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Sample records for near field

  1. Near Field Antenna Measurement System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    beam pointing accuracy and .6 dB gain accuracy. These antennas are both planar arrays with the X-band antenna scanning with ferrite phase shifters in...AD-A114 125 M[ES AIRCRAFT CO FULLERTON CA F/ 17/9 NEAR FIELD ANTENNA MEASUREMENT SYSTEM. (U) MAR 82 A E HOLLEY DAABO7-7?-C-1 87 UNCLASSIFIED NL...IllIHE El. onhEnoh IIIIhh --h h I~m I I Research and Development Technical Report I DAABO7-77-C-0587-F1 NEAR FIELD ANTENNA I MEASUREMENT SYSTEM I A.E

  2. Nanomanipulation using near field photonics.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David; Serey, Xavier; Chen, Yih-Fan; Mandal, Sudeep

    2011-03-21

    In this article we review the use of near-field photonics for trapping, transport and handling of nanomaterials. While the advantages of traditional optical tweezing are well known at the microscale, direct application of these techniques to the handling of nanoscale materials has proven difficult due to unfavourable scaling of the fundamental physics. Recently a number of research groups have demonstrated how the evanescent fields surrounding photonic structures like photonic waveguides, optical resonators, and plasmonic nanoparticles can be used to greatly enhance optical forces. Here, we introduce some of the most common implementations of these techniques, focusing on those which have relevance to microfluidic or optofluidic applications. Since the field is still relatively nascent, we spend much of the article laying out the fundamental and practical advantages that near field optical manipulation offers over both traditional optical tweezing and other particle handling techniques. In addition we highlight three application areas where these techniques namely could be of interest to the lab-on-a-chip community, namely: single molecule analysis, nanoassembly, and optical chromatography.

  3. Near field zones of quiet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, P.; Elliott, S. J.; Nelson, P. A.

    1994-05-01

    This paper examines the consequences of driving a single secondary loudspeaker to cancel the pressure due to some primary source at a point in its near field. This simple technique has been applied to the sound field in a highly reverberant room to produce zones of quiet in the vicinity of the loudspeaker, which have diameters that are typically equal to one-tenth of the acoustic wavelength, within which the sound pressure level is attenuated by at least 10 dB. The principal advantage gained with this strategy over other active techniques for controlling the sound field in rooms is that the sound pressure level well away from the control point is largely unaffected, an increase of only a small fraction of one dB being typical. Such a loudspeaker-microphone configuration could be located, for example, in the head rests of cars or aeroplanes, or indeed anywhere where the listener is seated for significant lengths of time and subjected to high ambient noise levels such that auditory comfort may be disturbed.

  4. Report of near field group

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Baggett, N.; Claus, J.; Fernow, R.; Stumer, I.; Figueroa, H.; Kroll, N.; Funk, W.; Lee-Whiting, G.; Pickup, M.

    1985-04-01

    Substantial progress since the Los Alamos Workshop two years ago is reported. A radio-frequency model of a grating accelerator has been tested at Cornell, and extensive calculations compared with observations. Alternative structures consisting of either hemispherical bumps on a plane, or conducting spheres in space, have also been rf modeled. The use of liquid droplets to form such structures has been proposed and a conceptual design studied. Calculations and experiments have examined the effects of surface plasmas, and shown that in this case the reflectivity is low. However, calculations and observations suggest that gradients in excess of 1 GeV/meter should be obtainable without forming such plasma. An examination of wake fields shows that, with Landau damping, these are independent of wavelength. The use of near field structures to act as high gradient focusing elements has been studied and shows promise, independent of the acceleration mechanism. A proposal has been made to establish a facility that would enable ''proof of principle experiments'' to be performed on these and other laser driven accelerator mechanisms. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Near-field single molecule spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, X.S.; Dunn, R.C.

    1995-02-01

    The high spatial resolution and sensitivity of near-field fluorescence microscopy allows one to study spectroscopic and dynamical properties of individual molecules at room temperature. Time-resolved experiments which probe the dynamical behavior of single molecules are discussed. Ground rules for applying near-field spectroscopy and the effect of the aluminum coated near-field probe on spectroscopic measurements are presented.

  6. Near-field magnetoabsorption of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simserides, Constantinos; Zora, Anna; Triberis, Georgios

    2006-04-01

    We investigate the effect of an external magnetic field of variable orientation and magnitude (up to 20T ) on the linear near-field optical absorption spectra of single and coupled III-V semiconductor quantum dots. We focus on the spatial as well as on the magnetic confinement, varying the dimensions of the quantum dots and the magnetic field. We show that the ground-state exciton binding energy can be manipulated utilizing the spatial and magnetic confinement. The effect of the magnetic field on the absorption spectra, increasing the near-field illumination spot, is also investigated. The zero-magnetic-field “structural” symmetry can be destroyed varying the magnetic field orientation and this affects the near-field spectra. The asymmetry induced (except for specific orientations along symmetry axes) by the magnetic field can be revealed in the near-field but not in the far-field spectra. We predict that near-field magnetoabsorption experiments, of realistic spatial resolution, will be in the position to bring to light the quantum dot symmetry. This exceptional symmetry-resolving power of the near-field magnetoabsorption is lost in the far field. The influence of the Coulomb interactions on the absorption spectra is also discussed. Finally, we show that certain modifications of the magnetoexcitonic structure can be uncovered using a realistically acute near-field probe of ≈20nm .

  7. Shaping the nonlinear near field

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniela; Schumacher, Thorsten; Lippitz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Light scattering at plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies has led to a wealth of applications in metamaterials and nano-optics. Although shaping of fields around nanostructures is widely studied, the influence of the field inside the nanostructures is often overlooked. The linear field distribution inside the structure taken to the third power causes third-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical response of matter. Here we demonstrate by a far field Fourier imaging method how this simple fact can be used to shape complex fields around a single particle alone. We employ this scheme to switch the third-harmonic emission from a single point source to two spatially separated but coherent sources, as in Young's double-slit assembly. We envision applications as diverse as coherently feeding antenna arrays and optical spectroscopy of spatially extended electronic states. PMID:26762487

  8. Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Forg, B.; Schotz, J.; SuBmann, F.; Forster, M.; Kruger, M.; Ahn, B.; Okell, W. A.; Wintersperger, K.; Zherebtsov, S.; Guggenmos, A.; Pervak, V.; Kessel, A.; Trushin, S. A.; Azzeer, A. M.; Stockman, M. I.; Kim, D.; Krausz, F.; Hommelhoff, P.; Kling, M. F.

    2016-05-31

    The promise of ultrafast light-field-driven electronic nanocircuits has stimulated the development of the new research field of attosecond nanophysics. An essential prerequisite for advancing this new area is the ability to characterize optical near fields from light interaction with nanostructures, with sub-cycle resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate attosecond near-field retrieval for a tapered gold nanowire. Furthermore, by comparison of the results to those obtained from noble gas experiments and trajectory simulations, the spectral response of the nanotaper near field arising from laser excitation can be extracted.

  9. Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling

    PubMed Central

    Förg, B.; Schötz, J.; Süßmann, F.; Förster, M.; Krüger, M.; Ahn, B.; Okell, W. A.; Wintersperger, K.; Zherebtsov, S.; Guggenmos, A.; Pervak, V.; Kessel, A.; Trushin, S. A.; Azzeer, A. M.; Stockman, M. I.; Kim, D.; Krausz, F.; Hommelhoff, P.; Kling, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    The promise of ultrafast light-field-driven electronic nanocircuits has stimulated the development of the new research field of attosecond nanophysics. An essential prerequisite for advancing this new area is the ability to characterize optical near fields from light interaction with nanostructures, with sub-cycle resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate attosecond near-field retrieval for a tapered gold nanowire. By comparison of the results to those obtained from noble gas experiments and trajectory simulations, the spectral response of the nanotaper near field arising from laser excitation can be extracted. PMID:27241851

  10. Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling

    DOE PAGES

    Forg, B.; Schotz, J.; SuBmann, F.; ...

    2016-05-31

    The promise of ultrafast light-field-driven electronic nanocircuits has stimulated the development of the new research field of attosecond nanophysics. An essential prerequisite for advancing this new area is the ability to characterize optical near fields from light interaction with nanostructures, with sub-cycle resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate attosecond near-field retrieval for a tapered gold nanowire. Furthermore, by comparison of the results to those obtained from noble gas experiments and trajectory simulations, the spectral response of the nanotaper near field arising from laser excitation can be extracted.

  11. Optical Near-Field Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-08

    nanostructures was studied theoretically and experimentally. We introduced a model of an aperture coupled to an oscillator that gives perfect ...subwavelength scales, and it is be- lieved to be responsible for the nearly perfect ab- sorption of periodic metallic nanoslit structures. However, an...much attention, FIG. 10. Funneling in circular nanogroves fabricated in Au films. 7 | P a g e motivated by claims that it provides perfect imaging

  12. Near Field Communication: Introduction and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Sheli; Yarmey, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Near field communication is an emerging technology that allows objects, such as mobile phones, computers, tags, or posters, to exchange information wirelessly across a small distance. Though primarily associated with mobile payment, near field communication has many different potential commercial applications, ranging from marketing to nutrition,…

  13. Near Field Communication: Introduction and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Sheli; Yarmey, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Near field communication is an emerging technology that allows objects, such as mobile phones, computers, tags, or posters, to exchange information wirelessly across a small distance. Though primarily associated with mobile payment, near field communication has many different potential commercial applications, ranging from marketing to nutrition,…

  14. Millimeter wave near-field study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kefauver, Neill

    1990-01-01

    The possibility is evaluated of current technology measuring large aperture millimeter wave antennas. Included are a mathematical modeling of system errors, experimental data supporting error model, predictions of system accuracy at millimeter wavelengths, advantage of near-field measurements, and a cost estimate for a facility upgrade. The use is emphasized of software compensation and other inexpensive alternatives to develop a near optimum solution to near-field measurement problems at millimeter wavelengths.

  15. Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Nanofabrication using near-field optical probes is an established technique for rapid prototyping and automated maskless fabrication of nanostructured devices. In this review, we present the primary types of near-field probes and their physical processing mechanisms. Highlights of recent developments include improved resolution by optimizing the probe shape, incorporation of surface plasmonics in probe design, broader use in biological and magnetic storage applications, and increased throughput using probe arrays as well as high speed writing and patterning. PMID:22713756

  16. Near-field optics for nanoprocessing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terakawa, Mitsuhiro; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N.

    2016-02-01

    The recent progress in laser processing reaches a level where a precise fabrication that overcomes the diffraction limit of the far-field optics can be achieved. Laser processing mediated by enhanced near field is one of the attractive methods to provide highly precise structuring with a simple apparatus. In this review, we describe the fundamentals of the electromagnetic near field in the vicinity of small structures and the application of its specific properties for nanomodification. Theoretical and experimental results on nanoablation based on electromagnetic field enhancement due to plasmon polariton excitation and Mie scattering are discussed. High-throughput nanohole fabrication mediated by arrayed nanospheres is discussed, as the coupling effect of near field is also considered. In addition, recent fabrication techniques and their potential applications in nanopatterning, nanoscale deformation, and biophotonics are discussed.

  17. Near-field radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Nina; Perov, Sergey; Belaya, Olga; Kuster, Niels; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    Personal wireless telecommunication devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) sources operated in vicinity of human body, have possible adverse health effects. Therefore, the correct EMF assessment is necessary in their near field. According to international near-field measurement criteria, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used for absorbed energy distribution assessment in tissue simulating liquid phantoms. The aim of this investigation is to validate the relationship between the H-field of incident EMF and absorbed energy in phantoms. Three typical wireless telecommunication system frequencies are considered (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz). The EMF source at each frequency is an appropriate half-wave dipole antenna and the absorbing medium is a flat phantom filled with the suitable tissue simulating liquid. Two methods for SAR estimation have been used: standard procedure based on E-field measured in tissue simulating medium and a proposed evaluation by measuring the incident H-field. Compared SAR estimations were performed for various distances between sources and phantom. Also, these research data were compared with simulation results, obtained by using finite-difference time-domain method. The acquired data help to determine the source near-field space characterized by the smallest deviation between SAR estimation methods. So, this region near the RF source is suitable for correct RF energy absorption assessment using the magnetic component of the RF fields.

  18. Antenna Near-Field Probe Station Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J. (Inventor); Lee, Richard Q. (Inventor); Darby, William G. (Inventor); Barr, Philip J. (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna system is characterized non-destructively through the use of a scanner that measures its near-field radiated power performance. When taking measurements, the scanner can be moved linearly along the x, y and z axis, as well as rotationally relative to the antenna. The data obtained from the characterization are processed to determine the far-field properties of the system and to optimize the system. Each antenna is excited using a probe station system while a scanning probe scans the space above the antenna to measure the near field signals. Upon completion of the scan, the near-field patterns are transformed into far-field patterns. Along with taking data, this system also allows for extensive graphing and analysis of both the near-field and far-field data. The details of the probe station as well as the procedures for setting up a test, conducting a test, and analyzing the resulting data are also described.

  19. Near-Field Optical Propertiesof Super-Resolution Near-Field Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Din Ping

    Super-resolution near-field structures, glass/SiN(170 nm)/Sb(15 nm)/SiN(20 nm) and glass/ZnS-SiO2 (20 nm)/AgOx (15 nm)/ZnS-SiO2 (20 nm), have been studied by a tapping-mode tuning-fork near-field scanning optical microscope in transmission mode. Both propagating and evanescent field intensities were found at the focused spots of the surface of the super-resolution near-field structure. Images of the near-field intensity gradients at different excited laser powers showed that the area of the static evanescent intensity could be stably controlled. The enhancement of the near-field intensity, and the reduction of the focused spot through super-resolution near-field structure, glass/SiN(170 nm)/Sb(15 nm)/SiN(20 nm) or glass/ZnS-SiO2 (20 nm)/AgOx (15 nm)/ZnS-SiO2 (20 nm) have been directly observed in the near field. The near-field interactions of the 15 nm Sb and AgOx Layers have been investigated, respectively, and the localized surface plasmons excited at the focused laser spot were shown to be the key sources of the strong enhancement in the near field.

  20. Transient electromagnetic fields near large earthing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grcev, L.D.; Menter, F.E.

    1996-05-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility studies require knowledge of transient voltages that may be developed near earthing systems during lightning discharge, since such voltages may be coupled to sensitive electronic circuits. For such purpose accurate evaluation of transient electric field near to and/or at the surface of the grounding conductors is necessary. In this paper, a procedure for computation of transient fields near large earthing systems, as a response to a typical lightning current impulse, based on computational methodology developed in the field of antennas, is presented. Computed results are favorably compared with published measurement results. The model is applied to check the common assumption that the soil ionization can be neglected in case of large earthing systems. Presented results show that the soil ionization threshold is met and exceeded during typical lightning discharge in a large earthing system.

  1. Volumetric Near-Field Microwave Plasma Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.; Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2003-01-01

    A periodic series of microwave-induced plasmoids is generated using the outgoing wave from a microwave horn and the reflected wave from a nearby on-axis concave reflector. The plasmoids are spaced at half-wavelength separations according to a standing-wave pattern. The plasmoids are enhanced by an effective focusing in the near field of the horn (Fresnel region) as a result of a diffractive narrowing. Optical imaging, electron density, and rotational temperature measurements characterize the near field plasma region. Volumetric microwave discharges may have application to combustion ignition in scramjet engines.

  2. Near-field diffraction of chirped gratings.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Torcal-Milla, Francisco Jose; Morlanes, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the near-field diffraction pattern produced by chirped gratings. An intuitive analytical interpretation of the generated diffraction orders is proposed. Several interesting properties of the near-field diffraction pattern can be determined, such as the period of the fringes and its visibility. Diffraction orders present different widths and also, some of them present focusing properties. The width, location, and depth of focus of the converging diffraction orders are also determined. The analytical expressions are compared to numerical simulation and experimental results, showing a high agreement.

  3. Near-field optical thin microcavity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jiu Hui; Hou, Jiejie

    2016-01-01

    The thin microcavity theory for near-field optics is proposed in this study. By applying the power flow theorem and the variable theorem,the bi-harmonic differential governing equation for electromagnetic field of a three-dimensional thin microcavity is derived for the first time. Then by using the Hankel transform, this governing equation is solved exactly and all the electromagnetic components inside and outside the microcavity can be obtained accurately. According to the above theory, the near-field optical diffraction from a subwavelength aperture embedded in a thin conducting film is investigated, and numerical computations are performed to illustrate the edge effect by an enhancement factor of 1.8 and the depolarization phenomenon of the near-field transmission in terms of the distance from the film surface. This thin microcavity theory is verified by the good agreement between our results and those in the previous literatures. The thin microcavity theory presented in the study should be useful in the possible applications of the thin microcavities in near-field optics and thin-film optics.

  4. Relation between near field and far field acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bies, D. A.; Scharton, T. D.

    1974-01-01

    Several approaches to the problem of determining the far field directivity of an acoustic source located in a reverberant environment, such as a wind tunnel, are investigated analytically and experimentally. The decrease of sound pressure level with distance is illustrated; and the spatial extent of the hydrodynamic and geometric near fields, the far field, and the reverberant field are described. A previously-prosposed analytical technique for predicting the far field directivity of the acoustic source on the basis of near field data is investigated. Experiments are conducted with small acoustic sources and an analysis is performed to determine the variation with distance from the source of the directionality of the sound field. A novel experiment is conducted in which the sound pressure measured at various distances from an acoustic driver located in the NASA Ames 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel is crosscorrelated with the driver excitation voltage.

  5. Near field optical characterization of explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNesby, Kevin L.; Homan, Barrie E.; Benjamin, Richard A.; Boyle, Vincent M.; Biss, Matthew M.; Densmore, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Techniques and instrumentation allow for simultaneous, real-time mapping of temperature, pressure, chemical species and energy deposition during and following explosions. This work provides quantitative, simultaneous measurement in the explosive near and far-field (0-500 charge diameters) of surface temperatures, peak air-shock pressures, chemical species signatures and shock energy deposition that characterize explosions.

  6. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Schultz, Peter G.; Wei, Tao

    1998-01-01

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

  7. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, X.D.; Schultz, P.G.; Wei, T.

    1998-10-13

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an end wall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity. 17 figs.

  8. Localizing periodicity in near-field images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraundorf, P.

    1990-02-01

    We show that Bayesian Physical inference, like that used in statistical mechanics, can guide the systematic construction of Fourier dark-field methods for localizing periodicity in near-field (e.g., scanning tunneling and electron phase contrast) images. For crystals in an aperiodic field, the Fourier coefficient Zeicphi combines with a prior estimate for background amplitude B to predict background phase (β) values distributed with a probability p(β-φ||Z,φ,B) inversely proportional to amplitude P of the signal of interest, when the latter is treated as an unknown translation scaled to B.

  9. A near-field optical microscopy nanoarray

    SciTech Connect

    Semin, D.J.; Ambrose, W.P.; Goodwin, P.M.; Kwller, A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Multiplexing near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) by the use of a nanoarray with parallel imaging is studied. The fabrication, characterization, and utilization of nanoarrays with {approximately} 100 nm diameter apertures spaced 500 nm center-to- center is presented. Extremely uniform nanoarrays with {approximately} 10{sup 8} apertures were fabricated by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The nanoarrays were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this paper we utilize these nanoarrays in a laser-illuminated microscope with parallel detection on a charge- coupled device (CCD). Detection of B-phycoerythrin (B-PE) molecules using near-field illumination is presented. In principle, our system can be used to obtain high lateral resolution NSOM images over a wide-field of view (e.g. 50-100 {mu}m) within seconds.

  10. Magnetic fields near Mars - First results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedler, W.; Schwingenschuh, K.; Moehlmann, D.; Oraevskii, V. N.; Eroshenko, E.; Slavin, J.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Mars have been measured from Phobos 2 with high temporal resolution in the tail and down to an 850-km altitude. During four successive highly elliptical orbits, the position of the bow shock as well as that of a transition layer, the 'planetopause', were identified. Subsequent circular orbits at 6000-km altitude provided the first high-resolution data in the planetary tail and indicate that the interplanetary magnetic field mainly controls the magnetic tail. Magnetic turbulence was also detected when the spacecraft crossed the orbit of Phobos, indicating the possible existence of a torus near the orbit of this moon.

  11. The near-field scanning thermal microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wischnath, Uli F.; Welker, Joachim; Munzel, Marco; Kittel, Achim

    2008-07-01

    We report on the design, characterization, and performance of a near-field scanning thermal microscope capable to detect thermal heat currents mediated by evanescent thermal electromagnetic fields close to the surface of a sample. The instrument operates in ultrahigh vacuum and retains its scanning tunneling microscope functionality, so that its miniature, micropipette-based thermocouple sensor can be positioned with high accuracy. Heat currents on the order of 10-7W are registered in z spectroscopy at distances from the sample ranging from 1 to about 30nm. In addition, the device provides detailed thermographic images of a sample's surface.

  12. Radiation Entropy and Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation entropy was key to the original derivation of Planck's law of blackbody radiation, in 1900. This discovery opened the door to quantum mechanical theory and Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Thermal radiation plays an important role in incandescent lamps, solar energy utilization, temperature measurements, materials processing, remote sensing for astronomy and space exploration, combustion and furnace design, food processing, cryogenic engineering, as well as numerous agricultural, health, and military applications. While Planck's law has been fruitfully applied to a large number of engineering problems for over 100 years, questions have been raised about its limitation in micro/nano systems, especially at subwavelength distances or in the near field. When two objects are located closer than the characteristic wavelength, wave interference and photon tunneling occurs that can result in significant enhancement of the radiative transfer. Recent studies have shown that the near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, sub-wavelength light source, polariton-assisted nanolithography, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, scanning tunneling thermal microscopy, etc. The concept of entropy has also been applied to explain laser cooling of solids as well as the second law efficiency of devices that utilize thermal radiation to produce electricity. However, little is known as regards the nature of entropy in near-field radiation. Some history and recent advances are reviewed in this presentation with a call for research of radiation entropy in the near field, due to the important applications in the optimization of thermophotovoltaic converters and in the design of practical systems that can harvest photon energies efficiently.

  13. Evaluation of near-field earthquake effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1994-11-01

    Structures and equipment, which are qualified for the design basis earthquake (DBE) and have anchorage designed for the DBE loading, do not require an evaluation of the near-field earthquake (NFE) effects. However, safety class 1 acceleration sensitive equipment such as electrical relays must be evaluated for both NFE and DBE since they are known to malfunction when excited by high frequency seismic motions.

  14. Hill Ciphers over Near-Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farag, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Hill ciphers are linear codes that use as input a "plaintext" vector [p-right arrow above] of size n, which is encrypted with an invertible n x n matrix E to produce a "ciphertext" vector [c-right arrow above] = E [middle dot] [p-right arrow above]. Informally, a near-field is a triple [left angle bracket]N; +, *[right angle bracket] that…

  15. Ideal near-field thermophotovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molesky, Sean; Jacob, Zubin

    2015-05-01

    We ask the question, what are the ideal characteristics of a near-field thermophotovoltaic cell? Our search leads us to a reformulation of near-field radiative heat transfer in terms of the joint density of electronic states of the emitter-absorber pair in the thermophotovoltaic system. This form reveals that semiconducting materials with narrowband absorption spectra are critical to the energy-conversion efficiency. This essential feature is unavailable in conventional bulk semiconductor cells but can be obtained using low-dimensional materials. Our results show that the presence of matched van Hove singularities resulting from quantum confinement in the emitter and absorber of a thermophotovoltaic cell boosts both the magnitude and spectral selectivity of radiative heat transfer, dramatically improving energy-conversion efficiency. We provide a model near-field thermophotovoltaic system design making use of this idea by employing the van Hove singularities present in carbon nanotubes. Shockley-Queisser analysis shows that the predicted heat transfer characteristics of this model device are fundamentally better than existing thermophotovoltaic designs. Our work paves the way for the use of quantum dots, quantum wells, two-dimensional semiconductors, semiconductor nanowires, and carbon nanotubes as future materials for thermophotovoltaic cells.

  16. Near-field acoustic streaming jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moudjed, B.; Botton, V.; Henry, D.; Millet, S.; Garandet, J. P.; Ben Hadid, H.

    2015-03-01

    A numerical and experimental investigation of the acoustic streaming flow in the near field of a circular plane ultrasonic transducer in water is performed. The experimental domain is a parallelepipedic cavity delimited by absorbing walls to avoid acoustic reflection, with a top free surface. The flow velocities are measured by particle image velocimetry, leading to well-resolved velocity profiles. The theoretical model is based on a linear acoustic propagation model, which correctly reproduces the acoustic field mapped experimentally using a hydrophone, and an acoustic force term introduced in the Navier-Stokes equations under the plane-wave assumption. Despite the complexity of the acoustic field in the near field, in particular in the vicinity of the acoustic source, a good agreement between the experimental measurements and the numerical results for the velocity field is obtained, validating our numerical approach and justifying the planar wave assumption in conditions where it is a priori far from obvious. The flow structure is found to be correlated with the acoustic field shape. Indeed, the longitudinal profiles of the velocity present a wavering linked to the variations in acoustic intensity along the beam axis and transverse profiles exhibit a complex shape strongly influenced by the transverse variations of the acoustic intensity in the beam. Finally, the velocity in the jet is found to increase as the square root of the acoustic force times the distance from the origin of the jet over a major part of the cavity, after a strong short initial increase, where the velocity scales with the square of the distance from the upstream wall.

  17. Near-field Interferometric Imaging of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, M.; Wu, T.; Akiyama, Y.; Kawasaki, Z.; Ushio, T.

    2015-12-01

    In the past, lightning interferometric mapping systems assumed that a source is very far from the measurement location. The assumption greatly simplifies the mathematics needed to locate the source, but the resulting source positions are limited to two spatial dimensions (azimuth and elevation). For short baseline systems, this assumption is very good because the source is almost always much farther away than the diameter of the array, making three-dimensional location all but impossible. By removing the far-field assumption, if the array is large enough it is possible to locate the source in three spatial dimensions using purely interferometric techniques. The purely interferometric method is quite different from the more typical time-of-arrival method. Instead of measuring arrival times or time differences of the radiation arriving at each station, a volume is imaged over a some integration period and then searched for a source. It is not necessary to know that a source exists in the integration period for the interferometric imaging technique to produce a well defined solution. Interferometric imaging can locate sources buried in noise, can locate both continuous and impulsive emission, and is capable of locating multiple simultaneously radiating sources. If the waveforms are corrected for propagation delay to the search volume, the integration period can be made arbitrarily small (limited only by the frequencies being observed), allowing the progression of lightning to be examined in detail. Near-field interferometry works equally well on a wide range of different signal types, from the LF to VHF bands in radio, or even on acoustic emissions from lightning. Near-field imaging can be used to correct the angular locations of short baseline systems when a source is very close to the array, or to produce full three-dimensional maps of lightning with long baseline arrays. Presented here are preliminary results of applying near-field interferometric imaging to the

  18. Near field imaging with resonant cavity lens.

    PubMed

    Li, Guixin; Li, Jensen; Tam, H L; Chan, C T; Cheah, K W

    2010-02-01

    We showed that a Ag-SiO(2)-Ag Fabry-Pérot cavity can be used in near-field imaging based on omnidirectional resonance tunneling. The omnidirectional resonance was experimentally demonstrated in the Ag-SiO(2)-Ag resonant cavity working at a wavelength of 365 nm. The resonant cavity lens with high transmittance and high image fidelity was fabricated using standard photolithography method. Grating source with 190 nm line resolution was imaged through the resonant cavity lens with a total thickness of 128 nm.

  19. Energy transfer in near-field optics.

    PubMed

    Colas des Francs, Gérard; Girard, Christian; Juan, Mathieu; Dereux, Alain

    2005-11-01

    When the probe tip of a near-field optical microscope illuminates nanoparticles with marked absorption bands, a large number of photons are absorbed before reaching the detector. These energy losses enhance the dark contrast usually observed in the vicinity of metallic nanoparticles. We demonstrate theoretically that this phenomenon can be exploited to image, in the optical frequency range, dissipative domains with a nanometer scale resolution. Simulations performed with noble-metal particles indicate that the detected signal significantly drops down when the excitation frequency is approaching the plasmon resonance of the particles.

  20. Near Field Trailing Edge Tone Noise Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.

    2002-01-01

    Blunt trailing edges in a flow often generate tone noise due to wall-jet shear layer and vortex shedding. In this paper, the space-time conservation element (CE/SE) method is employed to numerically study the near-field noise of blunt trailing edges. Two typical cases, namely, flow past a circular cylinder (aeolian noise problem) and flow past a flat plate of finite thickness are considered. The computed frequencies compare well with experimental data. For the aeolian noise problem, comparisons with the results of other numerical approaches are also presented.

  1. Near Field Environment Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Wagner

    2000-11-14

    Waste emplacement and activities associated with construction of a repository system potentially will change environmental conditions within the repository system. These environmental changes principally result from heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, which elevates temperatures within the repository system. Elevated temperatures affect distribution of water, increase kinetic rates of geochemical processes, and cause stresses to change in magnitude and orientation from the stresses resulting from the overlying rock and from underground construction activities. The recognition of this evolving environment has been reflected in activities, studies and discussions generally associated with what has been termed the Near-Field Environment (NFE). The NFE interacts directly with waste packages and engineered barriers as well as potentially changing the fluid composition and flow conditions within the mountain. As such, the NFE defines the environment for assessing the performance of a potential Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NFe evolves over time, and therefore is not amenable to direct characterization or measurement in the ambient system. Analysis or assessment of the NFE must rely upon projections based on tests and models that encompass the long-term processes of the evolution of this environment. This NFE Process Model Report (PMR) describes the analyses and modeling based on current understanding of the evolution of the near-field within the rock mass extending outward from the drift wall.

  2. Signal of microstrip scanning near-field optical microscope in far- and near-field zones.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yevhenii M; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of interference between an electromagnetic field of fundamental quasi-TM(EH)00-mode and an electromagnetic field of background radiation at the apex of a near-field probe based on an optical plasmon microstrip line (microstrip probe) has been proposed. The condition of the occurrence of electromagnetic energy reverse flux at the apex of the microstrip probe was obtained. It has been shown that the nature of the interference depends on the length of the probe. Numerical simulation of the sample scanning process was conducted in illumination-reflection and illumination-collection modes. Results of numerical simulation have shown that interference affects the scanning signal in both modes. However, in illumination-collection mode (pure near-field mode), the signal shape and its polarity are practically insensible to probe length change; only signal amplitude (contrast) is slightly changed. However, changing the probe length strongly affects the signal amplitude and shape in the illumination-reflection mode (the signal formed in the far-field zone). Thus, we can conclude that even small background radiation can significantly influence the signal in the far-field zone and has practically no influence on a pure near-field signal.

  3. Study on the near-field recording spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Xiandeng; Xia, You-xin; Huang, Hao; Xie, Changsheng; Wang, Haiwei

    2003-04-01

    Evanescent energy can be used to get extremely small optical spots. For the data storage applications, optical near field is defined in terms of Evanescent coupling between the system used to read or write data and recording layer. Near-field techniques can be applied to optical data storage systems to greatly increase recording density. So near-field recording technique has great potential in optical disc recording system and hybrid recording system. The characteristic of near-field recording spot is of vital importance in the data storage system basing the near-field theory, so it is absolutely necessary to be analyzed and measured. This paper analyses characteristic of near-field spots. The heat response time of the near field to overcome super paramagnetic effect is calculated basing the heat transfer theory. A novel measuring method for the diameter of near-field recording spot is also presented. Since the grain of the recording media is tiny enough, with the aid of atomic force microscope (AFM), near-field optical lithography can be accomplished. The diameter of near-field recording spot can be obtained by specifically designed computer either. So the relationship between the near-field recording spot diameter and the probe size of near-field recording system, the near field recording distance coupling between head and disc can be got.

  4. Near-ground tornado wind fields

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.R.

    1984-07-01

    A study of near-ground tornado wind fields has been conducted by inspecting damage and debris patterns found in tornado damage paths. Because there were no significant tornado events (F4 or greater) during the contract performance period, data from the literature and the files of the Institute for Disaster Research were used to perform the analyses. The results indicate: (1) maximum tornado wind speed ever experienced or expected is in the range of 250 to 300 mph; (2) appearance of damage, taken by itself, is a misleading parameter of tornado intensity. Type of construction, age of construction, materials and other construction features significantly affect structural performance of a building subjected to wind loads and should be taken into account in assigning Fujita-Scale ratings; (3) damage to forests gives a good indication of tornado wind field flow patterns, but do not give verifiable values of wind speed; (4) factors such as translational speed, wind direction and path width affect appearance of damage or a tornado; and (5) even the most awesome appearing missiles do not require incredible wind speeds to explain them. Some progress in computer simulation of tornado missiles have been made. 31 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Probing optical near-fields with photoreactive azo-polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrieva, M. D.; Asadullina, A. R.; Salakhov, M. Kh

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate a method to visualize optical near-fields on photosensitive azo-polymer thin films with scanning near-field optical microscopy. A near-field intensity profile is determined in a basis of surface deformations of the azo-polymer thin film exposed to linearly polarized light.

  6. The Survey on Near Field Communication.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-06-05

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem.

  7. The Survey on Near Field Communication

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem. PMID:26057043

  8. Near Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM)

    PubMed Central

    Betzig, E.; Lewis, A.; Harootunian, A.; Isaacson, M.; Kratschmer, E.

    1986-01-01

    A new method for high-resolution imaging, near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM), has been developed. The concepts governing this method are discussed, and the technical challenges encountered in constructing a working NSOM instrument are described. Two distinct methods are presented for the fabrication of well-characterized, highly reproducible, subwavelength apertures. A sample one-dimensional scan is provided and compared to the scanning electron micrograph of a test pattern. From this comparison, a resolution of > 1,500 Å (i.e., ≃λ/3.6) is determined, which represents a significant step towards our eventual goal of 500 Å resolution. Fluorescence has been observed through apertures smaller than 600 Å and signal-to-noise calculations show that fluorescent imaging should be feasible. The application of such imaging is then discussed in reference to specific biological problems. The NSOM method employs nonionizing visible radiation and can be used in air or aqueous environments for nondestructive visualization of functioning biological systems with a resolution comparable to that of scanning electron microscopy. ImagesFIGURE 4FIGURE 7FIGURE 9FIGURE 10 PMID:19431633

  9. Novel concepts in near-field optics: from magnetic near-field to optical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Honghua

    Driven by the progress in nanotechnology, imaging and spectroscopy tools with nanometer spatial resolution are needed for in situ material characterizations. Near-field optics provides a unique way to selectively excite and detect elementary electronic and vibrational interactions at the nanometer scale, through interactions of light with matter in the near-field region. This dissertation discusses the development and applications of near-field optical imaging techniques, including plasmonic material characterization, optical spectral nano-imaging and magnetic field detection using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), and exploring new modalities of optical spectroscopy based on optical gradient force detection. Firstly, the optical dielectric functions of one of the most common plasmonic materials---silver is measured with ellipsometry, and analyzed with the Drude model over a broad spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. This work was motivated by the conflicting results of previous measurements, and the need for accurate values for a wide range of applications of silver in plasmonics, optical antennas, and metamaterials. This measurement provides a reference for dielectric functions of silver used in metamaterials, plasmonics, and nanophotonics. Secondly, I implemented an infrared s-SNOM instrument for spectroscopic nano-imaging at both room temperature and low temperature. As one of the first cryogenic s-SNOM instruments, the novel design concept and key specifications are discussed. Initial low-temperature and high-temperature performances of the instrument are examined by imaging of optical conductivity of vanadium oxides (VO2 and V2O 3) across their phase transitions. The spectroscopic imaging capability is demonstrated on chemical vibrational resonances of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and other samples. The third part of this dissertation explores imaging of optical magnetic fields. As a proof-of-principle, the magnetic

  10. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    SciTech Connect

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  11. Tailoring the Electromagnetic Near Field with Patterned Surfaces: Near-Field Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-10

    single layer processing. 3 Near-field plates can be viewed as metamaterial surfaces ( metasurfaces or metafilms) [20]. They are textured/structured at a...Applied Physics Letters, vol. 103, 041104, July 2013. 3. C. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, ”Cascaded metasurfaces for complete phase and polarization control...Antennas and Propagation, pp. 1-2, Memphis, TN, July 6-12, 2014. 5. Pfeiffer and A. Grbic, ”Analysis and synthesis of bianisotropic metasurfaces

  12. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and

  13. Numerical calculations of ultrasonic fields I: transducer near fields

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    A computer code for the calculation of linear acoustic wave propagation in homogeneous fluid and solid materials has been derived from the thermal-hydraulics code STEALTH. The code uses finite-difference techniques in a two-dimensional mesh made up of arbitrarily shaped quadrilaterals. Problems with two-dimensional plane strain or two-dimensional axial symmetries can be solved. Free, fixed, or stressed boundaries can be used. Transducers can be modeled by time dependent boundary conditions or by moving pistons. This paper gives a brief description of the method and shows the results of the calculation of the near fields of circular flat and focused transducers. These results agree with analytic theory along the axis of symmetry and with other codes that use a Huygens reconstruction technique off-axis.

  14. Theory of Near-Field Scanning with a Probe Array

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2013-0239 THEORY OF NEAR-FIELD SCANNING WITH A PROBE ARRAY Kristopher T. Kim and Bradley A. Kramer Antennas...Final 15 March 2010 – 30 September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THEORY OF NEAR-FIELD SCANNING WITH A PROBE ARRAY 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b...December 2013. Report contains color. 14. ABSTRACT In near-field scanning , as the electrical size of a device under test increases, it becomes

  15. 8. DECK TRUSS SECTION, NEAR FRANKLIN FIELD, LOOKING NE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DECK TRUSS SECTION, NEAR FRANKLIN FIELD, LOOKING NE. - Pennsylvania Railroad, West Philadelphia Elevated, Parallel to Schuylkill River, north of Arsenal Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  16. Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L. M.; Andreev, G. O.; Fei, Z.; McLeod, A. S.; Dominguez, G.; Thiemens, M.; Castro-Neto, A. H.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.

    2012-02-01

    We analyze the results of scanning near-field infrared spectroscopy performed on thin films of a-SiO2 on Si substrate. The measured near-field signal exhibits surface-phonon resonances whose strength has a prominent thickness dependence in the range from 2 to 300nm. These observations are compared with calculations in which the tip of the near-field infrared spectrometer is modeled either as a point dipole or an elongated spheroid. The latter model accounts for the antenna effect of the tip and gives a better agreement with the experiment. Possible applications of the near-field technique for depth profiling of layered nanostructures are discussed.

  17. Modeling of Near-Field Blast Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the...The freeze-out temperature is chosen by comparison of calorimetry experiments (2, 3) and thermoequilibrium calculations using CHEETAH (4). The near...P.; Vitello, P. CHEETAH Users Manual; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, CA, 2012. 5. Walter, P. Introduction to Air Blast

  18. The Geomagnetic Field and Radiation in Near-Earth Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This report shows, in detail, how the geomagnetic field interacts with the particle flux of the radiation belts to create a hazard to spacecraft and humans in near-Earth orbit. It illustrates the geometry of the geomagnetic field lines, especially around the area where the field strength is anomalously low in the South Atlantic Ocean. It discusses how the field will probably change in the future and the consequences that may have on hazards in near space.

  19. Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective magnetic dipole moment model. The model is most accurate with the earth s geomagnetic field cancelled in a spherical region bounded by the measurement magnetometers with a minimum radius large enough to enclose the magnetic source. Considerably enhanced spacecraft magnetic testing is offered by using this technique in conjunction with a computer-controlled magnetic field measurement system. Such a system, with real-time magnetic field display capabilities, has been incorporated into other existing magnetic measurement facilities and is also used at remote locations where transport to a magnetics test facility is impractical.

  20. Near-field interference microwave diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belichenko, V. P.; Zapasnoy, A. S.; Mironchev, A. S.; Matvievskiy, E. V.

    2017-08-01

    The article explores the dimensions of the probing region of two coaxial probes during the measurement of the dielectric properties of biological tissues and media at microwave radiation. This region is formed in the overlapping evanescent fields of the probes.

  1. Photon-induced near field electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Tae; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast electron microscopy in the space and time domains utilizes a pulsed electron probe to directly map structural dynamics of nanomaterials initiated by an optical pump pulse, in imaging, di raction, spectroscopy, and their combinations. It has demonstrated its capability in the studies of phase transitions, mechanical vibrations, and chemical reactions. Moreover, electrons can directly interact with photons via the near eld component of light scattering by nanostructures, and either gain or lose light quanta discretely in energy. By energetically selecting those electrons that exchanged photon energies, we can map this photon-electron interaction, and the technique is termed photon-induced near eld electron microscopy (PINEM). Here, we give an account of the theoretical understanding of PINEM. Experimentally, nanostructures such as a sphere, cylinder, strip, and triangle have been investigated. Theoretically, time-dependent Schrodinger and Dirac equations for an electron under light are directly solved to obtain analytical solutions. The interaction probability is expressed by the mechanical work done by an optical wave on a traveling electron, which can be evaluated analytically by the near eld components of the Rayleigh scattering for small spheres and thin cylinders, and numerically by the discrete dipole approximation for other geometries. Application in visualization of plasmon elds is discussed.

  2. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Welp, Ulrich; and Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  3. Near Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Welp, Ulrich; Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  4. Heat flux splitter for near-field thermal radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Abdallah, P.; Belarouci, A.; Frechette, L.; Biehs, S.-A.

    2015-08-03

    We demonstrate the possibility to efficiently split the near-field heat flux exchanged between graphene nano-disks by tuning their doping. This result paves the way for the development of an active control of propagation directions for heat fluxes exchanged in the near field throughout integrated nanostructured networks.

  5. Ultrafast infrared near-field molecular nano-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoji; Craig, Ian M.; Rang, Matthias; Raschke, Markus B.

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate molecular radiative infrared vibrational free-induction decay on the nano-scale and its control via near-field coupling between the transient molecular polarization and optical antenna properties of the metallic scanning near-field probe tip. This allows for pushing the sensitivity of infrared vibrational spectroscopy into the single molecule regime.

  6. Non-contact transportation using near-field acoustic levitation

    PubMed

    Ueha; Hashimoto; Koike

    2000-03-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation, where planar objects 10 kg in weight can levitate stably near the vibrating plate, is successfully applied both to non-contact transportation of objects and to a non-contact ultrasonic motor. Transporting apparatuses and an ultrasonic motor have been fabricated and their characteristics measured. The theory of near-field acoustic levitation both for a piston-like sound source and a flexural vibration source is also briefly described.

  7. Mesoscopic near-field radiative heat transfer at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maasilta, Ilari; Geng, Zhuoran; Chaudhuri, Saumyadip; Koppinen, Panu

    2015-03-01

    Near-field radiative heat transfer has mostly been discussed at room temperatures and/or macroscopic scale geometries. Here, we discuss our recent theoretical and experimental advances in understanding near-field transfer at ultra-low temperatures below 1K. As the thermal wavelengths increase with lowering temperature, we show that with sensitive tunnel junction bolometers it is possible to study near-field transfer up to distances ~ 10 μm currently, even though the power levels are low. In addition, these type of experiments correspond to the extreme near-field limit, as the near-field region starts at ~ mm distances at 0.1 K, and could have theoretical power enhancement factors of the order of 1010. Preliminary results on heat transfer between two parallel metallic wires are presented. We also comment on possible areas were such heat transfer might be relevant, such as densely packed arrays of low-temperature detectors.

  8. Near-field enhanced Raman spectroscopy using side illumination optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayazawa, Norihiko; Tarun, Alvarado; Inouye, Yasushi; Kawata, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    We demonstrate near-field enhanced Raman spectroscopy with the use of a metallized cantilever tip and highly p-polarized light directed onto the tip with side illumination optics using a long working distance objective lens. The highly p-polarized light field excites surface plasmon polaritons localized at the tip apex, which results in the enhanced near-field Raman scattering. In this article, we achieved an enhancement factor of 4000 for Rhodamine 6G molecules adsorbed on a silver island film. The side illumination is also applicable to an opaque sample and to near-field photolithography.

  9. Single-ion microwave near-field quantum sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahnschaffe, M.; Hahn, H.; Zarantonello, G.; Dubielzig, T.; Grondkowski, S.; Bautista-Salvador, A.; Kohnen, M.; Ospelkaus, C.

    2017-01-01

    We develop an intuitive model of 2D microwave near-fields in the unusual regime of centimeter waves localized to tens of microns. Close to an intensity minimum, a simple effective description emerges with five parameters that characterize the strength and spatial orientation of the zero and first order terms of the near-field, as well as the field polarization. Such a field configuration is realized in a microfabricated planar structure with an integrated microwave conductor operating near 1 GHz. We use a single 9 Be+ ion as a high-resolution quantum sensor to measure the field distribution through energy shifts in its hyperfine structure. We find agreement with simulations at the sub-micron and few-degree level. Our findings give a clear and general picture of the basic properties of oscillatory 2D near-fields with applications in quantum information processing, neutral atom trapping and manipulation, chip-scale atomic clocks, and integrated microwave circuits.

  10. Field Exploration of Methane Seep Near Atqasuk

    SciTech Connect

    Katey Walter, Dennis Witmer, Gwen Holdmann

    2008-12-31

    Methane (CH{sub 4}) in natural gas is a major energy source in the U.S., and is used extensively on Alaska's North Slope, including the oilfields in Prudhoe Bay, the community of Barrow, and the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska (NPRA). Smaller villages, however, are dependent on imported diesel fuel for both power and heating, resulting in some of the highest energy costs in the U.S. and crippling local economies. Numerous CH{sub 4} gas seeps have been observed on wetlands near Atqasuk, Alaska (in the NPRA), and initial measurements have indicated flow rates of 3,000-5,000 ft{sup 3} day{sup -1} (60-100 kg CH{sub 4} day{sup -1}). Gas samples collected in 1996 indicated biogenic origin, although more recent sampling indicated a mixture of biogenic and thermogenic gas. In this study, we (1) quantified the amount of CH{sub 4} generated by several seeps and evaluated their potential use as an unconventional gas source for the village of Atqasuk; (2) collected gas and analyzed its composition from multiple seeps several miles apart to see if the source is the same, or if gas is being generated locally from isolated biogenic sources; and (3) assessed the potential magnitude of natural CH{sub 4} gas seeps for future use in climate change modeling.

  11. Geothermal Field Near Rotorua, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  12. Geothermal Field Near Rotorua, New Zealand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Historical sketches show the indigenous Maori cooking with natural hot waters and steam prior to the arrival of Europeans on North Island, New Zealand. Since the 1950s, geothermal heat and steam have been exploited for both heating and electrical power generation, and some excess electrical power is exported to South Island. The geothermal development can be identified by the unique patterns of infrastructure that look like tan beads on a string in the midst of otherwise green vegetation. This one near the town of Rotorua lies within a northeast-trending line of active volcanoes (Ruapehu, Tongariro, and White Island) that are the surface result of the Pacific tectonic plate descending beneath the Australian-Indian plate. Image STS110-726-10 was taken by space shuttle crewmembers in April 2002 using a Hasselblad film camera. Image provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  13. Imaging of electric and magnetic fields near plasmonic nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kabakova, I. V.; de Hoogh, A.; van der Wel, R. E. C.; Wulf , M.; le Feber, B.; Kuipers, L.

    2016-01-01

    Near-field imaging is a powerful tool to investigate the complex structure of light at the nanoscale. Recent advances in near-field imaging have indicated the possibility for the complete reconstruction of both electric and magnetic components of the evanescent field. Here we study the electro-magnetic field structure of surface plasmon polariton waves propagating along subwavelength gold nanowires by performing phase- and polarization-resolved near-field microscopy in collection mode. By applying the optical reciprocity theorem, we describe the signal collected by the probe as an overlap integral of the nanowire’s evanescent field and the probe’s response function. As a result, we find that the probe’s sensitivity to the magnetic field is approximately equal to its sensitivity to the electric field. Through rigorous modeling of the nanowire mode as well as the aperture probe response function, we obtain a good agreement between experimentally measured signals and a numerical model. Our findings provide a better understanding of aperture-based near-field imaging of the nanoscopic plasmonic and photonic structures and are helpful for the interpretation of future near-field experiments. PMID:26947124

  14. Electromagnetic time reversal focusing of near field waves in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabalko, Matthew J.; Sample, Alanson P.

    2016-12-01

    Precise control of electromagnetic energy on a deeply subwavelength scale in the near field regime is a fundamentally challenging problem. In this letter we demonstrate the selective focusing of electromagnetic energy via the electromagnetic time reversal in the near field of a metamaterial. Our analysis begins with fundamental mathematics, and then is extended to the experimental realm where focusing in space and time of the magnetic fields in the near field of a 1-Dimensional metamaterial is shown. Under time reversal focusing, peak instantaneous fields at receiver locations are at minimum ˜200% greater than other receivers. We then leverage the strong selective focusing capabilities of the system to show individual and selective powering of light emitting diodes connected to coil receivers placed in the near field of the metamaterial. Our results show the possibility of improving display technologies, near field imaging systems, increasing channel capacity of near field communication systems, and obtaining a greater control of energy delivery in wireless power transfer systems.

  15. NASA-JSC antenna near-field measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W. P.; Friederich, P. G.; Jenkins, B. M.; Jameson, C. R.; Estrada, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Work was completed on the near-field range control software. The capabilities of the data processing software were expanded with the addition of probe compensation. In addition, the user can process the measured data from the same computer terminal used for range control. The design of the laser metrology system was completed. It provides precise measruement of probe location during near-field measurements as well as position data for control of the translation beam and probe cart. A near-field range measurement system was designed, fabricated, and tested.

  16. Near-field fluorescence thermometry using highly efficient triple-tapered near-field optical fiber probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Taguchi, Y.; Saiki, T.; Nagasaka, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A novel local temperature measurement method using fluorescence near-field optics thermal nanoscopy (Fluor-NOTN) has been developed. Fluor-NOTN enables nanoscale temperature measurement in situ by detecting the temperature-dependent fluorescence lifetime of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). In this paper, we report a novel triple-tapered near-field optical fiber probe that can increase the temperature measurement sensitivity of Fluor-NOTN. The performance of the proposed probe was numerically evaluated by the finite difference time domain method. Due to improvements in both the throughput and collection efficiency of near-field light, the sensitivity of the proposed probe was 1.9 times greater than that of typical double-tapered probe. The proposed shape of the triple-tapered core was successfully fabricated utilizing a geometrical model. The detected signal intensity of dried layers of QDs was greater by more than two orders than that of auto-fluorescence from the fiber core. In addition, the near-field fluorescence lifetime of the QDs and its temperature dependence were successfully measured by the fabricated triple-tapered near-field optical fiber probe. These measurement results verified the capability of the proposed triple-tapered near-field optical fiber probe to improve the collection efficiency of near-field fluorescence.

  17. Near field imaging of refraction via the magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanté, Boubacar; Germain, Dylan; de Lustrac, André

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally map positive and negative refractions by probing the magnetic field after the interaction of a complex metallo-dielectric composite with electromagnetic wave. The structure consists of coupled electric dipoles and negative refractive index is achieved exclusively from coupled localized resonances. By mapping out the magnetic field, negative refraction is directly observed from the three dimensional composite using a small magnetic antenna as local probe. Our work shows that light meta-matter interaction can be equally probed from magnetic light.

  18. Optical singularities in plasmonic fields near single subwavelength holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hoogh, A.; Rotenberg, N.; Kuipers, L.

    2014-11-01

    We identify phase and polarization singularities in near-field measurements and theoretical modeling of the electric near-field distributions that result from the scattering of surface plasmon polaritons from single subwavelength holes in optically thick gold films. We discuss properties of the singularities, such as their topological charge or the field amplitudes at their locations. We show that it is possible to tune the in-plane field amplitude at the positions of the polarization singularities by three orders of magnitude simply by varying the hole or incident plasmon beam size.

  19. Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy and Raman Microscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harootunian, Alec Tate

    1987-09-01

    Both a one dimensional near-field scanning optical microscope and Raman microprobe were constructed. In near -field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) a subwavelength aperture is scanned in the near-field of the object. Radiation transmitted through the aperture is collected to form an image as the aperture scans over the object. The resolution of an NSOM system is essentially wavelength independent and is limited by the diameter of the aperture used to scan the object. NSOM was developed in an effort to provide a nondestructive in situ high spatial resolution probe while still utilizing photons at optical wavelengths. The Raman microprobe constructed provided vibrational Raman information with spatial resolution equivalent that of a conventional diffraction limited microscope. Both transmission studies and near-field diffration studies of subwavelength apertures were performed. Diffraction theories for a small aperture in an infinitely thin conducting screen, a slit in a thick conducting screen, and an aperture in a black screen were examined. All three theories indicate collimation of radiation to the size to the size of the subwavelength aperture or slit in the near-field. Theoretical calculations and experimental results indicate that light transmitted through subwavelength apertures is readily detectable. Light of wavelength 4579 (ANGSTROM) was transmitted through apertures with diameters as small as 300 (ANGSTROM). These studies indicate the feasibility of constructing an NSOM system. One dimensional transmission and fluorescence NSOM systems were constructed. Apertures in the tips of metallized glass pipettes width inner diameters of less than 1000 (ANGSTROM) were used as a light source in the NSOM system. A tunneling current was used to maintain the aperture position in the near-field. Fluorescence NSOM was demonstrated for the first time. Microspectroscopic and Raman microscopic studies of turtle cone oil droplets were performed. Both the Raman vibrational

  20. Near-field optics: The nightmare of the photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Ole

    2000-05-01

    A first-quantized theory describing the birth process of a single photon in the near-field zone of a pointlike particle (atom, molecule, etc.) is established. The space-time description of the photon energy wave function embryo is shown to be useful for the understanding of the role played by (unborn) photons in near-field interactions where the spatial confinement of light plays a crucial role.

  1. Thermal Diodes Based on Near-Field Radiation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2015-0163 THERMAL DIODES BASED ON NEAR-FIELD RADIATION Michal Lipson Cornell University OCTOBER 2015...DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2015 Final 31 January 2014 – 31 July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THERMAL DIODES ...rectification, diodes , near-field radiation 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 48 19a. NAME OF

  2. MR Monitoring of the Near-Field HIFU Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mougenot, Charles; Köhler, Max O.; Enholm, Julia; Quesson, Bruno; Partanen, Ari; Moonen, Chrit T. W.; Ehnholm, Gösta J.

    2009-04-01

    The ablation of tumoral tissue with High Intensity Focused Ultrasound under MRI control has become clinical practice.[1,2] However, the most common adverse effect is skin burns induced in the near-field between the transducer and the focal point.[3] We present a study, based on animal trials, with monitoring and quantification of near field temperature increase in order to prevent skin burns.

  3. Near field communication: getting in touch with mobile users.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Near field communication is a method for sending and receiving small amounts of data across very short distances wirelessly. This technology is already available in a number of mobile devices and has many possible uses, including electronic payment, access control, and information exchange. This article will explain the basic principles of near field communication, discuss some of the ways it can be used in libraries, and explore some possible concerns with the technology. A list of resources for additional information is also included.

  4. Mid Infrared Near Field Study of Monolayer Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Z.; Andreev, G. O.; Bao, W.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhao, Z.; Dominguez, G.; Thiemens, M.; Fogler, M. M.; Lau, C. N.; Keilmann, F.; Basov, D. N.

    2011-03-01

    We have performed near-field spectroscopic studies of both monolayer suspended graphene (SG) and graphene on Si O2 /Si substrate (GOS) using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM). Our data show that SG produces reliable near-field signal in mid-infrared frequencies. Images taken with high spatial resolution (~ 20 nm) show nanoscopic features such as ripples and electronic inhomogeneities. The Si O2 /Si substrate contributes a phonon resonance in the near-field signal around 1130 cm-1 . This resonance is remarkably strengthened and broadened by just a single layer of graphene in the case of GOS. By probing the resonance spectrum we find over 400% contrast in near field signal between GOS and the bare substrate. The detailed analysis of the contrast suggests that GOS is slightly doped. This study therefore provides much needed insight into the thickness resolution of the s-SNOM technique, proving it can be sensitive to just a single layer of atoms, and advances the fundamental understanding of graphene-light interactions by probing in the near-field regime.

  5. THz near-field Faraday imaging in hybrid metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nishant; Strikwerda, Andrew C; Fan, Kebin; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D; Planken, Paul C M; Adam, Aurèle J L

    2012-05-07

    We report on direct measurements of the magnetic near-field of metamaterial split ring resonators at terahertz frequencies using a magnetic field sensitive material. Specifically, planar split ring resonators are fabricated on a single magneto-optically active terbium gallium garnet crystal. Normally incident terahertz radiation couples to the resonator inducing a magnetic dipole oscillating perpendicular to the crystal surface. Faraday rotation of the polarisation of a near-infrared probe beam directly measures the magnetic near-field with 100 femtosecond temporal resolution and (λ/200) spatial resolution. Numerical simulations suggest that the magnetic field can be enhanced in the plane of the resonator by as much as a factor of 200 compared to the incident field strength. Our results provide a route towards hybrid devices for dynamic magneto-active control of light such as isolators, and highlight the utility of split ring resonators as compact probes of magnetic phenomena in condensed matter.

  6. Near field to far field transformations and multiple beam forming and steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of acoustic verification of microwave near field to far field transformation algorithms using the Phased Array Sonic Simulation System was studied. Existing electromagnetic near field measurement techniques and transformation algorithms (equations) were investigated. It was analytically determined that acoustic verification is valid. Acoustic simulation of electromagnetic near field to far field transformations is emphasized. The acoustic simulation of electromagnetic near field to far field transformation is verified for the modal expansion method. In the modal expansion method, data from antenna near field measurements are converted to a summation or spectrum of modes corresponding to wave numbers in the measurement coordinate system. Fourier transformation of those measurements preserves the far field information in a spectral form that is then readily extractable.

  7. Photon-induced near-field electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barwick, Brett; Flannigan, David J; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2009-12-17

    In materials science and biology, optical near-field microscopies enable spatial resolutions beyond the diffraction limit, but they cannot provide the atomic-scale imaging capabilities of electron microscopy. Given the nature of interactions between electrons and photons, and considering their connections through nanostructures, it should be possible to achieve imaging of evanescent electromagnetic fields with electron pulses when such fields are resolved in both space (nanometre and below) and time (femtosecond). Here we report the development of photon-induced near-field electron microscopy (PINEM), and the associated phenomena. We show that the precise spatiotemporal overlap of femtosecond single-electron packets with intense optical pulses at a nanostructure (individual carbon nanotube or silver nanowire in this instance) results in the direct absorption of integer multiples of photon quanta (nhomega) by the relativistic electrons accelerated to 200 keV. By energy-filtering only those electrons resulting from this absorption, it is possible to image directly in space the near-field electric field distribution, obtain the temporal behaviour of the field on the femtosecond timescale, and map its spatial polarization dependence. We believe that the observation of the photon-induced near-field effect in ultrafast electron microscopy demonstrates the potential for many applications, including those of direct space-time imaging of localized fields at interfaces and visualization of phenomena related to photonics, plasmonics and nanostructures.

  8. Spectral frustration and coherence in thermal near-field spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Callahan, Brian; Lewis, William; Jones, Andrew; Raschke, Markus

    2014-03-01

    The thermal near-field is characterized by fundamentally distinct spatial, spectral, and coherence properties compared to far-field thermal radiation. Scattering scanning near-field microscopy (s-SNOM) has recently opened spectroscopic access to the enhanced electromagnetic local density of states associated with electronic and vibrational resonances. We study the influence of the tip on the scattered near-field spectral response due to the frustration of the evanescent thermal field by the tip. With the example of the extrinsic resonance of the surface phonon polariton (SPhP) in SiC we demonstrate redshifts by 0 cm-1 to 50 cm-1 of the unperturbed 948 cm-1 resonance. We model the behavior as a result of tip-sample coupling or effective medium change due to the presence of the tip. We show that the effect is most significant for momentum dependent and strongly dispersive resonances. In addition, distance dependence measurements demonstrate a competition between scattering of the near-field associated with the thermally driven stochastically fluctuating optical polarization and that of the spatially coherent SPhP which is excited. The results indicate the possibility for local tuning of SPhP resonant conditions via evanescent thermal near-field coupling.

  9. Direct interpretation of near-field optical images.

    PubMed

    Dereux, A; Devaux, E; Weeber, J C; Goudonnet, J P; Girard, C

    2001-05-01

    The interpretation of the detection process in near-field optical microscopy is reviewed on the basis of a discussion about the possibility of establishing direct comparisons between experimental images and the solutions of Maxwell equations or the electromagnetic local density of states. On the basis of simple physical arguments, it is expected that the solutions of Maxwell equations should agree with images obtained by collecting mode near-field microscopes, while the electromagnetic local density of states should be considered to provide a practical interpretation of illumination mode near-field microscopes. We review collecting mode near-field microscope images where the conditions to obtain good agreement with the solutions of Maxwell equations have indeed been identified. In this context of collecting mode near-field microscopes, a fundamentally different functionality between dielectric and gold-coated tips has been clearly identified experimentally by checking against the solutions of Maxwell equations. It turns out that dielectric tips detect a signal proportional to the optical electric field intensity, whereas gold-coated tips detect a signal proportional to the optical magnetic field intensity. The possible implications of this surprising phenomenon are discussed.

  10. Near-field observation of light propagation in nanocoax waveguides.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Juan M; Ye, Fan; Rizal, Binod; Burns, Michael J; Naughton, Michael J

    2014-06-16

    We report the observation of propagating modes of visible and near infrared light in nanoscale coaxial (metal-dielectric-metal) structures, using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Together with numerical calculations, we show that the propagated modes have different nature depending on the excitation wavelength, i.e., plasmonic TE11 and TE21 modes in the near infrared and photonic TE31, TE41 and TM11 modes in the visible. Far field transmission out of the nanocoaxes is dominated by the superposition of Fabry-Perot cavity modes resonating in the structures, consistent with theory. Such coaxial optical waveguides may be useful for future nanoscale photonic systems.

  11. Local field distribution near corrugated interfaces: Green's function formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, K. W.; Wan, Jones T. K.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed a Green's function formalism to compute the local field distribution near an interface separating two media of different dielectric constants. The Maxwell's equations are converted into a surface integral equation; thus it greatly simplifies the solutions and yields accurate results for interfaces of arbitrary shape. The integral equation is solved and the local field distribution is obtained for a periodic interface.

  12. Near-field spillover from a subreflector: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. W.; Acosta, R.; Cherrette, A. R.; Lam, P. T.

    1986-01-01

    In a dual reflector antenna, the spillover from the subreflector is important in determining the accuracy of near-field measurements. This is especially so when some of the feed elements are placed far away from the focus. In this paper, we present a high-frequency GTD analysis of the spillover field over a plane just behind the subreflector. Special attention is given to the field near the incident shadow boundary and the role played by the slope diffraction term. Our computations are in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  13. Near-field spillover from a subreflector: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. W.; Acosta, R.; Cherrette, A. R.; Lam, P. T.

    1986-01-01

    In a dual reflector antenna, the spillover from the subreflector is important in determining the accuracy of near-field measurements. This is especially so when some of the feed elements are placed far away from the focus. A high-frequency GTD analysis of the spillover field over a plane just behind the subreflector is presented. Special attention is given to the field near the incident shadow boundary and the role played by the slope diffraction term. Computations are in excellent agreement with experimental results.

  14. Near-field model of ultrasonic array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velichko, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    One method of efficiently modelling of ultrasonic array data is based on a combination of a ray-tracing approach and far-field scattering amplitude of a scatterer. This technique uses two main assumptions: all scatterers are located in the far-field from each array element and the size of each scatterer is small relative to its distance to array elements. The key part of the model is the so-called scattering matrix, which provides the amplitude and phase of scattered waves in the far-field of the scatterer. However, the far-field approximation fails when the size of the scatterer becomes comparable to its distance to array elements. In this paper a near-field model of ultrasonic array data is developed. In particular, it is shown that the near-field scattering behavior can be extracted from the scattering matrix. The applications of the model are discussed and supported with modelling examples.

  15. Photocurrent mapping of near-field optical antenna resonances.

    PubMed

    Barnard, Edward S; Pala, Ragip A; Brongersma, Mark L

    2011-08-21

    An increasing number of photonics applications make use of nanoscale optical antennas that exhibit a strong, resonant interaction with photons of a specific frequency. The resonant properties of such antennas are conventionally characterized by far-field light-scattering techniques. However, many applications require quantitative knowledge of the near-field behaviour, and existing local field measurement techniques provide only relative, rather than absolute, data. Here, we demonstrate a photodetector platform that uses a silicon-on-insulator substrate to spectrally and spatially map the absolute values of enhanced fields near any type of optical antenna by transducing local electric fields into photocurrent. We are able to quantify the resonant optical and materials properties of nanoscale (∼50 nm) and wavelength-scale (∼1 µm) metallic antennas as well as high-refractive-index semiconductor antennas. The data agree well with light-scattering measurements, full-field simulations and intuitive resonator models.

  16. Dynamically important magnetic fields near accreting supermassive black holes.

    PubMed

    Zamaninasab, M; Clausen-Brown, E; Savolainen, T; Tchekhovskoy, A

    2014-06-05

    Accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of active galaxies often produce 'jets'--collimated bipolar outflows of relativistic particles. Magnetic fields probably play a critical role in jet formation and in accretion disk physics. A dynamically important magnetic field was recently found near the Galactic Centre black hole. If this is common and if the field continues to near the black hole event horizon, disk structures will be affected, invalidating assumptions made in standard models. Here we report that jet magnetic field and accretion disk luminosity are tightly correlated over seven orders of magnitude for a sample of 76 radio-loud active galaxies. We conclude that the jet-launching regions of these radio-loud galaxies are threaded by dynamically important fields, which will affect the disk properties. These fields obstruct gas infall, compress the accretion disk vertically, slow down the disk rotation by carrying away its angular momentum in an outflow and determine the directionality of jets.

  17. Tip size dependence of passive near-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Ting; Komiyama, Susumu; Kajihara, Yusuke

    2016-02-01

    We improve the spatial resolution and investigate the tip-sample coupling in a passive scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM), which probes thermally excited surface waves without any external light source. We study the spatial resolution, the intensity, and the decay behavior of the thermally excited near-field signals with different radii of curvatures of tungsten-tip apexes. We also study the tip size dependence of the interference pattern in the far-field region. The spatial resolution is closely related to the tip size, but the decay behavior of the near field is unrelated. These results suggest that the strength of the tip-sample coupling is unrelated to the tip size in the passive s-SNOM. We propose a theoretical model able to interpret the experimental data for the passive s-SNOM.

  18. Probe Station and Near-Field Scanner for Testing Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz; Lee, Richard Q.; Darby, William G.; Barr, Philip J.; Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A facility that includes a probe station and a scanning open-ended waveguide probe for measuring near electromagnetic fields has been added to Glenn Research Center's suite of antenna-testing facilities, at a small fraction of the cost of the other facilities. This facility is designed specifically for nondestructive characterization of the radiation patterns of miniaturized microwave antennas fabricated on semiconductor and dielectric wafer substrates, including active antennas that are difficult to test in traditional antenna-testing ranges because of fragility, smallness, or severity of DC-bias or test-fixture requirements. By virtue of the simple fact that a greater fraction of radiated power can be captured in a near-field measurement than in a conventional far-field measurement, this near-field facility is convenient for testing miniaturized antennas with low gains.

  19. Near-field spectral properties of coupled plasmonic nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Yu, Han; Sun, Quan; Yang, Jinghuan; Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Kubo, Atsushi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Gong, Qihuang; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2017-03-20

    We investigated the grating effect in complex gold dolmen structures, in which multiple plasmon modes are present due to plasmon hybridization, experimentally from both the far field and the near field. In particular, the near-field properties were investigated using photoemission electron microscopy, and it was demonstrated that two hybridized plasmon modes on the dolmen structures could be influenced by the grating effect. For comparison, we also investigated the grating effect in arrays of simple nanoblocks and heptamer structures, which were supposed to support a strong bright plasmon mode and a strong dark plasmon mode, respectively, in the near field. We found that the spectral responses of the two hybridized modes on the dolmen structures as the pitch size changed evolved in a manner similar to that of the bright dipole mode on the nanoblocks, whereas the dark mode on the heptamer structures is less sensitive to the pitch size.

  20. Near- and Far-Field Optical Response of Eccentric Nanoshells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peña-Rodríguez, Ovidio; Díaz-Núñez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Vladimir; Montaño-Priede, Luis; Rivera, Antonio; Pal, Umapada

    2017-01-01

    We study the optical response of eccentric nanoshells (i.e., spherical nanoparticles with an eccentric spherical inclusion) in the near and the far field through finite-difference time-domain simulations. Plasmon hybridization theory is used to explain the obtained results. The eccentricity generates a far-field optical spectrum with various plasmon peaks. The number, position, and width of the peaks depend on the core offset. Near-field enhancements in the surroundings of these structures are significantly larger than those obtained for equivalent concentric nanoshells and, more importantly, they are almost independent of the illumination conditions. This opens up the door for using eccentric nanoshells in applications requiring intense near-field enhancements.

  1. Near- and Far-Field Optical Response of Eccentric Nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Peña-Rodríguez, Ovidio; Díaz-Núñez, Pablo; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Vladimir; Montaño-Priede, Luis; Rivera, Antonio; Pal, Umapada

    2017-12-01

    We study the optical response of eccentric nanoshells (i.e., spherical nanoparticles with an eccentric spherical inclusion) in the near and the far field through finite-difference time-domain simulations. Plasmon hybridization theory is used to explain the obtained results. The eccentricity generates a far-field optical spectrum with various plasmon peaks. The number, position, and width of the peaks depend on the core offset. Near-field enhancements in the surroundings of these structures are significantly larger than those obtained for equivalent concentric nanoshells and, more importantly, they are almost independent of the illumination conditions. This opens up the door for using eccentric nanoshells in applications requiring intense near-field enhancements.

  2. Terahertz diffraction enhanced transparency probed in the near field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpin, Alexei; van Hoof, Niels; Bhattacharya, Arkabrata; Mennes, Christiaan; Gomez Rivas, Jaime

    2017-08-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials allows to engineer structures which transmit narrow spectral ranges of radiation while exhibiting a large group index. Implementation of this phenomenon frequently calls for strong near-field coupling of bright (dipolar) resonances to dark (multipolar) resonances in the metamolecules comprising the metamaterials. The sharpness and contrast of the resulting transparency windows thus depends strongly on how closely these metamolecules can be placed to one another, placing constraints on fabrication capabilities. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that the reliance on near-field interaction strength can be relaxed, and the magnitude of the electromagnetic-induced transparency enhanced, by exploiting the long-range coupling between metamolecules in periodic lattices. By placing dolmen structures resonant at THz frequencies in a periodic lattice, we show a significant increase of the transparency window when the in-plane diffraction is tuned to the resonant frequency of the metamolecules, as confirmed by direct mapping of the THz near-field amplitude across a lattice of dolmens. Through the direct interrogation of the dark resonance in the near field, we show the interplay of near- and far-field couplings in optimizing the response of planar dolmen arrays via diffraction-enhanced transparency.

  3. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotronradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried,Daniel

    2004-12-23

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  4. Visualizing near-field coupling in terahertz dolmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpin, Alexei; Mennes, Christiaan; Bhattacharya, Arkabrata; Gómez Rivas, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    Strong interactions between resonant structures in the near-field occur at length scales shorter than the wavelength, and can be exploited for modifying the propagation of electromagnetic radiation. Dolmen-like structures, formed by a rod supporting a dipolar (bright) resonance and two orthogonal rods with a quadrupolar (dark) resonance at the same frequency, represent a geometry of significant interest for near-field electromagnetic coupling. These structures demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) through coupling between these resonances, concurrently providing a sharp spectral selectivity in transmission and large group velocity reduction. We use near-field terahertz scanning microscopy to map the electric fields in the vicinity of a metallic dolmen in both amplitude and phase. In this way, we directly measure the interaction between bright and dark modes in the time-domain, revealing the physics resulting in EIT. We experimentally demonstrate the hybridization of bright and dark modes accompanying the near-field coupling, as well as the excitation of the dark mode at the frequency of the far-field transparency.

  5. Near-field acoustical holography of military jet aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, Alan T.; Gee, Kent L.; Neilsen, Tracianne; Krueger, David W.; Sommerfeldt, Scott D.; James, Michael M.

    2010-10-01

    Noise radiated from high-performance military jet aircraft poses a hearing-loss risk to personnel. Accurate characterization of jet noise can assist in noise prediction and noise reduction techniques. In this work, sound pressure measurements were made in the near field of an F-22 Raptor. With more than 6000 measurement points, this is the most extensive near-field measurement of a high-performance jet to date. A technique called near-field acoustical holography has been used to propagate the complex pressure from a two- dimensional plane to a three-dimensional region in the jet vicinity. Results will be shown and what they reveal about jet noise characteristics will be discussed.

  6. Thermal excitation of plasmons for near-field thermophotovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yu; Molesky, Sean; Hu, Huan; Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin

    2014-08-18

    The traditional approaches of exciting plasmons consist of either using electrons (e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy) or light (Kretchman and Otto geometry) while more recently plasmons have been excited even by single photons. A different approach: thermal excitation of a plasmon resonance at high temperatures using alternate plasmonic media was proposed by S. Molesky et al. [Opt. Express 21, A96–A110 (2013)]. Here, we show how the long-standing search for a high temperature narrowband near-field emitter for thermophotovoltaics can be fulfilled by thermally exciting plasmons. We also describe a method to control Wein's displacement law in the near-field using high temperature epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. Finally, we show that our work opens up an interesting direction of research for the field of slow light: thermal emission control.

  7. Near-field radiative thermal transport: From theory to experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bai Fiorino, Anthony; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-05-15

    Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near-field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near-field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near-field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.

  8. Near-field energy extraction with hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiawei; Liu, Baoan; Li, Pengfei; Ng, Li Yen; Shen, Sheng

    2015-02-11

    Although blackbody radiation described by Planck's law is commonly regarded as the maximum of thermal radiation, thermal energy transfer in the near-field can exceed the blackbody limit due to the contribution from evanescent waves. Here, we demonstrate experimentally a broadband thermal energy extraction device based on hyperbolic metamaterials that can significantly enhance near-field thermal energy transfer. The thermal extractor made from hyperbolic metamaterials does not absorb or emit any radiation but serves as a transparent pipe guiding the radiative energy from the emitter. At the same gap between an emitter and an absorber, we observe that near-field thermal energy transfer with thermal extraction can be enhanced by around 1 order of magnitude, compared to the case without thermal extraction. The novel thermal extraction scheme has important practical implications in a variety of technologies, e.g., thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, radiative cooling, thermal infrared imaging, and heat assisted magnetic recording.

  9. Quantum fields near phantom-energy ''sudden'' singularities

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, Hector H.

    2008-08-15

    This paper is committed to calculations near a type of future singularity driven by phantom energy. At the singularities considered, the scale factor remains finite but its derivative diverges. The general behavior of barotropic phantom energy producing this singularity is calculated under the assumption that near the singularity such fluid is the dominant contributor. We use the semiclassical formula for renormalized stress tensors of conformally invariant fields in conformally flat spacetimes and analyze the softening/enhancing of the singularity due to quantum vacuum contributions. This dynamical analysis is then compared to results from thermodynamical considerations. In both cases, the vacuum states of quantized scalar and spinor fields strengthen the accelerating expansion near the singularity whereas the vacuum states of vector fields weaken it.

  10. Diagnose human colonic tissues by terahertz near-field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua; Ma, Shihua; Wu, Xiumei; Yang, Wenxing; Zhao, Tian

    2015-03-01

    Based on a terahertz (THz) pipe-based near-field imaging system, we demonstrate the capability of THz imaging to diagnose freshly surgically excised human colonic tissues. Through THz near-field scanning the absorbance of the colonic tissues, the acquired images can clearly distinguish cancerous tissues from healthy tissues fast and automatically without pathological hematoxylin and eosin stain diagnosis. A statistical study on 58 specimens (20 healthy tissues and 38 tissues with tumor) from 31 patients (mean age: 59 years; range: 46 to 79 years) shows that the corresponding diagnostic sensitivity and specificity on colonic tissues are both 100%. Due to its capability to perform quantitative analysis, our study indicates the potential of the THz pipe-based near-field imaging for future automation on human tumor pathological examinations.

  11. Far-field errors due to random noise in cylindrical near-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeu, Jordi; Jofre, Luis; Cardama, Angel

    1992-01-01

    A full characterization of the far-field noise obtained from cylindrical near- to far-field transformation, for a white Gaussian, space stationary, near-field noise is derived. A possible source for such noise is the receiver additive noise. The noise characterization is done by obtaining the autocorrelation of the far-field noise, which is shown to be easily computed during the transformation process. Even for this simple case, the far-field noise has complex behavior dependent on the measurement probe. Once the statistical properties of the far-field noise are determined, it is possible to compute upper and lower bounds for the radiation pattern for a given probability. These bounds define a strip within the radiation pattern with the desired probability. This may be used as part of a complete near-field error analysis of a particular cylindrical near-field facility.

  12. Photon sorting in the near field using subwavelength cavity arrays in the near-infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Mandel, Isroel M. Lansey, Eli; Gollub, Jonah N.; Sarantos, Chris H.; Akhmechet, Roman; Golovin, Andrii B.; Crouse, David T.

    2013-12-16

    A frequency selective metasurface capable of sorting photons in the near-infrared spectral range is designed, fabricated, and characterized. The metasurface, a periodic array of dielectric cylindrical cavities in a gold film, localizes and transmits light of two spectral frequency bands into spatially separated cavities, resulting in near-field light splitting. The design and fabrication methodologies of the metasurface are discussed. The transmittance and photon sorting properties of the designed structure is simulated numerically and the measured transmission is presented.

  13. Magnetic dipole moment determination by near-field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichhorn, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    A method for determining the magnetic moment of a spacecraft from magnetic field data taken in a limited region of space close to the spacecraft. The spacecraft's magnetic field equations are derived from first principles. With measurements of this field restricted to certain points in space, the near-field equations for the spacecraft are derived. These equations are solved for the dipole moment by a least squares procedure. A method by which one can estimate the magnitude of the error in the calculations is also presented. This technique was thoroughly tested on a computer. The test program is described and evaluated, and partial results are presented.

  14. Near-Field Diffraction Imaging from Multiple Detection Planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loetgering, L.; Golembusch, M.; Hammoud, R.; Wilhein, T.

    2017-06-01

    We present diffraction imaging results obtained from multiple near-field diffraction constraints. An iterative phase retrieval algorithm was implemented that uses data redundancy achieved by measuring near-field diffraction intensities at various sample-detector distances. The procedure allows for reconstructing the exit surface wave of a sample within a multiple constraint satisfaction framework neither making use of a priori knowledge as enforced in coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) nor exact scanning grid knowledge as required in ptychography. We also investigate the potential of the presented technique to deal with polychromatic radiation as important for potential application in diffraction imaging by means of tabletop EUV and X-ray sources.

  15. Near-field environment/processes working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.

  16. Collective near-field thermal emission from polaritonic nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tervo, Eric; Zhang, Zhuomin; Cola, Baratunde

    2017-06-01

    The spectral characteristics of near-field thermal emission from nanoparticle arrays are explained by comparison to the dispersions for propagating modes. Using the coupled dipole model, we analytically calculate the spectral emission from single particles, chains, planes, and three-dimensional arrays of Si O2 and SiC. We show that the differences in their spectra are due to the existence or absence of propagating surface phonon polariton modes and that the emission is dominated by these modes when they are present. This work paves the way for understanding and control of near-field radiation in nanofluids, nanoparticle beds, and certain metamaterials.

  17. Near Field Characterization of the GeoSTAR Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, Alan B.; Lambrigsten, B. H.; Gaier, T. M.; Torres, F.

    2006-01-01

    The GeoSTAR demonstrator can be characterized at close range by means of a simple near-to-far-field phase correction. This reduces the test set-up configuration to reasonable dimensions. In order to simulate the Earth as seen from GEO, the target consists of a disc of absorbent material at ambient temperature placed against the sky. This work presents the details of the near-to-far-field correction as well as some preliminary results that confirm its suitability to characterize the demonstrator.

  18. Ultra-sensitive near-field Raman detection technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shifa; Liu, Kun; Pan, Shi

    2006-02-01

    In this report, based on the near-field Raman theory which mechanism is fundamental different with the far-field Raman, a new viewpoint of near-field Raman was brought out. In this view, to be the excitation light, the effect of evanescent light in near-field Raman was emphasized, at same time, the evanescent light component in the Raman scattering light was noticed, too. The sample could be excited through evanescent light and the component of evanescent light in Raman scattering light was collected entirely in the novel ultra-sensitive near-field Raman sample cell. According to the sample cell, initial experiment was performed. The high aperture oil immersed object lens was employed to form excitation light which included evanescent light component. High signal-to-noise surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of rat serum was obtained. By analysing the Raman spectrum, it was found that the new Raman peaks come out because of the excitation light including evanescent light.

  19. Integrated atom detector based on field ionization near carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Gruener, B.; Jag, M.; Stibor, A.; Visanescu, G.; Haeffner, M.; Kern, D.; Guenther, A.; Fortagh, J.

    2009-12-15

    We demonstrate an atom detector based on field ionization and subsequent ion counting. We make use of field enhancement near tips of carbon nanotubes to reach extreme electrostatic field values of up to 9x10{sup 9} V/m, which ionize ground-state rubidium atoms. The detector is based on a carpet of multiwall carbon nanotubes grown on a substrate and used for field ionization, and a channel electron multiplier used for ion counting. We measure the field enhancement at the tips of carbon nanotubes by field emission of electrons. We demonstrate the operation of the field ionization detector by counting atoms from a thermal beam of a rubidium dispenser source. By measuring the ionization rate of rubidium as a function of the applied detector voltage we identify the field ionization distance, which is below a few tens of nanometers in front of nanotube tips. We deduce from the experimental data that field ionization of rubidium near nanotube tips takes place on a time scale faster than 10{sup -10} s. This property is particularly interesting for the development of fast atom detectors suitable for measuring correlations in ultracold quantum gases. We also describe an application of the detector as partial pressure gauge.

  20. Near-field Optical Measurements of Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahi, R. H.; Wetsel, G. C., Jr.; Cunningham, A. J.

    1998-03-01

    We are applying a Reflection-mode Apertureless Near-field Scanning Optical Microscope (RANSOM) to study defect detection in semiconductor devices and materials. Optical data from approach curves show a characteristic near-field optical signal. Evaluation of lateral definition is accomplished by correlation with known features of 100 nm or less. The RANSOM regulates on the force between the tip and sample; probe tips are made of etched tungsten wires which vibrate in the pecking mode. Since the metallic tip is conductive, we have a multi-purpose scanned probe capable of simultaneously gathering current, force (topographical), and optical data. With the RANSOM, leakage currents through a SiO2 layer can be detected along with topographical and optical information. Such capability could be applied to the current leakage problem across field-oxide edges. Knowledge of the leakage current across the field oxide and the thickness gradient of its edge is very important in process development of CMOS devices.

  1. Near-field levitated quantum optomechanics with nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, M. L.; Molina-Terriza, G.; Volz, T.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically show that the dipole force of an ensemble of quantum emitters embedded in a dielectric nanosphere can be exploited to achieve near-field optical levitation. The key ingredient is that the polarizability from the ensemble of embedded quantum emitters can be larger than the bulk polarizability of the sphere, thereby enabling the use of repulsive optical potentials and consequently the levitation using optical near fields. In levitated cavity quantum optomechanics, this could be used to boost the single-photon coupling by combining larger polarizability to mass ratio, larger field gradients, and smaller cavity volumes while remaining in the resolved sideband regime and at room temperature. A case study is done with a nanodiamond containing a high density of silicon-vacancy color centers that is optically levitated in the evanescent field of a tapered nanofiber and coupled to a high-finesse microsphere cavity.

  2. Near-Field Optical Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Pointed Probes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    metal nanostructure can be viewed as an optical antenna . Of course, the efficiency depends on the material composition and the geometry of the...nanostructure. A simple form of optical antenna is a single ellipsoidal particle. This particle ex- hibits a distinct resonance for which the field...Grober RD, Schoelkopf RJ, Prober DE. 1997. Optical antenna : towards a unity efficiency near-field optical probe. Appl. Phys. Lett. 70:1354 54. Farahani

  3. Near-field scanning study for radio frequency interference estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jingnan

    This dissertation discusses the novel techniques using near-fields scanning to do radio frequency interference (RFI) estimation. As the electronic products are becoming more and more complicated, the radio frequency (RF) receiver in the system is very likely interfered by multiple noise sources simultaneously. A method is proposed to identify the interference from different noise sources separately, even when they are radiating at the same time. This method is very helpful for engineers to identify the contribution of the coupling from different sources and further solve the electromagnetic interference issues efficiently. On the other hand, the equivalent dipole-moment models and a decomposition method based on reciprocity theory can also be used together to estimate the coupling from the noise source to the victim antennas. This proposed method provides convenience to estimate RFI issues in the early design stage and saves the time of RFI simulation and measurements. The finite element method and image theory can also predict the far fields of the radiation source, locating above a ground plane. This method applies the finite element method (FEM) to get the equivalent current sources from the tangential magnetic near fields. With the equivalent current sources, the far-field radiation can be calculated based on Huygens's Principle and image theory. By using only the magnetic near fields on the simplified Huygens's surface, the proposed method significantly saves measurement time and cost while also retaining good far-field prediction.

  4. Near-Field CARS with Micro- and Nano-Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2010-08-01

    Spatial dependence of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) intensity and spectra for a spherical particle are studied for different sizes, ranging from micrometers to nanometers. Effects of near field on the spectra are analyzed, showing potential application as nano-sensor in microscopy and imaging. The results can be extended to an array of nanospheres. The CARS process has been developed into a versatile real-time detection technique in spectroscopy and microscopy [1]. In particularly, backscattered ultra-violet CARS implemented on LIDAR system [2] is promising for remote detection of molecular species present in hazardous biological aerosols with microscale dimension. In practice, the aerosols could be in any dimension. Thus, we need to know study a modified the setup of the CARS technique for reliable detection of chemicals in micro- and nano-particles using near-field effects. We have developed a nonlinear semiclassical microscopic theory to describe the CARS spectra for a particle composed of a collection of arbitrarily complex molecules [3] as well as simple few levels quantum systems [2]. The theory provides useful results on the CARS spectra for any observation angle and for any form of laser pulses [3]. Here, we focus on the spectra in the near field. We wish to study how the spectra vary with the near field distance with focused laser pulses. We also analyze to what extend the dimension of the particle and the focusing laser affect the lensing effect which could enhance the backscattered light.

  5. Near-Field Noise Computation for a Supersonic Circular Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2005-01-01

    A fully expanded, high-Reynolds-number, supersonic circular jet of Mach number 1.4 is simulated, using a 3-D finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver, with emphasis on the near field noise. The numerical results are generally in good agreement with existing experimental findings.

  6. Near-Field Spectroscopy with Nanoparticles Deposited by AFM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    An alternative approach to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy involving an atomic-force microscope (AFM) entails less complexity of equipment than does a prior approach. The alternative approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of the type using an AFM and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and is expected to be equally applicable in cases in which infrared or fluorescence spectroscopy is used. Apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy is a means of performing spatially resolved analyses of chemical compositions of surface regions of nanostructured materials. In apertureless near-field spectroscopy, it is common practice to utilize nanostructured probe tips or nanoparticles (usually of gold) having shapes and dimensions chosen to exploit plasmon resonances so as to increase spectroscopic-signal strengths. To implement the particular prior approach to which the present approach is an alternative, it is necessary to integrate a Raman spectrometer with an AFM and to utilize a special SERS-active probe tip. The resulting instrumentation system is complex, and the tasks of designing and constructing the system and using the system to acquire spectro-chemical information from nanometer-scale regions on a surface are correspondingly demanding.

  7. Near-Field Noise Computation for a Subsonic Coannular Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Hultgren, Lennart S.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2008-01-01

    A high-Reynolds-number, subsonic coannular jet is simulated, using a three-dimensional finite-volume LES method, with emphasis on the near field noise. The nozzle geometry used is the NASA Glenn 3BB baseline model. The numerical results are generally in good agreement with existing experimental findings.

  8. Low-noise Instrumentation for Near-field Microwave Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisum, Jonathan David

    This thesis addresses circuits and systems optimized for the unique requirements of near-field microwave microscopy (NFMM). A suite of qualification measurements is conducted for the systematic characterization of the NFMM measurement system. Finally, modeling methods and quantitative analysis are performed for the interpretation of resulting measurements. An NFMM measurement typically suffers from small signal in the presence of seemingly overwhelming white and 1/f noise. As such, it requires instrumentation that provides signal enhancement, noise reduction, and long-term stability. This thesis describes the design and characterization of probe circuits and probe tips which enable sensitive and high-resolution NFMM with enhanced signals. The space efficient probe circuit is designed for ease of integration and eventual MMIC implementation. The scanning Lock-in Vector Near-field Probe (LVNP) instrument is designed for the readout of the near-field probe circuit. Selection of measurement topology for the purpose of noise reduction/mitigation is described. The LVNP is characterized with respect to noise, stability, and maximum signal sensitivity. In summary, this thesis details the design of a complete system for near-field microwave microscopy including probe tip, probe circuit, and instrument design. Performance limitations are quantified throughout the thesis in the hope of promoting a systematic approach to NFMM instrumentation, and quantitative data analysis techniques are proposed.

  9. Near-field thermal imaging of nanostructured surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, A.; Wischnath, U. F.; Welker, J.; Huth, O.; Rüting, F.; Biehs, S.-A.

    2008-11-01

    We show that a near-field scanning thermal microscope, which essentially detects the local density of states of the thermally excited electromagnetic modes at nanometer distances from some material, can be employed for nanoscale imaging of structures on that material's surface. This finding is explained theoretically by an approach which treats the surface structure perturbatively.

  10. Near-field transport imaging applied to photovoltaic materials

    DOE PAGES

    Xiao, Chuanxiao; Jiang, Chun -Sheng; Moseley, John; ...

    2017-05-26

    We developed and applied a new analytical technique - near-field transport imaging (NF-TI or simply TI) - to photovoltaic materials. Charge-carrier transport is an important factor in solar cell performance, and TI is an innovative approach that integrates a scanning electron microscope with a near-field scanning optical microscope, providing the possibility to study luminescence associated with recombination and transport with high spatial resolution. In this paper, we describe in detail the technical barriers we had to overcome to develop the technique for routine application and the data-fitting procedure used to calculate minority-carrier diffusion length values. The diffusion length measured bymore » TI agrees well with the results calculated by time-resolved photoluminescence on well-controlled gallium arsenide (GaAs) thin-film samples. We report for the first time on measurements on thin-film cadmium telluride using this technique, including the determination of effective carrier diffusion length, as well as the first near-field imaging of the effect of a single localized defect on carrier transport and recombination in a GaAs heterostructure. Furthermore, by changing the scanning setup, we were able to demonstrate near-field cathodoluminescence (CL), and correlated the results with standard CL measurements. In conclusion, the TI technique shows great potential for mapping transport properties in solar cell materials with high spatial resolution.« less

  11. Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M. T. Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J.; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-12-01

    Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4, 5, 6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer.

  12. Lower corner of Face B Array with near field horn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lower corner of Face B Array with near field horn, foreground left, looking north/northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  13. Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near-field communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Banks, Anthony; Cheng, Huanyu; Xie, Zhaoqian; Xu, Sheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Liu, Zhuangjian; Gutruf, Philipp; Huang, Xian; Wei, Pinghung; Liu, Fei; Li, Kan; Dalal, Mitul; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Gupta, Sanjay; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2015-02-25

    Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near field communications (NFC) are presented. The systems include stretchable coils and thinned NFC chips on thin, low modulus stretchable adhesives, to allow seamless, conformal contact with the skin and simultaneous capabilities for wireless interfaces to any standard, NFC-enabled smartphone, even under extreme deformation and after/during normal daily activities.

  14. Near-field to far-field characterization of speckle patterns generated by disordered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Parigi, Valentina; Perros, Elodie; Binard, Guillaume; Bourdillon, Céline; Maître, Agnès; Carminati, Rémi; Krachmalnicoff, Valentina; De Wilde, Yannick

    2016-04-04

    We study the intensity spatial correlation function of optical speckle patterns above a disordered dielectric medium in the multiple scattering regime. The intensity distributions are recorded by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with sub-wavelength spatial resolution at variable distances from the surface in a range which spans continuously from the near-field (distance ≪ λ) to the far-field regime (distance ≫ λ). The non-universal behavior at sub-wavelength distances reveals the connection between the near-field speckle pattern and the internal structure of the medium.

  15. Proteins in the electric field near the surface of mica.

    PubMed

    Starzyk, Anna; Cieplak, Marek

    2013-07-28

    We elucidate the nature of the electric field produced by a model mica surface and show that above some 0.4 nm it is nearly uniform and of order 12 V/nm. The presence of ions in the solvent above the surface, up to the concentration of about 300 mM, does not modify the nature of the field much. We study the conformational changes of a small protein, the tryptophan cage, as induced by (a) uniform electric field and (b) the electric field near mica. We use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and provide evidence for the existence of unfolded and deformed conformations in each of these cases. The two behaviors are characterized by distinct properties of the radius of gyration and of the distortion parameter that distinguishes between elongated and globular shapes. The overall geometry of the conformations shifts with the strengths of the uniform field in a manner that depends on the nature of the simulation box--whether it is bounded by neutral walls or not--and on the ionic concentration. Near the mica surface, on the other hand, the fraction of unfolded conformations is close to 1/6 at the ionic strength of 350 mM compared to 1/2 at 20 mM. When the electric charge on the mica is fully neutralized by bringing more ions of the opposite charge then unfolded conformations stay unfolded but an evolution from the native state does not lead to any unfolding.

  16. Proteins in the electric field near the surface of mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starzyk, Anna; Cieplak, Marek

    2013-07-01

    We elucidate the nature of the electric field produced by a model mica surface and show that above some 0.4 nm it is nearly uniform and of order 12 V/nm. The presence of ions in the solvent above the surface, up to the concentration of about 300 mM, does not modify the nature of the field much. We study the conformational changes of a small protein, the tryptophan cage, as induced by (a) uniform electric field and (b) the electric field near mica. We use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and provide evidence for the existence of unfolded and deformed conformations in each of these cases. The two behaviors are characterized by distinct properties of the radius of gyration and of the distortion parameter that distinguishes between elongated and globular shapes. The overall geometry of the conformations shifts with the strengths of the uniform field in a manner that depends on the nature of the simulation box — whether it is bounded by neutral walls or not — and on the ionic concentration. Near the mica surface, on the other hand, the fraction of unfolded conformations is close to 1/6 at the ionic strength of 350 mM compared to 1/2 at 20 mM. When the electric charge on the mica is fully neutralized by bringing more ions of the opposite charge then unfolded conformations stay unfolded but an evolution from the native state does not lead to any unfolding.

  17. Design considerations for near-field enhancement in optical antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-García, Roberto; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Fernández-Domínguez, Antonio I.; Giannini, Vincenzo; Maier, Stefan A.

    2014-01-01

    Nanoantennas for visible and infrared radiation can strongly enhance the interaction of light with matter by their ability to localise electromagnetic fields on nanometric scales. This allows for the engineering of the absorption and radiation capabilities of nanoemitters, such as dye molecules or quantum dots. In this article, we discuss the main parameters influencing the near-field enhancement provided by dimer-type nanoantennas, the configuration most thoroughly studied in the literature. To facilitate the design of structures, we analyse the influence of the substrate, adhesion layers and a reflective metal underlayer, as well as their arrangement in a periodic fashion. We also highlight the factors which increase the damping of the localised plasmonic modes and the spectral differences between far and near-field resonances.

  18. Near-field optically driven Brownian motors (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Ningfeng; Jaquay, Eric; Povinelli, Michelle L.

    2016-09-01

    Brownian ratchets are of fundamental interest in fields from statistical physics to molecular motors. The realization of Brownian ratchets in engineered systems opens up the potential to harness thermal energy for directed motion, with applications in transport and sorting of nanoparticles. Implementations based on optical traps provide a high degree of tunability along with precise spatiotemporal control. Near-field optical methods provide particular flexibility and ease of on-chip integration with other microfluidic components. Here, we demonstrate the first all-optical, near-field Brownian ratchet. Our approach uses an asymmetrically patterned photonic crystal and yields an ultra-stable trap stiffness of 253.6 pN/nm-W, 100x greater than conventional optical tweezers. By modulating the laser power, optical ratcheting with transport speed of 1 micron/s can be achieved, allowing a variety of dynamical lab-on-a-chip applications. The resulting transport speed matches well with the theoretical prediction.

  19. Mars Pathfinder Near-Field Rock Distribution Re-Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Golombek, M. P.

    2003-01-01

    We have completed analysis of a new near-field rock count at the Mars Pathfinder landing site and determined that the previously published rock count suggesting 16% cumulative fractional area (CFA) covered by rocks is incorrect. The earlier value is not so much wrong (our new CFA is 20%), as right for the wrong reason: both the old and the new CFA's are consistent with remote sensing data, however the earlier determination incorrectly calculated rock coverage using apparent width rather than average diameter. Here we present details of the new rock database and the new statistics, as well as the importance of using rock average diameter for rock population statistics. The changes to the near-field data do not affect the far-field rock statistics.

  20. Engineering two-wire optical antennas for near field enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Si; He, Jun

    2017-07-01

    We study the optimization of near field enhancement in the two-wire optical antenna system. By varying the nanowire sizes we obtain the optimized side-length (width and height) for the maximum field enhancement with a given gap size. The optimized side-length applies to a broadband range (λ = 650-1000 nm). The ratio of extinction cross section to field concentration size is found to be closely related to the field enhancement behavior. We also investigate two experimentally feasible cases which are antennas on glass substrate and mirror, and find that the optimized side-length also applies to these systems. It is also found that the optimized side-length shows a tendency of increasing with the gap size. Our results could find applications in field-enhanced spectroscopies.

  1. Analytic Optimization of Near-Field Optical Chirality Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    We present an analytic derivation for the enhancement of local optical chirality in the near field of plasmonic nanostructures by tuning the far-field polarization of external light. We illustrate the results by means of simulations with an achiral and a chiral nanostructure assembly and demonstrate that local optical chirality is significantly enhanced with respect to circular polarization in free space. The optimal external far-field polarizations are different from both circular and linear. Symmetry properties of the nanostructure can be exploited to determine whether the optimal far-field polarization is circular. Furthermore, the optimal far-field polarization depends on the frequency, which results in complex-shaped laser pulses for broadband optimization. PMID:28239617

  2. Visualizing 3D velocity fields near contour surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.; Crawfis, R.; Grant, C.

    1994-03-01

    Vector field rendering is difficult in 3D because the vector icons overlap and hide each other. We propose four different techniques for visualizing vector fields only near surfaces. The first uses motion blurred particles in a thickened region around the surface. The second uses a voxel grid to contain integral curves of the vector field. The third uses many antialiased lines through the surface, and the fourth uses hairs sprouting from the surface and then bending in the direction of the vector field. All the methods use the graphite pipeline, allowing real time rotation and interaction, and the first two methods can animate the texture to move in the flow determined by the velocity field.

  3. Magnetic field patterns near the polar cap boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snekvik, Kristian; Magnus Laundal, Karl; Østgaard, Nikolai; Tenfjord, Paul; Reistad, Jone Peter; Milan, Steve; Haaland, Stein

    2015-04-01

    We present results about the magnetic field pattern at low earth orbit near the open closed field line boundary (OCB). We try to determine criteria for when and how the OCB can be determined from magnetic field measurements. The OCB is determined from low energy particle fluxes, and the magnetic field measurements are taken from the AMPERE data products derived from the Iridium constellation. Poleward of the OCB we typically have anti sunward flow, while equatorward of the boundary, the flow is typically sunward. The resulting flow pattern makes up the two-cell convection pattern which is due to the Dungey cycle. The ionospheric plasma flow is driven by magnetic tension which is balanced by the frictional force. The tension is imposed by the solar wind and magnetospheric plasma flows. In the simplest picture the magnetic field perturbations are parallel to the flow in the Southern hemisphere and anti parallel to the flow in the Northern hemisphere. In this simple picture the OCB would be located where the magnetic field perturbations change direction. There are at least two complications to this simple picture. The first is that there are other flow cells near the OCB like the lobe cell and viscous cell. These would complicate the flow patterns by causing sunward flow on open field lines and anti sunward flow on closed field lines. The second complication is that the Hall-effect in the ionosphere will cause an additional magnetic field perturbation perpendicular to the plasma flow. With these processes in mind, we try to identify patterns in the magnetic field which are unique to the OCB.

  4. Far-field patterns of spaceborne antennas from plane-polar near-field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Gatti, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    Certain unique features of a recently constructed plane-polar near-field measurement facility for determining the far-field patterns of large and fragile spaceborne antennas are described. In this facility, the horizontally positioned antenna rotates about its axis while the measuring probe is advanced incrementally in a fixed radial direction. The near-field measured data is then processed using a Jacobi-Bessel expansion to obtain the antenna far fields. A summary of the measurement and computational steps is given. Comparisons between the outdoor far-field measurements and the constructed far-field patterns from the near-field measured data are provided for different antenna sizes and frequencies. Application of the substitution method for the absolute gain measurement is discussed. In particular, results are shown for the 4.8-m mesh-deployable high-gain antenna of the Galileo spacecraft which has the mission of orbiting Jupiter in 1988.

  5. Far-field patterns of spaceborne antennas from plane-polar near-field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Gatti, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    Certain unique features of a recently constructed plane-polar near-field measurement facility for determining the far-field patterns of large and fragile spaceborne antennas are described. In this facility, the horizontally positioned antenna rotates about its axis while the measuring probe is advanced incrementally in a fixed radial direction. The near-field measured data is then processed using a Jacobi-Bessel expansion to obtain the antenna far fields. A summary of the measurement and computational steps is given. Comparisons between the outdoor far-field measurements and the constructed far-field patterns from the near-field measured data are provided for different antenna sizes and frequencies. Application of the substitution method for the absolute gain measurement is discussed. In particular, results are shown for the 4.8-m mesh-deployable high-gain antenna of the Galileo spacecraft which has the mission of orbiting Jupiter in 1988.

  6. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    SciTech Connect

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  7. Near-field photometry for organic light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Harikumar, Krishnan; Isphording, Alexandar; Venkataramanan, Venkat

    2013-03-01

    Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) technology is rapidly maturing to be ready for next generation of light source for general lighting. The current standard test methods for solid state lighting have evolved for semiconductor sources, with point-like emission characteristics. However, OLED devices are extended surface emitters, where spatial uniformity and angular variation of brightness and colour are important. This necessitates advanced test methods to obtain meaningful data for fundamental understanding, lighting product development and deployment. In this work, a near field imaging goniophotometer was used to characterize lighting-class white OLED devices, where luminance and colour information of the pixels on the light sources were measured at a near field distance for various angles. Analysis was performed to obtain angle dependent luminous intensity, CIE chromaticity coordinates and correlated colour temperature (CCT) in the far field. Furthermore, a complete ray set with chromaticity information was generated, so that illuminance at any distance and angle from the light source can be determined. The generated ray set is needed for optical modeling and design of OLED luminaires. Our results show that luminance non-uniformity could potentially affect the luminaire aesthetics and CCT can vary with angle by more than 2000K. This leads to the same source being perceived as warm or cool depending on the viewing angle. As OLEDs are becoming commercially available, this could be a major challenge for lighting designers. Near field measurement can provide detailed specifications and quantitative comparison between OLED products for performance improvement.

  8. Complex Near-Field Plasmonic Response of Au Nanospirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachtel, Jordan; Davidson, Roderick; Lupini, Andrew; Lawrie, Benjamin; Haglund, Richard; Pantelides, Sokrates

    Complex metallic nanostructures that support unique near-field surface plasmon modes have shown applications across the fields of photovoltaics, bio-sensing, and even quantum computing. Chiral Au nanospirals not only possess a non-symmetric morphology that results in second-harmonic generation, but possess multiple distinct near-field plasmonic modes that cover a wide range of plasmon frequencies. We use cathodoluminescence (CL) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) within a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to study the surface plasmons and map them with nanoscale precision. The two techniques are complementary as EELS measures excitations in the sample, while CL measures the subsequent radiative decays. We STEM-EELS/CL to map and analyze the spatial profile, intensity and polarization response of the intricate near-field plasmon modes in these versatile nanostructures. This work was funded by the Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-09ER46554 and the Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  9. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bestwick, A. J.; Fox, E. J.; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  10. Imaging of Microwave Circuits Using Near-Field Microwave Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anlage, Steven M.; Dutta, Sudeep; Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, David E.; Wellstood, F. C.

    1997-03-01

    Detailed models and simulations have been a major tool in the development and evaluation of microwave devices (e.g. circulators, superconducting filters, antennas). However actual quantitative measurements of performance are generally limited to global characteristics (such as reflection/transmission coefficients) leaving the models unverified in detail. With the near-field scanning microwave microscope(C. P. Vlahacos, et al.) Appl. Phys. Lett. 69 (21), 3272 (1996) (which uses an open-ended coaxial cable scanned in proximity to the surface to be imaged), we present a method of probing the internal fields of devices. By imaging simple device configurations (e.g. microstrip), where field patterns are easily calculated, we show how quantitative values for the electric field and potential can be calculated directly from the data. Resolution is dependent on the size of the coaxial cable, and has a limit of approximately 20 μm. Images of both data and models will be shown for comparison.

  11. Near-field investigations of nanoshell cylinder dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höflich, Katja; Gösele, Ulrich; Christiansen, Silke

    2009-10-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are known to exhibit strong particle size dependent localized surface plasmon resonances due to their specific optical response described via the complex dielectric function. Using the two-dimensional finite element method, the near-field behavior of core-shell nanocylinder dimers with either a dielectric or a gold core and a silver shell was investigated. With a detailed analysis the positions of maximum field enhancement usable for highly sensitive spectroscopy were unveiled and the surface charge distributions of the different kinds of resonances were visualized. It is shown that the usual far-field spectra do not give reliable estimates of local electric field peaks. Furthermore one observes a distinct mode at the natural plasma frequency of the silver shell which is independent of the core material. This mode is identified as a volume plasmon mode.

  12. Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R; Weaver, Robert P; Gittings, Michael L

    2009-06-11

    Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.

  13. Percolation of optical excitation mediated by near-field interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Makoto; Kim, Song-Ju; Takahashi, Taiki; Aono, Masashi; Akahane, Kouichi; D'Acunto, Mario; Hori, Hirokazu; Thylén, Lars; Katori, Makoto; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2017-04-01

    Optical excitation transfer in nanostructured matter has been intensively studied in various material systems for versatile applications. Herein, we theoretically and numerically discuss the percolation of optical excitations in randomly organized nanostructures caused by optical near-field interactions governed by Yukawa potential in a two-dimensional stochastic model. The model results demonstrate the appearance of two phases of percolation of optical excitation as a function of the localization degree of near-field interaction. Moreover, it indicates sublinear scaling with percolation distances when the light localization is strong. Furthermore, such a character is maximized at a particular size of environments. The results provide fundamental insights into optical excitation transfer and will facilitate the design and analysis of nanoscale signal-transfer characteristics.

  14. Near-field radiative heat transfer between metamaterial thin films.

    PubMed

    Basu, Soumyadipta; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2014-03-01

    We investigate near-field radiative heat transfer between two thin films made of metamaterials. The impact of film thickness on magnetic and electric surface polaritons (ESPs) is analyzed. It is found that the strength as well as the location of magnetic resonance does not change with film thickness until the film behaves as semi-infinite for the dielectric function chosen in this study. When the film is thinner than vacuum gap, both electric and magnetic polaritons contribute evenly to near-field radiative heat transfer. At larger film thicknesses, ESPs dominate heat transfer due to excitation of a larger number of modes. Results obtained from this study will facilitate applications of metamaterials as thin-film coatings for energy systems.

  15. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    SciTech Connect

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-15

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  16. Plasmonic and photonic scattering and near fields of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Martina; Andrae, Patrick; Manley, Phillip

    2014-01-29

    We theoretically compare the scattering and near field of nanoparticles from different types of materials, each characterized by specific optical properties that determine the interaction with light: metals with their free charge carriers giving rise to plasmon resonances, dielectrics showing zero absorption in wide wavelength ranges, and semiconductors combining the two beforehand mentioned properties plus a band gap. Our simulations are based on Mie theory and on full 3D calculations of Maxwell's equations with the finite element method. Scattering and absorption cross sections, their division into the different order electric and magnetic modes, electromagnetic near field distributions around the nanoparticles at various wavelengths as well as angular distributions of the scattered light were investigated. The combined information from these calculations will give guidelines for choosing adequate nanoparticles when aiming at certain scattering properties. With a special focus on the integration into thin film solar cells, we will evaluate our results.

  17. Plasmonic and photonic scattering and near fields of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically compare the scattering and near field of nanoparticles from different types of materials, each characterized by specific optical properties that determine the interaction with light: metals with their free charge carriers giving rise to plasmon resonances, dielectrics showing zero absorption in wide wavelength ranges, and semiconductors combining the two beforehand mentioned properties plus a band gap. Our simulations are based on Mie theory and on full 3D calculations of Maxwell’s equations with the finite element method. Scattering and absorption cross sections, their division into the different order electric and magnetic modes, electromagnetic near field distributions around the nanoparticles at various wavelengths as well as angular distributions of the scattered light were investigated. The combined information from these calculations will give guidelines for choosing adequate nanoparticles when aiming at certain scattering properties. With a special focus on the integration into thin film solar cells, we will evaluate our results. PMID:24475923

  18. Near-field electromagnetic theory for thin solar cells.

    PubMed

    Niv, A; Gharghi, M; Gladden, C; Miller, O D; Zhang, X

    2012-09-28

    Current methods for evaluating solar cell efficiencies cannot be applied to low-dimensional structures where phenomena from the realm of near-field optics prevail. We present a theoretical approach to analyze solar cell performance by allowing rigorous electromagnetic calculations of the emission rate using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Our approach shows the direct quantification of the voltage, current, and efficiency of low-dimensional solar cells. This approach is demonstrated by calculating the voltage and the efficiency of a GaAs slab solar cell for thicknesses from several microns down to a few nanometers. This example highlights the ability of the proposed approach to capture the role of optical near-field effects in solar cell performance.

  19. Rewritable organic films for near-field recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo Won; Kim, Young Mi; Jeon, Dong Ju; Kim, Eunkyoung; Kim, Jeongyong; Park, Kangho

    2003-01-01

    Photochromic thin films were prepared for near-field recording. Acetyl substituted diarylethene were synthesized from 1,2-bis(2-methylbenzo[ b]thiophene-3-yl)hexafluorocyclopentene in one step. Transparent and homogeneous thin films were coated on a substrate by vacuum deposition method. A colorless vacuum deposited diarylethene film turned to deep red hue upon exposure to a UV light. Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) was used to characterize nanoscale color change of the films. NSOM images showed distinct recording mark by 514 nm laser with mark speed of 30 ms. The records were completely erased upon excitation with a UV light, and rewritable with visible light (514 nm) on a UV activated colored film.

  20. Simulated annealing algorithm applied in adaptive near field beam shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhan; Ma, Hao-tong; Du, Shao-jun

    2010-11-01

    Laser beam shaping is required in many applications for improving the efficiency of the laser systems. In this paper, the near field beam shaping based on the combination of simulated annealing algorithm and Zernike polynomials is demonstrated. Considering phase distribution can be represented by the expansion of Zernike polynomials, the problem of searching appropriate phase distribution can be changed into a problem of optimizing a vector made up of Zernike coefficients. The feasibility of this method is validated theoretically by translating the Gaussian beam into square quasi-flattop beam in the near field. Finally, the closed control loop system constituted by phase only liquid crystal spatial light modulator and simulated annealing algorithm is used to prove the validity of the technique. The experiment results show that the system can generate laser beam with desired intensity distributions.

  1. Plasmonic and photonic scattering and near fields of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, Martina; Andrae, Patrick; Manley, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically compare the scattering and near field of nanoparticles from different types of materials, each characterized by specific optical properties that determine the interaction with light: metals with their free charge carriers giving rise to plasmon resonances, dielectrics showing zero absorption in wide wavelength ranges, and semiconductors combining the two beforehand mentioned properties plus a band gap. Our simulations are based on Mie theory and on full 3D calculations of Maxwell's equations with the finite element method. Scattering and absorption cross sections, their division into the different order electric and magnetic modes, electromagnetic near field distributions around the nanoparticles at various wavelengths as well as angular distributions of the scattered light were investigated. The combined information from these calculations will give guidelines for choosing adequate nanoparticles when aiming at certain scattering properties. With a special focus on the integration into thin film solar cells, we will evaluate our results.

  2. Near-field beamforming analysis for acoustic emission source localization.

    PubMed

    He, Tian; Pan, Qiang; Liu, Yaoguang; Liu, Xiandong; Hu, Dayong

    2012-07-01

    This paper attempts to introduce a near-field acoustic emission (AE) beamforming method to estimate the AE source locations by using a small array of sensors closely placed in a local region. The propagation characteristics of AE signals are investigated based on guided wave theory to discuss the feasibility of using beamforming techniques in AE signal processing. To validate the effectiveness of the AE beamforming method, a series of pencil lead break tests at various regions of a thin steel plate are conducted. The potential of this method for engineering applications are explored through rotor-stator rubbing tests. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively determine the region where rubbing occurs. It is expected that the work of this paper may provide a helpful analysis tool for near-field AE source localization.

  3. Fabrication of micro-patterns via near-field electrospray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenwang; Zheng, Gaofeng; Xu, Lei; Wang, Xiang

    2016-11-01

    A near-field electrospray process is developed to deposited micro-patterns. Compared with conventional electrospray, near field electrospray uses a steel probe instead of capillary nozzle, and its nozzle-to-substrate distance is shortened to several millimeters to realize micro-scale deposition area. The liquid is supplied by discretely dipping the probe into solution in advance so that electrospray process maintains until the consumption of liquid adhered at the probe tip. The influence of solution conductivity and applied voltage on deposition are investigated, as increasing solution conductivity and high applied voltage may promote the electrospray process and enlarge the line width. In addition, micro-patterns with various materials are directly electrosprayed.

  4. Near-field diffraction of gratings with surface defects.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Torcal-Milla, Francisco Jose

    2010-04-10

    Diffraction gratings produce self-images in the near field. Defects on the surface of the grating may occur due to the manufacturing process. These devices are often placed in dirty industrial environments. Dust particles or drops of liquid can be deposited over their surface. In this work, we analyze the effect of surface defects placed over the grating on the self-imaging process. We analytically show how the self-images gradually recover as we separate from the grating when one defect is present. Also a random distribution of surface defects over the grating is analyzed. In particular, we focus on how the contrast of the self-images decreases in terms of the density of the defects. Analytical expressions for the near field are derived, considering a stochastic description of the spatial distribution of defects. In addition, numerical simulations based on the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld formulation are performed to validate the analytical results.

  5. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-01

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  6. Near-field heat transfer between gold nanoparticle arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Anh D.; Phan, The-Long; Woods, Lilia M.

    2013-12-07

    The radiative heat transfer between gold nanoparticle layers is presented using the coupled dipole method. Gold nanoparticles are modelled as effective electric and magnetic dipoles interacting via electromagnetic fluctuations. The effect of higher-order multipoles is implemented in the expression of electric polarizability to calculate the interactions at short distances. Our findings show that the near-field radiation reduces as the radius of the nanoparticles is increased. Also, the magnetic dipole contribution to the heat exchange becomes more important for larger particles. When one layer is displayed in parallel with respect to the other layer, the near-field heat transfer exhibits oscillatory-like features due to the influence of the individual nanostructures. Further details about the effect of the nanoparticles size are also discussed.

  7. Interpolation And FFT Of Near-Field Antenna Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatti, Mark S.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    1990-01-01

    Bivariate Lagrange interpolation applied to plane-polar measurement scans. Report discusses recent advances in application of fast-Fourier-transform (FFT) techniques to measurements of near radiation fields of antennas on plane-polar grid. Attention focused mainly on use of such measurements to calculate far radiation fields. Also discussion of use of FFT's in holographic diagnosis of distortions of antenna reflectors. Advantage of scheme, it speeds calculations because it requires fewer data and manipulations of data than other schemes used for this purpose.

  8. Scanning near-field optical microscopy: application to biological sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tuan-Kay

    2001-12-01

    Recent developments in genetic engineering and medical informatics offer enormous potential for biotechnology. However, key enabling technologies, such as medical instrumentation and analytical tools, are required to support further research in this field. The scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) is one of the key instruments for research in these areas. In this paper, we review the synergy of the SNOM with other technologies for the imaging and characterization of biological materials. Based on this review, the components and systems design parameters are summarized.

  9. Pair production near threshold in pulsar magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, A. K.; Daugherty, J. K.

    1983-01-01

    In Pulsar polar cap models, curvature radiation gamma-rays produce e(+) e(-) pairs in the strong magnetic fields near the surface of the neutron star. While these gamma rays havea energies E sub gamma mc(2), they also propagate at very small angies to the fields, such that the threshold condition, E gamma 2mc(2)/sin theta is just barely satisfied when they pair produce. Threshold effects on the pair production attenuation coefficient, which are due to the discreteness of the e(+) e(-) Landau states, must therefore be considered when computing the mean free paths of curvature radiation photons in pulsar magnetic fields. These effects, which are not incorporated in the asymptotic expression for the attenuation coefficient, have some interesting consequences for pulsar models. Since pair production is suppressed near threshold, the photon mean free paths are longer than previously thought. In magnetic fields greater than approximately 6 x 10 to the 12th G, the pairs tend to be produced in the ground state Landau level and will not synchrotron radiate. Since synchrotron radiation is an essential ingredient in the eiectromagnetic cascades which produce low energy pairs above the acceleration region, pulsars with very high magnetic fields may not produce many pairs.

  10. Assessment of Near-Field Sonic Boom Simulation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J. H.; Cliff, S. E.; Thomas, S. D.; Park, M. A.; McMullen, M. S.; Melton, J. E.; Durston, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study for the Supersonics Project, within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, has been conducted to assess current in-house capabilities for the prediction of near-field sonic boom. Such capabilities are required to simulate the highly nonlinear flow near an aircraft, wherein a sonic-boom signature is generated. There are many available computational fluid dynamics codes that could be used to provide the near-field flow for a sonic boom calculation. However, such codes have typically been developed for applications involving aerodynamic configuration, for which an efficiently generated computational mesh is usually not optimum for a sonic boom prediction. Preliminary guidelines are suggested to characterize a state-of-the-art sonic boom prediction methodology. The available simulation tools that are best suited to incorporate into that methodology are identified; preliminary test cases are presented in support of the selection. During this phase of process definition and tool selection, parallel research was conducted in an attempt to establish criteria that link the properties of a computational mesh to the accuracy of a sonic boom prediction. Such properties include sufficient grid density near shocks and within the zone of influence, which are achieved by adaptation and mesh refinement strategies. Prediction accuracy is validated by comparison with wind tunnel data.

  11. Engineering Near-Field Transport of Energy using Nanostructured Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-12

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The transport of heat at the nanometer scale is becoming increasingly important for a wide range of nanotechnology ...increasingly important for a wide range of nanotechnology applications. Recent computational studies on near-field radiative heat transfer (NFRHT) suggest...Nature Nanotechnology , (02 2015): 253. doi: 10.1038/nnano.2015.6 Kyeongtae Kim, Bai Song, Víctor Fernández-Hurtado, Woochul Lee, Wonho Jeong, Longji Cui

  12. Dual-wavelength scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Philip R.

    A dual-wavelength Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope was developed in order to investigate near-field contrast mechanisms as well as biological samples in air. Using a helium-cadmium laser, light of wavelengths 442 and 325 nanometers is coupled into a single mode optical fiber. The end of the probe is tapered to a sub-wavelength aperture, typically 50 nanometers, and positioned in the near-field of the sample. Light from the aperture is transmitted through the sample and detected in a confocal arrangement by two photomultiplier tubes. The microscope has a lateral topographic resolution of 10 nanometers, a vertical resolution of 0.1 nanometer and an optical resolution of 30 nanometers. Two alternate methods of producing the fiber probes, heating and pulling, or acid etching, are compared and the metal coating layer defining the aperture is discussed. So-called "shear-force" interactions between the tip and sample are used as the feedback mechanism during raster scanning of the sample. An optical and topographic sample standard was developed to calibrate the microscope and extract the ultimate resolution of the instrument. The novel use of two wavelengths enables the authentication of true near-field images, as predicted by various models, as well as the identification of scanning artifacts and the deconvolution of often highly complicated relationships between the topographical and optical images. Most importantly, the use of two wavelengths provides information on the chemical composition of the sample. Areas of a polystyrene film are detected by a significant change in the relative transmission of the two wavelengths with a resolution of 30 nanometers. As a biological application, a preliminary investigation of the composition of Black Spruce wood cell fibers was performed. Comparisons of the two optical channels reveal the expected lignin distributions in the cell wall.

  13. Near-Field Photothermal Heating with a Plasmonic Nanofocusing Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Dong, Biqing; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2016-03-01

    Noble metal nanostructures support plasmon resonances—collective oscillation of charge carriers at optical frequencies—and serve as effective tools to create bright light sources at the nanoscale. These sources are useful in broad application areas including, super-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, nanolithography, and near-field optomechanical transducers. The feasibility of these applications relies on efficient conversion of free-space propagating light to plasmons. Recently, we demonstrated a hybrid nanofocusing scheme for efficient coupling of light to plasmons at the apex of a scanning probe. In the approach, free-space light is coupled to propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the tapered shaft of the scanning probe. The SPPs propagate adiabatically towards the probe tip where they are coupled to localized plasmons (LSPs). The nanofocusing scheme was explored in a near-field scanning optical microscope for super-resolution imaging, near-field transduction of nanomechanical vibrations, and local detection of ultrasound. Owing to the strong concentration of light at the probe, significant heating of the tip and a sample positioned in the optical near-field is expected. This paper investigates the local heating produced by the plasmonic nanofocusing probe under steady-state conditions using the tip-enhanced Raman scattering approach. In addition, a finite element model is explored to study the coupling of free propagating light to LSPs, and to estimate the temperature rise expected in a halfspace heated by absorption of the LSPs. This study has implications for exploring the plasmonic nanofocusing probe in heat-assisted nanofabrication and fundamental studies of nanoscale heat transport in materials.

  14. Near-Field Heat Transfer between Multilayer Hyperbolic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biehs, Svend-Age; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    We review the near-field radiative heat flux between hyperbolic materials focusing on multilayer hyperbolic meta-materials. We discuss the formation of the hyperbolic bands, the impact of ordering of the multilayer slabs, as well as the impact of the first single layer on the heat transfer. Furthermore, we compare the contribution of surface modes to that of hyperbolic modes. Finally, we also compare the exact results with predictions from effective medium theory.

  15. Turbulent structure of a wingtip vortex in the near field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilliac, Gregory G.; Chow, Jim S.; Dacles-Mariani, Jennifer; Bradshaw, Peter

    1993-01-01

    The turbulent rollup of a vortex generated by a rectangular wing has been investigated. Extensive mean and turbulence measurements of the flowfield on a wingtip and in the near field have been completed. Velocity fluctuation measurements show that the near-field core is not laminar. A large axial velocity excess was found to exist in the core of the vortex. A momentum balance in the near-field of the wingtip showed that the magnitude of the core Reynolds-stress gradient terms are the same order as the largest terms in the governing equations. Navier-Stokes computations of the identical configuration, including wind tunnel walls and using measured inflow and outflow boundary conditions, reproduced many of the features of the experiment. Inherent limitations of the Baldwin-Barth turbulence model combined with limited grid resolution caused the computed vortex core to be more diffuse than desired. The momentum balance also demonstrated that the level of numerically generated false diffusion in the vortex core is relatively high.

  16. Near-Field Acoustic Holography of Chladni Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunhee; Kim, Yunbog; Jeon, Dongryul

    2007-03-01

    Characteristic modes of a Chladni plate can be visualized by sand gathering along the nodal lines. Although one can view two-dimensional vibration patterns, the sand pattern does not show a bending of antinode. We used near-field acoustic holography to reconstruct a three-dimensional image of circular and rectangular Chladni plates. The sound pressure was measured using four scanning microphones located 3 mm above a Chladni plate. A reference microphone was placed close to a speaker which drives the plate. A total of 60x60 data were collected from 30x30 cm^2 area and processed using MATLAB in accordance with the algorithm of near-field acoustic holography. The three-dimensional graphic image of the vibrating plate reconstructed this way not only matched the sand pattern but also visualized the bending of the plate. Propagation of the sound pressure could be also visualized three-dimensionally. The plot of sound pressure against the distance showed the 1/distance^2 dependence as expected. Sound is a difficult subject in physics class because it is invisible. Our results demonstrate that near-field acoustic holography combined with computer graphic is an effective tool to visualize the generation of a sound.

  17. Near-field millimeter - wave imaging of nonmetallic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A.C.

    1996-12-31

    A near-field millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging system has been designed and built in the 94-GHz range for on-line inspection of nonmetallic (dielectric) materials. The imaging system consists of a transceiver block coupled to an antenna that scans the material to be imaged; a reflector plate is placed behind the material. A quadrature IF mixer in the transceiver block enables measurement of in-phase and quadrature-phase components of reflected signals with respect to the transmitted signal. All transceiver components, with the exception of the Gunn-diode oscillator and antenna, were fabricated in uniform blocks and integrated and packaged into a compact unit (12.7 x 10.2 x 2.5 cm). The objective of this work is to test the applicability of a near-field compact mm-wave sensor for on-line inspection of sheetlike materials such as paper, fabrics, and plastics. This paper presents initial near-field mm-wave images of paper and fabric samples containing known artifacts.

  18. Near-field thermal electromagnetic transport: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edalatpour, Sheila; DeSutter, John; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    A general near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism that is independent of the size, shape and number of heat sources is derived. The formalism is based on fluctuational electrodynamics, where fluctuating currents due to thermal agitation are added to Maxwell's curl equations, and is thus valid for heat sources in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Using a volume integral formulation, it is shown that the proposed formalism is a generalization of the classical electromagnetic scattering framework in which thermal emission is implicitly assumed to be negligible. The near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism is afterwards applied to a problem involving three spheres with size comparable to the wavelength, where all multipolar interactions are taken into account. Using the thermal discrete dipole approximation, it is shown that depending on the dielectric function, the presence of a third sphere slightly affects the spatial distribution of power absorbed compared to the two-sphere case. A transient analysis shows that despite a non-uniform spatial distribution of power absorbed, the sphere temperature remains spatially uniform at any instant due to the fact that the thermal resistance by conduction is much smaller than the resistance by radiation. The formalism proposed in this paper is general, and could be used as a starting point for adapting solution methods employed in traditional electromagnetic scattering problems to near-field thermal electromagnetic transport.

  19. Near-field thermal radiative emission of materials demonstrating near infrared surface polariton resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Spencer Justin

    Surface polariton mediated near-field radiative transfer exceeds the blackbody limit by orders of magnitude and is quasimonochromatic. Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generation consists of converting thermal radiation into useful electrical energy and exhibits a peak performance near the TPV cell bandgap, which is typically located within the near infrared bandwidth. Therefore, an ideal emission source for a nanoscale gap TPV device, in which the emitter and cell are separated by no more than one peak emitted wavelength, will sustain surface polariton resonance at or near the TPV cell bandgap in the near infrared. To date, few materials have been identified that satisfy this requirement. The first objective of this dissertation is to theoretically explore dielectric Mie resonance-based (DMRB) electromagnetic metamaterials for the potential to sustain near infrared surface polariton resonance. Electromagnetic metamaterials are composite media, consisting of subwavelength, repeating unit structures called "meta-atoms." The microscopic configuration of the meta-atom can be engineered, dictating the effective macroscale electromagnetic properties of the bulk metamaterial, including the surface polariton resonance wavelength. DMRB metamaterials consist of dielectric nanoparticles within a host medium and are analyzed using an effective medium theory. The local density of electromagnetic states, an indicator of possibly harvestable energy near an emitting surface, is calculated for two DMRB metamaterials: spherical nanoparticles of 1) silicon carbide, and 2) silicon embedded in a host medium. Results show that the surface polariton resonance of these metamaterials is tunable and, for the silicon metamaterial only, is found in the near infrared bandwidth, making it a viable candidate for use in a nano-TPV device. In order to demonstrate the practicality thereof, the second objective is to fabricate and characterize DMRB metamaterials. Specimens are fabricated by hand

  20. Far-Field Super-resolution Detection of Plasmonic Near-Fields.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Robert Charles; Neuhauser, Daniel; Weiss, Shimon

    2016-08-23

    We demonstrate a far-field single molecule super-resolution method that maps plasmonic near-fields. The method is largely invariant to fluorescence quenching (arising from probe proximity to a metal), has reduced point-spread-function distortion compared to fluorescent dyes (arising from strong coupling to nanoscopic metallic features), and has a large dynamic range (of 2 orders of magnitude) allowing mapping of plasmonic field-enhancements regions. The method takes advantage of the sensitivity of quantum dot (QD) stochastic blinking to plasmonic near-fields. The modulation of the blinking characteristics thus provides an indirect measure of the local field strength. Since QD blinking can be monitored in the far-field, the method can measure localized plasmonic near-fields at high throughput using a simple far-field optical setup. Using this method, propagation lengths and penetration depths were mapped-out for silver nanowires of different diameters and for different dielectric environments, with a spatial accuracy of ∼15 nm. We initially use sparse sampling to ensure single molecule localization for accurate characterization of the plasmonic near-field with plans to increase density of emitters in further studies. The measured propagation lengths and penetration depths values agree well with Maxwell finite-difference time-domain calculations and with published literature values. This method offers advantages such as low cost, high throughput, and superresolved mapping of localized plasmonic fields at high sensitivity and fidelity.

  1. Mode detection in turbofan inlets from near field sensor arrays.

    PubMed

    Castres, Fabrice O; Joseph, Phillip F

    2007-02-01

    Knowledge of the modal content of the sound field radiated from a turbofan inlet is important for source characterization and for helping to determine noise generation mechanisms in the engine. An inverse technique for determining the mode amplitudes at the duct outlet is proposed using pressure measurements made in the near field. The radiated sound pressure from a duct is modeled by directivity patterns of cut-on modes in the near field using a model based on the Kirchhoff approximation for flanged ducts with no flow. The resulting system of equations is ill posed and it is shown that the presence of modes with eigenvalues close to a cutoff frequency results in a poorly conditioned directivity matrix. An analysis of the conditioning of this directivity matrix is carried out to assess the inversion robustness and accuracy. A physical interpretation of the singular value decomposition is given and allows us to understand the issues of ill conditioning as well as the detection performance of the radiated sound field by a given sensor array.

  2. Flow field and near and far sound field of a subsonic jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1986-01-01

    Flow and sound field data are presented for a 2.54 cm diameter air jet at a Mach number of 0.50 and a Reynolds number of 300,000. Distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensities, Reynolds stress, spectral components of turbulence as well as of the near field pressure, together with essential characteristics of the far field sound are reported. This detailed set of data for one particular flow, erstwhile unavailable in the literature, is expected to help promoote and calibrate subsonic jet noise theories. 'Source locations' in terms of the turbulence maxima, coupling between the entrainment dynamics and the near pressure field, the sound radiation paths, and the balance in mass, momentum and sound energy fluxes are discussed. The results suggest that the large scale coherent structures of the jet govern the 'source locations' by controlling the turbulence and also strongly influence the near field pressure fluctuations.

  3. Flow field and near and far sound field of a subsonic jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1986-01-01

    Flow and sound field data are presented for a 2.54 cm diameter air jet at a Mach number of 0.50 and a Reynolds number of 300,000. Distributions of mean velocity, turbulence intensities, Reynolds stress, spectral components of turbulence as well as of the near field pressure, together with essential characteristics of the far field sound are reported. This detailed set of data for one particular flow, erstwhile unavailable in the literature, is expected to help promoote and calibrate subsonic jet noise theories. 'Source locations' in terms of the turbulence maxima, coupling between the entrainment dynamics and the near pressure field, the sound radiation paths, and the balance in mass, momentum and sound energy fluxes are discussed. The results suggest that the large scale coherent structures of the jet govern the 'source locations' by controlling the turbulence and also strongly influence the near field pressure fluctuations.

  4. The near-ground structure of the nocturnal sound field.

    PubMed

    Waxler, Roger; Talmadge, Carrick L; Dravida, Shantharam; Gilbert, Kenneth E

    2006-01-01

    The near-ground behavior of the low-frequency (100 Hz to 500 Hz) sound field in the nocturnal sound duct is studied theoretically and experimentally. In the first few meters of the atmosphere, narrow-band sound fields are found to have a characteristic vertical structure. The sound field is the superposition of a "surface mode," whose magnitude decreases monotonically with altitude, with a sum of "higher modes," each of whose magnitudes has a pronounced minimum a few meters from the ground at approximately the same height. The surface mode attenuates to negligible levels after a few hundred meters from the source. Consequently, more than a few hundred meters from a narrow-band source, there is a "quiet height" at which the sound level is reduced by 10 to 15 dB relative to its value on the ground. The narrow-band quiet height is shown to be a robust feature of nocturnal sound propagation.

  5. Detection of reflector surface from near field phase measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ida, Nathan

    1991-01-01

    The deviation of a reflector antenna surface from a perfect parabolic shape causes degradation of the performance of the antenna. The problem of determining the shape of the reflector surface in a reflector antenna using near field phase measurements is not a new one. A recent issue of the IEEE tansactions on Antennas and Propagation (June 1988) contained numerous descriptions of the use of these measurements: holographic reconstruction or inverse Fourier transform. Holographic reconstruction makes use of measurement of the far field of the reflector and then applies the Fourier transform relationship between the far field and the current distribution on the reflector surface. Inverse Fourier transformation uses the phase measurements to determine the far field pattern using the method of Kerns. After the far field pattern is established, an inverse Fourier transform is used to determine the phases in a plane between the reflector surface and the plane in which the near field measurements were taken. These calculations are time consuming since they involve a relatively large number of operations. A much faster method can be used to determine the position of the reflector. This method makes use of simple geometric optics to determine the path length of the ray from the feed to the reflector and from the reflector to the measurement point. For small physical objects and low frequencies, diffraction effects have a major effect on the error, and the algorithm provides incorrect results. It is believed that the effect is less noticeable for large distortions such as antenna warping, and more noticeable for small, localized distortions such as bumps and depressions such as might be caused by impact damage.

  6. Near-field radiofrequency thermoacoustic tomography with impulse excitation.

    PubMed

    Razansky, Daniel; Kellnberger, Stephan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2010-09-01

    Imaging performance of radiofrequency and microwave-based thermoacoustic tomography systems is mainly determined by the ability to deposit a substantial amount of electromagnetic energy within ultrashort time duration. Pulses of nanosecond-range duration that can carry hundreds of millijoules energy are ideal for obtaining good signal-to-noise and spatial resolution in many biological imaging applications. However, existing implementations are based on modulated-carrier-frequency amplification solutions, which are generally costly and cannot achieve ultrahigh-peak-power requirements essential for optimal thermoacoustic signal generation. Herein the authors suggest and experimentally validate a near-field radiofrequency tomography (NRT) method for high resolution imaging of biological tissues using ultrashort electromagnetic impulses. The solution includes a low-cost pulsing system while the imaged objects are placed in the near field of the energy-emitting aperture for improved coupling using nonradiative fields. In the current design, the authors were able to achieve excitation impulse energies of hundreds of millijoules with durations in the order of a few nanoseconds, corresponding to peak power levels of multiple megawatts. The phantom imaging experiments demonstrated image features with characteristic sizes of around 170 microm, but the impulse durations used herein allow in principle spatial resolutions in the order of a few tens of microns when using an appropriate ultrasonic detection bandwidth. The proposed NRT method makes it possible to attain very high spatial resolution without compromising the thermoacoustic signal strength. This makes the imaging performance to be limited by the available bandwidth of the ultrasonic detector rather than by the microwave pulse duration. It is overall expected that the combination of pulsed near-field coupling with optimal choice of energy dissipation elements will generate a practical modality that can scale its

  7. Joint development in perturbed stress fields near faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawnsley, K. D.; Rives, T.; Petti, J.-P.; Hencher, S. R.; Lumsden, A. C.

    1992-09-01

    Field evidence is presented for complex spatial and temporal perturbations of an otherwise systematic joint pattern around faults from well exposed faulted rock platforms. Joints propagating in perturbed stress fields will curve to follow the directions of the stress field trajectories. A progressive change in joint direction is observed from unperturbed regions away from faults, to strongly perturbed zones adjacent to faults. This indicates that the joint pattern can reflect perturbations of the regional stress field around faults. In the examples, the stress field perturbations are probably due to points of high friction on the fault plane which concentrate stress and distort the stress field in the surrounding rock. The corresponding joints converge at these points and are sub-parallel to the fault along the remainder of the fault plane. The possibility that a fault plane acts as a free surface contained within an elastic body is considered. In this situation the fault plane induces a rotation of the principal stress axes to become either perpendicular or parallel to the fault. The free surface model seems to explain the metre-scale curvature of joints in the vicinity of existing joints, but at the kilometre scale of a large fault plane the model becomes unrealistic unless the fault is open at the Earth's surface. Two examples are investigated from the Lias of Great Britain; at Nash Point and Robin Hood's Bay. Both comprise sub-horizontal strata of relatively homogeneous lithology and bed thickness, which provide striking examples of joints developed near faults.

  8. Magnetic Field Observations near Mercury: Preliminary Results from Mariner 10.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Behannon, K W; Lepping, R P; Whang, Y C; Schatten, K H

    1974-07-12

    Results are presented from a preliminary analysis of data obtained near Mercury on 29 March 1974 by the NASA-GSFC magnetic field experiment on Mariner 10. Rather unexpectedly, a very well-developed, detached bow shock wave, which develops as the super-Alfvénic solar wind interacts with the planet, has been observed. In addition, a magnetosphere-like region, with maximum field strength of 98 gammas at closest approach (704 kilometers altitude), has been observed, contained within boundaries similar to the terrestrial magnetopause. The obstacle deflecting the solar wind flow is global in size, but the origin of the enhanced magnetic field has not yet been uniquely established. The field may be intrinsic to the planet and distorted by interaction with the solar wind. It may also be associated with a complex induction process whereby the planetary interior-atmosphere-ionosphere interacts with the solar wind flow to generate the observed field by a dynamo action. The complete body of data favors the preliminary conclusion that Mercury has an intrinsic magnetic field. If this is correct, it represents a major scientific discovery in planetary magnetism and will have considerable impact on studies of the origin of the solar system.

  9. Near-Field Microscopy Studies of Lung Surfactant Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aga, Rachel; Dunn, Robert

    2003-03-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), the fourth leading cause of infant mortality in the United States, arises from an insufficiently developed lung surfactant (LS). Healthy LS, a mixture of lipids and proteins that coats the inner surface of the lungs, reduces the alveolar surface tension to a few millinewtons per meter and, thus, facilitates breathing by stabilizing the large surface area changes associated with respiration. In the absence of an effective LS, surfactant collapse pressure (i.e., monolayer compressibility) and the ability of the monolayer to re-spread during the breathing cycle are reduced, resulting in labored breathing, reduced oxygen transport, and often death in those afflicted. In this study, we investigate the mechanism of collapse and re-spreading of a monolayer formed by a replacement surfactant commonly used in treatment of RDS. Through confocal microscopy fluorescence images obtained at a series of pressures near collapse, we find evidence for multilayer formation in the films. A further understanding of the collapse mechanism is obtained by comparing high resolution fluorescence and topography information measured with near-field scanning optical microscopy. The combined data from both confocal and near-field measurements are used to develop a model of lung surfactant collapse and re-spreading.

  10. Near-field/far-field array manifold of an acoustic vector-sensor near a reflecting boundary.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue Ivan; Lau, Siu-Kit; Wong, Kainam Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The acoustic vector-sensor (a.k.a. the vector hydrophone) is a practical and versatile sound-measurement device, with applications in-room, open-air, or underwater. It consists of three identical uni-axial velocity-sensors in orthogonal orientations, plus a pressure-sensor-all in spatial collocation. Its far-field array manifold [Nehorai and Paldi (1994). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 42, 2481-2491; Hawkes and Nehorai (2000). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 48, 2981-2993] has been introduced into the technical field of signal processing about 2 decades ago, and many direction-finding algorithms have since been developed for this acoustic vector-sensor. The above array manifold is subsequently generalized for outside the far field in Wu, Wong, and Lau [(2010). IEEE Trans. Signal Process. 58, 3946-3951], but only if no reflection-boundary is to lie near the acoustic vector-sensor. As for the near-boundary array manifold for the general case of an emitter in the geometric near field, the far field, or anywhere in between-this paper derives and presents that array manifold in terms of signal-processing mathematics. Also derived here is the corresponding Cramér-Rao bound for azimuth-elevation-distance localization of an incident emitter, with the reflected wave shown to play a critical role on account of its constructive or destructive summation with the line-of-sight wave. The implications on source localization are explored, especially with respect to measurement model mismatch in maximum-likelihood direction finding and with regard to the spatial resolution between coexisting emitters.

  11. Near-field photocurrent nanoscopy on bare and encapsulated graphene

    PubMed Central

    Woessner, Achim; Alonso-González, Pablo; Lundeberg, Mark B.; Gao, Yuanda; Barrios-Vargas, Jose E.; Navickaite, Gabriele; Ma, Qiong; Janner, Davide; Watanabe, Kenji; Cummings, Aron W.; Taniguchi, Takashi; Pruneri, Valerio; Roche, Stephan; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Hone, James; Hillenbrand, Rainer; Koppens, Frank H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Optoelectronic devices utilizing graphene have demonstrated unique capabilities and performances beyond state-of-the-art technologies. However, requirements in terms of device quality and uniformity are demanding. A major roadblock towards high-performance devices are nanoscale variations of the graphene device properties, impacting their macroscopic behaviour. Here we present and apply non-invasive optoelectronic nanoscopy to measure the optical and electronic properties of graphene devices locally. This is achieved by combining scanning near-field infrared nanoscopy with electrical read-out, allowing infrared photocurrent mapping at length scales of tens of nanometres. Using this technique, we study the impact of edges and grain boundaries on the spatial carrier density profiles and local thermoelectric properties. Moreover, we show that the technique can readily be applied to encapsulated graphene devices. We observe charge build-up near the edges and demonstrate a solution to this issue. PMID:26916951

  12. Cryogenic apparatus for study of near-field heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kralik, T.; Hanzelka, P.; Musilova, V.; Srnka, A.; Zobac, M.

    2011-05-15

    For bodies spaced in vacuum at distances shorter than the wavelength of the thermal radiation, radiative heat transfer substantially increases due to the contribution of evanescent electromagnetic waves. Experimental data on heat transfer in near-field regime are scarce. We have designed a cryogenic apparatus for the study of heat transfer over microscopic distances between metallic and non-metallic surfaces. Using a mechanical positioning system, a planeparallel gap between the samples, concentric disks, each 35 mm in diameter, is set and varied from 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 3} {mu}m. The heat transferred from the hot (10 - 100 K) to the cold sample ({approx}5 K) sinks into a liquid helium bath through a thermal resistor, serving as a heat flux meter. Transferred heat power within {approx}2 nW/cm{sup 2} and {approx}30 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} is derived from the temperature drop along the thermal resistor. For tungsten samples, the distance of the near-field effect onset was inversely proportional to temperature and the heat power increase was observed up to three orders of magnitude greater than the power of far-field radiative heat transfer.

  13. Planar Near-Field Phase Retrieval Using GPUs for Accurate THz Far-Field Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkin, Gary

    2013-04-01

    With a view to using Phase Retrieval to accurately predict Terahertz antenna far-field from near-field intensity measurements, this paper reports on three fundamental advances that achieve very low algorithmic error penalties. The first is a new Gaussian beam analysis that provides accurate initial complex aperture estimates including defocus and astigmatic phase errors, based only on first and second moment calculations. The second is a powerful noise tolerant near-field Phase Retrieval algorithm that combines Anderson's Plane-to-Plane (PTP) with Fienup's Hybrid-Input-Output (HIO) and Successive Over-Relaxation (SOR) to achieve increased accuracy at reduced scan separations. The third advance employs teraflop Graphical Processing Units (GPUs) to achieve practically real time near-field phase retrieval and to obtain the optimum aperture constraint without any a priori information.

  14. Near-field and far-field analysis of an azimuthally polarized slow Bloch mode microlaser.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh-Phong; Rahmani, Adel; Belarouci, Ali; Seassal, Christian; Nedeljkovic, Dusan; Callard, Ségolène

    2010-12-20

    We report on the near- and far-field investigation of the slow Bloch modes associated with the Γ point of the Brillouin zone, for a honeycomb lattice photonic crystal, using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) and infra-red CCD camera. The array of doughnut-shaped monopolar mode (mode M) inside each unit cell, predicted previously by numerical simulation, is experimentally observed in the near-field by means of a metal-coated NSOM tip. In far-field, we detect the azimuthal polarization of the doughnut laser beam due to destructive and constructive interference of the mode radiating from the surface (mode TEM(01*)). A divergence of 2° for the laser beam and a mode size of (12.8 ± 1) µm for the slow Bloch mode at the surface of the crystal are also estimated.

  15. High resolution near-infrared deep fields with MCAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Mark; Ridgway, Susan; Jaggannathan, Preshanth; Pforr, Janine; Maraston, Claudia; Servs Team

    2014-07-01

    We have used the SERVS warm Spitzer survey to identify five rare 3-star asterisms suitable for extragalactic observations with the current multi-conjugate adaptive optics GeMS/GSAOI instrument on Gemini-South, and have been awarded time to observe them. Initial observations of one of the fields show that high image quality (better than HST in K-band) can be obtained across the entire field of view. We use lower-resolution surveys from Herschel, Spitzer and ground-based near-infrared observations to characterize the galaxies in the fields and estimate photo-zs. We discuss the use of high resolution multi-wavelength data can be used in conjunction with these images to characterize the morphologies of starforming galaxy population in these fields, concentrating on deep, 0.2" resolution 8GHz VLA data we have for three of the fields. Finally, we describe how pilot surveys such as these can be extended into the TMT era, and discuss the additional science goals that could be achieved using data from TMT instruments.

  16. Magnetohydrostatic Solar Prominences in Near-Potential Coronal Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Blokland, J. W. S.; Keppens, R.

    2007-08-01

    We present numerical magnetohydrostatic solutions describing the gravitationally stratified, bulk equilibrium of cool, dense prominence plasma embedded in a near-potential coronal field. These solutions are calculated using the FINESSE magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium solver and describe the morphologies of magnetic field distributions in and around prominences and the cool prominence plasma that these fields support. The equilibrium condition for this class of problem is usually different in distinct subdomains separated by free boundaries, across which solutions are matched by suitable continuity or jump conditions describing force balance. We employ our precise finite element elliptic solver to calculate solutions not accessible by previous analytical techniques with temperature or entropy prescribed as free functions of the magnetic flux function, including a range of values of the polytropic index, temperature variations mainly across magnetic field lines and photospheric field profiles sheared close to the polarity inversion line. Out of the many examples computed here, perhaps the most noteworthy is one which reproduces precisely the three-part structure often encountered in observations: a cool dense prominence within a cavity/flux rope embedded in a hot corona. The stability properties of these new equilibria, which may be relevant to solar eruptions, can be determined in the form of a full resistive MHD spectrum using a companion hyperbolic stability solver.

  17. Near-field radiative heat transfer in mesoporous alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Yan-Hui, Feng; Xin-Xin, Zhang; Cong-Liang, Huang; Ge, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of mesoporous material has aroused the great interest of scholars due to its wide applications such as insulation, catalyst, etc. Mesoporous alumina substrate consists of uniformly distributed, unconnected cylindrical pores. Near-field radiative heat transfer cannot be ignored, when the diameters of the pores are less than the characteristic wavelength of thermal radiation. In this paper, near-field radiation across a cylindrical pore is simulated by employing the fluctuation dissipation theorem and Green function. Such factors as the diameter of the pore, and the temperature of the material are further analyzed. The research results show that the radiative heat transfer on a mesoscale is 2˜4 orders higher than on a macroscale. The heat flux and equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation across a cylindrical pore decrease exponentially with pore diameter increasing, while increase with temperature increasing. The calculated equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation is further developed to modify the thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina. The combined thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina is obtained by using porosity weighted dilute medium and compared with the measurement. The combined thermal conductivity of mesoporous silica decreases gradually with pore diameter increasing, while increases smoothly with temperature increasing, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The larger the porosity, the more significant the near-field effect is, which cannot be ignored. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51422601), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB720404), and the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013BAJ01B03).

  18. Far-Field Antenna Pattern From a Near-Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Galindo-Israel, V.; Mittra, R.

    1982-01-01

    Plane/polar geometry simplifies measurement of near-field data for this antenna and allows a determination of far-field pattern by Jacobi-Bessel series expansion of data. Measuring probe is an undersized, dielectrically loaded and open-ended waveguide with a far-field pattern similar to that of a small magnetic dipole in its forward directions, making it unnecessary to rotate probe in direction similar to antenna rotation.

  19. Far-Field Antenna Pattern From a Near-Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahmat-Samii, Y.; Galindo-Israel, V.; Mittra, R.

    1982-01-01

    Plane/polar geometry simplifies measurement of near-field data for this antenna and allows a determination of far-field pattern by Jacobi-Bessel series expansion of data. Measuring probe is an undersized, dielectrically loaded and open-ended waveguide with a far-field pattern similar to that of a small magnetic dipole in its forward directions, making it unnecessary to rotate probe in direction similar to antenna rotation.

  20. Near-field optical control of doughnut-shaped nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrovkin, A. M.; Barillé, R.; Ortyl, E.; Zielinska, S.

    2015-01-01

    The application of a local near-field optical excitation with a control of the illumination time can be used to manage step-by-step the reshape of individual doughnut-shaped azopolymer nano-objects demonstrating their performances as a promising functional nano-objects. The possibility to provide a photoinduced reshaping opens a way to the fundamental study of size-dependent scaling laws of optical properties, photoinduced reshaping efficiency and possible nanoreactor or nanoresonator behaviors at nanometer scales. As an example the created nano-object is used to self-assembly polystyrene nanospheres in a supraball.

  1. Photodissociation near a rough metal surface: Effect of reaction fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Purna C.; Puri, Ashok; George, Thomas F.

    1990-12-01

    The modification of the photochemical dissociation rate of molecules in the presence of a rough metal surface is explored. Classical electromagnetic calculations are presented for the photodissociation rate of a point dipole near a rough surface modeled as a hemispheroidal bump on a semi-infinite flat plane. A correction is introduced by accounting for the reaction fields due to the dipole-substrate system radiating photons and coupling to delocalized surface plasmons. The effects of the shape and size of the bump, and the separation of the molecule from the bump on the rate of photodissociation of the molecule, are studied numerically.

  2. Near Field Imaging at Microwave and Millemeter Wave Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2007-06-03

    Near field imaging at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies is useful for a wide variety of applications including concealed weapon detection, through-wall and inner-wall imaging, ground penetrating radar imaging, radar cross section analysis, and non-destructive evaluation of materials. A variety of novel imaging techniques have been developed for many of these applications at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) . These techniques make use of wideband holographic wavefront reconstruction methods, and have been developed to optimize the image quality and resolution. This paper will summarize several of these techniques and show imaging results for several interesting application areas.

  3. Theory of near-field magneto-optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walford, Julian N.; Porto, Juan-Antonio; Carminati, Rémi; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    2002-03-01

    Scanning near-field optical microscopy has been recently applied to the imaging of magnetic samples. It was shown experimentally that an apertureless microscope suffers a substantial loss of resolution when used for magneto-optical imaging compared with that for conventional imaging. No such change is observed for aperture microscopes. We explain this observation by developing a model for the imaging process that incorporates the response of the probe. We calculate real observable properties such as the rotation of polarization at the detector or the circular dichroism signal and thus simulate magneto-optical images of a domain structure in cobalt for both aperture and apertureless microscopes.

  4. Near-field Optical Imagigng and Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, La Rosa

    1998-03-01

    Identification of molecular structures in complex mixtures represents a major challenge in chemical research today. Microfabricated devices or lab-on-a-chip that perform chemical analysis allows dynamic sampling of picoliter microenvironments and separation. The long-term goals of nanochemistry down to the femtoliter scale involve refinement of the detection limit to single-molecule. Our approach consists in designing a very sensitive near-field optical microscope (NSOM-SIAM) to explore the mesoscopic properties of organic compounds. The validity, sensitivity and unique spatial resolution of this system will be discussed for multiple analyte chemosensing.

  5. Electrooptic sensor module fabrication for near-field intrabody communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Akinori; Sasaki, Ai-ichiro; Morimura, Hiroki; Kagami, Osamu; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we describe how to obtain a low cost electrooptic (EO) sensor module for the mass production of near-field intrabody communication devices. In our previous study, we used a bulk cleavage technique to fabricate EO modulators without the need for any optical polishing or washing processes. In this study, we fabricated EO modulators as a miniaturized chip sensor without a base portion, and clarified the feasibility of assembling optical components by only a passive alignment technique with a compact housing.

  6. Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mauser, Nina; Hartschuh, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy (TENOM) is a scanning probe technique capable of providing a broad range of spectroscopic information on single objects and structured surfaces at nanometer spatial resolution and with highest detection sensitivity. In this review, we first illustrate the physical principle of TENOM that utilizes the antenna function of a sharp probe to efficiently couple light to excitations on nanometer length scales. We then discuss the antenna-induced enhancement of different optical sample responses including Raman scattering, fluorescence, generation of photocurrent and electroluminescence. Different experimental realizations are presented and several recent examples that demonstrate the capabilities of the technique are reviewed. PMID:24100541

  7. Bessel beams as virtual tips for near-field optics.

    PubMed

    Grosjean, T; Courjon, D; Van Labeke, D

    2003-06-01

    In the previous NFO meeting, we proposed the use of confined evanescent light beams as 'virtual' or 'immaterial' tips. Unfortunately, this technique was hindered by the need for perfectly radially polarized light beams. In this communication, we propose a simple, stable and cheap method allowing the generation of beams of any polarization and more especially of purely radially polarized light beams. We also demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that for near-field imaging systems polarization is a limiting factor of resolution and light confinement. Finally, we present the very first experimental results dealing with virtual tips.

  8. Nonresonant radiative exciton transfer by near field between quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Aleshkin, V. Ya.; Gavrilenko, L. V. Gaponova, D. M.; Kadykov, A. M.; Lysenko, V. G.; Krasil’nik, Z. F.

    2013-11-15

    We experimentally observed an increase in the intensity of photoluminescence from a wider quantum well (QW) when an exciton transition was induced in the neighboring narrower QW separated from the former one by a tunneling-nontransparent AlGaAs barrier. The dependence of the efficiency of the near-field radiative transfer of excitons on the distance between QWs was studied in heterostructures without coincidence of exciton resonances in the adjacent QWs. Theoretical results were qualitatively consistent with the available experimental data.

  9. Detection of reflector surface error from near-field data: Effect of edge diffracted field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cherrette, Alan R.; Lee, Shong W.; Acosta, Roberto J.

    1987-01-01

    The surface accuracy of large reflector antennas must be maintained within certain tolerances if high gain/low sidelobe performance is to be achieved. Thus the measurement of the surface profile is an important part of the quality control procedure when constructing antennas of this type. An efficient method for surface profile measurement has been proposed, i.e., the reflector surface is calculated from the measured near-field phase data using the theory of geometric optics. For a surface profile calculation of this kind, it is necessary to know the margin of error built into the method of calculation. This will enable a specification of the tolerance from which the surface profile can be determined. When calculating the surface profile from near-field phase data, there are two main sources of error. The first is the measurement error in near-field phase data. The second arises from the edge diffracted fields that are superimposed on the reflected fields in the measured near-field data. The error in the calculated surface profile produced by the edge diffracted fields is examined.

  10. Harmonic demodulation and minimum enhancement factors in field-enhanced near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Scarpettini, A F; Bragas, A V

    2015-01-01

    Field-enhanced scanning optical microscopy relies on the design and fabrication of plasmonic probes which had to provide optical and chemical contrast at the nanoscale. In order to do so, the scattering containing the near-field information recorded in a field-enhanced scanning optical microscopy experiment, has to surpass the background light, always present due to multiple interferences between the macroscopic probe and sample. In this work, we show that when the probe-sample distance is modulated with very low amplitude, the higher the harmonic demodulation is, the better the ratio between the near-field signal and the interferometric background results. The choice of working at a given n harmonic is dictated by the experiment when the signal at the n + 1 harmonic goes below the experimental noise. We demonstrate that the optical contrast comes from the nth derivative of the near-field scattering, amplified by the interferometric background. By modelling the far and near field we calculate the probe-sample approach curves, which fit very well the experimental ones. After taking a great amount of experimental data for different probes and samples, we conclude with a table of the minimum enhancement factors needed to have optical contrast with field-enhanced scanning optical microscopy. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  11. Comparison and Properties of Near-Field and Far-Field Events of High Speed Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Pinqing; Lewalle, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Two independent algorithms are applied to different signals to extract events that are potentially responsible for jet noise production. The data consist of 10 kHz TRPIV measurement and pressure sampling in both near- and far-field. One method uses near-field diagnostics (representatives of 2D velocity sections, e.g. velocity, vorticity, Q criterion, etc.) and near-field and far-field pressure. Applying cross-correlation and continuous wavelet to pairs of these signals, we look for the more dominant events in the time, frequency and lag domain. These are regarded as the main contributors of communication between the selected signals and are recorded as Near-Field Events. The other method only uses far-field microphones. The short time excerpts are identified as Far-Field Events that are common to three FF signals and responsible for peak energy spectrum. To compare these events, we map out their property distribution, including frequency, magnitude and time of occurrence. The individual events are also compared and a high portion is found to be common to both lists. We regard this as a verification of both algorithms. This work is supported in part by a Syracuse University Graduate Fellowship, by the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at SU, and by Spectral Energies LLC, under an SBIR grant from AFRL.

  12. Near-field phase singularity in subwavelength metallic microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ming; Guo, Qing-Hua; Chen, Jing; Gu, Bing; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2011-10-01

    A near-field phase singularity (NFPS) depending on the spin state of the incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation is very fascinating because it can enrich the functionality of the EM radiation in metamaterials. Here we present a microscopic dipole model to describe the NFPS effect under the time-harmonic quasistatic limit. The results reveal that NFPS exists for the longitudinal components of both electric and magnetic fields as well as the transverse component of time-averaged Poynting vector. The localized surface plasmon polariton in the subwavelength metallic structure contributes to enhance the generation efficiency of NFPS by introducing the resonance of the electric dipole. This effect not only is promising for microtrapping and manipulation but also enriches the functionality of the existing metamaterials.

  13. Near-field spectroscopy of graphene during ultrafast photoexcitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Martin; Fei, Zhe; McLeod, Alexander; Rodin, Aleksandr; Bao, Wenzhong; Zhang, Lingfeng; Zhao, Zeng; Iwinski, Eric; Thiemens, Mark; Fogler, Michael; Castro-Neto, Antonio; Lau, Chunning; Keilmann, Fritz; Basov, Dimitri

    2013-03-01

    Recently, impressive progress in nanoplasmonics of graphene using near-field spectroscopy and imaging has been reported [Z. Fei et al., Nano Lett. 11, 4701 (2011); Z. Fei et al., Nature 487, 82 (2012)]. However, these studies of the interaction of the graphene plasmon with the SiO2 substrate surface phonon were time-independent. Here we combine imaging and material characterization on the nano scale with ultrafast sub-picosecond time resolution and present optical pump broadband mid-infrared probe spectroscopy of graphene. We discuss the optical pump induced changes of the coupled plasmon-phonon modes with respect to carrier density and time-dependence. The difference between ultrafast photoexcitation and conventional electrostatic doping via the field effect is analyzed and compared with modeling.

  14. Fatigue crack localization with near-field acoustic emission signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changjiang; Zhang, Yunfeng

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an AE source localization technique using near-field acoustic emission (AE) signals induced by crack growth and propagation. The proposed AE source localization technique is based on the phase difference in the AE signals measured by two identical AE sensing elements spaced apart at a pre-specified distance. This phase difference results in canceling-out of certain frequency contents of signals, which can be related to AE source direction. Experimental data from simulated AE source such as pencil breaks was used along with analytical results from moment tensor analysis. It is observed that the theoretical predictions, numerical simulations and the experimental test results are in good agreement. Real data from field monitoring of an existing fatigue crack on a bridge was also used to test this system. Results show that the proposed method is fairly effective in determining the AE source direction in thick plates commonly encountered in civil engineering structures.

  15. Evolution of Biomass Burning Aerosols in the Near Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, Arthur; Kleinman, Lawrence; Arnott, W. Patrick; Adachi, Kouji; Buseck, Peter; Lewis, Ernest; Onasch, Timothy; pikridas, Michail; Shilling, John; Springston, Stephen; Wang, Jian; Yokelson, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of aerosols that can perturb Earth's climate through the direct (both scattering and absorption), indirect (cloud formation and precipitation), and semi-direct (cloud dissipation) radiative effects. Despite much effort, quantities important to determining radiative forcing for these events still remain highly uncertain due to the inherent difficultly of conducting the required measurements and instrumentation limitations. Further adding to this uncertainty is that few field campaigns have been conducted in the northern temperate latitudes in spite of biomass burning producing about one-third of the PM2.5 in the US. During the summer and early fall of 2013, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored an aircraft-based field campaign to study the near-field evolution of particulate emissions from biomass burning. Key scientific objectives for the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) are to 1) quantify the downwind time evolution of microphysical, morphological, chemical, hygroscopic, and optical properties of aerosols generated by biomass burning, 2) use the time sequences of observations to constrain processes and parameterizations in a Lagrangian model of aerosol evolution, and 3) incorporate time evolution information into a single-column radiative transfer model for determining forcing per unit carbon burned. Discussion will be on the near-field evolution of particle mixing state and morphology, chemical composition, and microphysical processes that determine aerosol size distribution and single scattering albedo (SSA) of light absorbing aerosols. In cases studied, increases in the coating thickness of refractive black carbon (rBC) particles, organic aerosol/rBC ratio, scattering/CO ratio, and aerosol size distributions have been observed. Results are based on wildfires sampled in the US northwest and on controlled agricultural burns in the south

  16. Near Field Ocean Surface Waves Acoustic Radiation Observation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardhuin, F.; Peureux, C.; Royer, J. Y.

    2016-12-01

    The acoustic noise generation by nonlinearly interacting surface gravity waves has been studied for a long time both theoretically and experimentally [Longuet-Higgins 1951]. The associated far field noise is continuously measured by a vast network of seismometers at the ocean bottom and on the continents. It can especially be used to infer the time variability of short ocean waves statistics [Peureux and Ardhuin 2016]. However, better quantitative estimates of the latter are made difficult due to a poor knowledge of the Earth's crust characteristics, whose coupling with acoustic modes can affect large uncertainties to the frequency response at the bottom of the ocean.The pressure field at depths less than an acoustic wave length to the surface is made of evanescent modes which vanish away from their sources (near field) [Cox and Jacobs 1989]. For this reason, they are less affected by the ocean bottom composition. This near field is recorded and analyzed in the frequency range 0.1 to 0.5 Hz approximately, at two locations : at a shallow site in the North-East Atlantic continental shelf and a deep water site in the Southern Indian ocean, where pressure measurements are performed at the ocean bottom (ca. 100 m) and at 300 m water depth respectively. Evanescent and propagating Rayleigh modes are compared against theoretical predictions. Comparisons against surface waves hindcast based on WAVEWATCH(R) III modeling framework help assessing its performances and can be used to help future model improvements.References Longuet-Higgins, M. S., A Theory of the Origin of Microseisms, Philos. Trans. Royal Soc. A, 1950, 243, 1-3. Peureux, C. and Ardhuin, F., Ocean bottom pressure records from the Cascadia array and short surface gravity waves, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 2016, 121, 2862-2873. Cox, C. S. & Jacobs, D. C., Cartesian diver observations of double frequency pressure fluctuations in the upper levels of the ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 1989, 16, 807-810.

  17. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth and the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.

  18. Deformation fields near a steady fatigue crack with anisotropic plasticity

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Yanfei

    2015-11-30

    In this work, from finite element simulations based on an irreversible, hysteretic cohesive interface model, a steady fatigue crack can be realized if the crack extension exceeds about twice the plastic zone size, and both the crack increment per loading cycle and the crack bridging zone size are smaller than the plastic zone size. The corresponding deformation fields develop a plastic wake behind the crack tip and a compressive residual stress field ahead of the crack tip. In addition, the Hill’s plasticity model is used to study the role of plastic anisotropy on the retardation of fatigue crack growth andmore » the elastic strain fields. It is found that for Mode-I cyclic loading, an enhanced yield stress in directions that are inclined from the crack plane will lead to slower crack growth rate, but this retardation is insignificant for typical degrees of plastic anisotropy. Furthermore, these results provide key inputs for future comparisons to neutron and synchrotron diffraction measurements that provide full-field lattice strain mapping near fracture and fatigue crack tips, especially in textured materials such as wrought or rolled Mg alloys.« less

  19. Effect of superconductivity on near-field radiative heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králík, Tomáš; Musilová, Věra; Fořt, Tomáš; Srnka, Aleš

    2017-02-01

    Near-field (NF) radiative heat transfer (RHT) over vacuum space between bodies can exceed the far-field (FF) heat transfer by orders of magnitude. A large portion of the heat flux transferred between metals in NF is at very low frequencies, much lower than in FF. Thus a strong effect of superconductivity on NF RHT can be expected even at radiation temperatures above the superconducting critical temperature, where nearly no effect in FF is observed. We have examined experimentally the RHT between plane-parallel surfaces of niobium. Up to a fivefold decrease in NF heat flux was observed when the colder sample passed from the normal to the superconducting state. We found that a maximum decrease occurs at sample spacings ten times shorter than the spacing of crossover between the NF and FF heat flux, being ≈1000/T (μm). Applying Polder's and Van Hove's relations for NF RHT and BCS theory of superconductivity, we explain this effect and show the roles of transversal electric and magnetic modes in the steep decrease of heat flux below the critical temperature and the subsequent flux saturation at low temperatures.

  20. Near-field thermoacoustic tomography of small animals.

    PubMed

    Kellnberger, Stephan; Hajiaboli, Amir; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2011-06-07

    Near-field radiofrequency thermoacoustic (NRT) tomography is a new imaging method that was developed to mitigate limitations of conventional thermoacoustic imaging approaches, related to hard compromises between signal strength and spatial resolution. By utilizing ultrahigh-energy electromagnetic impulses at ∼20 ns duration along with improved energy absorption coupling in the near-field, this method can deliver high-resolution images without compromising signal to noise ratio. NRT is a promising modality, offering cost-effectiveness and ease of implementation and it can be conveniently scaled to image small animals and humans. However, several of the performance metrics of the method are not yet documented. In this paper, we characterize the expected imaging performance via numerical simulations based on a finite-integration time-domain (FITD) technique and experiments using tissue mimicking phantoms and different biological samples. Furthermore, we show for the first time whole-body tomographic imaging results from mice, revealing clear anatomical details along with highly dissipative inclusions introduced for control. The best spatial resolution achieved for those experiments was 150 µm.

  1. Near Noise Field of a Jet-Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howes, Walton L; Callaghan, Edmund E; Coles, Willard D; Mull, Harold R

    1957-01-01

    Aircraft structures located in the near noise field of a jet engine are subjected to extremely high fluctuating pressures that may cause structural fatigue. Studies of such structures have been limited by lack of knowledge of the loadings involved. The acoustic near field produced by the exhaust of a stationary turbojet engine having a high pressure ratio was measured for a single operating condition without burning. The maximum overall sound pressure without afterburning was found to be about 42 pounds per square foot along the jet boundary in the region immediately downstream of the jet-nozzle exit. With afterburning maximum sound pressure was increased by 50 percent. The sound pressures without afterburning were obtained on a constant percentage band width basis in the frequency range from 350 to 700 cps. Cross-correlation measurements with microphones were made for a range of jet velocities at locations along the jet and at a distance from the jet. In general, little change in the correlation curves was found as a function of jet velocity or frequency-band width.

  2. Thermoradiative device enhanced by near-field coupled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingnan; Lin, Chungwei; Teo, Koon Hoo; Zhang, Zhuomin

    2017-07-01

    Thermoradiative (TR) technology was recently proposed as a new mechanism to efficiently convert low-temperature waste heat into electric energy. It has been shown that near-field coupling between a TR cell and a heat sink is an effective way in boosting the performance of the TR device. The enhancement becomes more significant when surface resonant modes are supported by the heat sink. Surface plasmon polaritons on metal surfaces, and surface phonon polaritons on Lorentz materials, are two major types of materials investigated in the near-field enhancement. However, to significantly boost the performance, the resonant mode energy needs to match the bandgap energy of the TR cell, which is often difficult to realize with natural material selections. Typical metals have plasma frequency much higher than the bandgap of TR cell. In this paper, we show that new resonant modes with energy close to the bandgap of TR cell can be created with nanostructured gratings on the heat sink. This enables use to build the heat sink using commonly available metallic materials, whose typical surface resonant frequency is much higher than the TR bandgap.

  3. Dynamic near-field optical interaction between oscillating nanomechanical structures

    DOE PAGES

    Ahn, Phillip; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; ...

    2015-05-27

    Near-field optical techniques exploit light-matter interactions at small length scales for mechanical sensing and actuation of nanomechanical structures. Here, we study the optical interaction between two mechanical oscillators—a plasmonic nanofocusing probe-tip supported by a low frequency cantilever, and a high frequency nanomechanical resonator—and leverage their interaction for local detection of mechanical vibrations. The plasmonic nanofocusing probe provides a confined optical source to enhance the interaction between the two oscillators. Dynamic perturbation of the optical cavity between the probe-tip and the resonator leads to nonlinear modulation of the scattered light intensity at the sum and difference of their frequencies. This double-frequencymore » demodulation scheme is explored to suppress unwanted background and to detect mechanical vibrations with a minimum detectable displacement sensitivity of 0.45pm/Hz1/2, which is limited by shot noise and electrical noise. We explore the demodulation scheme for imaging the bending vibration mode shape of the resonator with a lateral spatial resolution of 20nm. We also demonstrate the time-resolved aspect of the local optical interaction by recording the ring-down vibrations of the resonator at frequencies of up to 129MHz. The near-field optical technique is promising for studying dynamic mechanical processes in individual nanostructures.« less

  4. External Luminescence and Photon Recycling in Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSutter, John; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2017-07-01

    The importance of considering near-field effects on photon recycling and spontaneous emission in a thermophotovoltaic device is investigated. Fluctuational electrodynamics is used to calculate external luminescence from a photovoltaic cell as a function of emitter type, vacuum gap thickness between the emitter and cell, and cell thickness. The observed changes in external luminescence suggest strong modifications of photon recycling caused by the presence of the emitter. Photon recycling for propagating modes is affected by reflection at the vacuum-emitter interface and is substantially decreased by the leakage towards the emitter through the tunneling of frustrated modes. In addition, spontaneous emission by the cell can be strongly enhanced by the presence of an emitter supporting surface-polariton modes. It follows that using a radiative recombination model with a spatially uniform radiative lifetime, even corrected by a photon-recycling factor, is inappropriate. Applying the principles of detailed balance and accounting for nonradiative recombination mechanisms, the impact of external luminescence enhancement in the near field on thermophotovoltaic performance is investigated. It is shown that unlike isolated cells, the external luminescence efficiency is not solely dependent on cell quality but significantly increases as the vacuum gap thickness decreases below 400 nm for the case of an intrinsic silicon emitter. In turn, the open-circuit voltage and power density benefit from this enhanced external luminescence toward the emitter. This benefit is larger as cell quality, characterized by the contribution of nonradiative recombination, decreases.

  5. Multifunctional plasmonic film for recording near-field optical intensity.

    PubMed

    Roxworthy, Brian J; Bhuiya, Abdul M; Inavalli, V V G Krishna; Chen, Hao; Toussaint, Kimani C

    2014-08-13

    We demonstrate the plasmonic equivalent of photographic film for recording optical intensity in the near field. The plasmonic structure is based on gold bowtie nanoantenna arrays fabricated on SiO2 pillars. We show that it can be employed for direct laser writing of image data or recording the polarization structure of optical vector beams. Scanning electron micrographs reveal a careful sculpting of the radius of curvature and height of the triangles composing the illuminated nanoantennas, as a result of plasmonic heating, that permits spatial tunability of the resonance response of the nanoantennas without sacrificing their geometric integrity. In contrast to other memory-dedicated approaches using Au nanorods embedded in a matrix medium, plasmonic film can be used in multiple application domains. To demonstrate this functionality, we utilize the structures as plasmonic optical tweezers and show sequestering of SiO2 microparticles into optically written channels formed between exposed sections of the film. The plasmonic film offers interesting possibilities for photonic applications including optofluidic channels "without walls," in situ tailorable biochemical sensing assays, and near-field particle manipulation and sorting.

  6. Dynamic near-field optical interaction between oscillating nanomechanical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Phillip; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Ford, Matthew; Rosenmann, Daniel; Jung, II Woong; Sun, Cheng; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2015-05-27

    Near-field optical techniques exploit light-matter interactions at small length scales for mechanical sensing and actuation of nanomechanical structures. Here, we study the optical interaction between two mechanical oscillators—a plasmonic nanofocusing probe-tip supported by a low frequency cantilever, and a high frequency nanomechanical resonator—and leverage their interaction for local detection of mechanical vibrations. The plasmonic nanofocusing probe provides a confined optical source to enhance the interaction between the two oscillators. Dynamic perturbation of the optical cavity between the probe-tip and the resonator leads to nonlinear modulation of the scattered light intensity at the sum and difference of their frequencies. This double-frequency demodulation scheme is explored to suppress unwanted background and to detect mechanical vibrations with a minimum detectable displacement sensitivity of 0.45pm/Hz1/2, which is limited by shot noise and electrical noise. We explore the demodulation scheme for imaging the bending vibration mode shape of the resonator with a lateral spatial resolution of 20nm. We also demonstrate the time-resolved aspect of the local optical interaction by recording the ring-down vibrations of the resonator at frequencies of up to 129MHz. The near-field optical technique is promising for studying dynamic mechanical processes in individual nanostructures.

  7. Dynamic near-field optical interaction between oscillating nanomechanical structures

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Phillip; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Ford, Matthew; Rosenmann, Daniel; Jung, II Woong; Sun, Cheng; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2015-01-01

    Near-field optical techniques exploit light-matter interactions at small length scales for mechanical sensing and actuation of nanomechanical structures. Here, we study the optical interaction between two mechanical oscillators—a plasmonic nanofocusing probe-tip supported by a low frequency cantilever, and a high frequency nanomechanical resonator—and leverage their interaction for local detection of mechanical vibrations. The plasmonic nanofocusing probe provides a confined optical source to enhance the interaction between the two oscillators. Dynamic perturbation of the optical cavity between the probe-tip and the resonator leads to nonlinear modulation of the scattered light intensity at the sum and difference of their frequencies. This double-frequency demodulation scheme is explored to suppress unwanted background and to detect mechanical vibrations with a minimum detectable displacement sensitivity of 0.45 pm/Hz1/2, which is limited by shot noise and electrical noise. We explore the demodulation scheme for imaging the bending vibration mode shape of the resonator with a lateral spatial resolution of 20 nm. We also demonstrate the time-resolved aspect of the local optical interaction by recording the ring-down vibrations of the resonator at frequencies of up to 129 MHz. The near-field optical technique is promising for studying dynamic mechanical processes in individual nanostructures. PMID:26014599

  8. Surface Wave Multipath Signals in Near-Field Microwave Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, Paul M.; Shubitidze, Fridon; Fanning, Margaret W.; Kmiec, Maciej; Epstein, Neil R.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave imaging techniques are prone to signal corruption from unwanted multipath signals. Near-field systems are especially vulnerable because signals can scatter and reflect from structural objects within or on the boundary of the imaging zone. These issues are further exacerbated when surface waves are generated with the potential of propagating along the transmitting and receiving antenna feed lines and other low-loss paths. In this paper, we analyze the contributions of multi-path signals arising from surface wave effects. Specifically, experiments were conducted with a near-field microwave imaging array positioned at variable heights from the floor of a coupling fluid tank. Antenna arrays with different feed line lengths in the fluid were also evaluated. The results show that surface waves corrupt the received signals over the longest transmission distances across the measurement array. However, the surface wave effects can be eliminated provided the feed line lengths are sufficiently long independently of the distance of the transmitting/receiving antenna tips from the imaging tank floor. Theoretical predictions confirm the experimental observations. PMID:22566992

  9. Near-field Approaches to Subcellular Tissue Abalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghu, Deepa; Hoffmann, Joan; Gamari, Benjamin; Gomella, Andrew; Reeves, Mark

    2011-03-01

    We report on the development of a near-field approach to MALDI (Matrix-assisted laser desorption and Ionization). In this technique analytes embedded in an energy- absorbing matrix are ablated from the surface of a sample. In the infrared region, the matrix can be water by exciting the 3-micron vibrational mode of the water molecule. We use a 3-micron wavelength lasers, coupled with a near-field scanning microscope to ablate material from cells of different membrane stiffness. We have been able to reproducibly ablate features as small as 1 micron in diameter in cell and have characterized the power-dependence of the ablation process. We will review our findings and describe demonstrations of tissue modification by this approach at length scales smaller than a single cell. This approach has the potential to allow the identification and mapping of proteins expressed in intact cells and tissues, which is of great interest as protein expression connects genomic information with the functioning of an organism.

  10. Investigation of the Arcjet near Field Plume Using Electrostatic Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plume of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in.) and 15 cm (5.9 in.) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in.) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in.) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  11. Investigation of the arcjet plume near field using electrostatic probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plum of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in) and 15 cm (5.9 in) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  12. A Diagnostic for Electric Field Measurements in the Near/Far-Field Regions of ICRF Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. H.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Isler, R. C.

    2015-11-01

    The physics mechanisms of wave heating and current drive processes in the bulk hot plasma are generally well identified. However, details of the wave-plasma interaction with a material surface in the cold plasma edge are still not fully understood. The driver behind this interaction is the time-periodic wave electric field and is referred to as the near/far-field depending on the location with respect to the antenna. Various models have been formulated to capture the near/far-field physics but have not been tested experimentally. Thus, a diagnostic capable of measuring the electric field with temporal and 3D-spatial resolution is critical for confidence in the codes used to design next generation ICRF antennas. This research is focused on the development of a laser based spectroscopic technique, Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy (DFSS), and its implementation to study near/far-field physics. Using DFSS the spectra line profile of various electronic transitions are measured and fit to a quantum mechanical model incorporating both magnetic and dynamic electric field operators. The electric field direction and magnitude are extracted from the fit. The experimental setup and planned experiments will be discussed. Additionally, initial measurements of fitted Hδ spectrum under the influence of known electric and magnetic fields will be presented.

  13. Turbulence Measurements in the Near Field of a Wingtip Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Jim; Zilliac, Greg; Bradshaw, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The roll-up of a wingtip vortex, at Reynolds number based on chord of 4.6 million was studied with an emphasis on suction side and near wake measurements. The research was conducted in a 32 in. x 48 in. low-speed wind tunnel. The half-wing model had a semi-span of 36 in. a chord of 48 in. and a rounded tip. Seven-hole pressure probe measurements of the velocity field surrounding the wingtip showed that a large axial velocity of up to 1.77 U(sub infinity) developed in the vortex core. This level of axial velocity has not been previously measured. Triple-wire probes have been used to measure all components of the Reynolds stress tensor. It was determined from correlation measurements that meandering of the vortex was small and did not appreciably contribute to the turbulence measurements. The flow was found to be turbulent in the near-field (as high as 24 percent RMS w - velocity on the edge of the core) and the turbulence decayed quickly with streamwise distance because of the nearly solid body rotation of the vortex core mean flow. A streamwise variation of the location of peak levels of turbulence, relative to the core centerline, was also found. Close to the trailing edge of the wing, the peak shear stress levels were found at the edge of the vortex core, whereas in the most downstream wake planes they occurred at a radius roughly equal to one-third of the vortex core radius. The Reynolds shear stresses were not aligned with the mean strain rate, indicating that an isotropic-eddy-viscosity based prediction method cannot accurately model the turbulence in the cortex. In cylindrical coordinates, with the origin at the vortex centerline, the radial normal stress was found to be larger than the circumferential.

  14. Near-Field Based Communication and Electrical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azad, Umar

    A near-field power transfer equation for an inductively coupled near-field system is derived based on the equivalent circuit model of the coupled resonant loops. Experimental results show that the proposed near-field coupling equation is trustworthy as it correctly predicts the transferred power versus distance relationship for different values of loaded quality factors at the transmitter and the receiver. Capacity performance of near-field communication (NFC) links is analyzed for noise limited and interference limited scenarios based on information theory. The analytical results provide guidelines for design of inductively coupled antenna systems as the power and capacity budget of the link is carried out. Examples of inductively coupled VLF NFC links are evaluated for different operating scenarios, demonstrating the efficacy and importance of the proposed near-field link budget. However, in a conventional setup of inductively coupled NFC link, the power coupled through and the bandwidth must be traded off. Direct Antenna Modulation (DAM) is a feasible scheme to break this dilemma. With DAM utilized in NFC link, the power and bandwidth product limit in a high Q system can be circumvented because the non-linear/time-varying nature of the operation allows high speed modulations decoupled from the charging and discharging process of the high-Q resonator. In this work, the theory of NFC link with DAM on the transmitter is presented and validated with an experimental setup. Improvement in reception of the high-speed modulation information is observed in the experiment, implying that a superior capacity performance of a NFC link is achieved through DAM versus the traditional scheme. The resonant coupling efficiency is limited by the product of the quality factors Q, of the transmitter and receiver and the coupling coefficient k. We observe that in order to achieve maximum efficiency, the ratio of the load-to-loss impedances at both the source and load should be equal

  15. A unified phase retrieval algorithm for both far-field and near-field diffractive imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, X.; de Jonge, M. D.; Chu, Y. S.; Shen, Q.; X-Ray Science Division

    2006-01-01

    X-ray coherent diffractive imaging is attracting interest within the x-ray community because it promises wavelength-limited resolution for imaging nonperiodic objects. It is well known that a wave diffracted or scattered by an object can be described simply by the Fourier transform of the object's electron density distribution. However, this result is general only in the so-called far-field regime, where most practical work is done. In the near-field regime, evaluations of wave field amplitudes become more complicated, and Fresnel diffraction and imaging effects have to be taken into account. In this paper, we present an algorithm that can be used to reconstruct an object from a near-field diffraction pattern. The algorithm uses the concept of a 'phase-chirped' distorted object, where a Fresnel-zone construction is embedded on an original object. This algorithm can eliminate the twin image ambiguity in phase retrieval and will therefore improve the convergence of retrieval. Our algorithm is a unified algorithm, consistent with those used in far-field experiments. Our algorithm extends the applicability of Fourier-based iterative phasing algorithms that are already established for far-field diffraction into the near-field holographic regime where phase retrieval has traditionally been difficult.

  16. Magnetic fields in the Milky Way: Near-infrared polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavel, Michael D.

    Astronomers have a limited understanding of the large-scale structure of the Galactic magnetic field and its role in the evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM). This understanding derives primarily from Faraday rotation and synchrotron observations which do not probe the cool, dusty ISM. To advance our knowledge of the Galactic magnetic field, this dissertation reports on the application of a different method, near-infrared (NIR) polarization of background starlight, to place new observational constraints on the nature of the Galactic magnetic field and to study the field's role in the evolution of interstellar material. A radiative transfer computer code was developed to predict all-sky starlight polarization observations. Starlight polarimetry predictions were made for several different dynamo-driven magnetic field geometries, assuming that magnetically-aligned interstellar dust grains polarize background starlight. New NIR starlight polarimetry measurements in the outer Galaxy were tested against these predictions. These observations favor disk-symmetric magnetic fields while rejecting disk-antisymmetric magnetic fields. This result contradicts some previous interpretations of all-sky, radio Faraday rotation measurements. The Galactic magnetic pitch angle is constrained to p = -6 ± 2°. The physical orientations of Galactic HII regions, traced by mid-infrared emission, are compared to the large-scale, disk-symmetric Galactic magnetic field geometry derived above. Hydrogen recombination line spectra towards these same objects revealed that many possessed turbulent linewidths. If fluid turbulence decays with time, then it may be used as a relative age indicator. A trend is seen between magnetic alignment and the degree of turbulence in the HII region. This result leads to the development of an observationally-driven HII region magnetic evolutionary sequence. Resolved polarimetry across the face of the galaxy M51 was measured for comparison with the internal

  17. Magnetic field concentration assisted by epsilon-near-zero media.

    PubMed

    Liberal, Iñigo; Li, Yue; Engheta, Nader

    2017-03-28

    Strengthening the magnetic response of matter at optical frequencies is of fundamental interest, as it provides additional information in spectroscopy, as well as alternative mechanisms to manipulate light at the nanoscale. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) media can enhance the magnetic field concentration capabilities of dielectric resonators. We demonstrate that the magnetic field enhancement factor is unbounded in theory, and it diverges as the size of the ENZ host increases. In practice, the maximal enhancement factor is limited by dissipation losses in the host, and it is found via numerical simulations that ENZ hosts with moderate losses can enhance the performance of a circular dielectric rod resonator by around one order of magnitude. The physical mechanism behind this process is the strongly inhomogeneous magnetic field distributions induced by ENZ media in neighbouring dielectrics. We show that this is an intrinsic property of ENZ media, and that the occurrence of resonant enhancement is independent of the shape of the host. These results might find applications in spectroscopy, in sensing, in light emission and, in general, in investigating light-matter interactions beyond electric dipole transitions.This article is part of the themed issue 'New horizons for nanophotonics'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Imaging Nanoscale Electromagnetic Near-Field Distributions Using Optical Forces

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Fei; Ananth Tamma, Venkata; Mardy, Zahra; Burdett, Jonathan; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for mapping optical near-fields with nanometer resolution, limited only by the AFM probe geometry. By detecting the optical force between a gold coated AFM probe and its image dipole on a glass substrate, we profile the electric field distributions of tightly focused laser beams with different polarizations. The experimentally recorded focal force maps agree well with theoretical predictions based on a dipole-dipole interaction model. We experimentally estimate the aspect ratio of the apex of gold coated AFM probe using only optical forces. We also show that the optical force between a sharp gold coated AFM probe and a spherical gold nanoparticle of radius 15 nm, is indicative of the electric field distribution between the two interacting particles. Photo Induced Force Microscopy (PIFM) allows for background free, thermal noise limited mechanical imaging of optical phenomenon over wide range of wavelengths from Visible to RF with detection sensitivity limited only by AFM performance. PMID:26073331

  19. Numerical Modeling of a Near-Field Scanning Optical System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kann, Joshua Louis

    A near-field scanning optical (NFO) system utilizes a subwavelength sized aperture to illuminate a sample. The aperture raster scans the sample. During the scan, the aperture is held in proximity to the sample. At each sampling point, the integrated far-zone energy distribution is stored. This collection of data is used to generate an image of the sample's surface. The main advantage of NFO systems is their very high spatial resolution. In this dissertation a hybrid finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD)/angular spectrum code is used to study the electromagnetic and imaging properties of a NFO scanning system. In addition, a finite-difference thermal (FD-thermal) code is used to calculate the thermal properties of a NFO system. Various aperture/sample geometries are studied numerically using both TE and TM polarization within a two-dimensional metallic waveguide that forms the aperture. The spatial properties of the electric field emitted by the aperture with no sample present are greatly influenced by the polarization. In particular, the electric field with TM polarization exhibits sharp peaks near the corners of the aperture, while the field with TE polarization is smooth and peaked at the center of the aperture. For both polarizations, the electric field remains collimated for a distance comparable to the aperture size. The electric field for both polarizations is altered when a dielectric sample is placed in proximity to the aperture. It is shown that the most representative image of the sample's topography is obtained using TE polarization and the resulting total far-zone energy as the sampled data. It is also shown that simpler scalar methods do not accurately predict the imaging behavior of a NFO system. Under certain circumstances the relationship between the sample's topography and the detected image is nearly linear. Under these conditions a system transfer function is calculated. Using the transfer function, it is shown that the spatial resolution of a NFO

  20. Recently Exposed Fumarole Fields Near Mullet Island, Imperial County, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, D. K.; Hudnut, K.; Adams, P.; Bernstein, L.

    2011-12-01

    New field observations, lidar measurements, aerial imaging and preliminary laboratory measurements of mud samples are reported of three formerly submerged fumarole fields in the Salton Trough near Mullet Island in southeastern California, USA. The fumarole fields have recently been exposed as the Salton Sea level has dropped. The largest of the three fields visited in January 2011 is irregular in outline with a marked northeast elongation. It is roughly 400 meters long and 120 meters wide. The field consists of approximately one hundred warm to boiling hot (100° C) mud volcanoes (0.1 - 2 m in height), several hundred mud pots, and countless CO2 gas vents. Unusual shaped mud volcanoes in the form of vertical tubes with central vents were observed in many places. Lidar measurements were obtained in the time period Nov 9-13, 2010 using an Optech Orion 200M lidar from an elevation 800 m AGL. They reveal that the terrain immediately surrounding the two fields that are above water level reside on a low (~0.5 m high) gently sloping mound about 500 m across that shows no evidence of lineaments indicative of surface faulting. With other geothermal features, the fumaroles define a well-defined line marking the probable trace of the Calipatria fault. Although the precise locations is uncertain, it appears to define a straight line 4 km long between the Davis-Schrimpf mud volcanoes and Mullet Island. Mullet Island is one of five late Quaternary rhyolitic volcanic necks in the immediate area of the fumaroles. The Calipatria fault is subparallel to the San Andreas and Imperial faults and only one of many verified or suspected faults (including cross faults) in the complex tectonic setting of the Salton Trough. Mud from several volcanoes was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). One sample contained boussingaultite, (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2.6(H2O), a rare mineral that is known to sublime under fumarolic conditions, possibly by

  1. Fabrication of nanochannels via near-field electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiang; Zheng, Gaofeng; Xu, Lei; Cheng, Wei; Xu, Bulei; Huang, Yongfang; Sun, Daoheng

    2012-09-01

    A simple and low-cost method is suggested to fabricate nanochannels via Near-Field Electrospinning (NFES). In this process, orderly and patterned nanofibers direct-written by NFES are used as sacrificial templates. Well-defined nanochannels are available after the removal process of both sacrificial fibers and material coating over the fibers. The sacrificial fiber, controlled by NFES, dominates the channel geometry. The channel width ranges from 133 nm to 13.54 µm while the applied voltage increases from 1.2 kV to 2.5 kV. Complicated wave-shape and grid pattern channels are presented under a corresponding movement of substrate. This method integrates electrospinning with conventional MEMS fabrication technology and has a potential in micro/nano manufacturing.

  2. Examining near-source effects in the far field

    SciTech Connect

    App, F.N.; Bos, R.J.; Dey, T.N.; Jones, E.M.; Kamm, J.R.; Taylor, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    A fundamental objective of the S-6 (physical basis for discrimination) sub-task of the CTBT R&D Seismic Monitoring Program at Los Alamos is to analyze the sensitivity of the regional signal to source configuration, material properties, geologic layering and structure, along with complications along the path of the signal. Our approach is to combine the results of conventional analysis of field data from explosions and earthquakes with results of numerical models of actual and idealized situations. Existing first-principles, finite difference codes allow us to examine source effects in the non-linear regime; linking the results of these near-source calculations to finite difference, anelastic wave propagation codes allows us to examine the effect of various source region and propagation path characteristics on signals observed at regional distances. An investigation of discriminant differences for the DIVIDER and CORREO underground nuclear explosions is provided as an example of the approach used.

  3. Theoretical and experimental examination of near-field acoustic levitation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Hideyuki; Kamakura, Tomoo; Matsuda, Kazuhisa

    2002-04-01

    A planar object can be levitated stably close to a piston sound source by making use of acoustic radiation pressure. This phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation [Y. Hashimoto et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2057-2061 (1996)]. In the present article, the levitation distance is predicted theoretically by numerically solving basic equations in a compressible viscous fluid subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Additionally, experiments are carried out using a 19.5-kHz piston source with a 40-mm aperture and various aluminum disks of different sizes. The measured levitation distance agrees well with the theory, which is different from a conventional theory, and the levitation distance is not inversely proportional to the square root of the surface density of the levitated disk in a strict sense.

  4. Near-field hyperspectral quantum probing of multimodal plasmonic resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuche, A.; Berthel, M.; Kumar, U.; Colas des Francs, G.; Huant, S.; Dujardin, E.; Girard, C.; Drezet, A.

    2017-03-01

    Quantum systems, excited by an external source of photons, display a photodynamics that is ruled by a subtle balance between radiative or nonradiative energy channels when interacting with metallic nanostructures. We apply and generalize this concept to achieve a quantum probing of multimodal plasmonic resonators by collecting and filtering the broad emission spectra generated by a nanodiamond (ND) hosting a small set of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers attached at the apex of an optical tip. Spatially and spectrally resolved information on the photonic local density of states (ph-LDOS) can be recorded with this technique in the immediate vicinity of plasmonic resonators, paving the way for a complete near-field optical characterization of any kind of nanoresonators in the single photon regime.

  5. Plasmonic Near-Field Absorbers for Ultrathin Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hägglund, Carl; Apell, S Peter

    2012-05-17

    If the active layer of efficient solar cells could be made 100 times thinner than in today's thin film devices, their economic competitiveness would greatly benefit. However, conventional solar cell materials do not have the optical capability to allow for such thickness reductions without a substantial loss of light absorption. To address this challenge, the use of plasmon resonances in metal nanostructures to trap light and create charge carriers in a nearby semiconductor material is an interesting opportunity. In this Perspective, recent progress with regards to ultrathin (∼10 nm) plasmonic nanocomposites is reviewed. Their optimal internal geometry for plasmon near-field induced absorption is discussed, and a zero thickness effective medium representation is used to optimize stacks including an Al back reflector for photovoltaics. This shows that high conversion efficiencies (>20%) are possible even when taking surface scattering effects and thin passivating layers inserted between the metal and semiconductor into account.

  6. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestwick, Andrew; Fox, Eli; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2015-03-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has recently been of great interest due to its recent experimental realization in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3, a ferromagnetic 3D topological insulator. The presence of ferromagnetic exchange breaks time-reversal symmetry, opening a gap in the surface states, but gives rise to dissipationless chiral conduction at the edge of a magnetized film. Ideally, this leads to vanishing longitudinal resistance and Hall resistance quantized to h /e2 , where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge, but perfect quantization has so far proved elusive. Here, we study the QAHE in the limit of zero applied magnetic field, and measure Hall resistance quantized to within one part per 10,000. Deviation from quantization is due primarily to thermally activated carriers, which can be nearly eliminated through adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This result demonstrates an important step toward dissipationless electron transport in technologically relevant conditions.

  7. Lightning rod resonance of a plasmonic near-field transducer.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chubing; Ko, Kaspar D

    2017-06-26

    We demonstrate the lightning-rod resonance of a lollipop near-field transducer integrated in magnetic writer for heat-assisted magnetic recording by collecting the two-photon excited photoluminescence (TPL) signal when excited by a pulsed femto-second fiber laser tuned to the desired mode resonance. The lollipop transducer consists of a round disk and a protruding peg to take advantage of the lightning-rod effect. It is found that the TPL signal is extremely sensitive to the peg length where even a 3-5 nm deviation from the optimal peg length halves the TPL signal. This method conveniently quantifies the optical performance of an NFT device in situ as a function of geometry with a resolution of better than the light wavelength (λ) divided by 200.

  8. Near-field and SERS enhancement from rough plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trügler, Andreas; Tinguely, Jean-Claude; Jakopic, Georg; Hohenester, Ulrich; Krenn, Joachim R.; Hohenau, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    The lithographic fabrication of metal nanoparticles usually involves the thermal vacuum deposition of metals, which leads to polycrystallinity and surface roughness. In recent years, strong efforts have been made to clarify the role of such roughness in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). In this paper, we provide a systematic experimental and theoretical study of single lithographically fabricated nanoparticles to unravel the role of surface roughness and morphology on the optical far- and near-field properties. We find that the experimentally observed reduction of the SERS signal upon thermal annealing of particle arrays is caused by a complex interplay of changes in the dielectric response of gold, the resonance wavelength, and the reduced nanoscopic roughness.

  9. Near-Field, On-Chip Optical Brownian Ratchets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Ningfeng; Jaquay, Eric; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2016-08-10

    Nanoparticles in aqueous solution are subject to collisions with solvent molecules, resulting in random, Brownian motion. By breaking the spatiotemporal symmetry of the system, the motion can be rectified. In nature, Brownian ratchets leverage thermal fluctuations to provide directional motion of proteins and enzymes. In man-made systems, Brownian ratchets have been used for nanoparticle sorting and manipulation. Implementations based on optical traps provide a high degree of tunability along with precise spatiotemporal control. Here, we demonstrate an optical Brownian ratchet based on the near-field traps of an asymmetrically patterned photonic crystal. The system yields over 25 times greater trap stiffness than conventional optical tweezers. Our technique opens up new possibilities for particle manipulation in a microfluidic, lab-on-chip environment.

  10. Radiant Flux of Near Field in Temperature Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez-Romero, J. G.; Resendiz Barron, A. J.; Farias Arguello, J. O.

    2008-04-15

    In this work we present a calculation of the radiant flux exiting from an object which is at a constant temperature. The flux calculation is based in the propagation model of irradiance and it permit to predict the small variations in measurements of infrared radiation sources when the pyrometer is going far from the source, this variation is known as distance effect. The classical radiometry defines the quantity radiance, which is used in temperature measurements of objects through the infrared radiation they emit. Unfortunately the radiance does not permit to take into account the variations of the radiant flux measured by the pyrometer due to the wave propagation of the radiation given that the radiance definition is based in ray propagation, the geometrical model. Due to the anterior in this work we present a radiant flux calculation using wave model and considering the approximation of the near field or Fresnel approximation. We show experimental results that confirm our proposal.

  11. Study of Near Field Communication Technology in University Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Irene Luque; Miraz, Guillermo Matas; Gómez-Nieto, Miguel Ángel

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we present an introduction to the possibilities of NFC (Near Field Communication) technology in the University environment. NFC is the key for the development of interactive systems where "intelligent" objects interact with the user just only by touching the objects with a NFC device. We support that a University environment with active objects dispatching information and services to the users (students and teachers) can introduce an appropriate environment for the fulfillment of the new Educational European directives. Here, we briefly describe some of the possibilities of the NFC technology and we include an example of the use of NFC through a Smart Poster for a scenario where a Department directory is considered.

  12. Experimental studies on near-field holographic antenna measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Yingxi; Xu, Linfen; An, Hongye; Sun, Jixian; Lou, Zheng; Yang, Ji; Zhang, Xuguo; Li, Zhenqiang; Lu, Dengrong; Pang, Xinghai; Li, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A near-field millimeter-wave holography system operating in the 3-mm waveband have been developed as a prototype for DATE5, a 5-m terahertz telescope proposed to be deployed at Dome A, Antarctica. Experimental measurements at 92 GHz have been made on a 1.45-m test antenna. During the night time at which the ambient temperature doesn't vary rapidly, a 75-minute repeatability (repeating measurement 3 times) of 2.3 μm rms has been achieved with an aperture resolution of 46 mm. A local surface change of known value is correctly detected. After long-time repeating measurements, thermal-induced feed displacement is also detected with an accuracy of approximately 20 μm. Random error factors of the experiment system are evaluated and their contributions to the derived surface error are also simulated, showing that relative poor pointing of the test antenna is the major factor limiting the measurement repeatability.

  13. Hot Carrier-Based Near-Field Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    St-Gelais, Raphael; Bhatt, Gaurang Ravindra; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Lipson, Michal

    2017-03-28

    Near-field thermophotovoltaics (NFTPV) is a promising approach for direct conversion of heat to electrical power. This technology relies on the drastic enhancement of radiative heat transfer (compared to conventional blackbody radiation) that occurs when objects at different temperatures are brought to deep subwavelength distances (typically <100 nm) from each other. Achieving such radiative heat transfer between a hot object and a photovoltaic (PV) cell could allow direct conversion of heat to electricity with a greater efficiency than using current solid-state technologies (e.g., thermoelectric generators). One of the main challenges in the development of this technology, however, is its incompatibility with conventional silicon PV cells. Thermal radiation is weak at frequencies larger than the ∼1.1 eV bandgap of silicon, such that PV cells with lower excitation energies (typically 0.4-0.6 eV) are required for NFTPV. Using low bandgap III-V semiconductors to circumvent this limitation, as proposed in most theoretical works, is challenging and therefore has never been achieved experimentally. In this work, we show that hot carrier PV cells based on Schottky junctions between silicon and metallic films could provide an attractive solution for achieving high efficiency NFTPV electricity generation. Hot carrier science is currently an important field of research and several approaches are investigated for increasing the quantum efficiency (QE) of hot carrier generation beyond conventional Fowler model predictions. If the Fowler limit can indeed be overcome, we show that hot carrier-based NFTPV systems-after optimization of their thermal radiation spectrum-could allow electricity generation with up to 10-30% conversion efficiencies and 10-500 W/cm(2) generated power densities (at 900-1500 K temperatures). We also discuss how the unique properties of thermal radiation in the extreme near-field are especially well suited for investigating recently proposed approaches

  14. Regularization methods for near-field acoustical holography.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G

    2001-10-01

    The reconstruction of the pressure and normal surface velocity provided by near-field acoustical holography (NAH) from pressure measurements made near a vibrating structure is a linear, ill-posed inverse problem due to the existence of strongly decaying, evanescentlike waves. Regularization provides a technique of overcoming the ill-posedness and generates a solution to the linear problem in an automated way. We present four robust methods for regularization; the standard Tikhonov procedure along with a novel improved version, Landweber iteration, and the conjugate gradient approach. Each of these approaches can be applied to all forms of interior or exterior NAH problems; planar, cylindrical, spherical, and conformal. We also study two parameter selection procedures, the Morozov discrepancy principle and the generalized cross validation, which are crucial to any regularization theory. In particular, we concentrate here on planar and cylindrical holography. These forms of NAH which rely on the discrete Fourier transform are important due to their popularity and to their tremendous computational speed. In order to use regularization theory for the separable geometry problems we reformulate the equations of planar, cylindrical, and spherical NAH into an eigenvalue problem. The resulting eigenvalues and eigenvectors couple easily to regularization theory, which can be incorporated into the NAH software with little sacrifice in computational speed. The resulting complete automation of the NAH algorithm for both separable and nonseparable geometries overcomes the last significant hurdle for NAH.

  15. Generalized method of eigenoscillations for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Zhang, Lingfeng; Castro Neto, Antonio; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the ``probe'') and a material surface (the ``sample'') is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances (eigenoscillations), corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe, as well as the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several axisymmetric particle shapes (spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped). For spheroids an efficient numerical method is proposed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. The method is applied to modeling near-field spectroscopy studies of various materials. For highly resonant materials such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene) a rich structure of the simulated signal is found, including multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves. These features have a strong dependence on physical parameters, e.g., the probe shape. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide the dependence is weaker, and the spheroid model is generally applicable.

  16. Near-field thermoacoustic imaging with transmission line pulsers.

    PubMed

    Omar, Murad; Kellnberger, Stephan; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-07-01

    Near-field radiofrequency thermoacoustic (NRT) tomography has been recently introduced for imaging electromagnetic (EM) properties of tissues using ultrawideband, high-energy impulses, which induce thermoacoustic responses. Operation in the near-field allows for more effective energy coupling into tissue, compared to using radiating sources, which in turn enables the use of shorter excitation pulses and leads to higher image resolution. This work aimed at investigating transmission lines as a method to generate excitation pulses to improve the NRT resolution over previous implementations without compromising the energy coupled into tissue. The authors implemented a number of custom-made transmission lines to overcome the challenges of the broadband nature of the impulse excitation required in NRT. The authors further constructed phantoms and investigated the performance of the lines in regard to the pulse duration, energy coupling and the resulting resolution, and image quality achieved. Finally, the authors employed mice in order to investigate the performance of the approach in tissue imaging. The authors found that the use of transmission lines resulted in the generation of RF impulses in the range of tens of nanoseconds and shorter. This performance resulted to resolution improvements over previous thermoacoustic imaging implementations, reaching 45 μm resolution, while retaining several tens to hundreds of milli-Joules of energy per pulse. This performance further allowed the visualization and clear differentiation of different mouse structures such as the heart, lung, or spinal cord. The use of transmission lines significantly improved the NRT performance leading to high thermoacoustic tomography imaging quality by coupling adequate amounts of energy within short times at a relatively low cost.

  17. Near-field thermoacoustic imaging with transmission line pulsers.

    PubMed

    Omar, Murad; Kellnberger, Stephan; Sergiadis, George; Razansky, Daniel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-07-01

    Near-field radiofrequency thermoacoustic (NRT) tomography has been recently introduced for imaging electromagnetic (EM) properties of tissues using ultrawideband, high-energy impulses, which induce thermoacoustic responses. Operation in the near-field allows for more effective energy coupling into tissue, compared to using radiating sources, which in turn enables the use of shorter excitation pulses and leads to higher image resolution. This work aimed at investigating transmission lines as a method to generate excitation pulses to improve the NRT resolution over previous implementations without compromising the energy coupled into tissue. The authors implemented a number of custom-made transmission lines to overcome the challenges of the broadband nature of the impulse excitation required in NRT. The authors further constructed phantoms and investigated the performance of the lines in regard to the pulse duration, energy coupling and the resulting resolution, and image quality achieved. Finally, the authors employed mice in order to investigate the performance of the approach in tissue imaging. The authors found that the use of transmission lines resulted in the generation of RF impulses in the range of tens of nanoseconds and shorter. This performance resulted to resolution improvements over previous thermoacoustic imaging implementations, reaching 45 μm resolution, while retaining several tens to hundreds of milli-Joules of energy per pulse. This performance further allowed the visualization and clear differentiation of different mouse structures such as the heart, lung, or spinal cord. The use of transmission lines significantly improved the NRT performance leading to high thermoacoustic tomography imaging quality by coupling adequate amounts of energy within short times at a relatively low cost. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Identification of wind fields for wave modeling near Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Sashikant; Balan Sobhana, Sandeepan; Panchang, Vijay

    2016-04-01

    Due to the development of coastal and offshore infrastructure in and around the Arabian Gulf, a large semi-enclosed sea, knowledge of met-ocean factors like prevailing wind systems, wind generated waves, and currents etc. are of great importance. Primarily it is important to identify the wind fields that are used as forcing functions for wave and circulation models for hindcasting and forecasting purposes. The present study investigates the effects of using two sources of wind-fields on the modeling of wind-waves in the Arabian Gulf, in particular near the coastal regions of Qatar. Two wind sources are considered here, those obtained from ECMWF and those generated by us using the WRF model. The wave model SWAN was first forced with the 6 hourly ERA Interim daily winds (from ECMWF) having spatial resolution of 0.125°. For the second option, wind fields were generated by us using the mesoscale wind model (WRF) with a high spatial resolution (0.1°) at every 30 minute intervals. The simulations were carried out for a period of two months (7th October-7th December, 2015) during which measurements were available from two moored buoys (deployed and operated by the Qatar Meteorological Department), one in the north of Qatar ("Qatar North", in water depth of 58.7 m) and other in the south ("Shiraouh Island", in water depth of 16.64 m). This period included a high-sea event on 11-12th of October, recorded by the two buoys where the significant wave heights (Hs) reached as high as 2.9 m (i.e. max wave height H ~ 5.22 m) and 1.9 (max wave height H ~ 3.4 m) respectively. Model results were compared with the data for this period. The scatter index (SI) of the Hs simulated using the WRF wind fields and the observed Hs was found to be about 30% and 32% for the two buoys (total period). The observed Hs were generally reproduced but there was consistent underestimation. (Maximum 27% for the high-sea event). For the Hs obtained with ERA interim wind fields, the underestimation was

  19. Relativistic effects in photon-induced near field electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Tae; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2012-11-26

    Electrons and photons, when interacting via a nanostructure, produce a new way of imaging in space and time, termed photon-induced near field electron microscopy or PINEM [Barwick et al. Nature 2009, 462, 902]. The phenomenon was described by considering the evanescent field produced by the nanostructure, but quantification of the experimental results was achieved by solving the Schrödinger equation for the interaction of the three bodies. The question remained, is the nonrelativistic formulation sufficient for this description? Here, relativistic and nonrelativistic quantum mechanical formulations are compared for electron-photon interaction mediated by nanostructures, and it is shown that there is an exact equivalence for the two formulations. The nonrelativistic formulation was found to be valid in the relativistic regime when using in the former formulation the relativistically corrected velocity (and the corresponding values of momentum and energy). In the PINEM experiment, 200 keV electrons were utilized, giving the experimental (relativistically corrected) velocity to be 0.7c(v without relativistic correction is 0.885c). When this value (0.7c), together with those of the corresponding momentum (p(c) = mv) and energy (E(c) = (1/2)mv(2)), is used in the first order solution of the Schrödinger formulation, an exact equivalence is obtained.

  20. High Temperature Near-Field NanoThermoMechanical Rectification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-03-01

    Limited performance and reliability of electronic devices at extreme temperatures, intensive electromagnetic fields, and radiation found in space exploration missions (i.e., Venus & Jupiter planetary exploration, and heliophysics missions) and earth-based applications requires the development of alternative computing technologies. In the pursuit of alternative technologies, research efforts have looked into developing thermal memory and logic devices that use heat instead of electricity to perform computations. However, most of the proposed technologies operate at room or cryogenic temperatures, due to their dependence on material’s temperature-dependent properties. Here in this research, we show experimentally—for the first time—the use of near-field thermal radiation (NFTR) to achieve thermal rectification at high temperatures, which can be used to build high-temperature thermal diodes for performing logic operations in harsh environments. We achieved rectification through the coupling between NFTR and the size of a micro/nano gap separating two terminals, engineered to be a function of heat flow direction. We fabricated and tested a proof-of-concept NanoThermoMechanical device that has shown a maximum rectification of 10.9% at terminals’ temperatures of 375 and 530 K. Experimentally, we operated the microdevice in temperatures as high as about 600 K, demonstrating this technology’s suitability to operate at high temperatures.

  1. High Temperature Near-Field NanoThermoMechanical Rectification

    PubMed Central

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-01-01

    Limited performance and reliability of electronic devices at extreme temperatures, intensive electromagnetic fields, and radiation found in space exploration missions (i.e., Venus & Jupiter planetary exploration, and heliophysics missions) and earth-based applications requires the development of alternative computing technologies. In the pursuit of alternative technologies, research efforts have looked into developing thermal memory and logic devices that use heat instead of electricity to perform computations. However, most of the proposed technologies operate at room or cryogenic temperatures, due to their dependence on material’s temperature-dependent properties. Here in this research, we show experimentally—for the first time—the use of near-field thermal radiation (NFTR) to achieve thermal rectification at high temperatures, which can be used to build high-temperature thermal diodes for performing logic operations in harsh environments. We achieved rectification through the coupling between NFTR and the size of a micro/nano gap separating two terminals, engineered to be a function of heat flow direction. We fabricated and tested a proof-of-concept NanoThermoMechanical device that has shown a maximum rectification of 10.9% at terminals’ temperatures of 375 and 530 K. Experimentally, we operated the microdevice in temperatures as high as about 600 K, demonstrating this technology’s suitability to operate at high temperatures. PMID:28322324

  2. Investigation of moderately turbid suspensions by heterodyne near field scattering.

    PubMed

    Escobedo-Sánchez, M A; Rojas-Ochoa, L F; Laurati, M; Egelhaaf, S U

    2017-08-03

    Light scattering has proven to be a very powerful technique to characterize soft matter systems. However, many samples are turbid and hence suffer from multiple scattering which can affect the signal considerably. Multiple scattering can be reduced by diluting the sample or changing the solvent, but often this alters the sample and hence is precluded. Here we study the dynamics of a model system. In particular, we investigate the effects of moderate multiple scattering on small-angle heterodyne near field scattering (HNFS). Varying the particle concentration and size we change the degree of multiple scattering, which is quantified by the transmission of light. In dependence of the degree of multiple scattering, we analyze the statistical properties of the HNFS signal, which is the difference between two intensity patterns separated by a delay time. The distribution of intensity differences follows a Gaussian distribution if single scattering dominates and a Laplace distribution in the presence of extreme multiple scattering. We also investigate the effects of multiple scattering on the measured intermediate scattering function and the hydrodynamic radius of the particles. Reliable data are obtained for sample transmissions down to about 0.7. This is confirmed by a comparison with results from a far field cross-correlation instrument that suppresses multiple scattering contributions. Therefore, HNFS represents a technically simple but powerful method to investigate samples that are moderately multiple scattering.

  3. Fast near-field far-field transformation for phaseless and irregular antenna measurement data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnattinger, G.; Lopez, C.; Kılıç, E.; Eibert, T. F.

    2014-11-01

    The characterization of antenna radiation patterns by transformed near-field measurements requires accurate amplitude and phase data. This represents a problem since expensive measurement equipment is required, especially at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths (Isernia et al., 1996). Amplitude-only antenna field measurements are theoretically sufficient for the unique determination of antenna far-fields. Therefore, phaseless techniques are of special interest. However, the required field transformations are extremely challenging, since they are nonlinear and strongly ill-posed. In this work, the amplitude-only or phaseless near-field far-field transformation problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. The linear radiation operator within the nonlinear formulation is evaluated using the fast irregular antenna field transformation algorithm (FIAFTA). A hybrid solution procedure is described which combines a genetic algorithm with an iterative conjugate gradient (CG) search method. Numerical results prove the efficiency and flexibility of the formulation and it is shown that the algorithm remains stable when the noise level in the measurements is moderate. Nevertheless, regularization techniques might be beneficial to further improve the robustness of the algorithm.

  4. Near-field modeling in Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pohlmann, K.; Shirley, C.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is investigating the effects of nuclear testing in underground test areas (the UGTA program) at the Nevada Test Site. The principal focus of the UGTA program is to better understand and define subsurface radionuclide migration. The study described in this report focuses on the development of tools for generating maps of hydrogeologic characteristics of subsurface Tertiary volcanic units at the Frenchman Flat corrective Action Unit (CAU). The process includes three steps. The first step involves generation of three-dimensional maps of the geologic structure of subsurface volcanic units using geophysical logs to distinguish between two classes: densely welded tuff and nonwelded tuff. The second step generates three-dimensional maps of hydraulic conductivity utilizing the spatial distribution of the two geologic classes obtained in the first step. Each class is described by a correlation structure based on existing data on hydraulic conductivity, and conditioned on the generated spatial location of each class. The final step demonstrates the use of the maps of hydraulic conductivity for modeling groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in volcanic tuffs from an underground nuclear test at the Frenchman Flat CAU. The results indicate that the majority of groundwater flow through the volcanic section occurs through zones of densely welded tuff where connected fractures provide the transport pathway. Migration rates range between near zero to approximately four m/yr, with a mean rate of 0.68 m/yr. This report presents the results of work under the FY96 Near-Field Modeling task of the UGTA program.

  5. Far-field optical degradation due to near-field transmission through a turbulent heated jet.

    PubMed

    Cicchiello, J M; Jumper, E J

    1997-09-01

    When a laser beam traverses an optically active, turbulent flow field, the laser wave front is aberrated by the flow. Density variations in a heated two-dimensional jet, for example, correspond to index-of-refraction variations, and this modulation of the index in the fluid can imprint an optical phase disturbance, or phase error, onto the laser wave front. Adaptive-optic systems seek to correct the phase error of the wave front, and thus restore the integrity of the far-field irradiance pattern. Given a near-field spatial mapping of a phase disturbance, the far-field irradiance pattern of the affected wave front can be calculated with Fourier-optics techniques. A Fourier-optics computer code was used to study the far-field irradiance patterns arising from actual time-varying measurements of a fluid-induced phase error. The time-averaged Strehl ratio was studied to provide insight into the spatial and temporal design requirements for adaptive-optic systems applied to the time series of near-field spatial phase-error maps.

  6. Near-field scanning optical microscopy investigations of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearo, Jessie Ann

    The Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) studies of novel, optically active, conjugated polymers are presented. NSOM is a relatively new technique which produces super resolution (˜50--100 nm) optical images simultaneously with topography. The conjugated polymer poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and derivatives of PPV are organic semiconductor-like materials with interesting and unique optical properties. Derivatives of PPV have been used in LEDs and have potential in other optoelectronic devices. NSOM provides a tool for investigation of the photoluminescence, absorption/reflection, photo-dynamics and photoconductivity of films of PPV and PPV derivatives on the length scale that these properties are fundamentally defined. The NSOM experiments have revealed mesoscale domains (˜100 nm) of varying photoluminescence emission and average molecular order in drop cast films of PPV. NSOM of stretch-oriented PPV have shown domains of perpendicular molecular orientation with low photoluminescence emission. Near-field photoconductivity experiments of stretch-oriented PPV have correlated the mesoscale topography with the photoconductivity properties of the polymer. NSOM experiments of films of poly(2-methoxy, 5-(2'-(ethyl(hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) have shown that there is mesoscale spatial inhomogeneity in the photo-oxidation process which reduces photoluminescence emission. NSOM has also been used to create nanoscale photo-patterning in MEH-PPV films. The NSOM experiments of blended films of MEH-PPV in polystyrene have shown mesoscale phase separation directly correlated to variations in the optical properties of the film. Derivatives of PPV, stretch-oriented in polyethylene, show photoluminescence intensity variations perpendicular and parallel to the stretch-direction correlated to topography features. As a complement to the NSOM studies of conjugated polymers, single polymer molecule experiments of MEH-PPV are also presented. The

  7. Nuclear mean field on and near the drip lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otsuka, Takaharu; Fukunishi, Nobuhisa

    1996-01-01

    We discuss two subjects related to the structure of nuclei near the drip lines. The first is the vanishing of N = 20 magic structure in Z ≪ N = 20 nuclei. Large-scale state-of-the-art shell-model calculations with 2sld and lower 2plf shells are shown to present a unified description of N = 20 isotones with Z = 10-20, covering both stable and unstable nuclei. The calculations demonstrate that, although the N = 20 closed-shell structure remains for Z ≥ 14, the N = 20 closed-shell structure vanishes naturally towards nuclei with Z ≤ 12, giving rise to various anomalous features including those in 32Mg and 31Na. It is suggested that, in these nuclei, the deformed mean field overcomes the shell gap created by the spherical mean potential. Furthermore, the almost perfect agreement with a recent experiment is presented for the B(E2; 0 1+ → 2 1+) value of 32Mg. The second part is devoted to the mean field for loosely bound neutrons. The variational shell model (VSM) is explained with an application to the anomalous ground state of 11Be. The VSM has been proposed recently to describe the structure of neutron-rich unstable nuclei. Contrary to the failure of spherical Hartree-Fock, the anomalous {1}/{2}+ ground state and its neutron halo are reproduced with Skyrme SIII interaction. This state is bound due to dynamical coupling between the core and the loosely bound neutron which oscillates between 2 s{1}/{2} and l d{5}/{2} orbits. The direct neutron capture is discussed briefly in its relation to the neutron halo.

  8. Predicting benzene vapor concentrations with a near field/far field model.

    PubMed

    Nicas, Mark; Neuhaus, John

    2008-09-01

    Published data on benzene vapor concentrations in work simulation settings were used to examine the predictive ability of a near field/far field vapor dispersion model with an exponentially decreasing vapor emission rate. A given simulation involved two 15-min periods of applying a known volume of benzene-containing liquid to equipment on a worktable in a room with a measured air exchange rate. Replicate personal breathing zone (15-min time-weighted average, TWA) and room area (1-hr TWA) air samples were collected. In our modeling, the benzene vapor concentration in the near field zone (at the worktable) represented the personal breathing zone exposure level, and the benzene vapor concentration in the far field zone represented the room area concentration. Across 10 simulation combinations of two factors (the mass of benzene applied and the room air exchange rate), the mean of the personal breathing zone exposure levels ranged from 0.2 to 9.9 mg m(-3), and the mean of the room area concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 5.05 mg m(-3). Our model provided reasonably accurate estimates of the measured benzene vapor concentrations. Linear regression of the mean measured personal breathing zone exposure versus the predicted near field concentration yielded slope = 0.93 and r(2) = 0.94; the null hypothesis that the true slope equals one was not rejected (p-value = 0.39). Linear regression of the mean measured room area concentration versus the predicted far field concentration yielded slope = 0.90 and r(2) = 0.94; the null hypothesis that the true slope equals one was not rejected (p-value = 0.20). Other statistical tests showed no significant differences between measured and predicted values. In addition, most predicted concentrations fell within an approximate range of one-half to twofold the respective measured concentrations.

  9. Entropic and Near-Field Improvements of Thermoradiative Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan K.; Liao, Bolin; Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A p-n junction maintained at above ambient temperature can work as a heat engine, converting some of the supplied heat into electricity and rejecting entropy by interband emission. Such thermoradiative cells have potential to harvest low-grade heat into electricity. By analyzing the entropy content of different spectral components of thermal radiation, we identify an approach to increase the efficiency of thermoradiative cells via spectrally selecting long-wavelength photons for radiative exchange. Furthermore, we predict that the near-field photon extraction by coupling photons generated from interband electronic transition to phonon polariton modes on the surface of a heat sink can increase the conversion efficiency as well as the power generation density, providing more opportunities to efficiently utilize terrestrial emission for clean energy. An ideal InSb thermoradiative cell can achieve a maximum efficiency and power density up to 20.4% and 327 Wm−2, respectively, between a hot source at 500 K and a cold sink at 300 K. However, sub-bandgap and non-radiative losses will significantly degrade the cell performance. PMID:27734902

  10. A novel mathematical model for controllable near-field electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Changhai; Chen, Jie; Shao, Zhushuai; Pang, Ming; Luo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Near-field electrospinning (NFES) had better controllability than conventional electrospinning. However, due to the lack of guidance of theoretical model, precise deposition of micro/nano fibers could only accomplished by experience. To analyze the behavior of charged jet in NFES using mathematical model, the momentum balance equation was simplified and a new expression between jet cross-sectional radius and axial position was derived. Using this new expression and mass conservation equation, expressions for jet cross-sectional radius and velocity were derived in terms of axial position and initial jet acceleration in the form of exponential functions. Based on Slender-body theory and Giesekus model, a quadratic equation for initial jet acceleration was acquired. With the proposed model, it was able to accurately predict the diameter and velocity of polymer fibers in NFES, and mathematical analysis rather than experimental methods could be applied to study the effects of the process parameters in NFES. Moreover, the movement velocity of the collector stage can be regulated by mathematical model rather than experience. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper had important guiding significance to precise deposition of polymer fibers.

  11. Interfacing external sensors with Android smartphones through near field communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leikanger, Tore; Häkkinen, Juha; Schuss, Christian

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we present and evaluate a new approach to communicate with inter-integrated circuit (I2C) enabled circuits such as sensors over near field communication (NFC). The NFC-to-I2C interface was designed using a non-standard NFC command to control the I2C bus directly from a smartphone, which was controlling both, the read and write operations on the I2C bus. The NFC-to-I2C interface was reporting back the data bytes on the bus to the smartphone when the transaction was completed successfully. The proposed system was tested experimentally, both, with write and read requests to a commercial microcontroller featuring a hardware I2C port, as well as reading a commercial I2C enabled humidity and temperature sensor. We present experimental results of the system which show that our approach enables an easy interface between smartphones and external sensors. Interfacing external sensors is useful and beneficial for smartphone users, especially, if certain types of sensors are not available on smartphones.

  12. Entropic and near-field improvements of thermoradiative cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Wei -Chun; Tong, Jonathan K.; Liao, Bolin; Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Chen, Gang

    2016-10-13

    A p-n junction maintained at above ambient temperature can work as a heat engine, converting some of the supplied heat into electricity and rejecting entropy by interband emission. Such thermoradiative cells have potential to harvest low-grade heat into electricity. By analyzing the entropy content of different spectral components of thermal radiation, we identify an approach to increase the efficiency of thermoradiative cells via spectrally selecting long-wavelength photons for radiative exchange. Furthermore, we predict that the near-field photon extraction by coupling photons generated from interband electronic transition to phonon polariton modes on the surface of a heat sink can increase the conversion efficiency as well as the power generation density, providing more opportunities to efficiently utilize terrestrial emission for clean energy. An ideal InSb thermoradiative cell can achieve a maximum efficiency and power density up to 20.4% and 327 Wm-2, respectively, between a hot source at 500 K and a cold sink at 300 K. Furthermore, sub-bandgap and non-radiative losses will significantly degrade the cell performance.

  13. Viscoacoustic model for near-field ultrasonic levitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikhov, Ivan; Chivilikhin, Sergey; Amosov, Alexey; Jeanson, Romain

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasonic near-field levitation allows for contactless support and transportation of an object over vibrating surface. We developed an accurate model predicting pressure distribution in the gap between the surface and levitating object. The formulation covers a wide range of the air flow regimes: from viscous squeezed flow dominating in small gap to acoustic wave propagation in larger gap. The paper explains derivation of the governing equations from the basic fluid dynamics. The nonreflective boundary conditions were developed to properly define air flow at the outlet. Comparing to direct computational fluid dynamics modeling our approach allows achieving good accuracy while keeping the computation cost low. Using the model we studied the levitation force as a function of gap distance. It was shown that there are three distinguished flow regimes: purely viscous, viscoacoustic, and acoustic. The regimes are defined by the balance of viscous and inertial forces. In the viscous regime the pressure in the gap is close to uniform while in the intermediate viscoacoustic and the acoustic regimes the pressure profile is wavy. The model was validated by a dedicated levitation experiment and compared to similar published results.

  14. Viscoacoustic model for near-field ultrasonic levitation.

    PubMed

    Melikhov, Ivan; Chivilikhin, Sergey; Amosov, Alexey; Jeanson, Romain

    2016-11-01

    Ultrasonic near-field levitation allows for contactless support and transportation of an object over vibrating surface. We developed an accurate model predicting pressure distribution in the gap between the surface and levitating object. The formulation covers a wide range of the air flow regimes: from viscous squeezed flow dominating in small gap to acoustic wave propagation in larger gap. The paper explains derivation of the governing equations from the basic fluid dynamics. The nonreflective boundary conditions were developed to properly define air flow at the outlet. Comparing to direct computational fluid dynamics modeling our approach allows achieving good accuracy while keeping the computation cost low. Using the model we studied the levitation force as a function of gap distance. It was shown that there are three distinguished flow regimes: purely viscous, viscoacoustic, and acoustic. The regimes are defined by the balance of viscous and inertial forces. In the viscous regime the pressure in the gap is close to uniform while in the intermediate viscoacoustic and the acoustic regimes the pressure profile is wavy. The model was validated by a dedicated levitation experiment and compared to similar published results.

  15. Near-field tsunami edge waves and complex earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of distributed coseismic slip on progressive, near-field edge waves is examined for continental shelf tsunamis. Detailed observations of edge waves are difficult to separate from the other tsunami phases that are observed on tide gauge records. In this study, analytic methods are used to compute tsunami edge waves distributed over a finite number of modes and for uniformly sloping bathymetry. Coseismic displacements from static elastic theory are introduced as initial conditions in calculating the evolution of progressive edge-waves. Both simple crack representations (constant stress drop) and stochastic slip models (heterogeneous stress drop) are tested on a fault with geometry similar to that of the M w = 8.8 2010 Chile earthquake. Crack-like ruptures that are beneath or that span the shoreline result in similar longshore patterns of maximum edge-wave amplitude. Ruptures located farther offshore result in reduced edge-wave excitation, consistent with previous studies. Introduction of stress-drop heterogeneity by way of stochastic slip models results in significantly more variability in longshore edge-wave patterns compared to crack-like ruptures for the same offshore source position. In some cases, regions of high slip that are spatially distinct will yield sub-events, in terms of tsunami generation. Constructive interference of both non-trapped and trapped waves can yield significantly larger tsunamis than those that produced by simple earthquake characterizations.

  16. Parallel scanning near-field photolithography: the snomipede.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Ehtsham; Liu, Zhuming; Zhang, Yuan; Ahmad, Shahrul A Alang; Wong, Lu-Shin; Armes, Steven P; Hobbs, Jamie K; Leggett, Graham J; Micklefield, Jason; Roberts, Clive J; Weaver, John M R

    2010-11-10

    The “Millipede”, developed by Binnig and co-workers (Bining, G. K.; et al. IBM J. Res. Devel. 2000, 44, 323.), elegantly solves the problem of the serial nature of scanning probe lithography processes, by deploying massive parallelism. Here we fuse the “Millipede” concept with scanning near-field photolithography to yield a “Snomipede” that is capable of executing parallel chemical transformations at high resolution over macroscopic areas. Our prototype has sixteen probes that are separately controllable using a methodology that is, in principle, scalable to much larger arrays. Light beams generated by a spatial modulator or a zone plate array are coupled to arrays of cantilever probes with hollow, pyramidal tips. We demonstrate selective photodeprotection of nitrophenylpropyloxycarbonyl-protected aminosiloxane monolayers on silicon dioxide and subsequent growth of nanostructured polymer brushes by atom-transfer radical polymerization, and the fabrication of 70 nm structures in photoresist by a Snomipede probe array immersed under water. Such approaches offer a powerful means of integrating the top-down and bottom-up fabrication paradigms, facilitating the reactive processing of materials at nanometer resolution over macroscopic areas.

  17. Near field acoustic holography with particle velocity transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsen, Finn; Liu, Yang

    2005-11-01

    Near field acoustic holography is usually based on measurement of the pressure. This paper describes an investigation of an alternative technique that involves measuring the normal component of the acoustic particle velocity. A simulation study shows that there is no appreciable difference between the quality of predictions of the pressure based on knowledge of the pressure in the measurement plane and predictions of the particle velocity based on knowledge of the particle velocity in the measurement plane. However, when the particle velocity is predicted close to the source on the basis of the pressure measured in a plane further away, high spatial frequency components corresponding to evanescent modes are not only amplified by the distance but also by the wave number ratio (kz/k). By contrast, when the pressure is predicted close to the source on the basis of the particle velocity measured in a plane further away, high spatial frequency components are reduced by the reciprocal wave number ratio (k/kz). For the same reason holography based on the particle velocity is less sensitive to transducer mismatch than the conventional technique based on the pressure. These findings are confirmed by an experimental investigation made with a p-u sound intensity probe produced by Microflown.

  18. Behavior of molecules and molecular ions near a field emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gault, Baptiste; Saxey, David W.; Ashton, Michael W.; Sinnott, Susan B.; Chiaramonti, Ann N.; Moody, Michael P.; Schreiber, Daniel K.

    2016-03-01

    The cold emission of particles from surfaces under intense electric fields is a process which underpins a variety of applications including atom probe tomography (APT), an analytical microscopy technique with near-atomic spatial resolution. Increasingly relying on fast laser pulsing to trigger the emission, APT experiments often incorporate the detection of molecular ions emitted from the specimen, in particular from covalently or ionically bonded materials. Notably, it has been proposed that neutral molecules can also be emitted during this process. However, this remains a contentious issue. To investigate the validity of this hypothesis, a careful review of the literature is combined with the development of new methods to treat experimental APT data, the modeling of ion trajectories, and the application of density-functional theory simulations to derive molecular ion energetics. It is shown that the direct thermal emission of neutral molecules is extremely unlikely. However, neutrals can still be formed in the course of an APT experiment by dissociation of metastable molecular ions. This work is a partial contribution of the US Government and therefore is not subject to copyright in the United States.

  19. Entropic and Near-Field Improvements of Thermoradiative Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan K.; Liao, Bolin; Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Chen, Gang

    2016-10-01

    A p-n junction maintained at above ambient temperature can work as a heat engine, converting some of the supplied heat into electricity and rejecting entropy by interband emission. Such thermoradiative cells have potential to harvest low-grade heat into electricity. By analyzing the entropy content of different spectral components of thermal radiation, we identify an approach to increase the efficiency of thermoradiative cells via spectrally selecting long-wavelength photons for radiative exchange. Furthermore, we predict that the near-field photon extraction by coupling photons generated from interband electronic transition to phonon polariton modes on the surface of a heat sink can increase the conversion efficiency as well as the power generation density, providing more opportunities to efficiently utilize terrestrial emission for clean energy. An ideal InSb thermoradiative cell can achieve a maximum efficiency and power density up to 20.4% and 327 Wm-2, respectively, between a hot source at 500 K and a cold sink at 300 K. However, sub-bandgap and non-radiative losses will significantly degrade the cell performance.

  20. Wearable near-field communication antennas with magnetic composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Bihong; Su, Dan; Liu, Sheng; Liu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    The flexible near-field communication (NFC) antennas integrated with Fe3O4/ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) magnetic films were presented, and the influence of the magnetic composite films on the performance and miniaturization capability of the NFC antennas was investigated. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the integration of the magnetic composite films is conducive to the miniaturization of the NFC antennas. However, the pattern design of the integrated magnetic film is very important to improve the communication performance of NFC antenna. When magnetic film covers whole antenna, the inductance (L) and quality factor (Q) of the NFC antenna at 13MHz are increased by 60% and 5% respectively, but the communication distance of NFC system is decreased by 70%. When the magnetic film is located at the center of the antenna, the L value, Q value and communication distance of the NFC antenna are increased by 16.5%, 15.5% and 20% respectively. It can be seen that the application of the integrated magnetic film with optimized pattern to the NFC antenna can not only reduce the size of the antenna, but also improve the overall performance of the antenna.

  1. Near-field ptychography using lateral and longitudinal shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robisch, A.-L.; Kröger, K.; Rack, A.; Salditt, T.

    2015-07-01

    Image reconstruction of in-line holography depends crucially on the probing wave front used to illuminate an object. Aberrations inherent to the illumination can mix with the features imposed by the object. Conventional raw data processing methods rely on the division of the measured hologram by the intensity profile of the probe and are not able to fully eliminate artifacts caused by the illumination. Here we present a generalized ptychography approach to simultaneously reconstruct object and probe in the optical near-field. Combining the ideas of ptychographic lateral shifts of the object with variations of the propagation distance by longitudinal shifts, simultaneous reconstruction of object and probe was achieved equally well for a highly aberrated and a mildly disturbed probe without the need for an additional wave front diffuser. The method overcomes the image deterioration by a non-ideal probe and at the same time any restrictions due to linearization of the object’s transmission function or the Fresnel propagator. The method is demonstrated experimentally using visible light and hard x-rays, in both parallel beam and cone beam geometry, which is relevant for high resolution x-ray imaging. It also opens up a new approach to characterize extended wave fronts by phase retrieval.

  2. Entropic and near-field improvements of thermoradiative cells

    DOE PAGES

    Hsu, Wei -Chun; Tong, Jonathan K.; Liao, Bolin; ...

    2016-10-13

    A p-n junction maintained at above ambient temperature can work as a heat engine, converting some of the supplied heat into electricity and rejecting entropy by interband emission. Such thermoradiative cells have potential to harvest low-grade heat into electricity. By analyzing the entropy content of different spectral components of thermal radiation, we identify an approach to increase the efficiency of thermoradiative cells via spectrally selecting long-wavelength photons for radiative exchange. Furthermore, we predict that the near-field photon extraction by coupling photons generated from interband electronic transition to phonon polariton modes on the surface of a heat sink can increase themore » conversion efficiency as well as the power generation density, providing more opportunities to efficiently utilize terrestrial emission for clean energy. An ideal InSb thermoradiative cell can achieve a maximum efficiency and power density up to 20.4% and 327 Wm-2, respectively, between a hot source at 500 K and a cold sink at 300 K. Furthermore, sub-bandgap and non-radiative losses will significantly degrade the cell performance.« less

  3. Flexible Passive near Field Communication Tag for Multigas Sensing.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, P; Erenas, M M; López-Ruiz, N; Carvajal, M A; Gonzalez-Chocano, S; de Orbe-Payá, I; Capitán-Valley, L F; Palma, A J; Martínez-Olmos, A

    2017-02-07

    In this work we present a full-passive flexible multigas sensing tag for the determination of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and relative humidity readable by a smartphone. This tag is based on near field communication (NFC) technology for energy harvesting and data transmission to a smartphone. The gas sensors show an optic response that is read through high-resolution digital color detectors. A white LED is used as the common optical excitation source for all the sensors. Only a reduced electronics with very low power consumption is required for the reading of the optical responses and data transmission to a remote user. An application for the Android operating system has been developed for the power supplying and data reception from the tag. The responses of the sensors have been calibrated and fitted to simple functions, allowing a fast prediction of the gases concentration. Cross-sensitivity has also been evaluated, finding that in most of the cases it is negligible or easily correctable using the rest of the readings. The election of the target gases has been due to their importance in the monitoring of modified atmosphere packaging. The resolutions and limits of detection measured are suitable for such kinds of applications.

  4. Near-Field Heat Flow Between Two Quantum Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the exact steady-state heat flow P between two Ohmically damped quantum oscillators 1 and 2, with natural frequency ω 0, interacting through their near-field dipole-dipole potential V. To keep them at nominally constant temperatures T1, T2 respectively, they have to be coupled to thermostats functioning in a way one must specify explicitly unless one assumes local thermal equilibrium, which would, inadequately as a rule, restrict the calculation to leading order in V. Here the thermostats are modelled as stretched strings, one end attached to the oscillator, and the other to an infinitely distant device ensuring that the string carries thermal noise appropriate to T1 or T2 in addition to whatever motion is enforced by the oscillator. Aiming at insight rather than numerics, we focus mainly on simple approximations by powers of T1 and T2 for weak damping in the essentially quantum low-temperature regime where kBT_{1,2}≪ ω 0. From P it is easy to find the heat flux between two insulating Drude-modelled half-spaces.

  5. A novel mathematical model for controllable near-field electrospinning

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, Changhai E-mail: luojun@shu.edu.cn; Chen, Jie; Shao, Zhushuai; Pang, Ming; Luo, Jun E-mail: luojun@shu.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    Near-field electrospinning (NFES) had better controllability than conventional electrospinning. However, due to the lack of guidance of theoretical model, precise deposition of micro/nano fibers could only accomplished by experience. To analyze the behavior of charged jet in NFES using mathematical model, the momentum balance equation was simplified and a new expression between jet cross-sectional radius and axial position was derived. Using this new expression and mass conservation equation, expressions for jet cross-sectional radius and velocity were derived in terms of axial position and initial jet acceleration in the form of exponential functions. Based on Slender-body theory and Giesekus model, a quadratic equation for initial jet acceleration was acquired. With the proposed model, it was able to accurately predict the diameter and velocity of polymer fibers in NFES, and mathematical analysis rather than experimental methods could be applied to study the effects of the process parameters in NFES. Moreover, the movement velocity of the collector stage can be regulated by mathematical model rather than experience. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper had important guiding significance to precise deposition of polymer fibers.

  6. Numerical evaluation of E-fields induced by body motion near high-field MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Crozier, S; Liu, F

    2004-01-01

    In modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), both patients and radiologists are exposed to strong, nonuniform static magnetic fields inside or outside of the scanner, in which the body movement may be able to induce electric currents in tissues which could be possibly harmful. This paper presents theoretical investigations into the spatial distribution of induced E-fields in the human model when moving at various positions around the magnet. The numerical calculations are based on an efficient, quasistatic, finite-difference scheme and an anatomically realistic, full-body, male model. 3D field profiles from an actively-shielded 4 T magnet system are used and the body model projected through the field profile with normalized velocity. The simulation shows that it is possible to induce E-fields/currents near the level of physiological significance under some circumstances and provides insight into the spatial characteristics of the induced fields. The results are easy to extrapolate to very high field strengths for the safety evaluation at a variety of field strengths and motion velocities.

  7. Attosecond physics at a nanoscale metal tip: strong field physics meets near-field optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, M.; Thomas, S.; Förster, M.; Maisenbacher, L.; Wachter, G.; Lemell, Chr.; Burgdörfer, J.; Hommelhoff, P.

    2013-03-01

    Attosecond physics, centering on the control of electronic matter waves within a single cycle of the optical laser's driving field, has led to tremendously successful experiments with atoms and molecules in the gas phase. We show that pivotal phenomena such as elastic electron rescattering at the parent matter, a strong carrier-evenlope phase sensitivity and electronic matter wave intereference also show up in few-cycle laser driven electron emission from nanometric sharp metal tips. Furthermore, we utilize spectral signatures to measure the enhanced near-field with a spatial resolution of 1nm.

  8. Multipass laser amplification with near-field far-field optical separation

    DOEpatents

    Hagen, Wilhelm F.

    1979-01-01

    This invention discloses two classes of optical configurations for high power laser amplification, one allowing near-field and the other allowing far-field optical separation, for the multiple passage of laser pulses through one or more amplifiers over an open optical path. These configurations may reimage the amplifier or any other part of the cavity on itself so as to suppress laser beam intensity ripples that arise from diffraction and/or non-linear effects. The optical cavities combine the features of multiple passes, spatial filtering and optical reimaging and allow sufficient time for laser gain recovery.

  9. Reciprocity in scanning near-field optical microscopy: illumination and collection modes of transmission measurements.

    PubMed

    Imura, Kohei; Okamoto, Hiromi

    2006-05-15

    We experimentally investigated the reciprocity of scanning near-field optical microscopy between illumination and collection modes. Near-field transmission images of single gold spheres and nanorods observed by the two modes are found to be equivalent to each other in the region from visible to near infrared. This result shows that reciprocity holds for the near-field scattering problems. We found that the conventional optical selection rule for far-field excitations does not apply not only under illumination mode but also with collection-mode arrangements. The possible origin of this observation might be the near-field probe.

  10. A New Approach to Manipulating Electromagnetic Fields: Near-Field Focusing Plates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-04

    Near-field plates could conceivably be used to improve targeting capabilities in medical devices such as those used in transcranial magnetic ...W. Grissom, “An approach to MRIbased dosimetry for transcra- nial magnetic stimulation ,” NeuroImage, vol. 36, pp. 1171–1178, July 2007. [56] L...idea of adding magnetic dipoles/polarizabilities to the current design. The details of such dipole addition will be sorted out using a combination

  11. Plate Scattering Visualization: Images, Near Fields, Currents, and Far Field Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaeffer, John; Hom, Kam

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of a simple yet robust target for demonstration of the EM visualization process. A five lambda square plate exhibits many scattering mechanisms depending on excitation angle and polarization: specular scattering, leading and trailing edge diffraction, traveling wave, and edge wave scattering. Bistatic k space radiation images, currents maps, and near scattered / total fields are examined for each of these scattering mechanisms.

  12. Near-field entrainment in black smoker plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. E.; Germanovich, L. N.; Lowell, R. P.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we study the entrainment rate of the ambient fluid into a plume in the extreme conditions of hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths that would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. Specifically, we investigate the flow regime in the lower parts of three black smoker plumes in the Main Endeavour Field on the Juan de Fuca Ridge discharging at temperatures of 249°C, 333°C, and 336°C and a pressure of 21 MPa. Such flow conditions are typical for ocean floor hydrothermal venting but would be difficult to reproduce in the laboratory. The centerline temperature was measured at several heights in the plume above the orifice. Using a previously developed turbine flow meter, we also measured the mean flow velocity at the orifice. Measurements were conducted during dives 4452 and 4518 on the submersible Alvin. Using these measurements, we obtained a range of 0.064 - 0.068 for values of the entrainment coefficient α, which is assumed constant near the orifice. This is half the value of α ≈ 0.12 - 0.13 that would be expected for plume flow regimes based on the existing laboratory results and field measurements in lower temperature and pressure conditions. In fact, α = 0.064 - 0.068 is even smaller than the value of α ≈ 0.075 characteristic of jet flow regimes and appears to be the lowest reported in the literature. Assuming that the mean value α = 0.066 is typical for hydrothermal venting at ocean floor depths, we then characterized the flow regimes of 63 black smoker plumes located on the Endeavor Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Work with the obtained data is ongoing, but current results indicate that approximately half of these black smokers are lazy in the sense that their plumes exhibit momentum deficits compared to the pure plume flow that develops as the plume rises. The remaining half produces forced plumes that show the momentum excess compared to the pure plumes. The lower value of the entrainment coefficient has important

  13. Response of marine composites subjected to near field blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LiVolsi, Frank

    Experimental studies were performed to understand the explosive response of composite panels when exposed to near-field explosive loading in different environments. The panel construction under consideration was an E-glass fiber-reinforced composite laminate infused with vinyl ester resin (Derakane 8084). The panel was layered bi-axially with plain-woven fiber orientations at 0° and 90°. Panel dimensions were approximately 203 mm x 203 mm x 1 mm (8 in x 8 in x 0.04 in). Experiments were carried out with the panel fully clamped in a holding fixture, which was in turn fastened inside a water tank. The fixture was fastened in such a way as to allow for explosive loading experiments in the following environments: water submersion with water backing, water submersion with air backing, and air immersion with air backing. Experiments were performed in room temperature conditions, and additional experiments in the submerged environments were also performed at high and low water temperatures of 40°C and 0°C, respectively. A stereo Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was employed to capture the full-field dynamic behavior of the panel during the explosive event. Results indicated that the immersion environment contributes significantly to the blast response of the material and to the specimens' appreciable damage characteristics. The water submersion with air backing environment was found to encourage the greatest panel center point deflection and the most significant damage mechanisms around the boundary. The air immersion with air backing environment was found to encourage less center point deflection and exhibited significant impact damage from the explosive capsule. The water submersion with water backing environment encouraged the least panel deflection and minimal interlaminate damage around the panel boundary and center. Water temperature was found to influence the panel center point deflection, but not damage mechanisms. Maximum positive center point

  14. Near Field Communication-based telemonitoring with integrated ECG recordings.

    PubMed

    Morak, J; Kumpusch, H; Hayn, D; Leitner, M; Scherr, D; Fruhwald, F M; Schreier, G

    2011-01-01

    Telemonitoring of vital signs is an established option in treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). In order to allow for early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) which is highly prevalent in the CHF population telemonitoring programs should include electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. It was therefore the aim to extend our current home monitoring system based on mobile phones and Near Field Communication technology (NFC) to enable patients acquiring their ECG signals autonomously in an easy-to-use way. We prototypically developed a sensing device for the concurrent acquisition of blood pressure and ECG signals. The design of the device equipped with NFC technology and Bluetooth allowed for intuitive interaction with a mobile phone based patient terminal. This ECG monitoring system was evaluated in the course of a clinical pilot trial to assess the system's technical feasibility, usability and patient's adherence to twice daily usage. 21 patients (4f, 54 ± 14 years) suffering from CHF were included in the study and were asked to transmit two ECG recordings per day via the telemonitoring system autonomously over a monitoring period of seven days. One patient dropped out from the study. 211 data sets were transmitted over a cumulative monitoring period of 140 days (overall adherence rate 82.2%). 55% and 8% of the transmitted ECG signals were sufficient for ventricular and atrial rhythm assessment, respectively. Although ECG signal quality has to be improved for better AF detection the developed communication design of joining Bluetooth and NFC technology in our telemonitoring system allows for ambulatory ECG acquisition with high adherence rates and system usability in heart failure patients.

  15. Near Field Communication-based telemonitoring with integrated ECG recordings

    PubMed Central

    Morak, J.; Kumpusch, H.; Hayn, D.; Leitner, M.; Scherr, D.; Fruhwald, F.M.; Schreier, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Telemonitoring of vital signs is an established option in treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). In order to allow for early detection of atrial fibrillation (AF) which is highly prevalent in the CHF population telemonitoring programs should include electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. It was therefore the aim to extend our current home monitoring system based on mobile phones and Near Field Communication technology (NFC) to enable patients acquiring their ECG signals autonomously in an easy-to-use way. Methods We prototypically developed a sensing device for the concurrent acquisition of blood pressure and ECG signals. The design of the device equipped with NFC technology and Bluetooth allowed for intuitive interaction with a mobile phone based patient terminal. This ECG monitoring system was evaluated in the course of a clinical pilot trial to assess the system’s technical feasibility, usability and patient’s adherence to twice daily usage. Results 21 patients (4f, 54 ± 14 years) suffering from CHF were included in the study and were asked to transmit two ECG recordings per day via the telemonitoring system autonomously over a monitoring period of seven days. One patient dropped out from the study. 211 data sets were transmitted over a cumulative monitoring period of 140 days (overall adherence rate 82.2%). 55% and 8% of the transmitted ECG signals were sufficient for ventricular and atrial rhythm assessment, respectively. Conclusions Although ECG signal quality has to be improved for better AF detection the developed communication design of joining Bluetooth and NFC technology in our telemonitoring system allows for ambulatory ECG acquisition with high adherence rates and system usability in heart failure patients. PMID:23616890

  16. Far-field subwavelength imaging with near-field resonant metalens scanning at microwave frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ren; Wang, Bing-Zhong; Gong, Zhi-Shuang; Ding, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A method for far-field subwavelength imaging at microwave frequencies using near-field resonant metalens scanning is proposed. The resonant metalens is composed of switchable split-ring resonators (SRRs). The on-SRR has a strong magnetic coupling ability and can convert evanescent waves into propagating waves using the localized resonant modes. In contrast, the off-SRR cannot achieve an effective conversion. By changing the switch status of each cell, we can obtain position information regarding the subwavelength source targets from the far field. Because the spatial response and Green’s function do not need to be measured and evaluated and only a narrow frequency band is required for the entire imaging process, this method is convenient and adaptable to various environment. This method can be used for many applications, such as subwavelength imaging, detection, and electromagnetic monitoring, in both free space and complex environments. PMID:26053074

  17. A dual-ported, dual-polarized spherical near-field probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. R.; Hardin, D. P.

    1984-03-01

    The spherical near-field measurement technique is a convenient and economical method for testing antennas. It is particularly useful for electrically small antennas at low frequencies. It requires much less real estate than conventional far-field ranges and yields more accurate results in a more controlled and secure environment. The spherical near-field measurement technique can be used to test antennas too large in physical size for the compact range technique and, unlike other near-field measurement techniques, it permits the use of standard spherical coordinate positioners. The most serious disadvantage of spherical near-field testing is the time required to perform a test.

  18. Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

  19. Physics in Strong Magnetic Fields Near Neutron Stars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are the behaviors of particles and energies in the magnetic fields of neutron stars. Different types of possible research using neutron stars as a laboratory for the study of strong magnetic fields are proposed. (CW)

  20. Optical field enhancement of nanometer-sized gaps at near-infrared frequencies.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae Sung; Kang, Taehee; Singh, Dilip K; Bahk, Young-Mi; Lee, Hyunhwa; Choi, Soo Bong; Kim, Dai-Sik

    2015-02-23

    We report near-field and far-field measurements of transmission through nanometer-sized gaps at near-infrared frequencies with varying the gap size from 1 nm to 10 nm. In the far-field measurements, we excluded direct transmission on the metal film surface via interferometric method. Kirchhoff integral formalism was used to relate the far-field intensity to the electric field at the nanogaps. In near-field measurements, field enhancement factors of the nanogaps were quantified by measuring transmission of the nanogaps using near-field scanning optical microscopy. All the measurements produce similar field enhancements of about ten, which we put in the context of comparing with the giant field enhancements in the terahertz regime.

  1. Near-field and far-field engineering of semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanfang

    Plasmonics focuses on the interaction between light and metallic films or nanostructures. In the last two decades, intensive research efforts were devoted to exploring the extremely broad applications of plasmonics. My research combines the versatility of plasmonics with active light sources, i.e., quantum cascade lasers (QCLs). This thesis focuses on the application of plasmonics in near-field and far-field engineering of semiconductor lasers, specifically, subwavelength focusing in the near-field, and laser beam collimation and polarization control. The first chapter of this thesis lays out fundamental materials necessary for understanding the following chapters. Systematic simulation and experimental results are presented in Chapter 2 to demonstrate that the integration of a suitably designed one dimensional or two dimensional plasmonic structures on the facet of QCLs can reduce the beam divergence by more than one order of magnitude. The devices with optimized collimators preserve a high output power, comparable to that of the unpatterned lasers. Chapter 3 demonstrates that the polarization state of the output of semiconductor lasers can be controlled by defining plasmonic structures on the laser facet. An integrated plasmonic polarizer can project the polarization of a semiconductor laser onto other directions. By patterning a facet with two orthogonal grating-aperture structures, a QCL can produce emission consisting of a superposition of a linearly and right-circularly polarized light, a first step towards a circularly-polarized laser. Chapter 4 presents experimental work on the coupled-rod antennas and the bowtie antennas patterned on the facet of QCLs. Both designs can provide an optical field confinement on the order of lambda/50 and with peak intensity on the order of 1 GW/cm2 in the antenna gap. The bowtie devices are more advanced due to better confinement of light into a single spot. Chapter 5 and 6 discuss two side research topics. Chapter 5

  2. Calculated Electric Near Fields of Navy Shipboard HF Antennas, Electric Near Fields of Trussed-Whip, Twin-Whip, Discone-Cage, and Bottom-Fed Fan Antennas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-03-16

    LEYE T z 0 0Z0z Technical Document 168 CALCULATED ELECTRIC NEAR FIELDS OF NAVY SHIPBOARD HF ANTENNAS Electric near fields of trussed-whip, twin...x, in meters away from the antenna. 23 - -- -.~ 1 /8 ft 8 1 /2 ft 5/32 ft 11.0ft 3/16 ft 10 1/2 ft I (ve~ticall 32 ft t w / t ho. io ..tat 11 13/16

  3. Suppression of sound radiation to far field of near-field acoustic communication system using evanescent sound field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Ayaka; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Mizutani, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    A method of suppressing sound radiation to the far field of a near-field acoustic communication system using an evanescent sound field is proposed. The amplitude of the evanescent sound field generated from an infinite vibrating plate attenuates exponentially with increasing a distance from the surface of the vibrating plate. However, a discontinuity of the sound field exists at the edge of the finite vibrating plate in practice, which broadens the wavenumber spectrum. A sound wave radiates over the evanescent sound field because of broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. Therefore, we calculated the optimum distribution of the particle velocity on the vibrating plate to reduce the broadening of the wavenumber spectrum. We focused on a window function that is utilized in the field of signal analysis for reducing the broadening of the frequency spectrum. The optimization calculation is necessary for the design of window function suitable for suppressing sound radiation and securing a spatial area for data communication. In addition, a wide frequency bandwidth is required to increase the data transmission speed. Therefore, we investigated a suitable method for calculating the sound pressure level at the far field to confirm the variation of the distribution of sound pressure level determined on the basis of the window shape and frequency. The distribution of the sound pressure level at a finite distance was in good agreement with that obtained at an infinite far field under the condition generating the evanescent sound field. Consequently, the window function was optimized by the method used to calculate the distribution of the sound pressure level at an infinite far field using the wavenumber spectrum on the vibrating plate. According to the result of comparing the distributions of the sound pressure level in the cases with and without the window function, it was confirmed that the area whose sound pressure level was reduced from the maximum level to -50 dB was

  4. From classical to modern near-field optics and the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-11-01

    This paper reviews the framework of classical near-field optics and recent progress in modern near-field optics. Some applications are also reviewed, including novel optical functional devices, nano-fabrication technologies, energy conversion technologies, and information processing systems. Novel theoretical models based on mathematical science are also presented, as well as an outlook for the future, hinting at the possibilities of near-field optics.

  5. Near-Field Terahertz Transmission Imaging at 0.210 Terahertz Using a Simple Aperture Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    diffraction-limited and near-field terahertz transmission imaging . The target is a 3-by-3 inch glass plate with a thin coating of chrome. The...TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-WD-15-22 NEAR-FIELD TERAHERTZ TRANSMISSION IMAGING AT 0.210 TERAHERTZ USING A SIMPLE APERTURE TECHNIQUE...Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Near-Field Terahertz Transmission Imaging at 0.210 Terahertz Using a Simple Aperture Technique 5. FUNDING NUMBERS

  6. Analysis on near field scattering spectra around nanoparticles by using parametric indirect microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoyan, Liu; Kun, Gao; Xuefeng, Liu; Guoqiang, Ni

    2016-10-01

    We report the simulation and measurement results of near field spatial scattering spectra around nanoparticles. Our measurement and simulations results have indicated that Parametric Indirect Microscopic Imaging can image the near field spatial scattering to a much larger distance from the scattering source of the particle under measurement whereas this part of spatial scattering was lost in the conventional microscopy. Both FDTD modeling and measurement provided evidence that parameters of indirect optical wave vector have higher sensitivity to near field scattering.

  7. Prediction of sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data. Volume 1: Method and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hague, D. S.; Reiners, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized procedure for predicting sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data has been developed. The procedure extrapolates near-field pressure signatures for a specified flight condition to the ground by the Thomas method. Near-field pressure signatures are interpolated from a data base of experimental pressure signatures. The program is an independently operated ODIN (Optimal Design Integration) program which obtains flight path information from other ODIN programs or from input.

  8. Near-field surface plasmon field enhancement induced by rippled surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Fuso, Francesco; Micheletto, Ruggero; Naruse, Makoto; Tantussi, Francesco; Allegrini, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of plasmon resonances on metallic nanometer-scale structures is an intrinsically nanoscale phenomenon, given that the two resonance conditions (i.e., negative dielectric permittivity and large free-space wavelength in comparison with system dimensions) are realized at the same time on the nanoscale. Resonances on surface metallic nanostructures are often experimentally found by probing the structures under investigation with radiation of various frequencies following a trial-and-error method. A general technique for the tuning of these resonances is highly desirable. In this paper we address the issue of the role of local surface patterns in the tuning of these resonances as a function of wavelength and electric field polarization. The effect of nanoscale roughness on the surface plasmon polaritons of randomly patterned gold films is numerically investigated. The field enhancement and relation to specific roughness patterns is analyzed, producing many different realizations of rippled surfaces. We demonstrate that irregular patterns act as metal–dielectric–metal local nanogaps (cavities) for the resonant plasmonic field. In turn, the numerical results are compared to experimental data obtained via aperture scanning near-field optical microscopy. PMID:28546890

  9. High-resolution near-field measurements of microwave circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantor, R.; Shvets, I. V.

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we report on measurements of electric field intensities of microwave field above surface of microwave circuits using miniaturized coaxial antennas. During the scanning process the antenna is driven at various distances above the sample surface according to topographic data acquired prior to the field measurement. A position/signal difference method is used to increase the spatial resolution of the antenna to about 20 μm (λ/104) -- one order of magnitude better than contemporary microwave scanning systems. For measurement of the tangential field components parallel to the sample surface the antenna is tilted by about 45° relative to the sample surface. By its rotation about the vertical axis various components of the field are measured, vertical and horizontal electric field intensities are recalculated. Performance of our scanning system utilizing these methods is tested using a PCB surface capacitor, a microstrip filter and a microstrip transmission line.

  10. Physics in strong magnetic fields near neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena occurring in the strong magnetic fields of neutron stars are currently of great interest in high-energy astrophysics. Observations of rotation rate changes and cyclotron lines in pulsars and gamma-ray bursts indicate that surface magnetic fields of neutron stars often exceed a trillion gauss. In fields this strong, where electrons behave much as if they were in bound atomic states, familiar processes undergo profound changes, and exotic processes become important. Strong magnetic fields affect the physics in several fundamental ways: energies perpendicular to the field are quantized, transverse momentum is not conserved, and electron-positron spin is important. Neutron stars therefore provide a unique laboratory for the study of physics in extremely high fields that cannot be generated on earth.

  11. Near-field heat transfer between graphene monolayers: Dispersion relation and parametric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Ge; Yang, Jiang; Ma, Yungui

    2016-12-01

    Plasmon polaritons in graphene can enhance near-field heat transfer. In this work, we give a complete parametric analysis on the near-field heat transfer between two graphene monolayers that allows transfer efficiencies several orders-of-magnitude larger than blackbody radiation. Influences of major parameters are conclusively clarified from the changes of the interlayer supermode coupling and their dispersion relations. The method to maximize the near-field heat flux is discussed. The generalized Stefan-Boltzmann formula is proposed to describe the near-field heat transfer dominated by evanescent wave tunneling. Our results are of practical significance in guiding the design of thermal management systems.

  12. Magnetic field signatures near Galileo's closest approach to Gaspra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Bargatze, L. F.; Khurana, K. K.; Southwood, D. J.; Walker, R. J.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Two large magnetic field rotations were recorded by the spacecraft Galileo 1 minute before and 2 minutes after its closest approach to the asteroid Gaspra. The timing and the geometry of the field changes suggest a connection with Gaspra, and the events can be interpreted as the result of the draping of the solar wind field around a magnetospheric obstacle. Gaspra's surface field is inferred to be within an order of magnitude of Earth's surface field, and its magnetic moment per unit mass is in the range observed for iron meteorites and highly magnetized chondrites. The location of the magnetic signatures suggests that perturbations are carried by waves in the magnetosonic-whistler mode with wavelengths between electron and ion gyro radii.

  13. Large-scale, near-field magnetic fields from external sources and the corresponding induced internal field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Estes, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Data from Magsat analyzed as a function of the Dst index to determine the first degree/order spherical harmonic description of the near-earth external field and its corresponding induced field. The analysis was done separately for data from dawn and dusk. The Magsat data was compared with POGO data. A local time variation of the external field persists even during very quiet magnetic conditions; both a diurnal and 8-hour period are present. A crude estimate of Sq current in the 45 deg geomagnetic latitude range is obtained for 1966 to 1970. The current strength, located in the ionosphere and induced in the earth, is typical of earlier determinations from surface data, although its maximum is displaced in local time from previous results.

  14. Electro-Anatomical Characterization by Cardiac Electric Near-Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Anatomia , Universidad Extremadura, Badajoz, Spain Report Documentation Page Report Date 25 Oct 2001 Report Type N/A Dates Covered (from... to) - Title...B. Fields during discontinuous conduction Measurements in ventricular preparations generally showed discontinuous conduction if direction was

  15. Chaotic behavior of magnetic field lines near simplest current systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovsky, I. S.; Lukashenko, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    In the context of studying the problem of simulation of magnetic fields on the Sun, the structure of the field in the vicinity of two circular current loops with different mutual arrangement in space is considered. When the symmetry in the arrangement is sufficient, a system of magnetic surfaces created by the closed field lines arises. With a reduction in symmetry, isolated closed lines may exist. For the case of two identical current loops coupled perpendicularly, it is shown that the subsystems of these lines may be ordered in space in a complex manner. At large distances, a system of loops is equivalent to a dipole with a high degree of accuracy, while an approximate winding of the lines on the deformed toroids, encircling each of the loops, occurs at small distances. At intermediate distances, there are regions of both ordered and chaotic behavior of field lines. Results were obtained with the use of the numerical simulation method.

  16. Anomalous Spectral Shift of Near- and Far-Field Plasmonic Resonances in Nanogaps

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The near-field and far-field spectral response of plasmonic systems are often assumed to be identical, due to the lack of methods that can directly compare and correlate both responses under similar environmental conditions. We develop a widely tunable optical technique to probe the near-field resonances within individual plasmonic nanostructures that can be directly compared to the corresponding far-field response. In tightly coupled nanoparticle-on-mirror constructs with nanometer-sized gaps we find >40 meV blue-shifts of the near-field compared to the dark-field scattering peak, which agrees with full electromagnetic simulations. Using a transformation optics approach, we show such shifts arise from the different spectral interference between different gap modes in the near- and far-field. The control and tuning of near-field and far-field responses demonstrated here is of paramount importance in the design of optical nanostructures for field-enhanced spectroscopy, as well as to control near-field activity monitored through the far-field of nano-optical devices. PMID:27077075

  17. Microwave Imaging and Holographic Diagnostic to Antennas in Cylindrical Near-Field Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad A.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the issues pertaining to microwave imaging and holographic diagnostic to antennas in cylindrical near-field measurements are addressed. The theoretical approach is based on expanding the work in [1] and [2] where a cylindrical wave expansion of the field on a cylindrical near-field surface is given. The sampling probe is modeled by its equivalent aperture current (idealized circular aperture) and incorporated into the near-field to far-field transformation. The method of steepest decent is applied to obtain the far-field. In its implementation, however, one could specify directly the angular spectrum at which the far-field is desired to be calculated without resorting to interpolation. The microwave imaging and holographic diagnostic is based on back projection where a plane wave expansion of the far-field is obtained. This approach necessitates the knowledge of the far-field at exact angular spectrum resulting from application of 2-D FFT. Hence, we were able to construct simply the near-field on a plane not necessarily on the aperture plane of the test antenna but also on planes perpendicular to the aperture plane [3]. And a 3-D high resolution and high precision antenna imaging of the test antenna is obtained from cylindrical near-field simulated measurements. In addition microwave holographic diagnostic of large NASA scatterometer radar antenna obtained from measured near-field on a cylindrical surface will be given if time permits.

  18. Anomalous Spectral Shift of Near- and Far-Field Plasmonic Resonances in Nanogaps.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Anna; Demetriadou, Angela; Weller, Lee; Andrae, Patrick; Benz, Felix; Chikkaraddy, Rohit; Aizpurua, Javier; Baumberg, Jeremy J

    2016-03-16

    The near-field and far-field spectral response of plasmonic systems are often assumed to be identical, due to the lack of methods that can directly compare and correlate both responses under similar environmental conditions. We develop a widely tunable optical technique to probe the near-field resonances within individual plasmonic nanostructures that can be directly compared to the corresponding far-field response. In tightly coupled nanoparticle-on-mirror constructs with nanometer-sized gaps we find >40 meV blue-shifts of the near-field compared to the dark-field scattering peak, which agrees with full electromagnetic simulations. Using a transformation optics approach, we show such shifts arise from the different spectral interference between different gap modes in the near- and far-field. The control and tuning of near-field and far-field responses demonstrated here is of paramount importance in the design of optical nanostructures for field-enhanced spectroscopy, as well as to control near-field activity monitored through the far-field of nano-optical devices.

  19. Far-Field to Near-Field Coupling for Enhancing Light-Matter Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonakdar, Alireza

    This thesis reports on theoretical, modeling, and experimental research within the framework of a key scientific question, which is enhancing the coupling between diffraction-limited far-field and sub-wavelength quantum emitter/absorber. A typical optoelectronic device delivers an optical process such as light detection (e.g. photodetector) or light intensity modulation (e.g. electro-absorptive modulator). In conventional devices, optical process is in the form of far-field or guided wave modes. The main aim of this thesis is to show that converting these modes into near-field domain can enhance the performance of the optoelectronic device. Light in the form of far-field can be converted into near-field domain by the optical antenna. Among different optoelectronic devices, this thesis focuses mainly on integrating the optical antenna with infrared photodetectors. The available semiconductors have weak infrared absorption that reduces light detection efficiency. Integration of the optical antenna with infrared absorber (such as quantum wells in quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)) increases the infrared absorption. Particularly this integration is favorable as the optical antenna has low metallic loss in infrared region. The author of this thesis believes that optical antenna has unique properties in confining light on the scale of deep sub-wavelength, enhancing electric field intensity and delivering optical energy to semiconductor absorbers. These properties are reaching into practical applications only if overall optical performance is low loss, parameter free (independent of optical parameters such a polarization and angle of incident) and broadband. In this thesis, the integration of optical antenna with infrared photodetectors and thermophotovoltaic are researched and developed which satisfy the aforementioned criteria. In addition, several different optical antennas have been designed, fabricated and characterized in order to analyze and demonstrate

  20. A field study of solid rocket exhaust impacts on the near-field environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. J.; Keller, Vernon W.

    1990-01-01

    Large solid rocket motors release large quantities of hydrogen chloride and aluminum oxide exhaust during launch and testing. Measurements and analysis of the interaction of this material with the deluge water spray and other environmental factors in the near field (within 1 km of the launch or test site) are summarized. Measurements of mixed solid and liquid deposition (typically 2 normal HCl) following space shuttle launches and 6.4 percent scale model tests are described. Hydrogen chloride gas concentrations measured in the hours after the launch of STS 41D and STS 51A are reported. Concentrations of 9 ppm, which are above the 5 ppm exposure limits for workers, were detected an hour after STS 51A. A simplified model which explains the primary features of the gas concentration profiles is included.

  1. Apparatus comprising a tunable nanomechanical near-field grating and method for controlling far-field emission

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Dustin Wade; Bogart, Gregory Robert

    2007-02-06

    A tunable nanomechanical near-field grating is disclosed which is capable of varying the intensity of a diffraction mode of an optical output signal. The tunable nanomechanical near-field grating includes two sub-gratings each having line-elements with width and thickness less than the operating wavelength of light with which the grating interacts. Lateral apertures in the two sub-gratings are formed from the space between one line-element of the first sub-grating and at least one line-element of the second sub-grating. One of the sub-gratings is capable of motion such that at least one of aperture width and aperture depth changes, causing a perturbation to the near-field intensity distribution of the tunable nanomechanical near-field grating and a corresponding change to the far-field emission of thereof.

  2. Optical near-field phase singularities produced by microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesci, Antonello; Daendliker, Rene; Salt, Martin; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2001-12-01

    An electromagnetic field is characterized by an amplitude, a phase and a polarization state. In this paper, we intend to gain an understanding of the interaction of light with microstructures in order to determine their optical properties. Measurements of the amplitude and phase close to gratings are presented using a heterodyne scanning probe microscope. We discuss some basic properties of phase distributions. Indeed, coherent light diffracted by microstructures can give birth to phase dislocations, also called phase singularities. Phase singularities are isolated points where the amplitude of the field is zero. The position of these special points can lead us to information about the structure (shape, surface defects, etc), by comparing with rigorous diffraction calculation using e.g. the Fourier Modal Method (FMM). We present high-resolution measurements of such phase singularities and compare them with theoretical results. Polarization effects have been studied in order to understand the field conversion by the fiber tip.

  3. Modeling the near acoustic field of a rocket during launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauritzen, David W.

    1989-01-01

    The design of launch pad structures is critically dependent upon the stresses imposed by the acoustical pressure field generated by the rocket engines during launch. The purpose of this effort is to better describe the acoustical field in the immediate launch area. Since the problem is not analytically tractable, empirical modeling will be employed so that useful results may be obtained for structural design purposes. The plume of the rocket is considered to be a volumetric acoustic source, and is broken down into incremental contributing volumes. A computer program has been written to sum all the contributions to find the total sound pressure level at an arbitrary point. A constant density source is initially assumed and the acoustic field evaluated for several cases to verify the correct operation of the program.

  4. Behavior of Phantom Scalar Fields near Black Holes

    SciTech Connect

    Lora-Clavijo, F. D.; Gonzalez, J. A.; Guzman, F. S.

    2010-07-12

    We present the accretion of a phantom scalar field into a black hole for various scalar field potentials in the full non-linear regime. Our results are based on the use of numerical methods and show that for all the cases studied the black hole's apparent horizon mass decreases. We explore a particular subset of the parameter space and from our results we conclude that this is a very efficient black hole shrinking process because the time scales of the area reduction of the horizon are short. We show that the radial equation of state of the scalar field depends strongly on the space and time, with the condition {omega} = p/{rho}>-1, as opposed to a phantom fluid at cosmic scales that allows {omega}<-1.

  5. Nanoscale infrared absorption spectroscopy of individual nanoparticles enabled by scattering-type near-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Stiegler, Johannes M; Abate, Yohannes; Cvitkovic, Antonija; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Huber, Andreas J; Leone, Stephen R; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2011-08-23

    Infrared absorption spectroscopy is a powerful and widely used tool for analyzing the chemical composition and structure of materials. Because of the diffraction limit, however, it cannot be applied for studying individual nanostructures. Here we demonstrate that the phase contrast in substrate-enhanced scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) provides a map of the infrared absorption spectrum of individual nanoparticles with nanometer-scale spatial resolution. We succeeded in the chemical identification of silicon nitride nanoislands with heights well below 10 nm, by infrared near-field fingerprint spectroscopy of the Si-N stretching bond. Employing a novel theoretical model, we show that the near-field phase spectra of small particles correlate well with their far-field absorption spectra. On the other hand, the spectral near-field contrast does not scale with the volume of the particles. We find a nearly linear scaling law, which we can attribute to the near-field coupling between the near-field probe and the substrate. Our results provide fundamental insights into the spectral near-field contrast of nanoparticles and clearly demonstrate the capability of s-SNOM for nanoscale chemical mapping based on local infrared absorption.

  6. Fibre Fabry - Perot cavity-based aperture probe for near-field optical microscopy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kulchin, Yurii N; Vitrik, O B; Bezverbnyi, A V; Pustovalov, E V; Kuchmizhak, A A; Nepomnyashchii, A V

    2011-03-31

    We report a theoretical analysis and experimental study of the possibility of producing a novel type of interferometric near-field aperture probe for near-field optical microscopy systems using a fibre Fabry - Perot microcavity with a nanometre-scale aperture made in one of its output mirrors. The probe ensures a spatial resolution no worse than {lambda}/14. (fibre optics)

  7. Panel discussion on near-field coupled processes with emphasis on performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Codell, R.B.; Baca, R.G.; Ahola, M.P.

    1996-04-01

    The presentations in this panel discussion involve the general topic of near-field coupled processes and postclosure performance assessment with an emphasis on rock mechanics. The potential impact of near-field rock mass deformation on repository performance was discussed, as well as topics including long term excavation deterioration, the performance of geologic seals, and coupled processes concerning rock mechanics in performance assessments.

  8. Gibberellins are involved in effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiao; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Yuxia; Li, Yue; Wei, Shufeng

    2017-01-01

    We previously found that flowering of Arabidopsis was suppressed by near-null magnetic field, which was related to the modification of cryptochrome. To disclose the physiological mechanism of this effect, we detected gibberellin (GA) levels and expressions of GA biosynthetic and signaling genes in wild type Arabidopsis plants and cryptochrome double mutant, cry1/cry2, grown in near-null magnetic field. We found that levels of GA4 , GA9 , GA34 , and GA51 in wild type plants in near-null magnetic field were significantly decreased compared with local geomagnetic field controls. However, GA levels in cry1/cry2 mutants in near-null magnetic field were similar to controls. Expressions of three GA20-oxidase (GA20ox) genes (GA20ox1, GA20ox2, and GA20ox3) and four GA3-oxidase (GA3ox) genes (GA3ox1, GA3ox2, GA3ox3, and GA3ox4) in wild type plants in near-null magnetic field were significantly reduced compared with controls, while expressions of GA20ox4, GA20ox5, GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) genes, and GA signaling-related genes in wild type plants in near-null magnetic field were not significantly different from controls. In contrast, expressions of all the detected GA biosynthetic and signaling genes in cry1/cry2 mutants were not affected by near-null magnetic field. Moreover, transcriptions of flowering-related genes, LFY and SOC1, in wild type plants were downregulated by near-null magnetic field, while they were not affected by near-null magnetic field in cry1/cry2 mutants. Our results suggest that the effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering is GA-related, which is caused by cryptochrome-involved suppression of GA biosynthesis. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:1-10, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Magsat: A satellite for measuring near earth magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Regan, R. D.; Murphy, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Magsat, designed for making measurements of the geomagnetic vector field, is evaluated. For accurate vector measurements the attitude of the fluxgate magnetometer will be determined to about 15 arc-seconds. Expected measurement accuracy will be 6 (gamma) in each component and 3 in magnitude. The Magsat data will be applied to solid earth studies including modeling of the Earth's main magnetic field, delineation of regional magnetic anomalies of crustal origin, and interpretation of those anomalies in terms of geologic and geophysical models. An opportunity will be presented to the scientific community to participate in data use investigations.

  10. Near field optical probe for critical dimension measurements

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, Brian R.; Kaushik, Sumanth

    1999-01-01

    A resonant planar optical waveguide probe for measuring critical dimensions on an object in the range of 100 nm and below. The optical waveguide includes a central resonant cavity flanked by Bragg reflector layers with input and output means at either end. Light is supplied by a narrow bandwidth laser source. Light resonating in the cavity creates an evanescent electrical field. The object with the structures to be measured is translated past the resonant cavity. The refractive index contrasts presented by the structures perturb the field and cause variations in the intensity of the light in the cavity. The topography of the structures is determined from these variations.

  11. Near field optical probe for critical dimension measurements

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, B.R.; Kaushik, S.

    1999-05-18

    A resonant planar optical waveguide probe for measuring critical dimensions on an object in the range of 100 nm and below is disclosed. The optical waveguide includes a central resonant cavity flanked by Bragg reflector layers with input and output means at either end. Light is supplied by a narrow bandwidth laser source. Light resonating in the cavity creates an evanescent electrical field. The object with the structures to be measured is translated past the resonant cavity. The refractive index contrasts presented by the structures perturb the field and cause variations in the intensity of the light in the cavity. The topography of the structures is determined from these variations. 8 figs.

  12. Accurate near-field lithography modeling and quantitative mapping of the near-field distribution of a plasmonic nanoaperture in a metal.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yongwoo; Jung, Howon; Kim, Seok; Jang, Jinhee; Lee, Jae Yong; Hahn, Jae W

    2011-09-26

    In nanolithography using optical near-field sources to push the critical dimension below the diffraction limit, optimization of process parameters is of utmost importance. Herein we present a simple analytic model to predict photoresist profiles with a localized evanescent exposure that decays exponentially in a photoresist of finite contrast. We introduce the concept of nominal developing thickness (NDT) to determine the proper developing process that yields the best topography of the exposure profile fitting to the isointensity contour. Based on this model, we experimentally investigated the NDT and obtained exposure profiles produced by the near-field distribution of a bowtie-shaped nanoaperture. The profiles were properly fit to the calculated results obtained by the finite differential time domain method. Using the threshold exposure dose of a photoresist, we can determine the absolute intensity of the intensity distribution of the near field and analyze the difference in decay rates of the near field distributions obtained via experiment and calculation. For maximum depth of 41 nm, we estimate the uncertainties in the measurements of profile and intensity to be less than 6% and about 1%, respectively. We expect this method will be useful in detecting the absolute value of the near-field distribution produced by nano-scale devices.

  13. Vibrational near-field mapping of planar and buried three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Dregely, Daniel; Neubrech, Frank; Duan, Huigao; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Giessen, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Nanoantennas confine electromagnetic fields at visible and infrared wavelengths to volumes of only a few cubic nanometres. Assessing their near-field distribution offers fundamental insight into light–matter coupling and is of special interest for applications such as radiation engineering, attomolar sensing and nonlinear optics. Most experimental approaches to measure near-fields employ either diffraction-limited far-field methods or intricate near-field scanning techniques. Here, using diffraction-unlimited far-field spectroscopy in the infrared, we directly map the intensity of the electric field close to plasmonic nanoantennas. We place a patch of probe molecules with 10 nm accuracy at different locations in the near-field of a resonant antenna and extract the molecular vibrational excitation. We map the field intensity along a dipole antenna and gap-type antennas. Moreover, this method is able to assess the near-field intensity of complex buried plasmonic structures. We demonstrate this by measuring for the first time the near-field intensity of a three-dimensional plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency structure. PMID:23892519

  14. Vibrational near-field mapping of planar and buried three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dregely, Daniel; Neubrech, Frank; Duan, Huigao; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Giessen, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Nanoantennas confine electromagnetic fields at visible and infrared wavelengths to volumes of only a few cubic nanometres. Assessing their near-field distribution offers fundamental insight into light-matter coupling and is of special interest for applications such as radiation engineering, attomolar sensing and nonlinear optics. Most experimental approaches to measure near-fields employ either diffraction-limited far-field methods or intricate near-field scanning techniques. Here, using diffraction-unlimited far-field spectroscopy in the infrared, we directly map the intensity of the electric field close to plasmonic nanoantennas. We place a patch of probe molecules with 10 nm accuracy at different locations in the near-field of a resonant antenna and extract the molecular vibrational excitation. We map the field intensity along a dipole antenna and gap-type antennas. Moreover, this method is able to assess the near-field intensity of complex buried plasmonic structures. We demonstrate this by measuring for the first time the near-field intensity of a three-dimensional plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency structure.

  15. Optimizing the electric field around solid and core-shell alloy nanostructures for near-field applications.

    PubMed

    Montaño-Priede, Luis; Peña-Rodríguez, Ovidio; Rivera, Antonio; Guerrero-Martínez, Andrés; Pal, Umapada

    2016-08-21

    The near electric field enhancement around plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is very important for applications like surface enhanced spectroscopies, plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells and plasmon-enhanced OLEDs, where the interactions occur close to the surface of the NPs. In this work we have calculated the near-field enhancement around solid and core-shell alloy NPs as a function of their geometrical parameters and composition. We have found that the field enhancement is lower in the AuxAg1-x alloys with respect to pure Ag NPs, but it is still high enough for most near-field applications. The higher order modes have a stronger influence over the near-field due to a sharper spatial decay of the near electric field with the increase of the order of multipolar modes. For the same reason, in AuxAg1-x@SiO2 core-shell structures, the quadrupolar mode is dominant around the core, whereas the dipolar mode is predominant around the shell. The LSPR modes can have different behaviours in the near- and the far-field, particularly for larger particles with high Ag contents, which indicates that caution must be exercised for designing plasmonic nanostructures for near-field applications, as the variations of the LSPR in the near-field cannot be inferred from those observed in the far-field. These results have important implications for the application of gold-silver alloy NPs in surface enhanced spectroscopies and in the fabrication of plasmon-based optoelectronic devices, like dye-sensitized solar cells and plasmon-enhanced organic light-emitting diodes.

  16. Optimizing the electric field around solid and core-shell alloy nanostructures for near-field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montaño-Priede, Luis; Peña-Rodríguez, Ovidio; Rivera, Antonio; Guerrero-Martínez, Andrés; Pal, Umapada

    2016-08-01

    The near electric field enhancement around plasmonic nanoparticles (NPs) is very important for applications like surface enhanced spectroscopies, plasmonic dye-sensitized solar cells and plasmon-enhanced OLEDs, where the interactions occur close to the surface of the NPs. In this work we have calculated the near-field enhancement around solid and core-shell alloy NPs as a function of their geometrical parameters and composition. We have found that the field enhancement is lower in the AuxAg1-x alloys with respect to pure Ag NPs, but it is still high enough for most near-field applications. The higher order modes have a stronger influence over the near-field due to a sharper spatial decay of the near electric field with the increase of the order of multipolar modes. For the same reason, in AuxAg1-x@SiO2 core-shell structures, the quadrupolar mode is dominant around the core, whereas the dipolar mode is predominant around the shell. The LSPR modes can have different behaviours in the near- and the far-field, particularly for larger particles with high Ag contents, which indicates that caution must be exercised for designing plasmonic nanostructures for near-field applications, as the variations of the LSPR in the near-field cannot be inferred from those observed in the far-field. These results have important implications for the application of gold-silver alloy NPs in surface enhanced spectroscopies and in the fabrication of plasmon-based optoelectronic devices, like dye-sensitized solar cells and plasmon-enhanced organic light-emitting diodes.

  17. Resonance fluorescence of a two-level quantum emitter near a plasmonic nanoparticle: role of the near-field polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirova, Yu V.; Chubchev, E. D.; Zadkov, V. N.

    2017-02-01

    It is demonstrated that the interaction of a two-level quantum emitter (atom, molecule, etc) with a plasmonic nanoparticle (prolate nanospheroid) in an external laser field features either an essential increase (up to a few orders of magnitude) or reduction (up to a few times) of the total decay rate of the emitter in specific areas around the nanoparticle in contrast to its decay rate in a vacuum. It is also shown that the resonance fluorescence spectrum of the emitter in close proximity to a plasmonic nanoparticle is very sensitive to both the location of the emitter around the nanoparticle and to polarization of the near-field, which depends in turn on the polarization of the incident laser field. This can be used in engineering potential quantum optics experiments with quantum emitters in the near-field, as well as for 3D nanoscopy of the near-field by registering the resonance fluorescence spectra of quantum emitters scattered in the vicinity of a plasmonic nanoparticle.

  18. Analytical solutions for flow fields near continuous wall reactive barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk

    2008-05-01

    Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are widely applied for in-situ remediation of contaminant plumes transported by groundwater. Besides the goal of a sufficient contaminant remediation inside the reactive cell (residence time) the width of plume intercepted by a PRB is of critical concern. A 2-dimensional analytical approach is applied to determine the flow fields towards rectangular PRBs of the continuous wall (CW) configuration with and without impermeable side walls (but yet no funnel). The approach is based on the conformal mapping technique and assumes a homogeneous aquifer with a uniform ambient flow field. The hydraulic conductivity of the reactive material is furthermore assumed to exceed the conductivity of the aquifer by at least one order of magnitude as to neglect the hydraulic gradient across the reactor. The flow fields are analyzed regarding the widths and shapes of the respective capture zones as functions of the dimensions (aspect ratio) of the reactive cell and the ambient groundwater flow direction. Presented are an improved characterization of the advantages of impermeable side walls, a convenient approach to improved hydraulic design (including basic cost-optimization) and new concepts for monitoring CW PRBs. Water level data from a CW PRB at the Seneca Army Depot site, NY, are used for field demonstration.

  19. The Lightning Rod Model: a Genesis for Quantitative Near-Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Alexander; Andreev, Gregory; Dominguez, Gerardo; Thiemens, Mark; Fogler, Michael; Basov, D. N.

    2013-03-01

    Near-field infrared spectroscopy has the proven ability to resolve optical contrasts in materials at deeply sub-wavelength scales across a broad range of infrared frequencies. In principle, the technique enables sub-diffractional optical identification of chemical compositions within nanostructured and naturally heterogeneous samples. However current models of probe-sample optical interaction, while qualitatively descriptive, cannot quantitatively explain infrared near-field spectra, especially for strongly resonant sample materials. We present a new first-principles model of near-field interaction, and demonstrate its superb agreement with infrared near-field spectra measured for thin films of silicon dioxide and the strongly phonon-resonant material silicon carbide. Using this model we reveal the role of probe geometry and surface mode dispersion in shaping the measured near-field spectrum, establishing its quantitative relationship with the dielectric properties of the sample. This treatment offers a route to the quantitative determination of optical constants at the nano-scale.

  20. Exploring Coupled Plasmonic Nanostructures in the Near Field by Photoemission Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Han; Sun, Quan; Ueno, Kosei; Oshikiri, Tomoya; Kubo, Atsushi; Matsuo, Yasutaka; Misawa, Hiroaki

    2016-11-22

    The extraordinary optical properties of coupled plasmonic nanostructures make these materials potentially useful in many applications; thus, they have received enormous attention in basic and applied research. Coupled plasmon modes have been characterized predominantly using far-field spectroscopy. In near-field spectroscopy, the spectral response of local field enhancement in coupled plasmonic nanostructures remains largely unexplored, especially experimentally. Here, we investigate the coupled gold dolmen nanostructures in the near field using photoemission electron microscopy, with wavelength-tunable femtosecond laser pulses as an excitation source. The spatial evolution of near-field mapping of an individual dolmen structure with the excitation wavelength was successfully obtained. In the near field, we spatially resolved an anti-bonding mode and a bonding mode as the result of plasmon hybridization. Additionally, the quadrupole plasmon mode that could be involved in the formation of a Fano resonance was also revealed by spatially resolved near-field spectra, but it only contributed little to the total near-field enhancement. On the basis of these findings, we obtained a better understanding of the near-field properties of coupled plasmonic nanostructures, where the plasmon hybridization and the plasmonic Fano resonance were mixed.

  1. Suppression of Arabidopsis flowering by near-null magnetic field is affected by light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chunxiao; Li, Yue; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Yuxia; Wei, Shufeng

    2015-09-01

    We previously reported that a near-null magnetic field suppressed Arabidopsis flowering in white light, which might be related to the function modification of cryptochrome (CRY). To further demonstrate that the effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering is associated with CRY, Arabidopsis wild type and CRY mutant plants were grown in the near-null magnetic field under blue or red light with different light cycle and photosynthetic photon flux density. We found that Arabidopsis flowering was significantly suppressed by near-null magnetic field in blue light with lower intensity (10 µmol/m(2) /s) and shorter cycle (12 h period: 6 h light/6 h dark). However, flowering time of CRY1/CRY2 mutants did not show any difference between plants grown in near-null magnetic field and in local geomagnetic field under detected light conditions. In red light, no significant difference was shown in Arabidopsis flowering between plants in near-null magnetic field and local geomagnetic field under detected light cycles and intensities. These results suggest that changes of blue light cycle and intensity alter the effect of near-null magnetic field on Arabidopsis flowering, which is mediated by CRY.

  2. Near-Field and Far-Field Directional Conversion of Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Heng-He; Tan, Yunhua; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-01-01

    A compact metallic meta-structure is proposed to realize directional conversion between spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) and propagating waves at millimeter wave and THz frequencies. The structure is constructed by embedding two slits or multi-slits array into a subwavelength metallic reflection grating. When the back-side of the structure is illuminated by an oblique beam with a fixed incident angle, the propagating wave will be unidirectionally converted into SSPPs with a considerable efficiency. Both the simulations and experiments demonstrate that the excitation ratio of the SSPPs between the two possible propagating directions (left and right) reaches up to about 340. Furthermore, assisted by the structure, near-field SSPPs can be also converted into far-field narrow beams with particular directions. Through frequency sweeping, wide-angle beam scanning is verified by theory and experiments. The work paves a new way for SSPPs launching and also provides fresh ideas for super-resolution imaging in the longer wavelength range. PMID:27629825

  3. Near-Field and Far-Field Directional Conversion of Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Heng-He; Tan, Yunhua; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-09-01

    A compact metallic meta-structure is proposed to realize directional conversion between spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) and propagating waves at millimeter wave and THz frequencies. The structure is constructed by embedding two slits or multi-slits array into a subwavelength metallic reflection grating. When the back-side of the structure is illuminated by an oblique beam with a fixed incident angle, the propagating wave will be unidirectionally converted into SSPPs with a considerable efficiency. Both the simulations and experiments demonstrate that the excitation ratio of the SSPPs between the two possible propagating directions (left and right) reaches up to about 340. Furthermore, assisted by the structure, near-field SSPPs can be also converted into far-field narrow beams with particular directions. Through frequency sweeping, wide-angle beam scanning is verified by theory and experiments. The work paves a new way for SSPPs launching and also provides fresh ideas for super-resolution imaging in the longer wavelength range.

  4. Near-Field and Far-Field Directional Conversion of Spoof Surface Plasmon Polaritons.

    PubMed

    Tang, Heng-He; Tan, Yunhua; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-09-15

    A compact metallic meta-structure is proposed to realize directional conversion between spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SSPPs) and propagating waves at millimeter wave and THz frequencies. The structure is constructed by embedding two slits or multi-slits array into a subwavelength metallic reflection grating. When the back-side of the structure is illuminated by an oblique beam with a fixed incident angle, the propagating wave will be unidirectionally converted into SSPPs with a considerable efficiency. Both the simulations and experiments demonstrate that the excitation ratio of the SSPPs between the two possible propagating directions (left and right) reaches up to about 340. Furthermore, assisted by the structure, near-field SSPPs can be also converted into far-field narrow beams with particular directions. Through frequency sweeping, wide-angle beam scanning is verified by theory and experiments. The work paves a new way for SSPPs launching and also provides fresh ideas for super-resolution imaging in the longer wavelength range.

  5. Terahertz near-field imaging of electric and magnetic resonances of a planar metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Bitzer, Andreas; Merbold, Hannes; Thoman, Andreas; Feurer, Thomas; Helm, Hanspeter; Walther, Markus

    2009-03-02

    Experimental investigations of the microscopic electric and in particular the magnetic near-fields in metamaterials remain highly challenging and current studies rely mostly on numerical simulations. Here we report a terahertz near-field imaging approach which provides spatially resolved measurements of the amplitude, phase and polarization of the electric field from which we extract the microscopic magnetic near-field signatures in a planar metamaterial constructed of split-ring resonators (SRRs). In addition to studying the fundamental resonances of an individual double SRR unit we further investigate the interaction with neighboring elements.

  6. Polarization-current-based, finite-difference time-domain, near-to-far-field transformation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yong; Moloney, Jerome V

    2009-05-15

    A near-to-far-field transformation algorithm for three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain is presented in this Letter. This approach is based directly on the polarization current of the scatterer, not the scattered near fields. It therefore eliminates the numerical errors originating from the spatial offset of the E and H fields, inherent in the standard near-to-far-field transformation. The proposed method is validated via direct comparisons with the analytical Lorentz-Mie solutions of plane waves scattered by large dielectric and metallic spheres with strong forward-scattering lobes.

  7. Land subsidence near oil and gas fields, Houston, Texas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Bluntzer, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Subsidence profiles across 29 oil and gas fields in the 12 200 km2 Houston, Texas, regional subsidence area, which is caused by the decline of ground-water level, suggest that the contribution of petroleum withdrawal to local land subsidence is small. In addition to land subsidence, faults with an aggregate length of more than 240 km have offset the land surface in historical time. Natural geologic deformation, ground-water pumping, and petroleum withdrawal have all been considered as potential causes of the historical offset across these faults. The minor amount of localized land subsidence associated with oil and gas fields, suggests that petroleum withdrawal is not a major cause of the historical faulting. -from Authors

  8. Magnetic field measurements near stand-alone transformer stations.

    PubMed

    Kandel, Shaiela; Hareuveny, Ronen; Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Ruppin, Raphael

    2013-12-01

    Extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) measurements around and above three stand-alone 22/0.4-kV transformer stations have been performed. The low-voltage (LV) cables between the transformer and the LV switchgear were found to be the major source of strong ELF MFs of limited spatial extent. The strong fields measured above the transformer stations support the assessment method, to be used in future epidemiological studies, of classifying apartments located right above the transformer stations as highly exposed to MFs. The results of the MF measurements above the ground around the transformer stations provide a basis for the assessment of the option of implementing precautionary procedures.

  9. Effect of plate roughness on the field near RPC plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jash, A.; Majumdar, N.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2016-06-01

    The inner surfaces of the electrodes encompassing the gas volume of a Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) have been found to exhibit asperities with, grossly, three kind of features. The desired uniform electric field within the gas volume of RPC is expected to be affected due to the presence of these asperities, which will eventually affect the final response from the detector. In this work, an attempt has been made to model the highly complex roughness of the electrode surfaces and compute its effect on the electrostatic field within RPC gas chamber. The calculations have been performed numerically using Finite Element Method (FEM) and Boundary Element Method (BEM) and the two methods have been compared in this context.

  10. Coupled near-field and far-field exposure assessment framework for chemicals in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Fantke, Peter; Ernstoff, Alexi S; Huang, Lei; Csiszar, Susan A; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Humans can be exposed to chemicals in consumer products through product use and environmental emissions over the product life cycle. Exposure pathways are often complex, where chemicals can transfer directly from products to humans during use or exchange between various indoor and outdoor compartments until sub-fractions reach humans. To consistently evaluate exposure pathways along product life cycles, a flexible mass balance-based assessment framework is presented structuring multimedia chemical transfers in a matrix of direct inter-compartmental transfer fractions. By matrix inversion, we quantify cumulative multimedia transfer fractions and exposure pathway-specific product intake fractions defined as chemical mass taken in by humans per unit mass of chemical in a product. Combining product intake fractions with chemical mass in the product yields intake estimates for use in life cycle impact assessment and chemical alternatives assessment, or daily intake doses for use in risk-based assessment and high-throughput screening. Two illustrative examples of chemicals used in personal care products and flooring materials demonstrate how this matrix-based framework offers a consistent and efficient way to rapidly compare exposure pathways for adult and child users and for the general population. This framework constitutes a user-friendly approach to develop, compare and interpret multiple human exposure scenarios in a coupled system of near-field ('user' environment), far-field and human intake compartments, and helps understand the contribution of individual pathways to overall human exposure in various product application contexts to inform decisions in different science-policy fields for which exposure quantification is relevant. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Phased Array Excitations For Efficient Near Field Wireless Power Transmission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL...September 2016 Approved by: Dr. David Jenn Thesis Advisor Dr. Roberto Cristi Second Reader Dr. R. Clark Roberston Chair, Department of Electrical and...6. Path Length Difference for a Point Source Illuminating an Aperture .......20 Figure 7. SBR Method for Determining the Scattered Electric Field

  12. Near Field Cosmology with the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnachie, A. W.; PAndAS Collaboration

    2012-08-01

    I describe the Pan-Andromeda Archaeological Survey (PAndAS), and discuss several recent science highlights, including studies of its dwarf satellite systems, its stellar halo, and correlations with the HI content. I also discuss the need for a large scale, wide field, multi-object spectroscopic survey, such as the type made possible with the proposed Next Generation Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (NG-CFHT).

  13. Near-field imaging of biperiodic surfaces for elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peijun; Wang, Yuliang; Zhao, Yue

    2016-11-01

    This paper is concerned with the direct and inverse scattering of elastic waves by biperiodic surfaces in three dimensions. The surface is assumed to be a small and smooth perturbation of a rigid plane. Given a time-harmonic plane incident wave, the direct problem is to determine the displacement field of the elastic wave for a given surface; the inverse problem is to reconstruct the surface from the measured displacement field. The direct problem is shown to have a unique weak solution by studying its variational formulation. Moreover, an analytic solution is deduced by using the transformed field expansion method and the convergence is established for the power series solution. A local uniqueness is proved for the inverse problem. An explicit reconstruction formula is obtained and implemented by using the fast Fourier transform. The error estimate is derived for the reconstructed surface function, and it provides an insight on the trade-off among resolution, accuracy, and stability of the solution for the inverse problem. Numerical results show that the method is effective to reconstruct biperiodic scattering surfaces with subwavelength resolution.

  14. Near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers under radially and azimuthally polarized light excitation.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Avner; Grajower, Meir; Lerman, Gilad M; Hentschel, Mario; Giessen, Harald; Levy, Uriel

    2014-05-27

    We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study on the near- and far-field properties of plasmonic oligomers using radially and azimuthally polarized excitation. These unconventional polarization states are perfectly matched to the high spatial symmetry of the oligomers and thus allow for the excitation of some of the highly symmetric eigenmodes of the structures, which cannot be excited by linearly polarized light. In particular, we study hexamer and heptamer structures and strikingly find very similar optical responses, as well as the absence of a Fano resonance. Furthermore, we investigate the near-field distributions of the oligomers using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). We observe significantly enhanced near-fields, which arise from efficient excitation of the highly symmetric eigenmodes by the radially and azimuthally polarized light fields. Our study opens up possibilities for tailored light-matter interaction, combining the design freedom of complex plasmonic structures with the remarkable properties of radially and azimuthally polarized light fields.

  15. Evaluation of Near Field Atmospheric Dispersion Around Nuclear Facilities Using a Lorentzian Distribution Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkley, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose.

  16. Approximate expression to estimate signal-to-noise ratio improvement in cylindrical near-field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeu, Jordi; Jofre, Lluis; Cardama, Angel

    1994-07-01

    A very simple approximate expression for the process gain (PG) for the cylindrical case is derived. The different approximations and assumptions required to obtain this expression are shown. This expression might be useful for most practical cylindrical near-field measurements, providing a very simple mean to assess the near-field dynamic range requirements to obtain a desired far-field signal-to-noise ratio (SNR).

  17. Wireless Links in the Radiative Near Field via Bessel Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heebl, Jason D.; Ettorre, Mauro; Grbic, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    The generation of propagating Bessel beams is typically limited to optical frequencies with bulky experimental setups. Recent works have demonstrated Bessel-beam generation at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies utilizing low-profile, planar, leaky-wave antennas. These studies have assumed a single leaky mode in the antenna. In this work, the rigorous analysis of a planar Bessel-beam launcher supporting multiple modes is presented. By employing the mode-matching technique, a complete electromagnetic solution of the structure, its supported modes, and radiated fields is obtained. Additionally, a coupled system of two planar Bessel launchers is analyzed, and it is shown that the system can both transmit and receive Bessel beams. The energy-transfer characteristics of the coupled system are analyzed and discussed. An analysis of the coupled system's even and odd modes of operation show that efficient power transfer is possible, and that an odd mode is preferred since it yields higher field confinement and power-transfer efficiency.

  18. Probe-sample optical interaction: size and wavelength dependence in localized plasmon near-field imaging.

    PubMed

    Habteyes, Terefe G; Dhuey, Scott; Kiesow, Karissa I; Vold, Alexander

    2013-09-09

    The probe-sample optical interaction in apertureless near-field optical microscopy is studied at 633 nm and 808 nm excitation wavelengths using gold nanodisks as model systems. The near-field distributions of the dipolar and quadrupolar surface plasmon modes have been mapped successfully using metal coated probes with different polarization combinations of excitation and detection except when the incident and the scattered light polarizations are chosen to be parallel to the probe axis. For the parallel polarization of the incident and the scattered light, the pattern of the near-field distribution differs from the inherent plasmon mode structures of the sample, depending sensitively on the sample size and excitation energy. For a given excitation energy, the near-field amplitude shifts from one pole to the other as the sample size increases, having nearly equal amplitude at the two poles when the plasmon resonance peak spectrally overlaps with the excitation energy.

  19. Generalized spectral method for near-field optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.; Castro Neto, A. H.

    2016-02-07

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the “probe”) and a material surface (the “sample”) is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe as well as on the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several types of axisymmetric probes: spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped. For spheroids, an efficient numerical method is developed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. Application of the method to highly resonant materials, such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene), reveals a rich structure of multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves, i.e., the probe-sample distance dependence. These features also strongly depend on the probe shape and optical constants of the model. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide, the dependence is weak, so that the spheroidal model is reliable. The calculations are done within the quasistatic approximation with radiative damping included perturbatively.

  20. Generalized spectral method for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the "probe") and a material surface (the "sample") is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe as well as on the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several types of axisymmetric probes: spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped. For spheroids, an efficient numerical method is developed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. Application of the method to highly resonant materials, such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene), reveals a rich structure of multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves, i.e., the probe-sample distance dependence. These features also strongly depend on the probe shape and optical constants of the model. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide, the dependence is weak, so that the spheroidal model is reliable. The calculations are done within the quasistatic approximation with radiative damping included perturbatively.

  1. Blunt Body Near-Wake Flow Field at Mach 10

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Hannemann, Klaus

    1997-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a Mach 10 air flow to examine the reattachment process of a free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg half angle, spherically blunted cone having a cylindrical after body. The nominal free-stream Reynolds number based on model diameter ranged from 0.25 x l0(exp 6) to 1 x l0(exp 6) and the angle of incidence set at 0 and +/- 20 deg. The present study was designed to complement previously reported Mach 6 perfect air tests as well as results obtained in several hypervelocity facilities capable of producing real gas effects. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. Limited forebody, base, and support sting surface pressures were obtained with piezoresistive Experimental results are compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-0 Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 16 to 18percent of the forebody stagnation point and a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, suggesting a transitional or turbulent shear layer. transducers.

  2. Near-field radiative thermal control with graphene covered on different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ao; Zheng, Zhiheng; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Based on the structure of double-layer parallel plates, this paper demonstrates that thermal radiation in near field is greatly enhanced due to near-field effects, exceeding Planck‧s blackbody radiation law. To study the effect of graphene on thermal radiation in near field, the authors add graphene layer into the structure and analyze the ability of graphene to control near-field thermal radiation with different materials. The result indicates that the graphene layer effectively suppresses the near-field thermal radiation between metal plates or polar-dielectric plates, having good ability of thermal insulation. But for doped-silicon plates, depending on the specific models, graphene has different control abilities, suppressing or enhancing, and the control abilities mainly depend on the material graphene is attached to. The authors also summarize some common rules about the different abilities of graphene to control the near-field thermal radiation. In consideration of the thickness of 0.34 nm of monolayer graphene, this paper points out that graphene plays a very important role in controlling the near-field thermal radiation.

  3. Observations of the diffuse near-UV radiation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, J.; Henry, R. C.; Feldman, P. D.; Tennyson, P. D.

    1990-01-01

    The diffuse radiation field from 1650-3100 A has been observed by spectrometer aboard the Space Shuttle, and the contributions of the zodiacal light an the diffuse cosmic background to the signal have been derived. Colors ranging from 0.65 to 1.2 are found for the zodiacal light with an almost linear increase in the color with ecliptic latitude. This rise in color is due to UV brightness remaining almost constant while the visible brightnesses drop by almost a factor of two. This is interpreted as evidence that the grains responsible for the UV scattering have much more uniform distribution with distance from the ecliptic plane than do those grains responsible for the visible scattering. Intensities for the cosmic diffuse background ranging from 300 units to 900 units are found which are not consistent with either a correlation with N(H I) or with spatial isotropy.

  4. Near-field noise predictions of an aircraft in cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawls, John W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The physics of the coupling of sound waves with the boundary layer is not yet well understood. It is believed, however, that for effective coupling of the sound waves and instability waves in the boundary layer, a matching of both frequency and wave number must occur. This requires that the sound field be accurately defined in both space and time. Currently analytical prediction methods lack sufficient accuracy to predict the noise levels from components of a turbofan engine. Although empirical methods do not yield the detail required for an analysis of the receptivity of sound by a boundary layer, valuable insight can be gained as to the changes in noise levels that might be expected under various operating conditions and aircraft configurations.

  5. Near tip stress and strain fields for short elastic cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soediono, A. H.; Kardomateas, G. A.; Carlson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent experimental fatigue crack growth studies have concluded an apparent anomalous behavior of short cracks. To investigate the reasons for this unexpected behavior, the present paper focuses on identifying the crack length circumstances under which the requirements for a single parameter (K(sub I) or delta K(sub I) if cyclic loading is considered) characterization are violated. Furthermore, an additional quantity, the T stress, as introduced by Rice, and the related biaxiality ratio, B, are calculated for several crack lengths and two configurations, the single-edge-cracked and the centrally-cracked specimen. It is postulated that a two-parameter characterization by K and T (or B) is needed for the adequate description of the stress and strain field around a short crack. To further verify the validity of this postulate, the influence of the third term of the Williams series on the stress, strain and displacement fields around the crack tip and in particular on the B parameter is also examined. It is found that the biaxiality ratio would be more negative if the third term effects are included in both geometries. The study is conducted using the finite element method with linearly elastic material and isoparametric elements and axial (mode I) loading. Moreover, it is clearly shown that it is not proper to postulate the crack size limits for 'short crack' behavior as a normalized ratio with the specimen width, a/w; it should instead be stated as an absolute, or normalized with respect to a small characteristic dimension such as the grain size. Finally, implications regarding the prediction of cyclic (fatigue) growth of short cracks are discussed.

  6. Strain rate orientations near the Coso Geothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasa, N. T.; Kaven, J. O.; Barbour, A. J.; von Huene, R.

    2016-12-01

    Many geothermal reservoirs derive their sustained capacity for heat exchange in large part due to continuous deformation of preexisting faults and fractures that permit permeability to be maintained. Similarly, enhanced geothermal systems rely on the creation of suitable permeability from fracture and faults networks to be viable. Stress measurements from boreholes or earthquake source mechanisms are commonly used to infer the tectonic conditions that drive deformation, but here we show that geodetic data can also be used. Specifically, we quantify variations in the horizontal strain rate tensor in the area surrounding the Coso Geothermal Field (CGF) by analyzing more than two decades of high accuracy differential GPS data from a network of 14 stations from the University of Nevada Reno Geodetic Laboratory. To handle offsets in the data, from equipment changes and coseismic deformation, we segment the data, perform a piecewise linear fit and take the average of each segment's strain rate to determine secular velocities at each station. With respect to North America, all stations tend to travel northwest at velocities ranging from 1 to 10 mm/yr. The nearest station to CGF shows anomalous motion compared to regional stations, which otherwise show a coherent increase in network velocity from the northeast to the southwest. We determine strain rates via linear approximation using GPS velocities in Cartesian reference frame due to the small area of our network. Principal strain rate components derived from this inversion show maximum extensional strain rates of 30 nanostrain/a occur at N87W with compressional strain rates of 37nanostrain/a at N3E. These results generally align with previous stress measurements from borehole breakouts, which indicate the least compressive horizontal principal stress is east-west oriented, and indicative of the basin and range tectonic setting. Our results suggest that the CGF represents an anomaly in the crustal deformation field, which

  7. Magnetic Field Structure near the Plasma Boundary in Helical Systems and Divertor Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasaki, Kazunobu; Itoh, Kimitaka

    1990-07-01

    The magnetic field structure of the scrape-off layer (SOL) region in both helical systems and divertor tokamaks is studied numerically by using model fields. The connection length of the field line to the wall, L, is calculated. In helical systems, L has logarithmic properties in the SOL region. The effect of axisymmetric fields on the field structure is determined. In divertor tokamaks, L also has logarithmic properties near the separatrix. Even when the perturbations which resonate to rational surfaces near the plasma boundary are added, the logarithmic properties are not changed. The connection length of torsatron/helical-heliotron systems is compared with that of divertor tokamaks.

  8. Modeling of Coastal Effluent Transport: an Approach to Linking of Far-field and Near-field Models

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang P.

    2008-09-01

    One of the challenges in effluent transport modeling in coastal tidal environments is the proper calculation of initial dilution in connection with the far-field transport model. In this study, an approach of external linkage of far-field and near-field effluent transport models is presented, and applied to simulate the effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor, Washington in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. A near-field plume model was used to calculate the effluent initial dilution and a three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic model was developed to simulate the tidal circulation and far-field effluent transport in the Port Angeles Harbor. In the present study, the hydrodynamic model was driven by tides and surface winds. Observed water surface elevation and velocity data were used to calibrate the model over a period covering the neap-spring tidal cycle. The model was also validated with observed surface drogue trajectory data. The model successfully reproduced the tidal dynamics in the study area and good agreements between model results and observed data were obtained. This study demonstrated that the linkage between the near-field and far-field models in effluent transport modeling can be achieved through iteratively adjusting the model grid sizes such that the far-field modeled dilution ratio and effluent concentration in the effluent discharge model grid cell match the concentration calculated by the near-field plume model.

  9. Nanogap effects on near- and far-field plasmonic behaviors of metallic nanoparticle dimers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu; Zhou, Qin; Hou, Mengjing; Ma, Lingwei; Zhang, Zhengjun

    2015-11-21

    In the field of plasmonics, the nanogap effect is often related to one aspect like the near-field enhancement at a single excitation wavelength or the far-field resonance shift. In this study, taking full advantage of finite element method (FEM) calculations, we present a comprehensive and quantitative analysis of the nanogap effect on the plasmonic behaviors of metallic nanoparticle dimers. Firstly, near-field spectroscopy is proposed in order to extract the near-field resonance wavelengths. Focusing on the bonding dipole mode, it is found that the near-field enhancement factors exhibit a weak power-law dependence on the gap size, while the near-field resonance shift decays nearly exponentially as the gap size increases, with a lower decay length than that for the far-field resonance shift. The spectral deviation between these two shifts is suggested to be taken into account for spectroscopy applications of plasmonic devices, although it may be negligible for dimer structures with rather small gaps.

  10. Phase stabilized homodyne of infrared scattering type scanning near-field optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Xiaoji G.; Gilburd, Leonid; Walker, Gilbert C.

    2014-12-29

    Scattering type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) allows sub diffraction limited spatial resolution. Interferometric homodyne detection in s-SNOM can amplify the signal and extract vibrational responses based on sample absorption. A stable reference phase is required for a high quality homodyne-detected near-field signal. This work presents the development of a phase stabilization mechanism for s-SNOM to provide stable homodyne conditions. The phase stability is found to be better than 0.05 rad for the mid infrared light source. Phase stabilization results in improved near field images and vibrational spectroscopies. Spatial inhomogeneities of the boron nitride nanotubes are measured and compared.

  11. Direct subwavelength imaging and control of near-field localization in individual silver nanocubes

    SciTech Connect

    Mårsell, Erik; Svärd, Robin; Miranda, Miguel; Guo, Chen; Harth, Anne; Lorek, Eleonora; Mauritsson, Johan; Arnold, Cord L.; L'Huillier, Anne; Mikkelsen, Anders; Losquin, Arthur; Xu, Hongxing

    2015-11-16

    We demonstrate the control of near-field localization within individual silver nanocubes through photoemission electron microscopy combined with broadband, few-cycle laser pulses. We find that the near-field is concentrated at the corners of the cubes, and that it can be efficiently localized to different individual corners depending on the polarization of the incoming light. The experimental results are confirmed by finite-difference time-domain simulations, which also provide an intuitive picture of polarization dependent near-field localization in nanocubes.

  12. Polarization dependence and independence of near-field enhancement through a subwavelength circle hole.

    PubMed

    Li, Zu-Bin; Zhou, Wen-Yuan; Kong, Xiang-Tian; Tian, Jian-Guo

    2010-03-15

    By setting a metal rod or tooth-type structures in a single subwavelength hole, its near-field can be strongly enhanced. The near-field enhancement has strong polarization dependence when the structure in hole is twofold symmetric. Only the polarization along the longitudinal side of the metal rod or tooth-type structure can lead to strongest enhancement, which is attributed to the resonance of the localized surface plasmon. However, if the structure in hole is fourfold symmetric, the near-field enhancement is free from the polarization.

  13. Optical near-field microscopy of light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Nathalie; Lalouat, Loïc; Cluzel, Benoit; Mélique, Xavier; Lippens, Didier; de Fornel, Frédérique; Vanbésien, Olivier

    2008-08-15

    We report here the direct observation by using a scanning near-field microscopy technique of the light focusing through a photonic crystal flat lens designed and fabricated to operate at optical frequencies. The lens is fabricated using a III-V semiconductor slab, and we directly visualize the propagation of the electromagnetic waves by using a scanning near-field optical microscope. We directly evidence spatially, as well as spectrally, the focusing operating regime of the lens. At last, in light of the experimental scanning near-field optical microscope pictures, we discuss the lens ability to focus light at a subwavelength scale.

  14. Enhanced Near-Field Heat Flow of a Monolayer Dielectric Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worbes, Ludwig; Hellmann, David; Kittel, Achim

    2013-03-01

    We have investigated the influence of thin films of a dielectric material on the near-field mediated heat transfer at the fundamental limit of single monolayer islands on a metallic substrate. We present spatially resolved measurements by near-field scanning thermal microscopy showing a distinct enhancement in heat transfer above NaCl islands compared to the bare Au(111) film. Experiments at this subnanometer scale call for a microscopic theory beyond the macroscopic fluctuational electrodynamics used to describe near-field heat transfer today. The method facilitates the possibility of developing designs of nanostructured surfaces with respect to specific requirements in heat transfer down to a single atomic layer.

  15. Enhancing Near-Field Radiative Heat Transfer with Si-based Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Hurtado, V.; García-Vidal, F. J.; Fan, Shanhui; Cuevas, J. C.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate in this work that the use of metasurfaces provides a viable strategy to largely tune and enhance near-field radiative heat transfer between extended structures. In particular, using a rigorous coupled wave analysis, we predict that Si-based metasurfaces featuring two-dimensional periodic arrays of holes can exhibit a room-temperature near-field radiative heat conductance much larger than any unstructured material to date. We show that this enhancement, which takes place in a broad range of separations, relies on the possibility to largely tune the properties of the surface plasmon polaritons that dominate the radiative heat transfer in the near-field regime.

  16. A rapid estimation of near field tsunami run-up

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riqueime, Sebastian; Fuentes, Mauricio; Hayes, Gavin; Campos, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to quickly estimate the maximum run-up height of tsunamis associated with large earthquakes. This is a difficult task, because of the time it takes to construct a tsunami model using real time data from the source. It is possible to construct a database of potential seismic sources and their corresponding tsunami a priori.However, such models are generally based on uniform slip distributions and thus oversimplify the knowledge of the earthquake source. Here, we show how to predict tsunami run-up from any seismic source model using an analytic solution, that was specifically designed for subduction zones with a well defined geometry, i.e., Chile, Japan, Nicaragua, Alaska. The main idea of this work is to provide a tool for emergency response, trading off accuracy for speed. The solutions we present for large earthquakes appear promising. Here, run-up models are computed for: The 1992 Mw 7.7 Nicaragua Earthquake, the 2001 Mw 8.4 Perú Earthquake, the 2003Mw 8.3 Hokkaido Earthquake, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Perú Earthquake, the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake and the recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. The maximum run-up estimations are consistent with measurements made inland after each event, with a peak of 9 m for Nicaragua, 8 m for Perú (2001), 32 m for Maule, 41 m for Tohoku, and 4.1 m for Iquique. Considering recent advances made in the analysis of real time GPS data and the ability to rapidly resolve the finiteness of a large earthquake close to existing GPS networks, it will be possible in the near future to perform these calculations within the first minutes after the occurrence of similar events. Thus, such calculations will provide faster run-up information than is available from existing uniform-slip seismic source databases or past events of pre-modeled seismic sources.

  17. Blunt body near wake flow field at Mach 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Hannemann, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a Mach 6 flow to examine the reattachment process of an axisymmetric free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg. half angle, spherically blunted cone with a cylindrical after body. Model angle of incidence was fixed at 0 deg. and free-stream Reynolds numbers based on body diameter ranged from 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6). The sensitivity of wake shear layer transition on reattachment heating was investigated. The present perfect gas study was designed to compliment results obtained previously in facilities capable of producing real gas effects. The instrumented blunted cone model was designed primarily for testing in high enthalpy hypervelocity shock tunnels in both this country and abroad but was amenable for testing in conventional hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels as well. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature - time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. General flow feature (bow shock, wake shear layer, and recompression shock) locations were visually identified by schlieren photography. Mean shear layer position and growth were determined from intrusive pitot pressure surveys. In addition, wake surveys with a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer were utilized to qualitatively characterize the state of the shear layer prior to reattachment. Experimental results were compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-D Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 21 to 29 percent of the forebody stagnation point heating. Peak heating resulting from the reattaching shear layer was found to be a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, which suggested a transitional shear layer. Schlieren flow visualization and fluctuating voltage time histories and spectra from the hot wire surveys

  18. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapons detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Collins, H. D.; Hall, Thomas E.

    1993-04-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration/signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two- dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed. Signal/image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far- field and narrow-bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a Ka-band system.

  19. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K[sub a]-band system.

  20. Near-field millimeter-wave imaging for weapon detection

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, D.M.; McMakin, D.L.; Collins, H.D.; Hall, T.E.

    1992-11-01

    Various millimeter-wave imaging systems capable of imaging through clothing for the detection of contraband metal, plastic, or ceramic weapons, have been developed at PNL. Two dimensional scanned holographic systems, developed at 35, 90, and 350 GHz, are used to obtain high resolution images of metal and plastic targets concealed by clothing. Coherent single-frequency amplitude and phase data, which is gathered over a two-dimensional scanned aperture, is reconstructed to the target plane using a holographic wavefront reconstruction technique. Practical weapon detection systems require high-speed scanning. To achieve this goal, a 35 GHz linear sequentially switched array has been built and integrated into a high speed linear scanner. This system poses special challenges on calibration / signal processing of the holographic system. Further, significant improvements in speed are required to achieve real time operation. Toward this goal, a wideband scanned system which allows for a two-dimensional image formation from a one-dimensional scanned (or array) system has been developed . Signal / image processing techniques developed and implemented for this technique are a variation on conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) techniques which eliminate far-field and narrow bandwidth requirements. Performance of this technique is demonstrated with imaging results obtained from a K{sub a}-band system.

  1. Observing earthquakes triggered in the near field by dynamic deformations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.; Bodin, P.; Reasenberg, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that dynamic deformations associated with seismic waves trigger earthquakes in many tectonic environments. Our analysis focuses on seismicity at close range (within the aftershock zone), complementing published studies of long-range triggering. Our results suggest that dynamic triggering is not confined to remote distances or to geothermal and volcanic regions. Long unilaterally propagating ruptures may focus radiated dynamic deformations in the propagation direction. Therefore, we expect seismicity triggered dynamically by a directive rupture to occur asymmetrically, with a majority of triggered earthquakes in the direction of rupture propagation. Bilaterally propagating ruptures also may be directive, and we propose simple criteria for assessing their directivity. We compare the inferred rupture direction and observed seismicity rate change following 15 earthquakes (M 5.7 to M 8.1) that occured in California and Idaho in the United States, the Gulf of Aqaba, Syria, Guatemala, China, New Guinea, Turkey, Japan, Mexico, and Antarctica. Nine of these mainshocks had clearly directive, unilateral ruptures. Of these nine, seven apparently induced an asymmetric increase in seismicity rate that correlates with the rupture direction. The two exceptions include an earthquake preceded by a comparable-magnitude event on a conjugate fault and another for which data limitations prohibited conclusive results. Similar (but weaker) correlations were found for the bilaterally rupturing earthquakes we studied. Although the static stress change also may trigger seismicity, it and the seismicity it triggers are expected to be similarly asymmetric only if the final slip is skewed toward the rupture terminus. For several of the directive earthquakes, we suggest that the seismicity rate change correlates better with the dynamic stress field than the static stress change.

  2. Near-field microscopy with a microfabricated solid immersion lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fletcher, Daniel Alden

    2001-07-01

    Diffraction of focused light prevents optical microscopes from resolving features in air smaller than half the wavelength, λ Spatial resolution can be improved by passing light through a sub-wavelength metal aperture scanned close to a sample, but aperture-based probes suffer from low optical throughput, typically below 10-4. An alternate and more efficient technique is solid immersion microscopy in which light is focused through a high refractive index Solid Immersion Lens (SIL). This work describes the fabrication, modeling, and use of a microfabricated SIL to obtain spatial resolution better than the diffraction limit in air with high optical throughput for infrared applications. SILs on the order of 10 μm in diameter are fabricated from single-crystal silicon and integrated onto silicon cantilevers with tips for scanning. We measure a focused spot size of λ/5 with optical throughput better than 10-1 at a wavelength of λ = 9.3 μm. Spatial resolution is improved to λ/10 with metal apertures fabricated directly on the tip of the silicon SIL. Microlenses have reduced spherical aberration and better transparency than large lenses but cannot be made arbitrarily small and still focus. We model the advantages and limitations of focusing in lenses close to the wavelength in diameter using an extension of Mie theory. We also investigate a new contrast mechanism unique to microlenses resulting from the decrease in field-of-view with lens diameter. This technique is shown to achieve λ/4 spatial resolution. We explore applications of the microfabricated silicon SIL for high spatial resolution thermal microscopy and biological spectroscopy. Thermal radiation is collected through the SIL from a heated surface with spatial resolution four times better than that of a diffraction- limited infrared microscope. Using a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, we observe absorption peaks in bacteria cells positioned at the focus of the silicon SIL.

  3. Far-Field Rock Size-Frequency Distribution at the Mars Pathfinder Landing Site and Comparison to the Near Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haldemann, A. F. C.; Forsberg, N. K.; Golombek, M. P.; Bridges, N. T.

    2000-01-01

    Detailed measurements of rocks in the far field at the Mars Pathfinder landing site are consistent with the near field exponential drop off in the cumulative number or area covered by large diameter rocks (and with similar behavior at the Viking sites).

  4. Numerically investigating near-field scattering for spatial enhancement of single irregular nano plasma particle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng Chung; Tsai, Din Ping

    2004-01-01

    Near-field scattering from a nano silver particle has been studied with an optical wave passing through it. The scattered field was found to be enhanced around the semisphere on which the incident wave impinges. Comparing it with the spherical particle, the irregular shape of a nanoparticle only changes the distribution of the scattered field. In this investigation, approached by finite difference time domain (FDTD), it was revealed that the peak value of the scattered field is proportional to the particle radius; this might be due to the fact that more plasmons could be excited. Furthermore, the highest enhancement occurred at the incident frequency close to plasma frequency of silver (approximately 2000 THz). Thus, the numerical results could give a guide for optimizing AgOx type super resolution near-field structure (RENS) applications. When the red light source can be replaced with shorter wavelength ones, or larger silver particles can be segregated, the near-field scattered enhancement might result.

  5. Near- and far-field measurements of phase-ramped frequency selective surfaces at infrared wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, Eric; Boreman, Glenn; D'Archangel, Jeffrey; Raschke, Markus B.

    2014-07-28

    Near- and far-field measurements of phase-ramped loop and patch structures are presented and compared to simulations. The far-field deflection measurements show that the phase-ramped structures can deflect a beam away from specular reflection, consistent with simulations. Scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy of the elements comprising the phase ramped structures reveals part of the underlying near-field phase contribution that dictates the far-field deflection, which correlates with the far-field phase behavior that was expected. These measurements provide insight into the resonances, coupling, and spatial phase variation among phase-ramped frequency selective surface (FSS) elements, which are important for the performance of FSS reflectarrays.

  6. Near-field imaging and spectroscopy of plasmonic cavities (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilbane, Deirdre

    2016-09-01

    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) is an attractive and advantageous technique in the field of plasmonics. Whilst surface plasmons are excited at the metal dielectric interface by light, it is the near-field photoelectron distribution that is imaged, with <40 nm resolution, and thereby the optical diffraction limit is overcome. Additionally parallel acquisitioning makes time-resolved (TR) PEEM1 possible. PEEM therefore allows us to investigate light-matter interactions in localized, propagating and hybridized surface plasmons leading to advances in fundamental research and technological applications. In addition to near-field imaging it is also possible to perform near-field spectroscopy. A tunable short pulse optical parametric oscillator (OPO) light source can be combined with PEEM. We demonstrate this technique with arrays of whispering gallery mode (WGM) cavities2 fabricated with focused ion beam milling (FIB) on gold surfaces. Characteristic spectral peaks and near-field mode distributions result from the coherent excitation of different plasmon resonances. This near-field interference of modes allows us to control the emission from these WGM cavities3. Additionally recent advances in ultrafast near-field microscopy and spectroscopy will be discussed. [1] M. Bauer, C. Wiemann, J. Lange, D. Bayer, M. Rohmer and M. Aeschlimann, Appl. Phys. A 88 473 (2007) [2] E. J. Vesseur, F. J. García de Abajo and A. Polman Nano Letters 9 3147 (2009) [3] P. Melchior, D. Kilbane, E. J. Vesseur, A. Polman and M. Aeschlimann Optics Express 23, 31619 (2015)

  7. Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amarie, S.; Keilmann, F.

    2011-01-01

    The phonon-enhanced near-field response of polar materials is studied in theory and with a broadband midinfrared near-field microscope that generates spectra in real time. Absolute magnitude and phase spectra are determined for SiC, SiO2, and a-SiO2 at several demodulation orders. The data set is compared with results from two theoretical models of near-field interaction, point dipole and finite dipole. Only the latter produces acceptable agreement with a single parameter choice of all measured quantities (line shape in amplitude and phase, line position, and absolute scattering amplitude). This allows determining for the commercial metal tip used that (i) the dipole representing the near-field interaction has 600-nm effective length and that (ii) its near-field-induced far-field backscattering amplitude efficiency reaches 0.3% at phonon resonance, for the NA ≈ 0.45 objective used. The near-field phonon resonance is a robust and well-understood feature whose bright and sharp (Q ≈ 200) signatures specifically can highlight and can identify polar materials in the nanoscale imaging of heterogeneous composites.

  8. Near-field radiative heat transfer between clusters of dielectric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, J.; Zhao, J. M.; Liu, L. H.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we explore the near-field radiative heat transfer between two clusters of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles using the many-body radiative heat transfer theory. The effects of fractal dimension of clusters, many-body interaction between nanoparticles and relative orientation of clusters on the thermal conductance are studied. Meanwhile, the applicability of the equivalent volume spheres (EVS) approximation for near-field radiative heat transfer between clusters is examined. It is observed that the thermal conductance is larger for clusters with larger fractal dimension, which is more significant in the near-field. The thermal conductance of EVS resembles that of the clusters, but EVS overestimates the conductance of clusters, especially in the near-field. Compared to the case of two nanoparticles, the conductance of nanoparticle clusters decays much slower with increasing distance in the near-field, but shares similar dependence on the distance in the far-field. The thermal conductance of SiC nanoparticle clusters is inhibited by the many-body interaction when surface phonon polariton is supported but enhanced at frequencies close to the resonance frequency. The total thermal conductance is decreased due to many-body interaction among particles in the cluster. The relative orientation between the clusters is also an important factor in the near-field, especially for clusters with lower fractal dimension.

  9. Optical singularities and power flux in the near-field region of planar evanescent-field superlenses.

    PubMed

    Perez-Molina, Manuel; Carretero, L; Acebal, P; Blaya, S

    2008-11-01

    We rigorously analyze the optical singularities and power flux in the near-field region of the novel superlenses reported in [Science317, 927 (2007)] For this purpose, we derive near-field expressions and a general criterion to classify the optical singularities in the vacuum, which are valid when the (s- or p-polarized) electromagnetic fields are generated by any planar field distribution with Cartesian or azimuthal symmetry. Such general results are particularized to the superlenses [Science317, 927 (2007)], for which we identify a sequence of optical vortices and saddles that arise from evanescent-field interference. While the saddles are always located around the focal region, the vortex locations depend on the source field. The features of the topological connection between vortices and saddles are also discussed.

  10. Nonoptically probing near-field microscopy for the observation of biological living specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawata, Yoshimasa; Murakami, Manabu; Egami, Chikara; Sugihara, Okihiro; Okamoto, Naomichi; Tsuchimori, Masaaki; Watanabe, Osamu; Nakamura, Osamu

    2001-04-01

    We present the observation of living specimens with subwavelength resolution by using the nonoptically probing near-field microscopy we have developed recently. In the near-field microscope, the optical field distributions near the specimens are recorded as the surface topography of a photosensitive film, and the topographical distributions are readout with an atomic-force microscopy. Since the near-field microscope does not require the scanning of a probe tip for illumination or detection or scattering of light, it is possible to observe moving biological specimens and fast phenomena. We demonstrate the observation of a moving paramecium and euglena gracilis with subwavelength resolution. The observation of the nucleus inside a euglena cell was also demonstrated.

  11. Infrared near-field imaging and spectroscopy based on thermal or synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peragut, Florian; De Wilde, Yannick; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate the coupling of a scattering near-field scanning optical microscope combined with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The set-up operates using either the near-field thermal emission from the sample itself, which is proportional to the electromagnetic local density of states, or with an external infrared synchrotron source, which is broadband and highly brilliant. We perform imaging and spectroscopy measurements with sub-wavelength spatial resolution in the mid-infrared range on surfaces made of silicon carbide and gold and demonstrate the capabilities of the two configurations for super-resolved near-field mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging and that the simple use of a properly chosen bandpass filter on the detector allows one to image the spatial distribution of materials with sub-wavelength resolution by studying the contrast in the near-field images.

  12. Magnetic anisotropy in a permalloy microgrid fabricated by near-field optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. P.; Lebib, A.; Peyrade, D.; Natali, M.; Chen, Y.; Lew, W. S.; Bland, J. A. C.

    2001-07-01

    We report the fabrication and magnetic properties of permalloy microgrids prepared by near-field optical lithography and characterized using high-sensitivity magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. A fourfold magnetic anisotropy induced by the grid architecture is identified.

  13. Near-field enhanced thermionic energy conversion for renewable energy recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghashami, Mohammad; Cho, Sung Kwon; Park, Keunhan

    2017-09-01

    This article proposes a new energy harvesting concept that greatly enhances thermionic power generation with high efficiency by exploiting the near-field enhancement of thermal radiation. The proposed near-field enhanced thermionic energy conversion (NETEC) system is uniquely configured with a low-bandgap semiconductor cathode separated from a thermal emitter with a subwavelength gap distance, such that a significant amount of electrons can be photoexcited by near-field thermal radiation to contribute to the enhancement of thermionic current density. We theoretically demonstrate that the NETEC system can generate electric power at a significantly lower temperature than the standard thermionic generator, and the energy conversion efficiency can exceed 40%. The obtained results reveal that near-field photoexcitation can enhance the thermionic power output by more than 10 times, making this hybrid system attractive for renewable energy recycling.

  14. 12. NEAR FIELD HORN (TESTING DEVICE FOR EMIITER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NEAR FIELD HORN (TESTING DEVICE FOR EMIITER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM) AT FACE "A" - VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 20° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  15. Development of scattering near-field optical microspectroscopy apparatus using an infrared synchrotron radiation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikemoto, Yuka; Ishikawa, Michio; Nakashima, Satoru; Okamura, Hidekazu; Haruyama, Yuichi; Matsui, Shinji; Moriwaki, Taro; Kinoshita, Toyohiko

    2012-04-01

    We report the status of a scattering near-field microspectroscopy apparatus developed at SPring-8 using an infrared synchrotron radiation (IR-SR) source. It consists of a scattering type scanning near-field optical microscope and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The IR-SR is used as a highly brilliant and broad-band IR source. This apparatus has potential for application in near-field spectroscopy with high spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit. In order to eliminate background scatterings from the probe shaft and/or sample surface, we used higher harmonic demodulation method. The near-field spectra were observed by 2nd harmonic components using the lock-in detection. The spatial resolution of about 300 nm was achieved at around 1000 cm- 1 (10 μm wavelength).

  16. Modulating the Near Field Coupling through Resonator Displacement in Planar Terahertz Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan Rao, S. Jagan; Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Gagan; Chowdhury, Dibakar Roy

    2017-01-01

    We present the effect of vertical displacements between the resonators inside the unit cell of planar coupled metamaterials on their near field coupling and hence on the terahertz (THz) wave modulation. The metamolecule design consists of two planar split- ring resonators (SRRs) in a unit cell which are coupled through their near fields. The numerically simulated transmission spectrum is found to have split resonances due to the resonance mode hybridization effect. With the increase in displacement between the near field coupled SRRs, this metamaterial system shows a transition from coupled to uncoupled state through merging of the split resonances to the single intrinsic resonance. We have used a semi-analytical model describing the effect of displacements between the resonators and determine that it can predict the numerically simulated results. The outcome could be useful in modulating the terahertz waves employing near field coupled metamaterials, hence, can be useful in the development of terahertz modulators and frequency tunable devices in future.

  17. Gold Coating of Fiber Tips in Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.; Witherow, William K.

    2000-01-01

    We report what is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of gold coating by a chemical baking process on tapered fiber tips used in near-field scanning optical microscopy. Many tips can be simultaneously coated.

  18. Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron in T-38A cockpit at Ellington Field near JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Astronaut Kenneth D. Cameron seated in the forward cockpit of a T-38A conducts preflight checkout procedures at Ellington Field near JSC. Cameron is preparing for a flight to Fairchild Air Force Base (AFB) in Spokane, Washington.

  19. Gold Coating of Fiber Tips in Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.; Witherow, William K.

    2000-01-01

    We report what is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of gold coating by a chemical baking process on tapered fiber tips used in near-field scanning optical microscopy. Many tips can be simultaneously coated.

  20. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Z. Y.; Lü, P.; Geng, D. L.; Zhai, W.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-10-15

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope.

  1. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Z. Y.; Lü, P.; Geng, D. L.; Zhai, W.; Yan, N.; Wei, B.

    2014-10-01

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope.

  2. The near-field acoustic levitation of high-mass rotors.

    PubMed

    Hong, Z Y; Lü, P; Geng, D L; Zhai, W; Yan, N; Wei, B

    2014-10-01

    Here we demonstrate that spherical rotors with 40 mm diameter and 0-1 kg mass can be suspended more than tens of micrometers away from an ultrasonically vibrating concave surface by near-field acoustic radiation force. Their rotating speeds exceed 3000 rpm. An acoustic model has been developed to evaluate the near-field acoustic radiation force and the resonant frequencies of levitation system. This technique has potential application in developing acoustic gyroscope.

  3. Near-field observation of subwavelength confinement of photoluminescence by a photonic crystal microcavity.

    PubMed

    Louvion, Nicolas; Rahmani, Adel; Seassal, Christian; Callard, Ségolène; Gérard, Davy; de Fornel, Frédérique

    2006-07-15

    We present a direct, room-temperature near-field optical study of light confinement by a subwavelength defect microcavity in a photonic crystal slab containing quantum-well sources. The observations are compared with three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain calculations, and excellent agreement is found. Moreover, we use a subwavelength cavity to study the influence of a near-field probe on the imaging of localized optical modes.

  4. Numerical Validation of a Near-Field Fugitive Dust Model for Vehicles Moving on Unpaved Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-05

    eld dust emission and tranport technology is also discussed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Fugitive Dust Emission, Computational Fluid Dynamics, Multiphase...the near field of moving vehicles. The weakness of the current near-field dust emission and tranport technology is also discussed. key word: Fugitive...USA Email: xltong@cavs.msstate.edu Phone number: 001-662-3253048 Fax number: 001-662-3257692 E. A. Luke Department of Computer Science, Mississippi

  5. Terahertz near-field imaging of surface plasmon waves in graphene structures

    DOE PAGES

    Mitrofanov, O.; Yu, W.; Thompson, R. J.; ...

    2015-09-08

    In this study, we introduce a near-field scanning probe terahertz (THz) microscopy technique for probing surface plasmon waves on graphene. Based on THz time-domain spectroscopy method, this near-field imaging approach is well suited for studying the excitation and evolution of THz plasmon waves on graphene as well as for mapping of graphene properties at THz frequencies on the sub-wavelength scale.

  6. Computational Diagnostic Techniques for Electromagnetic Scattering: Analytical Imaging, Near Fields, and Surface Currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hom, Kam W.; Talcott, Noel A., Jr.; Shaeffer, John

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents three techniques and the graphics implementations which can be used as diagnostic aides in the design and understanding of scattering structures: Imaging, near fields, and surface current displays. The imaging analysis is a new bistatic k space approach which has potential for much greater information than standard experimental approaches. The near field and current analysis are implementations of standard theory while the diagnostic graphics displays are implementations exploiting recent computer engineering work station graphics libraries.

  7. Lift-Off Acoustics Prediction of Clustered Rocket Engines in the Near Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce; Plotkin, Ken

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation presents a method of predicting acoustics during lift-off of the clustered rocket engines in the near field. Included is a definition of the near field, and the use of deflectors and shielding. There is discussion about the use of PAD, a software system designed to calculate the acoustic levels from the lift of of clustered rocket enginee, including updates to extend the calculation to directivity, water suppression, and clustered nozzles.

  8. Point-by-point near-field optical energy deposition around plasmonic nanospheres in absorbing media.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R K; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2015-08-01

    Here we investigate the effects of absorbing media on plasmon-enhanced near-field optical energy deposition. We find that increasing absorption by the medium results in increased particle scattering at the expense of particle absorption, and that much of this increased particle scattering is absorbed by the medium close to the particle surface. We present an analytical method for evaluating the spatial distribution of near-field enhanced absorption surrounding plasmonic metal nanospheres in absorbing media using a new point-by-point method. We propose criteria to define relevant near-field boundaries and calculate the properties of the local absorption enhancement, which redistributes absorption to the near-field and decays asymptotically as a function of the distance from the particle to background levels. Using this method, we performed a large-scale parametric study to understand the effect of particle size and wavelength on the near-field absorption for gold nanoparticles in aqueous media and silicon, and identified conditions that are relevant to enhanced local infrared absorption in silicon. The presented approach provides insight into the local energy transfer around plasmonic nanoparticles for predicting near-field effects for advanced concepts in optical sensing, thin-film solar cells, nonlinear imaging, and photochemical applications.

  9. A fast and flexible library-based thick-mask near-field calculation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xu; Gao, Jie; Chen, Xuanbo; Dong, Lisong; Li, Yanqiu

    2015-03-01

    Aerial image calculation is the basis of the current lithography simulation. As the critical dimension (CD) of the integrated circuits continuously shrinks, the thick mask near-field calculation has increasing influence on the accuracy and efficiency of the entire aerial image calculation process. This paper develops a flexible librarybased approach to significantly improve the efficiency of the thick mask near-field calculation compared to the rigorous modeling method, while leading to much higher accuracy than the Kirchhoff approximation method. Specifically, a set of typical features on the fullchip are selected to serve as the training data, whose near-fields are pre-calculated and saved in the library. Given an arbitrary test mask, we first decompose it into convex corners, concave corners and edges, afterwards match each patch to the training layouts based on nonparametric kernel regression. Subsequently, we use the matched near-fields in the library to replace the mask patches, and rapidly synthesize the near-field for the entire test mask. Finally, a data-fitting method is proposed to improve the accuracy of the synthesized near-field based on least square estimate (LSE). We use a pair of two-dimensional mask patterns to test our method. Simulations show that the proposed method can significantly speed up the current FDTD method, and effectively improve the accuracy of the Kirchhoff approximation method.

  10. Infrared Phonon Fingerprinting of Nanocrystals through Broadband Near-Field Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Alexander S.; Dominguez, Gerardo; Kelly, Priscilla; Thiemens, Mark; Zhang, Lingfeng M.; Rodin, Alex; Fogler, Michael M.; Keilmann, Fritz; Basov, D. N.

    2012-02-01

    Near-field infrared spectroscopy has recently been demonstrated with the capability to resolve optical properties of sub-wavelength sample areas across a broad range of infrared frequencies. This method holds promise for the direct identification of sub-wavelength chemical composition in nanostructured and heterogeneous samples. We apply this technique to the study of phonon-resonant silicon carbide nanocrystals tens of nanometers in size using an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) coupled to a pulsed broadband infrared laser source and FTIR spectrometer. We present measurements of nanocrystal near-field spectra in the range of 700-1200 cm-1 evaluated in comparison with the near-field spectra of bulk silicon carbide, calibrated using ellipsometry. A detailed analytic model of the probe-sample near-field interaction is applied for the identification of nanoscale resonant size effects. These techniques provide a powerful method for identifying and characterizing sub-wavelength nanocrystals in heterogeneous samples via near-field infrared ``phonon fingerprinting.''

  11. Near-Field Spectroscopy and Imaging of Subwavelength Plasmonic Terahertz Resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Khromova, Irina; Siday, Thomas; Thompson, Robert J.; Ponomarev, Andrey N.; Brener, Igal; Reno, John L.

    2016-04-22

    We describe the temporal evolution of the terahertz (THz) field leading to the excitation of plasmonic resonances in carbon microfibers. The field evolution is mapped in space and time for the 3/2 wavelength resonance using a subwavelength aperture THz near-field probe with an embedded THz photoconductive detector. The excitation of surface waves at the fiber tips leads to the formation of a standing wave along the fiber. Local THz time-domain spectroscopy at one of the standing wave crests shows a clear third-order resonance peak at 1.65 THz, well described by the Lorentz model. Lastly, this application of the subwavelength aperture THz near-field microscopy for mode mapping and local spectroscopy demonstrates the potential of near-field methods for studies of subwavelength plasmonic THz resonators.

  12. Nano-imaging in the black-body infrared near-field.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Andrew C.; Raschke, Markus B.

    2010-03-01

    In order to probe material properties on the nanoscale, Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) traditionally relies on the use of external far-field light sources. Recent experiments have demonstrated the alternative use of the evanescent thermal black-body radiation in scattering-SNOM [1]. Here, we explore the use of both heated samples and heated probe tips for scattering type SNOM in combination with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the scattered thermal blackbody near-field radiation of IR nano-antennas and surface phonon excitations. We relate the observed and theoretically expected signal strength with the resonantly enhanced electromagnetic near-field density of states. Our result illustrates the potential as well as the limitations of the use of thermal evanescent fields for nano-imaging. [1] De Wilde, Y. et al. Nature. 444:740-743 (2006)

  13. Determination of near and far field acoustics for advanced propeller configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korkan, K. D.; Jaeger, S. M.; Kim, J. H.

    1989-01-01

    A method has been studied for predicting the acoustic field of the SR-3 transonic propfan using flow data generated by two versions of the NASPROP-E computer code. Since the flow fields calculated by the solvers include the shock-wave system of the propeller, the nonlinear quadrupole noise source term is included along with the monopole and dipole noise sources in the calculation of the acoustic near field. Acoustic time histories in the near field are determined by transforming the azimuthal coordinate in the rotating, blade-fixed coordinate system to the time coordinate in a nonrotating coordinate system. Fourier analysis of the pressure time histories is used to obtain the frequency spectra of the near-field noise.

  14. Enhancement of hypersensitive transitions of rare-earth ions in the near field of nanoobjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhov, K. K.; Sekatskii, S. K.

    2014-05-01

    The change of intensities of optical transitions of atoms, molecules, and their ions in the near field of nanoobjects is of interest for researchers from both basic and applied points of view. The concept of a near field was used as early as the 1960s to study the mechanisms of hypersensitive transitions of rare-earth (RE) ions. In this work, it is once more emphasized that, precisely for these transitions, changes in characteristics under the action of local properties of the medium are especially strong and, correspondingly, these transitions are especially promising for use. The Judd method for the calculation of the intensities of hypersensitive transitions of RE ions taking into account the inhomogeneous ligand field is extended to RE ions in the near field of nanoobjects. A simple analytical expression for the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameter Ω2 for RE ions in the field of spherical nanoparticles of a subwavelength size is derived.

  15. Near-Field Spectroscopy and Imaging of Subwavelength Plasmonic Terahertz Resonators

    DOE PAGES

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Khromova, Irina; Siday, Thomas; ...

    2016-04-22

    We describe the temporal evolution of the terahertz (THz) field leading to the excitation of plasmonic resonances in carbon microfibers. The field evolution is mapped in space and time for the 3/2 wavelength resonance using a subwavelength aperture THz near-field probe with an embedded THz photoconductive detector. The excitation of surface waves at the fiber tips leads to the formation of a standing wave along the fiber. Local THz time-domain spectroscopy at one of the standing wave crests shows a clear third-order resonance peak at 1.65 THz, well described by the Lorentz model. Lastly, this application of the subwavelength aperturemore » THz near-field microscopy for mode mapping and local spectroscopy demonstrates the potential of near-field methods for studies of subwavelength plasmonic THz resonators.« less

  16. Near-Field Spectroscopy and Imaging of Subwavelength Plasmonic Terahertz Resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Khromova, Irina; Siday, Thomas; Thompson, Robert J.; Ponomarev, Andrey N.; Brener, Igal; Reno, John L.

    2016-04-22

    We describe the temporal evolution of the terahertz (THz) field leading to the excitation of plasmonic resonances in carbon microfibers. The field evolution is mapped in space and time for the 3/2 wavelength resonance using a subwavelength aperture THz near-field probe with an embedded THz photoconductive detector. The excitation of surface waves at the fiber tips leads to the formation of a standing wave along the fiber. Local THz time-domain spectroscopy at one of the standing wave crests shows a clear third-order resonance peak at 1.65 THz, well described by the Lorentz model. Lastly, this application of the subwavelength aperture THz near-field microscopy for mode mapping and local spectroscopy demonstrates the potential of near-field methods for studies of subwavelength plasmonic THz resonators.

  17. Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy with reconstruction of vertical interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Xu, Xiaoji G.

    2015-01-01

    Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy provides access to super-resolution spectroscopic imaging of the surfaces of a variety of materials and nanostructures. In addition to chemical identification, it enables observations of nano-optical phenomena, such as mid-infrared plasmons in graphene and phonon polaritons in boron nitride. Despite the high lateral spatial resolution, scattering-type near-field optical microscopy is not able to provide characteristics of near-field responses in the vertical dimension, normal to the sample surface. Here, we present an accurate and fast reconstruction method to obtain vertical characteristics of near-field interactions. For its first application, we investigated the bound electromagnetic field component of surface phonon polaritons on the surface of boron nitride nanotubes and found that it decays within 20 nm with a considerable phase change in the near-field signal. The method is expected to provide characterization of the vertical field distribution of a wide range of nano-optical materials and structures. PMID:26592949

  18. Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy with reconstruction of vertical interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Xu, Xiaoji G.

    2015-11-01

    Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy provides access to super-resolution spectroscopic imaging of the surfaces of a variety of materials and nanostructures. In addition to chemical identification, it enables observations of nano-optical phenomena, such as mid-infrared plasmons in graphene and phonon polaritons in boron nitride. Despite the high lateral spatial resolution, scattering-type near-field optical microscopy is not able to provide characteristics of near-field responses in the vertical dimension, normal to the sample surface. Here, we present an accurate and fast reconstruction method to obtain vertical characteristics of near-field interactions. For its first application, we investigated the bound electromagnetic field component of surface phonon polaritons on the surface of boron nitride nanotubes and found that it decays within 20 nm with a considerable phase change in the near-field signal. The method is expected to provide characterization of the vertical field distribution of a wide range of nano-optical materials and structures.

  19. Sequencing of acoustic events in the near field of subsonic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewalle, Jacques; Kan, Pinqing

    2013-11-01

    Our group has developed several pattern recognition algorithms to identify short events common to near-and far-field signals. Here we are treating far-field and near-field pressure data as well as TR-PIV (10kHz) sections through the near jet. Our algorithms are based on wavelet transforms (band-pass filtering) and cross-correlations, identifying short excerpts in the time-frequency-lag domain that contribute most to the correlations. Matching such events between multiple signal pairs exposes the sequencing of near-field activity. We consider only near-field events (NFEs) matched with a loud far-field event (FFE). The NFEs are based on the correlation of velocity, vorticity, 2-D divergence, Q-index and Kulite signals with far-field pressure. The timing of the NFEs maps out possible sequences of events related to loud coherent noise emission. Results at several subsonic Mach numbers are compared. This work is supported in part by Spectral Energies LLC, under an SBIR grant from AFRL; by a Syracuse University Graduate Fellowship; and by the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at SU.

  20. Near infrared light absorption in magnetic nanoemulsion under external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brojabasi, Surajit; Mahendran, V.; Lahiri, B. B.; Philip, John

    2014-07-01

    We study the magnetic field dependent near infrared photon absorption behavior in a magnetically polarizable oil-in-water emulsion of droplet radius ~110 nm. The absorption of near infrared photons in magnetic nanoemulsion is found to be dependent on the volume fraction and applied magnetic field, which is attributed to the variation in the Mie absorption efficiency during the structural transitions of nanoemulsion droplets in dispersion. Also, the absorption linearly increases with incident near infrared photon energy up to certain external magnetic field. The imaginary part of the refractive index (k1) of magnetic nanoemulsion obtained from the near infrared absorption profile in the Rayleigh regime is found to vary with external magnetic field and the sample volume fraction (ϕ). The measured k1 follows a power law increment with sample volume fraction (k1~ϕ, where p is the exponent). The exponent (p) decreases with external magnetic field implying that the structural transition of nanoemulsion droplets increases k1. After a critical magnetic field (beyond Rayleigh regime), field induced absorption of near infrared photons decreases because of the increase in the aspect ratio of the chain like aggregates and interchain spacing which in turn reduces the Mie absorption efficiency.

  1. Probing the Near-Field of Second-Harmonic Light around Plasmonic Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Metzger, Bernd; Hentschel, Mario; Giessen, Harald

    2017-03-08

    We introduce a new concept that enables subwavelength polarization-resolved probing of the second-harmonic near-field distribution of plasmonic nanostructures. As a local sensor, this method utilizes aluminum nanoantennas, which are resonant to the second-harmonic wavelength and which allow to efficiently scatter the local second-harmonic light to the far-field. We place these sensors into the second-harmonic near-field generated by plasmonic nanostructures and carefully vary their position and orientation. Observing the second-harmonic light resonantly scattered by the aluminum nanoantennas provides polarization-resolved information about the local second-harmonic near-field distribution. We then investigate the polarization-resolved second-harmonic near-field of inversion symmetric gold dipole nanoantennas. Interestingly, we find strong evidence that the second-harmonic dipole is predominantly oriented perpendicular to the gold nanoantenna long axis, although the excitation laser is polarized parallel to the nanoantennas. We believe that our investigations will help to disentangle the highly debated origin of the second-harmonic response of inversion symmetric plasmonic structures. Furthermore, we believe that our new method, which enables the measurement of local nonlinear electric fields, will find widespread implementation and applications in nonlinear near-field optical microscopy.

  2. Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Ge, Shijun; Chen, Zhaoxian; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yanqing

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterial-based absorbers play a significant role in applications ranging from energy harvesting and thermal emitters to sensors and imaging devices. The middle dielectric layer of conventional metamaterial absorbers has always been solid. Researchers could not detect the near field distribution in this layer or utilize it effectively. Here, we use anisotropic liquid crystal as the dielectric layer to realize electrically fast tunable terahertz metamaterial absorbers. We demonstrate strong, position-dependent terahertz near-field enhancement with sub-wavelength resolution inside the metamaterial absorber. We measure the terahertz far-field absorption as the driving voltage increases. By combining experimental results with liquid crystal simulations, we verify the near-field distribution in the middle layer indirectly and bridge the near-field and far-field observations. Our work opens new opportunities for creating high-performance, fast, tunable, terahertz metamaterial devices that can be applied in biological imaging and sensing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61225026, 61490714, 11304151, and 61435008), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20150845 and 15KJB140004), the Open Foundation Project of National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, China (Grant No. M28003), and the Research Center of Optical Communications Engineering & Technology, Jiangsu Province, China.

  3. Near-infrared Integral-Field Spectrograph (NIFS): An Instrument Proposed for Gemini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, Peter J.; Conroy, Peter; Bloxham, Gabe; van Harmelen, Jan

    1999-12-01

    In late 1998 the International Gemini Project Office identified a need for a low cost, near-infrared spectrograph to be commissioned on the Gemini South telescope on the shortest possible timescale. In response, the Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics of the Australian National University proposed to design, construct, and commission a near-infrared, integral-field spectrograph on Gemini. The science drivers and novel design of the Near-infrared Integral-Field Spectrograph (NIFS) are described in this paper. NIFS will achieve significant economies in cost and schedule in several ways:

  4. Realistic implementation of ellipsoidal reflector antennas to produce near-field focused patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, H.-T.; Kuo, L.-R.; Chou, H.-H.; Hung, K.-L.; Nepa, P.

    2011-10-01

    The radiation characteristics of ellipsoidal reflector antennas in the near zone of antenna aperture are investigated using Physical Optics (PO) approximations. This antenna has potential applications in the near-field communications because its radiation focuses in the near zone. Analytical formulations to predict the radiation efficiency and exhibit field phenomena are developed. Its applications as a RFID reader antenna at 2.4 GHz are demonstrated by numerical simulations and measurements over a realistic implementation of offset reflector fed by a microstrip patch antenna. Both numerical and experimental studies are performed to validate this antenna design.

  5. LED beam shaping lens based on the near-field illumination.

    PubMed

    Joo, Jae Young; Kang, Chang Seog; Park, Soon Sub; Lee, Sun-Kyu

    2009-12-21

    This paper presents a novel method in near-field beam shaping based on the precise optical modeling of a gallium nitride light-emitting diode (GaN LED). A Monte Carlo ray tracing simulation has been utilized to calculate the spatial photon distribution near the LED's top. By analyzing the ray data in near-field, the miniaturized lens profile is created and machined with aspherical surfaces and total internal reflection (TIR) Fresnel facets. The prototype lens reduce the viewing angle of the LED from 150 degrees to 17.5 degrees at full width half maximum (FWHM) while increasing the peak luminous intensity 10 times. The array of proposed lens with CSP LEDs exhibits feasibility of ultra thin uniform illumination in near-field.

  6. Dual-channel near-field control by polarizations using isotropic and inhomogeneous metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiang; Cai, Ben Geng; Li, Yun Bo; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for dual-channel near-field manipulations by designing isotropic but inhomogeneous metasurfaces. As example, we present a dual-channel near-field focusing metasurface device. When the device is driven by surface waves from different channels on the metasurface, the near fields will be focused at the same spatial point with different polarizations. Conversely, if a linearly polarized source is radiated at the spatial focal point, different channels will be evoked on the metasurface controlled by polarization. We fabricated and measured the metasurface device in the microwave frequency. Well agreements between the simulation and measurement results are observed. The proposed method exhibits great flexibility in controlling the surface waves and spatial waves simultaneously. It is expected that the proposed method and dual-channel device will facilitate the manipulation of near electromagnetic or optical waves in different frequency regimes. PMID:26527420

  7. Ultra-broadband near-field antenna for terahertz plasmonic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Polischuk, O. V. Popov, V. V.; Knap, W.

    2015-01-15

    A new type of ultra-broadband near-field antenna for terahertz frequencies is proposed. This antenna is a short-period planar metal array. It is theoretically shown that irradiation of the short-period array antenna by a plane homogeneous terahertz waves excite a highly inhomogeneous near electric field near the metal array. In this case, the amplitude of the excited inhomogeneous near electric field is almost independent of frequency in the entire terahertz frequency range. The excitation of plasma oscillations in a two-dimensional electron system using the antenna under study is numerically simulated in the resonant and non-resonant plasmonic response modes. This type of antenna can be used for developing ultra-broadband plasmonic detectors of terahertz radiation.

  8. Near-field localization by two dimensional metallic nano-post arrays with ultrashort light pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hongki; Kim, Chulhong; Kim, Donghyun

    2016-03-01

    Locally amplified near-fields can be induced with nanostructures within a sub-diffraction-limited volume, which is useful for biomedical imaging and sensing applications. Employment of field localization in the biomedical applications where the pulsed light is used necessitates the spatial and temporal characteristics of fields near nanostructures. We considered the gold nano-post arrays of three different shapes to localize the near-fields which are circular, rhombic, and triangular. They were modeled to be located on an ITO film and a quartz substrate with periods changing from 300 to 900 nm by 200 nm. Their size changes from 50 to 250 nm which corresponds to the radius for the case of circular nanoposts and the distance between the center and the vertices for equilateral rhombic and triangular nanoposts. Numerical calculation of near-fields at the top of nanoposts was performed with finite difference time domain method when the Gaussian pulses at center wavelengths of 532, 633, and 850 nm were normally incident. Near-fields localization occurred mainly at vertices of the nanoposts, which makes the triangular nanoposts of primary interest with an observation of the strongest field intensity within a diffraction limited field-of-view. The observed fields on the triangular vertices were enhanced by 7.85, 51.54, and 7268 when the center wavelengths were 532, 633, and 850 nm respectively. Their temporal peaks were delayed by 2.05, 4.03, and 14.49 fs, which indicates the correlation between field enhancement and time delay associated with electron damping process. It was shown that with rhombic and triangular nanoposts fields can be localized below 10 nm on vertices and their signal-to-noise ratio increased with a larger period.

  9. Two-photon absorption induced by electric field gradient of optical near-field and its application to photolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Maiku; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Yatsui, Takashi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2015-05-11

    An electric field gradient is an inherent property of the optical near-field (ONF). We investigated its effect on electron excitation in a quantum dot via model calculations combining a density matrix formalism and a classical Lorentz model. The electric field gradient of the ONF was found to cause two-photon absorption by an unusual mechanism. Furthermore, the absorption exhibits a nonmonotonic dependence on the spatial arrangement of the nanosystem, completely different from that of conventional two-photon absorption induced by an intense electric field. The present two-photon absorption process was verified in a previous experimental observation by reinterpreting the results of ONF photolithography.

  10. Design and Characterization of a Novel Near Field Detector for Three Dimensional X-ray Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annett, Scott; Margulies, Lawrence; Dale, Darren; Kycia, Stefan

    Three dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD) is a powerful technique that provides crystallographic and spatial information of a large number of grains in a sample simultaneously. A key component of a 3DXRD experiment is the near field detector which provides high resolution spatial information of the sample. A novel design for a near field detector was developed and characterized. This design, called the Quad Near Field Detector, utilizes four quadrants, each with a dedicated scintillating phosphor and optical microscope. A novel translation stage for focusing the microscopes was developed, tested, and implemented. The near field detector was calibrated and characterized at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. A flood field correction was developed for the detector to correct for variations in intensity response. Diffraction data of all four quadrants was able to reproduce the crystal orientation of the ruby calibrant. In conclusion, the design and implementation of the Quad Near Field Detector was a success and will be a useful tool for future 3DXRD experiments.

  11. Near Field Radiation Characteristics of Implantable Square Spiral Chip Inductor Antennas for Bio-Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nessel, James A.; Simons, Rainee N.; Miranda, Felix A.

    2007-01-01

    The near field radiation characteristics of implantable Square Spiral Chip Inductor Antennas (SSCIA) for Bio-Sensors have been measured. Our results indicate that the measured near field relative signal strength of these antennas agrees with simulated results and confirm that in the near field region the radiation field is fairly uniform in all directions. The effects of parameters such as ground-plane, number of turns and microstrip-gap width on the performance of the SSCIA are presented. Furthermore, the SSCIA antenna with serrated ground plane produce a broad radiation pattern, with a relative signal strength detectable at distances within the range of operation of hand-held devices for self-diagnosis.

  12. Natural geochemical analogues of the near field of high-level nuclear waste repositories

    SciTech Connect

    Apps, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    United States practice has been to design high-level nuclear waste (HLW) geological repositories with waste densities sufficiently high that repository temperatures surrounding the waste will exceed 100{degrees}C and could reach 250{degrees}C. Basalt and devitrified vitroclastic tuff are among the host rocks considered for waste emplacement. Near-field repository thermal behavior and chemical alteration in such rocks is expected to be similar to that observed in many geothermal systems. Therefore, the predictive modeling required for performance assessment studies of the near field could be validated and calibrated using geothermal systems as natural analogues. Examples are given which demonstrate the need for refinement of the thermodynamic databases used in geochemical modeling of near-field natural analogues and the extent to which present models can predict conditions in geothermal fields.

  13. Sub-nanosecond time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Rudge, J; Xu, H; Kolthammer, J; Hong, Y K; Choi, B C

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic microscope, time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope, which combines a near-field scanning optical microscope and magneto-optical contrast. By taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of time-resolved Kerr microscope and the sub-wavelength spatial resolution of a near-field microscope, we achieved a temporal resolution of ∼50 ps and a spatial resolution of <100 nm. In order to demonstrate the spatiotemporal magnetic imaging capability of this microscope, the magnetic field pulse induced gyrotropic vortex dynamics occurring in 1 μm diameter, 20 nm thick CoFeB circular disks has been investigated. The microscope provides sub-wavelength resolution magnetic images of the gyrotropic motion of the vortex core at a resonance frequency of ∼240 MHz.

  14. Near-Field Acoustic Measurements Using a Line Array in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-20

    hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...2.3: Sample Bearing Time Record 11 Figure 2.4: Sample Averaged Bearing Time Record 11 Figure 2.5: Near Field Equation Geometry 15 Figure 2.6...field, are discussed as a background as well as to present methods used in this paper. In the far field regime, standard time delay beamforming is

  15. Control and near-field detection of surface plasmon interference patterns.

    PubMed

    Dvořák, Petr; Neuman, Tomáš; Břínek, Lukáš; Šamořil, Tomáš; Kalousek, Radek; Dub, Petr; Varga, Peter; Šikola, Tomáš

    2013-06-12

    The tailoring of electromagnetic near-field properties is the central task in the field of nanophotonics. In addition to 2D optics for optical nanocircuits, confined and enhanced electric fields are utilized in detection and sensing, photovoltaics, spatially localized spectroscopy (nanoimaging), as well as in nanolithography and nanomanipulation. For practical purposes, it is necessary to develop easy-to-use methods for controlling the electromagnetic near-field distribution. By imaging optical near-fields using a scanning near-field optical microscope, we demonstrate that surface plasmon polaritons propagating from slits along the metal-dielectric interface form tunable interference patterns. We present a simple way how to control the resulting interference patterns both by variation of the angle between two slits and, for a fixed slit geometry, by a proper combination of laser beam polarization and inhomogeneous far-field illumination of the structure. Thus the modulation period of interference patterns has become adjustable and new variable patterns consisting of stripelike and dotlike motifs have been achieved, respectively.

  16. Near-field dispersal modeling for liquid fuel-air explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, D.R.

    1990-07-01

    The near-field, explosive dispersal of a liquid into air has been explored using a combination of analytical and numerical models. The near-field flow regime is transient, existing only as long as the explosive forces produced by the detonation of the burster charge dominate or are approximately equal in magnitude to the aerodynamic drag forces on the liquid. The near-field model provides reasonable initial conditions for the far-field model, which is described in a separate report. The near-field model consists of the CTH hydrodynamics code and a film instability model. In particular, the CTH hydrodynamics code is used to provide initial temperature, pressure, and velocity fields, and bulk material distribution for the far-field model. The film instability model is a linear stability model for a radially expanding fluid film, and is used to provide a lower bound on the breakup time and an upper and lower bound on the initial average drop diameter for the liquid following breakup. Predictions of the liquid breakup time and the initial arithmetic average drop diameter from the model compare favorably with the sparse experimental data. 26 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. On Theoretical Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Near-Field Cross-Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The cross-spectral acoustic analogy is used to predict auto-spectra and cross-spectra of broadband shock-associated noise in the near-field and far-field from a range of heated and unheated supersonic off-design jets. A single equivalent source model is proposed for the near-field, mid-field, and far-field terms, that contains flow-field statistics of the shock wave shear layer interactions. Flow-field statistics are modeled based upon experimental observation and computational fluid dynamics solutions. An axisymmetric assumption is used to reduce the model to a closed-form equation involving a double summation over the equivalent source at each shock wave shear layer interaction. Predictions are compared with a wide variety of measurements at numerous jet Mach numbers and temperature ratios from multiple facilities. Auto-spectral predictions of broadband shock-associated noise in the near-field and far-field capture trends observed in measurement and other prediction theories. Predictions of spatial coherence of broadband shock-associated noise accurately capture the peak coherent intensity, frequency, and spectral width.

  18. Near-field imaging of optical antenna modes in the mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    Olmon, Robert L; Krenz, Peter M; Jones, Andrew C; Boreman, Glenn D; Raschke, Markus B

    2008-12-08

    Optical antennas can enhance the coupling between free-space propagating light and the localized excitation of nanoscopic light emitters or receivers, thus forming the basis of many nanophotonic applications. Their functionality relies on an understanding of the relationship between the geometric parameters and the resulting near-field antenna modes. Using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) with interferometric homodyne detection, we investigate the resonances of linear Au wire antennas designed for the mid-IR by probing specific vector near-field components. A simple effective wavelength scaling is observed for single wires with lambda(eff) = lambda /(2.0+/- 0.2), specific to the geometric and material parameters used. The disruption of the coherent current oscillation by introducing a gap gives rise to an effective multipolar mode for the two near-field coupled segments. Using antenna theory and numerical electrodynamics simulations two distinct coupling regimes are considered that scale with gap width or reactive near-field decay length, respectively. The results emphasize the distinct antenna behavior at optical frequencies compared to impedance matched radio frequency (RF) antennas and provide experimental confirmation of theoretically predicted scaling laws at optical frequencies.

  19. Graphene-based platform for nano-scale infrared near-field spectroscopy of biological materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatib, Omar; Wood, Joshua D.; Doidge, Gregory P.; Damhorst, Gregory L.; Rangarajan, Aniruddh; Bashir, Rashid; Pop, Eric; Lyding, Joseph W.; Basov, Dimitri N.

    2014-03-01

    In biological and life sciences, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy serves as a noninvasive probe of vibrational fingerprints used to identify chemical and molecular species. Near-field spectroscopy, based on the illumination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip with an infrared laser, allows for determination of IR properties of a material at nanometer length scales. However, application of near-field IR spectroscopy to most biological systems has thus far been elusive. Physiological conditions required for experimentation are incompatible with typical implementations of nano-FTIR. Recently it became possible to trap water and small biomolecules underneath large-area graphene sheets grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The graphene layer serves as an IR-transparent cover that allows for a near-field interrogation of the underlying layers. We present near-field nano-imaging and spectroscopy data of unencapsulated Tobacco Mosaic Viruses (TMV), compared to those sandwiched between two large-area graphene sheets, and discuss the applicability of near-field IR spectroscopy to trapped biomolecules in aqueous environments.

  20. Johnson-Nyquist Noise Coupling Formulation of Near-Field Heat Transfer for 1D Conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prunnila, Mika; Laakso, Sampo; Gunnarsson, David

    Near-field heat transfer has been formulated using different levels of theoretical sophistication and complexity ranging from fluctuational electrodynamics to quasi-static Coulomb interaction description. Our goal is to find a simple description for the near-field heat transfer between coupled 1D electron systems (conductors). We will show that by considering distributed Johnson-Nyquist voltage sources, arising from the dissipative part of the electron systems' response, a compact fundamental formula for the near-field heat transfer can be found. We will describe the details of the derivation and discuss the regime of validity of our approach. Several special cases will be considered and experimental configurations will be discussed. The presented analysis is especially suitable for closely spaced graphene ribbons and nanowires. We will also show that by including inductive responses, which are necessary at high frequencies, speed of light emerges in the heat flow formula, thereby showing the link between fundamental physical quantities/constants and near-field heat transfer in coupled 1D systems. Our formulation also provides the possibility to use different boundary conditions for the physical system and this enables design of near-field heat transfer circuits.

  1. Laser heating of scanning probe tips for thermal near-field spectroscopy and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Callahan, Brian T.; Raschke, Markus B.

    2017-02-01

    Spectroscopy and microscopy of the thermal near-field yield valuable insight into the mechanisms of resonant near-field heat transfer and Casimir and Casimir-Polder forces, as well as providing nanoscale spatial resolution for infrared vibrational spectroscopy. A heated scanning probe tip brought close to a sample surface can excite and probe the thermal near-field. Typically, tip temperature control is provided by resistive heating of the tip cantilever. However, this requires specialized tips with limited temperature range and temporal response. By focusing laser radiation onto AFM cantilevers, we achieve heating up to ˜1800 K, with millisecond thermal response time. We demonstrate application to thermal infrared near-field spectroscopy (TINS) by acquiring near-field spectra of the vibrational resonances of silicon carbide, hexagonal boron nitride, and polytetrafluoroethylene. We discuss the thermal response as a function of the incident excitation laser power and model the dominant cooling contributions. Our results provide a basis for laser heating as a viable approach for TINS, nanoscale thermal transport measurements, and thermal desorption nano-spectroscopy.

  2. Resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled plasmonic ring dimer-rod nanosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Koya, Alemayehu Nana; Ji, Boyu; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan

    2015-09-21

    Combined effects of polarization, split gap, and rod width on the resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled gold dimer-rod nanosystem are comparatively investigated in the light of the constituent nanostructures. By aligning polarization of the incident light parallel to the long axis of the nanorod, introducing small split gaps to the dimer walls, and varying width of the nanorod, we have simultaneously achieved resonance mode coupling, huge near field enhancement, and prolonged plasmon lifetime. As a result of strong coupling between the nanostructures and due to an intense confinement of near fields at the split and dimer-rod gaps, the extinction spectrum of the coupled nanosystem shows an increase in intensity and blueshift in wavelength. Consequently, the near field lifespan of the split-nanosystem is prolonged in contrast to the constituent nanostructures and unsplit-nanosystem. On the other hand, for polarization of the light perpendicular to the long axis of the nanorod, the effect of split gap on the optical responses of the coupled nanosystem is found to be insignificant compared to the parallel polarization. These findings and such geometries suggest that coupling an array of metallic split-ring dimer with long nanorod can resolve the huge radiative loss problem of plasmonic waveguide. In addition, the Fano-like resonances and immense near field enhancements at the split and dimer-rod gaps imply the potentials of the nanosystem for practical applications in localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing.

  3. The thermal near-field: Coherence, spectroscopy, heat-transfer, and optical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Andrew C.; O'Callahan, Brian T.; Yang, Honghua U.; Raschke, Markus B.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most universal physical processes shared by all matter at finite temperature is the emission of thermal radiation. The experimental characterization and theoretical description of far-field black-body radiation was a cornerstone in the development of modern physics with the groundbreaking contributions from Gustav Kirchhoff and Max Planck. With its origin in thermally driven fluctuations of the charge carriers, thermal radiation reflects the resonant and non-resonant dielectric properties of media, which is the basis for far-field thermal emission spectroscopy. However, associated with the underlying fluctuating optical source polarization are fundamentally distinct spectral, spatial, resonant, and coherence properties of the evanescent thermal near-field. These properties have been recently predicted theoretically and characterized experimentally for systems with thermally excited molecular, surface plasmon polariton (SPP), and surface phonon polariton (SPhP) resonances. We review, starting with the early historical developments, the emergence of theoretical models, and the description of the thermal near-field based on the fluctuation-dissipation theory and in terms of the electromagnetic local density of states (EM-LDOS). We discuss the optical and spectroscopic characterization of distance dependence, magnitude, spectral distribution, and coherence of evanescent thermal fields. Scattering scanning near-field microscopy proved instrumental as an enabling technique for the investigations of several of these fundamental thermal near-field properties. We then discuss the role of thermal fields in nano-scale heat transfer and optical forces, and the correlation to the van der Waals, Casimir, and Casimir-Polder forces. We conclude with an outlook on the possibility of intrinsic and extrinsic resonant manipulation of optical forces, control of nano-scale radiative heat transfer with optical antennas and metamaterials, and the use of thermal infrared near-field

  4. Near field fluid coupling between internal motion of the organ of Corti and the basilar membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Ni, Guangjian

    2015-12-31

    The pressure distribution in each of the fluid chambers of the cochlea can be decomposed into a 1D, or plane wave, component and a near field component, which decays rapidly away from the excitation point. The transverse motion of the basilar membrane, BM, for example, generates both a 1D pressure field, which couples into the slow wave, and a local near field pressure, proportional to the BM acceleration, that generates an added mass on the BM due to the fluid motion. When the organ of Corti, OC, undergoes internal motion, due for example to outer hair cell activity, this motion will not itself generate any 1D pressure if the OC is incompressible and the BM is constrained not to move volumetrically, and so will not directly couple into the slow wave. This motion will, however, generate a near field pressure, proportional to the OC acceleration, which will act on the OC and thus increases its effective mass. The near field pressure due to this OC motion will also act on the BM, generating a force on the BM proportional to the acceleration of the OC, and thus create a “coupling mass” effect. By reciprocity, this coupling mass is the same as that acting on the OC due to the motion of the BM. This near field fluid coupling is initially observed in a finite element model of a slice of the cochlea. These simulations suggest a simple analytical formulation for the fluid coupling, using higher order beam modes across the width of the cochlear partition. It is well known that the added mass due to the near field pressure dominates the overall mass of the BM, and thus significantly affects the micromechanical dynamics. This work not only quantifies the added mass of the OC due its own motion in the fluid, and shows that this is important, but also demonstrates that the coupling mass effect between the BM and OC significantly affects the dynamics of simple micromechanical models.

  5. Near field fluid coupling between internal motion of the organ of Corti and the basilar membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Stephen J.; Ni, Guangjian

    2015-12-01

    The pressure distribution in each of the fluid chambers of the cochlea can be decomposed into a 1D, or plane wave, component and a near field component, which decays rapidly away from the excitation point. The transverse motion of the basilar membrane, BM, for example, generates both a 1D pressure field, which couples into the slow wave, and a local near field pressure, proportional to the BM acceleration, that generates an added mass on the BM due to the fluid motion. When the organ of Corti, OC, undergoes internal motion, due for example to outer hair cell activity, this motion will not itself generate any 1D pressure if the OC is incompressible and the BM is constrained not to move volumetrically, and so will not directly couple into the slow wave. This motion will, however, generate a near field pressure, proportional to the OC acceleration, which will act on the OC and thus increases its effective mass. The near field pressure due to this OC motion will also act on the BM, generating a force on the BM proportional to the acceleration of the OC, and thus create a "coupling mass" effect. By reciprocity, this coupling mass is the same as that acting on the OC due to the motion of the BM. This near field fluid coupling is initially observed in a finite element model of a slice of the cochlea. These simulations suggest a simple analytical formulation for the fluid coupling, using higher order beam modes across the width of the cochlear partition. It is well known that the added mass due to the near field pressure dominates the overall mass of the BM, and thus significantly affects the micromechanical dynamics. This work not only quantifies the added mass of the OC due its own motion in the fluid, and shows that this is important, but also demonstrates that the coupling mass effect between the BM and OC significantly affects the dynamics of simple micromechanical models.

  6. Resolved magnetic-field structure and variability near the event horizon of Sagittarius A.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Michael D; Fish, Vincent L; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Marrone, Daniel P; Plambeck, Richard L; Wardle, John F C; Akiyama, Kazunori; Asada, Keiichi; Beaudoin, Christopher; Blackburn, Lindy; Blundell, Ray; Bower, Geoffrey C; Brinkerink, Christiaan; Broderick, Avery E; Cappallo, Roger; Chael, Andrew A; Crew, Geoffrey B; Dexter, Jason; Dexter, Matt; Freund, Robert; Friberg, Per; Gold, Roman; Gurwell, Mark A; Ho, Paul T P; Honma, Mareki; Inoue, Makoto; Kosowsky, Michael; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Lamb, James; Loeb, Abraham; Lu, Ru-Sen; MacMahon, David; McKinney, Jonathan C; Moran, James M; Narayan, Ramesh; Primiani, Rurik A; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Rogers, Alan E E; Rosenfeld, Katherine; SooHoo, Jason; Tilanus, Remo P J; Titus, Michael; Vertatschitsch, Laura; Weintroub, Jonathan; Wright, Melvyn; Young, Ken H; Zensus, J Anton; Ziurys, Lucy M

    2015-12-04

    Near a black hole, differential rotation of a magnetized accretion disk is thought to produce an instability that amplifies weak magnetic fields, driving accretion and outflow. These magnetic fields would naturally give rise to the observed synchrotron emission in galaxy cores and to the formation of relativistic jets, but no observations to date have been able to resolve the expected horizon-scale magnetic-field structure. We report interferometric observations at 1.3-millimeter wavelength that spatially resolve the linearly polarized emission from the Galactic Center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*. We have found evidence for partially ordered magnetic fields near the event horizon, on scales of ~6 Schwarzschild radii, and we have detected and localized the intrahour variability associated with these fields. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  7. Analysis of the measured signals in apertureless near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Formanek, F; De Wilde, Y; Aigouy, L

    2005-05-01

    We present an analytical model able to explain the optical signal recorded during our experimental approach curves in the infrared at a wavelength lambda=10.6 microm, with a home-made apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope ANSOM. This model uses classical electrodynamics to calculate the scattering cross section of the oscillating tip, considered as a dipole, and its dielectric image in the sample as a function of the tip-sample separation from the near-field to the far-field regime. The dipoles are placed in a non-uniform electric field because of the standing wave arising from the interference between the incident and the specular laser beams. We also added a background field coming from a scatterer on the surface in order to account for zeroing of the optical signal for particular tip-sample separation and interference patterns.

  8. Thermo acoustic study of carbon nanotubes in near and far field: Theory, simulation, and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, S. S.; Moosavi, A.; Huynh, C.; Saleki, O.

    2015-03-01

    Carbon nanotube webs exhibit interesting properties when used as thermo-acoustic projectors. This work studies thermo-acoustic effect of these sound sources both in near and far field regions. Based on two alternative forms of the energy equation, we have developed a straightforward formula for calculation of pressure field, which is consistent with experimental data in far field. Also we have solved full 3-D governing equations using numerical methods. Our three-dimensional simulation and experimental data show pressure waves are highly affected by dimensions of sound sources in near field due to interference effects. However, generation of sound waves in far field is independent of projectors area surface. Energy analysis for free standing Thermo-Acoustic (TA) sound sources show that aerogel TA sound sources like CNT based projectors could act more efficiently compared to the other sources in delivering more than 75% of alternative input energy to the medium gas up to a frequency of 1 MHz.

  9. Probing the Hydrogen Enhanced Near-Field Emission of ITO without a Vacuum-Gap.

    PubMed

    Poole, Jacob L; Yu, Yang; Ohodnicki, Paul R

    2017-08-25

    Electromagnetic fields produced by thermal fluctuation can excite the near-field optical states, creating the potential for thermal radiation orders of magnitude greater than what is predicted by Plank's blackbody theory. The typical schemes employed to probe the trapped electromagnetic energy of the near-field are with considerable technical challenges, suffering from scalability and high costs, hindering widespread use. A waveguide-based scheme relying on photon tunneling is presented as an alternate approach, as waveguides inherently provide a large density of channels for photons to tunnel to with the required k-vector matching and probability density overlap. The conducted experiments with a 10 nm indium tin oxide film, having plasmonic resonance in the 1500 nm wavelength range, show that the near-field EM radiation can be extracted to the far-field by establishing the mode of de-excitation to be that of photon tunneling to a nearby waveguide. Furthermore, it is also demonstrated that the thermally emitted energy is very sensitive to changes in the surface free electron density, a property that is unique to the near-field. In addition to the ease of implementation and scalability, the proposed waveguide-based extraction method does not require a vacuum-gap, which is a significant reduction in the required complexity.

  10. A New Method for Analyzing Near-Field Faraday Probe Data in Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analyzing near-field Faraday probe data obtained from Hall thrusters. Traditional methods spawned from far-field Faraday probe analysis rely on assumptions that are not applicable to near-field Faraday probe data. In particular, arbitrary choices for the point of origin and limits of integration have made interpretation of the results difficult. The new method, called iterative pathfinding, uses the evolution of the near-field plume with distance to provide feedback for determining the location of the point of origin. Although still susceptible to the choice of integration limits, this method presents a systematic approach to determining the origin point for calculating the divergence angle. The iterative pathfinding method is applied to near-field Faraday probe data taken in a previous study from the NASA-300M and NASA-457Mv2 Hall thrusters. Since these two thrusters use centrally mounted cathodes the current density associated with the cathode plume is removed before applying iterative pathfinding. A procedure is presented for removing the cathode plume. The results of the analysis are compared to far-field probe analysis results. This paper ends with checks on the validity of the new method and discussions on the implications of the results.

  11. A New Method for Analyzing Near-Field Faraday Probe Data in Hall Thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analyzing near-field Faraday probe data obtained from Hall thrusters. Traditional methods spawned from far-field Faraday probe analysis rely on assumptions that are not applicable to near-field Faraday probe data. In particular, arbitrary choices for the point of origin and limits of integration have made interpretation of the results difficult. The new method, called iterative pathfinding, uses the evolution of the near-field plume with distance to provide feedback for determining the location of the point of origin. Although still susceptible to the choice of integration limits, this method presents a systematic approach to determining the origin point for calculating the divergence angle. The iterative pathfinding method is applied to near-field Faraday probe data taken in a previous study from the NASA-300M and NASA-457Mv2 Hall thrusters. Since these two thrusters use centrally mounted cathodes, the current density associated with the cathode plume is removed before applying iterative pathfinding. A procedure is presented for removing the cathode plume. The results of the analysis are compared to far-field probe analysis results. This paper ends with checks on the validity of the new method and discussions on the implications of the results.

  12. The separation of radiating and non-radiating near-field pressure fluctuations in supersonic jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yongle; Morris, Philip J.

    2015-10-01

    Conventional analysis infers the jet noise source characteristics from either the turbulent fluctuations in the mixing layer, the near-field pressure fluctuations, or the far-field radiated sound. It is generally accepted that the first two techniques include both the radiating and non-radiating noise sources while the last senses only the radiated sound. Understanding of the characteristics of the non-radiating and radiating fluctuations helps to shed light on the noise source mechanisms. For this purpose, a quantitative analysis is introduced in this study to separate the radiating from the non-radiating near-field fluctuations. The analysis uses a high-fidelity unsteady jet flow and noise simulation for an internally mixed dual-stream nozzle. Based on the predicted far-field acoustic pressure on a virtual microphone array, a simple beamforming method is used to derive the equivalent wavepacket-like noise sources on a conical surface outside the jet mixing layer. These radiating noise sources are compared with the total near-field pressure fluctuations to examine their different characteristics. Wavepacket-like noise sources are filtered with the POD (Proper Orthogonal Decomposition) at discrete frequencies. Although the two equivalent noise sources show different amplitude distributions and phase velocities, they agree favorably with the Mach wave radiation theory as well as with the near-field turbulence. Both reproduce well the noise radiation pattern in terms of the phase, wavelength, radiation direction and noise levels when inserted into the wave equation.

  13. Pc 3-4 Pulsations Near the Cusp: Latitude dependence near the open-closed field line boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeoman, T. K.; Wright, D. M.; Clausen, L. B.; Engebretson, M.; Lu, F.; Posch, J.; Lessard, M.; Kim, H.

    2008-12-01

    Dayside ground magnetometer records at high latitudes frequently show evidence of Pc 3-4 pulsations (f ~ 10-100 mHz) which originate in the ion foreshock upstream of the Earth's bow shock due to the interaction between reflected ions and the solar wind. Previous studies have noted increased Pc 3-4 wave power in the vicinity of the dayside cusp and inferred that the upstream waves gained entry via the cusp, although more recent studies have revealed a more complex picture. Here, we examine Pc3-4 wave power near local noon observed by search coil magnetometers at three closely-spaced stations on Svalbard. Three intervals are chosen when the upstream conditions are favourable for Pc3-4 generation, clear band-limited Pc3-4 wave power is observed near local noon, and an extended interval of HF radar backscatter indicative of the cusp is detected by the Hankasalmi SuperDARN radar. A stereo mode of radar operation is employed, such that 3 s time resolution is available on one radar beam, whilst the high latitude convection is revealed with 1 min. resolution. The location of the equatorward edge of the HF radar cusp may then be directly compared with the Pc3-4 wave power measured at three latitudes as the cusp migrates across the stations. The radar data show clear evidence of transient ionospheric flows and high spectral widths associated with field lines newly- opened by dayside reconnection processes, but no evidence of oscillations in the Pc3-4 frequency range. In the ground magnetic field a peak in Pc3-4 power is generally observed in the equatormost magnetometer, except when the cusp is significantly poleward of the stations, consistent with a peak in wave power ~4 degrees equatorward of the cusp, but suggesting a modest dependence of wave power with latitude on closed field lines When the cusp does move equatorward of the magnetometer stations the Pc3-4 power drops rapidly, and does so earliest at the most poleward magnetometer station, suggesting a sharp drop in

  14. A review of models for near-field exposure pathways of chemicals in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lei; Ernstoff, Alexi; Fantke, Peter; Csiszar, Susan A; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to chemicals in consumer products has been gaining increasing attention, with multiple studies showing that near-field exposures from products is high compared to far-field exposures. Regarding the numerous chemical-product combinations, there is a need for an overarching review of models able to quantify the multiple transfers of chemicals from products used near-field to humans. The present review therefore aims at an in-depth overview of modeling approaches for near-field chemical release and human exposure pathways associated with consumer products. It focuses on lower-tier, mechanistic models suitable for life cycle assessments (LCA), chemical alternative assessment (CAA) and high-throughput screening risk assessment (HTS). Chemicals in a product enter the near-field via a defined "compartment of entry", are transformed or transferred to adjacent compartments, and eventually end in a "human receptor compartment". We first focus on models of physical mass transfers from the product to 'near-field' compartments. For transfers of chemicals from article interior, adequate modeling of in-article diffusion and of partitioning between article surface and air/skin/food is key. Modeling volatilization and subsequent transfer to the outdoor is crucial for transfers of chemicals used in the inner space of appliances, on object surfaces or directly emitted to indoor air. For transfers from skin surface, models need to reflect the competition between dermal permeation, volatilization and fraction washed-off. We then focus on transfers from the 'near-field' to 'human' compartments, defined as respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and epidermis, for which good estimates of air concentrations, non-dietary ingestion parameters and skin permeation are essential, respectively. We critically characterize for each exposure pathway the ability of models to estimate near-field transfers and to best inform LCA, CAA and HTS, summarizing the main characteristics of the

  15. A new method for determining which stars are near a star sensor field-of-view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Russell E., Jr.; Vedder, John D.

    1991-01-01

    A new method is described for determining which stars in a navigation star catalog are near a star sensor field of view (FOV). This method assumes that an estimate of spacecraft inertial attitude is known. Vector component ranges for the star sensor FOV are computed, so that stars whose vector components lie within these ranges are near the star sensor FOV. This method requires no presorting of the navigation star catalog, and is more efficient than tradition methods.

  16. An Exact Model-Based Method for Near-Field Sources Localization with Bistatic MIMO System

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Parth Raj; Wang, Yide; Chargé, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an exact model-based method for near-field sources localization with a bistatic multiple input, multiple output (MIMO) radar system, and compare it with an approximated model-based method. The aim of this paper is to propose an efficient way to use the exact model of the received signals of near-field sources in order to eliminate the systematic error introduced by the use of approximated model in most existing near-field sources localization techniques. The proposed method uses parallel factor (PARAFAC) decomposition to deal with the exact model. Thanks to the exact model, the proposed method has better precision and resolution than the compared approximated model-based method. The simulation results show the performance of the proposed method. PMID:28358326

  17. Three-dimensional near-field MIMO array imaging using range migration techniques.

    PubMed

    Zhuge, Xiaodong; Yarovoy, Alexander G

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a 3-D near-field imaging algorithm that is formulated for 2-D wideband multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) imaging array topology. The proposed MIMO range migration technique performs the image reconstruction procedure in the frequency-wavenumber domain. The algorithm is able to completely compensate the curvature of the wavefront in the near-field through a specifically defined interpolation process and provides extremely high computational efficiency by the application of the fast Fourier transform. The implementation aspects of the algorithm and the sampling criteria of a MIMO aperture are discussed. The image reconstruction performance and computational efficiency of the algorithm are demonstrated both with numerical simulations and measurements using 2-D MIMO arrays. Real-time 3-D near-field imaging can be achieved with a real-aperture array by applying the proposed MIMO range migration techniques.

  18. Infrared near-field detection of a narrow resonance due to molecular vibrations in a nanoparticle

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Vyacheslav; Walker, G.C.

    2007-02-27

    Di-iron nonacarbonyl particles on a gold surface have been imaged using an apertureless near-field scanning infrared microscopy. First and second harmonic detection, with and without an auto-homodyning option, have been used to collect the near-field spectrum of a single vibrational mode of the bridging carbonyls in di-iron nonacarbonyl nanocrystalline flakes on a gold surface. The experimental results have been compared to two theoretical models, a static image-dipole effective medium and an image dipole modified by a Fresnel coefficient for the appropriate observation angle. The calculations have taken into account the roughness of the gold film. The phase dependence of the near-field contrast has been investigated using broadband and tunable CO2 lasers. Particle size effects on contrast and spatial resolution have been studied to determine the limits of applicability of the half-space approximation.

  19. Deterministic optical-near-field-assisted positioning of nitrogen-vacancy centers.

    PubMed

    Geiselmann, Michael; Marty, Renaud; Renger, Jan; García de Abajo, F Javier; Quidant, Romain

    2014-03-12

    Nanopositioning of single quantum emitters to control their coupling to integrated photonic structures is a crucial step in the fabrication of solid-state quantum optics devices. We use the optical near-field enhancement produced by nanofabricated gold antennas subject to near-infrared illumination to deterministically trap and position single nanodiamonds (NDs) hosting nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The positioning of the NDs at the antenna regions of maximum field intensity is first characterized using both fluorescence and electron microscopy imaging. We further study the interaction between the nanoantenna and the delivered NV center by analyzing its change in fluorescence lifetime, which is driven by the increase in the local density of optical states at the trapping positions. Additionally, the plasmonic enhancement of the near-field intensity allows us to optically control the NV excited lifetime using relatively low NIR illumination intensities, some 20 times lower than in the absence of the antennas.

  20. Classification of atmospheric discharges according to patterns of the near-surface electric field disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkrtchyan, Hripsime; Chilingarian, Ashot

    2016-04-01

    Registration of near surface electric field associated with thunderstorms and lightning are performed 24 h daily and 12 months yearly in three different locations of the Aragats Space Environmental Center. Such measurements have been used previously to understand charge distribution in the thundercloud. "Stormy" patterns of disturbances of the near surface electric field are attributed to different types of atmospheric discharges: negative or positive, intracloud or cloud to ground. In the presented report we discuss the patterns of the lightning occurrences as measured by the network of the electric mills located on the earth's surface, differences of positive and negative flashes and shapes of the recovery curves using data from a stormy day on Aragats - May 23, 2015. Our observations show that after- lightning near surface electric field recovery curves besides exponential shape sometimes has a form of power law or linear dependence. Positive discharges are stronger and have shorter duration comparing with negative ones.

  1. Broadband near-field mid-infrared spectroscopy and application to phonon resonances in quartz.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Michio; Katsura, Makoto; Nakashima, Satoru; Ikemoto, Yuka; Okamura, Hidekazu

    2012-05-07

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a versatile analytical method and nano-scale spatial resolution could be achieved by scattering type near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). The spectral bandwidth was, however, limited to approximately 300 cm(-1) with a laser light source. In the present study, the development of a broadband mid-IR near-field spectroscopy with a ceramic light source is demonstrated. A much wider bandwidth (at least 3000 to 1000 cm(-1)) is achieved with a ceramic light source. The experimental data on quartz Si-O phonon resonance bands are well reproduced by theoretical simulations indicating the validity of the present broadband near-field IR spectroscopy.

  2. Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Shang-Te; Ling, Hao

    2013-01-01

    An efficienmore » t approach to compute the near-field distribution around and within a wind farm under plane wave excitation is proposed. To make the problem computationally tractable, several simplifying assumptions are made based on the geometry problem. By comparing the approximations against full-wave simulations at 500 MHz, it is shown that the assumptions do not introduce significant errors into the resulting near-field distribution. The near fields around a 3 × 3 wind farm are computed using the developed methodology at 150 MHz, 500 MHz, and 3 GHz. Both the multipath interference patterns and the forward shadows are predicted by the proposed method.« less

  3. Noise analysis for near field 3-D FM-CW radar imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.

    2015-06-19

    Near field radar imaging systems are used for several applications including concealed weapon detection in airports and other high-security venues. Despite the near-field operation, phase noise and thermal noise can limit the performance in several ways including reduction in system sensitivity and reduction of image dynamic range. In this paper, the effects of thermal noise, phase noise, and processing gain are analyzed in the context of a near field 3-D FM-CW imaging radar as might be used for concealed weapon detection. In addition to traditional frequency domain analysis, a time-domain simulation is employed to graphically demonstrate the effect of these noise sources on a fast-chirping FM-CW system.

  4. Information Content of the Near-Field I: Two-Dimensional Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazin, Richard A.; Fischer, David G.; Carney, P. Scott

    2004-01-01

    Limits on the effective resolution of many optical near-field experiments are investigated. The results are applicable to variants of total-internal-reflection microscopy (TIRM), photon-scanning-tunneling microscopy (PSTM), and near-field-scanning-optical microscopy (NSOM) in which the sample is weakly scattering and the direction of illumination may be controlled. Analytical expressions for the variance of the estimate of the complex susceptibility of an unknown two-dimensional object as a function of spatial frequency are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson noise models, and a model-independent measure is examined. The results are used to explore the transition from near-zone to far-zone detection. It is demonstrated that the information content of the measurements made at a distance of even one wavelength away from the sample is already not much different from the information content of the far field. Copyright 2004 Optical Society of America

  5. Effects of spherical mode coupling on near-field focusing by clusters of dielectric microspheres.

    PubMed

    Pikulin, Alexander; Afanasiev, Andrei; Agareva, Nadezhda; Alexandrov, Alexander P; Bredikhin, Vladimir; Bityurin, Nikita

    2012-04-09

    Colloidal particle lens array (CPLA) proved to be an efficient near-field focusing device for laser nanoprocessing of materials. Within CPLA, spherical particles do not act as independent microlenses. Due to the coupling of the spherical modes, the field near the clusters of spherical microparticles cannot be calculated by means of the superposition of Mie solutions for individual spheres. In the paper, the electromagnetic field distributions near laser-irradiated clusters of dielectric microspheres with configurations that match the fragments of the close-packed CPLA are studied. It is shown that some practically important mode coupling effects can be understood in terms of an effective immersion medium formed for the spherical particle by its surrounding.

  6. Improvement of infrared near-field spectrum by asymmetric interferometer configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikemoto, Yuka; Okamura, Hidekazu; Moriwaki, Taro; Suto, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Toyohiko

    2015-08-01

    Infrared synchrotron radiation (IR-SR) is a highly brilliant white light source. We are developing an infrared near-field spectroscopy system with an IR-SR light source. The near-field spectroscopy system previously reported comprised an atomic force microscope (AFM) and a commercial Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. In the present study, the configuration of the FTIR interferometer has been modified to an asymmetric one. In the asymmetric interferometer, one beam split by a beamsplitter is focused onto the tip of an AFM probe, and the other beam goes to a movable mirror. The scattered light from the probe and the light reflected by the movable mirror interfere with each other. The near-field signal is extracted by a modulation method with an AFM oscillation frequency. The signal-to-noise ratio has been improved 6-fold and the signal-to-background ratio is improved 8-fold compared with those observed in the previous system.

  7. Near Field Heat Transfer between Random Composite Materials: Applications and Limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, Eva Yazmin; Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul

    2017-02-01

    We present a theoretical study of the limits and bounds of using effective medium approximations in the calculation of the near field radiative heat transfer between a composite system made of Au nanoparticles in a SiC host and an homogeneous SiC slab. The effective dielectric function of the composite slab is calculated using three different approximations: Maxwell-Garnett, Bruggeman, and Looyenga's. In addition, we considered an empirical fit to the effective dielectric function by Grundquist and Hunderi. We show that the calculated value of the heat flux in the near field is dependent on the model, and the difference in the effective dielectric function is larger around the plasmonic response of the Au nanoparticles. This, in turn, accounts for the difference in the near field radiative heat flux. For all values of filling fractions, the Looyenga approximation gives a lower bound for the heat flux.

  8. Probe compensation in cylindrical near-field scanning: A novel simulation methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad A.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    1993-01-01

    Probe pattern compensation is essential in near-field scanning geometry, where there is a great need to accurately know far-field patterns at wide angular range. This paper focuses on a novel formulation and computer simulation to determine the precise need for and effect of probe compensation in cylindrical near-field scanning. The methodology is applied to a linear test array antenna and the NASA scatterometer radar antenna. The formulation is based on representing the probe by its equivalent tangential magnetic currents. The interaction between the probe equivalent aperture currents and the test antenna fields is obtained with the application of a reciprocity theorem. This allows us to obtain the probe vector output pickup integral which is proportional to the amplitude and phase of the electric field induced in the probe aperture with respect to its position to the test antenna. The integral is evaluated for each probe position on the required sampling point on a cylindrical near-field surface enclosing the antenna. The use of a hypothetical circular-aperture probe with a different radius permits us to derive closed-form expressions for its far-field radiation patterns. These results, together with the probe vector output pickup, allow us to perform computer simulated synthetic measurements. The far-field patterns of the test antenna are formulated based on cylindrical wave expansions of both the probe and test antenna fields. In the limit as the probe radius becomes very small, the probe vector output is the direct response of the near-field at a point, and no probe compensation is needed. Useful results are generated to compare the far-field pattern of the test antenna constructed from the knowledge of the simulated near-field with and without probe pattern compensation and the exact results. These results are important since they clearly illustrate the angular range over which probe compensation is needed. It has been found that a probe with an aperture

  9. The reversal of the solar polar magnetic fields. IV - The polar fields near sunspot maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, N.; Wilson, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of solar polar magnetic fields between Carrington rotations 1815 and 1834 is described using magnetic data from the Mount Wilson Observatory and the National Solar Observatory. The observations are compared with simulations using the flux transport equation. It is shown that the evolution of the polar field cannot be reproduced accurately by simulations of the diffusion and poleward drift of the emerging active regions at sunspot latitudes. Histograms of the distribution of the field intensities derived from daily magnetograms are presented which indicate that flux emerges at high latitudes and contributes to the evolution of the magnetic patterns.

  10. The reversal of the solar polar magnetic fields. IV - The polar fields near sunspot maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, N.; Wilson, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of solar polar magnetic fields between Carrington rotations 1815 and 1834 is described using magnetic data from the Mount Wilson Observatory and the National Solar Observatory. The observations are compared with simulations using the flux transport equation. It is shown that the evolution of the polar field cannot be reproduced accurately by simulations of the diffusion and poleward drift of the emerging active regions at sunspot latitudes. Histograms of the distribution of the field intensities derived from daily magnetograms are presented which indicate that flux emerges at high latitudes and contributes to the evolution of the magnetic patterns.

  11. Melting pressure of solid 3He in magnetic field near the nuclear ordering temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, A.; Shinozaki, A.; Itoh, W.; Torizuka, K.; Suga, M.; Satoh, T.; Komatsubara, T.

    1990-08-01

    The melting pressure of 3He was measured in magnetic field. The phase transitions of solid 3He were determined by the anomaly of the melting curves during the temperature and the magnetic field sweep. With thus determined B-T phase diagram, the slope of the transition line near the triple point suggests the first order transition of the paramagnetic to the high field phase transition. However, any trace of the latent heat was not observed within our experimental accuracy. The spin wave velocity in magnetic field was also obtained.

  12. Realization of near-field linear nano-polarizer by asymmetric nanoaperture and bowtie nanoantenna.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianxiong; Chen, Shuqi; Yu, Ping; Cheng, Hua; Duan, Xiaoyang; Tian, Jianguo

    2013-04-22

    We present a linear nano-polarizer composed of asymmetric nanoaperture and bowtie nanoantenna, which provides a new way to freely control the polarization azimuth of the translated optical field in the near-field. It can not only generate large localized field enhancement and outstanding spatial confinement, but also maintain the polarization azimuth of linearly polarized optical field excited by arbitrary linearly, circularly or elliptically polarized lights. The response wavelength of the linear nano-polarizer can be easily tuned in a wide range by adjusting the geometrical parameters of asymmetric nanoaperture. This offers a further step in developing integrated optical devices for polarization manipulation.

  13. Imaging of green fluorescent protein in live plant by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Tao; Sun, Jialin; Guo, Jihua; Zhao, Jun

    2002-04-01

    An auxin/IAA induced in vivo green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a living plant Arabidopsis root has been studied by a scanning near-field microscope in transmission mode. The promising near-field images of the inducible GFPs at sub- surface of a plant cell suggest that they may locate proximity to the cell wall, i.e. both sides of and in the cytoplasm membrane. The clear and faint fluorescent spots with 1-3 micrometers showed that the proteins localized nearer and farther to the cell wall, respectively. All GFP molecules gathered together in a cell, and no individual GFP was observed in the experiment.

  14. Persistent Directional Current at Equilibrium in Nonreciprocal Many-Body Near Field Electromagnetic Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-09-01

    We consider the consequence of nonreciprocity in near-field heat transfer by studying systems consisting of magneto-optical nanoparticles. We demonstrate that, in thermal equilibrium, a nonreciprocal many-body system in heat transfer can support a persistent directional heat current, without violating the second law of thermodynamics. Such a persistent directional heat current cannot occur in reciprocal systems, and can only arise in many-body systems in heat transfer. The use of nonreciprocity therefore points to a new regime of near-field heat transfer for the control of heat flow in the nanoscale.

  15. Near-field scanning microwave microscopy of few-layer graphene.

    SciTech Connect

    Kalugin, Nikolai G.; Gonzales, Edward; Kalichava, Irakli; Gin, Aaron V.; Wickey, Lee; Del Barga, Christopher; Talanov, Vladimir V.; Shaner, Eric Arthur

    2010-08-01

    Near-field microwave microscopy can be used as an alternative to atomic-force microscopy or Raman microscopy in determination of graphene thickness. We evaluated the values of AC impedance for few layer graphene. The impedance of mono and few-layer graphene at 4GHz was found predominantly active. Near-field microwave microscopy allows simultaneous imaging of location, geometry, thickness, and distribution of electrical properties of graphene without device fabrication. Our results may be useful for design of future graphene-based microwave devices.

  16. Nanospectrofluorometry inside single living cell by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, F. H.; Shang, G. Y.; Troyon, M.; Spajer, M.; Morjani, H.; Angiboust, J. F.; Manfait, M.

    2001-10-01

    Near-field fluorescence spectra with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution have been taken in the proximity of mitochondrial membrane inside breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) treated with the fluorescent dye (JC-1) by using a scanning near-field optical microscope coupled with a confocal laser microspectrofluorometer. The probe-sample distance control is based on a piezoelectric bimorph shear force sensor having a static spring constant k=5 μN/nm and a quality factor Q=40 in a physiological medium of viscosity η=1.0 cp. The sensitivity of the force sensor has been tested by imaging a MCF7 cell surface.

  17. A novel optical lithography implement utilizing third harmonic generation via metallic tip enhanced near field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Ning; Mei, Ting; He, Miao; Li, Hao; Chen, Zhenshi

    2017-01-01

    A novel scheme for near-field optical lithography utilizing a metallic tip illuminated by femtosecond laser pulses with proper polarization has been presented. The strongly enhanced near field at the metallic tip offers a localized excitation source for the third harmonic generation in the nonlinear material. The generated third harmonic via excitation of nonlinear photoresist provides good exposure contrast due to the cubic intensity dependence. The spatial resolution of this novel lithography scheme is shown to be better than that of the conventional lithography technique.

  18. Nanomovement of azo polymers induced by metal tip enhanced near-field irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishitobi, Hidekazu; Tanabe, Mamoru; Sekkat, Zouheir; Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-08-27

    Nanomovement of azo polymers induced by metal tip enhanced near-field illumination was studied. A protrusion with 47 nm full width at half maximum was induced with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit. At the top of the protrusion, an anisotropic movement occurs in a direction nearly parallel to the polarization of the incident light, and suggests the existence at the tip end of not only a longitudinal but also a lateral component of the electric field of light. The anisotropic photofluidity and the optical gradient force played important roles in the process of the light induced polymer movement.

  19. Imaging Analysis of Near-Field Recording Technique for Observation of Biological Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriguchi, Chihiro; Ohta, Akihiro; Egami, Chikara; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu; Tsuchimori, Masaaki; Watanabe, Osamu

    2006-07-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of an imaging based on a near-field recording technique in comparison with simulation results. In the system, the optical field distributions localized near the specimens are recorded as the surface topographic distributions of a photosensitive film. It is possible to observe both soft and moving specimens, because the system does not require a scanning probe to obtain the observed image. The imaging properties are evaluated using fine structures of paramecium, and we demonstrate that it is possible to observe minute differences of refractive indices.

  20. Assembly, Tuning and Use of an Apertureless Near Field Infrared Microscope for Protein Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Paulite, Melissa; Fakhraai, Zahra; Akhremitchev, Boris B.; Mueller, Kerstin; Walker, Gilbert C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to instruct the reader in the assembly and operation of an infrared near-field microscope for imaging beyond the diffraction limit. The apertureless near-field microscope is a light scattering-type instrument that provides infrared spectra at circa 20 nm resolution. A complete list of components and a step-by-step protocol for use is provided. Common errors in assembly and instrument tuning are discussed. A representative data set that shows the secondary structure of an amyloid fibril is presented. PMID:19940838

  1. Near-field thermal radiation between hyperbolic metamaterials: Graphite and carbon nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, R. Z.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2013-11-18

    The near-field radiative heat transfer for two hyperbolic metamaterials, namely, graphite and vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is investigated. Graphite is a naturally existing uniaxial medium, while CNT arrays can be modeled as an effective anisotropic medium. Different hyperbolic modes can be separately supported by these materials in certain infrared regions, resulting in a strong enhancement in near-field heat transfer. It is predicted that the heat flux between two CNT arrays can exceed that between SiC plates at any vacuum gap distance and is about 10 times higher with a 10 nm gap.

  2. Inverse estimation of near-field temperature and surface heat flux via single point temperature measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chen-Wu; Shu, Yong-Hua; Xie, Ji-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Zheng; Fan, Jing

    2017-02-01

    A concept was developed to inversely estimate the near-field temperature as well as the surface heat flux for the transient heat conduction problem with boundary condition of the unknown heat flux. The mathematical formula was derived for the inverse estimation of the near-field temperature and surface heat flux via a single point temperature measurement. The experiments were carried out in a vacuum chamber and the theoretically predicted temperatures were justified in specific positions. The inverse estimation principle was validated and the estimation deviation was evaluated for the present configuration.

  3. Laser wavelength effects in ultrafast near-field laser nanostructuring of Si

    SciTech Connect

    Zormpa, Vasileia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-03-18

    We study the effect of laser wavelength (400 nm and 800 nm) on the near-field processing of crystalline silicon (Si) in the femtosecond (fs) pulse duration regime through sub-wavelength apertures. Distinct differences in the obtained nanostructures are found in each case both in terms of their physical sizes as well as their structure which can be tuned between craters and protrusions. A single or a few fs pulses can deliver enough energy on the substrate to induce sub-diffraction limited surface modification, which is among the smallest ever reported in sub-wavelength apertured Near-field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) schemes.

  4. Near field and altered zone environmental report Volume I: technical bases for EBS design

    SciTech Connect

    Wilder, D. G., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    This report presents an updated summary of results for the waste package (WP) and engineered barrier system (EBS) evaluations, including materials testing, waste-form characterization, EBS performance assessments, and near-field environment (NFE) characterization. Materials testing, design criteria and concept development, and waste-form characterization all require an understanding of the environmental conditions that will interact with the WP and EBS. The Near-Field Environment Report (NFER) was identified in the Waste Package Plan (WPP) (Harrison- Giesler, 1991) as the formal means for transmitting and documenting this information.

  5. Three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and systems for near-field applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Jones, Anthony M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2016-05-12

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed three-dimensional holographic (synthetic aperture) radar imaging techniques and systems for a wide variety of near-field applications. These applications include radar cross-section (RCS) imaging, personnel screening, standoff concealed weapon detection, concealed threat detection, through-barrier imaging, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Sequentially-switched linear arrays are used for many of these systems to enable high-speed data acquisition and 3-D imaging. In this paper, the techniques and systems will be described along with imaging results that demonstrate the utility of near-field 3-D radar imaging for these compelling applications.

  6. Three-dimensional radar imaging techniques and systems for near-field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, David M.; Hall, Thomas E.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Jones, A. Mark; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2016-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has developed three-dimensional holographic (synthetic aperture) radar imaging techniques and systems for a wide variety of near-field applications. These applications include radar crosssection (RCS) imaging, personnel screening, standoff concealed weapon detection, concealed threat detection, throughbarrier imaging, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and non-destructive evaluation (NDE). Sequentially-switched linear arrays are used for many of these systems to enable high-speed data acquisition and 3-D imaging. In this paper, the techniques and systems will be described along with imaging results that demonstrate the utility of near-field 3-D radar imaging for these compelling applications.

  7. Shape matters: Near-field fluid mechanics dominate the collective motions of ellipsoidal squirmers.

    PubMed

    Kyoya, K; Matsunaga, D; Imai, Y; Omori, T; Ishikawa, T

    2015-12-01

    Microswimmers show a variety of collective motions. Despite extensive study, questions remain regarding the role of near-field fluid mechanics in collective motion. In this paper, we describe precisely the Stokes flow around hydrodynamically interacting ellipsoidal squirmers in a monolayer suspension. The results showed that various collective motions, such as ordering, aggregation, and whirls, are dominated by the swimming mode and the aspect ratio. The collective motions are mainly induced by near-field fluid mechanics, despite Stokes flow propagation over a long range. These results emphasize the importance of particle shape in collective motion.

  8. Near-field investigation of Bloch surface wave based 2D optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubey, R.; Vosoughi Lahijani, B.; Kim, M.-S.; Barakat, E.; Häyrinen, M.; Roussey, M.; Kuittinen, M.; Herzig, H. P.

    2017-02-01

    We study the Bloch surface wave based nano-thin 2D optical components. The 2D elements are fabricated on the dielectric multilayer platform which sustains the Bloch surface waves. Such a platform is considered as a novel foundation for planar integrated optics. We exploit the total internal reflection configuration to achieve the phase matching condition for BSW excitation. Because of the evanescent behavior of the BSW, we use a scanning near field optical microscope to characterize the near-field properties of in-plane components. The 2D optical components include Disk resonators and Bessel-like beams.

  9. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2014-06-23

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  10. Remote sensing of a low pressure plasma in the radio near field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Seán; McNally, Patrick J.

    2017-09-01

    A novel approach to remotely monitor low pressure non-equilibrium plasmas is reported. A magnetic field antenna is positioned in the near field of a capacitively coupled plasma. Magnetic flux from plasma currents, present near the viewport, is intercepted by a calibrated loop antenna placed outside the chamber. The induced signal current is correlated to bulk plasma currents. The comparison of relative harmonic amplitudes shows resonance features for lower operating pressures. The geometric resonance and electron-neutral collision frequencies are evaluated from resonant harmonic features. This approach advances remote, noninvasive, and installation-free plasma monitoring, which is of particular interest to industrial scenarios.

  11. Scanning optical near-field resolution analyzed in terms of communication modes.

    PubMed

    Martinsson, Per; Lajunen, Hanna; Friberg, Ari T

    2006-11-13

    We present an analysis of scanning near-field optical microscopy in terms of the so-called communication modes using scalar wave theory. We show that the number of connected modes increases when the scanning distance is decreased, but the number of modes decreases when the size of the scanning aperture is decreased. In the limit of small detector aperture the best-connected mode reduces effectively to the Green function, evaluated at the center of the scanning aperture. We also suggest that the resolution of a scanning optical near-field imaging system is essentially given by the width of the lowest-order communication mode.

  12. Near field laser transmission with bidirectional beacon tracking for Tbps class wireless communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-02-01

    This paper discusses a new concept of free-space optical (FSO) communication terminals, characterized as the mutual tracking of near field Gaussian beams and the direct single mode fiber coupling to achieve Tera-bit/seconds (Tbps) class FSO link in short range outdoor environments. It first shows the required optical configurations including beacon transmitters, tracking sensors and fast steering mirrors to construct the mutual tracking system and then discusses their capabilities and performance for this specific near field operation in which conventional tracking system is not enough to assure stable and reliable link performance. It also presents one of the simplest realizations of the new FSO terminals and their test results.

  13. Near-Sun and 1 AU magnetic field of coronal mass ejections: a parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Georgoulis, M. K.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: The magnetic field of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) determines their structure, evolution, and energetics, as well as their geoeffectiveness. However, we currently lack routine diagnostics of the near-Sun CME magnetic field, which is crucial for determining the subsequent evolution of CMEs. Methods: We recently presented a method to infer the near-Sun magnetic field magnitude of CMEs and then extrapolate it to 1 AU. This method uses relatively easy to deduce observational estimates of the magnetic helicity in CME-source regions along with geometrical CME fits enabled by coronagraph observations. We hereby perform a parametric study of this method aiming to assess its robustness. We use statistics of active region (AR) helicities and CME geometrical parameters to determine a matrix of plausible near-Sun CME magnetic field magnitudes. In addition, we extrapolate this matrix to 1 AU and determine the anticipated range of CME magnetic fields at 1 AU representing the radial falloff of the magnetic field in the CME out to interplanetary (IP) space by a power law with index αB. Results: The resulting distribution of the near-Sun (at 10 R⊙) CME magnetic fields varies in the range [0.004, 0.02] G, comparable to, or higher than, a few existing observational inferences of the magnetic field in the quiescent corona at the same distance. We also find that a theoretically and observationally motivated range exists around αB = -1.6 ± 0.2, thereby leading to a ballpark agreement between our estimates and observationally inferred field magnitudes of magnetic clouds (MCs) at L1. Conclusions: In a statistical sense, our method provides results that are consistent with observations.

  14. Near- to far-field characteristics of acoustic radiation through plug flow jets.

    PubMed

    Gabard, G

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports a theoretical study of the radiation of sound through jet exhausts. It focuses on the transition from near field to far field by considering the features of the near-field solution and how these features translate to the far field. The main focus of this work is the importance in some cases of lateral waves radiating from the jet. While the presence of lateral waves has long been recognized, there has been no systematic investigation of the practical consequences of these waves in the prediction of sound propagation through round jets. The physical mechanisms involved in the generation of these waves are presented as well as the conditions under which they become significant. Another issue is the possibility of "channeled waves" inside the jet associated with strong sound radiation in the forward arc. This paper also discusses the validity of the far-field approximation when lateral waves are present. It is shown that the standard far-field approximation can be improved by adding correction terms that account for the presence of the lateral waves and channeled waves. The challenge posed to computational aeroacoustics by these near-field effects is also discussed.

  15. Coherent regime and far-to-near-field transition for radiative heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsurimaki, Yoichiro; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Okajima, Junnosuke; Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao; Vaillon, Rodolphe

    2017-01-01

    Radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite parallel media is analyzed in the transition zone between the near-field and the classical macroscopic, i.e. incoherent far-field, regimes of thermal radiation, first for model gray materials and then for real metallic (Al) and dielectric (SiC) materials. The presence of a minimum in the flux-distance curve is observed for the propagative component of the radiative heat transfer coefficient, and in some cases for the total coefficient, i.e. the sum of the propagative and evanescent components. At best this reduction can reach 15% below the far-field limit in the case of aluminum. The far-to-near-field regime taking place for the distance range between the near-field and the classical macroscopic regime involves a coherent far-field regime. One of its limits can be practically defined by the distance at which the incoherent far-field regime breaks down. This separation distance below which the standard theory of incoherent thermal radiation cannot be applied anymore is found to be larger than the usual estimate based on Wien's law and varies as a function of temperature. The aforementioned effects are due to coherence, which is present despite the broadband spectral nature of thermal radiation, and has a stronger impact for reflective materials.

  16. Electric near-field enhancing properties of a finite-size metal conical nano-tip.

    PubMed

    Goncharenko, A V; Chang, Hung-Chih; Wang, Juen-Kai

    2007-01-01

    Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique simulations are performed to study the near-field resonance properties of a silver conical nano-tip with a rounded end. Varying the tip geometry, we have computed the electric field distribution, as well as the electric field enhancement factor in the immediate vicinity of the tip apex. The aim of this study is to find optimal geometric parameters of the conical tip, such as its angle and length, in order to maximize the electric field enhancement factor. The increase of the tip length is shown to result in a redshift of the tip resonance wavelength. In addition, some subsidiary (non-dipole) peaks appear for relatively long tips. The peak enhancement values for the small-angle tips increase with the tip length while those for the large-angle ones decrease with it. At the same time, the dependencies of the field enhancement on the cone angle exhibit non-monotonic behavior. In other words, an optimal angle exists allowing one to maximize the electric near field. Finally, the effect of the supporting dielectric medium on the electric field near the tip apex is discussed. In the approximation used, the effect is shown to leave the main conclusions unchanged.

  17. On the Origin of Near-Radial Magnetic Fields in the Heliosphere: Numerical Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Riley, Pete; Gosling, T. J.

    2007-01-01

    Deviations from the direction of the "Parker spiral" can be found in in situ measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field on essentially all scales. One intriguing subset is the intervals of near-radial magnetic field, lasting for many hours. Some such intervals are obviously associated with coronal mass ejections, while others appear to be embedded within the ambient solar wind. Most occur on declining speed profiles, such that, when mapped back to the Sun, an entire radial field interval appears to have been launched at approximately the same time. It has been proposed that these events are the result of abrupt, semipermanent speed decreases on these field lines close to the Sun, and that such speed changes might be due to interchange reconnection. In this study, we use a three-dimensional, time-dependent magnetohydrodynamic model to assess to what extent this can account for near-radial magnetic fields observed relatively far out in the heliosphere. We find that sudden speed drops on the trailing portions of high-speed flows can produce strongly underwound (that is near radial) field lines in the heliosphere, although significantly larger speed gradients are required than are typically observed. Moreover, the simulations also reproduce the decreases in density, temperature, and magnetic field strength that are also commonly observed within these events. The question of what produces the abrupt speed drops remains to be answered.

  18. Profiling the near field of nanoshells using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Surbhi

    Plasmon resonances in metal nanoparticles control the far field and near field optical properties of these metallic structures. The enhanced electromagnetic near field is strongest at the surface of the nanoparticles and rapidly decays away from the surface. This enhanced near field is exploited in surface enhanced spectroscopies including Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (MEFS). A measurement of the decay profile of the fringing field is important both for further development of surface enhanced spectroscopy for sensor device application, and for understanding from a fundamental physics point of view. Gold nanoshells are spherical colloidal nanoparticles with a silica core covered by a thin gold shell. The plasmon resonance of nanoshells can be controllably tuned in the visible and infrared parts of the spectrum. The near field profile of nanoshells can be theoretically calculated on the basis of Mie scattering theory. The thesis describes a series of experiments designed to experimentally verify the near field profile of nanoshells. A scaffold of ss-DNA is used to place a fluorescein dye molecule at varying distances from the nanoshell surface. The SERS intensity from both the scaffold molecules and the fluorescein placed at the end of the tether is measured simultaneously and self consistently. The fluorescein-ss-DNA nanoshell conjugate structures are also used to study the distance dependence of the fluorescence emission from fluorescein. The thesis discusses the results of the SERS intensity profile agreement with the intensity profile calculated using Mie scattering theory. The quenching and enhancement of the fluorescence emission at varying distances from the nanoshell surface are also discussed.

  19. Analysis of Waves in the Near-Field of Wave Energy Converter Arrays through Stereo Video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, C.; Haller, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    Oregon State University conducted a series of laboratory experiments to measure and quantify the near-field wave effects caused within arrays of 3 and 5 Wave Energy Converters (WEC). As the waves and WECs interact, significant scattering and radiation occurs increasing/decreasing the wave heights as well as changing the direction the wave is traveling. These effects may vary based on the number of WECs within an array and their respective locations. The findings of this analysis will assist in selecting the WEC farm location and in improving WEC design. Analyzing the near-field waves will help determine the relative importance of absorption, scattering, and radiation as a function of the incident wave conditions and device performance. The WEC mooring system design specifications may also be impacted if the wave heights in the near-field are greater than expected. It is imperative to fully understand the near-field waves before full-scale WEC farms can be installed. Columbia Power Technologies' Manta served as the test WEC prototype on a 1 to 33 scale. Twenty-three wave gages measured the wave heights in both regular and real sea conditions at locations surrounding and within the WEC arrays. While these gages give a good overall picture of the water elevation behavior, it is difficult to resolve the complicated wave field within the WEC array using point gages. Here stereo video techniques are applied to extract the 3D water surface elevations at high resolution in order to reconstruct the multi-directional wave field in the near-field of the WEC array. The video derived wave information will also be compared against the wave gage data.

  20. On the near field mean flow structure of transverse jets issuing into a supersonic freestream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickmann, Dean Anthony

    The near field mean flow structure of transverse jets issuing from a surface into supersonic crossflow is examined using numerical methods and separation topology. The Navier-Stokes solver Falcon, developed at Lockheed Martin, was used to simulate the interaction between the jet and freestream over a flat plate and a generic missile body. The near field flow structure included a lambda bow shock upstream of the jet interacting with the approaching boundary layer that forms a pair of horseshoe vortices while another lambda-structure closer to the jet formed a second pair of horseshoe vortices. As the jet was turned downstream by the crossflow, the so-called barrel shock terminates in a Mach disk while vortices formed within the jet plume. Downstream of the jet exit, new flow structure was identified in the form of three pairs of vortices. Horn, near field and far field wake vortices were present downstream of the jet as well as a series of compression waves resulting in a gradual pressure rise downstream of the jet overexpansion. The wave formations and the vortices formed from them affected separation topology, performance parameters and amplification coefficients. The current understanding of the flow structure in the near field of a transverse jet in supersonic flow must be amended to include these newly identified vortices and compression waves.