin radiance in women. Methods The open-label clinical study enrolled 35 women, aged 40–70, with facial dull complexion. Subjects were supplemented orally with a daily dosage of 150 mg of an antioxidant-rich formulation containing superoxide dismutase-rich melon concentrate, grape seed extract rich in monomers of flavanols, vitamin C, and zinc for 8 weeks. Each subject served as her own control. The C.L.B.T.™ test has been used to evaluate facial skin coloring (C), luminosity (L), brightness (B), and transparency (T) involved in skin radiance. Facial skin imperfections have been assessed by clinical assessment. Firmness has been evaluated by clinical assessment and cutometer measurement. Finally, an auto-questionnaire has been carried out in order to evaluate the satisfaction of the subjects concerning different parameters involved in skin radiance and the global efficacy of the supplement. Results Skin “red pink” and “olive” colors were significantly improved after supplementation (P<0.0001). Luminosity was increased by 25.9% (P<0.0001) whereas brightness and transparency were not affected by the supplementation. Facial skin imperfections were significantly reduced after the antioxidant-rich formulation intake (global reduction: −18.0%; P<0.0001). Indeed, dark circles, redness, and spots significantly diminished after oral treatment. Firmness and elasticity have been shown to be improved. Subjects were globally satisfied by the product (82.4%) and have found improvements on their facial skin. Furthermore, 64.7% reported to look better at the end of the supplementation. Conclusion The oral supplement containing the

  14. Dietary supplements usage among elderly Taiwanese during 2005-2008.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Ying; Lin, Jia-Rong; Chen, Tzu-Hsiu; Guo, Shiou-Guei; Kao, Mei-Ding; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2011-01-01

    This study describes dietary supplement consumption practices among the Taiwanese population over the age of 65. Data for the analyses were derived from the 2005-2008 Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan. Data from a total of 914 participants (456 men and 458 women) was collected in the study to delineate patterns of supplement usage. The results indicated that the percentage of individuals taking supplements was 45.7% for men and 52.2% for women. There were no significant differences in supplement use by gender, age group, geographic stratum, current employment status, household monthly income, self-reported health status or marital status, except for higher education and adequate perceived financial resources. Half of both men and women chose to take only one supplement. In addition, as the number of supplements taken increased, the number of people decreased. The elderly with higher education levels were more likely to take two kinds of supplements. The top five supplements consumed from highest to lowest were: glucosamine, multivitamins and minerals, calcium, fish oil and vitamin B complex. The major reason for supplements use for men was to supplement an unbalanced diet, and that for women was to prevent joint degeneration. The main factor influencing choice of supplements in the elderly was receiving the supplement as a gift from another person. Note that mean intakes of vitamins A, C, E, B-1, B-2, B-6, B-12, biotin, niacin, and pantothenic acid from supplements over-exceeded DRIs in Taiwan.

  15. [Food supplements : Legal requirements, borderline issues and other aspects].

    PubMed

    Noble, Pia

    2017-03-01

    Food supplements are classified as foods. They are concentrated sources of vitamins and minerals or other substances with a nutritional or physiological effect. Their purpose is to supplement the normal diet. Food supplements have to comply with the applicable legal provisions of the food law. In order to ensure the health protection of consumers, food supplements that will be put on the market must be safe. For food supplements, regulations exist at the EU level as well as at the national level. Specific requirements are regulated in the Ordinance on Food Supplements, with which the European Directive on Food Supplements was transposed into German law. The European and German legal provisions applicable to food supplements are outlined. Important aspects regarding the delimitation between food supplements and medicinal products are addressed. These borderline issues are of special importance to food supplements which are marketed in dose forms such as capsules, tablets etc., the typical forms of medicinal products. Problems resulting from the lack of harmonized rules are described. The European harmonization of the rules is still incomplete for substances with a nutritional or physiological effect other than vitamins and minerals for use in food supplements. The setting of maximum amounts of vitamins and minerals present in food supplements as envisaged in the Directive on Food Supplements has not yet been implemented.

  16. Intermittent iron supplementation for improving nutrition and development in children under 12 years of age

    PubMed Central

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Jefferds, Maria Elena D; Sylvetsky, Allison C; Dowswell, Therese

    2015-01-01

    type of intermittent supplementation regimen (one, two or three times a week), the total weekly dose of elemental iron, the nutrient composition, whether recipients were male or female or the length of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Intermittent iron supplementation is efficacious to improve haemoglobin concentrations and reduce the risk of having anaemia or iron deficiency in children younger than 12 years of age when compared with a placebo or no intervention, but it is less effective than daily supplementation to prevent or control anaemia. Intermittent supplementation may be a viable public health intervention in settings where daily supplementation has failed or has not been implemented. Information on mortality, morbidity, developmental outcomes and side effects, however, is still lacking. PMID:22161444

  17. An open label study on the supplementation of Gymnema sylvestre in type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Smriti Nanda; Mani, Uliyar Vitaldas; Mani, Indirani

    2010-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, and associated with long-term damage and dysfunction of various organs. Management of diabetes is therefore vital and involves maintaining euglycemia as much as possible by reducing blood glucose and by increasing insulin sensitivity and peripheral glucose uptake. Ayurveda has promoted the management of diabetes by regulating carbohydrate metabolism using several medicinal herbs, one of which is Gymnema sylvestre (GS). GS has been used in parts of India as a hypoglycemic agent and the results have been encouraging. Accordingly, we planned a quasi-experimental study to investigate the efficacy of the herb among type 2 diabetics. Patients enrolled from free-living population were purposively assigned to experimental or control groups, based on their willingness to participate in the study. The experimental group was supplemented with 500 mg of the herb per day for a period of 3 months, and the efficacy of the herb was assessed through a battery of clinical and biochemical tests. Supplementation of the diet with GS reduced polyphagia, fatigue, blood glucose (fasting and post-prandial), and glycated hemoglobin and there was a favorable shift in lipid profiles and in other clinico-biochemical tests. These findings suggest a beneficial effect of GS in the management of diabetes mellitus.

  18. Herbs and natural supplements in the prevention and treatment of delayed-onset muscle soreness

    PubMed Central

    Meamarbashi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Unaccustomed and intense eccentric exercise is a common cause of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). There are multiple remedies for the treatment of DOMS, but its clinical and laboratory pieces of evidence are scarce. Currently, the treatments proposed for DOMS are numerous and include pharmaceuticals, herbal remedies, stretching, massage, nutritional supplements, and other alternatives. To find a holistic treatment with effective pain relief and minimum side effects, complementary and alternative medicine, including herbal therapies, plays a main role. Methods: In this review, the existing published studies investigating the efficacy of herbal and natural supplementation therapies for the prevention or treatment of side effects, symptoms, and signs of DOMS are summarized. Results: Previous studies have documented the efficacy of herbal therapies to treat pain, inflammation, as well as laboratory and clinical side effects of DOMS. Conclusion: The use of herbs in DOMS seems safer and has lower side effects than pharmacotherapy. However, the potential for side effects and drug interactions should be considered. PMID:28265543

  19. Reduction of behavioural disturbances in elderly dogs supplemented with a standardised Ginkgo leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Reichling, J; Frater-Schröder, M; Herzog, K; Bucher, S; Saller, R

    2006-05-01

    In this open clinical trial conducted in 10 veterinary practices, Ginkgo leaf extract was administered as a dietary supplement to 42 elderly dogs (mean age 11.4 years) at a daily dose of 40 mg/ 10 kg body weight for 8 weeks. The "severity of the geriatric condition" in dogs with a history of geriatric behavioural disturbances (mean duration 12 months), was significantly reduced after 8 weeks of treatment (P = 0.0002). The positive effect was already apparent after 4 weeks. Thirty-six % of the dogs were completely free of clinical signs at study end. Overall efficacy of treatment as judged by the investigator was good or very good in 79% of the dogs. Five of six clinical sign scores (disorientation, sleep/activity changes, behavioural changes, general behaviour and general physical condition/vitality) also showed a significant decrease over the treatment period. In conclusion, these findings provide promising results that could increase the quality of life in the elderly dog and, as a consequence, that of the pet owner. The Ginkgo leaf extract appears to be an efficacious agent that provides a safe dietary supplement for the elderly dog with age-related behavioural disturbances.

  20. Supplemental Instruction Improves Grades but Not Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oja, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is a growing student support service used to offer students peer-guided activities to improve course learning. The current research was conducted to answer two research questions: 1) Do those who participate in SI perform better in their courses than those who do not attend SI? 2) Are those who participate in SI more…

  1. Supplemental Instruction: Whom Does It Serve?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malm, Joakim; Bryngfors, Leif; Morner, Lise-Lotte

    2011-01-01

    Supplemental Instruction (SI) is today a well-known academic assistance program that provides help for students in "difficult" courses. SI has repeatedly been shown to decrease the percentage of failures in the course as well as increasing course grades for students who attended SI sessions. Although SI is open for all students, its main objective…

  2. Faculty Consulting and Supplemental Income. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Carol M.; Lewis, Darrell R.

    Although consulting has long been recognized as a legitimate faculty role in most colleges, concern has arisen about the appropriateness of "double dipping," and particularly whether consulting and other supplemental income activities result in shirking other university responsibilities. The debate centers on six basic issues: who…

  3. Herbal Supplements: Considerations for the Athletic Trainer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winterstein, Andrew P.; Storrs, Cordial M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines common herbal supplements, exploring potential risks associated with herbal use and providing recommendations to athletic trainers regarding patient care issues. Data from searches of the MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, CINAHL, and Academic Search Elite databases indicate that athletes must understand that natural does not equal safe, and most…

  4. Creatine supplementation and multiple sprint running performance.

    PubMed

    Glaister, Mark; Lockey, Richard A; Abraham, Corinne S; Staerck, Allan; Goodwin, Jon E; McInnes, Gillian

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of short-term creatine monohydrate supplementation on multiple sprint running performance. Using a double-blind research design, 42 physically active men completed a series of 3 indoor multiple sprint running trials (15 x 30 m repeated at 35-second intervals). After the first 2 trials (familiarization and baseline), subjects were matched for fatigue score before being randomly assigned to 5 days of either creatine (4 x d(-1) x 5 g creatine monohydrate + 1 g maltodextrin) or placebo (4 x d(-1) x 6 g maltodextrin) supplementation. Sprint times were recorded via twin-beam photocells, and earlobe blood samples were drawn to evaluate posttest lactate concentrations. Relative to placebo, creatine supplementation resulted in a 0.7 kg increase in body mass (95% likely range: 0.02 to 1.3 kg) and a 0.4% reduction in body fat (95% likely range: -0.2 to 0.9%). There were no significant (p > 0.05) between-group differences in multiple sprint measures of fastest time, mean time, fatigue, or posttest blood lactate concentration. Despite widespread use as an ergogenic aid in sport, the results of this study suggest that creatine monohydrate supplementation conveys no benefit to multiple sprint running performance.

  5. 19 CFR 204.4 - Supplemental investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplemental investigations. 204.4 Section 204.4 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS... request of the President, or upon the Commission's own motion when in its judgment there is good...

  6. MCN Clinial Supplement, January/February 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migrant Health Newsline, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This journal supplement developed by the Migrant Clinicans Network (MCN) contains three articles related to domestic violence in the migrant population. "Domestic Violence Tips for Clinicians" suggests what to include in the patient's medical record, recommends routine screening, and offers guidelines for interviewing. It also lists what to look…

  7. 21 CFR 1002.11 - Supplemental reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplemental reports. 1002.11 Section 1002.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Required Manufacturers' Reports for Listed Electronic Products §...

  8. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  9. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In... shall so indicate and shall specify that the mark has been in use in commerce. (b) In an application to... statement of lawful use in commerce may be omitted. (c) An application under section 66(a) of the Act is...

  10. Catalog of Programmed Instructional Material, Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Naval Research, Washington, DC. Personnel and Training Branch.

    A supplement to the NavPers 93826 Catalog of Programed Instructional Material provides a full description of instructional material programed within the Navy since April, 1967. Summaries are given of all courses, including information on the specific learners for whom the course's instruction is intended, the type of program, the projected time…

  11. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement. Volume 35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, Derek W. G. (Editor); Binzel, Richard P. (Editor); Gaffey, Michael J. (Editor); Kraehenbuehl, Urs (Editor); Pieters, Carle M. (Editor); Shaw, Denis (Editor); Wieler, Rainer (Editor); Brownlee, Donald E. (Editor); Goldstein, Joseph I. (Editor); Lyon, Ian C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This special supplement of the Meteoritics and Planetary Science Society Journal contains the abstracts of 324 technical presentations, and the presentations of awards during the Annual meeting of the Meteoritical Society. The abstracts review current research on meteors and planetary sciences.

  12. Using Smartphones to Supplement Classroom Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Supplementing classroom reading with smartphones can develop better vocabulary knowledge, comprehension, technology skills, and writing. This article connects smartphones to reading complex, informational text and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The author suggests that smartphones motivate, scaffold comprehension, and invite…

  13. 40 CFR 192.22 - Supplemental standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Supplemental standards. 192.22 Section 192.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS...

  14. 40 CFR 192.22 - Supplemental standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Supplemental standards. 192.22 Section 192.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS...

  15. 40 CFR 192.22 - Supplemental standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Supplemental standards. 192.22 Section 192.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS...

  16. 40 CFR 192.22 - Supplemental standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Supplemental standards. 192.22 Section 192.22 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION STANDARDS FOR URANIUM AND THORIUM MILL TAILINGS...

  17. 21 CFR 814.39 - PMA supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Premarket Approval Application (PMA) § 814.39 PMA supplements. Link to... or effectiveness of the device for which the applicant has an approved PMA, unless the change is of...

  18. 21 CFR 814.108 - Supplemental applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Supplemental applications. 814.108 Section 814.108 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.108...

  19. 21 CFR 814.108 - Supplemental applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental applications. 814.108 Section 814.108 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.108...

  20. 21 CFR 814.39 - PMA supplements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Premarket Approval Application (PMA) § 814.39 PMA supplements. (a... before making a change affecting the safety or effectiveness of the device for which the applicant has...