Science.gov

Sample records for near-field optical recording

  1. Near-Field Optical Recording Using Solid Immersion Lens for High-Density Flexible Optical Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Daiichi; Kajiyama, Takeshi; Sato, Ryuji; Tokumaru, Haruki; Takano, Yoshimichi; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    2013-09-01

    We propose a near-field optical recording flexible optical disk (NFR-FOD) for high-density recording at a high data transfer rate. We built a prototype high-density NFR-FOD that had a track pitch of 0.16 µm and we stacked some recording layers on a thin substrate that was 0.1 mm thick. We rotated the NFR-FOD closing the mechanical stabilizer on a drive system with less than 10 µmp-p axial run-out and achieved precise gap servo operation at a high rotational speed. We demonstrated near-field optical recording with a solid immersion lens with a numerical aperture (NA) of 1.84 on the NFR-FOD. The NFR-FOD has a fourfold higher recording density than the current Blu-ray disc, corresponding to a capacity of 100 Gbytes per layer, and a high data transfer rate of 250 Mbps, while rotating at half the speed.

  2. Numerical simulation of electromagnetic propagation in high-data-density near-field optical recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Ming, Hai; Lu, Yonghua; Bai, Ming; Xie, Jiangping

    2001-02-01

    The optical characters and light wave propagation of various fiber probes, solid immersion lens (SIL) system and Super-RENS for near-field optical recording are numerically simulated using 3D finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method in this paper. The aperture metal-coated probe have a near field spot size smaller than the bare-glass fiber probe, which means higher data density in near-field optical recording. The entirely metal coat probe is pointed out to have an extremely small near-field spot size about 10 nm, but the output electromagnetic wave propagation decrease to nearly zero within a few nanometers. The propagating and evanescent wave in different solid immersion lens (SIL) system is numerically simulated. The spot sizes are different because of different polarization. With the TbFe substrate, spot size will remain constant as observation distance z increased. But the propagating, evanescent and total energy decay more rapidly than the SIL system without TbFe substrate.

  3. Rewritable Near-Field Optical Recording on Photochromic Perinaphthothioindigo Thin Films: Readout by Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Masahiro; Ishida, Hiroki; Tsujioka, Tsuyoshi

    1999-10-01

    Near-field optical recording on polystyrene thin filmscontaining photochromic perinaphthothioindigo (NTI) was carried out.NTI underwent a reversible trans/cis photoisomerization in thepolystyrene film, and only the trans-form emitted fluorescence.First, polystyrene film containing trans-form NTI molecules was usedas the recording medium. Upon irradiation with 633 nm light from afiber probe tip (aperture diameter ˜100 nm), the fluorescenttrans-forms in a small region were converted into non-fluorescentcis-forms. The recorded small regions were detected as dark spots assmall as 110 nm by scanning across the written area. Second,polystyrene film containing cis-form NTI molecules was used as therecording medium. Upon irradiation with ultrasmall 488 nm light(aperture diameter ˜80 nm), bright spots as small as 50 nmwere recorded and read out with scanning 633 nm light. The brightspots were due to the fluorescence of the photogenerated trans-formNTI molecules. Both the dark and bright spots were erased byirradiation with 488 nm and 633 nm light, respectively. The brightspot could also be recorded using a pulseNd3+: YAG laser (532 nm, pulse width 20 ns).

  4. Design and control of dual servo actuator for near field optical recording system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaehwa; Choi, Young-Man; Lee, Jun-Hee; Yoon, Hyoung-Kil; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2005-12-01

    Near field recording (NFR) has been introduced as a new optical data storage method to realize higher data density beyond the diffraction limit. As the data density increases, the track pitch is remarkably reduced to about 400nm. Thus, more precise actuator is required and we propose a dual servo actuator to improve the accuracy of actuator. The proposed dual servo actuator consists of a coarse actuator and a fine actuator, multisegmented magnet array (MSMA) voice coil motor (VCM) and PMN-PT actuator. In design of VCM actuator, a novel magnetic circuit of VCM with MSMA is proposed. It can generate higher air gap flux density than the magnetic circuit of VCM with the conventional magnet array. In design of fine actuator, the fine actuator including PMN-PT single crystal instead of the conventional PZT is proposed. The displacement gain of PMN-PT fine actuator is 26 nm/V and that of PZT fine actuator is 17 nm/V. The displacement gain is increased by 53 %. To evaluate tracking performance of the manufactured dual servo actuator and to assign the proper role to each actuator, the PQ method is selected. From experiment results, the total bandwidth of the dual servo actuator is increased to 2.5kHz and the resolution is 25 nm. Comparing with the resolution of one servo actuator, 70 nm, we can find that the accuracy of actuator is remarkably improved. And the proposed dual servo actuator shows satisfactory performances to be applied to NFR and it can be applied to other future disk drives.

  5. Time-resolved phase-change recording mark formation with zinc oxide near-field optical active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chen, Mu-Ku; Chen, Jia-Wern; Chen, Yi-Hao; Wu, Pei Ru; Tsai, Din Ping

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, an optical active thin film of zinc oxide (ZnOx) nano-composites exploited for the enhancement of optical signals in an ultra-high density recording scheme has been demonstrated. Via the electron microscope investigation, the results display randomly distributed crystalline nanograins in the ZnOx thin films. Optical disks with the ZnOx nanostructured thin films show that the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) above 25 dB can be obtained at the mark trains of 100 nm, while the optimal writing power is reduced as a function of the increasing thickness of the ZnOx films. Furthermore, by conducting a series of the optical pump-probe experiments, the optical responses of recording marks on as-deposited phase-change Ge2Sb2Te5 (as-GST) recording layers present that the highly contrast bright recording bits can be acquired with the existence of the ZnOx nanostructured thin films, providing prospective potentials in future data storage and optoelectronic devices.

  6. A near-field optical microscopy nanoarray

    SciTech Connect

    Semin, D.J.; Ambrose, W.P.; Goodwin, P.M.; Kwller, A.; Wendt, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    Multiplexing near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) by the use of a nanoarray with parallel imaging is studied. The fabrication, characterization, and utilization of nanoarrays with {approximately} 100 nm diameter apertures spaced 500 nm center-to- center is presented. Extremely uniform nanoarrays with {approximately} 10{sup 8} apertures were fabricated by electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching. The nanoarrays were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this paper we utilize these nanoarrays in a laser-illuminated microscope with parallel detection on a charge- coupled device (CCD). Detection of B-phycoerythrin (B-PE) molecules using near-field illumination is presented. In principle, our system can be used to obtain high lateral resolution NSOM images over a wide-field of view (e.g. 50-100 {mu}m) within seconds.

  7. Rewritable organic films for near-field recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyo Won; Kim, Young Mi; Jeon, Dong Ju; Kim, Eunkyoung; Kim, Jeongyong; Park, Kangho

    2003-01-01

    Photochromic thin films were prepared for near-field recording. Acetyl substituted diarylethene were synthesized from 1,2-bis(2-methylbenzo[ b]thiophene-3-yl)hexafluorocyclopentene in one step. Transparent and homogeneous thin films were coated on a substrate by vacuum deposition method. A colorless vacuum deposited diarylethene film turned to deep red hue upon exposure to a UV light. Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) was used to characterize nanoscale color change of the films. NSOM images showed distinct recording mark by 514 nm laser with mark speed of 30 ms. The records were completely erased upon excitation with a UV light, and rewritable with visible light (514 nm) on a UV activated colored film.

  8. Novel concepts in near-field optics: from magnetic near-field to optical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Honghua

    Driven by the progress in nanotechnology, imaging and spectroscopy tools with nanometer spatial resolution are needed for in situ material characterizations. Near-field optics provides a unique way to selectively excite and detect elementary electronic and vibrational interactions at the nanometer scale, through interactions of light with matter in the near-field region. This dissertation discusses the development and applications of near-field optical imaging techniques, including plasmonic material characterization, optical spectral nano-imaging and magnetic field detection using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), and exploring new modalities of optical spectroscopy based on optical gradient force detection. Firstly, the optical dielectric functions of one of the most common plasmonic materials---silver is measured with ellipsometry, and analyzed with the Drude model over a broad spectral range from visible to mid-infrared. This work was motivated by the conflicting results of previous measurements, and the need for accurate values for a wide range of applications of silver in plasmonics, optical antennas, and metamaterials. This measurement provides a reference for dielectric functions of silver used in metamaterials, plasmonics, and nanophotonics. Secondly, I implemented an infrared s-SNOM instrument for spectroscopic nano-imaging at both room temperature and low temperature. As one of the first cryogenic s-SNOM instruments, the novel design concept and key specifications are discussed. Initial low-temperature and high-temperature performances of the instrument are examined by imaging of optical conductivity of vanadium oxides (VO2 and V2O 3) across their phase transitions. The spectroscopic imaging capability is demonstrated on chemical vibrational resonances of Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and other samples. The third part of this dissertation explores imaging of optical magnetic fields. As a proof-of-principle, the magnetic

  9. Tomography of the near-field optical signal.

    PubMed

    Grosges, Thomas; Barchiesi, Dominique

    2006-12-01

    In near-field optics, measurement of vertical variations of the near field is of great interest for characterizing the efficiency of resonances such as surface plasmon polaritons. The use of the signal obtained through the lock-in amplifier using a feedback on the vertical vibration of the probe is shown to enable the reconstruction of the near field without the use of the slower technique of approach curves. Therefore, a tomography of the near field is directly available.

  10. Dynamic near-field optical interaction between oscillating nanomechanical structures

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Phillip; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Ford, Matthew; Rosenmann, Daniel; Jung, II Woong; Sun, Cheng; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2015-01-01

    Near-field optical techniques exploit light-matter interactions at small length scales for mechanical sensing and actuation of nanomechanical structures. Here, we study the optical interaction between two mechanical oscillators—a plasmonic nanofocusing probe-tip supported by a low frequency cantilever, and a high frequency nanomechanical resonator—and leverage their interaction for local detection of mechanical vibrations. The plasmonic nanofocusing probe provides a confined optical source to enhance the interaction between the two oscillators. Dynamic perturbation of the optical cavity between the probe-tip and the resonator leads to nonlinear modulation of the scattered light intensity at the sum and difference of their frequencies. This double-frequency demodulation scheme is explored to suppress unwanted background and to detect mechanical vibrations with a minimum detectable displacement sensitivity of 0.45 pm/Hz1/2, which is limited by shot noise and electrical noise. We explore the demodulation scheme for imaging the bending vibration mode shape of the resonator with a lateral spatial resolution of 20 nm. We also demonstrate the time-resolved aspect of the local optical interaction by recording the ring-down vibrations of the resonator at frequencies of up to 129 MHz. The near-field optical technique is promising for studying dynamic mechanical processes in individual nanostructures. PMID:26014599

  11. Dynamic near-field optical interaction between oscillating nanomechanical structures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ahn, Phillip; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Ford, Matthew; Rosenmann, Daniel; Jung, II Woong; Sun, Cheng; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2015-05-27

    Near-field optical techniques exploit light-matter interactions at small length scales for mechanical sensing and actuation of nanomechanical structures. Here, we study the optical interaction between two mechanical oscillators—a plasmonic nanofocusing probe-tip supported by a low frequency cantilever, and a high frequency nanomechanical resonator—and leverage their interaction for local detection of mechanical vibrations. The plasmonic nanofocusing probe provides a confined optical source to enhance the interaction between the two oscillators. Dynamic perturbation of the optical cavity between the probe-tip and the resonator leads to nonlinear modulation of the scattered light intensity at the sum and difference of their frequencies. This double-frequencymore » demodulation scheme is explored to suppress unwanted background and to detect mechanical vibrations with a minimum detectable displacement sensitivity of 0.45pm/Hz1/2, which is limited by shot noise and electrical noise. We explore the demodulation scheme for imaging the bending vibration mode shape of the resonator with a lateral spatial resolution of 20nm. We also demonstrate the time-resolved aspect of the local optical interaction by recording the ring-down vibrations of the resonator at frequencies of up to 129MHz. The near-field optical technique is promising for studying dynamic mechanical processes in individual nanostructures.« less

  12. Dynamic near-field optical interaction between oscillating nanomechanical structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, Phillip; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Zhen; Ford, Matthew; Rosenmann, Daniel; Jung, II Woong; Sun, Cheng; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2015-05-27

    Near-field optical techniques exploit light-matter interactions at small length scales for mechanical sensing and actuation of nanomechanical structures. Here, we study the optical interaction between two mechanical oscillators—a plasmonic nanofocusing probe-tip supported by a low frequency cantilever, and a high frequency nanomechanical resonator—and leverage their interaction for local detection of mechanical vibrations. The plasmonic nanofocusing probe provides a confined optical source to enhance the interaction between the two oscillators. Dynamic perturbation of the optical cavity between the probe-tip and the resonator leads to nonlinear modulation of the scattered light intensity at the sum and difference of their frequencies. This double-frequency demodulation scheme is explored to suppress unwanted background and to detect mechanical vibrations with a minimum detectable displacement sensitivity of 0.45pm/Hz1/2, which is limited by shot noise and electrical noise. We explore the demodulation scheme for imaging the bending vibration mode shape of the resonator with a lateral spatial resolution of 20nm. We also demonstrate the time-resolved aspect of the local optical interaction by recording the ring-down vibrations of the resonator at frequencies of up to 129MHz. The near-field optical technique is promising for studying dynamic mechanical processes in individual nanostructures.

  13. Fluorescence resonant energy transfer in the optical near field

    SciTech Connect

    Colas des Francs, Gerard; Girard, Christian; Martin, Olivier J.F.

    2003-05-01

    We develop a versatile theoretical framework for the study of fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET, or Foerster transfer) in complex environments, under arbitrary illumination, including optical near fields. By combining the field-susceptibility formalism with the optical Bloch equations method, we derive general equations for the computation of the energy transfer between pairs of donor-acceptor molecules excited by optical near fields and placed in a complex geometry. This approach allows accounting for both the variations of the molecular population rates and the influence of the environment. Several examples illustrate the ability of the technique to analyze recent FRET experiments performed in the optical near field.

  14. Near Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Welp, Ulrich; Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  15. Near-Field Magneto-Optical Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii; Welp, Ulrich; and Crabtree, George W.

    2005-12-06

    A device and method for mapping magnetic fields of a sample at a resolution less than the wavelength of light without altering the magnetic field of the sample is disclosed. A device having a tapered end portion with a magneto-optically active particle positioned at the distal end thereof in communication with a fiber optic for transferring incoming linearly polarized light from a source thereof to the particle and for transferring reflected light from the particle is provided. The fiber optic has a reflective material trapping light within the fiber optic and in communication with a light detector for determining the polarization of light reflected from the particle as a function of the strength and direction of the magnetic field of the sample. Linearly polarized light from the source thereof transferred to the particle positioned proximate the sample is affected by the magnetic field of the sample sensed by the particle such that the difference in polarization of light entering and leaving the particle is due to the magnetic field of the sample. Relative movement between the particle and sample enables mapping.

  16. Signal Readout Using Small Near-Field Optical Head with Horizontal Light Introduction Through Optical Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kenji; Ichihara, Susumu; Oumi, Manabu; Maeda, Hidetaka; Niwa, Takashi; Mitsuoka, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Kunio; Ohkubo, Toshifumi; Itao, Kiyoshi

    2003-08-01

    We have developed a small near-field optical head for high-recording-density data storage applications, to overcome the disadvantage of conventional near-field optical heads, such as large light introduction, low optical throughput, and difficulty in controlling the aperture-medium distance. The optical head structure has miniaturized light introduction using an optical fiber placed horizontally. To decrease the optical loss, an integrated microlens focuses on the aperture tip that has a shortened cut-off region. The fabricated optical head (3.2× 3.6× 0.9 mm3) with a φ 200 nm aperture of the same height as the sliders shows a clear readout signal of a 200-nm-wide line and space pattern at a speed of 5.2 MHz. We show that the optical head has the ability to read 4 times the recording density by simulations of the finite difference time domain (FDTD).

  17. Integration and Evaluation of Nanophotonic Devices Using Optical Near Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsui, Takashi; Nomura, Wataru; Yi, Gyu-Chul; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    In this chapter, we review the optical near-field phenomena and their applications to realize the nanophotonic device. To realize the nanometer-scale controllability in size and position, we demonstrate the feasibility of nanometer-scale chemical vapor deposition using optical near-field techniques (see Sect. 15.2). In which, the probe-less fabrication method for mass production is also demonstrated. To confirm the promising optical properties of individual ZnO for realizing nanophotonic devices, we performed the near-field evaluation of the ZnO quantum structure (see Sect. 15.3). To drive the nanophotonic device with external conventional diffraction-limited photonic device, the far-/near-field conversion device is required. Section 15.4 reviews nanometer-scale waveguide to be used as such a conversion device of the nanophotonic ICs.

  18. Imaging Nanoscale Electromagnetic Near-Field Distributions Using Optical Forces.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Mardy, Zahra; Burdett, Jonathan; Wickramasinghe, H Kumar

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the application of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for mapping optical near-fields with nanometer resolution, limited only by the AFM probe geometry. By detecting the optical force between a gold coated AFM probe and its image dipole on a glass substrate, we profile the electric field distributions of tightly focused laser beams with different polarizations. The experimentally recorded focal force maps agree well with theoretical predictions based on a dipole-dipole interaction model. We experimentally estimate the aspect ratio of the apex of gold coated AFM probe using only optical forces. We also show that the optical force between a sharp gold coated AFM probe and a spherical gold nanoparticle of radius 15 nm, is indicative of the electric field distribution between the two interacting particles. Photo Induced Force Microscopy (PIFM) allows for background free, thermal noise limited mechanical imaging of optical phenomenon over wide range of wavelengths from Visible to RF with detection sensitivity limited only by AFM performance. PMID:26073331

  19. Near-field enhanced Raman spectroscopy using side illumination optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayazawa, Norihiko; Tarun, Alvarado; Inouye, Yasushi; Kawata, Satoshi

    2002-12-01

    We demonstrate near-field enhanced Raman spectroscopy with the use of a metallized cantilever tip and highly p-polarized light directed onto the tip with side illumination optics using a long working distance objective lens. The highly p-polarized light field excites surface plasmon polaritons localized at the tip apex, which results in the enhanced near-field Raman scattering. In this article, we achieved an enhancement factor of 4000 for Rhodamine 6G molecules adsorbed on a silver island film. The side illumination is also applicable to an opaque sample and to near-field photolithography.

  20. Signal of microstrip scanning near-field optical microscope in far- and near-field zones.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Yevhenii M; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of interference between an electromagnetic field of fundamental quasi-TM(EH)00-mode and an electromagnetic field of background radiation at the apex of a near-field probe based on an optical plasmon microstrip line (microstrip probe) has been proposed. The condition of the occurrence of electromagnetic energy reverse flux at the apex of the microstrip probe was obtained. It has been shown that the nature of the interference depends on the length of the probe. Numerical simulation of the sample scanning process was conducted in illumination-reflection and illumination-collection modes. Results of numerical simulation have shown that interference affects the scanning signal in both modes. However, in illumination-collection mode (pure near-field mode), the signal shape and its polarity are practically insensible to probe length change; only signal amplitude (contrast) is slightly changed. However, changing the probe length strongly affects the signal amplitude and shape in the illumination-reflection mode (the signal formed in the far-field zone). Thus, we can conclude that even small background radiation can significantly influence the signal in the far-field zone and has practically no influence on a pure near-field signal. PMID:27140358

  1. Near-field fiber optic chemical sensors and biological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Weihong; Shi, Zhong-You; Thorsrud, Bjorn A.; Harris, C.; Kopelman, Raoul

    1994-03-01

    Near-field optics has been applied in the nanofabrication of subwavelength optical fiber chemical and biological sensors and their operation in chemical and biological analysis. A thousandfold miniaturization of immobilized optical fiber sensors has been achieved by a near- field photo-nanofabrication technique, which is based on nanofabricated optical fiber tips and near-field photopolymerization. This technique has been further developed by multistep near- field nanofabrication and multidye probe fabrication. Multistep nanofabrication can further miniaturize optical fiber sensors, while multidye fabrication results in multifunctional optic and excitonic probes with extremely small size. These probes emit multiwavelength photons or produce excitons of different energy levels, and may have multiple chemical or biological sensitivities. The nondestructive submicrometer sensor has demonstrated its ability to carry out static and dynamic determinations of pH in intact rat conceptuses of varying gestational ages. The ability of the sensors to measure pH changes, in real time, in the intact rat conceptus, demonstrates their potential applications for dynamic analysis in multicellular organisms and single cells. The near-field interaction of photons with matter is discussed.

  2. Time-frequency analysis: a tool to discriminate artefacts from near-field optical data.

    PubMed

    Barchiesi, D

    2001-05-01

    Near-field optical data are non-stationary, which means that their spectral content varies with the position of the tip, due to both the scanning-probe recording process and the variations of the optical signal. Therefore time-frequency representations are potentially powerful tools for local characterization as they distribute the energy of the analysed signal over the time and frequency variables, and faithfully depict the signal local behaviour. In this paper, the time-frequency distributions are shown to be appropriate tools to analyse near-field optical data by using it first on simulated data, and second on experimental near-field optical images. Within this context, we observe that time-frequency analysis allows a possible separation of relevant optical signals from artefacts, especially in the usual case where the near-field optical signal is lower band than the feedback data.

  3. Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy and Raman Microscopy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harootunian, Alec Tate

    1987-09-01

    Both a one dimensional near-field scanning optical microscope and Raman microprobe were constructed. In near -field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) a subwavelength aperture is scanned in the near-field of the object. Radiation transmitted through the aperture is collected to form an image as the aperture scans over the object. The resolution of an NSOM system is essentially wavelength independent and is limited by the diameter of the aperture used to scan the object. NSOM was developed in an effort to provide a nondestructive in situ high spatial resolution probe while still utilizing photons at optical wavelengths. The Raman microprobe constructed provided vibrational Raman information with spatial resolution equivalent that of a conventional diffraction limited microscope. Both transmission studies and near-field diffration studies of subwavelength apertures were performed. Diffraction theories for a small aperture in an infinitely thin conducting screen, a slit in a thick conducting screen, and an aperture in a black screen were examined. All three theories indicate collimation of radiation to the size to the size of the subwavelength aperture or slit in the near-field. Theoretical calculations and experimental results indicate that light transmitted through subwavelength apertures is readily detectable. Light of wavelength 4579 (ANGSTROM) was transmitted through apertures with diameters as small as 300 (ANGSTROM). These studies indicate the feasibility of constructing an NSOM system. One dimensional transmission and fluorescence NSOM systems were constructed. Apertures in the tips of metallized glass pipettes width inner diameters of less than 1000 (ANGSTROM) were used as a light source in the NSOM system. A tunneling current was used to maintain the aperture position in the near-field. Fluorescence NSOM was demonstrated for the first time. Microspectroscopic and Raman microscopic studies of turtle cone oil droplets were performed. Both the Raman vibrational

  4. Near-field optical imaging of periodic plasmon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Davis, Christopher C.

    2002-07-01

    Periodic array of surface plasmon sources has been designed and imaged using near-field optical microscopy. Such arrays constitute a novel example of two-dimensional photonic crystal structures. They may find application in multi-channel plasmon chemical and biosensors.

  5. Effects of optical variables in immersion lens-based near-field optics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wan-Chin; Yoon, Yong-Joong; Choi, Hyun; Park, No-Cheol; Park, Young-Pil

    2008-09-01

    We analyze the effects of optical variables, such as illumination state, focal position variation, near-field air-gap height, and refractive index mismatch, in immersion lens-based near-field optics on the resultant field propagation characteristics, including spot size, focal depth, and aberrations. First, to investigate the general behaviors of various incident polarization states, focused fields near the focal planes in simple two- or three-layered media structures are calculated under considerations of refractive index mismatch, geometric focal position variations, and air-gap height in a multi-layered medium. Notably, for solid immersion near-field optics, although purely TM polarized illumination generates a stronger and 15% smaller beam spot size in the focal region than in the case of circularly polarized incident light, the intensity of the focused field decreases sharply from the interface between air and the third medium. For the same optical configurations, we show that changes in geometric focal position to the recording or detecting medium increases focal depth. Finally, through focused field analysis on a ROM (read-only memory) and a RW (rewritable) medium, compound effects of considered variables are discussed. The resultant field propagation behaviors described in this study may be applicable to the design of either highly efficient reflection or transmission near-field optics for immersion lens based information storage, microscopy and lithographic devices. PMID:18773004

  6. Near-field fluorescence thermometry using highly efficient triple-tapered near-field optical fiber probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Taguchi, Y.; Saiki, T.; Nagasaka, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A novel local temperature measurement method using fluorescence near-field optics thermal nanoscopy (Fluor-NOTN) has been developed. Fluor-NOTN enables nanoscale temperature measurement in situ by detecting the temperature-dependent fluorescence lifetime of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). In this paper, we report a novel triple-tapered near-field optical fiber probe that can increase the temperature measurement sensitivity of Fluor-NOTN. The performance of the proposed probe was numerically evaluated by the finite difference time domain method. Due to improvements in both the throughput and collection efficiency of near-field light, the sensitivity of the proposed probe was 1.9 times greater than that of typical double-tapered probe. The proposed shape of the triple-tapered core was successfully fabricated utilizing a geometrical model. The detected signal intensity of dried layers of QDs was greater by more than two orders than that of auto-fluorescence from the fiber core. In addition, the near-field fluorescence lifetime of the QDs and its temperature dependence were successfully measured by the fabricated triple-tapered near-field optical fiber probe. These measurement results verified the capability of the proposed triple-tapered near-field optical fiber probe to improve the collection efficiency of near-field fluorescence.

  7. Nanomechanical Characterization with Near-field Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Phillip

    A highly sensitive non-destructive material characterization tool is developed with the goal of measuring the high frequency motion of laser generated ultrasound with nanometer scale lateral spatial resolution. The spatial resolution is achieved through the incorporation of near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) techniques, which rely on the measurement of the back scattered near-field light intensity from a illuminated probe-tip placed in close proximity to the sample surface. The weak signal level of the NSOM is enhanced by coupling light to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) that are localized at the apex of the probe-tip, and a novel heterodyne demodulation technique is additionally developed for efficient suppression of the high background signal content. A series of near-field imaging experiments along with the theoretical confirmations are provided as a proof of concept to the deep sub-wavelength optical imaging capabilities of the NSOM and the plasmonic nanofocusing probe. The plasmonic near-field scanning optical microscope (p-NSOM) is subsequently used for local detection of the laser generated ultrasound and nanomechanical characterization of doubly clamped resonators. An optoacoustic transducer integrating constrained generation is fabricated, and acoustic waves excited by sub-surface absorption are measured using the plasmonic probe. The p-NSOM is also used for dynamic characterization of nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS): the heterodyne demodulation approach is utilized in the steady measurement of harmonic vibrations of a NEMS resonator, and laser excitation is used to measure the transient response of the resonator due to a pulsed source in both time and space. These experimental results demonstrate that the p-NSOM is able to measure mechanical motion greater than 100 megahertz and provide a clear indication that the bandwidth of the system is not dependent on the mechanical response of the cantilever probe. This technique, which offers

  8. Ordered arrays of near-field optical probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojic, Neso; Chovin, Arnaud; Garrigue, Patrick; Manek-Honninger, Inka; Servant, Laurent

    2005-06-01

    Ordered arrays of nanometer-sized optical probes with electrochemiluminescent properties were developed on the distal face of imaging fiber bundles. The fabrication steps are adapted from SNOM probes and nanoelectrodes methodologies and allow to produce high-density arrays of opto-electrochemical probes which retain the initial architecture of the bundle. Apertureless probe arrays and also nanoaperture arrays have thus been prepared. The angular distribution of the far-field intensity transmitted through such nanostructured arrays depends both on their respective architectures and on the characteristic dimensions of the nanoprobes. The subwavelength aperture arrays show a diffracting behavior which is a function of the optical aperture size. The far-field analysis demonstrates their potential application as a parallel near-field optical array in both apertureless and aperture configurations. In addition, each optical nanoaperture is surrounded by a ring-shaped gold nanoelectrode. The electrochemical response of the array is sigmoidal in shape indicating that the nanoelectrodes forming the array are diffusively independent. In other words, each nanoelectrode of the array probes electrochemically a different micro-environment. We show also that the nanoaperture array can be used as an electrochemiluminescent nanosensor array for NADH. Eventually, the arrays keep the imaging properties at both nanometer and micrometer scales. Indeed, each nanoprobe can explore optically a near-field region, whereas the global array allows imaging simultaneously a large micrometric area. This optical array format plays therefore a bridging role by interrelating optical and electrochemiluminescent information obtained concomitantly at the nanometer and micrometer scales.

  9. Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mauser, Nina; Hartschuh, Achim

    2013-01-01

    Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy (TENOM) is a scanning probe technique capable of providing a broad range of spectroscopic information on single objects and structured surfaces at nanometer spatial resolution and with highest detection sensitivity. In this review, we first illustrate the physical principle of TENOM that utilizes the antenna function of a sharp probe to efficiently couple light to excitations on nanometer length scales. We then discuss the antenna-induced enhancement of different optical sample responses including Raman scattering, fluorescence, generation of photocurrent and electroluminescence. Different experimental realizations are presented and several recent examples that demonstrate the capabilities of the technique are reviewed. PMID:24100541

  10. Near-field optical microscopy of bacteria thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konnov, Nikolai P.; Baiburin, Vil B.; Shcherbakov, Anatolyi A.; Malakhaeva, Alina N.; Volkov, Yuri P.

    1997-12-01

    Whole bacteria as well as thin sections were investigated in our laboratory by means of near field scanning optical microscope (NSOM). The main problem in NSOM operation is a control of distance between microscopy tip and sample surface. The bacteria thin section is a more preferable sample for NSOM investigation because of its flat surface. For increasing of thin sections' image contrast were used different light microscopy stainers (Eosin, Hematoxylin, etc.). We obtained images of thin sections of plague (Y. Pestis EV) and cholera (V. Cholerae). Lateral resolution in the investigation is about 300 angstroms.

  11. Near-field Optical Imagigng and Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andres, La Rosa

    1998-03-01

    Identification of molecular structures in complex mixtures represents a major challenge in chemical research today. Microfabricated devices or lab-on-a-chip that perform chemical analysis allows dynamic sampling of picoliter microenvironments and separation. The long-term goals of nanochemistry down to the femtoliter scale involve refinement of the detection limit to single-molecule. Our approach consists in designing a very sensitive near-field optical microscope (NSOM-SIAM) to explore the mesoscopic properties of organic compounds. The validity, sensitivity and unique spatial resolution of this system will be discussed for multiple analyte chemosensing.

  12. Near-Field, On-Chip Optical Brownian Ratchets.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Ningfeng; Jaquay, Eric; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2016-08-10

    Nanoparticles in aqueous solution are subject to collisions with solvent molecules, resulting in random, Brownian motion. By breaking the spatiotemporal symmetry of the system, the motion can be rectified. In nature, Brownian ratchets leverage thermal fluctuations to provide directional motion of proteins and enzymes. In man-made systems, Brownian ratchets have been used for nanoparticle sorting and manipulation. Implementations based on optical traps provide a high degree of tunability along with precise spatiotemporal control. Here, we demonstrate an optical Brownian ratchet based on the near-field traps of an asymmetrically patterned photonic crystal. The system yields over 25 times greater trap stiffness than conventional optical tweezers. Our technique opens up new possibilities for particle manipulation in a microfluidic, lab-on-chip environment. PMID:27403605

  13. Mapping near-field plasmonic interactions of silver particles with scanning near-field optical microscopy measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrae, Patrick; Song, Min; Haggui, Mohamed; Fumagalli, Paul; Schmid, Martina

    2015-08-01

    A scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) is a powerful tool to investigate optical effects that are smaller than Abbe's limit. Its greatest strength is the simultaneous measurement of high-resolution topography and optical nearfield data that can be correlated to each other. However, the resolution of an aperture SNOM is always limited by the probe. It is a technical challenge to fabricate small illumination tips with a well-defined aperture and high transmission. The aperture size and the coating homogeneity will define the optical resolution and the optical image whereas the tip size and shape influence the topographic accuracy. Although the technique has been developing for many years, the correlation between simulated near-field data and measurement is still not convincing. To overcome this challenge, the mapping of near-field plasmonic interactions of silver nanoparticles is investigated. Different nanocluster samples with diverse distributions of silver particles are characterized via SNOM in illumination and collection mode. This will lead to topographical and optical images that can be used as an input for SNOM simulations with the aim of estimating optical artifacts. Including tip, particles, and substrate, our finite-elementmethod (FEM) simulations are based on the realistic geometry. Correlating the high-precision SNOM measurement and the detailed simulation of a full image scan will enable us to draw conclusions regarding near-field enhancements caused by interacting particles.

  14. Towards phonon photonics: scattering-type near-field optical microscopy reveals phonon-enhanced near-field interaction.

    PubMed

    Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2004-08-01

    Diffraction limits the spatial resolution in classical microscopy or the dimensions of optical circuits to about half the illumination wavelength. Scanning near-field microscopy can overcome this limitation by exploiting the evanescent near fields existing close to any illuminated object. We use a scattering-type near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) that uses the illuminated metal tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) to act as scattering near-field probe. The presented images are direct evidence that the s-SNOM enables optical imaging at a spatial resolution on a 10nm scale, independent of the wavelength used (lambda=633 nm and 10 microm). Operating the microscope at specific mid-infrared frequencies we found a tip-induced phonon-polariton resonance on flat polar crystals such as SiC and Si3N4. Being a spectral fingerprint of any polar material such phonon-enhanced near-field interaction has enormous applicability in nondestructive, material-specific infrared microscopy at nanoscale resolution. The potential of s-SNOM to study eigenfields of surface polaritons in nanostructures opens the door to the development of phonon photonics-a proposed infrared nanotechnology that uses localized or propagating surface phonon polaritons for probing, manipulating and guiding infrared light in nanoscale devices, analogous to plasmon photonics.

  15. Nonlinear nanoprobes for characterizing ultrafast optical near field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haifeng

    With the rapid development of ultrafast optics and nanophotonics, it is crucial to measure the spatiotemporal evolution of an ultrafast optical near field in nanometer spatial and femtosecond temporal resolution with minimal perturbation. Although near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) can achieve nanoscale spatial resolution and various ultrashort pulse diagnostic tools can characterize femtosecond laser pulses, yet such capability to noninvasively characterize the nanoscale characteristics of femtosecond pulses in all three spatial dimensions remains elusive. In this dissertation, we developed different types of nonlinear optical probes to characterize ultrashort optical pulses. The nonlinear optical probe is composed of three parts, a silica fiber taper, a single nanowire bonded to the end of the fiber and nonlinear nanoparticles attached on the tip of the nanowire. The optical fiber taper can be readily mounted on a mechanical stage and served as a macroscopic interface for handling and positioning control. The single nanowire bridges the dimension gap between the nanocrystals and the fiber taper, and is critical for achieving large aspect ratio and hence minimizing optical scattering and perturbation. The nonlinear nanoparticles give rise to its capability to characterize ultrashort optical pulses. The unique fusion of nanoscale and nonlinear features in developed nonlinear optical probes provides the ability of probing ultrafast optical field in complex 3D microand nano- structures. The demonstration of such ability is crucial for understanding the interaction of ultrafast optical fields and nanoscale systems. The fabrication processes of the nonlinear optical probes are illustrated in detail and the optical properties of the probes are investigated. Two different types of nonlinear optical probes, two-photon fluorescent nanoprobes and Second HARmonic nanoProbes (SHARP), are fabricated. Interferometric autocorrelation measurements near the focal point

  16. A Phenomenological Description of Optical Near Fields and Optical Properties of N Two-Level Systems Interacting with Optical Near Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojiguchi, Akira; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Sangu, Suguru; Kitahara, Kazuo; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    In this chapter, we present a simple phenomenological model of an optical near fields interacting with two-level systems and discuss the dynamics of dipole excitation and radiation properties of the system. As a result, we find that the locally near-field coupling enables controlling the dipole distributions by manipulating the initial excitations and causes strong oscillating radiation pulses. Transport phenomena of the near-fields photons through material systems shows switching between flow and block depending on the coupling strength between material systems and near-field photons.

  17. Harmonic demodulation and minimum enhancement factors in field-enhanced near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Scarpettini, A F; Bragas, A V

    2015-01-01

    Field-enhanced scanning optical microscopy relies on the design and fabrication of plasmonic probes which had to provide optical and chemical contrast at the nanoscale. In order to do so, the scattering containing the near-field information recorded in a field-enhanced scanning optical microscopy experiment, has to surpass the background light, always present due to multiple interferences between the macroscopic probe and sample. In this work, we show that when the probe-sample distance is modulated with very low amplitude, the higher the harmonic demodulation is, the better the ratio between the near-field signal and the interferometric background results. The choice of working at a given n harmonic is dictated by the experiment when the signal at the n + 1 harmonic goes below the experimental noise. We demonstrate that the optical contrast comes from the nth derivative of the near-field scattering, amplified by the interferometric background. By modelling the far and near field we calculate the probe-sample approach curves, which fit very well the experimental ones. After taking a great amount of experimental data for different probes and samples, we conclude with a table of the minimum enhancement factors needed to have optical contrast with field-enhanced scanning optical microscopy. PMID:25231792

  18. Extending the functions of scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneber, A.; van den Berg, M.; Rogalski, J.; Swider, K.; Braun, K.; Meixner, M.; Meixner, A. J.; Zhang, D.

    2014-08-01

    Advanced optical setups are continuously developed to gain deeper insight into microscopic matter. In this paper we report the expansion of a home-built parabolic mirror assisted scanning, near-field optical microscope (PMSNOM) by introducing four complementary functions. 1) We integrated a scanning tunneling feedback function in addition to an already existent shear-force feedback control mechanism. Hence a scanning tunneling microscope (STM)-SNOM is realized whose performance will be demonstrated by the tip-enhanced Raman peaks of graphene sheets on a copper substrate. 2) We integrated an ultrafast laser system into the microscope which allows us to combine nonlinear optical microscopy with hyperspectral SNOM imaging. This particular expansion was used to study influences of plasmonic resonances on nonlinear optical properties of metallic nanostructures. 3) We implemented a polarization angle resolved detection technique which enables us to analyze the local structural order of α-sexithiophene (α-6T). 4) We combined scanning photocurrent microscopy with the microscope. This allows us to study morphology related optical (Raman and photoluminescence) and electrical properties of optoelectronic systems. Our work demonstrates the great potential of turning a SNOM into an advanced multifunctional microscope.

  19. Near-field scanning optical microscopy investigations of conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dearo, Jessie Ann

    The Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy (NSOM) studies of novel, optically active, conjugated polymers are presented. NSOM is a relatively new technique which produces super resolution (˜50--100 nm) optical images simultaneously with topography. The conjugated polymer poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV) and derivatives of PPV are organic semiconductor-like materials with interesting and unique optical properties. Derivatives of PPV have been used in LEDs and have potential in other optoelectronic devices. NSOM provides a tool for investigation of the photoluminescence, absorption/reflection, photo-dynamics and photoconductivity of films of PPV and PPV derivatives on the length scale that these properties are fundamentally defined. The NSOM experiments have revealed mesoscale domains (˜100 nm) of varying photoluminescence emission and average molecular order in drop cast films of PPV. NSOM of stretch-oriented PPV have shown domains of perpendicular molecular orientation with low photoluminescence emission. Near-field photoconductivity experiments of stretch-oriented PPV have correlated the mesoscale topography with the photoconductivity properties of the polymer. NSOM experiments of films of poly(2-methoxy, 5-(2'-(ethyl(hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) have shown that there is mesoscale spatial inhomogeneity in the photo-oxidation process which reduces photoluminescence emission. NSOM has also been used to create nanoscale photo-patterning in MEH-PPV films. The NSOM experiments of blended films of MEH-PPV in polystyrene have shown mesoscale phase separation directly correlated to variations in the optical properties of the film. Derivatives of PPV, stretch-oriented in polyethylene, show photoluminescence intensity variations perpendicular and parallel to the stretch-direction correlated to topography features. As a complement to the NSOM studies of conjugated polymers, single polymer molecule experiments of MEH-PPV are also presented. The

  20. Heat assisted magnetic recording with patterned FePt recording media using a lollipop near field transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoreyshi, Ali; Victora, R. H.

    2014-05-07

    In heat-assisted magnetic recording, optical energy is transferred to a small optical spot on the recording media using a near field transducer. In this study, a scattered field finite difference time domain simulation is used to analyze the performance of a lollipop transducer in heat assisted magnetic recording on both a patterned FePt media and a continuous thin film. To represent wear, sharp corners of the peg are approximated with curved ones, which are found to narrow the track width without excessive loss of intensity. Compared with continuous media, the patterned media exhibits higher energy efficiency and a better concentrated optical beam spot. This effect is due to the near field effects of patterned media on the performance of the transducer.

  1. Imaging Analysis of Near-Field Recording Technique for Observation of Biological Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriguchi, Chihiro; Ohta, Akihiro; Egami, Chikara; Kawata, Yoshimasa; Terakawa, Susumu; Tsuchimori, Masaaki; Watanabe, Osamu

    2006-07-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of an imaging based on a near-field recording technique in comparison with simulation results. In the system, the optical field distributions localized near the specimens are recorded as the surface topographic distributions of a photosensitive film. It is possible to observe both soft and moving specimens, because the system does not require a scanning probe to obtain the observed image. The imaging properties are evaluated using fine structures of paramecium, and we demonstrate that it is possible to observe minute differences of refractive indices.

  2. Design of Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrecongost, Dustin

    The primary objective of this work is to construct a fully functional scattering type Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope (s-SNOM), and to understand the working mechanisms behind it. An s-SNOM is an instrument made up of two separate instruments working in unison. One instrument is a scanning optical microscope focusing light onto a raster scanning sample surface combined with an interferometer set up. The second instrument is an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) operating in noncontact mode. The AFM uses a small probe that interacts with the raster scanning sample surface to map out the topography of the of the sample surface. An s-SNOM uses both of these instruments simultaneously by focusing the light of the optical microscope onto the probe of the AFM. This probe acts as a nano-antenna and confines the light allowing for light-matter interaction to be inferred far below the resolution of the diffraction limit of light. This specific s-SNOM system is unique to others by having a controllable environment. It is high vacuum compatible and variable temperature. In addition, it is efficient at collecting scattered light due to the focusing objective being a partial elliptical mirror which collects 360° of light around the major axis. This s-SNOM system will be used for direct imaging of surface plasmons. Intended works are inducing surface plasmons on InSe thin films, and seeing the enhancement effect of introducing Au nano-rods. Also dielectric properties of materials will be interpreted such as the metal to insulator phase transition of NbO2.

  3. Analysis of the measured signals in apertureless near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Formanek, F; De Wilde, Y; Aigouy, L

    2005-05-01

    We present an analytical model able to explain the optical signal recorded during our experimental approach curves in the infrared at a wavelength lambda=10.6 microm, with a home-made apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope ANSOM. This model uses classical electrodynamics to calculate the scattering cross section of the oscillating tip, considered as a dipole, and its dielectric image in the sample as a function of the tip-sample separation from the near-field to the far-field regime. The dipoles are placed in a non-uniform electric field because of the standing wave arising from the interference between the incident and the specular laser beams. We also added a background field coming from a scatterer on the surface in order to account for zeroing of the optical signal for particular tip-sample separation and interference patterns.

  4. Evanescent-wave scattering in near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wannemacher, R; Quinten, M; Pack, A

    1999-01-01

    Extended Mie theory is used to investigate the scattering and extinction of evanescent waves by small spherical particles and aggregates of such particles. Metallic, dielectric and metal-coated dielectric particles are taken into consideration. In contrast to plane-wave excitation, p- and s-polarized spectra differ in the case of evanescent waves due to the inherent asymmetry of both polarizations. Furthermore, contributions from higher multipoles are strongly enhanced, compared with plane-wave excitation, and the enhancement factors are polarization dependent. The corresponding changes in the scattering and extinction spectra are most pronounced in cases where higher multipoles exhibit resonances in the spectral range considered. This applies, for example, to morphological resonances of dielectric particles with size parameters > 1. The effect of the surface, where the evanescent wave is generated by total internal reflection, on the scattering and extinction spectra is investigated via numerical field calculations employing the multiple multipole method. In an application to apertureless near-field optical microscopy, the variation of the scattered power is calculated when a silicon particle is scanned across a silver particle in the evanescent field.

  5. Properties of Optical Near-Field Excitation Transfers in Randomly Distributed Spherical Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Wataru; Yatsui, Takashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    In this chapter, optical near-field interactions and energy transfer between spherical quantum dots are reviewed. The energy transfer was confirmed by time-resolved spectroscopy in both CdSe and ZnO quantum dots. Furthermore, structural dependency of quantum dots was theoretically and experimentally analyzed with respect to the basic properties of optical signal transfer using optical near-field interactions. The destination selectivity in the optical near-field signal transfer system was also evaluated.

  6. Vector near-field calculation of scanning near-field optical microscopy probes using Borgnis potentials as auxiliary functions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueen; Fan, Zhaozhong; Tang, Tiantong

    2005-07-01

    A new boundary integral equation method for solving the near field in three-dimensional vector form in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) using Borgnis potentials as auxiliary functions is presented. A boundary integral equation of the electromagnetic fields, expressed by Borgnis potentials, is derived based on Green's theorem. The harmonic expansion in rotationally symmetric SNOM probe--sample systems is studied, and the three-dimensional electromagnetic problem is partly simplified into a two-dimensional one. The boundary conditions of Borgnis potentials both on dielectric boundaries and on perfectly conducting boundaries are derived. Relevant algorithms were studied, and a computer program was written. As an example, a SNOM probe-sample system composed of a round metal-covered probe and a sample with a flat surface has been numerically studied, and the computational results are given. This new method can be used efficiently for other electromagnetic field problems with round subwavelength structures.

  7. High throughput optical lithography by scanning a massive array of bowtie aperture antennas at near-field

    PubMed Central

    Wen, X.; Datta, A.; Traverso, L. M.; Pan, L.; Xu, X.; Moon, E. E.

    2015-01-01

    Optical lithography, the enabling process for defining features, has been widely used in semiconductor industry and many other nanotechnology applications. Advances of nanotechnology require developments of high-throughput optical lithography capabilities to overcome the optical diffraction limit and meet the ever-decreasing device dimensions. We report our recent experimental advancements to scale up diffraction unlimited optical lithography in a massive scale using the near field nanolithography capabilities of bowtie apertures. A record number of near-field optical elements, an array of 1,024 bowtie antenna apertures, are simultaneously employed to generate a large number of patterns by carefully controlling their working distances over the entire array using an optical gap metrology system. Our experimental results reiterated the ability of using massively-parallel near-field devices to achieve high-throughput optical nanolithography, which can be promising for many important nanotechnology applications such as computation, data storage, communication, and energy. PMID:26525906

  8. High throughput optical lithography by scanning a massive array of bowtie aperture antennas at near-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, X.; Datta, A.; Traverso, L. M.; Pan, L.; Xu, X.; Moon, E. E.

    2015-11-01

    Optical lithography, the enabling process for defining features, has been widely used in semiconductor industry and many other nanotechnology applications. Advances of nanotechnology require developments of high-throughput optical lithography capabilities to overcome the optical diffraction limit and meet the ever-decreasing device dimensions. We report our recent experimental advancements to scale up diffraction unlimited optical lithography in a massive scale using the near field nanolithography capabilities of bowtie apertures. A record number of near-field optical elements, an array of 1,024 bowtie antenna apertures, are simultaneously employed to generate a large number of patterns by carefully controlling their working distances over the entire array using an optical gap metrology system. Our experimental results reiterated the ability of using massively-parallel near-field devices to achieve high-throughput optical nanolithography, which can be promising for many important nanotechnology applications such as computation, data storage, communication, and energy.

  9. High throughput optical lithography by scanning a massive array of bowtie aperture antennas at near-field.

    PubMed

    Wen, X; Datta, A; Traverso, L M; Pan, L; Xu, X; Moon, E E

    2015-11-03

    Optical lithography, the enabling process for defining features, has been widely used in semiconductor industry and many other nanotechnology applications. Advances of nanotechnology require developments of high-throughput optical lithography capabilities to overcome the optical diffraction limit and meet the ever-decreasing device dimensions. We report our recent experimental advancements to scale up diffraction unlimited optical lithography in a massive scale using the near field nanolithography capabilities of bowtie apertures. A record number of near-field optical elements, an array of 1,024 bowtie antenna apertures, are simultaneously employed to generate a large number of patterns by carefully controlling their working distances over the entire array using an optical gap metrology system. Our experimental results reiterated the ability of using massively-parallel near-field devices to achieve high-throughput optical nanolithography, which can be promising for many important nanotechnology applications such as computation, data storage, communication, and energy.

  10. Laser assisted magnetic recording properties using SiAg near-field super-resolution structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xinbing; Wei, Jingsong; Gan, Fuxi

    2008-12-01

    Laser assisted magnetic recording properties were obtained by SiAg nonmagnetic mask layer combined near-field coupled super-resolution technique. The film structure was "Glass/SiN(30nm)/SiAg(20nm)/SiN(20nm)/TbFeCo(50nm)/SiN(10nm)". SiN and TbFeCo films were prepared by Radio frequency (RF) and Direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering respectively. The SiAg nonmagnetic mask layer was deposited by co-sputtering from a composite target. In the process of sputtering, the substrate negative DC bias voltage was kept at about 100V. Magnetic properties were obtained by vibrating sample magnetometer(VSM) and the magneto optical Kerr measurement. The magnetic recording was conducted by a home-made laser-assisted optic-magnetic hybrid recording setup, whose laser wavelength is 406.7nm and numerical aperture of converging lens is 0.80, respectively. The optical spot size is about 600nm. In the course of recording, the laser pulse was fixed at 100ns, and the magnetic field intensity was 300 Oe. The magnetic domains with a size of about 100nm were obtained, which is about 1/6 of the optical spot size. The analysis indicates that the SiAg nonmagnetic mask layer played a key role in reducing the magnetic domain size.

  11. Investigation of Near-Field Imaging Characteristics of Radial Polarization for Application to Optical Data Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan-Chin; Park, No-Cheol; Yoon, Yong-Joong; Choi, Hyun; Park, Young-Pil

    2007-07-01

    Radially polarized incident light can generate a more confined longitudinal electric field on a focal plane in near-field (NF) optics than focusing circularly polarized light. Using this phenomenon, it is feasible to reduce beam spot size on storage media to increase the areal density of optical data storage. A radially polarized beam generates a beam spot which is 20% more confined on the 1st surface of medium than that of circularly polarized light. However, the peak intensity of total electric field sharply decreases and its transverse component is much more dominant inside the media stack. This confirms that radially polarized optics can be a candidate not for an NF recording system but for an NF read-only memory (ROM) system. Potentially, the results could be useful to understand the effect of radial and circular polarizations inside and outside medium for various applications of NF optics.

  12. Phase sensitive optical near-field mapping using frequency-shifted laser optical feedback interferometry.

    PubMed

    Blaize, Sylvain; Bérenguier, Baptiste; Stéfanon, Ilan; Bruyant, Aurélien; Lérondel, Gilles; Royer, Pascal; Hugon, Olivier; Jacquin, Olivier; Lacot, Eric

    2008-08-01

    The use of laser optical feedback Imaging (LOFI) for scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (sSNOM) is proposed and investigated. We implement this sensitive imaging method by combining a sSNOM with optical heterodyne interferometry and the dynamic properties of a B class laser source which is here used both as source and detector. Compared with previous near field optical heterodyne experiments, this detection scheme provides an optical amplification that is several orders of magnitude higher, while keeping a low noise phase-sensitive detection. Successful demonstration of this complex field imaging technique is done on Silicon on Insulator (SOI) optical waveguides revealing phase singularities and directional leakage.

  13. Phase sensitive optical near-field mapping using frequency-shifted laser optical feedback interferometry.

    PubMed

    Blaize, Sylvain; Bérenguier, Baptiste; Stéfanon, Ilan; Bruyant, Aurélien; Lérondel, Gilles; Royer, Pascal; Hugon, Olivier; Jacquin, Olivier; Lacot, Eric

    2008-08-01

    The use of laser optical feedback Imaging (LOFI) for scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (sSNOM) is proposed and investigated. We implement this sensitive imaging method by combining a sSNOM with optical heterodyne interferometry and the dynamic properties of a B class laser source which is here used both as source and detector. Compared with previous near field optical heterodyne experiments, this detection scheme provides an optical amplification that is several orders of magnitude higher, while keeping a low noise phase-sensitive detection. Successful demonstration of this complex field imaging technique is done on Silicon on Insulator (SOI) optical waveguides revealing phase singularities and directional leakage. PMID:18679441

  14. Scanning near-field optical microscopy signal processing and resolution.

    PubMed

    Grosges, Thomas; Barchiesi, Dominique

    2007-04-20

    To increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to remove the spatially slow varying signals, a lock-in amplifier is often used in scanning probe microscopy. The signal reconstructed from the lock-in data contains the contributions of the evanescent and homogeneous waves that are mixed in the near-field zone (i.e., at a very short distance). The resolution is determined and a method is given to suppress the useless background information. Experimental images of nanoparticles are processed.

  15. Reciprocity theory of apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy with point-dipole probes.

    PubMed

    Esslinger, Moritz; Vogelgesang, Ralf

    2012-09-25

    Near-field microscopy offers the opportunity to reveal optical contrast at deep subwavelength scales. In scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM), the diffraction limit is overcome by a nanoscopic probe in close proximity to the sample. The interaction of the probe with the sample fields necessarily perturbs the bare sample response, and a critical issue is the interpretation of recorded signals. For a few specific SNOM configurations, individual descriptions have been modeled, but a general and intuitive framework is still lacking. Here, we give an exact formulation of the measurable signals in SNOM which is easily applicable to experimental configurations. Our results are in close analogy with the description Tersoff and Hamann have derived for the tunneling currents in scanning tunneling microscopy. For point-like scattering probe tips, such as used in apertureless SNOM, the theory simplifies dramatically to a single scalar relation. We find that the measured signal is directly proportional to the field of the coupled tip-sample system at the position of the tip. For weakly interacting probes, the model thus verifies the empirical findings that the recorded signal is proportional to the unperturbed field of the bare sample. In the more general case, it provides guidance to an intuitive and faithful interpretation of recorded images, facilitating the characterization of tip-related distortions and the evaluation of novel SNOM configurations, both for aperture-based and apertureless SNOM.

  16. Characterization of strong electromagnetic field confinement on gold nanostructures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Diziain, S; Grand, J; Adam, P-M; Bijeon, J-L; Royer, P

    2007-03-15

    We report on the detection of the optical near field of a 1D gold particle array by using an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope. The strong near-field confinement measured above the grating proves unambiguously the near-field origin of the detected optical signal. Comparing the experiment with theory leads us to assign the optical near field to the first diffracted order of the grating, which is evanescent.

  17. Generalized method of eigenoscillations for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bor-Yuan; Zhang, Lingfeng; Castro Neto, Antonio; Basov, Dimitri; Fogler, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the ``probe'') and a material surface (the ``sample'') is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances (eigenoscillations), corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe, as well as the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several axisymmetric particle shapes (spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped). For spheroids an efficient numerical method is proposed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. The method is applied to modeling near-field spectroscopy studies of various materials. For highly resonant materials such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene) a rich structure of the simulated signal is found, including multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves. These features have a strong dependence on physical parameters, e.g., the probe shape. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide the dependence is weaker, and the spheroid model is generally applicable.

  18. Ultrasharp carbon whisker optical fiber probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensi, Mounir; Mikhailov, Gennadii; Pyatkin, Sergey; Adamcik, Jozef; Sekatskii, Sergey; Dietler, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    We report the growth of ultrasharp carbon whiskers onto apertured near-field optical glass fiber probes. The ultrasharp carbon whiskers are produced by the electron-assisted dissociation of residual oil vapors present in the vacuum chamber during the electron beam exposition of the tip. This cost effective manufacturing procedure is reproducible, fast and allows controlling the shape of the carbon whisker. The radius of curvature of the whisker apex is approximately 10 nm while its small total length is around 100 nm thus fulfilling the requirements of aperture Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope (SNOM) probes, i.e. to keep the distance between the sample and the optical aperture during the scanning at subwavelength scale. Furthermore, due to the intrinsic properties of the amorphous carbon whisker, the probes are durable. The carbon whisker optical fiber probes are mounted on tuning-forks using the earlier discussed double-resonant principle. This process ensures a high quality factor of the sensor in the range 2000-5500, which enables to cope with the large stiffness of the tuning-fork actuator and obtain a characteristic noise-limited sensitivity smaller than 10pN necessary to image soft biological samples without destroying them. To illustrate the sensor's performances, transmission near-field optical images of SNOM calibration grating as well as high-resolution state-of-the-art topographic images of single DNA molecules are presented. Prospects of further improvements of the fabrication method enabling to achieve the lighting rod enhancement of the optical near-field (nano-antenna effect) are briefly discussed.

  19. Gold Coating of Fiber Tips in Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, Chandra S.; Witherow, William K.

    2000-01-01

    We report what is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of gold coating by a chemical baking process on tapered fiber tips used in near-field scanning optical microscopy. Many tips can be simultaneously coated.

  20. Near field optical probe for critical dimension measurements

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, Brian R.; Kaushik, Sumanth

    1999-01-01

    A resonant planar optical waveguide probe for measuring critical dimensions on an object in the range of 100 nm and below. The optical waveguide includes a central resonant cavity flanked by Bragg reflector layers with input and output means at either end. Light is supplied by a narrow bandwidth laser source. Light resonating in the cavity creates an evanescent electrical field. The object with the structures to be measured is translated past the resonant cavity. The refractive index contrasts presented by the structures perturb the field and cause variations in the intensity of the light in the cavity. The topography of the structures is determined from these variations.

  1. Near field optical probe for critical dimension measurements

    DOEpatents

    Stallard, B.R.; Kaushik, S.

    1999-05-18

    A resonant planar optical waveguide probe for measuring critical dimensions on an object in the range of 100 nm and below is disclosed. The optical waveguide includes a central resonant cavity flanked by Bragg reflector layers with input and output means at either end. Light is supplied by a narrow bandwidth laser source. Light resonating in the cavity creates an evanescent electrical field. The object with the structures to be measured is translated past the resonant cavity. The refractive index contrasts presented by the structures perturb the field and cause variations in the intensity of the light in the cavity. The topography of the structures is determined from these variations. 8 figs.

  2. Brighter near-field optical probes by means of improving the optical destruction threshold.

    PubMed

    Stöckle, R M; Schaller, N; Deckert, V; Fokas, C; Zenobi, R

    1999-01-01

    The optical destruction thresholds of conventionally etched and tube-etched near-field optical probes were measured. One of the main advantages of tube-etched tips is their smooth glass surface after taper formation. Presumably for this reason, a destruction limit of over 120 microJ was obtained, almost twice as large as that of the rougher, conventionally etched fibre probes. The use of additional adhesion layers (Ti. Cr, Co and Ni) between the glass surface and the aluminium coating produced, especially for tube-etched tips, a significant increase in the optical destruction threshold. With increasingly thin metal coatings, the use of a protection coating that prevents corrosion during aging is recommended. An additional increase in optical stability was achieved by applying mixed-metal coatings: alternating thin titanium and thick aluminium layers yielded fibre probes with superior properties that achieved average optical destruction thresholds of > 270 microJ. This is an increase in stability of > 400% compared with conventionally fabricated near-field optical tips.

  3. Generalized spectral method for near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, B.-Y.; Zhang, L. M.; Castro Neto, A. H.; Basov, D. N.; Fogler, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetic interaction between a sub-wavelength particle (the "probe") and a material surface (the "sample") is studied theoretically. The interaction is shown to be governed by a series of resonances corresponding to surface polariton modes localized near the probe. The resonance parameters depend on the dielectric function and geometry of the probe as well as on the surface reflectivity of the material. Calculation of such resonances is carried out for several types of axisymmetric probes: spherical, spheroidal, and pear-shaped. For spheroids, an efficient numerical method is developed, capable of handling cases of large or strongly momentum-dependent surface reflectivity. Application of the method to highly resonant materials, such as aluminum oxide (by itself or covered with graphene), reveals a rich structure of multi-peak spectra and nonmonotonic approach curves, i.e., the probe-sample distance dependence. These features also strongly depend on the probe shape and optical constants of the model. For less resonant materials such as silicon oxide, the dependence is weak, so that the spheroidal model is reliable. The calculations are done within the quasistatic approximation with radiative damping included perturbatively.

  4. Generation of nearly 3D-unpolarized evanescent optical near fields using total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Timo; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the time-domain partial polarization of optical fields composed of two evanescent waves created in total internal reflection by random electromagnetic beams with orthogonal planes of incidence. We show that such a two-beam configuration enables to generate nearly unpolarized, genuine three-component (3D) near fields. This result complements earlier studies on spectral polarization, which state that at least three symmetrically propagating beams are required to produce a 3D-unpolarized near field. The degree of polarization of the near field can be controlled by adjusting the polarization states and mutual correlation of the incident beams.

  5. Generation of nearly 3D-unpolarized evanescent optical near fields using total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Hassinen, Timo; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T; Setälä, Tero

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the time-domain partial polarization of optical fields composed of two evanescent waves created in total internal reflection by random electromagnetic beams with orthogonal planes of incidence. We show that such a two-beam configuration enables to generate nearly unpolarized, genuine three-component (3D) near fields. This result complements earlier studies on spectral polarization, which state that at least three symmetrically propagating beams are required to produce a 3D-unpolarized near field. The degree of polarization of the near field can be controlled by adjusting the polarization states and mutual correlation of the incident beams. PMID:27367071

  6. Nanoscale Probing of Thermal, Stress, and Optical Fields under Near-Field Laser Heating

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoduan; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei

    2013-01-01

    Micro/nanoparticle induced near-field laser ultra-focusing and heating has been widely used in laser-assisted nanopatterning and nanolithography to pattern nanoscale features on a large-area substrate. Knowledge of the temperature and stress in the nanoscale near-field heating region is critical for process control and optimization. At present, probing of the nanoscale temperature, stress, and optical fields remains a great challenge since the heating area is very small (∼100 nm or less) and not immediately accessible for sensing. In this work, we report the first experimental study on nanoscale mapping of particle-induced thermal, stress, and optical fields by using a single laser for both near-field excitation and Raman probing. The mapping results based on Raman intensity variation, wavenumber shift, and linewidth broadening all give consistent conjugated thermal, stress, and near-field focusing effects at a 20 nm resolution (<λ/26, λ = 32 nm). Nanoscale mapping of near-field effects of particles from 1210 down to 160 nm demonstrates the strong capacity of such a technique. By developing a new strategy for physical analysis, we have de-conjugated the effects of temperature, stress, and near-field focusing from the Raman mapping. The temperature rise and stress in the nanoscale heating region is evaluated at different energy levels. High-fidelity electromagnetic and temperature field simulation is conducted to accurately interpret the experimental results. PMID:23555566

  7. Nanoscale probing of thermal, stress, and optical fields under near-field laser heating.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoduan; Xu, Shen; Wang, Xinwei

    2013-01-01

    Micro/nanoparticle induced near-field laser ultra-focusing and heating has been widely used in laser-assisted nanopatterning and nanolithography to pattern nanoscale features on a large-area substrate. Knowledge of the temperature and stress in the nanoscale near-field heating region is critical for process control and optimization. At present, probing of the nanoscale temperature, stress, and optical fields remains a great challenge since the heating area is very small (~100 nm or less) and not immediately accessible for sensing. In this work, we report the first experimental study on nanoscale mapping of particle-induced thermal, stress, and optical fields by using a single laser for both near-field excitation and Raman probing. The mapping results based on Raman intensity variation, wavenumber shift, and linewidth broadening all give consistent conjugated thermal, stress, and near-field focusing effects at a 20 nm resolution (<λ/26, λ = 32 nm). Nanoscale mapping of near-field effects of particles from 1210 down to 160 nm demonstrates the strong capacity of such a technique. By developing a new strategy for physical analysis, we have de-conjugated the effects of temperature, stress, and near-field focusing from the Raman mapping. The temperature rise and stress in the nanoscale heating region is evaluated at different energy levels. High-fidelity electromagnetic and temperature field simulation is conducted to accurately interpret the experimental results.

  8. Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy with reconstruction of vertical interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Xu, Xiaoji G.

    2015-01-01

    Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy provides access to super-resolution spectroscopic imaging of the surfaces of a variety of materials and nanostructures. In addition to chemical identification, it enables observations of nano-optical phenomena, such as mid-infrared plasmons in graphene and phonon polaritons in boron nitride. Despite the high lateral spatial resolution, scattering-type near-field optical microscopy is not able to provide characteristics of near-field responses in the vertical dimension, normal to the sample surface. Here, we present an accurate and fast reconstruction method to obtain vertical characteristics of near-field interactions. For its first application, we investigated the bound electromagnetic field component of surface phonon polaritons on the surface of boron nitride nanotubes and found that it decays within 20 nm with a considerable phase change in the near-field signal. The method is expected to provide characterization of the vertical field distribution of a wide range of nano-optical materials and structures. PMID:26592949

  9. Near-field scanning optical microscopy using polymethylmethacrylate optical fiber probes.

    PubMed

    Chibani, H; Dukenbayev, K; Mensi, M; Sekatskii, S K; Dietler, G

    2010-02-01

    We report the first use of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) optical fiber-made probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). The sharp tips were prepared by chemical etching of the fibers in ethyl acetate, and the probes were prepared by proper gluing of sharpened fibers onto the tuning fork in the conditions of the double resonance (working frequency of a tuning fork coincides with the resonance frequency of dithering of the free-standing part of the fiber) reported earlier for the case of glass fibers. Quality factors of the probes in the range 2000-6000 were obtained, which enables the realization of an excellent topographical resolution including state-of-art imaging of single DNA molecules. Near-field optical performance of the microscope is illustrated by the Photon Scanning Tunneling Microscope images of fluorescent beads with a diameter of 100nm. The preparation of these plastic fiber probes proved to be easy, needs no hazardous material and/or procedures, and typical lifetime of a probe essentially exceeds that characteristic for the glass fiber probe. PMID:20022180

  10. Sub-nanosecond time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope.

    PubMed

    Rudge, J; Xu, H; Kolthammer, J; Hong, Y K; Choi, B C

    2015-02-01

    We report on the development of a new magnetic microscope, time-resolved near-field scanning magneto-optical microscope, which combines a near-field scanning optical microscope and magneto-optical contrast. By taking advantage of the high temporal resolution of time-resolved Kerr microscope and the sub-wavelength spatial resolution of a near-field microscope, we achieved a temporal resolution of ∼50 ps and a spatial resolution of <100 nm. In order to demonstrate the spatiotemporal magnetic imaging capability of this microscope, the magnetic field pulse induced gyrotropic vortex dynamics occurring in 1 μm diameter, 20 nm thick CoFeB circular disks has been investigated. The microscope provides sub-wavelength resolution magnetic images of the gyrotropic motion of the vortex core at a resonance frequency of ∼240 MHz. PMID:25725848

  11. Non-scanning optical near-field microscopy for nanophotonic security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Naoya; Naruse, Makoto; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Shumpei; Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2015-12-01

    We propose a novel method for observing and utilizing nanometrically fluctuating signals due to optical near-field interactions between a probe and target in near-field optical microscopy. Based on a hierarchical structure of the interactions, it is possible to obtain signals that represent two-dimensional spatial patterns without requiring any scanning process. Such signals reveal individual features of each target, and these features, when appropriately extracted and defined, can be used in security applications—an approach that we call nanophotonic security. As an experimental demonstration, output signals due to interactions between a SiO2 probe and Al nanorods were observed by using near-field optical microscopy at a single readout point, and these signals were quantitatively evaluated using an algorithm that we developed for extracting and defining features that can be used for security applications.

  12. An optical leveling technique for parallel near-field photolithography system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhuming; Chen, Xinyong; Zhang, Yuan; Weaver, John; Roberts, Clive J.

    2012-10-01

    An optical leveling technique is reported for a compact parallel (multi-cantilever) scanning near-field photolithography (SNP) prototype. This instrument operates in liquid and was designed to overcome the challenge of low sample throughput of previous serial scanning SNPs. A combination of zone plate lens array, probe array, and standard atomic force microscope feedback technique are employed to deliver parallel probe operation in the current SNP. Compared to the commonly used two-end or multi-end "force feedback" alignment techniques, the optical levelling technique applied provides a simple solution to maintaining all levers in an array within the near-field region. As a proof-of-principle experiment, the operation of the prototype was demonstrated by producing nano-scale patterns in parallel using scanning near-field photolithography.

  13. The thermal near-field: Coherence, spectroscopy, heat-transfer, and optical forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Andrew C.; O'Callahan, Brian T.; Yang, Honghua U.; Raschke, Markus B.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most universal physical processes shared by all matter at finite temperature is the emission of thermal radiation. The experimental characterization and theoretical description of far-field black-body radiation was a cornerstone in the development of modern physics with the groundbreaking contributions from Gustav Kirchhoff and Max Planck. With its origin in thermally driven fluctuations of the charge carriers, thermal radiation reflects the resonant and non-resonant dielectric properties of media, which is the basis for far-field thermal emission spectroscopy. However, associated with the underlying fluctuating optical source polarization are fundamentally distinct spectral, spatial, resonant, and coherence properties of the evanescent thermal near-field. These properties have been recently predicted theoretically and characterized experimentally for systems with thermally excited molecular, surface plasmon polariton (SPP), and surface phonon polariton (SPhP) resonances. We review, starting with the early historical developments, the emergence of theoretical models, and the description of the thermal near-field based on the fluctuation-dissipation theory and in terms of the electromagnetic local density of states (EM-LDOS). We discuss the optical and spectroscopic characterization of distance dependence, magnitude, spectral distribution, and coherence of evanescent thermal fields. Scattering scanning near-field microscopy proved instrumental as an enabling technique for the investigations of several of these fundamental thermal near-field properties. We then discuss the role of thermal fields in nano-scale heat transfer and optical forces, and the correlation to the van der Waals, Casimir, and Casimir-Polder forces. We conclude with an outlook on the possibility of intrinsic and extrinsic resonant manipulation of optical forces, control of nano-scale radiative heat transfer with optical antennas and metamaterials, and the use of thermal infrared near-field

  14. Multipass laser amplification with near-field far-field optical separation

    DOEpatents

    Hagen, Wilhelm F.

    1979-01-01

    This invention discloses two classes of optical configurations for high power laser amplification, one allowing near-field and the other allowing far-field optical separation, for the multiple passage of laser pulses through one or more amplifiers over an open optical path. These configurations may reimage the amplifier or any other part of the cavity on itself so as to suppress laser beam intensity ripples that arise from diffraction and/or non-linear effects. The optical cavities combine the features of multiple passes, spatial filtering and optical reimaging and allow sufficient time for laser gain recovery.

  15. Nanophotonic Matching by Optical Near-Fields between Shape-Engineered Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Makoto; Yatsui, Takashi; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Tate, Naoya; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2008-11-01

    Engineering light-matter near-field interactions on the nanometer scale offers the possibility of devices with unique functions. Here we show that two metal nanostructures can be designed to exhibit far-field radiation only when their shapes are appropriately configured and when they are closely stacked. Such functionality is useful in ensuring product authentication or certification, where a system should work only when the two nanostructures match, just like a lock and key. We describe its operating principle by observing induced electric currents and their associated optical near-fields, and we show example nanostructures designed by numerical simulations.

  16. Alterations of single molecule fluorescence lifetimes in near-field optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.P.; Goodwin, P.M.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C. )

    1994-07-15

    Fluorescence lifetimes of single Rhodamine 6G molecules on silica surfaces were measured with pulsed laser excitation, time-correlated single photon counting, and near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). The fluorescence lifetime varies with the position of a molecule relative to a near-field probe. Qualitative features of lifetime decreases are consistent with molecular excited state quenching effects near metal surfaces. The technique of NSOM provides a means of altering the environment of a single fluorescent molecule and its decay kinetics in a repeatable fashion.

  17. Decision making based on optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions between quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Makoto; Nomura, Wataru; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Aono, Masashi; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Kim, Song-Ju

    2014-10-21

    Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matters, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.

  18. Decision making based on optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions between quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naruse, Makoto; Nomura, Wataru; Aono, Masashi; Ohtsu, Motoichi; Sonnefraud, Yannick; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Kim, Song-Ju

    2014-10-01

    Optical near-field interactions between nanostructured matters, such as quantum dots, result in unidirectional optical excitation transfer when energy dissipation is induced. This results in versatile spatiotemporal dynamics of the optical excitation, which can be controlled by engineering the dissipation processes and exploited to realize intelligent capabilities such as solution searching and decision making. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve a decision making problem on the basis of optical excitation transfer via near-field interactions by using colloidal quantum dots of different sizes, formed on a geometry-controlled substrate. We characterize the energy transfer behavior due to multiple control light patterns and experimentally demonstrate the ability to solve the multi-armed bandit problem. Our work makes a decisive step towards the practical design of nanophotonic systems capable of efficient decision making, one of the most important intellectual attributes of the human brain.

  19. Hyperspectral optical near-field imaging: Looking graded photonic crystals and photonic metamaterials in color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, Jean; Van Do, K.; Le Roux, Xavier; de Fornel, Frédérique; Cassan, Eric; Cluzel, Benoît

    2012-10-01

    Using a scanning near-field optical microscope operating with a hyperspectral detection scheme, we report the direct observation of the mirage effect within an on-chip integrated artificial material made of a two dimensional graded photonic crystal. The light rainbow due to the material dispersion is quantified experimentally and quantitatively compared to three dimensional plane wave assisted Hamiltonian optics predictions of light propagation.

  20. Near-field focusing of an optical wave by diffraction gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geints, Yu E.; Zemlyanov, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We report the investigation results for spatially-localised light structures (photonic nanojets) under near-field optical radiation scattering on phase diffraction gratings. Main parameters of photonic nanojets from gratings with sawtooth, rectangular and hemispherical groove profiles are obtained by numerical electrodynamic simulation. It is found that by varying a period, degree of filling, groove shape and parameters of optically contrast coating of the diffraction grating one can control the characteristics of the produced photonic jets in a wide range.

  1. Imaging the evanescent intensity gradients of an optical waveguide using a tapping-mode near-field scanning optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chi W.; Tsai, Din Ping; Jackson, Howard E.

    1999-11-01

    Imaging the local evanescent intensity gradients by using a tapping-mode near-field scanning optical microscope is developed. Two different optical structures, one a well- characterized BK-7 glass prism in the total internal reflection configuration, and the other a side-polished optical fiber waveguide with a step index of refraction, were studied. Results show distinct imaging contrast of the intensity gradients, the reveal the variations of the local index of refraction of waveguide. This is a novel near-field optical method, and can be used in the imaging of local index of refraction of a variety of optical waveguide structures.

  2. Imaging local index variations in an optical waveguide using a tapping-mode near-field scanning optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Din Ping; Yang, Chi Wen; Lo, Shu-Zee; Jackson, Howard E.

    1999-08-01

    Imaging local index variations by using a form of modulated near-field scanning optical microscopy is suggested. To test these ideas, we have probed two different optical structures, one a well-characterized BK-7 glass prism in the total internal reflection configuration, and the other a side-polished optical fiber waveguide with a step index of refraction of 4.5×10-3. Using a recently developed tapping-mode tuning-fork near-field scanning optical microscope, we have obtained images showing distinct local index variations. This method may have applicability to the characterization of a wide variety of optical waveguide structures.

  3. High resolution capabilities of all-silica cantilevered probes for near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Aeschimann, Laure; Soboleva, Irina; De Angelis, Francesco; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    We report on the possibility of performing Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy in illumination mode by means of microfabricated, metal-coated silica probes based on transparent cantilevers. A low spring constant silica cantilever hosts a silica tip at its end showing an hyperbolic profile and a circular symmetry. After evaporation of 100 nm of aluminium on the tip and the cantilever we processed the tip apex by means of a FIB, thus obtaining either a probe apex with an optical aperture or an apertureless probe having a thin metal layer on the top. An excellent quality of near-field images of samples showing sub-wavelength features is obtained in both case. In particular, the apertureless probe allows highly resolved topographical and optical images to be collected at the same time. This work further demonstrates that the use of completely transparent, metal-coated cantilevers greatly simplify the light injection into the probe and the fabrication process consequently.

  4. Analysis of optical near-field energy transfer by stochastic model unifying architectural dependencies

    SciTech Connect

    Naruse, Makoto; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Holmström, Petter; Thylén, Lars; Huant, Serge; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-04-21

    We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate energy transfer mediated by optical near-field interactions in a multi-layer InAs quantum dot (QD) structure composed of a single layer of larger dots and N layers of smaller ones. We construct a stochastic model in which optical near-field interactions that follow a Yukawa potential, QD size fluctuations, and temperature-dependent energy level broadening are unified, enabling us to examine device-architecture-dependent energy transfer efficiencies. The model results are consistent with the experiments. This study provides an insight into optical energy transfer involving inherent disorders in materials and paves the way to systematic design principles of nanophotonic devices that will allow optimized performance and the realization of designated functions.

  5. Integrating electron and near-field optics: dual vision for the nanoworld

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haegel, Nancy M.

    2014-04-01

    The integration of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) with the imaging and localized excitation capabilities of electrons in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) offers new capabilities for the observation of highly resolved transport phenomena in the areas of electronic and optical materials characterization, semiconductor nanodevices, plasmonics and integrated nanophotonics. While combined capabilities for atomic force microscopy (AFM) and SEM are of obvious interest to provide localized surface topography in concert with the ease and large spatial dynamic range of SEM and dual beam imaging (e.g., in-situ AFM following focused ion beam modification), integration with near-field optical imaging capability can also provide access to localized transport phenomena beyond the reach of far-field systems. In particular, the flexibility that is achieved with the capability for independent, high resolution placement of an electron source, providing localized excitation in the form of free carriers, photons or plasmons, with scanning of the optical collecting tip allows for unique types of "dual-probe" experiments that directly image energy transfer. We review integrated near-field and electron optics systems to date, highlight applications in a variety of fields and suggest future directions.

  6. Optical Near Field Studies of Plasmonic and Optical Antennas For Sensitive and Selective Biosensing Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, Ryan M.

    For biosensing applications a useful device needs at least two properties: high sensitivity and high selectivity. Optical spectroscopy offers unique advantages over other sensing techniques however one big challenge to overcome is the mismatch between wavelength and the size of biologically relevant molecules. In order to have high enough sensitivity to approach the single-molecule limit, the interaction between the light and the molecule should be strong. However, the diffraction limit of light is approximately half the incidence wavelength, on the order of 100 nm for the smallest nondestructive wavelengths. This presents a significant mismatch between the size of the molecule and the smallest focus spot of the light. The photo-excitation should be compressed more than 100 fold to interact strongly. We must use metallic antennas that convert the incidence radiation into plasmonic modes which can then be compressed well below the wavelength diffraction limit. Studying the near field characteristics of these metallic nanostructures will help us gain insight into this emerging field and allow us to better use them in developing next generation devices. We have developed different geometries of these antennas and simulated their performance using Finite Difference Time Domain software. We have concentrated our efforts in the mid-infrared because that is the natural molecular vibration frequency region and also the near infrared because at these frequencies there exists a mature industry for compact sources, detectors, and fiber optic components. Our simulations show a 6,000 fold mode compression for a bowtie antenna and a million fold compression for a plasmonic photonic crystal (ppc) antenna. The bull's-eye antenna does not have as a high a mode compression but it has a natural geometry for molecular sensing due to the central metallic disc. Experimentally, we have measured the near field of these antennas with a custom back reflection apertureless NSOM setup in both

  7. Focussed ion beam machined cantilever aperture probes for near-field optical imaging.

    PubMed

    Jin, E X; Xu, X

    2008-03-01

    Near-field optical probe is the key element of a near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) system. The key innovation in the first two NSOM experiments (Pohl et al., 1984; Lewis et al., 1984) is the fabrications of a sub-wavelength optical aperture at the apex of a sharply pointed transparent probe tip with a thin metal coating. This paper discusses the routine use of focussed ion beam (FIB) to micro-machine NSOM aperture probes from the commercial silicon nitride cantilevered atomic force microscopy probes. Two FIB micro-machining approaches are used to form a nanoaperture of controllable size and shape at the apex of the tip. The FIB side slicing produces a silicon nitride aperture on the flat-end tips with controllable sizes varying from 120 nm to 30 nm. The FIB head-on drilling creates holes on the aluminium-coated tips with sizes down to 50 nm. Nanoapertures in C and bow tie shapes can also be patterned using the FIB head-on milling method to possibly enhance the optical transmission. A transmission-collection NSOM system is constructed from a commercial atomic force microscopy to characterize the optical resolution of FIB-micro-machined aperture tips. The optical resolution of 78 nm is demonstrated by an aperture probe fabricated by FIB head-on drilling. Simultaneous topography imaging can also be realized using the same probe. By mapping the optical near-field from a bow-tie aperture, optical resolution as small as 59 nm is achieved by an aperture probe fabricated by the FIB side slicing method. Overall, high resolution and reliable optical imaging of routinely FIB-micro-machined aperture probes are demonstrated.

  8. Cathodoluminescence-activated nanoimaging: noninvasive near-field optical microscopy in an electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Bischak, Connor G; Hetherington, Craig L; Wang, Zhe; Precht, Jake T; Kaz, David M; Schlom, Darrell G; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2015-05-13

    We demonstrate a new nanoimaging platform in which optical excitations generated by a low-energy electron beam in an ultrathin scintillator are used as a noninvasive, near-field optical scanning probe of an underlying sample. We obtain optical images of Al nanostructures with 46 nm resolution and validate the noninvasiveness of this approach by imaging a conjugated polymer film otherwise incompatible with electron microscopy due to electron-induced damage. The high resolution, speed, and noninvasiveness of this "cathodoluminescence-activated" platform also show promise for super-resolution bioimaging.

  9. Creating optical near-field orbital angular momentum in a gold metasurface.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Fu; Ku, Chen-Ta; Tai, Yi-Hsin; Wei, Pei-Kuen; Lin, Heh-Nan; Huang, Chen-Bin

    2015-04-01

    Nanocavities inscribed in a gold thin film are optimized and designed to form a metasurface. We demonstrate both numerically and experimentally the creation of surface plasmon (SP) vortex carrying orbital angular momentum in the metasurface under linearly polarized optical excitation that carries no optical angular momentum. Moreover, depending on the orientation of the exciting linearly polarized light, we show that the metasurface is capable of providing dynamic switching between SP vortex formation or SP subwavelength focusing. The resulting SP intensities are experimentally measured using a near-field scanning optical microscope and are found in excellent quantitative agreements as compared to the numerical results.

  10. Circularly polarized near-field optical mapping of spin-resolved quantum Hall chiral edge states.

    PubMed

    Mamyouda, Syuhei; Ito, Hironori; Shibata, Yusuke; Kashiwaya, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Masumi; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Tamura, Hiroyuki; Ootuka, Youiti; Nomura, Shintaro

    2015-04-01

    We have successfully developed a circularly polarized near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) that enables us to irradiate circularly polarized light with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. As a demonstration, we perform real-space mapping of the quantum Hall chiral edge states near the edge of a Hall-bar structure by injecting spin polarized electrons optically at low temperature. The obtained real-space mappings show that spin-polarized electrons are injected optically to the two-dimensional electron layer. Our general method to locally inject spins using a circularly polarized NSOM should be broadly applicable to characterize a variety of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

  11. Hyperbolic phonon-polaritons in boron nitride for near-field optical imaging and focusing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peining; Lewin, Martin; Kretinin, Andrey V.; Caldwell, Joshua D.; Novoselov, Kostya S.; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Gaussmann, Fabian; Taubner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbolic materials exhibit sub-diffractional, highly directional, volume-confined polariton modes. Here we report that hyperbolic phonon polaritons allow for a flat slab of hexagonal boron nitride to enable exciting near-field optical applications, including unusual imaging phenomenon (such as an enlarged reconstruction of investigated objects) and sub-diffractional focusing. Both the enlarged imaging and the super-resolution focusing are explained based on the volume-confined, wavelength dependent propagation angle of hyperbolic phonon polaritons. With advanced infrared nanoimaging techniques and state-of-art mid-infrared laser sources, we have succeeded in demonstrating and visualizing these unexpected phenomena in both Type I and Type II hyperbolic conditions, with both occurring naturally within hexagonal boron nitride. These efforts have provided a full and intuitive physical picture for the understanding of the role of hyperbolic phonon polaritons in near-field optical imaging, guiding, and focusing applications. PMID:26112474

  12. Near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy of few-layer black phosphorous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, A. J.; Tran, S.; Hinton, J. P.; Sternbach, A. J.; Yang, J.; Gillgren, N.; Lau, C. N.; Basov, D. N.

    Few-layer black phosphorous is a recent addition to the family of two-dimensional (2D) materials which exhibits strongly anisotropic transport and optical properties due to its puckered honeycomb structure. It was recently predicted that this intrinsic anisotropy should manifest in the plasmon dispersion. Additionally, tuning layer number and carrier density can control the dispersion of these collective modes. Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) has been demonstrated as a powerful method to probe electronic properties, including propagating collective modes, in layered 2D materials. We used SNOM to investigate anisotropic carrier response in few-layer black phosphorous encapsulated by hexagonal boron nitride. In addition to exploring gate-voltage tunability of the electronic response, we demonstrate effective modulation of the near-field signal by ultrafast photoexcitation.

  13. Tuning Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Probes.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Thiago L; Archanjo, Bráulio S; Fragneaud, Benjamin; Oliveira, Bruno S; Riikonen, Juha; Li, Changfeng; Ribeiro, Douglas S; Rabelo, Cassiano; Rodrigues, Wagner N; Jorio, Ado; Achete, Carlos A; Cançado, Luiz Gustavo

    2015-06-23

    A reproducible route for tuning localized surface plasmon resonance in scattering type near-field optical microscopy probes is presented. The method is based on the production of a focused-ion-beam milled single groove near the apex of electrochemically etched gold tips. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy are employed to obtain highly spatially and spectroscopically resolved maps of the milled probes, revealing localized surface plasmon resonance at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. By changing the distance L between the groove and the probe apex, the localized surface plasmon resonance energy can be fine-tuned at a desired absorption channel. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy is applied as a test platform, and the results prove the reliability of the method to produce efficient scattering type near-field optical microscopy probes. PMID:26027751

  14. Atomic force microscopy and near-field optical imaging of a spin transition.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Manuel; Quintero, Carlos M; Hernández, Edna M; Velázquez, Víctor; Bartual-Murgui, Carlos; Nicolazzi, William; Salmon, Lionel; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine

    2013-09-01

    We report on atomic force microscopy (AFM) and near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) investigations of single crystals of the spin crossover complex {Fe(pyrazine)[Pt(CN)4]} across the first-order thermal spin transition. We demonstrate for the first time that the change in spin state can be probed with sub-micrometer spatial resolution through various topographic features extracted from AFM data. This original approach based on surface topography analysis should be easy to implement to any phase change material exhibiting sizeable electron-lattice coupling. In addition, AFM images revealed specific topographic features in the crystals, which were correlated with the spatiotemporal evolution of the transition observed by far-field and near-field optical microscopies.

  15. Direct measurement of optical force induced by near-field plasmonic cavity using dynamic mode AFM

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Guan, Dongshi; Hang, Zhi Hong; Marset, Zsolt; Liu, Hui; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Chan, Ho Bun; Chan, C. T.; Tong, Penger

    2015-11-20

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years because of their potential applications in optical manipulation through near-field enhancement. Continuing experimental efforts have been made to develop accurate techniques to directly measure the near-field optical force induced by the plasmonic nanostructures in the visible frequency range. In this work, we report a new application of dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (DM-AFM) in the measurement of the enhanced optical force acting on a nano-structured plasmonic resonant cavity. The plasmonic cavity is made of an upper gold-coated glass sphere and a lower quartz substrate patterned with an array of subwavelength goldmore » disks. In the near-field when the sphere is positioned close to the disk array, plasmonic resonance is excited in the cavity and the induced force by a 1550 nm infrared laser is found to be increased by an order of magnitude compared with the photon pressure generated by the same laser light. Lastly, the experiment demonstrates that DM-AFM is a powerful tool for the study of light induced forces and their enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures.« less

  16. Direct measurement of optical force induced by near-field plasmonic cavity using dynamic mode AFM

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Dongshi; Hang, Zhi Hong; Marset, Zsolt; Liu, Hui; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Chan, Ho Bun; Chan, C. T.; Tong, Penger

    2015-11-20

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years because of their potential applications in optical manipulation through near-field enhancement. Continuing experimental efforts have been made to develop accurate techniques to directly measure the near-field optical force induced by the plasmonic nanostructures in the visible frequency range. In this work, we report a new application of dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (DM-AFM) in the measurement of the enhanced optical force acting on a nano-structured plasmonic resonant cavity. The plasmonic cavity is made of an upper gold-coated glass sphere and a lower quartz substrate patterned with an array of subwavelength gold disks. In the near-field when the sphere is positioned close to the disk array, plasmonic resonance is excited in the cavity and the induced force by a 1550 nm infrared laser is found to be increased by an order of magnitude compared with the photon pressure generated by the same laser light. Lastly, the experiment demonstrates that DM-AFM is a powerful tool for the study of light induced forces and their enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures.

  17. Direct Measurement of Optical Force Induced by Near-Field Plasmonic Cavity Using Dynamic Mode AFM

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Dongshi; Hang, Zhi Hong; Marcet, Zsolt; Liu, Hui; Kravchenko, I. I.; Chan, C. T.; Chan, H. B.; Tong, Penger

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have attracted much attention in recent years because of their potential applications in optical manipulation through near-field enhancement. Continuing experimental efforts have been made to develop accurate techniques to directly measure the near-field optical force induced by the plasmonic nanostructures in the visible frequency range. In this work, we report a new application of dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (DM-AFM) in the measurement of the enhanced optical force acting on a nano-structured plasmonic resonant cavity. The plasmonic cavity is made of an upper gold-coated glass sphere and a lower quartz substrate patterned with an array of subwavelength gold disks. In the near-field when the sphere is positioned close to the disk array, plasmonic resonance is excited in the cavity and the induced force by a 1550 nm infrared laser is found to be increased by an order of magnitude compared with the photon pressure generated by the same laser light. The experiment demonstrates that DM-AFM is a powerful tool for the study of light induced forces and their enhancement in plasmonic nanostructures. PMID:26586455

  18. Improved Gap Control System Using a Disturbance Observer for Near-Field Recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jung-Gon; Kang, Min-Seok; Kwon, Tea-Wook; Jeong, Jun; Park, No-Cheol; Yang, Hyun-Seok; Park, Young-Pil

    2008-07-01

    In a solid immersion lens (SIL) based near-field recoding (NFR) system which is one of the emerging technologies for next-generation optical data storage systems, it is essential that the air gap between the SIL and the rotating disk is maintained at less than 50 nm without collision in order to obtain the proper coupling efficiency of evanescent waves. To fabricate a reliable near-field air gap servo system, various disturbances such as disk vibration, external shock and overshoot have to be considered, and these possible disturbances have to be prevented effectively. We propose an improved gap servo system using a disturbance observer (DOB), which has a reduced overshoot and rejection performance for the previously mentioned disturbances. The effectiveness of the proposed controller is verified by experimentally. The experiment results, show that the overshoot was reduced using the proposed near-field air gap servo system with a DOB. In the case of the ramp approach mode with and without the hand-over mode in the mode-switching servo, the overshoots were decreased to 50.9% and collision was avoided, respectively. In addition, in the case of the modified approach mode with and without the hand-over mode in the mode-switching servo, the overshoot was decreased to 2.9 and 3.7%, respectively. Consequently, the access time was decreased in each approach case without the hand-over mode using the DOB-based controller. In addition, the disturbance rejection performance of the external shock was improved to 9.11%.

  19. Transverse and longitudinal characterization of electron beams using interaction with optical near-fields.

    PubMed

    Kozák, Martin; McNeur, Joshua; Leedle, Kenneth J; Deng, Huiyang; Schönenberger, Norbert; Ruehl, Axel; Hartl, Ingmar; Hoogland, Heinar; Holzwarth, Ronald; Harris, James S; Byer, Robert L; Hommelhoff, Peter

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate an experimental technique for both transverse and longitudinal characterization of bunched femtosecond free electron beams. The operation principle is based on monitoring of the current of electrons that obtained an energy gain during the interaction with the synchronized optical near-field wave excited by femtosecond laser pulses. The synchronous accelerating/decelerating fields confined to the surface of a silicon nanostructure are characterized using a highly focused sub-relativistic electron beam. Here the transverse spatial resolution of 450 nm and femtosecond temporal resolution of 480 fs (sub-optical-cycle temporal regime is briefly discussed) achievable by this technique are demonstrated. PMID:27472587

  20. Probing photonic and optoelectronic structures by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bachelot, Renaud; Lerondel, Gilles; Blaize, Sylvain; Aubert, Sebastien; Bruyant, Aurelien; Royer, Pascal

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the Apertureless Scanning Optical Near-Field Microscope as a powerful tool for the characterization of modern optoelectronic and photonic components with sub-wavelength resolution. We present an overview of the results we obtained in our laboratory over the past few years. By significant examples, it is shown that this specific probe microscopy allows for in situ local quantitative study of semiconductor lasers in operation, integrated optical waveguides produced by ion exchange (single channel or Y junction), and photonic structures.

  1. Absorption Coefficient Imaging by Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy in Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, Ana M.; Chaves, Claudilene R.; Silva, Haroldo B.; Weber, Gerald

    2003-06-01

    We present a method for obtaining a position-dependent absorption coefficient from near-field scanning optical transmission microscopy. We show that the optical transmission intensity can be combined with the topography, resulting into an absorption coefficient that simplifies the analysis of different materials within a sample. The method is tested with the dye rhodamine 6G, and we show some analysis in biological samples such as bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . The calculated absorption coefficient images show important details of the bacteria, in particular for P. aeruginosa , in which membrane vesicles are clearly seen.

  2. Near-field imaging of optical diffraction radiation generated by 7-GeV electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Berg, W.J.; Sereno, N.S.; Rule, D.W.; Yao, C.-Y.; Accelerator Systems Division; Carderock Division, NSWC

    2007-01-01

    We report the first unambiguous demonstration of near-field imaging of optical diffraction radiation (ODR). The source of the ODR was an aluminum metal reflective surface with a 7-GeV electron beam passing nearby its single edge. Because of the high Lorentz factor {gamma} involved, appreciable ODR is emitted at visible wavelengths even for impact parameters of 1 to 2 mm, so standard imaging techniques were employed. The experimental results are compared to a simple near-field model. We show that the ODR signals are sensitive to both beam size and position. Applications to multi-GeV beams in transport lines in the major synchrotron radiation facilities, x-ray free-electron lasers, energy recovering linacs, and the International Linear Collider are possible.

  3. Polarization Properties in Apertureless-Type Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Takayuki; Cai, Yongfu

    2015-12-01

    Polarization properties of apertureless-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (a-SNOM) were measured experimentally and were also analyzed using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. Our study reveals that the polarization properties in the a-SNOM are maintained and the a-SNOM works as a wave plate expressed by a Jones matrix. The measured signals obtained by the lock-in detection technique could be decomposed into signals scattered from near-field region and background signals reflected by tip and sample. Polarization images measured by a-SNOM with an angle resolution of 1° are shown. FDTD analysis also reveals the polarization properties of light in the area between a tip and a sample are p-polarization in most of cases.

  4. Power delivery and self-heating in nanoscale near field transducer for heat-assisted magnetic recording.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Traverso, Luis M; Xu, Xianfan

    2015-03-27

    To keep increasing the storage density in next-generation hard disk drives, heat-assisted magnetic recording is being developed where a nanoscale near field transducer (NFT) locally and temporally heats a sub-diffraction-limited region in the recording medium to reduce the magnetic coercivity. This allows the use of very small grain in the medium while still maintaining data thermal stability. Plasmonic nanostructures made of apertures or antennas are good candidates for NFTs because of their capability of subwavelength light manipulation in optical frequencies. The NFT must simultaneously deliver enough power to the recording medium with as small as possible incident laser power to reduce self-heating in the NFT, which could cause thermal expansion and materials failure that lead to degradation of the overall hard drive performance. In this work, we study the effect of optical properties on the power delivery efficiency of nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas, with the presence of a recording media stack. Heat dissipation and temperature rise in the NFT are also computed to investigate their dependence on materials' properties. The possibility of using alternative plasmonic materials for delivering higher power and/or reducing heating in NFTs is discussed.

  5. Power delivery and self-heating in nanoscale near field transducer for heat-assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan; Traverso, Luis M.; Xu, Xianfan

    2015-03-01

    To keep increasing the storage density in next-generation hard disk drives, heat-assisted magnetic recording is being developed where a nanoscale near field transducer (NFT) locally and temporally heats a sub-diffraction-limited region in the recording medium to reduce the magnetic coercivity. This allows the use of very small grain in the medium while still maintaining data thermal stability. Plasmonic nanostructures made of apertures or antennas are good candidates for NFTs because of their capability of subwavelength light manipulation in optical frequencies. The NFT must simultaneously deliver enough power to the recording medium with as small as possible incident laser power to reduce self-heating in the NFT, which could cause thermal expansion and materials failure that lead to degradation of the overall hard drive performance. In this work, we study the effect of optical properties on the power delivery efficiency of nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas, with the presence of a recording media stack. Heat dissipation and temperature rise in the NFT are also computed to investigate their dependence on materials’ properties. The possibility of using alternative plasmonic materials for delivering higher power and/or reducing heating in NFTs is discussed.

  6. Power delivery and self-heating in nanoscale near field transducer for heat-assisted magnetic recording.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Traverso, Luis M; Xu, Xianfan

    2015-03-27

    To keep increasing the storage density in next-generation hard disk drives, heat-assisted magnetic recording is being developed where a nanoscale near field transducer (NFT) locally and temporally heats a sub-diffraction-limited region in the recording medium to reduce the magnetic coercivity. This allows the use of very small grain in the medium while still maintaining data thermal stability. Plasmonic nanostructures made of apertures or antennas are good candidates for NFTs because of their capability of subwavelength light manipulation in optical frequencies. The NFT must simultaneously deliver enough power to the recording medium with as small as possible incident laser power to reduce self-heating in the NFT, which could cause thermal expansion and materials failure that lead to degradation of the overall hard drive performance. In this work, we study the effect of optical properties on the power delivery efficiency of nanoscale bowtie aperture antennas, with the presence of a recording media stack. Heat dissipation and temperature rise in the NFT are also computed to investigate their dependence on materials' properties. The possibility of using alternative plasmonic materials for delivering higher power and/or reducing heating in NFTs is discussed. PMID:25759907

  7. Correlation between optical and topographical images from an external reflection near-field microscope with shear force feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Keller, Ole

    1995-07-01

    An external reflection scanning near-field optical microscope with shear force regulation of the tip-surface distance is described. Near-field optical and shear force topographical images are compared for various samples. It is shown that the most important correlative relationships between these images can be deduced from symmetry considerations. The possibility of extracting additional information from the optical images is demonstrated on images of human blood cells.

  8. Conference Paper NFO-7:7th International Conference on Near-Field Optics and Related Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Prof.Dr. Lukas Novotny

    2004-10-18

    The seventh conference in the NFO conference series, held here in Rochester, provided to be the principal forum for advances in sub-wavelength optics, near-field optical microscopy, local field enhancement, instrumental developments and the ever-increasing range of applications. This conference brought together the diverse scientific communities working on the theory and application of near-field optics (NFO) and related techniques.

  9. Novel near-field optical probe for 100-nm critical dimension measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stallard, B.R.; Kaushik, S.

    1997-06-01

    Although the theoretical resolution for a conventional optical microscope is about 300 nm, it is normally difficult to obtain satisfactory critical dimension (CD) measurements below about 600 nm. E-beam technology has been popular for sub-500 nm metrology but also has well known limitations. Scanning probe and near-field optical methods have high spatial resolution. Yet they are ill-suited for routine CD metrology of high aspect ratio features because of a combination of short working distances (< 10 nm) and large tips. In this paper the authors present the concept and initial modeling results for a novel near-field optical probe that has the potential of overcoming these limitations. The idea is to observe resonance shifts in a waveguide cavity that arise from the coupling of the evanescent field of the waveguide to perturbations beneath the waveguide plane. The change in resonance frequency is detected as a change in the transmission of a monochromatic probe beam through the waveguide. The transmitted intensity, together with the appropriate signal processing, gives the topography of the perturbation. The model predicts that this probe is capable of determining the width of photoresist lines as small as 100 nm. The working distance is much more practical than other probe techniques at about 100 to 250 nm.

  10. Quantum dot labeling based on near-field optical imaging of CD44 molecules.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianan; Pei, Yin; Chen, Zhengwei; Cai, Jiye

    2010-04-01

    The lateral organization of membrane proteins and lipids domains has a direct impact on many cellular processes, but generally these domains are too small to be resolved by diffraction-limited resolution of fluorescence microscopy. Here, we use quantum dot (QD) labeling based on near-field optical imaging, to study the nanoscale organization of hyaluronan receptor CD44 molecules of fixed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in air, with a optical resolution down to 50 nm. The photostability and high luminance of QD evidently improve the signal-to-noise ratio and reproducibility of near-field optical data. Importantly, the blinking-intensity analysis was proposed to identify single QD, providing a calibration to relate intensity to numbers of antibody for the first time. Additionally, the fluorescence-topographic imaging enables us to investigate the topographic location pattern. Our results demonstrate that CD44 molecules on MSCs are enriched into nanosized domain and they predominantly locate on the peak of the membrane protrusions, which may contribute to clarify the underlying mechanism of functions ascribed to these molecules.

  11. Near-field radiation of bow-tie antennas and apertures at optical frequencies.

    PubMed

    Sendur, K; Challener, W

    2003-06-01

    We investigate the ability of the bow-tie slot antenna to generate intense optical spots below the diffraction limit. A commercially available finite-difference time-domain electromagnetic modelling software is used in the numerical simulations. The finite-difference time-domain software is first compared to analytical results at optical frequencies to verify its accuracy. We then present numerical simulations for various geometries involving apertures on thin films and the bow-tie antenna. The transmission efficiency and optical spot size of the bow-tie antenna are compared with those of rectangular and circular apertures on thin metal films. We also investigate the effects of material composition, frequency, and antenna geometry on the near-field radiation pattern using numerical simulations. PMID:12787099

  12. Optical fiber nanoprobe preparation for near-field optical microscopy by chemical etching under surface tension and capillary action.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Samir K; Mitra, Anupam; Singh, Nahar; Sarkar, S N; Kapur, Pawan

    2009-10-26

    We propose a technique of chemical etching for fabrication of near perfect optical fiber nanoprobe (NNP). It uses photosensitive single mode optical fiber to etch in hydro fluoric (HF) acid solution. The difference in etching rate for cladding and photosensitive core in HF acid solution creates capillary ring along core-cladding boundary under a given condition. The capillary ring is filled with acid solution due to surface tension and capillary action. Finally it creates near perfect symmetric tip at the apex of the fiber as the height of the acid level in capillary ring decreases while width of the ring increases with continuous etching. Typical tip features are short taper length (approximately 4 microm), large cone angle (approximately 38 degrees ), and small probe tip dimension (<100 nm). A finite difference time domain (FDTD) analysis is also presented to compare near field optics of the NNP with conventional nanoprobe (CNP). The probe may be ideal for near field optical imaging and sensor applications.

  13. Plasmonic meta-screen for alleviating the trade-offs in the near-field optics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wong, Alex M H; Markley, Loïc; Helmy, Amr S; Eleftheriades, George V

    2009-07-20

    We propose a "meta-screen" design, consisting of a metallic sheet patterned with a dense array of nano-sized slot antennas, for inducing sub-wavelength optical spots in the near-field. Compared to other transmission screen topologies, our design overcomes the trade-off of low throughput versus resolution of a sub-wavelength aperture by inducing resonance in the slots. In addition, the antenna array serves to effectively narrow the spot size through the superposition of spatially shifted beams produced by each slot element. Such a design offers a practical approach for extending the near-field sensing/imaging distance at optical frequencies. The effectiveness of narrowing the spot size through the array topology is demonstrated by evaluating the full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) beamwidth at a distance of 0.1lambda(0) away from the screen. We show that an array with just three elements improves the beamwidth by more than 30% compared to a single resonant slot element. In this paper, important issues such as the operating principle and the design process of the meta-screen, the characteristics of plasmonic slot antenna, the impact of the number of array elements, and the effect of asymmetry due to the presence of a supporting substrate are discussed. PMID:19654637

  14. Effect of condensed water on scanning near-field optical microscope measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douas, M.; Serena, P. A.; Marqués, M. I.

    2013-11-01

    The relevance of the scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM), for near-field characterization, is often shaded by the appearance of artifacts, especially when geometrical characterization is intended. Artifacts are related to many features such as the feedback system or the scanning mode. For non-vacuum environmental conditions, artifact sources may be related to tip geometry and the pollutants attached, either on the tip or on the studied surfaces, altering the optical image. As an environmental element, water vapor could be treated as a source for artifacts, but could also be used as a tool for chemical characterization of hydrophilic patches. Spontaneous meniscus formation between hydrophilic surfaces, such as the tip and the sample, may guide light from the tip to the sample, enhancing the transmitted signal. This study focuses on the effects that water condensation at the nanoscale has on the signals achieved by SNOM, combining two computational methods (Monte Carlo and finite difference time domain) in order to deal with light propagation through heterogeneous media and water condensation.

  15. Selective trapping or rotation of isotropic dielectric microparticles by optical near field in a plasmonic archimedes spiral.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Yi; Huang, Jer-Shing; Huang, Chen-Bin

    2014-02-12

    We demonstrate selective trapping or rotation of optically isotropic dielectric microparticles by plasmonic near field in a single gold plasmonic Archimedes spiral. Depending on the handedness of circularly polarized excitation, plasmonic near fields can be selectively engineered into either a focusing spot for particle trapping or a plasmonic vortex for particle rotation. Our design provides a simple solution for subwavelength optical manipulation and may find applications in micromechanical and microfluidic systems. PMID:24392638

  16. Selective trapping or rotation of isotropic dielectric microparticles by optical near field in a plasmonic archimedes spiral.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wei-Yi; Huang, Jer-Shing; Huang, Chen-Bin

    2014-02-12

    We demonstrate selective trapping or rotation of optically isotropic dielectric microparticles by plasmonic near field in a single gold plasmonic Archimedes spiral. Depending on the handedness of circularly polarized excitation, plasmonic near fields can be selectively engineered into either a focusing spot for particle trapping or a plasmonic vortex for particle rotation. Our design provides a simple solution for subwavelength optical manipulation and may find applications in micromechanical and microfluidic systems.

  17. Two-dimensional refractive index profiling of optical fibers by modified refractive near-field technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed, A.; Pilz, Soenke; Ryser, Manuel; Romano, Valerio

    2016-02-01

    The refractive index distribution in the core-cladding region of an optical fiber plays an important role in determining the transmission and dispersion properties of the waveguide. The refracted near-field technique (RNF) is among the most widespread techniques used for measuring the refractive index profile of optical fibers and is based on illuminating the end-facet of a fiber with a focused beam whose vertex angle greatly exceeds the acceptance angle of the fiber, which is immersed in an index matching liquid. What one observes are then the refracted unguided rays rather than the guided rays. Nevertheless, the standard refracted near-field technique cannot be applied to a wide range of optical fibers e.g. if their shapes are not axially symmetric. In this work we demonstrate a modified method which allows 2-D imaging of the refractive index profile and thereby overcoming the axial symmetric limitation of the standard RNF. The new system is operating at 630 nm and based on the same principle of the RNF, but the optical path is reversed so that the light at the fiber end-facet is collected by an objective lens and detected by a CCD camera. The method does not require scanning over the fiber end-facet. Thus the system is faster and less sensitive to vibrations and external conditions compared to the standard RNF, furthermore it allows averaging to improve the signal to noise ratio. The spatial resolution of the system is determined by the numerical aperture of the objective and by the resolution of the CCD camera. To calibrate the setup, a reference multi-step index fiber provided by National Physical Laboratory was used.

  18. Two-dimensional refractive index profiling of optical fibers by modified refractive near-field technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed, A.; Pilz, Soenke; Ryser, Manuel; Romano, Valerio

    2016-04-01

    The refractive index distribution in the core-cladding region of an optical fiber plays an important role in determining the transmission and dispersion properties of the waveguide. The refracted near-field technique (RNF) is among the most widespread techniques used for measuring the refractive index profile of optical fibers and is based on illuminating the end-facet of a fiber with a focused beam whose vertex angle greatly exceeds the acceptance angle of the fiber, which is immersed in an index matching liquid. What one observes are then the refracted unguided rays rather than the guided rays. Nevertheless, the standard refracted near-field technique cannot be applied to a wide range of optical fibers e.g. if their shapes are not axially symmetric. In this work we demonstrate a modified method which allows 2-D imaging of the refractive index profile and thereby overcoming the axial symmetric limitation of the standard RNF. The new system is operating at 630 nm and based on the same principle of the RNF, but the optical path is reversed so that the light at the fiber end-facet is collected by an objective lens and detected by a CCD camera. The method does not require scanning over the fiber end-facet. Thus the system is faster and less sensitive to vibrations and external conditions compared to the standard RNF, furthermore it allows averaging to improve the signal to noise ratio. The spatial resolution of the system is determined by the numerical aperture of the objective and by the resolution of the CCD camera. To calibrate the setup, a reference multi-step index fiber provided by National Physical Laboratory was used.

  19. Optical Characterization of Component Wear and Near-Field Plasma of the Hermes Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2015-01-01

    Optical emission spectral (OES) data are presented which correlate trends in sputtered species and the near-field plasma with the Hall-Effect Rocket with Magnetic Shielding (HERMeS) thruster operating condition. The relative density of singly-ionized xenon (Xe II) is estimated using a collisional-radiative model. OES data were collected at three radial and several axial locations downstream of the thruster's exit plane. These data were deconvolved to show the structure for the near-field plasma as a function of thruster operating condition. The magnetic field is shown to have a much greater affect on plasma structure than the discharge voltage with the primary ionization/acceleration zone boundary being similar for all nominal operating voltages at constant power. OES measurement of sputtered boron shows that the HERMeS thruster is magnetically shielded across its operating envelope. Preliminary assessment of carbon sputtered from the keeper face suggest it increases significantly with operating voltage, but the uncertainty associated with these measurements is very high.

  20. Nanoscale optical and electrical characterizations of ZnO nanostructures by near-field microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bercu, Bogdan; Giraudet, Louis; Molinari, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The interest in the recent years for nanostructure studies has led to the development of a wide palette of characterization techniques such as the electrical modes in scanning probe microscopy (STM, EFM, KPFM...). Optical characterization at nanoscale remains nevertheless a challenge especially for wide gap semiconductors where high energy is required. In this presentation, we will present our work focusing in the development and the improvement of near-field microscopy techniques to investigate nanoscale properties of ZnO nanostructures and related semiconducting objects. For the optical characterization, cathodoluminescence (CL) studies present many advantages over the classical photoluminescence experiments for ZnO analysis. This contribution presents the development of a scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope where a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever is simultaneously used for both actuation and oscillation amplitude detection. Operated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) it offers the possibility of performing simultaneous topography and cathodoluminescence charting of the sample surface additionally to the SEM imaging with a resolution in the order of several tenths of nanometers. Different measurements of ZnO nanostructures and related objects will be presented to show the potentiality of our optical characterization setup. Complementary STEM-CL measurements at higher beam energy were performed on the ZnO nanowires confirming the good quality of the investigated nanostructures. As for the electrical characterization, we will focus on the local surface potential mapping of ZnO nanowires used for photoconduction using Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy. While ZnO nanowire photoconduction gains as high as 1010 in the UV region were reported, several issues come into play when it comes to making a precise measurement of a single nanowire. An important issue is the good quality of the injecting contacts on the nanowire and the reproducibility of its

  1. Study of light emission and collection in a transparent dielectric cantilever-based near-field optical probe.

    PubMed

    Mourched, B; Nativel, E L; Kribich, R; Falgayrettes, P; Gall-Borrut, P

    2016-04-01

    We report the design of a new type of scanning near-field optical microscopy probes combining the advantages of both tapered optical fibres type and cantilever type commercial scanning near-field optical microscopy probes. The material is an organomineral synthesized by the sol-gel method. This material matches mechanical and optical performances for such a scanning near-field optical microscopy probe fabrication. Numerical calculations were carried out using finite element method in order to study the optical transmission of the probe in emission and collection modes. The influence of the probe geometry on the intensity distribution in the vicinity of the aperture and in the extremity of the cantilever is studied in details.

  2. Continuous wave two-photon scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, A K; Subramaniam, V; Striker, G; Schnetter, C; Arndt-Jovin, D J; Jovin, T M

    1998-01-01

    We have implemented continuous-wave two-photon excitation of near-UV absorbing fluorophores in a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The 647-nm emission of an Ar-Kr mixed gas laser was used to excite the UV-absorbing DNA dyes DAPI, the bisbenzimidazole Hoechst 33342, and ethidium bromide in a shared aperture SNOM with uncoated fiber tips. Polytene chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster and the nuclei of 3T3 Balb/c cells labeled with these dyes were readily imaged. The fluorescence intensity showed the expected nonlinear (second order) dependence on the excitation power in the range of 8-180 mW. We measured the fluorescence intensity as a function of the tip-sample displacement in the direction normal to the sample surface in the single- and two-photon excitation modes (SPE, TPE). The fluorescence intensity decayed faster in TPE than in SPE. PMID:9726953

  3. Optical near-field excitation at commercial scanning probe microscopy tips: a theoretical and experimental investigation.

    PubMed

    Huber, Christoph; Trügler, Andreas; Hohenester, Ulrich; Prior, Yehiam; Kautek, Wolfgang

    2014-02-14

    A systematic study of the influence of the excitation angle, the light polarization and the coating thickness of commercial SPM tips on the field enhancement in an apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope is presented. A new method to optimize the alignment of the electric field vector along the major tip axis by measuring the resonance frequency was developed. The simulations were performed with a MNPBEM toolbox based on the Boundary Element Method (BEM). The influence of the coating thickness was investigated for the first time. Coatings below 40 nm showed a drastic influence both on the resonance wavelength and the enhancement. A shift to higher angles of incidence for the maximum enhancement could be observed for greater tip radii.

  4. Widely tuneable scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy using pulsed quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Yoxall, Edward Rahmani, Mohsen; Maier, Stefan A.; Phillips, Chris C.; Navarro-Cía, Miguel

    2013-11-18

    We demonstrate the use of a pulsed quantum cascade laser, wavelength tuneable between 6 and 10 μm, with a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM). A simple method for calculating the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the s-SNOM measurement is presented. For pulsed lasers, the SNR is shown to be highly dependent on the degree of synchronization between the laser pulse and the sampling circuitry; in measurements on a gold sample, the SNR is 26 with good synchronization and less than 1 without. Simulations and experimental s-SNOM images, with a resolution of 100 nm, corresponding to λ/80, and an acquisition time of less than 90 s, are presented as proof of concept. They show the change in the field profile of plasmon-resonant broadband antennas when they are excited with wavelengths of 7.9 and 9.5 μm.

  5. Evolution of Biomass Burning Aerosol Optical Properties in the Near Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlacek, A. J., III; Arnott, W. P.; Chand, D.; Fortner, E.; Freedman, A.; Kleinman, L. I.; Onasch, T. B.; Shilling, J. E.; Springston, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) events are known to produce chemically rich environments that can impact the evolution of primary aerosols and influence secondary aerosols production rates. With their increasing in frequency, BB events are expected to exert an ever-increasing impact on climate due to aerosol radiative forcing processes. One area that is still poorly understood is the evolution of these smoke aerosols in the near field. Recent literature suggests that BB aerosols undergo a rapid evolution near their source that is then followed by a slower aging phase. During the summer of 2013, the Department of Energy-sponsored an aircraft field campaign called the Biomass Burning Observation Project (BBOP) that specifically targeted the evolution of smoke aerosols in the near field (< 2 hours). Results examining the evolution of BB optical and microphysical properties will be presented. To probe these properties, the BBOP field campaign deployed a Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) to probe the mixing state of refractory black carbon (rBC) and a Soot Particle Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (SP-AMS) to investigate the composition of both non-refractory and rBC-containing particles. Aerosol optical properties were measured in situ using a 355 nm Photoacoustic spectrometer (PAS), a 532 nm photo thermal interferometer (PTI), a 630 nm cavity Attenuation Phase Shifted (CAPS) spectrometer, a 3-λ nephelometer, and a 3-λ PSAP. The BBOP study represented the maiden aircraft deployment for the SP-AMS, the 355 nm PAS and 532 nm PTI. Discussion will be on the near-field evolution of particle mixing state and morphology, chemical composition, and microphysical processes that determine aerosol size distributions and single scattering albedo (SSA) of light absorbing aerosols. In the cases studied, increases in the coating thickness of refractive black carbon (rBC) particles, organic aerosol/rBC ratio, scattering/CO ratio, and aerosol size distributions have been observed. Results will be

  6. Chemically-doped graphene with improved surface plasmon characteristics: an optical near-field study.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zebo; Wang, Weiliang; Ma, Teng; Deng, Zexiang; Ke, Yanlin; Zhan, Runze; Zou, Qionghui; Ren, Wencai; Chen, Jun; She, Juncong; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Fei; Chen, Huanjun; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng

    2016-10-01

    One of the most fascinating and important merits of graphene plasmonics is their tunability over a wide range. While chemical doping has proven to be a facile and effective way to create graphene plasmons, most of the previous studies focused on the macroscopic behaviors of the plasmons in chemically-doped graphene and little was known about their nanoscale responses and related mechanisms. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we present the first experimental near-field optical study on chemically-doped graphene with improved surface plasmon characteristics. By using a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM), we managed to show that the graphene plasmons can be tuned and improved using a facile chemical doping method. Specifically, the plasmon interference patterns near the edge of the monolayer graphene were substantially enhanced via nitric acid (HNO3) exposure. The plasmon-related characteristics can be deduced by analyzing such plasmonic fringes, which exhibited a longer plasmon wavelength and reduced plasmon damping rate. In addition, the local carrier density and therefore the Fermi energy level (EF) of graphene can be obtained from the plasmonic nano-imaging, which indicated that the enhanced plasmon oscillation originated from the injection of free holes into graphene by HNO3. These findings were further corroborated by theoretical calculations using density functional theory (DFT). We believe that our findings provide a clear nanoscale picture on improving graphene plasmonics by chemical doping, which will be helpful for optimizing graphene plasmonics and for elucidating the mechanisms of two-dimensional light confinement by atomically thick materials.

  7. Emergence of plasmaronic structure in the near-field optical response of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbotte, J. P.; LeBlanc, J. P. F.; Nicol, E. J.

    2012-05-01

    The finite momentum optical response σ(q,ω) of graphene can be probed with the innovative technique of infrared nanoscopy where midinfrared radiation is confined by an atomic force microscope cantilever tip. In contrast to conventional q˜0 optical absorption which primarily involves Dirac fermions with momentum near the Fermi momentum k˜kF, for finite q, σ(q,ω) has the potential to provide information on many-body renormalizations and collective phenomena which have been found at small knear-field optics.

  8. Far- and near-field optical properties of gold nanoparticle ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Nedyalkov, N N; Dikovska, A O; Dimitrov, I; Nikov, Ru; Atanasov, P A; Toshkova, R A; Gardeva, E G; Yossifova, L S; Alexandrov, M T

    2012-12-31

    The optical properties of gold nanoparticle clusters are presented from the point of view of their applications in biophotonics, where the absorption and scattering spectra are crucial. Generalised multiparticle Mie theory and finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique are used for theoretical description of the far- and nearfield optical properties of two dimensional nanoparticle ensembles. The system under consideration consists of spherical gold nanoparticles from 20 to 200 nm in diameter, forming 2D clusters in water. The properties of the far-field absorption and scattering spectra as a function of the cluster size, particle dimensions, and interparticle distance are investigated for ordered hexagonal structure of the particle arrays. It is found that the absorption efficiency can be shifted to the IR spectral range by increasing array size and decreasing interparticle distance. The increase in the array size also results in enhancement of the scattering efficiency while the absorption is reduced. The near-field intensity distribution is inhomogeneous over the array, as formation of zones with intensity enhancement of about two orders of magnitude is observed in specific areas. The optical properties of an ensemble whose configuration is reproduced from real experiments of gold nanoparticle deposition onto cancer cells are also presented. The results obtained can be used in designing of nanoparticle arrays with applications in biophotonics, bioimaging and photothermal therapy. (nanosystems)

  9. Optical interconnects based on optical far- and near-field interactions for high-density data broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Naruse, Makoto; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Sangu, Suguru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2006-01-01

    Ultrahigh-density data-broadcasting optical interconnects are proposed and experimentally demonstrated using optical near-field interactions between quantum dots, which cannot be driven by far-field light, allowing sub-wavelength device operation, and far-field excitation for global interconnects. The proposed scheme helps to solve interconnection difficulties experienced in nano-scale device arrays since components for individually guiding light from external systems are not required. Combining the broadcasting mechanism with switching and summation architectures will allow nano-scale integration of parallel processing devices.

  10. Optical gecko toe: Optically controlled attractive near-field forces between plasmonic metamaterials and dielectric or metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; MacDonald, K. F.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2012-05-01

    On the mesoscopic scale, electromagnetic forces are of fundamental importance to an enormously diverse range of systems, from optical tweezers to the adhesion of gecko toes. Here we show that a strong light-driven force may be generated when a plasmonic metamaterial is illuminated in close proximity to a dielectric or metal surface. This near-field force can exceed radiation pressure and Casimir forces to provide an optically controlled adhesion mechanism mimicking the gecko toe: At illumination intensities of just a few tens of nW/μm2 it is sufficient to overcome the Earth's gravitational pull.

  11. Optical resonance-enhanced absorption-based near-field immunochip biosensor for allergen detection.

    PubMed

    Maier, Irene; Morgan, Michael R A; Lindner, Wolfgang; Pittner, Fritz

    2008-04-15

    An optical immunochip biosensor has been developed as a rapid method for allergen detection in complex food matrixes, and its application evaluated for the detection of the egg white allergens, ovalbumin and ovomucoid. The optical near-field phenomenon underlying the basic principle of the sensor design is called resonance-enhanced absorption (REA), which utilizes gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as signal transducers in a highly sensitive interferometric setup. Using this approach, a novel, simple, and rapid colorimetric solid-phase immunoassay on a planar chip substrate was realized in direct and sandwich assay formats, with a detection system that does not require any instrumentation for readout. Semiquantitative immunochemical responses are directly visible to the naked eye of the analyst. The biosensor shows concentration-dependent color development by capturing antibody-functionalized Au NPs on allergen-coated chips and has a detection limit of 1 ng/mL. To establish a rapid method, we took advantage of the physicochemical microenvironment of the Au NP-antibody bioconjugate to be bound directly over an interacting poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate) interlayer by an immobilized antigen. In the direct assay format, a coating time with allergen of only 5 min under "soft" nondenaturing conditions was sufficient for accurate reproducibility and sensitivity. In conclusion, the REA-based immunochip sensor is easy to fabricate, is reproducible and selective in its performance, has minimal technical requirements, and will enable high-throughput screening of affinity binding interactions in technological and medical applications. PMID:18358010

  12. Fluorescent nanoscale detection of biotin streptavidin interaction using near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun Kyu; Gokarna, Anisha; Hulme, John P.; Park, Hyun Gyu; Chung, Bong Hyun

    2008-06-01

    We describe a nanoscale strategy for detecting biotin-streptavidin binding using near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) that exploits the fluorescence properties of single polydiacetylene (PDA) liposomes. NSOM is more useful to observe nanomaterials having optical properties with the help of topological information. We synthesized amine-terminated 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA) monomer (PCDA-NH2) and used this derivatized monomer to prepare PCDA liposomes. PCDA-NH2 liposomes were immobilized on an aldehyde-functionalized glass surface followed by photopolymerization by using a 254 nm light source. To measure the biotin-streptavidin binding, we conjugated photoactivatable biotin to immobilized PCDA-NH2 liposomes by UV irradiation (365 nm) and subsequently allowed them to interact with streptavidin. We analyzed the fluorescence using a fluorescence scanner and observed single liposomes using NSOM. The average height and NSOM signal observed in a single liposome after binding were ~31.3 to 8.5 ± 0.5 nm and 0.37 to 0.16 ± 0.6 kHz, respectively. This approach, which has the advantage of not requiring a fluorescent label, could prove highly beneficial for single molecule detection technology.

  13. Imaging biological molecules with single molecule sensitivity using near-field scanning optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.P.; Affleck, R.L.; Goodwin, P.M.; Keller, R.A.; Martin, J.C.; Petty, J.T.; Schecker, J.A.; Wu, Ming

    1995-12-01

    We have developed a near-field scanning optical microscope with the sensitivity to detect single fluorescent molecules. Our microscope is based on scanning a sample under a tapered and metal coated fiber optic probe and has an illumination-aperture diameter as small as 100 nm. The microscope simultaneously acquires a shear force image with a height noise of {approximately} 1 nm. We have used this system to demonstrate the detection of single molecules of Rhodamine-6G on silica. In this paper, we explore the use of NSOM for investigations of biological molecules. We have prepared and imaged double-stranded DNA intercalated with thiazole orange homodimer (TOTO); single chromosomes stained with propidium iodide; and {beta}-phycoerythrin proteins on dry, borosilicate-glass surfaces. At very dilute coverages, isolated fluorescent spots are observed for the un-intercalated TOTO dye and for {beta}-phycoerythrin. These fluorescent spots exhibit-emission intensity fluctuations and abrupt bleaching transitions, similar to the intensity behavior observed previously for single Rhodamine 6G molecules on silica.

  14. Subwavelength imaging and control of ultrafast optical near-field under resonant- and off-resonant excitation of bowtie nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Boyu; Qin, Jiang; Tao, Haiyan; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate subwavelength imaging and control of localized near-field distribution under resonant and off-resonant excitation of identical gold bowtie nanostructures through photoemission electron microscopy. Control of the near-field distribution was realized by polarization rotation of single femtosecond laser pulse and variation of the phase delay of two orthogonally polarized femtosecond laser pulses. We show that the localized optical near-field distribution can be well controlled either among the corners of the nano-prisms in the bowtie for resonant excitation or the edges for off-resonant excitation. A better visualization of the PEEM image is achieved for resonant excitation than in the case of off-resonant excitation. The experimental results of the optical near-field distribution control are well reproduced by finite-difference time-domain simulations and understood by linear combination of electric charge distribution of the bowtie by s- and p- polarized light illumination. In addition, a shift of the near-field excitation position with inverted or unchanged phase, alternatively an un-shift of the excitation position but only with inverted phase of the near-field, can be realized by rotating the polarization angle of a single pulse and coherent control of two orthogonally polarized fs laser pulses.

  15. Micromachined solid immersion lenses and optical antennas for scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crozier, Kenneth Brian

    The optical microscope is a powerful and ubiquitous measurement and observation tool in science, medicine and industry. In spite of this, however, the resolving power of the optical microscope is fundamentally limited by diffraction. In this work we demonstrate two methods to overcome this limitation based on micromachined Solid Immersion Lenses (SILs) and optical antennas. In the first method for improving optical resolution, the Solid Immersion Lens (SIL), light is focused in a high refractive index lens held close to the sample. Silicon nitride SILs with diameters of 7 micron integrated with atomic force microscope cantilevers are fabricated by surface micromachining. A scanning optical microscope based on the micromachined SIB and operating in reflection and transmission modes at a wavelength of 400nm is presented. The full width at half maximum spot size of the SIL-based microscope is measured to be ˜130nm, which is ˜1.9 times better than the spot size without the SIL (256nm). Furthermore, the optical transmission efficiency of the SIL is ˜64% (with losses due to reflection and absorption), which is significantly better than that of the tapered fiber nearfield scanning optical microscope (typically ˜0.001--0.01%). The second method for improving resolution uses antennas operating at optical wavelengths to enhance the optical fields in regions whose dimensions are much smaller than the wavelength. We present a numerical study based on the finite difference time domain (FDTD) technique, showing that the optical intensity is enhanced by three orders of magnitude in a region whose dimensions are less than ˜lambda/40. A study on the factors influencing intensity enhancement is presented. Optical antennas operating at infrared wavelengths (˜2--10 micron) are fabricated by electron-beam lithography. Far-field measurements on the optical antennas are carried out and found to be in good agreement with FDTD calculations. Lastly, we present a technique in which the

  16. Sensitivity maximized near-field scanning optical microscope with dithering sample stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Lee, Seung Gol; Heo, Chaejeong; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2012-09-01

    We developed a new scheme for a higher sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) by using a dithering sample stage rather than a dithering probe for the constant gap control between probe and sample. In a conventional NSOM, which use tip dithering feedback mechanism, the Q factor drastically decreases from 7783 to 1000 (13%) or even to 100 (1%) because harmonic oscillating characteristic is deteriorated owing to the large change of stiffness and mass of one prong of tuning fork when a probe is attached to it. In our proposed scheme, on the other hand, we use sample dithering feedback mechanism, where the probe is not attached to the tuning fork and the sample is loaded directly onto the surface of dithering tuning fork. Thus, the Q factor does not decrease significantly, from only 7783 to 7480 (96%), because the loaded sample hardly changes the stiffness and mass of tuning fork. Accordingly, gap control between the immobile fiber probe and the dithering sample is performed precisely by detecting the shear force with high sensitivity. Consequently, the extremely high Q factor enables clear observation of graphene sheets with sub-nanometer vertical resolution, which is not possible with a conventional NSOM setup.

  17. Sensitivity maximized near-field scanning optical microscope with dithering sample stage.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Lee, Seung Gol; Heo, Chaejeong; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2012-09-01

    We developed a new scheme for a higher sensitivity near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) by using a dithering sample stage rather than a dithering probe for the constant gap control between probe and sample. In a conventional NSOM, which use tip dithering feedback mechanism, the Q factor drastically decreases from 7783 to 1000 (13%) or even to 100 (1%) because harmonic oscillating characteristic is deteriorated owing to the large change of stiffness and mass of one prong of tuning fork when a probe is attached to it. In our proposed scheme, on the other hand, we use sample dithering feedback mechanism, where the probe is not attached to the tuning fork and the sample is loaded directly onto the surface of dithering tuning fork. Thus, the Q factor does not decrease significantly, from only 7783 to 7480 (96%), because the loaded sample hardly changes the stiffness and mass of tuning fork. Accordingly, gap control between the immobile fiber probe and the dithering sample is performed precisely by detecting the shear force with high sensitivity. Consequently, the extremely high Q factor enables clear observation of graphene sheets with sub-nanometer vertical resolution, which is not possible with a conventional NSOM setup. PMID:23020386

  18. Highly efficient plasmonic tip design for plasmon nanofocusing in near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umakoshi, Takayuki; Saito, Yuika; Verma, Prabhat

    2016-03-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) combined with plasmon nanofocusing is a powerful nano-analytical tool due to its attractive feature of efficient background suppression as well as light energy compression to the nanoscale. In plasmon nanofocusing-based NSOM, the metallic tip plays an important role in inducing plasmon nanofocusing. It is, however, very challenging to control plasmonic properties of tips for plasmon nanofocusing with existing tip fabrication methods, even though the plasmonic properties need to be adjusted to experimental environments such as the sample or excitation wavelength. In this study, we propose an efficient tip design and fabrication which enable one to actively control plasmonic properties for efficient plasmon nanofocusing. Because our method offers flexibility in the material and structure of tips, one can easily modify the plasmonic properties depending on the requirements. Importantly, through optimization of the plasmonic properties, we achieve almost 100% reproducibility in plasmon nanofocusing in our experiments. This new approach of tip fabrication makes plasmon nanofocusing-based NSOM practical and reliable, and opens doors for many scientists working in related fields.

  19. Highly efficient plasmonic tip design for plasmon nanofocusing in near-field optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Umakoshi, Takayuki; Saito, Yuika; Verma, Prabhat

    2016-03-14

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) combined with plasmon nanofocusing is a powerful nano-analytical tool due to its attractive feature of efficient background suppression as well as light energy compression to the nanoscale. In plasmon nanofocusing-based NSOM, the metallic tip plays an important role in inducing plasmon nanofocusing. It is, however, very challenging to control plasmonic properties of tips for plasmon nanofocusing with existing tip fabrication methods, even though the plasmonic properties need to be adjusted to experimental environments such as the sample or excitation wavelength. In this study, we propose an efficient tip design and fabrication which enable one to actively control plasmonic properties for efficient plasmon nanofocusing. Because our method offers flexibility in the material and structure of tips, one can easily modify the plasmonic properties depending on the requirements. Importantly, through optimization of the plasmonic properties, we achieve almost 100% reproducibility in plasmon nanofocusing in our experiments. This new approach of tip fabrication makes plasmon nanofocusing-based NSOM practical and reliable, and opens doors for many scientists working in related fields.

  20. Plasma ionization source for atmospheric pressure mass spectrometry imaging using near-field optical laser ablation.

    PubMed

    Nudnova, Maryia M; Sigg, Jérôme; Wallimann, Pascal; Zenobi, Renato

    2015-01-20

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) at ambient pressures with submicrometer resolution is challenging, due to the very low amount of material available for mass spectrometric analysis. In this work, we present the development and characterization of a method for MSI based on pulsed laser ablation via a scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) aperture tip. SNOM allows laser ablation of material from surfaces with submicrometer spatial resolution, which can be ionized for further chemical analysis with MS. Efficient ionization is realized here with a custom-built capillary plasma ionization source. We show the applicability of this setup for mass spectrometric analysis of three common MALDI matrices, α-4-hydroxycyanocinnamic acid, 3-aminobenzoic acid, and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. Although the ultimate goal has been to optimize sensitivity for detecting material ablated from submicrometer diameter craters, the effective lateral resolution is currently limited by the sensitivity of the MS detection system. In our case, the sensitivity of the MS was about 1 fmol, which allowed us to achieve a spatial resolution of 2 μm. We also characterize the analytical figures of merit of our method. In particular, we demonstrate good reproducibility, a repetition rate in the range of only a few seconds, and we determined the amount of substance required to achieve optimal resolution and sensitivity. Moreover, the sample topography is available from SNOM scans, a parameter that is missing in common MSI methods.

  1. Indirect interband transition induced by optical near fields with large wave numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Maiku; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Optical near fields (ONFs) have Fourier components with large wave numbers that are two or three orders of magnitude larger than those of far-field propagating light owing to their nonuniformity in space. By utilizing these large wave numbers, the ONF is expected to induce an indirect interband transition between Bloch states having different wave numbers and directly generate an electron-hole pair without electron-phonon coupling. We perform time-dependent dynamics calculations of a one-dimensional periodic potential with an indirect band-gap structure and demonstrate that the ONF definitely induces an indirect interband transition. Instead of using the general Bloch boundary condition, which is usually imposed in conventional band structure calculations, we adopt an alternative boundary condition, the Born-von Kármán boundary condition, to appropriately treat indirect interband transitions. The calculated absorption spectra for the far-field and ONF excitations show different absorption edges and spectral patterns. We argue that this difference can be experimentally measured as evidence of the effects of the large wave numbers of the ONF.

  2. Nano-optical conveyor belt, part II: Demonstration of handoff between near-field optical traps.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuxin; Ryan, Jason; Hansen, Paul; Cheng, Yao-Te; Lu, Tsung-Ju; Hesselink, Lambertus

    2014-06-11

    Optical tweezers have been widely used to manipulate biological and colloidal material, but the diffraction limit of far-field optics makes focused beams unsuitable for manipulating nanoscale objects with dimensions much smaller than the wavelength of light. While plasmonic structures have recently been successful in trapping nanoscale objects with high positioning accuracy, using such structures for manipulation over longer range has remained a significant challenge. In this work, we introduce a conveyor belt design based on a novel plasmonic structure, the resonant C-shaped engraving (CSE). We show how long-range manipulation is made possible by means of handoff between neighboring CSEs, and we present a simple technique for controlling handoff by rotating the polarization of laser illumination. We experimentally demonstrate handoff between a pair of CSEs for polystyrene spheres 200, 390, and 500 nm in diameter. We then extend this technique and demonstrate controlled particle transport down a 4.5 μm long "nano-optical conveyor belt." PMID:24807058

  3. Spatiotemporal control of femtosecond plasmon using plasmon response functions measured by near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM).

    PubMed

    Onishi, Shutaro; Matsuishi, Keiichiro; Oi, Jun; Harada, Takuya; Kusaba, Miyuki; Hirosawa, Kenichi; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2013-11-01

    Spectral interferometry combined with near-field scanning optical microscopy is applied in the spatiotemporal characterization of femtosecond plasmon localized at gold nanostructures and surface plasmon polariton in an air-gap waveguide. Based on the plasmon response function in both the amplitude and the phase obtained from the measurements, we deterministically tailored the femtosecond plasmon pulse by shaping the femtosecond excitation laser pulses.

  4. Identification of unknown experimental parameters from noisy apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope data with an evolutionary procedure.

    PubMed

    Macías, D; Barchiesi, D

    2005-10-01

    We determine a set of experimental parameters through the application of an evolutionary inversion procedure. The input to the algorithm is experimental apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope data. The performance of our inversion procedure is assessed by means of a comparison with a nonevolutionary technique.

  5. Fluorescence detection of single molecules using pulsed near-field optical excitation and time correlated photon counting

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrose, W.P.; Goodwin, P.M.; Martin, J.C.; Keller, R.A.

    1994-03-01

    Pulsed excitation, time correlated single photon counting and time gated detection are used in near-field optical microscopy to enhance fluorescence images and measure the fluorescence lifetimes of single molecules of Rhodamine 6G on silica surfaces. Time gated detection is used to reject prompt scattered background and to improve the image signal to noise ratio. The excited state lifetime of a single Rhodamine 6G molecule is found to depend on the position of the near-field probe. We attribute the lifetime variations to spontaneous emission rate alterations by the fluorescence reflected from and quenching by the aluminum coated probe.

  6. Laser fabrication of gold nanoparticle clustered tips for use in apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung-Duck; Park, Jung Su; Park, Jin-Ho; Ahn, Tae Kyu; Lee, Young Hee; Jeong, Mun Seok

    2014-08-01

    A laser fabrication method was developed to make gold nanoparticle clustered (GNC) tips for apertureless near-field scanning optical microscopes (ANSOMs) and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). The near-field Rayleigh and Raman scattering of samples are highly enhanced when a gold nanoparticle cluster is synthesized on the end of the tip. This is due to the lightning rod effect in the sharp tips. The localized electromagnetic field enhancement and the spatial resolution (~30 nm) of the fabricated GNC tip were verified by TERS and ANSOM measurements of carbon nanotubes. PMID:25936036

  7. Imaging Green Fluorescent Protein-tagged Receptor Molecules in Cellular Membranes with Near-field Scanning Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuchi, Shinichiro; Hwang, Jeeseong; Goldner, Lori S.; Heinz, William; Edidin, Michael

    2001-03-01

    We report on near-field imaging of the major histocompatibility complex Class I (MHC-1) molecules in membranes of mammalian cells. The MHC-1 molecules are genetically modified to contain a green fluorescent protein moiety. Using near-field fluorescence imaging, we explore the distribution of MHC-1 molecules with resolution significantly better than what can be achieved with an ordinary microscope. We find submicron size features that are associated with the redistribution of MHC-1 proteins on the plasma membrane. Our NSOM for cell biology uses an aperture probe and permits the simultaneous optical and topographic imaging of samples both in air and in aqueous solution.

  8. Imaging of green fluorescent protein in live plant by scanning near-field optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Tao; Sun, Jialin; Guo, Jihua; Zhao, Jun

    2002-04-01

    An auxin/IAA induced in vivo green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a living plant Arabidopsis root has been studied by a scanning near-field microscope in transmission mode. The promising near-field images of the inducible GFPs at sub- surface of a plant cell suggest that they may locate proximity to the cell wall, i.e. both sides of and in the cytoplasm membrane. The clear and faint fluorescent spots with 1-3 micrometers showed that the proteins localized nearer and farther to the cell wall, respectively. All GFP molecules gathered together in a cell, and no individual GFP was observed in the experiment.

  9. Fabrication of near-field optical apertures in aluminium by a highly selective corrosion process in the evanescent field.

    PubMed

    Haefliger, D; Stemmer, A

    2003-03-01

    A simple, one-step process to fabricate high-quality apertures for scanning near-field optical microscope probes based on aluminium-coated silicon nitride cantilevers is presented. A thin evanescent optical field at a glass-water interface was used to heat the aluminium at the tip apex due to light absorption. The heat induced a breakdown of the passivating oxide layer and local corrosion of the metal, which selectively exposed the front-most part of the probe tip from the aluminium. Apertures with a protruding silicon nitride tip up to 72 nm in height were fabricated. The height of the protrusion was controlled by the extent of the evanescent field, whereas the diameter depended on the geometry of the probe substrate. The corrosion process proved to be self-terminating, yielding highly reproducible tip heights. Near-field optical resolution in a transmission mode of 85 nm was demonstrated.

  10. Low Temperature Apertureless Near-field Scanning Optical Microscope for Optical Spectroscopy of Single Ge/Si Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Henry; Patil, N. G.; Levy, Jeremy

    2001-03-01

    A low-temperature apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope has been designed and constructed for the purpose of investigating the optical properties of individual Ge/Si quantum dots. The microscope fits in the 37 mm bore of a Helium vapor magneto-optic cryostat, allowing operations down to liquid helium temperatures in magnetic fields up to 8 Tesla. An in situ microscope objective focuses light onto the sample, which is scanned in the three spatial directions using a compact modular stage. An AFM/STM tip resides on the top; feedback is achieved using a quartz tuning fork oscillator. Both tip and objective are attached to inertial sliding motors that can move in fine (10 nm) steps to achieve touchdown and focus. A femtosecond optical parametric oscillator is used to excite carriers in the quantum dots both resonantly and non-resonantly; scattered luminescence from the AFM/STM tip is collected and analyzed spectrally using a 1/2 meter imaging spectrometer and a LN_2-cooled InGaAs array. We gratefully acknowledge NSF (DMR-9701725, IMR-9802784) and DARPA (DAAD-16-99-C1036) for financial support of this work.

  11. Optical and mechanical detection of near-field light by atomic force microscopy using a piezoelectric cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Kei; Watanabe, Shunji; Fujii, Toru; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we developed an atomic force microscopy (AFM) system with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) using a microfabricated force-sensing cantilever with a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin film. Both optical and mechanical detection techniques were adopted in SNOM to detect scattered light induced by the interaction of the PZT cantilever tip apex and evanescent light, and SNOM images were obtained for each detection scheme. The mechanical detection technique did allow for a clear observation of the light scattered from the PZT cantilever without the interference observed by the optical detection technique, which used an objective lens, a pinhole, and a photomultiplier tube.

  12. Application of evolution strategies for the solution of an inverse problem in near-field optics.

    PubMed

    Macías, Demetrio; Vial, Alexandre; Barchiesi, Dominique

    2004-08-01

    We introduce an inversion procedure for the characterization of a nanostructure from near-field intensity data. The method proposed is based on heuristic arguments and makes use of evolution strategies for the solution of the inverse problem as a nonlinear constrained-optimization problem. By means of some examples we illustrate the performance of our inversion method. We also discuss its possibilities and potential applications.

  13. Short-range order and near-field effects on optical scattering and structural coloration

    SciTech Connect

    Liew, S.F.; Forster, J.; Noh, H.; Schreck, C.F.; Saranathan, V.; Lu, X.; Yang, L.; Prum, Richard O.; O’Hern, C.S.; Dufresne, E.R.; Cao, H.

    2012-03-26

    We have investigated wavelength-dependent light scattering in biomimetic structures with short-range order. Coherent backscattering experiments are performed to measure the transport mean free path over a wide wavelength range. Overall scattering strength is reduced significantly due to short-range order and near-field effects. Our analysis explains why single scattering of light is dominant over multiple scattering in similar biological structures and is responsible for color generation.

  14. Short-range Order and Near-field Effects on Optical Scattering and Structural Coloration

    SciTech Connect

    S Liew; J Forster; H Noh; C Schreck; V Saranathan; X Lu; L Yang; E Dufresne; H Cao; et al.

    2011-12-31

    We have investigated wavelength-dependent light scattering in biomimetic structures with short-range order. Coherent backscattering experiments are performed to measure the transport mean free path over a wide wavelength range. Overall scattering strength is reduced significantly due to short-range order and near-field effects. Our analysis explains why single scattering of light is dominant over multiple scattering in similar biological structures and is responsible for color generation.

  15. Imaging of quantum Hall edge states under quasiresonant excitation by a near-field scanning optical microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, H.; Shibata, Y.; Mamyoda, S.; Ootuka, Y.; Nomura, S.; Kashiwaya, S.; Yamaguchi, M.; Akazaki, T.; Tamura, H.

    2013-12-04

    A high resolution mapping of quantum Hall edge states has been performed by locally creating electrons with small excess energies with a near-field scanning optical microscope in a dilution refrigerator. We have observed fine structures parallel to the edge in photovoltage signals, which appear only at low temperature. The observed fine structures near sample edges have been seen to shift inward with increase in magnetic field in accordance with Chklovskii Shklovskii, and Glazman model.

  16. Solvothermally Synthesized Sb2Te3 Platelets Show Unexpected Optical Contrasts in Mid-Infrared Near-Field Scanning Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hauer, Benedikt; Saltzmann, Tobias; Simon, Ulrich; Taubner, Thomas

    2015-05-13

    We report nanoscale-resolved optical investigations on the local material properties of Sb2Te3 hexagonal platelets grown by solvothermal synthesis. Using mid-infrared near-field microscopy, we find a highly symmetric pattern, which is correlated to a growth spiral and which extends over the entire platelet. As the origin of the optical contrast, we identify domains with different densities of charge carriers. On Sb2Te3 samples grown by other means, we did not find a comparable domain structure. PMID:25868047

  17. The design of a novel tip enhanced near-field scanning probe microscope for ultra-high resolution optical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, Derek Brant

    Traditional light microscopy suffers from the diffraction limit, which limits the spatial resolution to lambda/2. The current trend in optical microscopy is the development of techniques to bypass the diffraction limit. Resolutions below 40 nm will make it possible to probe biological systems by imaging the interactions between single molecules and cell membranes. These resolutions will allow for the development of improved drug delivery mechanisms by increasing our understanding of how chemical communication within a cell occurs. The materials sciences would also benefit from these high resolutions. Nanomaterials can be analyzed with Raman spectroscopy for molecular and atomic bond information, or with fluorescence response to determine bulk optical properties with tens of nanometer resolution. Near-field optical microscopy is one of the current techniques, which allows for imaging at resolutions beyond the diffraction limit. Using a combination of a shear force microscope (SFM) and an inverted optical microscope, spectroscopic resolutions below 20 nm have been demonstrated. One technique, in particular, has been named tip enhanced near-field optical microscopy (TENOM). The key to this technique is the use of solid metal probes, which are illuminated in the far field by the excitation wavelength of interest. These probes are custom-designed using finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling techniques, then fabricated with the use of a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope. The measure of the quality of probe design is based directly on the field enhancement obtainable. The greater the field enhancement of the probe, the more the ratio of near-field to far-field background contribution will increase. The elimination of the far-field signal by a decrease of illumination power will provide the best signal-to-noise ratio in the near-field images. Furthermore, a design that facilitates the delocalization of the near-field imaging from the far-field will be beneficial

  18. E-beam lithography and optical near-field lithography: new prospects in fabrication of various grating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Clausnitzer, Tina

    2003-12-01

    Today"s technologies available for the fabrication of micro structured optical elements are well developed for defined classes of structures. Techniques for very complex optical functions or for combinations of optical functions together with others are more or less in the level of research or labs. A promising approach for complex grating fabrication is the use of optical near field holography (NFH) and e-beam writing for unification of the advantages. The paper wants to show the potential of both techniques itself as well as the potential that arises from their teamwork. The paper demonstrates one and two dimensional gratings, chirped and unidirectional gratings fabricated by NFH using e-beam written masks. It shows also possibilities for the fabrication of gratings on binary, multilevel and continuous optical profiles.

  19. Observation of nonlinear bands in near-field scanning optical microscopy of a photonic-crystal waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, A.; Ctistis, G.; Huisman, S. R.; Korterik, J. P.; Mosk, A. P.; Herek, J. L.; Pinkse, P. W. H.

    2015-01-01

    We have measured the photonic bandstructure of GaAs photonic-crystal waveguides with high resolution in energy as well as in momentum using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Intriguingly, we observe additional bands that are not predicted by eigenmode solvers, as was recently demonstrated by Huisman et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012)]. We study the presence of these additional bands by performing measurements of these bands while varying the incident light power, revealing a non-linear power dependence. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the observed additional bands are caused by a waveguide-specific near-field tip effect not previously reported, which can significantly phase-modulate the detected field.

  20. k-space imaging of the eigenmodes of sharp gold tapers for scanning near-field optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Esmann, Martin; Becker, Simon F; da Cunha, Bernard B; Brauer, Jens H; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Groß, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Summary We investigate the radiation patterns of sharp conical gold tapers, which were designed as adiabatic nanofocusing probes for scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). Field calculations show that only the lowest order eigenmode of such a taper can reach the very apex and thus induce the generation of strongly enhanced near-field signals. Higher-order modes are coupled into the far field at finite distances from the apex. Here, we demonstrate experimentally how to distinguish and separate between the lowest and higher-order eigenmodes of such a metallic taper by filtering in the spatial frequency domain. Our approach has the potential to considerably improve the signal-to-background ratio in spectroscopic experiments at the nanoscale. PMID:24205454

  1. Observation of nonlinear bands in near-field scanning optical microscopy of a photonic-crystal waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, A.; Huisman, S. R.; Ctistis, G. Mosk, A. P.; Pinkse, P. W. H.; Korterik, J. P.; Herek, J. L.

    2015-01-21

    We have measured the photonic bandstructure of GaAs photonic-crystal waveguides with high resolution in energy as well as in momentum using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Intriguingly, we observe additional bands that are not predicted by eigenmode solvers, as was recently demonstrated by Huisman et al. [Phys. Rev. B 86, 155154 (2012)]. We study the presence of these additional bands by performing measurements of these bands while varying the incident light power, revealing a non-linear power dependence. Here, we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically that the observed additional bands are caused by a waveguide-specific near-field tip effect not previously reported, which can significantly phase-modulate the detected field.

  2. Optical far- and near-field femtosecond laser ablation of Si for nanoscale chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Zorba, Vassilia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Extending spatial resolution in laser-based chemical analysis to the nanoscale becomes increasingly important as nanoscience and nanotechnology develop. Implementation of femtosecond laser pulses arises as a basic strategy for increasing resolution since it is associated with spatially localized material damage. In this work we study femtosecond laser far- and near-field processing of silicon (Si) at two distinct wavelengths (400 and 800 nm), for nanoscale chemical analysis. By tightly focusing femtosecond laser beams in the far-field, we were able to produce sub-micrometer craters. In order to further reduce the crater size, similar experiments were performed in the near-field through sub-wavelength apertures, resulting in the formation of sub-30-nm craters. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for chemical analysis with a goal to identify the minimum crater size from which spectral emission could be measured. Emission from sub-micrometer craters (full width at half maximum) was possible, which are among the smallest ever reported for femtosecond LIBS. PMID:19787342

  3. Optical far- and near-field femtosecond laser ablation of Si for nanoscale chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zormpa, Vasileia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-02-02

    Extending spatial resolution in laser-based chemical analysis to the nanoscale becomes increasingly important as nanoscience and nanotechnology develop. Implementation of femtosecond laser pulses arises as a basic strategy for increasing resolution since it is associated with spatially localized material damage. In this work we study femtosecond laser far- and near-field processing of silicon (Si) at two distinct wavelengths (400 and 800 nm), for nanoscale chemical analysis. By tightly focusing femtosecond laser beams in the far-field we were able to produce sub-micrometer craters. In order to further reduce the crater size, similar experiments were performed in the near-field through sub-wavelength apertures, resulting to the formation of sub-30 nm craters. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) was used for chemical analysis with a goal to identify the minimum crater size from which spectral emission could be measured. Emission from sub-micrometer craters (full-with-at-half-maximum) was possible, which are among the smallest ever reported for femtosecond LIBS.

  4. Two-photon absorption induced by electric field gradient of optical near-field and its application to photolithography

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Maiku; Kawazoe, Tadashi; Yatsui, Takashi; Nobusada, Katsuyuki

    2015-05-11

    An electric field gradient is an inherent property of the optical near-field (ONF). We investigated its effect on electron excitation in a quantum dot via model calculations combining a density matrix formalism and a classical Lorentz model. The electric field gradient of the ONF was found to cause two-photon absorption by an unusual mechanism. Furthermore, the absorption exhibits a nonmonotonic dependence on the spatial arrangement of the nanosystem, completely different from that of conventional two-photon absorption induced by an intense electric field. The present two-photon absorption process was verified in a previous experimental observation by reinterpreting the results of ONF photolithography.

  5. Breaking the diffraction barrier outside of the optical near-field with bright, collimated light from nanometric apertures.

    PubMed

    Stark, Peter R H; Halleck, Allison E; Larson, Dale N

    2007-11-27

    The optical diffraction limit has been the dominant barrier to achieving higher optical resolution in the fields of microscopy, photolithography, and optical data storage. We present here an approach toward imaging below the diffraction barrier. Through the exposure of photosensitive films placed a finite and known distance away from nanoscale, zero-mode apertures in thin metallic films, we show convincing, physical evidence that the propagating component of light emerging from these apertures shows a very strong degree of collimation well past the maximum extent of the near-field (lambda(0)/4n-lambda(0)/2n). Up to at least 2.5 wavelengths away from the apertures, the transmitted light exhibits subdiffraction limit irradiance patterns. These unexpected results are not explained by standard diffraction theory or nanohole-based "beaming" rationalizations. This method overcomes the diffraction barrier and makes super-resolution fluorescence imaging practical.

  6. Breaking the diffraction barrier outside of the optical near-field with bright, collimated light from nanometric apertures

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Peter R. H.; Halleck, Allison E.; Larson, Dale N.

    2007-01-01

    The optical diffraction limit has been the dominant barrier to achieving higher optical resolution in the fields of microscopy, photolithography, and optical data storage. We present here an approach toward imaging below the diffraction barrier. Through the exposure of photosensitive films placed a finite and known distance away from nanoscale, zero-mode apertures in thin metallic films, we show convincing, physical evidence that the propagating component of light emerging from these apertures shows a very strong degree of collimation well past the maximum extent of the near-field (λ0/4n–λ0/2n). Up to at least 2.5 wavelengths away from the apertures, the transmitted light exhibits subdiffraction limit irradiance patterns. These unexpected results are not explained by standard diffraction theory or nanohole-based “beaming” rationalizations. This method overcomes the diffraction barrier and makes super-resolution fluorescence imaging practical. PMID:18024583

  7. Detection of Luminescent Nanodiamonds Using a Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscope with an Aperture Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shershulin, V. A.; Samoylenko, S. R.; Shenderova, O. A.; Vlasov, I. I.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    Scanning near-fi eld optical microscopy (SNOM) with an aperture probe has been used to map the luminescence of isolated submicron diamond crystallites. 532-nm laser light was used to excite luminescence of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers. The sizes of the analyzed diamond crystallites were determined with an atomic-force microscope. The optical resolution for the lateral dimensions of the luminescing diamond crystallites was doubled on going from confocal luminescence microscopy to scanning near-fi eld optical microscopy with a 290-nm probe aperture diameter.

  8. Near-field enhanced optical tweezers utilizing femtosecond-laser nanostructured substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Kotsifaki, D. G. Kandyla, M.; Lagoudakis, P. G.

    2015-11-23

    We present experimental evidence of plasmonic-enhanced optical tweezers, of polystyrene beads in deionized water in the vicinity of metal-coated nanostructures. The optical tweezers operate with a continuous wave near-infrared laser. We employ a Cu/Au bilayer that significantly improves dissipation of heat generated by the trapping laser beam and avoid de-trapping from heat convection currents. We investigate the improvement of the optical trapping force and the effective trapping quality factor, and observe an exponential distance dependence of the trapping force from the nanostructures, indicative of evanescent plasmonic enhancement.

  9. Near-field optical patterning and structuring based on local-field enhancement at the extremity of a metal tip.

    PubMed

    Royer, Pascal; Barchiesi, Dominique; Lerondel, Gilles; Bachelot, Renaud

    2004-04-15

    We present a particular approach and the associated results allowing the nanostructuration of a thin photosensitive polymer film. This approach based on a scanning near-field optical microscopy configuration uses the field-enhancement (FE) effect, a so-called lightning-rod effect appearing at the extremity of a metallic tip when illuminated with an incident light polarized along the tip axis. The local enhancement of the electromagnetic field straight below the tip's apex is observed directly through a photoisomerization reaction, inducing the growth of a topographical nanodot characterized in situ by atomic-force microscopy using the same probe. From a survey of the literature, we first review the different experimental approaches offered to nanostructure materials by near-field optical techniques. We describe more particularly the FE effect approach. An overview of the theoretical approach of this effect is then given before presenting some experimental results so as theoretical results using the finite-element method. These results show the influence on the nanostructuration of the polymer of a few experimental parameters such as the polarization state, the illumination mode and the tip's geometry. Finally, the potentiality of this technique for some applications in the field of lithography and high-density data storage is shown via the fabrication of nano-patterns.

  10. Near-field reflection backscattering apertureless optical microscopy: application to spectroscopy experiments on opaque samples, comparison between lock-in and digital photon counting detection techniques.

    PubMed

    Diziain, S; Bijeon, J-L; Adam, P-M; Lamy de la Chapelle, M; Thomas, B; Déturche, R; Royer, P

    2007-01-01

    An apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope (ASNOM) in reflection backscattering configuration is designed to conduct spectroscopic experiments on opaque samples constituted of latex beads. The ASNOM proposed takes advantage of the depth-discrimination properties of confocal microscopes to efficiently extract the near-field optical signal. Given their importance in a spectroscopic experiment, we systematically compare the lock-in and synchronous photon counting detection methods. Some results of Rayleigh's scattering in the near field of the test samples are used to illustrate the possibilities of this technique for reflection backscattering spectroscopy.

  11. Readout Durability Improvement of Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure Discs with PtOx-SiO2 Recording and GeNy Interfacial Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shima, Takayuki; Yamakawa, Yuzo; Tominaga, Junji

    2007-02-01

    Two dielectric materials were added to a super-resolution near-field optical disc structure (super-RENS) to improve the readout durability. PtOx-SiO2 (Pt8.4Si21.1O70.5) layers showed O2 desorption for temperatures above 200 °C and were usable as write-once recording layers. The GeNy interfacial layers located between the Sb75Te25 and (ZnS)85(SiO2)15 layers suppressed degradation in the reflected light intensity from the disc, i.e., maintained the recorded structure as is, to at least 5× 104 readout cycles using a recorded pattern designed to accelerate disc deterioration. The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) obtained for 100-nm marks (laser wavelength: 405 nm, numerical aperture: 0.65) was about 43 dB. It was possible to readout 2.6× 105 cycles before the CNR decreased by 3 dB. This represents an improvement of a factor of 70 over the readout durability of a conventional super-RENS structure.

  12. Second International Conference on Near-Field Optical Analysis: Photodynamic Therapy and Photobiology Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulgher, Debra L. (Editor); Morrison, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The International NASA/DARPA Photobiology Conference held at the Johnson Space Center in Houston/TX demonstrated where low level laser therapy (LLLT), respectively low intensity light activated biostimulation (LILAB) and nanotechnological applications employing photobiomodulation techniques will presumably go in the next ten years. The conference was a continuation of the 1st International Conference on Nearfield Optical Analysis organized by Andrei Sommer (ENSOMA Lab, University of Ulm, Germany) in November 2000 at Castle Reisenburg, Germany, which started with a group of ten scientists from eight different countries. The 1st conference was co-sponsored by the American Chemical Society to evaluate the molecular mechanism of accelerated and normal wound healing processes. The 2nd conference was co-sponsored by DARPA, NASA-JSC and the Medical College of Wisconsin. Despite the short time between events, the 2nd conference hosted 40 international experts form universities, research institutes, agencies and the industry. The materials published here are expected to become milestones forming a novel platform in biomedical photobiology. The multidisciplinary group of researchers focused on LLLT/LILAB-applications under extreme conditions expected to have beneficial effects particularly in space, on submarines, and under severe battlefield conditions. The group also focused on novel technologies with possibilities allowing investigating the interaction of light with biological systems, molecular mechanisms of wound healing, bone regeneration, nerve regeneration, pain modulation, as well as biomineralization and biofilm formulation processes induced by nanobacteria.

  13. Effects of Optical Combiner and IPD Change for Convergence on Near-Field Depth Perception in an Optical See-Through HMD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyoon; Hu, Xinda; Hua, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Many error sources have been explored in regards to the depth perception problem in augmented reality environments using optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMDs). Nonetheless, two error sources are commonly neglected: the ray-shift phenomenon and the change in interpupillary distance (IPD). The first source of error arises from the difference in refraction for virtual and see-through optical paths caused by an optical combiner, which is required of OST-HMDs. The second occurs from the change in the viewer's IPD due to eye convergence. In this paper, we analyze the effects of these two error sources on near-field depth perception and propose methods to compensate for these two types of errors. Furthermore, we investigate their effectiveness through an experiment comparing the conditions with and without our error compensation methods applied. In our experiment, participants estimated the egocentric depth of a virtual and a physical object located at seven different near-field distances (40∼200 cm) using a perceptual matching task. Although the experimental results showed different patterns depending on the target distance, the results demonstrated that the near-field depth perception error can be effectively reduced to a very small level (at most 1 percent error) by compensating for the two mentioned error sources.

  14. Effects of Optical Combiner and IPD Change for Convergence on Near-Field Depth Perception in an Optical See-Through HMD.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyoon; Hu, Xinda; Hua, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Many error sources have been explored in regards to the depth perception problem in augmented reality environments using optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMDs). Nonetheless, two error sources are commonly neglected: the ray-shift phenomenon and the change in interpupillary distance (IPD). The first source of error arises from the difference in refraction for virtual and see-through optical paths caused by an optical combiner, which is required of OST-HMDs. The second occurs from the change in the viewer's IPD due to eye convergence. In this paper, we analyze the effects of these two error sources on near-field depth perception and propose methods to compensate for these two types of errors. Furthermore, we investigate their effectiveness through an experiment comparing the conditions with and without our error compensation methods applied. In our experiment, participants estimated the egocentric depth of a virtual and a physical object located at seven different near-field distances (40∼200 cm) using a perceptual matching task. Although the experimental results showed different patterns depending on the target distance, the results demonstrated that the near-field depth perception error can be effectively reduced to a very small level (at most 1 percent error) by compensating for the two mentioned error sources. PMID:27045910

  15. Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable optical near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Mahkamehossadat; Diaz, Rodolfo E.

    2016-01-01

    To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002. Full physics simulations of the photonic antenna detector element that enables this instrument, show that using conventional red laser light (in the 600 nm range) the detector magnifies the signal from an 8 nm particle by up to 1.5 orders of magnitude. The antenna is a shaped slot element in a 60 nm silver film. The ability of this detector element to resolve λ/78 objects is confirmed experimentally at radio frequencies by fabricating an artificial material structure that mimics the optical permittivity of silver scaled to 2 GHz, and “cutting” into it the slot antenna. The experimental set-up is also used to demonstrate the imaging of a patterned surface in which the critical dimensions of the pattern are λ/22 in size. PMID:27185385

  16. Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable optical near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging.

    PubMed

    Mostafavi, Mahkamehossadat; Diaz, Rodolfo E

    2016-01-01

    To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002. Full physics simulations of the photonic antenna detector element that enables this instrument, show that using conventional red laser light (in the 600 nm range) the detector magnifies the signal from an 8 nm particle by up to 1.5 orders of magnitude. The antenna is a shaped slot element in a 60 nm silver film. The ability of this detector element to resolve λ/78 objects is confirmed experimentally at radio frequencies by fabricating an artificial material structure that mimics the optical permittivity of silver scaled to 2 GHz, and "cutting" into it the slot antenna. The experimental set-up is also used to demonstrate the imaging of a patterned surface in which the critical dimensions of the pattern are λ/22 in size. PMID:27185385

  17. Imaging cervical cytology with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) coupled with an IR-FEL.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Diane E; Morais, Camilo L M; Lima, Kássio M G; Trevisan, Julio; Siggel-King, Michele R F; Craig, Tim; Ingham, James; Martin, David S; Heys, Kelly A; Kyrgiou, Maria; Mitra, Anita; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Theophilou, Georgios; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L; Cricenti, Antonio; Luce, Marco; Weightman, Peter; Martin, Francis L

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women, especially in the developing world. Increased synthesis of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids is a pre-condition for the rapid proliferation of cancer cells. We show that scanning near-field optical microscopy, in combination with an infrared free electron laser (SNOM-IR-FEL), is able to distinguish between normal and squamous low-grade and high-grade dyskaryosis, and between normal and mixed squamous/glandular pre-invasive and adenocarcinoma cervical lesions, at designated wavelengths associated with DNA, Amide I/II and lipids. These findings evidence the promise of the SNOM-IR-FEL technique in obtaining chemical information relevant to the detection of cervical cell abnormalities and cancer diagnosis at spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit (≥0.2 μm). We compare these results with analyses following attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy; although this latter approach has been demonstrated to detect underlying cervical atypia missed by conventional cytology, it is limited by a spatial resolution of ~3 μm to 30 μm due to the optical diffraction limit. PMID:27406404

  18. Imaging cervical cytology with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) coupled with an IR-FEL

    PubMed Central

    Halliwell, Diane E.; Morais, Camilo L. M.; Lima, Kássio M. G.; Trevisan, Julio; Siggel-King, Michele R. F.; Craig, Tim; Ingham, James; Martin, David S.; Heys, Kelly A.; Kyrgiou, Maria; Mitra, Anita; Paraskevaidis, Evangelos; Theophilou, Georgios; Martin-Hirsch, Pierre L.; Cricenti, Antonio; Luce, Marco; Weightman, Peter; Martin, Francis L.

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among women, especially in the developing world. Increased synthesis of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids is a pre-condition for the rapid proliferation of cancer cells. We show that scanning near-field optical microscopy, in combination with an infrared free electron laser (SNOM-IR-FEL), is able to distinguish between normal and squamous low-grade and high-grade dyskaryosis, and between normal and mixed squamous/glandular pre-invasive and adenocarcinoma cervical lesions, at designated wavelengths associated with DNA, Amide I/II and lipids. These findings evidence the promise of the SNOM-IR-FEL technique in obtaining chemical information relevant to the detection of cervical cell abnormalities and cancer diagnosis at spatial resolutions below the diffraction limit (≥0.2 μm). We compare these results with analyses following attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy; although this latter approach has been demonstrated to detect underlying cervical atypia missed by conventional cytology, it is limited by a spatial resolution of ~3 μm to 30 μm due to the optical diffraction limit. PMID:27406404

  19. Feasibility demonstration of a massively parallelizable optical near-field sensor for sub-wavelength defect detection and imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, Mahkamehossadat; Diaz, Rodolfo E.

    2016-05-01

    To detect and resolve sub-wavelength features at optical frequencies, beyond the diffraction limit, requires sensors that interact with the electromagnetic near-field of those features. Most instruments operating in this modality scan a single detector element across the surface under inspection because the scattered signals from a multiplicity of such elements would end up interfering with each other. However, an alternative massively parallelized configuration, capable of interrogating multiple adjacent areas of the surface at the same time, was proposed in 2002. Full physics simulations of the photonic antenna detector element that enables this instrument, show that using conventional red laser light (in the 600 nm range) the detector magnifies the signal from an 8 nm particle by up to 1.5 orders of magnitude. The antenna is a shaped slot element in a 60 nm silver film. The ability of this detector element to resolve λ/78 objects is confirmed experimentally at radio frequencies by fabricating an artificial material structure that mimics the optical permittivity of silver scaled to 2 GHz, and “cutting” into it the slot antenna. The experimental set-up is also used to demonstrate the imaging of a patterned surface in which the critical dimensions of the pattern are λ/22 in size.

  20. Nanoscopic interchain aggregate domain formation in conjugated polymer films studied by third harmonic generation near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaller, Richard D.; Snee, Preston T.; Johnson, Justin C.; Lee, Lynn F.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Haber, Louis H.; Saykally, Richard J.; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Schwartz, Benjamin J.

    2002-10-01

    The electronic structure of conjugated polymer films is of current interest due to the wide range of potential applications for such materials in optoelectronic devices. A central outstanding issue is the significance of interchain electronic species in films of these materials. In this paper, we investigate the nature of interchain species in films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) both before and after thermal annealing. Our investigation employs a combination of third harmonic generation (THG) and near-field scanning optical microscopy to measure the wavelength and spatial dependence of the THG efficiency. These chemically selective imaging measurements reveal new, low-energy absorption features in nanometer-scale spatially distinct regions of annealed films that are only infrequently observed prior to annealing. This suggests that the polymer strands in annealed MEH-PPV films pack together closely enough that significant ground-state wave function overlap can occur: thermal annealing creates nanoscopic aggregation domains. THG polarization studies indicate that polymer chain segments in these domains have a preferred orientational alignment. The spatial correlation of these aligned nanoscopic regions within the annealed films suggests that they form via a nucleation and growth type mechanism. In combination with previous work, these data support the idea that the nature and spatial distribution of interchain interactions in conjugated polymer films are complex; conjugated polymer films likely contain an inhomogeneous spatial distribution of both ground- and excited-state interchain species.

  1. Effects of Configuration of Optical Combiner on Near-Field Depth Perception in Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangyoon; Hua, Hong

    2016-04-01

    The ray-shift phenomenon means the apparent distance shift in the display image plane between virtual and physical objects. It is caused by the difference in the refraction of virtual display and see-through optical paths derived from optical combiners that are necessary to provide a see-through capability in optical see-through head-mounted displays. In this work, through a human-subject experiment, we investigated the effects of ray-shift phenomenon induced by the optical combiner on depth perception for near-field distances (40 cm-100 cm). In our experiment, we considered three different configurations of optical combiner: horizontal-tilt and vertical-tilt configurations (using plate beamsplitters horizontally and vertically tilted by 45°, respectively), and non-tilt configuration (using rectangular solid waveguides). Participants' depth perception errors in these configurations were compared with those in an ordinary condition (i.e., the condition where physical objects are directly shown without the displays) and theoretically estimated ones. According to the experimental results, the measured percentage depth perception errors were similar to the theoretically estimated ones, where the amount of estimated percentage depth errors was greater than 0.3%. Furthermore, the participants showed significantly larger depth perception errors in the horizontal-tilt configuration than in an ordinary condition, while no large errors were found in the vertical-tilt configuration. In the non-tilt configuration, the results were dependent on the thickness of optical combiner and target distance.

  2. Dynamic and static control of the optical phase of guided p-polarized light for near-field focusing at large angles of incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Danhong; Michelle Easter, M.; David Wellems, L.; Mozer, Henry; Gumbs, Godfrey; Cardimona, D. A.; Maradudin, A. A.

    2013-07-01

    Both dynamic and static approaches are proposed and investigated for controlling the optical phase of a p-polarized light wave guided through a surface-patterned metallic structure with subwavelength features. For dynamic control, the important role of photo-excited electrons in a slit-embedded atomic system with field-induced transparency (FIT) is discovered within a narrow frequency window for modulating the intensity of focused transmitted light in the near-field region. This is facilitated by electromagnetic coupling to surface plasmons between the two FIT-atom embedded slits. The near-field distribution can be adjusted by employing a symmetric (or asymmetric) slit configuration and by a small (or large) slit separation. In addition, the cross-transmission of a light beam is also predicted as a result of this strong coupling between optical transitions in embedded FIT atoms and surface plasmons. For static control, the role of surface curvature is found for focused transmitted light passing through a Gaussian-shaped metallic microlens embedded with a linear array of slits. A negative light-refraction pattern, which is associated with higher-order diffraction modes, was also found for large angles of incidence in the near-field region. This anomalous negative refraction can be suppressed when higher-order waveguide modes of light leak through a very thin film. In addition, this negative refraction can also be suppressed with a reinforced reflection at the left foothill of a Gaussian-shaped slit array of the forward-propagating surface-plasmon wave at large angles of incidence. A prediction is given of near-field focusing of light with its sharpness dynamically controlled by the frequency of the light in a very narrow window. Moreover, a different scheme based on Green's second integral identity is proposed for overcoming a difficulty in calculating the near-field distribution very close to a metallic surface by means of a finite-difference-time-domain method.

  3. Remote optical sensing on the nanometer scale with a bowtie aperture nano-antenna on a fiber tip of scanning near-field optical microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Atie, Elie M.; Xie, Zhihua; El Eter, Ali; Salut, Roland; Baida, Fadi I.; Grosjean, Thierry; Nedeljkovic, Dusan; Tannous, Tony

    2015-04-13

    Plasmonic nano-antennas have proven the outstanding ability of sensing chemical and physical processes down to the nanometer scale. Sensing is usually achieved within the highly confined optical fields generated resonantly by the nano-antennas, i.e., in contact to the nanostructures. In this paper, we demonstrate the sensing capability of nano-antennas to their larger scale environment, well beyond their plasmonic confinement volume, leading to the concept of “remote” (non contact) sensing on the nanometer scale. On the basis of a bowtie-aperture nano-antenna (BNA) integrated at the apex of a SNOM (Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy) fiber tip, we introduce an ultra-compact, moveable, and background-free optical nanosensor for the remote sensing of a silicon surface (up to distance of 300 nm). Sensitivity of the BNA to its large scale environment is high enough to expect the monitoring and control of the spacing between the nano-antenna and a silicon surface with sub-nanometer accuracy. This work paves the way towards an alternative class of nanopositioning techniques, based on the monitoring of diffraction-free plasmon resonance, that are alternative to nanomechanical and diffraction-limited optical interference-based devices.

  4. Development of a shear-force scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for characterization of nanostructures' optical properties.

    PubMed

    Bercu, N B; Troyon, M; Molinari, M

    2016-09-01

    An original scanning near-field cathodoluminescence microscope for nanostructure characterization has been developed and successfully tested. By using a bimorph piezoelectric stack both as actuator and detector, the developed setup constitutes a real improvement compared to previously reported SEM-based solutions. The technique combines a scanning probe and a scanning electron microscope in order to simultaneously offer near-field cathodoluminescence and topographic images of the sample. Share-force topography and cathodoluminescence measurements on GaN, SiC and ZnO nanostructures using the developed setup are presented showing a nanometric resolution in both topography and cathodoluminescence images with increased sensitivity compared to classical luminescence techniques. PMID:27125561

  5. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Thermal analysis of the cavity facet for an 808 nm semiconductor laser by using near-field scanning optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Rao; Guofeng, Song; Lianghui, Chen

    2010-10-01

    In order to analyze the thermal characteristics of the cavity facet of a semiconductor laser, a home-built near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM) is employed to probe the topography of the facet. By comparing the topographic images of two samples under different DC current injections, we can find that the thermal characteristic is related to its lifetime. We show that it is possible to predict the lifetime of the semiconductor laser diode with non-destructive tests.

  6. Detection of an infrared near-field optical signal by attaching an infrared-excitable phosphor to the end of a photocantilever.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Y; Fukuzawa, K; Ohwaki, J

    1999-01-01

    To improve the signal-to-noise ratio of near-field scanning optical microscopy, we propose attaching an infrared-excitable phosphor (IEP) to a photocantilever. One source of noise is the light scattered from locations on the sample surface other than that of the probe tip. By detecting only the light scattered from the tip, we can obtain a near-field optical signal without noise. We attached an IEP particle to a photocantilever to convert infrared light to visible light and we used 1550-nm infrared illumination, so the light scattered from the sample was only infrared. The silicon photodiode of the photocantilever is 10(6) times less sensitive to infrared light than to visible light. As a result, only the converted visible light from the IEP particle, i.e. the signal containing the near-field optical information from the tip, was detected. We verified that the photocantilever detected the signal in the evanescent light produced by infrared illumination and that the detected signal was the light converted by the IEP. The experimental results show the feasibility of detecting infrared light and not the background light through the use of the IEP. PMID:11388267

  7. Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and ATR-mode sample excitation for super-resolution Raman imaging of surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilman, A. L.; Gordon, M. J.

    2016-06-01

    A tip-enhanced near-field optical microscope with side-on and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) excitation and collection is described and used to demonstrate sub-diffraction-limited (super-resolution) optical and chemical characterization of surfaces. ATR illumination is combined with an Au optical antenna tip to show that (i) the tip can quantitatively transduce the optical near-field (evanescent waves) above the surface by scattering photons into the far-field, (ii) the ATR geometry enables excitation and characterization of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), whose associated optical fields are shown to enhance Raman scattering from a thin layer of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), and (iii) SPPs can be used to plasmonically excite the tip for super-resolution chemical imaging of patterned CuPc via tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). ATR-illumination TERS is also quantitatively compared with the more conventional side-on illumination scheme. In both cases, spatial resolution was better than 40 nm and tip on/tip off Raman enhancement factors were >6500. Furthermore, ATR illumination was shown to provide similar Raman signal levels at lower "effective" pump powers due to additional optical energy delivered by SPPs to the active region in the tip-surface gap.

  8. Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy with low-repetition-rate pulsed light source through phase-domain sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haomin; Wang, Le; Xu, Xiaoji G.

    2016-10-01

    Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) allows spectroscopic imaging with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. With suitable light sources, s-SNOM is instrumental in numerous discoveries at the nanoscale. So far, the light sources have been limited to continuous wave or high-repetition-rate pulsed lasers. Low-repetition-rate pulsed sources cannot be used, due to the limitation of the lock-in detection mechanism that is required for current s-SNOM techniques. Here, we report a near-field signal extraction method that enables low-repetition-rate pulsed light sources. The method correlates scattering signals from pulses with the mechanical phases of the oscillating s-SNOM probe to obtain near-field signal, by-passing the apparent restriction imposed by the Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem on the repetition rate. The method shall enable s-SNOM with low-repetition-rate pulses with high-peak-powers, such as femtosecond laser amplifiers, to facilitate investigations of strong light-matter interactions and nonlinear processes at the nanoscale.

  9. Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy with low-repetition-rate pulsed light source through phase-domain sampling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haomin; Wang, Le; Xu, Xiaoji G.

    2016-01-01

    Scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) allows spectroscopic imaging with spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. With suitable light sources, s-SNOM is instrumental in numerous discoveries at the nanoscale. So far, the light sources have been limited to continuous wave or high-repetition-rate pulsed lasers. Low-repetition-rate pulsed sources cannot be used, due to the limitation of the lock-in detection mechanism that is required for current s-SNOM techniques. Here, we report a near-field signal extraction method that enables low-repetition-rate pulsed light sources. The method correlates scattering signals from pulses with the mechanical phases of the oscillating s-SNOM probe to obtain near-field signal, by-passing the apparent restriction imposed by the Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem on the repetition rate. The method shall enable s-SNOM with low-repetition-rate pulses with high-peak-powers, such as femtosecond laser amplifiers, to facilitate investigations of strong light–matter interactions and nonlinear processes at the nanoscale. PMID:27748360

  10. Revealing nanoscale optical properties and morphology in perfluoropentacene films by confocal and tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Broch, Katharina; Schreiber, Frank; Meixner, Alfred J; Zhang, Dai

    2016-06-21

    Combining high resolution optical microscopy and spectroscopy, we propose a novel, generally applicable and highly sensitive method for determining the local morphology in organic semiconductor thin films (e.g. perfluoropentacene (PFP)). An azimuthally or radially polarized doughnut mode (APDM or RPDM) laser beam is focused by a high numerical aperture parabolic-mirror to excite a diffraction limited volume of the PFP film with an electric field polarized either exclusively in-plane or dominantly out-of-plane (relative to the substrate). We find two distinct morphologies of thin PFP films: molecular aggregates and crystalline terraces. The well-defined dipole emission patterns observed from the molecular aggregates strongly suggest the presence of localized excitations. For both laser modes, we observe that for the PFP aggregates, the photoluminescence (PL) emission from the main electronic transition is blue-shifted by about 10 meV, as compared to that from the molecular terraces. For the C-C bending modes, the B3g at 1581 cm(-1) (ν1) and the Ag at 1316 cm(-1) (ν0), we observe a decrease of the intensity ratio (Iν1/Iν0) from 0.6 (terrace) to 0.15 (aggregate). Furthermore, the intensity ratios (IAPDM/IRPDM) of ν1 excited by different polarizations increase from 0.12 (terrace) to 0.73 (aggregate). These results indicate that the PFP molecules orient rather parallel to the substrate in the aggregates, whilst more upright in the terraces. Benefiting from the nanometer scale optical resolution offered by the tip-enhanced near-field optical method, we observe clear optical contrasts between the molecular aggregate and the terrace as well as individual layers within a terrace. Tip-enhanced optical spectra locally taken from the molecular terrace and the aggregate show similar blue-shift of the main PL peak and change in the Raman intensity with different polarizations as from the far-field assemble-measurements, which further confirms the different molecular

  11. Revealing nanoscale optical properties and morphology in perfluoropentacene films by confocal and tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Broch, Katharina; Schreiber, Frank; Meixner, Alfred J; Zhang, Dai

    2016-06-21

    Combining high resolution optical microscopy and spectroscopy, we propose a novel, generally applicable and highly sensitive method for determining the local morphology in organic semiconductor thin films (e.g. perfluoropentacene (PFP)). An azimuthally or radially polarized doughnut mode (APDM or RPDM) laser beam is focused by a high numerical aperture parabolic-mirror to excite a diffraction limited volume of the PFP film with an electric field polarized either exclusively in-plane or dominantly out-of-plane (relative to the substrate). We find two distinct morphologies of thin PFP films: molecular aggregates and crystalline terraces. The well-defined dipole emission patterns observed from the molecular aggregates strongly suggest the presence of localized excitations. For both laser modes, we observe that for the PFP aggregates, the photoluminescence (PL) emission from the main electronic transition is blue-shifted by about 10 meV, as compared to that from the molecular terraces. For the C-C bending modes, the B3g at 1581 cm(-1) (ν1) and the Ag at 1316 cm(-1) (ν0), we observe a decrease of the intensity ratio (Iν1/Iν0) from 0.6 (terrace) to 0.15 (aggregate). Furthermore, the intensity ratios (IAPDM/IRPDM) of ν1 excited by different polarizations increase from 0.12 (terrace) to 0.73 (aggregate). These results indicate that the PFP molecules orient rather parallel to the substrate in the aggregates, whilst more upright in the terraces. Benefiting from the nanometer scale optical resolution offered by the tip-enhanced near-field optical method, we observe clear optical contrasts between the molecular aggregate and the terrace as well as individual layers within a terrace. Tip-enhanced optical spectra locally taken from the molecular terrace and the aggregate show similar blue-shift of the main PL peak and change in the Raman intensity with different polarizations as from the far-field assemble-measurements, which further confirms the different molecular

  12. Combining near-field hyperspectral imaging and far-field spectral-angular distribution to develop mid-field white LED optical models with spatial color deviation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Xian; Lu, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Bo-Song

    2016-07-11

    The integration of spatial distribution of light intensity and color in the midfield is instrumental for LED optical design. On the basis of this rationale, we proposed an accurate and convenient method for developing white LED optical models. Near-field hyperspectral images and far-field spectral-angular distributions were integrated to illustrate changes in spatial light intensity and color distribution in the mid-field, to the exclusion of the absorption, conversion, and scattering of phosphors. The corresponding optical models were developed for three LED samples under different packaging conditions. Their normalized cross-correlation values for spatial light intensity and correlated-color-temperature distribution between simulation and measurement averaged as high as 0.995 and 0.99 respectively, which validated the accuracy and feasibility of the proposed method. PMID:27410897

  13. Shear force near-field optical microscope based on Q-controlled bimorph sensor for biological imaging in liquid.

    PubMed

    Lei, F H; Angiboust, J-F; Qiao, W; Sockalingum, G D; Dukic, S; Chrit, L; Troyon, M; Manfait, M

    2004-12-01

    Shear force near-field microscopy on biological samples in their physiological environment loses considerable sensitivity and resolution as a result of liquid viscous damping. Using a bimorph-based cantilever sensor incorporating force feedback, as recently developed by us, gives an alternative force detection scheme for biological imaging in liquid. The dynamics and sensitivity of this sensor were theoretically and experimentally discussed. Driving the bimorph cantilever close to its resonance frequency with appropriate force feedback allows us to obtain a quality factor (Q-factor) of up to 10(3) in water, without changing its intrinsic resonance frequency and spring constant. Thus, the force detection sensitivity is improved. Shear force imaging on mouse brain sections and human skin tissues in liquid with an enhanced Q-factor of 410 have shown a high sensitivity and stability. A resolution of about 50 nm has been obtained. The experimental results suggest that the system is reliable and particularly suitable for biological cell imaging in a liquid environment. PMID:15566494

  14. Optical sedimentation recorder

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2014-05-06

    A robotic optical sedimentation recorder is described for the recordation of carbon flux in the oceans wherein both POC and PIC particles are captured at the open end of a submersible sampling platform, the captured particles allowed to drift down onto a collection plate where they can be imaged over time. The particles are imaged using three separate light sources, activated in sequence, one source being a back light, a second source being a side light to provide dark field illumination, and a third source comprising a cross polarized light source to illuminate birefringent particles. The recorder in one embodiment is attached to a buoyancy unit which is capable upon command for bringing the sedimentation recorder to a programmed depth below the ocean surface during recordation mode, and on command returning the unit to the ocean surface for transmission of recorded data and receipt of new instructions. The combined unit is provided with its own power source and is designed to operate autonomously in the ocean for extended periods of time.

  15. Nanomanipulation using near field photonics.

    PubMed

    Erickson, David; Serey, Xavier; Chen, Yih-Fan; Mandal, Sudeep

    2011-03-21

    In this article we review the use of near-field photonics for trapping, transport and handling of nanomaterials. While the advantages of traditional optical tweezing are well known at the microscale, direct application of these techniques to the handling of nanoscale materials has proven difficult due to unfavourable scaling of the fundamental physics. Recently a number of research groups have demonstrated how the evanescent fields surrounding photonic structures like photonic waveguides, optical resonators, and plasmonic nanoparticles can be used to greatly enhance optical forces. Here, we introduce some of the most common implementations of these techniques, focusing on those which have relevance to microfluidic or optofluidic applications. Since the field is still relatively nascent, we spend much of the article laying out the fundamental and practical advantages that near field optical manipulation offers over both traditional optical tweezing and other particle handling techniques. In addition we highlight three application areas where these techniques namely could be of interest to the lab-on-a-chip community, namely: single molecule analysis, nanoassembly, and optical chromatography.

  16. Bidimensional near-field sampling spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Renault, Mikael; Hadjar, Yassine; Blaize, Sylvain; Bruyant, Aurélien; Arnaud, Laurent; Lerondel, Gilles; Royer, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    We report on a concept of compact optical Fourier-transform spectrometer based on bidimensional (2D) spatial sampling of a confined interferogram. The spectrometer consists of a nanostructured glass surface on which two light beams interfere in total internal reflection. Subwavelength spatial sampling of the interferogram near field is achieved by introducing a tilt angle between a 2D array of optical nanoantennas and the interferogram pattern. The intensity distribution of the scattered light is recorded on a 2D CCD camera, and a one-dimensional Fourier transform of the interferogram is used to recover the input light spectrum. Experimental results show a wide spectral bandwidth in the visible range, down to 380 nm, with spectral resolution of 1.6 nm around 780 nm.

  17. Existence of a stable resonance zone with nearly unchanging vibration characteristics for a near-field scanning optical microscope probe dipped partially into a liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wonjun; Kim, Seyoung; Kim, Dae-Chan; O, Beom-Hoan; Park, Se-Geun; Lee, Seung Gol

    2014-02-01

    The vibration characteristics of a near-field scanning optical microscope (NSOM) probe, whose vibration was controlled by two-nodal-wedge method and tip was partially dipped into a liquid, were investigated theoretically and experimentally. The resonant frequency and the Q value of the NSOM probe were found to remain nearly unchanged irrespective of the dipping depth of the probe, if the probe was kept within a dipping depth range of 0.4˜1.0 mm. With the achievement of a high Q value, the existence of this stable resonance zone implies that bio-samples immersed in a liquid can be accurately and stably measured using a NSOM controlled by using two-nodal-wedge method.

  18. Second harmonic generation in a KNbO3 nanorod and its detection by using a near-field scanning optical microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, D. J.; Kang, P. G.; Jung, J. H.; Lee, H. H.; Choi, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    We report on an observation of second harmonic generation in an individual KNbO3 nanorod by using a near-field scanning optical microscope. The second harmonic is successfully generated by irradiating with a femtosecond laser having center wavelengths of 1200, 1100, and 972 nm. Such a second harmonic yield shows a clear dependence on the incident laser polarization, where maximum yield is obtained when the incident laser polarization is parallel to the long axis of an individual nanorod. A spatially-resolved second harmonic image shows a bright spot at the edge of the nanorod, which is attributed to the elaborated intensity of both fundamental laser light and second harmonic light inside the nanowire owing to cavity-mode formation.

  19. Determination of critical diameters for intrinsic carrier diffusion-length of GaN nanorods with cryo-scanning near-field optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y. T.; Karlsson, K. F.; Birch, J.; Holtz, P. O.

    2016-01-01

    Direct measurements of carrier diffusion in GaN nanorods with a designed InGaN/GaN layer-in-a-wire structure by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) were performed at liquid-helium temperatures of 10 K. Without an applied voltage, intrinsic diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers were measured as the diameters of the nanorods differ from 50 to 800 nm. The critical diameter of nanorods for carrier diffusion is concluded as 170 nm with a statistical approach. Photoluminescence spectra were acquired for different positions of the SNOM tip on the nanorod, corresponding to the origins of the well-defined luminescence peaks, each being related to recombination-centers. The phenomenon originated from surface oxide by direct comparison of two nanorods with similar diameters in a single map has been observed and investigated. PMID:26876009

  20. Near-Field Scanning Optical Microscopy of Soft, Biological, or Rough Objects in Aqueous Environment: Challenges and some Remedies to Circumvent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vikram, C. S.; Witherow, W. K.

    1999-01-01

    Near-field scanning optical microscopy is an established technique for sub-wavelength spatial resolution in imaging, spectroscopy, material science, surface chemistry, polarimetry, etc. A significant amount of confidence has been established for thin hard specimens in air. However when soft, biological, rough, in aqueous environment object, or a combination is involved, the progress has been slow. The tip-sample mechanical interaction, heat effects to sample, drag effects to the probe, difficulty in controlling tip-sample separation in case of rough objects, light scattering from sample thickness, etc. create problems. Although these problems are not even fully understood, there have been attempts to study them with the aim of performing reliable operations. In this review we describe these attempts. Starting with general problems encountered, various effects like polarization, thermal, and media are covered. The roles of independent tip-sample distance control tools in the relevant situations are then described. Finally progress in fluid cell aspect has been summarized.

  1. Measuring photoluminescence spectra of self-assembly array nanowire of colloidal CdSe quantum dots using scanning near-field optics microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Zhongchen; Hao, Licai; Zhang, Zhengping; Qin, Shuijie

    2016-05-01

    A novel periodic array CdSe nanowire is prepared on a substrate of the porous titanium dioxide by using a self-assembly method of the colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs). The experimental results show that the colloidal CdSe QDs have renewedly assembled on its space scale and direction in process of losing background solvent and form the periodic array nanowire. The main peak wavelength of Photoluminescence (PL) spectra, which is measured by using a 100-nm aperture laser beam spot on a scanning near-field optics microscopy, has shifted 60 nm with compared to the colloidal CdSe QDs. Furthermore, we have measured smaller ordered nanometer structure in thin QDs area as well, a 343-nm periodic nanowire in thick QDs area and the colloidal QDs in edge of well-ordered nanowire.

  2. Near-field to far-field characterization of speckle patterns generated by disordered nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Parigi, Valentina; Perros, Elodie; Binard, Guillaume; Bourdillon, Céline; Maître, Agnès; Carminati, Rémi; Krachmalnicoff, Valentina; De Wilde, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    We study the intensity spatial correlation function of optical speckle patterns above a disordered dielectric medium in the multiple scattering regime. The intensity distributions are recorded by scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with sub-wavelength spatial resolution at variable distances from the surface in a range which spans continuously from the near-field (distance ≪ λ) to the far-field regime (distance ≫ λ). The non-universal behavior at sub-wavelength distances reveals the connection between the near-field speckle pattern and the internal structure of the medium. PMID:27136995

  3. Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Forg, B.; Schotz, J.; SuBmann, F.; Forster, M.; Kruger, M.; Ahn, B.; Okell, W. A.; Wintersperger, K.; Zherebtsov, S.; Guggenmos, A.; et al

    2016-05-31

    The promise of ultrafast light-field-driven electronic nanocircuits has stimulated the development of the new research field of attosecond nanophysics. An essential prerequisite for advancing this new area is the ability to characterize optical near fields from light interaction with nanostructures, with sub-cycle resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate attosecond near-field retrieval for a tapered gold nanowire. Furthermore, by comparison of the results to those obtained from noble gas experiments and trajectory simulations, the spectral response of the nanotaper near field arising from laser excitation can be extracted.

  4. Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling

    PubMed Central

    Förg, B.; Schötz, J.; Süßmann, F.; Förster, M.; Krüger, M.; Ahn, B.; Okell, W. A.; Wintersperger, K.; Zherebtsov, S.; Guggenmos, A.; Pervak, V.; Kessel, A.; Trushin, S. A.; Azzeer, A. M.; Stockman, M. I.; Kim, D.; Krausz, F.; Hommelhoff, P.; Kling, M. F.

    2016-01-01

    The promise of ultrafast light-field-driven electronic nanocircuits has stimulated the development of the new research field of attosecond nanophysics. An essential prerequisite for advancing this new area is the ability to characterize optical near fields from light interaction with nanostructures, with sub-cycle resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate attosecond near-field retrieval for a tapered gold nanowire. By comparison of the results to those obtained from noble gas experiments and trajectory simulations, the spectral response of the nanotaper near field arising from laser excitation can be extracted. PMID:27241851

  5. Attosecond nanoscale near-field sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förg, B.; Schötz, J.; Süßmann, F.; Förster, M.; Krüger, M.; Ahn, B.; Okell, W. A.; Wintersperger, K.; Zherebtsov, S.; Guggenmos, A.; Pervak, V.; Kessel, A.; Trushin, S. A.; Azzeer, A. M.; Stockman, M. I.; Kim, D.; Krausz, F.; Hommelhoff, P.; Kling, M. F.

    2016-05-01

    The promise of ultrafast light-field-driven electronic nanocircuits has stimulated the development of the new research field of attosecond nanophysics. An essential prerequisite for advancing this new area is the ability to characterize optical near fields from light interaction with nanostructures, with sub-cycle resolution. Here we experimentally demonstrate attosecond near-field retrieval for a tapered gold nanowire. By comparison of the results to those obtained from noble gas experiments and trajectory simulations, the spectral response of the nanotaper near field arising from laser excitation can be extracted.

  6. Infrared Scattering Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy Using An External Cavity Quantum Cascade Laser For Nanoscale Chemical Imaging And Spectroscopy of Explosive Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Mark C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2013-02-04

    Infrared scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) is an apertureless superfocusing technique that uses the antenna properties of a conducting atomic force microscope (AFM) tip to achieve infrared spatial resolution below the diffraction limit. The instrument can be used either in imaging mode, where a fixed wavelength light source is tuned to a molecular resonance and the AFM raster scans an image, or in spectroscopy mode where the AFM is held stationary over a feature of interest and the light frequency is varied to obtain a spectrum. In either case, a strong, stable, coherent infrared source is required. Here we demonstrate the integration of a broadly tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser (ECQCL) into an s-SNOM and use it to obtain infrared spectra of microcrystals of chemicals adsorbed onto gold substrates. Residues of the explosive compound tetryl was deposited onto gold substrates. s-SNOM experiments were performed in the 1260-1400 cm-1 tuning range of the ECQCL, corresponding to the NO2 symmetric stretch vibrational fingerprint region. Vibrational infrared spectra were collected on individual chemical domains with a collection area of *500nm2 and compared to ensemble averaged far-field reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) results.

  7. Optical Recording Media Primer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Tom

    1987-01-01

    This presentation is intended to provide the listener with a general overview of the optical media market. It deals with the basic questions and concerns expressed by those who are about to become involved in optical storage. Areas touched upon include the various types of optical media available, their storage capacities, how they're made, how they are used, life expectancy of media, states of various standards efforts, current and projected pricing and availability, market trends, and growth projecting for the next five years.

  8. Near-field photochemical imaging of noble metal nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Christophe; Rumyantseva, Anna; Lerondel, Gilles; Grand, Johan; Kostcheev, Sergeï; Billot, Laurent; Vial, Alexandre; Bachelot, Renaud; Royer, Pascal; Chang, Shih-hui; Gray, Stephen K; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Schatz, George C

    2005-04-01

    The sub-diffraction imaging of the optical near-field in nanostructures, based on a photochemical technique, is reported. A photosensitive azobenzene-dye polymer is spin coated onto lithographic structures and is subsequently irradiated with laser light. Photoinduced mass transport creates topographic modifications at the polymer film surface that are then measured with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM images correlate with rigorous theoretical calculations of the near-field intensities for a range of different nanostructures and illumination polarizations. This approach is a first step toward additional methods for resolving confined optical near fields, which can augment scanning probe methodologies for high spatial resolution of optical near fields.

  9. Volumetric Near-Field Microwave Plasma Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Exton, R. J.; Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.; Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2003-01-01

    A periodic series of microwave-induced plasmoids is generated using the outgoing wave from a microwave horn and the reflected wave from a nearby on-axis concave reflector. The plasmoids are spaced at half-wavelength separations according to a standing-wave pattern. The plasmoids are enhanced by an effective focusing in the near field of the horn (Fresnel region) as a result of a diffractive narrowing. Optical imaging, electron density, and rotational temperature measurements characterize the near field plasma region. Volumetric microwave discharges may have application to combustion ignition in scramjet engines.

  10. Near-Field Imaging of Phased Array Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Bernhard J; Schnell, Martin; Kats, Mikhail A; Aieta, Francesco; Hillenbrand, Rainer; Capasso, Federico

    2015-06-10

    Phased-antenna metasurfaces can impart abrupt, spatially dependent changes to the amplitude, phase, and polarization of light and thus mold wavefronts in a desired fashion. Here we present an experimental and computational near-field study of metasurfaces based on near-resonant V-shaped antennas and connect their near- and far-field optical responses. We show that far fields can be obtained from limited, experimentally obtained knowledge of the near fields, paving the way for experimental near-field characterization of metasurfaces and other optical nanostructures and prediction of their far fields from the near-field measurements.

  11. Micromachined near-field probe arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, Pradeep; Beyette, Fred R., Jr.; Papautsky, Ian

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication of cantilevered arrays of tapered near-field probes with pyramidal, sub-micrometer tips that are micromachined from glass substrates. High density data storage and page-oriented retrieval are the potential applications of the described microdevice. Heating and pulling or chemical etching of optic fibers are the common approaches to sub-wavelength aperture fabrication necessary to probe the near-field. Arrays have been previously formed by chemical etching of or film deposition on an opaque substrate and were later coupled to optical fibers for use as near-field probes though; alignment of optical fibers with the apertures for guiding the light to the detector in the far-field is not trivial. Probe arrays described in this work were initially fabricated by dicing a 175-μm thick borosilicate glass substrate using a 250-μm thick resinoid blade and were subsequently tapered and sharpened in a two-step chemical etch process performed at room temperature. The tips were then metallized using a 100nm thick coating of aluminum. Arrays of upto eight 1cm to 2.5 cm long probes with center-to-center spacing of 450 μm and tip sizes of approximately 200 nm were fabricated. Roughness on the vertical sidewall was characterized and the dependence of optical loss coefficients of the light guiding bulk on etch duration was investigated.

  12. Rewriteable optical disk recorder development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shull, Thomas A.; Rinsland, Pamela L.

    1991-01-01

    A NASA program to develop a high performance (high rate, high capability) rewriteable optical disk recorder for spaceflight applications is presented. An expandable, adaptable system concept is proposed based on disk Drive modules and a modular Controller. Drive performance goals are 10 gigabyte capacity are up to 1.8 gigabits per second rate with concurrent I/O, synchronous data transfer, and 2 to 5 years operating life in orbit. Technology developments, design concepts, current status, and future plans are presented.

  13. Spaceflight optical disk recorder development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurczyk, Stephen G.; Hines, Glenn D.; Shull, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Mass memory systems based on rewriteable optical disk media are expected to play an important role in meeting the data system requirements for future NASA spaceflight missions. NASA has established a program to develop a high performance (high rate, large capacity) optical disk recorder focused on use aboard unmanned Earth orbiting platforms. An expandable, adaptable system concept is proposed based on disk drive modules and a modular controller. Drive performance goals are 10 gigabyte capacity, 300 megabit/s transfer rate, 10 exp -12 corrected bit error rate, and 150 millisec access time. This performance is achieved by writing eight data tracks in parallel on both sides of a 14 in. optical disk using two independent heads. System goals are 160 gigabyte capacity, 1.2 gigabits/s data rate with concurrent I/O, 250 millisec access time, and two to five year operating life on orbit. The system can be configured to meet various applications. This versatility is provided by the controller. The controller provides command processing, multiple drive synchronization, data buffering, basic file management, error processing, and status reporting. Technology developments, design concepts, current status including a computer model of the system and a Controller breadboard, and future plans for the Drive and Controller are presented.

  14. Ultrafast microsphere near-field nanostructuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitz, K.-H.; Quentin, U.; Hornung, B.; Otto, A.; Alexeev, I.; Schmidt, M.

    2011-03-01

    Due to the steadily advancing miniaturization in all fields of technology nanostructuring becomes increasingly important. Whereas the classical lithographic nanostructuring suffers from both high costs and low flexibility, for many applications in biomedicine and technology laser based nanostructuring approaches, where near-field effects allow a sub-diffraction limited laser focusing, are on the rise. In combination with ultrashort pulsed laser sources, that allow the utilization of non-linear multi-photon absorption effects, a flexible, low-cost laser based nanostructuring with sub-wavelength resolution becomes possible. Among various near-field nanostructuring approaches the microsphere based techniques, which use small microbead particles of the size of the wavelength for a sub-diffraction limited focusing of pulsed laser radiation, are the most promising. Compared to the tip or aperture based techniques this approach is very robust and can be applied both for a large-scale production of periodic arrays of nanostructures and in combination with optical trapping also for a direct-write. Size and shape of the features produced by microsphere near-field nanostructuring strongly depend on the respective processing parameters. In this contribution a basic study of the influence of processing parameters on the microsphere near-field nanostructuring with nano-, pico- and femtosecond laser pulses will be presented. The experimental and numerical results with dielectric and metal nanoparticles on semiconductor and dielectric substrates show the influence of particle size and material, substrate material, pulse duration, laser fluence, number of contributing laser pulses and polarization on the structuring process.

  15. Far-Field Spectroscopy and Near-Field Optical Imaging of Coupled Plasmon-Phonon Polaritons in 2D van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhai, Feng; Hu, Hai; Hu, Debo; Liu, Ruina; Zhang, Shunping; Sun, Mengtao; Sun, Zhipei; Chen, Jianing; Dai, Qing

    2016-04-20

    A new hybridized plasmon-phonon polariton mode in graphene/h-BN van der Waals heterostructures is presented, featuring the ultrahigh field confinement characteristic of the graphene plasmon and the long lifetime property of the h-BN transverse optical phonon. This enables an ultralong hybrid plasmon lifetime of up to 1.6 ps (with ultrahigh mode confinement up to >l0(2)/7000 and ultrasmall group velocity down to 0.001c, where c is the speed of light in vacuum), superior to any localized plasmon ever demonstrated.

  16. Near-Field Thermal Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2014-01-01

    Using a block of three separated solid elements, a thermal source and drain together with a gate made of an insulator-metal transition material exchanging near-field thermal radiation, we introduce a nanoscale analog of a field-effect transistor that is able to control the flow of heat exchanged by evanescent thermal photons between two bodies. By changing the gate temperature around its critical value, the heat flux exchanged between the hot body (source) and the cold body (drain) can be reversibly switched, amplified, and modulated by a tiny action on the gate. Such a device could find important applications in the domain of nanoscale thermal management and it opens up new perspectives concerning the development of contactless thermal circuits intended for information processing using the photon current rather than the electric current.

  17. Scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid: Observation of recombinant Escherichia coli with gene coding to green fluorescent protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muramatsu, Hiroshi; Chiba, Norio; Ataka, Tatsuaki; Iwabuchi, Shinichiro; Nagatani, Naoki; Tamiya, Eiichi; Fujihira, Masamichi

    1996-11-01

    We have developed a system of scanning near-field optical/atomic force microscopy (SNOM/AFM) for fluorescence imaging and spectroscopy of biomaterials in air and liquid. SNOM/AFM uses a bent optical fiber simultaneously as a dynamic force AFM cantilever and a SNOM probe. Optical resolution of SNOM images shows about 50 nm in an illumination mode for a standard sample of a patterned chromium layer of 20 nm thickness on a quartz glass plate. The SNOM/AFM system contains a photon counting system and polychrometer/ICCD (intensified charge coupled device) system for observation of the fluorescence image and spectrograph of micro areas, respectively. The gene coding to green fluorescence protein (GFP) was cloned in recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli). Topography, fluorescence image and spectrograph of recombinant E. coli by SNOM/AFM showed a difference in fluorescence in individual E. coli. Fluorescence activity of GFP can thus be used as a convenient indicator of transformation. SNOM/AFM is also applicable to observe immobilized E. coli on a glass plate in water with a liquid chamber and may allow the viewing of observation of floating organisms.

  18. Report of near field group

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Baggett, N.; Claus, J.; Fernow, R.; Stumer, I.; Figueroa, H.; Kroll, N.; Funk, W.; Lee-Whiting, G.; Pickup, M.

    1985-04-01

    Substantial progress since the Los Alamos Workshop two years ago is reported. A radio-frequency model of a grating accelerator has been tested at Cornell, and extensive calculations compared with observations. Alternative structures consisting of either hemispherical bumps on a plane, or conducting spheres in space, have also been rf modeled. The use of liquid droplets to form such structures has been proposed and a conceptual design studied. Calculations and experiments have examined the effects of surface plasmas, and shown that in this case the reflectivity is low. However, calculations and observations suggest that gradients in excess of 1 GeV/meter should be obtainable without forming such plasma. An examination of wake fields shows that, with Landau damping, these are independent of wavelength. The use of near field structures to act as high gradient focusing elements has been studied and shows promise, independent of the acceleration mechanism. A proposal has been made to establish a facility that would enable ''proof of principle experiments'' to be performed on these and other laser driven accelerator mechanisms. 11 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Study on advanced nanoscale near-field photolithography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Been; Chiang, Hsiu-Lu; Huang, Jen-Ching

    2010-01-01

    At present, applying a near-field optical microscope to photolithographic line segment fabrication can only obtain nanoscale line segments of equal cutting depths, and cannot result in 3D shape fabrication. This study proposes an innovative line segment fabrication model of near-field photolithography that adjusts an optical fiber probe's field distance to control the exposure energy density, and moreover constructs an exposure energy density analysis method of the innovative photolithographic line segment fabrication. During the exposure simulation process of the innovative line segment fabrication model of near-field photolithography, the near-field distance between the optical fiber probe and the photoresist surface increases gradually, whereas the exposure energy density distribution decreases gradually. As a result, the cutting depth becomes shallower and the full-width at half maximum (FWHM) increases. The results of this study can serve as a theoretical reference for developing advanced nanoscale near-field photolithography techniques, to which an important and groundbreaking contribution is made.

  20. Shaping the nonlinear near field.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Daniela; Schumacher, Thorsten; Lippitz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Light scattering at plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies has led to a wealth of applications in metamaterials and nano-optics. Although shaping of fields around nanostructures is widely studied, the influence of the field inside the nanostructures is often overlooked. The linear field distribution inside the structure taken to the third power causes third-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical response of matter. Here we demonstrate by a far field Fourier imaging method how this simple fact can be used to shape complex fields around a single particle alone. We employ this scheme to switch the third-harmonic emission from a single point source to two spatially separated but coherent sources, as in Young's double-slit assembly. We envision applications as diverse as coherently feeding antenna arrays and optical spectroscopy of spatially extended electronic states. PMID:26762487

  1. Shaping the nonlinear near field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Daniela; Schumacher, Thorsten; Lippitz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Light scattering at plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies has led to a wealth of applications in metamaterials and nano-optics. Although shaping of fields around nanostructures is widely studied, the influence of the field inside the nanostructures is often overlooked. The linear field distribution inside the structure taken to the third power causes third-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical response of matter. Here we demonstrate by a far field Fourier imaging method how this simple fact can be used to shape complex fields around a single particle alone. We employ this scheme to switch the third-harmonic emission from a single point source to two spatially separated but coherent sources, as in Young's double-slit assembly. We envision applications as diverse as coherently feeding antenna arrays and optical spectroscopy of spatially extended electronic states.

  2. Shaping the nonlinear near field

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniela; Schumacher, Thorsten; Lippitz, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Light scattering at plasmonic nanoparticles and their assemblies has led to a wealth of applications in metamaterials and nano-optics. Although shaping of fields around nanostructures is widely studied, the influence of the field inside the nanostructures is often overlooked. The linear field distribution inside the structure taken to the third power causes third-harmonic generation, a nonlinear optical response of matter. Here we demonstrate by a far field Fourier imaging method how this simple fact can be used to shape complex fields around a single particle alone. We employ this scheme to switch the third-harmonic emission from a single point source to two spatially separated but coherent sources, as in Young's double-slit assembly. We envision applications as diverse as coherently feeding antenna arrays and optical spectroscopy of spatially extended electronic states. PMID:26762487

  3. Near-field levitated quantum optomechanics with nanodiamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, M. L.; Molina-Terriza, G.; Volz, T.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically show that the dipole force of an ensemble of quantum emitters embedded in a dielectric nanosphere can be exploited to achieve near-field optical levitation. The key ingredient is that the polarizability from the ensemble of embedded quantum emitters can be larger than the bulk polarizability of the sphere, thereby enabling the use of repulsive optical potentials and consequently the levitation using optical near fields. In levitated cavity quantum optomechanics, this could be used to boost the single-photon coupling by combining larger polarizability to mass ratio, larger field gradients, and smaller cavity volumes while remaining in the resolved sideband regime and at room temperature. A case study is done with a nanodiamond containing a high density of silicon-vacancy color centers that is optically levitated in the evanescent field of a tapered nanofiber and coupled to a high-finesse microsphere cavity.

  4. Near Field Communication: Introduction and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHugh, Sheli; Yarmey, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    Near field communication is an emerging technology that allows objects, such as mobile phones, computers, tags, or posters, to exchange information wirelessly across a small distance. Though primarily associated with mobile payment, near field communication has many different potential commercial applications, ranging from marketing to nutrition,…

  5. Near-Field Spectroscopy with Nanoparticles Deposited by AFM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    An alternative approach to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy involving an atomic-force microscope (AFM) entails less complexity of equipment than does a prior approach. The alternative approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of the type using an AFM and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and is expected to be equally applicable in cases in which infrared or fluorescence spectroscopy is used. Apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy is a means of performing spatially resolved analyses of chemical compositions of surface regions of nanostructured materials. In apertureless near-field spectroscopy, it is common practice to utilize nanostructured probe tips or nanoparticles (usually of gold) having shapes and dimensions chosen to exploit plasmon resonances so as to increase spectroscopic-signal strengths. To implement the particular prior approach to which the present approach is an alternative, it is necessary to integrate a Raman spectrometer with an AFM and to utilize a special SERS-active probe tip. The resulting instrumentation system is complex, and the tasks of designing and constructing the system and using the system to acquire spectro-chemical information from nanometer-scale regions on a surface are correspondingly demanding.

  6. Stimulated Raman spectroscopy and nanoscopy of molecules using near field photon induced forces without resonant electronic enhancement gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Huang, Fei; Nowak, Derek; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H.

    2016-06-01

    We report on stimulated Raman spectroscopy and nanoscopy of molecules, excited without resonant electronic enhancement gain, and recorded using near field photon induced forces. Photon-induced interaction forces between the sharp metal coated silicon tip of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and a sample resulting from stimulated Raman excitation were detected. We controlled the tip to sample spacing using the higher order flexural eigenmodes of the AFM cantilever, enabling the tip to come very close to the sample. As a result, the detection sensitivity was increased compared with previous work on Raman force microscopy. Raman vibrational spectra of azobenzene thiol and l-phenylalanine were measured and found to agree well with published results. Near-field force detection eliminates the need for far-field optical spectrometer detection. Recorded images show spatial resolution far below the optical diffraction limit. Further optimization and use of ultrafast pulsed lasers could push the detection sensitivity towards the single molecule limit.

  7. Near-field energy extraction with hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jiawei; Liu, Baoan; Li, Pengfei; Ng, Li Yen; Shen, Sheng

    2015-02-11

    Although blackbody radiation described by Planck's law is commonly regarded as the maximum of thermal radiation, thermal energy transfer in the near-field can exceed the blackbody limit due to the contribution from evanescent waves. Here, we demonstrate experimentally a broadband thermal energy extraction device based on hyperbolic metamaterials that can significantly enhance near-field thermal energy transfer. The thermal extractor made from hyperbolic metamaterials does not absorb or emit any radiation but serves as a transparent pipe guiding the radiative energy from the emitter. At the same gap between an emitter and an absorber, we observe that near-field thermal energy transfer with thermal extraction can be enhanced by around 1 order of magnitude, compared to the case without thermal extraction. The novel thermal extraction scheme has important practical implications in a variety of technologies, e.g., thermophotovoltaic energy conversion, radiative cooling, thermal infrared imaging, and heat assisted magnetic recording.

  8. Faster optical-spectra recording and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Optical spectra are recorded and rapidly analyzed by system that links multichannel analyzer and desk-top programable calculator. Cassette-memory storage is provided. System can be programed to automate background subtraction, axis expansion, and other data-analysis techniques and can store several hundred spectra for immediate or delayed analysis and comparisons.

  9. Analysis on near field scattering spectra around nanoparticles by using parametric indirect microscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoyan, Liu; Kun, Gao; Xuefeng, Liu; Guoqiang, Ni

    2016-10-01

    We report the simulation and measurement results of near field spatial scattering spectra around nanoparticles. Our measurement and simulations results have indicated that Parametric Indirect Microscopic Imaging can image the near field spatial scattering to a much larger distance from the scattering source of the particle under measurement whereas this part of spatial scattering was lost in the conventional microscopy. Both FDTD modeling and measurement provided evidence that parameters of indirect optical wave vector have higher sensitivity to near field scattering.

  10. Near-field turbulence effects on quantum-key distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2003-02-01

    Bounds on average power transfer over a near-field optical path through atmospheric turbulence are used to deduce bounds on the sift and error probabilities of a free-space quantum-key distribution system that uses the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol. It is shown that atmospheric turbulence imposes at most a modest decrease in the sift probability and a modest increase in the conditional probability of error given that a sift event has occurred.

  11. Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-12-17

    Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer.

  12. Radiative heat transfer in the extreme near field.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeongtae; Song, Bai; Fernández-Hurtado, Víctor; Lee, Woochul; Jeong, Wonho; Cui, Longji; Thompson, Dakotah; Feist, Johannes; Reid, M T Homer; García-Vidal, Francisco J; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-12-17

    Radiative transfer of energy at the nanometre length scale is of great importance to a variety of technologies including heat-assisted magnetic recording, near-field thermophotovoltaics and lithography. Although experimental advances have enabled elucidation of near-field radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as 20-30 nanometres (refs 4-6), quantitative analysis in the extreme near field (less than 10 nanometres) has been greatly limited by experimental challenges. Moreover, the results of pioneering measurements differed from theoretical predictions by orders of magnitude. Here we use custom-fabricated scanning probes with embedded thermocouples, in conjunction with new microdevices capable of periodic temperature modulation, to measure radiative heat transfer down to gaps as small as two nanometres. For our experiments we deposited suitably chosen metal or dielectric layers on the scanning probes and microdevices, enabling direct study of extreme near-field radiation between silica-silica, silicon nitride-silicon nitride and gold-gold surfaces to reveal marked, gap-size-dependent enhancements of radiative heat transfer. Furthermore, our state-of-the-art calculations of radiative heat transfer, performed within the theoretical framework of fluctuational electrodynamics, are in excellent agreement with our experimental results, providing unambiguous evidence that confirms the validity of this theory for modelling radiative heat transfer in gaps as small as a few nanometres. This work lays the foundations required for the rational design of novel technologies that leverage nanoscale radiative heat transfer. PMID:26641312

  13. Complicated rupture process of the Mw 7.0 intraslab strike-slip earthquake in the Tohoku region on 10 July 2011 revealed by near-field pressure records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, Tatsuya; Hino, Ryota; Inazu, Daisuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Iinuma, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    We examined fault models of the Tohoku strike-slip intraslab earthquake (Mw 7.0) on 10 July 2011 using near-field tsunami data. After constraining the strike and location of the fault from tsunami source distribution, we investigated fault models assuming simple rupture of one fault, and simultaneous rupture of two conjugate faults. The estimated single fault reached >30 km down into the slab from the plate interface, suggesting bending stress enhancement after the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake, but the depth extent was inconsistent with the aftershock activity. The model involving conjugate faults extended ~20 km below the slab surface and was more consistent with the aftershocks. We concluded that it is more plausible that this earthquake involved two conjugate strike-slip faults, and the enhancement of the downdip extensional stress after Tohoku-Oki earthquake was not large enough to allow rupture to propagate deeply into the slab beneath the landward slope of the Japan Trench.

  14. Near-Field Photothermal Heating with a Plasmonic Nanofocusing Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Dong, Biqing; Balogun, Oluwaseyi

    2016-03-01

    Noble metal nanostructures support plasmon resonances—collective oscillation of charge carriers at optical frequencies—and serve as effective tools to create bright light sources at the nanoscale. These sources are useful in broad application areas including, super-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, nanolithography, and near-field optomechanical transducers. The feasibility of these applications relies on efficient conversion of free-space propagating light to plasmons. Recently, we demonstrated a hybrid nanofocusing scheme for efficient coupling of light to plasmons at the apex of a scanning probe. In the approach, free-space light is coupled to propagating surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) on the tapered shaft of the scanning probe. The SPPs propagate adiabatically towards the probe tip where they are coupled to localized plasmons (LSPs). The nanofocusing scheme was explored in a near-field scanning optical microscope for super-resolution imaging, near-field transduction of nanomechanical vibrations, and local detection of ultrasound. Owing to the strong concentration of light at the probe, significant heating of the tip and a sample positioned in the optical near-field is expected. This paper investigates the local heating produced by the plasmonic nanofocusing probe under steady-state conditions using the tip-enhanced Raman scattering approach. In addition, a finite element model is explored to study the coupling of free propagating light to LSPs, and to estimate the temperature rise expected in a halfspace heated by absorption of the LSPs. This study has implications for exploring the plasmonic nanofocusing probe in heat-assisted nanofabrication and fundamental studies of nanoscale heat transport in materials.

  15. Near-Field Enhanced Negative Luminescent Refrigeration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kaifeng; Santhanam, Parthiban; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-08-01

    We consider a near-field enhanced negative luminescent refrigeration system made of a polar material supporting surface-phonon polariton resonances and a narrow-band-gap semiconductor under a reverse bias. We show that in the near-field regime, such a device yields significant cooling power density and a high efficiency close to the Carnot limit. In addition, the performance of our system still persists even in the presence of strong nonidealities such as Auger recombination and sub-band-gap thermal radiation from free carriers.

  16. Near-field diffraction of chirped gratings.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Torcal-Milla, Francisco Jose; Morlanes, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    In this Letter, we analyze the near-field diffraction pattern produced by chirped gratings. An intuitive analytical interpretation of the generated diffraction orders is proposed. Several interesting properties of the near-field diffraction pattern can be determined, such as the period of the fringes and its visibility. Diffraction orders present different widths and also, some of them present focusing properties. The width, location, and depth of focus of the converging diffraction orders are also determined. The analytical expressions are compared to numerical simulation and experimental results, showing a high agreement. PMID:27607980

  17. Electrooptic sensor module fabrication for near-field intrabody communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuya, Akinori; Sasaki, Ai-ichiro; Morimura, Hiroki; Kagami, Osamu; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we describe how to obtain a low cost electrooptic (EO) sensor module for the mass production of near-field intrabody communication devices. In our previous study, we used a bulk cleavage technique to fabricate EO modulators without the need for any optical polishing or washing processes. In this study, we fabricated EO modulators as a miniaturized chip sensor without a base portion, and clarified the feasibility of assembling optical components by only a passive alignment technique with a compact housing.

  18. Near-field observation of light propagation in nanocoax waveguides.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Juan M; Ye, Fan; Rizal, Binod; Burns, Michael J; Naughton, Michael J

    2014-06-16

    We report the observation of propagating modes of visible and near infrared light in nanoscale coaxial (metal-dielectric-metal) structures, using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Together with numerical calculations, we show that the propagated modes have different nature depending on the excitation wavelength, i.e., plasmonic TE11 and TE21 modes in the near infrared and photonic TE31, TE41 and TM11 modes in the visible. Far field transmission out of the nanocoaxes is dominated by the superposition of Fabry-Perot cavity modes resonating in the structures, consistent with theory. Such coaxial optical waveguides may be useful for future nanoscale photonic systems.

  19. Spacecraft optical disk recorder memory buffer control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for use in the control electronics of the Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR). Specifically, this project is to design an extendable memory buffer controller ASIC for rate matching between a system Input/Output port and the SODR's device interface. The aforementioned goal can be partitioned into the following sub-goals: (1) completion of ASIC design and simulation (on-going via ASEE fellowship); (2) ASIC Fabrication (at ASIC manufacturer); and (3) ASIC Testing (NASA/LaRC, Christopher Newport University).

  20. An optical microsystem for wireless neural recording.

    PubMed

    Wei, P; Ziaie, B

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an optical microsystem for wireless neural recording. The system incorporated recording electrodes, integrated electronics, surface-mount LEDs, and a CCD camera. The components were mounted on a PCB platform having a total dimension of 2.2 x 2.2 cm(2), 4 integrated biopotential amplifiers (IBA) and 16 LEDs. The IBAs having a bandwidth of 0.1-93.5Hz with the midband gain of 38 dB were fabricated using AMI 1.6microm technology. The simulated local field potentials (LFP) were amplified and used to drive the LEDs. A CCD camera with a temporal resolution of 30FPS was used to capture the image and retrieve the signal. PMID:19964126

  1. Antenna Near-Field Probe Station Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz J. (Inventor); Lee, Richard Q. (Inventor); Darby, William G. (Inventor); Barr, Philip J. (Inventor); Lambert, Kevin M (Inventor); Miranda, Felix A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A miniaturized antenna system is characterized non-destructively through the use of a scanner that measures its near-field radiated power performance. When taking measurements, the scanner can be moved linearly along the x, y and z axis, as well as rotationally relative to the antenna. The data obtained from the characterization are processed to determine the far-field properties of the system and to optimize the system. Each antenna is excited using a probe station system while a scanning probe scans the space above the antenna to measure the near field signals. Upon completion of the scan, the near-field patterns are transformed into far-field patterns. Along with taking data, this system also allows for extensive graphing and analysis of both the near-field and far-field data. The details of the probe station as well as the procedures for setting up a test, conducting a test, and analyzing the resulting data are also described.

  2. Near-field Raman spectroscopy using a tetrahedral SNOM tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Stefan; Reichert, Joachim; Fuchs, Harald; Fischer, Ulrich

    2006-04-01

    An example of near-field Raman spectroscopy based on the tip-enhancement at an apertureless tetrahedral scanning near-field optical tip (t-tip) is presented. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) is based on the excitation of localized surface plasmons (LSP) in the cavity of tip and surface. The LSP provide a highly confined and large field enhancement at the tip apex which allows molecular spectroscopy at the nanoscale. The t-tip consists, in contrast to other TERS configurations which use opaque tips, of a gold coated glass tip which is irradiated from the inside. We demonstrate TERS spectra of the dye malachite green isothiocyanate and show an increased bleaching of the dye in presence of the tip. Data analysis show that the actual experimental conditions support moderate enhancement of the Raman signal.

  3. Near-field NanoThermoMechanical memory

    SciTech Connect

    Elzouka, Mahmoud; Ndao, Sidy

    2014-12-15

    In this letter, we introduce the concept of NanoThermoMechanical Memory. Unlike electronic memory, a NanoThermoMechanical memory device uses heat instead of electricity to record, store, and recover data. Memory function is achieved through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion resulting in negative differential thermal resistance and thermal latching. Here, we demonstrate theoretically via numerical modeling the concept of near-field thermal radiation enabled negative differential thermal resistance that achieves bistable states. Design and implementation of a practical silicon based NanoThermoMechanical memory device are proposed along with a study of its dynamic response under write/read cycles. With more than 50% of the world's energy losses being in the form of heat along with the ever increasing need to develop computer technologies which can operate in harsh environments (e.g., very high temperatures), NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices may hold the answer.

  4. Radiation Entropy and Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation entropy was key to the original derivation of Planck's law of blackbody radiation, in 1900. This discovery opened the door to quantum mechanical theory and Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Thermal radiation plays an important role in incandescent lamps, solar energy utilization, temperature measurements, materials processing, remote sensing for astronomy and space exploration, combustion and furnace design, food processing, cryogenic engineering, as well as numerous agricultural, health, and military applications. While Planck's law has been fruitfully applied to a large number of engineering problems for over 100 years, questions have been raised about its limitation in micro/nano systems, especially at subwavelength distances or in the near field. When two objects are located closer than the characteristic wavelength, wave interference and photon tunneling occurs that can result in significant enhancement of the radiative transfer. Recent studies have shown that the near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, sub-wavelength light source, polariton-assisted nanolithography, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, scanning tunneling thermal microscopy, etc. The concept of entropy has also been applied to explain laser cooling of solids as well as the second law efficiency of devices that utilize thermal radiation to produce electricity. However, little is known as regards the nature of entropy in near-field radiation. Some history and recent advances are reviewed in this presentation with a call for research of radiation entropy in the near field, due to the important applications in the optimization of thermophotovoltaic converters and in the design of practical systems that can harvest photon energies efficiently.

  5. Evaluation of near-field earthquake effects

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1994-11-01

    Structures and equipment, which are qualified for the design basis earthquake (DBE) and have anchorage designed for the DBE loading, do not require an evaluation of the near-field earthquake (NFE) effects. However, safety class 1 acceleration sensitive equipment such as electrical relays must be evaluated for both NFE and DBE since they are known to malfunction when excited by high frequency seismic motions.

  6. Near-field radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Nina; Perov, Sergey; Belaya, Olga; Kuster, Niels; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    Personal wireless telecommunication devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) sources operated in vicinity of human body, have possible adverse health effects. Therefore, the correct EMF assessment is necessary in their near field. According to international near-field measurement criteria, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used for absorbed energy distribution assessment in tissue simulating liquid phantoms. The aim of this investigation is to validate the relationship between the H-field of incident EMF and absorbed energy in phantoms. Three typical wireless telecommunication system frequencies are considered (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz). The EMF source at each frequency is an appropriate half-wave dipole antenna and the absorbing medium is a flat phantom filled with the suitable tissue simulating liquid. Two methods for SAR estimation have been used: standard procedure based on E-field measured in tissue simulating medium and a proposed evaluation by measuring the incident H-field. Compared SAR estimations were performed for various distances between sources and phantom. Also, these research data were compared with simulation results, obtained by using finite-difference time-domain method. The acquired data help to determine the source near-field space characterized by the smallest deviation between SAR estimation methods. So, this region near the RF source is suitable for correct RF energy absorption assessment using the magnetic component of the RF fields. PMID:26444190

  7. Ideal near-field thermophotovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molesky, Sean; Jacob, Zubin

    2015-05-01

    We ask the question, what are the ideal characteristics of a near-field thermophotovoltaic cell? Our search leads us to a reformulation of near-field radiative heat transfer in terms of the joint density of electronic states of the emitter-absorber pair in the thermophotovoltaic system. This form reveals that semiconducting materials with narrowband absorption spectra are critical to the energy-conversion efficiency. This essential feature is unavailable in conventional bulk semiconductor cells but can be obtained using low-dimensional materials. Our results show that the presence of matched van Hove singularities resulting from quantum confinement in the emitter and absorber of a thermophotovoltaic cell boosts both the magnitude and spectral selectivity of radiative heat transfer, dramatically improving energy-conversion efficiency. We provide a model near-field thermophotovoltaic system design making use of this idea by employing the van Hove singularities present in carbon nanotubes. Shockley-Queisser analysis shows that the predicted heat transfer characteristics of this model device are fundamentally better than existing thermophotovoltaic designs. Our work paves the way for the use of quantum dots, quantum wells, two-dimensional semiconductors, semiconductor nanowires, and carbon nanotubes as future materials for thermophotovoltaic cells.

  8. Near-field radiofrequency electromagnetic exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Nina; Perov, Sergey; Belaya, Olga; Kuster, Niels; Balzano, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    Personal wireless telecommunication devices, such as radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) sources operated in vicinity of human body, have possible adverse health effects. Therefore, the correct EMF assessment is necessary in their near field. According to international near-field measurement criteria, the specific absorption rate (SAR) is used for absorbed energy distribution assessment in tissue simulating liquid phantoms. The aim of this investigation is to validate the relationship between the H-field of incident EMF and absorbed energy in phantoms. Three typical wireless telecommunication system frequencies are considered (900, 1800 and 2450 MHz). The EMF source at each frequency is an appropriate half-wave dipole antenna and the absorbing medium is a flat phantom filled with the suitable tissue simulating liquid. Two methods for SAR estimation have been used: standard procedure based on E-field measured in tissue simulating medium and a proposed evaluation by measuring the incident H-field. Compared SAR estimations were performed for various distances between sources and phantom. Also, these research data were compared with simulation results, obtained by using finite-difference time-domain method. The acquired data help to determine the source near-field space characterized by the smallest deviation between SAR estimation methods. So, this region near the RF source is suitable for correct RF energy absorption assessment using the magnetic component of the RF fields.

  9. Real-Space Mapping of the Chiral Near-Field Distributions in Spiral Antennas and Planar Metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Schnell, M; Sarriugarte, P; Neuman, T; Khanikaev, A B; Shvets, G; Aizpurua, J; Hillenbrand, R

    2016-01-13

    Chiral antennas and metasurfaces can be designed to react differently to left- and right-handed circularly polarized light, which enables novel optical properties such as giant optical activity and negative refraction. Here, we demonstrate that the underlying chiral near-field distributions can be directly mapped with scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy employing circularly polarized illumination. We apply our technique to visualize, for the first time, the circular-polarization selective nanofocusing of infrared light in Archimedean spiral antennas, and explain this chiral optical effect by directional launching of traveling waves in analogy to antenna theory. Moreover, we near-field image single-layer rosette and asymmetric dipole-monopole metasurfaces and find negligible and strong chiral optical near-field contrast, respectively. Our technique paves the way for near-field characterization of optical chirality in metal nanostructures, which will be essential for the future development of chiral antennas and metasurfaces and their applications.

  10. Polarization oscillations of near-field thermal emission.

    PubMed

    Machida, Manabu; Narimanov, Evgenii; Schotland, John C

    2016-06-01

    We consider the polarization of thermal emission in the near field of various materials, including dielectrics and metallic systems with resonant surface modes. We find that, at thermal equilibrium, the degree of polarization exhibits spatial oscillations with a period of approximately half the optical wavelength, independent of material composition. This result contrasts with that of Setala et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett.88, 123902 (2002)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.88.123902], who find monotonic decay of the degree of polarization for systems in local thermal equilibrium. PMID:27409433

  11. Near Field Trailing Edge Tone Noise Computation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.

    2002-01-01

    Blunt trailing edges in a flow often generate tone noise due to wall-jet shear layer and vortex shedding. In this paper, the space-time conservation element (CE/SE) method is employed to numerically study the near-field noise of blunt trailing edges. Two typical cases, namely, flow past a circular cylinder (aeolian noise problem) and flow past a flat plate of finite thickness are considered. The computed frequencies compare well with experimental data. For the aeolian noise problem, comparisons with the results of other numerical approaches are also presented.

  12. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, X.D.; Schultz, P.G.; Wei, T.

    1998-10-13

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an end wall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity. 17 figs.

  13. Scanning tip microwave near field microscope

    DOEpatents

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Schultz, Peter G.; Wei, Tao

    1998-01-01

    A microwave near field microscope has a novel microwave probe structure wherein the probing field of evanescent radiation is emitted from a sharpened metal tip instead of an aperture or gap. This sharpened tip, which is electrically and mechanically connected to a central electrode, extends through and beyond an aperture in an endwall of a microwave resonating device such as a microwave cavity resonator or a microwave stripline resonator. Since the field intensity at the tip increases as the tip sharpens, the total energy which is radiated from the tip and absorbed by the sample increases as the tip sharpens. The result is improved spatial resolution without sacrificing sensitivity.

  14. Near-field mapping of plasmonic antennas by multiphoton absorption in poly(methyl methacrylate).

    PubMed

    Volpe, Giorgio; Noack, Monika; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Reinhardt, Carsten; Quidant, Romain

    2012-09-12

    Mapping the optical near-field response around nanoantennas is a challenging yet indispensable task to engineer light-matter interaction at the nanometer scale. Recently, photosensitive molecular probes, which undergo morphological or chemical changes induced by the local optical response of the nanostructures, have been proposed as a handy alternative to more cumbersome optical and electron-based techniques. Here, we report four-photon absorption in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a very promising tool for nanoimaging the optical near-field around nanostructures over a broad range of near-infrared optical wavelengths. The high performance of our approach is demonstrated on single-rod antennas and coupled gap antennas by comparing experimental maps with 3D numerical simulations of the electric near-field intensity.

  15. Ionic contrast terahertz near field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallot, Guilhem

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrated the direct and noninvasive imaging of functional neurons by Ionic Contrast Terahertz (ICT) near-field microscopy. This technique provides quantitative measurements of ionic concentrations in both the intracellular and extracellular compartments and opens the way to direct noninvasive imaging of neurons during electrical, toxin, or thermal stresses. Furthermore, neuronal activity results from both a precise control of transient variations in ionic conductance and a much less studied water exchange between the extracellular matrix and the intraaxonal compartment. The developed ICT technique associated with a full three-dimensional simulation of the axon-aperture near-field system allows a precise measurement of the axon geometry and therefore the direct visualization of neuron swelling induced by temperature change or neurotoxin poisoning. We also developed Terahertz Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) devices perfectly suited for studying cell layers. Inserted in a terahertz time-domain system, and using a high resistivity low loss silicon prism to couple the terahertz wave into the sample, the detection scheme is based on the relative differential spectral phase of two orthogonal polarizations. Biological sample imaging as well as subwavelength (λ/16) longitudinal resolution are demonstrated.

  16. Near Field Environment Process Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    R.A. Wagner

    2000-11-14

    Waste emplacement and activities associated with construction of a repository system potentially will change environmental conditions within the repository system. These environmental changes principally result from heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, which elevates temperatures within the repository system. Elevated temperatures affect distribution of water, increase kinetic rates of geochemical processes, and cause stresses to change in magnitude and orientation from the stresses resulting from the overlying rock and from underground construction activities. The recognition of this evolving environment has been reflected in activities, studies and discussions generally associated with what has been termed the Near-Field Environment (NFE). The NFE interacts directly with waste packages and engineered barriers as well as potentially changing the fluid composition and flow conditions within the mountain. As such, the NFE defines the environment for assessing the performance of a potential Monitored Geologic Repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The NFe evolves over time, and therefore is not amenable to direct characterization or measurement in the ambient system. Analysis or assessment of the NFE must rely upon projections based on tests and models that encompass the long-term processes of the evolution of this environment. This NFE Process Model Report (PMR) describes the analyses and modeling based on current understanding of the evolution of the near-field within the rock mass extending outward from the drift wall.

  17. Near field of corrugated horns and its influence on dual reflector antenna radiation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hombach, V.; Kuehn, E.

    1985-05-01

    The existing procedures for calculating the near field of the corrugated horns of dual reflector antennas are briefly reviewed, and their disadvantages are pointed out. A new approach to calculating the near field of circular corrugated feed horns is then discussed with specific reference to a Ku-band offset Gregorian antenna developed for the German Telecommunication Satellite DFS scheduled for launch in 1987. The approach, which is based on a physical-optics solution, is shown to provide an accurate description of the actual radiation characteristics. The effect of the near field on the gain, side-lobe level, and cross-polar performance of the antenna is discussed.

  18. Surface accuracy measurement of a deployable mesh reflector by planar near-field scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chujo, Wataru; Ito, Takeo; Hori, Yoshiaki; Teshirogi, Tasuku

    1988-06-01

    Using a near-field antenna measurement facility, it is possible to simultaneously evaluate the surface accuracy of a reflector antenna as well as the far-field pattern of the antenna for a short time. The surface errors of a 2-m deployable mesh reflector for satellite use were measured by a planar near-field system. As a result, the influence of periodic structures, due to the antenna ribs, has been clearly observed. Also, the surface accuracy obtained with the near-field scanning technique has coincided well with that obtained by an optical measurement technique.

  19. Infrared near-field imaging and spectroscopy based on thermal or synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peragut, Florian; De Wilde, Yannick; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Roy, Pascale

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate the coupling of a scattering near-field scanning optical microscope combined with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The set-up operates using either the near-field thermal emission from the sample itself, which is proportional to the electromagnetic local density of states, or with an external infrared synchrotron source, which is broadband and highly brilliant. We perform imaging and spectroscopy measurements with sub-wavelength spatial resolution in the mid-infrared range on surfaces made of silicon carbide and gold and demonstrate the capabilities of the two configurations for super-resolved near-field mid-infrared hyperspectral imaging and that the simple use of a properly chosen bandpass filter on the detector allows one to image the spatial distribution of materials with sub-wavelength resolution by studying the contrast in the near-field images.

  20. Optical recording properties of phthalocyanine copper as a write-once read-many recording medium

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q.; Gu, D.; Shu, J.; Tang, X.; Gan, F.

    1994-12-31

    The phthalocyanine compounds have received considerable attention because of their good thermal and chemical stability which ensure a long storage life and high readout times as optical storage media. In this paper, the optical spectra and the complex refractive index of phthalocyanine copper (CuPc) have been studied. The optical recording performances of multilayer films are reported.

  1. The Survey on Near Field Communication

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem. PMID:26057043

  2. The Survey on Near Field Communication.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Vedat; Ozdenizci, Busra; Ok, Kerem

    2015-01-01

    Near Field Communication (NFC) is an emerging short-range wireless communication technology that offers great and varied promise in services such as payment, ticketing, gaming, crowd sourcing, voting, navigation, and many others. NFC technology enables the integration of services from a wide range of applications into one single smartphone. NFC technology has emerged recently, and consequently not much academic data are available yet, although the number of academic research studies carried out in the past two years has already surpassed the total number of the prior works combined. This paper presents the concept of NFC technology in a holistic approach from different perspectives, including hardware improvement and optimization, communication essentials and standards, applications, secure elements, privacy and security, usability analysis, and ecosystem and business issues. Further research opportunities in terms of the academic and business points of view are also explored and discussed at the end of each section. This comprehensive survey will be a valuable guide for researchers and academicians, as well as for business in the NFC technology and ecosystem.

  3. Tuning near-field enhancements on an off-resonance nanorod dimer via temporally shaped femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guangqing; Yang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Lu, Yu; Wu, Yanmin; Ou, Yan; Hou, Xun

    2015-11-01

    We theoretically investigated ultrafast thermal dynamics tuning of near-field enhancements on an off-resonance gold nanorod dimer via temporally shaped femtosecond (fs) laser double pulses. The nonequilibrium thermal excitation is self-consistently coupled into a near-field scattering model for exploring the ultrafast near-field enhancement effects. It is revealed that the near electric-field localized within the gold nanorod dimer can be largely promoted via optimizing the temporal separation and the pulse energy ratio of temporally shaped femtosecond laser double pulses. The results are explained as thermal dynamics manipulation of plasmon resonances in the nanorod dimer via tailoring temporally shaped femtosecond laser. This study provides basic understanding for tuning near-field properties on poorly fabricated metallic nano-structures via temporally shaped femtosecond laser, which can find potential applications in the fields such as fs super-resolution near-field imaging, near-field optical tweezers, and fs photothermal therapy.

  4. Near-field photocurrent nanoscopy on bare and encapsulated graphene

    PubMed Central

    Woessner, Achim; Alonso-González, Pablo; Lundeberg, Mark B.; Gao, Yuanda; Barrios-Vargas, Jose E.; Navickaite, Gabriele; Ma, Qiong; Janner, Davide; Watanabe, Kenji; Cummings, Aron W.; Taniguchi, Takashi; Pruneri, Valerio; Roche, Stephan; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Hone, James; Hillenbrand, Rainer; Koppens, Frank H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Optoelectronic devices utilizing graphene have demonstrated unique capabilities and performances beyond state-of-the-art technologies. However, requirements in terms of device quality and uniformity are demanding. A major roadblock towards high-performance devices are nanoscale variations of the graphene device properties, impacting their macroscopic behaviour. Here we present and apply non-invasive optoelectronic nanoscopy to measure the optical and electronic properties of graphene devices locally. This is achieved by combining scanning near-field infrared nanoscopy with electrical read-out, allowing infrared photocurrent mapping at length scales of tens of nanometres. Using this technique, we study the impact of edges and grain boundaries on the spatial carrier density profiles and local thermoelectric properties. Moreover, we show that the technique can readily be applied to encapsulated graphene devices. We observe charge build-up near the edges and demonstrate a solution to this issue. PMID:26916951

  5. Near field 3D scene simulation for passive microwave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Wu, Ji

    2006-10-01

    Scene simulation is a necessary work in near field passive microwave remote sensing. A 3-D scene simulation model of microwave radiometric imaging based on ray tracing method is present in this paper. The essential influencing factors and general requirements are considered in this model such as the rough surface radiation, the sky radiation witch act as the uppermost illuminator in out door circumstance, the polarization rotation of the temperature rays caused by multiple reflections, and the antenna point spread function witch determines the resolution of the model final outputs. Using this model we simulate a virtual scene and analyzed the appeared microwave radiometric phenomenology, at last two real scenes of building and airstrip were simulated for validating the model. The comparison between the simulation and field measurements indicates that this model is completely feasible in practice. Furthermore, we analyzed the signatures of model outputs, and achieved some underlying phenomenology of microwave radiation witch is deferent with that in optical and infrared bands.

  6. Near-field photocurrent nanoscopy on bare and encapsulated graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woessner, Achim; Alonso-González, Pablo; Lundeberg, Mark B.; Gao, Yuanda; Barrios-Vargas, Jose E.; Navickaite, Gabriele; Ma, Qiong; Janner, Davide; Watanabe, Kenji; Cummings, Aron W.; Taniguchi, Takashi; Pruneri, Valerio; Roche, Stephan; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Hone, James; Hillenbrand, Rainer; Koppens, Frank H. L.

    2016-02-01

    Optoelectronic devices utilizing graphene have demonstrated unique capabilities and performances beyond state-of-the-art technologies. However, requirements in terms of device quality and uniformity are demanding. A major roadblock towards high-performance devices are nanoscale variations of the graphene device properties, impacting their macroscopic behaviour. Here we present and apply non-invasive optoelectronic nanoscopy to measure the optical and electronic properties of graphene devices locally. This is achieved by combining scanning near-field infrared nanoscopy with electrical read-out, allowing infrared photocurrent mapping at length scales of tens of nanometres. Using this technique, we study the impact of edges and grain boundaries on the spatial carrier density profiles and local thermoelectric properties. Moreover, we show that the technique can readily be applied to encapsulated graphene devices. We observe charge build-up near the edges and demonstrate a solution to this issue.

  7. Near-field/altered-zone models report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, E. L., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    lithophysal units. These units are made up of moderately to densely welded, devitrified, fractured tuff. The rock's chemical composition is comparable to that of typical granite, but has textural features and mineralogical characteristics of large-scale, silicic volcanism. Because the repository horizon will be approximately 300 m below the ground surface and 200 m above the water table, the repository will be partially saturated. The welded tuff matrix in the host units is highly impermeable, but water and gas flow readily through fractures. The degree of fracturing in these units is highly variable, and the hydrologic significance of fracturing is an important aspect of site investigation. This report describes the characterization and modeling of a region around the potential repository--the altered zone--a region in which the temperature will be increased significantly by waste-generated heat. Numerical simulation has shown that, depending on the boundary conditions, rock properties, and repository design features incorporated in the models, the altered zone (AZ) may extend from the water table to the ground surface. This report also describes models of the near field, the region comprising the repository emplacement drifts and the surrounding rock, which are critical to the performance of engineered components. Investigations of near-field and altered-zone (NF/AZ) processes support the design of underground repository facilities and engineered barriers and also provide constraint data for probabilistic calculations of waste-isolation performance (i.e., performance assessment). The approach to investigation, which is an iterative process involving hypothesis testing and experimentation, has relied on conceptualizing engineered barriers and on performance analysis. This report is a collection, emphasizing conceptual and numerical models, of the recent results contributed from studies of NF/AZ processes and of quantitative measures of NF/AZ performance. The selection and

  8. Near-field scanning microwave microscopy of microwave devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, David E.; Dutta, S.; Anlage, S. M.; Wellstood, F. C.; Newman, H.

    1997-03-01

    We have developed a scanning microwave microscope which can presently image features with a spatial resolution of 10-100 μm in the frequency range 5-15 GHz.(C. P. Vlahacos, et al.), Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3272 (1996).^,(S. M. Anlage, et al.), IEEE. Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1997). The microscope consists of a resonant section of a coaxial cable which is terminated with a small-diameter open-ended coaxial probe. Images are made by scanning the sample under the probe while recording the induced near-field microwave voltage as a function of sample position. We will present images for several microwave devices, including an X-band microstrip planar ferrite circulator and a high-temperature superconducting microstrip YBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ resonator, and compare them to the calculated field profiles.

  9. Polarization holographic optical recording of a new photochromic diarylethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Shouzhi; Miao, Wenjuan; Chen, Anyin; Cui, Shiqiang

    2008-12-01

    A new symmetrical photochromic diarylethene, 1,2-bis[2-methyl-5-(3-methoxylphenyl)-3-thienyl]perfluorocyclopentene (1a), was synthesized, and its photochromic properties were investigated. The compound exhibited good photochromism both in solution and in PMMA film with alternating irradiation by UV/VIS light, and the maxima absorption of its closed-ring isomer 1b are 582 and 599 nm, respectively. Using diarylethene 1b/PMMA film as recording medium and a He-Ne laser (633 nm) for recording and readout, four types of polarization and angular multiplexing holographic optical recording were performed perfectly. For different types of polarization recording including parallel linear polarization recording, parallel circular polarization recording, orthogonal linear polarization recording and orthogonal circular polarization recording,have been accomplished successfully. The results demonstrated that the orthogonal circular polarization recording is the best method for polarization holographic optical recording when this compound was used as recording material. With angular multiplexing recording technology, two high contrast holograms were recorded in the same place on the film with the dimension of 0.78 μm2.

  10. Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures for image recording and processing

    SciTech Connect

    Kasherininov, P. G. Tomasov, A. A.

    2008-11-15

    Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures (CdTe, GaAs) for image recording and processing with a speed to 10{sup 6} cycle/s (which exceeds the speed of known recording media based on metal-insulator-semiconductor-(liquid crystal) (MIS-LC) structures by two to three orders of magnitude), a photosensitivity of 10{sup -2}V/cm{sup 2}, and a spatial resolution of 5-10 (line pairs)/mm are developed. Operating principles of nanostructures as fast optical recording media and methods for reading images recorded in such media are described. Fast optical processors for recording images in incoherent light based on CdTe crystal nanostructures are implemented. The possibility of their application to fabricate image correlators is shown.

  11. Improved near field lithography by surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Beibei; Zhao, Yanhui; Fang, Liang; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2009-05-01

    Conventionally, the finest pattern obtained in optical lithography is determined by wavelength and numerical aperture of optical system, due to diffraction effect. This principle delivers theoretical obstacles for nano lithography using conventional light source, like Hg lamp. According to theory, this obstacle can be circumvented with near field lithography (NFL) technique, just by confining the mask and photo resist into sub-wavelength dimensions. Sub-wavelength patterns with features down to 100nm can be realized in the NFL, as demonstrated numerically and experimentally in many papers. One obvious problem associated with NFL is that low efficiency in the lithography process, since it is difficult to transmit through sub-wavelength scaled apertures in the mask. This usually results in the deleterious effect to the patterns on photo resist. In this paper, we demonstrate that the extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) effect helps to solve this problem. It is found that noble metal, instead of chromium, usually gives much greater transmission when employed as mask material. The enhancement is contributed to resonant excitation of surface plasmon mode. Further, the transmission can be enhanced by appropriately design of patterns. The polarization of illumination light affects lithography efficiency as well. As illustrative examples, mask patterns like lines group, grating structure and holes array are designed and simulated with greatly improved lithography efficiency. This method is believed to have potential applications in nano lithography.

  12. Vibrational near-field mapping of planar and buried three-dimensional plasmonic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Dregely, Daniel; Neubrech, Frank; Duan, Huigao; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Giessen, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Nanoantennas confine electromagnetic fields at visible and infrared wavelengths to volumes of only a few cubic nanometres. Assessing their near-field distribution offers fundamental insight into light-matter coupling and is of special interest for applications such as radiation engineering, attomolar sensing and nonlinear optics. Most experimental approaches to measure near-fields employ either diffraction-limited far-field methods or intricate near-field scanning techniques. Here, using diffraction-unlimited far-field spectroscopy in the infrared, we directly map the intensity of the electric field close to plasmonic nanoantennas. We place a patch of probe molecules with 10 nm accuracy at different locations in the near-field of a resonant antenna and extract the molecular vibrational excitation. We map the field intensity along a dipole antenna and gap-type antennas. Moreover, this method is able to assess the near-field intensity of complex buried plasmonic structures. We demonstrate this by measuring for the first time the near-field intensity of a three-dimensional plasmonic electromagnetically induced transparency structure.

  13. Observation of near-field dipolar interactions involved in a metal nanoparticle chain waveguide.

    PubMed

    Apuzzo, A; Février, M; Salas-Montiel, R; Bruyant, A; Chelnokov, A; Lérondel, G; Dagens, B; Blaize, S

    2013-03-13

    We present near-field measurements of transverse plasmonic wave propagation in a chain of gold elliptical nanocylinders fed by a silicon refractive waveguide at optical telecommunication wavelengths. Eigenmode amplitude and phase imaging by apertureless scanning near-field optical microscopy allows us to measure the local out-of-plane electric field components and to reveal the exact nature of the excited localized surface plasmon resonances. Furthermore, the coupling mechanism between subsequent metal nanoparticles along the chain is experimentally analyzed by spatial Fourier transformation on the complex near-field cartography, giving a direct experimental proof of plasmonic Bloch mode propagation along array of localized surface plasmons. Our work demonstrates the possibility to characterize multielement plasmonic nanostructures coupled to a photonic waveguide with a spatial resolution of less than 30 nm. This experimental work constitutes a prerequisite for the development of integrated nanophotonic devices.

  14. Accurate near-field calculation in the rigorous coupled-wave analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weismann, Martin; Gallagher, Dominic F. G.; Panoiu, Nicolae C.

    2015-12-01

    The rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA) is one of the most successful and widely used methods for modeling periodic optical structures. It yields fast convergence of the electromagnetic far-field and has been adapted to model various optical devices and wave configurations. In this article, we investigate the accuracy with which the electromagnetic near-field can be calculated by using RCWA and explain the observed slow convergence and numerical artifacts from which it suffers, namely unphysical oscillations at material boundaries due to the Gibbs phenomenon. In order to alleviate these shortcomings, we also introduce a mathematical formulation for accurate near-field calculation in RCWA, for one- and two-dimensional straight and slanted diffraction gratings. This accurate near-field computational approach is tested and evaluated for several representative test-structures and configurations in order to illustrate the advantages provided by the proposed modified formulation of the RCWA.

  15. A New Tracking Method for Helical Scanning Optical Tape Recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narahara, Tatsuya; Kamatani, Yoshiteru; Nakao, Takashi; Kumai, Satoshi; Ozue, Tadashi

    1993-11-01

    Using a new tracking method, high track density recording on an optical tape has been achieved with a helical-scanning optical tape recorder (HS-OTR). In this recorder, the tape is wrapped around a drum, which has a high numerical-aperture objective lens of 0.50, without contact with the rotating part by means of air pressure. In the optical design, moving parts, both focus and tracking actuators, light source and reproducing optics are placed outside the rotary drum. With this system, a high carrier-to-noise-ratio of 51 dB for 1 μm mark length has been achieved. Using the tracking method, which includes a starting point servo loop, written marks have been reproduced track by track with a 2 μm pitch.

  16. A unidirectional subwavelength focusing near-field plate

    SciTech Connect

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2014-01-28

    Near-field plates consist of non-periodically patterned surfaces that can overcome the diffraction limit and confine electromagnetic fields to subwavelength dimensions. Previous near-field plates experimentally demonstrated extreme field tailoring capabilities. However, their performance suffered from radiation/reflection in undesired directions, those other than the subwavelength focus. This issue can limit the practical use of near-field plates. In this paper, we address this issue by designing a unidirectional near-field plate that can form a subwavelength focal pattern, while suppressing the field radiated/reflected in other directions. The design and operation of the proposed unidirectional near-field plate are verified through full-wave simulation. The unidirectional near-field plate may find application in high resolution imaging and probing, high density data storage, and wireless power transfer systems. As an example, its utility as a high resolution probe is demonstrated through full-wave electromagnetic simulation.

  17. Time-domain near-field/near-field transform with PWS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, B.; Liu, Y.; Slama, J. Ben Hadj

    2011-03-01

    This article deals with the development of computation method dedicated to the extraction of the transient EM-near-field at certain distance from the given 2D data for the baseband application up to GHz. As described in the methodological analysis, it is based on the use of fft combined with the plane wave spectrum (PWS) operation. In order to verify the efficiency of the introduced method, a radiating source formed by the combination of electric dipoles excited by a short duration transient pulse current with a spectrum bandwidth of about 5 GHz is considered. It was shown that compared to the direct calculation, one gets the same behaviors of magnetic near-field components Hx, Hy and Hz with the presented extraction method, in the planes placed at {3 mm, 8 mm, 13 mm} of the initial reference plane. To confirm the relevance of the proposed transform, validation with a standard commercial tool was performed. In future, we envisage to exploit the proposed computation method to predict the transient electromagnetic (EM) field emissions notably in the microwave electronic devices for the EMC applications.

  18. Near field interactions in terahertz metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiser, George R.

    Terahertz (THz) frequencies comprise the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum more energetic than microwaves, but less energetic than infrared light. The THz band presents many opportunities for condensed matter physics and optics engineering. From the physics perspective, advances in the generation and detection of THz radiation have opened the door for spectroscopic studies of a range of solid-state phenomena that manifest at THz frequencies. From an engineering perspective, THz frequencies are an under-used spectral region, ripe for the development of new devices. In both cases, the challenge for researchers is to overcome a lack of sources, detectors, and optics for THz light, termed the THz Gap. Metamaterials (MMs), composite structures with engineered index of refraction, n, and impedance, Z, provide one path towards realizing THz optics. MMs are an ideal platform for the design of local EM field distributions, and far-field optical properties. This is especially true at THz frequencies, where fabrication of inclusions is easily accomplished with photolithography. Historically, MM designs have been based around static configurations of resonant inclusions that work only in a narrow frequency band, limiting applications. Broadband and tunable MMs are needed to overcome this limit. This dissertation focuses on creating tunable and controllable MM structures through the manipulation of electromagnetic interactions between MM inclusions. We introduce three novel MM systems. Each system is studied computationally with CST-Studio, and experimentally via THz spectroscopy. First, we look at the tunable transmission spectrum of two coupled split ring resonators (SRRs) with different resonant frequencies. We show that introducing a lateral displacement between the two component resonators lowers the electromagnetic coupling between the SRRs, activating a new resonance. Second, we study an SRR array, coupled to a non-resonant closed ring array. We show that lowering

  19. Spacecraft optical disk recorder memory buffer control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the research completed under the NASA-ASEE summer faculty fellowship program. The project involves development of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to be used as a Memory Buffer Controller (MBC) in the Spacecraft Optical Disk System (SODR). The SODR system has demanding capacity and data rate specifications requiring specialized electronics to meet processing demands. The system is being designed to support Gigabit transfer rates with Terabit storage capability. The complete SODR system is designed to exceed the capability of all existing mass storage systems today. The ASIC development for SODR consist of developing a 144 pin CMOS device to perform format conversion and data buffering. The final simulations of the MBC were completed during this summer's NASA-ASEE fellowship along with design preparations for fabrication to be performed by an ASIC manufacturer.

  20. Photon-induced near field electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Tae; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2013-09-01

    Ultrafast electron microscopy in the space and time domains utilizes a pulsed electron probe to directly map structural dynamics of nanomaterials initiated by an optical pump pulse, in imaging, di raction, spectroscopy, and their combinations. It has demonstrated its capability in the studies of phase transitions, mechanical vibrations, and chemical reactions. Moreover, electrons can directly interact with photons via the near eld component of light scattering by nanostructures, and either gain or lose light quanta discretely in energy. By energetically selecting those electrons that exchanged photon energies, we can map this photon-electron interaction, and the technique is termed photon-induced near eld electron microscopy (PINEM). Here, we give an account of the theoretical understanding of PINEM. Experimentally, nanostructures such as a sphere, cylinder, strip, and triangle have been investigated. Theoretically, time-dependent Schrodinger and Dirac equations for an electron under light are directly solved to obtain analytical solutions. The interaction probability is expressed by the mechanical work done by an optical wave on a traveling electron, which can be evaluated analytically by the near eld components of the Rayleigh scattering for small spheres and thin cylinders, and numerically by the discrete dipole approximation for other geometries. Application in visualization of plasmon elds is discussed.

  1. Graphene-assisted near-field radiative heat transfer between corrugated polar materials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X. L.; Zhang, Z. M.

    2014-06-23

    Graphene has attracted great attention in nanoelectronics, optics, and energy harvesting. Here, the near-field radiative heat transfer between graphene-covered corrugated silica is investigated based on the exact scattering theory. It is found that graphene can improve the radiative heat flux between silica gratings by more than one order of magnitude and alleviate the performance sensitivity to lateral shift. The underlying mechanism is mainly attributed to the improved photon tunneling of modes away from phonon resonances. Besides, coating with graphene leads to nonlocal radiative transfer that breaks Derjaguin's proximity approximation and enables corrugated silica to outperform bulk silica in near-field radiation.

  2. Laser wavelength effects in ultrafast near-field laser nanostructuring of Si

    SciTech Connect

    Zormpa, Vasileia; Mao, Xianglei; Russo, Richard E.

    2010-03-18

    We study the effect of laser wavelength (400 nm and 800 nm) on the near-field processing of crystalline silicon (Si) in the femtosecond (fs) pulse duration regime through sub-wavelength apertures. Distinct differences in the obtained nanostructures are found in each case both in terms of their physical sizes as well as their structure which can be tuned between craters and protrusions. A single or a few fs pulses can deliver enough energy on the substrate to induce sub-diffraction limited surface modification, which is among the smallest ever reported in sub-wavelength apertured Near-field Scanning Optical Microscope (NSOM) schemes.

  3. Persistent Directional Current at Equilibrium in Nonreciprocal Many-Body Near Field Electromagnetic Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui

    2016-09-01

    We consider the consequence of nonreciprocity in near-field heat transfer by studying systems consisting of magneto-optical nanoparticles. We demonstrate that, in thermal equilibrium, a nonreciprocal many-body system in heat transfer can support a persistent directional heat current, without violating the second law of thermodynamics. Such a persistent directional heat current cannot occur in reciprocal systems, and can only arise in many-body systems in heat transfer. The use of nonreciprocity therefore points to a new regime of near-field heat transfer for the control of heat flow in the nanoscale.

  4. Quantum-dot based nanothermometry in optical plasmonic recording media

    SciTech Connect

    Maestro, Laura Martinez; Zhang, Qiming; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min; Jaque, Daniel

    2014-11-03

    We report on the direct experimental determination of the temperature increment caused by laser irradiation in a optical recording media constituted by a polymeric film in which gold nanorods have been incorporated. The incorporation of CdSe quantum dots in the recording media allowed for single beam thermal reading of the on-focus temperature from a simple analysis of the two-photon excited fluorescence of quantum dots. Experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations revealing an excellent agreement and opening a promising avenue for further understanding and optimization of optical writing processes and media.

  5. Influence of dielectric contrast and topography on the near field scattered by an inhomogeneous surface" "Boundary conditions for diffusion of light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carminati, Rémi; Greffet, Jean-Jacques

    1995-12-01

    The influence of topography and variations of optical properties on the near field scattered by an inhomogeneous sample is analyzed. A perturbative expression of the near field is derived and its range of validity is investigated. This expression shows quantitatively how dielectric contrast and topography modulate the near-field distribution close to a surface. It is shown that the near-field images, produced by conventional near-field optical devices, are sensitive to the integral of the dielectric contrast along the vertical direction across the sample. This point is illustrated by a numerical simulation of the near field scattered by surfaces exhibiting submicronic asperities and subsurface structures. Copyright (c) 1995 Optical Society of America

  6. Near-field distribution and propagation of scattering resonances in Vogel spiral arrays of dielectric nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intonti, F.; Caselli, N.; Lawrence, N.; Trevino, J.; Wiersma, D. S.; Dal Negro, L.

    2013-08-01

    In this work, we employ scanning near-field optical microscopy, full-vector finite difference time domain numerical simulations and fractional Fourier transformation to investigate the near-field and propagation behavior of the electromagnetic energy scattered at 1.56 μm by dielectric arrays of silicon nitride nanopillars with chiral α1-Vogel spiral geometry. In particular, we experimentally study the spatial evolution of scattered radiation and demonstrate near-field coupling between adjacent nanopillars along the parastichies arms. Moreover, by measuring the spatial distribution of the scattered radiation at different heights from the array plane, we demonstrate a characteristic rotation of the scattered field pattern consistent with net transfer of orbital angular momentum in the Fresnel zone, within a few micrometers from the plane of the array. Our experimental results agree with the simulations we performed and may be of interest to nanophotonics applications.

  7. Optimization of nanotube thermal interconnects for near-field radiative heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemilentsau, Andrei; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2012-08-01

    Near-field radiative heat transfer between vertical single-wall nanotube (SWNT) forest and different substrates was computed using experimental parametrization for dielectric response of α-quartz, α-sapphire, GaAs, 6H-BN, h-SiC, Au, Ag, Al, Ni, Ti, Cu materials. Rational choice of material and optical matching at the interface allow one to achieve maximum near-field Kapitza conductance of the SWNT forest exceeding 60 MW/(K m2) on polar dielectrics at 300 K. Such an efficient thermal coupling is due to the near-field overlap of surface polaritons of the substrate and SWNT plasmons, further enhanced by tweaking the forest thickness.

  8. Broadband near-field mid-infrared spectroscopy and application to phonon resonances in quartz.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Michio; Katsura, Makoto; Nakashima, Satoru; Ikemoto, Yuka; Okamura, Hidekazu

    2012-05-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy is a versatile analytical method and nano-scale spatial resolution could be achieved by scattering type near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). The spectral bandwidth was, however, limited to approximately 300 cm(-1) with a laser light source. In the present study, the development of a broadband mid-IR near-field spectroscopy with a ceramic light source is demonstrated. A much wider bandwidth (at least 3000 to 1000 cm(-1)) is achieved with a ceramic light source. The experimental data on quartz Si-O phonon resonance bands are well reproduced by theoretical simulations indicating the validity of the present broadband near-field IR spectroscopy.

  9. Dual-channel near-field control by polarizations using isotropic and inhomogeneous metasurface

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiang; Cai, Ben Geng; Li, Yun Bo; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for dual-channel near-field manipulations by designing isotropic but inhomogeneous metasurfaces. As example, we present a dual-channel near-field focusing metasurface device. When the device is driven by surface waves from different channels on the metasurface, the near fields will be focused at the same spatial point with different polarizations. Conversely, if a linearly polarized source is radiated at the spatial focal point, different channels will be evoked on the metasurface controlled by polarization. We fabricated and measured the metasurface device in the microwave frequency. Well agreements between the simulation and measurement results are observed. The proposed method exhibits great flexibility in controlling the surface waves and spatial waves simultaneously. It is expected that the proposed method and dual-channel device will facilitate the manipulation of near electromagnetic or optical waves in different frequency regimes. PMID:26527420

  10. Design and Characterization of a Novel Near Field Detector for Three Dimensional X-ray Diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annett, Scott; Margulies, Lawrence; Dale, Darren; Kycia, Stefan

    Three dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy (3DXRD) is a powerful technique that provides crystallographic and spatial information of a large number of grains in a sample simultaneously. A key component of a 3DXRD experiment is the near field detector which provides high resolution spatial information of the sample. A novel design for a near field detector was developed and characterized. This design, called the Quad Near Field Detector, utilizes four quadrants, each with a dedicated scintillating phosphor and optical microscope. A novel translation stage for focusing the microscopes was developed, tested, and implemented. The near field detector was calibrated and characterized at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source. A flood field correction was developed for the detector to correct for variations in intensity response. Diffraction data of all four quadrants was able to reproduce the crystal orientation of the ruby calibrant. In conclusion, the design and implementation of the Quad Near Field Detector was a success and will be a useful tool for future 3DXRD experiments.

  11. Resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled plasmonic ring dimer-rod nanosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koya, Alemayehu Nana; Ji, Boyu; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan

    2015-09-01

    Combined effects of polarization, split gap, and rod width on the resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled gold dimer-rod nanosystem are comparatively investigated in the light of the constituent nanostructures. By aligning polarization of the incident light parallel to the long axis of the nanorod, introducing small split gaps to the dimer walls, and varying width of the nanorod, we have simultaneously achieved resonance mode coupling, huge near field enhancement, and prolonged plasmon lifetime. As a result of strong coupling between the nanostructures and due to an intense confinement of near fields at the split and dimer-rod gaps, the extinction spectrum of the coupled nanosystem shows an increase in intensity and blueshift in wavelength. Consequently, the near field lifespan of the split-nanosystem is prolonged in contrast to the constituent nanostructures and unsplit-nanosystem. On the other hand, for polarization of the light perpendicular to the long axis of the nanorod, the effect of split gap on the optical responses of the coupled nanosystem is found to be insignificant compared to the parallel polarization. These findings and such geometries suggest that coupling an array of metallic split-ring dimer with long nanorod can resolve the huge radiative loss problem of plasmonic waveguide. In addition, the Fano-like resonances and immense near field enhancements at the split and dimer-rod gaps imply the potentials of the nanosystem for practical applications in localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing.

  12. Resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled plasmonic ring dimer-rod nanosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Koya, Alemayehu Nana; Ji, Boyu; Hao, Zuoqiang; Lin, Jingquan

    2015-09-21

    Combined effects of polarization, split gap, and rod width on the resonance hybridization and near field properties of strongly coupled gold dimer-rod nanosystem are comparatively investigated in the light of the constituent nanostructures. By aligning polarization of the incident light parallel to the long axis of the nanorod, introducing small split gaps to the dimer walls, and varying width of the nanorod, we have simultaneously achieved resonance mode coupling, huge near field enhancement, and prolonged plasmon lifetime. As a result of strong coupling between the nanostructures and due to an intense confinement of near fields at the split and dimer-rod gaps, the extinction spectrum of the coupled nanosystem shows an increase in intensity and blueshift in wavelength. Consequently, the near field lifespan of the split-nanosystem is prolonged in contrast to the constituent nanostructures and unsplit-nanosystem. On the other hand, for polarization of the light perpendicular to the long axis of the nanorod, the effect of split gap on the optical responses of the coupled nanosystem is found to be insignificant compared to the parallel polarization. These findings and such geometries suggest that coupling an array of metallic split-ring dimer with long nanorod can resolve the huge radiative loss problem of plasmonic waveguide. In addition, the Fano-like resonances and immense near field enhancements at the split and dimer-rod gaps imply the potentials of the nanosystem for practical applications in localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy and sensing.

  13. Multi-objective inverse design of sub-wavelength optical focusing structures for heat assisted magnetic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhargava, Samarth; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2014-09-01

    We report using Inverse Electromagnetic Design to computationally optimize the geometric shapes of metallic optical antennas or near-field transducers (NFTs) and dielectric waveguide structures that comprise a sub-wavelength optical focusing system for practical use in Heat Assisted Magnetic Recording (HAMR). This magnetic data-recording scheme relies on focusing optical energy to locally heat the area of a single bit, several hundred square nanometers on a hard disk, to the Curie temperature of the magnetic storage layer. There are three specifications of the optical system that must be met to enable HAMR as a commercial technology. First, to heat the media at scan rates upward of 10 m/s, ~1mW of light (<1% of typical laser diode output power) must be focused to a 30nm×30nm spot on the media. Second, the required lifetime of many years necessitates that the nano-scale NFT must not over-heat from optical absorption. Third, to avoid undesired erasing or interference of adjacent tracks on the media, there must be minimal stray optical radiation away from the hotspot on the hard disk. One cannot design the light delivery system by tackling each of these challenges independently, because they are governed by coupled electromagnetic phenomena. Instead, we propose multiobjective optimization using Inverse Electromagnetic Design in conjunction with a commercial 3D FDTD Maxwell's equations solver. We computationally generated designs of a metallic NFT and a high-index waveguide grating that meet the HAMR specifications simultaneously. Compared to a mock industry design, our proposed design has a similar optical coupling efficiency, ~3x improved suppression of stray optical radiation, and a 60% (280°C) reduction in NFT temperature rise. We also distributed the Inverse Electromagnetic Design software online so that industry partners can use it as a repeatable design process.

  14. Near-field tsunami edge waves and complex earthquake rupture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of distributed coseismic slip on progressive, near-field edge waves is examined for continental shelf tsunamis. Detailed observations of edge waves are difficult to separate from the other tsunami phases that are observed on tide gauge records. In this study, analytic methods are used to compute tsunami edge waves distributed over a finite number of modes and for uniformly sloping bathymetry. Coseismic displacements from static elastic theory are introduced as initial conditions in calculating the evolution of progressive edge-waves. Both simple crack representations (constant stress drop) and stochastic slip models (heterogeneous stress drop) are tested on a fault with geometry similar to that of the M w = 8.8 2010 Chile earthquake. Crack-like ruptures that are beneath or that span the shoreline result in similar longshore patterns of maximum edge-wave amplitude. Ruptures located farther offshore result in reduced edge-wave excitation, consistent with previous studies. Introduction of stress-drop heterogeneity by way of stochastic slip models results in significantly more variability in longshore edge-wave patterns compared to crack-like ruptures for the same offshore source position. In some cases, regions of high slip that are spatially distinct will yield sub-events, in terms of tsunami generation. Constructive interference of both non-trapped and trapped waves can yield significantly larger tsunamis than those that produced by simple earthquake characterizations.

  15. Information Content of the Near-Field I: Two-Dimensional Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazin, Richard A.; Fischer, David G.; Carney, P. Scott

    2004-01-01

    Limits on the effective resolution of many optical near-field experiments are investigated. The results are applicable to variants of total-internal-reflection microscopy (TIRM), photon-scanning-tunneling microscopy (PSTM), and near-field-scanning-optical microscopy (NSOM) in which the sample is weakly scattering and the direction of illumination may be controlled. Analytical expressions for the variance of the estimate of the complex susceptibility of an unknown two-dimensional object as a function of spatial frequency are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson noise models, and a model-independent measure is examined. The results are used to explore the transition from near-zone to far-zone detection. It is demonstrated that the information content of the measurements made at a distance of even one wavelength away from the sample is already not much different from the information content of the far field. Copyright 2004 Optical Society of America

  16. Linear laser diode arrays for improvement in optical disk recording

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphonse, G. A.; Carlin, D. B.; Connolly, J. C.

    1990-01-01

    The development of individually addressable laser diode arrays for multitrack magneto-optic recorders for space stations is discussed. Three multi-element channeled substrate planar (CSP) arrays with output power greater than 30 mW with linear light vs current characteristics and stable single mode spectra were delivered to NASA. These devices have been used to demonstrate for the first time the simultaneous recording of eight data tracks on a 14-inch magneto-optic erasable disk. The yield of these devices is low, mainly due to non-uniformities inherent to the LPE growth that was used to fabricate them. The authors have recently developed the inverted CSP, based on the much more uniform MOCVD growth techniques, and have made low threshold quantum well arrays requiring about three times less current than the CSP to deliver 30 mW CW in a single spatial mode. The inverted CSP is very promising for use in space flight recorder applications.

  17. NASA-JSC antenna near-field measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W. P.; Friederich, P. G.; Jenkins, B. M.; Jameson, C. R.; Estrada, J. P.

    1988-01-01

    Work was completed on the near-field range control software. The capabilities of the data processing software were expanded with the addition of probe compensation. In addition, the user can process the measured data from the same computer terminal used for range control. The design of the laser metrology system was completed. It provides precise measruement of probe location during near-field measurements as well as position data for control of the translation beam and probe cart. A near-field range measurement system was designed, fabricated, and tested.

  18. Real-space imaging of plasmon propagation dynamics in the near-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, William; Muller, Eric; Raschke, Markus

    2014-03-01

    We directly image plasmon propagation and dynamics in the near-field using femtosecond scattering-scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). The spatio-temporal dynamics of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) propagation on a gold surface is measured via interferometric time-resolved imaging of the optical near-field. The output of a regenerative amplifier (800nm, 50fs pulses, ~ 150kHz) is focused onto a metallic coated atomic force microscope (AFM) tip, launching a SPP on a flat gold sample. The SPP is scattered by surface defects and propagates back to the tip, where the SPP near-field is scattered to detectible far-field. To maximize coupling of light to the SPP and for far-field background subtraction, we synchronize the repetition rate of the regenerative amplifier to the dither frequency of an AFM cantilever (~ 75kHz). The measurement demonstrates the capability of femtosecond s-SNOM for spatio-temporal imaging on the 10nm-10fs scale. The technique also lends itself to the extension of a variety of multidimensional spectroscopies to the nano-scale.

  19. Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector.

    PubMed

    Stantchev, Rayko Ivanov; Sun, Baoqing; Hornett, Sam M; Hobson, Peter A; Gibson, Graham M; Padgett, Miles J; Hendry, Euan

    2016-06-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging can see through otherwise opaque materials. However, because of the long wavelengths of THz radiation (λ = 400 μm at 0.75 THz), far-field THz imaging techniques suffer from low resolution compared to visible wavelengths. We demonstrate noninvasive, near-field THz imaging with subwavelength resolution. We project a time-varying, intense (>100 μJ/cm(2)) optical pattern onto a silicon wafer, which spatially modulates the transmission of synchronous pulse of THz radiation. An unknown object is placed on the hidden side of the silicon, and the far-field THz transmission corresponding to each mask is recorded by a single-element detector. Knowledge of the patterns and of the corresponding detector signal are combined to give an image of the object. Using this technique, we image a printed circuit board on the underside of a 115-μm-thick silicon wafer with ~100-μm (λ/4) resolution. With subwavelength resolution and the inherent sensitivity to local conductivity, it is possible to detect fissures in the circuitry wiring of a few micrometers in size. THz imaging systems of this type will have other uses too, where noninvasive measurement or imaging of concealed structures is necessary, such as in semiconductor manufacturing or in ex vivo bioimaging. PMID:27386577

  20. Noninvasive, near-field terahertz imaging of hidden objects using a single-pixel detector

    PubMed Central

    Stantchev, Rayko Ivanov; Sun, Baoqing; Hornett, Sam M.; Hobson, Peter A.; Gibson, Graham M.; Padgett, Miles J.; Hendry, Euan

    2016-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) imaging can see through otherwise opaque materials. However, because of the long wavelengths of THz radiation (λ = 400 μm at 0.75 THz), far-field THz imaging techniques suffer from low resolution compared to visible wavelengths. We demonstrate noninvasive, near-field THz imaging with subwavelength resolution. We project a time-varying, intense (>100 μJ/cm2) optical pattern onto a silicon wafer, which spatially modulates the transmission of synchronous pulse of THz radiation. An unknown object is placed on the hidden side of the silicon, and the far-field THz transmission corresponding to each mask is recorded by a single-element detector. Knowledge of the patterns and of the corresponding detector signal are combined to give an image of the object. Using this technique, we image a printed circuit board on the underside of a 115-μm-thick silicon wafer with ~100-μm (λ/4) resolution. With subwavelength resolution and the inherent sensitivity to local conductivity, it is possible to detect fissures in the circuitry wiring of a few micrometers in size. THz imaging systems of this type will have other uses too, where noninvasive measurement or imaging of concealed structures is necessary, such as in semiconductor manufacturing or in ex vivo bioimaging. PMID:27386577

  1. Non-contact transportation using near-field acoustic levitation

    PubMed

    Ueha; Hashimoto; Koike

    2000-03-01

    Near-field acoustic levitation, where planar objects 10 kg in weight can levitate stably near the vibrating plate, is successfully applied both to non-contact transportation of objects and to a non-contact ultrasonic motor. Transporting apparatuses and an ultrasonic motor have been fabricated and their characteristics measured. The theory of near-field acoustic levitation both for a piston-like sound source and a flexural vibration source is also briefly described. PMID:10829622

  2. Optical voice recorder by off-axis digital holography.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Osamu; Inokuchi, Hiroki; Nitta, Kouichi; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro

    2014-11-15

    An optical voice recorder capable of recording and reproducing propagating sound waves by using off-axis digital holography, as well as quantitative visualization, is presented. Propagating sound waves temporally modulate the phase distribution of an impinging light wave via refractive index changes. This temporally modulated phase distribution is recorded in the form of digital holograms by a high-speed image sensor. After inverse propagation using Fresnel diffraction of a series of the recorded holograms, the temporal phase profile of the reconstructed object wave at each three-dimensional position can be used to reproduce the original sound wave. Experimental results using a tuning fork vibrating at 440 Hz and a human voice are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Progress Toward Demonstrating a High Performance Optical Tape Recording Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oakley, W. S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the technology developments achieved during the first year of a program to develop a high performance digital optical tape recording device using a solid state, diode pumped, frequency doubled green laser source. The goal is to demonstrate, within two years, useful read/write data transfer rates to at least 100 megabytes per second and a user capacity of up to one terabyte per cartridge implemented in a system using a '3480' style mono-reel tape cartridge.

  4. Nanoscale mechanical actuation and near-field read-out of photonic crystal molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzella, M.; La China, F.; Intonti, F.; Caselli, N.; De Pas, M.; van Otten, F. W. M.; Gurioli, M.; Fiore, A.

    2016-09-01

    We employed the contact forces induced by a near-field tip to tune and probe the optical resonances of a mechanically compliant photonic crystal molecule. Here, the pressure induced by the near-field tip is exploited to control the spectral proprieties of the coupled cavities in an ultrawide spectral range, demonstrating a reversible mode shift of 37.5 nm . Besides, by monitoring the coupling strength variation due to the vertical nanodeformation of the dielectric structure, distinct tip-sample interaction regimes have been unambiguously reconstructed with a nano-Newton sensitivity. These results demonstrate an optical method for mapping mechanical forces at the nanoscale with a lateral spatial resolution below 100 nm.

  5. [Transmission efficiency analysis of near-field fiber probe using FDTD simulation].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Dai, Song-Tao; Wang, Huai-Yu; Zhou, Yun-Song

    2011-10-01

    A fiber probe is the key component of near-field optical technology which is widely used in high resolution imaging, spectroscopy detection and nano processing. How to improve the transmission efficiency of the fiber probe is a very important problem in the application of near-field optical technology. Based on the results of 3D-FDTD computation, the dependence of the transmission efficiency on the cone angle, the aperture diameter, the wavelength and the thickness of metal cladding is revealed. The authors have also made a comparison between naked probe and the probe with metal cladding in terms of transmission efficiency and spatial resolution. In addition, the authors have discovered the fluctuation phenomena of transmission efficiency as the wavelength of incident laser increases.

  6. 80-channel optical recording unit for laser plotter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Masahide; Hayashi, Takahisa; Wakimoto, Zenji

    1993-04-01

    This paper explains a new optical recording unit with 80 semiconductor lasers ((lambda) equals 780 nm), and it can be used in the drum rotation type prepress equipment for film exposure. The optical system consists of three units: a unit composed of an off-axis paraboloid mirror and a stereographic projection lens, a both-side telocentric zoom lens unit, and an afocal reduction lens unit. A both side telocentrical optical design has been adopted for each of the units. The stereographic projection lens and the off-axis paraboloid mirror combine to keep the beam intervals regular. As a result, excellent imaging performance and telocentric characteristics at the exposure plane are now available for all magnification ranges.

  7. Calculation of the near field phase in unstable resonators with mirror misfigures.

    PubMed

    Shellan, J B; Zeiders, G

    1981-09-15

    A method is presented for finding the output phase front psi(r,phi) of a large Fresnel number unstable resonator with mirror misfigures and misalignments. The technique, which is based on geometric optics, can also be used to analyze the effects of index of refraction variations. The near-field phase is then used to find the far-field on-axis intensity. PMID:20333117

  8. Controlling the plasmon resonance of single metal nanoparticles by near-field anisotropic nanoscale photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    Ibn-El-Ahrach, H; Bachelot, R; Lérondel, G; Vial, A; Grimault, A-S; Plain, J; Royer, P; Soppera, O

    2008-03-01

    We propose a new approach for tuning the Surface Plasmon (SP) resonance wavelength using hybrid nanoparticles. Our approach is based on nanoscale photopolymerization around metal nanoparticles. The enhanced optical near-field of silver nanoparticles triggers local photopolymerization. As a result, atomic force microscopy reveals two nanoscale polymerized lobes around nanoparticles, with a controlled effective index distribution. A spectral breaking degeneracy of surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles has been demonstrated by polarized extinction spectroscopy.

  9. Far-Field Super-resolution Detection of Plasmonic Near-Fields.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Robert Charles; Neuhauser, Daniel; Weiss, Shimon

    2016-08-23

    We demonstrate a far-field single molecule super-resolution method that maps plasmonic near-fields. The method is largely invariant to fluorescence quenching (arising from probe proximity to a metal), has reduced point-spread-function distortion compared to fluorescent dyes (arising from strong coupling to nanoscopic metallic features), and has a large dynamic range (of 2 orders of magnitude) allowing mapping of plasmonic field-enhancements regions. The method takes advantage of the sensitivity of quantum dot (QD) stochastic blinking to plasmonic near-fields. The modulation of the blinking characteristics thus provides an indirect measure of the local field strength. Since QD blinking can be monitored in the far-field, the method can measure localized plasmonic near-fields at high throughput using a simple far-field optical setup. Using this method, propagation lengths and penetration depths were mapped-out for silver nanowires of different diameters and for different dielectric environments, with a spatial accuracy of ∼15 nm. We initially use sparse sampling to ensure single molecule localization for accurate characterization of the plasmonic near-field with plans to increase density of emitters in further studies. The measured propagation lengths and penetration depths values agree well with Maxwell finite-difference time-domain calculations and with published literature values. This method offers advantages such as low cost, high throughput, and superresolved mapping of localized plasmonic fields at high sensitivity and fidelity. PMID:27501216

  10. Near-field thermal radiation between homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jui-Yung; Basu, Soumyadipta; Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2016-06-01

    Recently, near-field thermal radiation has attracted much attention in several fields since it can exceed the Planck blackbody limit through the coupling of evanescent waves. In this work, near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials with two different material property sets is theoretically analyzed. The near-field radiative heat transfer is calculated using fluctuational electrodynamics incorporated with anisotropic wave optics. The underlying mechanisms, namely, magnetic hyperbolic mode, magnetic surface polariton, electrical hyperbolic mode, and electrical surface polariton, between two homogeneous dual uniaxial electromagnetic metamaterials are investigated by examining the transmission coefficient and the spectral heat flux. The effect of vacuum gap distance is also studied, which shows that the enhancement at smaller vacuum gap is mainly due to hyperbolic mode and surface plasmon polariton modes. In addition, the results show that the contribution of s-polarized waves is significant and should not be excluded due to the strong magnetic response regardless of vacuum gap distances. The fundamental understanding and insights obtained here will facilitate the finding and application of novel materials for near-field thermal radiation.

  11. Far-Field Super-resolution Detection of Plasmonic Near-Fields.

    PubMed

    Boutelle, Robert Charles; Neuhauser, Daniel; Weiss, Shimon

    2016-08-23

    We demonstrate a far-field single molecule super-resolution method that maps plasmonic near-fields. The method is largely invariant to fluorescence quenching (arising from probe proximity to a metal), has reduced point-spread-function distortion compared to fluorescent dyes (arising from strong coupling to nanoscopic metallic features), and has a large dynamic range (of 2 orders of magnitude) allowing mapping of plasmonic field-enhancements regions. The method takes advantage of the sensitivity of quantum dot (QD) stochastic blinking to plasmonic near-fields. The modulation of the blinking characteristics thus provides an indirect measure of the local field strength. Since QD blinking can be monitored in the far-field, the method can measure localized plasmonic near-fields at high throughput using a simple far-field optical setup. Using this method, propagation lengths and penetration depths were mapped-out for silver nanowires of different diameters and for different dielectric environments, with a spatial accuracy of ∼15 nm. We initially use sparse sampling to ensure single molecule localization for accurate characterization of the plasmonic near-field with plans to increase density of emitters in further studies. The measured propagation lengths and penetration depths values agree well with Maxwell finite-difference time-domain calculations and with published literature values. This method offers advantages such as low cost, high throughput, and superresolved mapping of localized plasmonic fields at high sensitivity and fidelity.

  12. A polarizing situation: Taking an in-plane perspective for next-generation near-field studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, P. James; Bao, Wei; Borys, Nicholas J.

    2016-04-01

    By enabling the probing of light-matter interactions at the functionally relevant length scales of most materials, near-field optical imaging and spectroscopy accesses information that is unobtainable with other methods. The advent of apertureless techniques, which exploit the ultralocalized and enhanced near-fields created by sharp metallic tips or plasmonic nanoparticles, has resulted in rapid adoption of near-field approaches for studying novel materials and phenomena, with spatial resolution approaching sub-molecular levels. However, these approaches are generally limited by the dominant out-of-plane polarization response of apertureless tips, restricting the exploration and discovery of many material properties. This has led to recent design and fabrication breakthroughs in near-field tips engineered specifically for enhancing in-plane interactions with near-field light components. This mini-review provides a perspective on recent progress and emerging directions aimed at utilizing and controlling in-plane optical polarization, highlighting key application spaces where in-plane near-field tip responses have enabled recent advancements in the understanding and development of new nanostructured materials and devices.

  13. Apparatus comprising a tunable nanomechanical near-field grating and method for controlling far-field emission

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Dustin Wade; Bogart, Gregory Robert

    2007-02-06

    A tunable nanomechanical near-field grating is disclosed which is capable of varying the intensity of a diffraction mode of an optical output signal. The tunable nanomechanical near-field grating includes two sub-gratings each having line-elements with width and thickness less than the operating wavelength of light with which the grating interacts. Lateral apertures in the two sub-gratings are formed from the space between one line-element of the first sub-grating and at least one line-element of the second sub-grating. One of the sub-gratings is capable of motion such that at least one of aperture width and aperture depth changes, causing a perturbation to the near-field intensity distribution of the tunable nanomechanical near-field grating and a corresponding change to the far-field emission of thereof.

  14. THz near-field imaging of biological tissues employing synchrotronradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schade, Ulrich; Holldack, Karsten; Martin, Michael C.; Fried,Daniel

    2004-12-23

    Terahertz scanning near-field infrared microscopy (SNIM) below 1 THz is demonstrated. The near-field technique benefits from the broadband and highly brilliant coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) from an electron storage ring and from a detection method based on locking onto the intrinsic time structure of the synchrotron radiation. The scanning microscope utilizes conical wave guides as near-field probes with apertures smaller than the wavelength. Different cone approaches have been investigated to obtain maximum transmittance. Together with a Martin-Puplett spectrometer the set-up enables spectroscopic mapping of the transmittance of samples well below the diffraction limit. Spatial resolution down to about lambda/40 at 2 wavenumbers (0.06 THz) is derived from the transmittance spectra of the near-field probes. The potential of the technique is exemplified by imaging biological samples. Strongly absorbing living leaves have been imaged in transmittance with a spatial resolution of 130 mu-m at about 12 wave numbers (0.36 THz). The THz near-field images reveal distinct structural differences of leaves from different plants investigated. The technique presented also allows spectral imaging of bulky organic tissues. Human teeth samples of various thicknesses have been imaged between 2 and 20 wavenumbers (between 0.06and 0.6 THz). Regions of enamel and dentin within tooth samples are spatially and spectrally resolved, and buried caries lesions are imaged through both the outer enamel and into the underlying dentin.

  15. Adaptive near-field beamforming techniques for sound source imaging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yong Thung; Roan, Michael J

    2009-02-01

    Phased array signal processing techniques such as beamforming have a long history in applications such as sonar for detection and localization of far-field sound sources. Two sometimes competing challenges arise in any type of spatial processing; these are to minimize contributions from directions other than the look direction and minimize the width of the main lobe. To tackle this problem a large body of work has been devoted to the development of adaptive procedures that attempt to minimize side lobe contributions to the spatial processor output. In this paper, two adaptive beamforming procedures-minimum variance distorsionless response and weight optimization to minimize maximum side lobes--are modified for use in source visualization applications to estimate beamforming pressure and intensity using near-field pressure measurements. These adaptive techniques are compared to a fixed near-field focusing technique (both techniques use near-field beamforming weightings focusing at source locations estimated based on spherical wave array manifold vectors with spatial windows). Sound source resolution accuracies of near-field imaging procedures with different weighting strategies are compared using numerical simulations both in anechoic and reverberant environments with random measurement noise. Also, experimental results are given for near-field sound pressure measurements of an enclosed loudspeaker.

  16. Quasistationary field of thermal emission and near-field radiometry.

    PubMed

    Reznik, A N; Vaks, V L; Yurasova, N V

    2004-11-01

    We provide a theory of radiometry measurements of the quasistationary (near) field of thermal emission from a heated conducting medium. It explains why the Rytov effect, which essentially is a drastic growth of the thermal field energy near the medium surface, cannot be detected experimentally. However, we discovered a measurable near-field effect: the effective depth of formation of the received emission proves to be less than the skin-layer depth, depending on the size of the receiving antenna and its height above the surface. For such measurements highly effective antennas of a small aperture size are necessary. We developed and investigated a variety of microwave antennas whose parameters were fairly suitable for near-field radiometry. The measurements conducted with these antennas yielded experimental evidence of the fact that the quasistationary thermal field really exists. Near-field radiometry opens further opportunities for investigating media. In particular, we demonstrate here a technique for retrieval of the subsurface temperature profile in water with the help of near-field measurements.

  17. Multiplexed neural recording along a single optical fiber via optical reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriques, Samuel G.; Marblestone, Adam H.; Scholvin, Jorg; Dapello, Joel; Sarkar, Deblina; Mankin, Max; Gao, Ruixuan; Wood, Lowell; Boyden, Edward S.

    2016-05-01

    We introduce the design and theoretical analysis of a fiber-optic architecture for neural recording without contrast agents, which transduces neural electrical signals into a multiplexed optical readout. Our sensor design is inspired by electro-optic modulators, which modulate the refractive index of a waveguide by applying a voltage across an electro-optic core material. We estimate that this design would allow recording of the activities of individual neurons located at points along a 10-cm length of optical fiber with 40-μm axial resolution and sensitivity down to 100 μV using commercially available optical reflectometers as readout devices. Neural recording sites detect a potential difference against a reference and apply this potential to a capacitor. The waveguide serves as one of the plates of the capacitor, so charge accumulation across the capacitor results in an optical effect. A key concept of the design is that the sensitivity can be improved by increasing the capacitance. To maximize the capacitance, we utilize a microscopic layer of material with high relative permittivity. If suitable materials can be found-possessing high capacitance per unit area as well as favorable properties with respect to toxicity, optical attenuation, ohmic junctions, and surface capacitance-then such sensing fibers could, in principle, be scaled down to few-micron cross-sections for minimally invasive neural interfacing. We study these material requirements and propose potential material choices. Custom-designed multimaterial optical fibers, probed using a reflectometric readout, may, therefore, provide a powerful platform for neural sensing.

  18. Near-field radiative thermal transport: From theory to experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Bai Fiorino, Anthony; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2015-05-15

    Radiative thermal transport via the fluctuating electromagnetic near-field has recently attracted increasing attention due to its fundamental importance and its impact on a range of applications from data storage to thermal management and energy conversion. After a brief historical account of radiative thermal transport, we summarize the basics of fluctuational electrodynamics, a theoretical framework for the study of radiative heat transfer in terms of thermally excited propagating and evanescent electromagnetic waves. Various approaches to modeling near-field thermal transport are briefly discussed, together with key results and proposals for manipulation and utilization of radiative heat flow. Subsequently, we review the experimental advances in the characterization of both near-field heat flow and energy density. We conclude with remarks on the opportunities and challenges for future explorations of radiative heat transfer at the nanoscale.

  19. Optimal Control for Coupled Near-Field/Far-Field Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoquan; Collis, S. Scott; Ghayour, Kaveh; Heinkenschloss, Matthias

    2002-11-01

    A new multidomain/multiphysics computational framework for optimal control of aeroacoustic noise has been developed based on a near-field compressible Navier--Stokes solver coupled with a far-field wave equation using a discontinuous Galerkin formulation. In this approach, the coupling of near-field and far-field domains is achieved by weakly enforcing continuity of normal fluxes across a coupling surface that encloses all nonlinear flow effects and noise sources. For optimal control, gradient formation is obtained by the solution of an appropriate adjoint problem that involves the propagation of adjoint information from the far-field to the near-field. The formulation and implementation of the state and adjoint problems will be presented along with preliminary results. This computational framework will be applied in the future to study optimal boundary control of blade-vortex interaction, which is a significant noise source for helicopters on approach to landing.

  20. Near-field thermodynamics: Useful work, efficiency, and energy harvesting

    SciTech Connect

    Latella, Ivan Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Lapas, Luciano C.; Miguel Rubi, J.

    2014-03-28

    We show that the maximum work that can be obtained from the thermal radiation emitted between two planar sources in the near-field regime is much larger than that corresponding to the blackbody limit. This quantity, as well as an upper bound, for the efficiency of the process is computed from the formulation of thermodynamics in the near-field regime. The case when the difference of temperatures of the hot source and the environment is small, relevant for energy harvesting, is studied in detail. We also show that thermal radiation energy conversion can be more efficient in the near-field regime. These results open new possibilities for the design of energy converters that can be used to harvest energy from sources of moderate temperature at the nanoscale.

  1. Optical-force-induced artifacts in scanning probe microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kohlgraf-Owens, Dana C; Sukhov, Sergey; Dogariu, Aristide

    2011-12-15

    In the practice of near-field scanning probe microscopy, it is typically assumed that the distance regulation is independent of the optical signal. However, we demonstrate that these two signals are entangled due to the inherent action of optically induced force. This coupling leads to artifacts in both estimating the magnitude of optical fields and recording topographic maps.

  2. Near-field environment/processes working group summary

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.M.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a summary of the proceedings of a group discussion which took place at the Workshop on the Role of Natural Analogs in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Nuclear Waste in San Antonio, Texas on July 22-25, 1991. The working group concentrated on the subject of the near-field environment to geologic repositories for high-level nuclear waste. The near-field environment may be affected by thermal perturbations from the waste, and by disturbances caused by the introduction of exotic materials during construction of the repository. This group also discussed the application of modelling of performance-related processes.

  3. Polarization of near-field light induced with a plasmonic nanoantenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharintsev, Sergey S.; Fishman, Alexander I.; Kazarian, Sergei G.; Salakhov, Myakzyum Kh.

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation and control of a polarization state of optical near fields are of tremendous advantage for locally probing intrinsic molecular orientations of highly anisotropic molecules with a plasmonic (metallic) nanoantenna. In this paper, we report on a physical mechanism of reading a dipole orientation at the apex of a rough cone-shaped gold tip illuminated with radially and azimuthally polarized light. In-plane and out-of-plane arrangement of nonlinear optical chromophores embedded into a glassy polymer is probed with tip-enhanced Raman scattering.

  4. Optical design of a color film recorder with PLZT modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carson, John F.

    1990-08-01

    A continuous tone colour film recorder was constructed that exposes 8 x 10 inch ISO 100 daylight-balanced sheet film in ten minutes at a resolution of 1000 pixels/inch. A rotating drum is used for line scan and a leadscrew driven by a stepper motor for page scan. Film loading and unloading is automatic. Light from a stationary xenon arc lamp is split into red green and blue channel components and conducted to a translating optical system by multimode optical fiber cables. Each colour component is then modulated by a small-area PLZT light valve. An annular portion of the modulated light beam is reflected to a photodetector whose signal is used for closed-loop modulator control. The central transmitted portion of the modulated beam is combined with the other colour components into a single beam. This beam illuminates an aperture that is imaged onto the film. An overview of the mechanical electrical and optical concepts will be presented with emphasis on the optical design. 1.

  5. Image density property of optical information recording microcapsule material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Weidong; Li, Xiaowei; Li, Xinzheng; Fu, Guangsheng

    2009-05-01

    The microcapsules can act as novel optical functional material in which the optical recording substance such as color-forming substance, photoinitiator and prepolymer are encapsulated. In this paper, the microcapsules with average particle diameter of 300nm are prepared with interfacial polymerization method. The optical responding character of the microcapsule is analyzed based on IR spectra and image density technique. Results show that the microcapsule material encapsulated prepolymer TMPTA and photoinitiator Irgacure-ITX, TPO has thermal phase-change at 140°C, at which the penetrability of the microcapsule has the highest efficiency. With the increase of exposure time, the reduction in absorption intensities of the prepolymer TMPTA are observed at 1635cm-1 of C=C stretching and 898cm-1 of C-H stretching on the C=C molecular bond. Such a result can be ascribed to the double bond cleavage process of the prepolymer TMPTA is initiated by the optical-exposed photoinitiator, and superpolymer network is formed. The image density contrast between the unexposed and exposed microcapsule is enhanced with exposure time increased.

  6. Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gun-Yeal; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Yun, Hansik; Park, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Joonsoo; Lee, Kyookeun; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-09-01

    The modulation of near-field signals has recently attracted considerable interest because of demands for the development of nano-scale optical devices that are capable of overcoming the diffraction limit of light. In this paper, we propose a new type of tuneable plasmonic lens that permits the foci of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) signals to be continuously steered by adjusting the input polarization state. The proposed structure consists of multi-lined nanoslit arrays, in which each array is tilted at a different angle to provide polarization sensitivity and the nanoslit size is adjusted to balance the relative amplitudes of the excited SPPs from each line. The nanoslits of each line are designed to focus SPPs at different positions; hence, the SPP focal length can be tuned by modifying the incident polarization state. Unlike in previously reported studies, our method enables plasmonic foci to be continuously varied with a smooth change in the incident linear polarization state. The proposed structures provide a novel degree of freedom in the multiplexing of near fields. Such characteristics are expected to enable the realization of active SPP modulation that can be applied in near-field imaging, optical tweezing systems, and integrated nano-devices.

  7. Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun-Yeal; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Yun, Hansik; Park, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Joonsoo; Lee, Kyookeun; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of near-field signals has recently attracted considerable interest because of demands for the development of nano-scale optical devices that are capable of overcoming the diffraction limit of light. In this paper, we propose a new type of tuneable plasmonic lens that permits the foci of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) signals to be continuously steered by adjusting the input polarization state. The proposed structure consists of multi-lined nanoslit arrays, in which each array is tilted at a different angle to provide polarization sensitivity and the nanoslit size is adjusted to balance the relative amplitudes of the excited SPPs from each line. The nanoslits of each line are designed to focus SPPs at different positions; hence, the SPP focal length can be tuned by modifying the incident polarization state. Unlike in previously reported studies, our method enables plasmonic foci to be continuously varied with a smooth change in the incident linear polarization state. The proposed structures provide a novel degree of freedom in the multiplexing of near fields. Such characteristics are expected to enable the realization of active SPP modulation that can be applied in near-field imaging, optical tweezing systems, and integrated nano-devices. PMID:27620281

  8. Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Yeal; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Yun, Hansik; Park, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Joonsoo; Lee, Kyookeun; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of near-field signals has recently attracted considerable interest because of demands for the development of nano-scale optical devices that are capable of overcoming the diffraction limit of light. In this paper, we propose a new type of tuneable plasmonic lens that permits the foci of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) signals to be continuously steered by adjusting the input polarization state. The proposed structure consists of multi-lined nanoslit arrays, in which each array is tilted at a different angle to provide polarization sensitivity and the nanoslit size is adjusted to balance the relative amplitudes of the excited SPPs from each line. The nanoslits of each line are designed to focus SPPs at different positions; hence, the SPP focal length can be tuned by modifying the incident polarization state. Unlike in previously reported studies, our method enables plasmonic foci to be continuously varied with a smooth change in the incident linear polarization state. The proposed structures provide a novel degree of freedom in the multiplexing of near fields. Such characteristics are expected to enable the realization of active SPP modulation that can be applied in near-field imaging, optical tweezing systems, and integrated nano-devices. PMID:27620281

  9. Near-field focus steering along arbitrary trajectory via multi-lined distributed nanoslits.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun-Yeal; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Yun, Hansik; Park, Hyeonsoo; Kim, Joonsoo; Lee, Kyookeun; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-01-01

    The modulation of near-field signals has recently attracted considerable interest because of demands for the development of nano-scale optical devices that are capable of overcoming the diffraction limit of light. In this paper, we propose a new type of tuneable plasmonic lens that permits the foci of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) signals to be continuously steered by adjusting the input polarization state. The proposed structure consists of multi-lined nanoslit arrays, in which each array is tilted at a different angle to provide polarization sensitivity and the nanoslit size is adjusted to balance the relative amplitudes of the excited SPPs from each line. The nanoslits of each line are designed to focus SPPs at different positions; hence, the SPP focal length can be tuned by modifying the incident polarization state. Unlike in previously reported studies, our method enables plasmonic foci to be continuously varied with a smooth change in the incident linear polarization state. The proposed structures provide a novel degree of freedom in the multiplexing of near fields. Such characteristics are expected to enable the realization of active SPP modulation that can be applied in near-field imaging, optical tweezing systems, and integrated nano-devices.

  10. High-Resolution CRT Optical Film Recorder Incorporating an Optical Feedback Exposure Control.

    PubMed

    Nix, L A; Ley, G S

    1972-05-01

    A high-resolution CRT optical film recorder incorporating an optical exposure control system is described. The recorder incorporates provisions for a highly nonlinear writing rate of up to 7 to 1 that make it uniquely suited for such applications as side-look radar or sonar. Provisions are made for spot shaping permitting line fill-in between scan lines spaced up to ten spot sizes apart. The recorder achieves a linear gray scale having sixteen equal density steps for a wide range of sweep times by means of a brightness feedback loop that automatically corrects for such problems as phosphor saturation, phosphor noise, nonlinear CRT grid transfer characteristics, variation in cathode emission, and tube aging in conjunction with film gamma correction circuitry.

  11. Recorder/processor apparatus. [for optical data processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shim, I. H.; Stelben, J. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus is described for recording a data input on, a thermally processible storage medium. A light source, whose intensity is modulated in response to the incoming data input, generates a raster in conformance with incoming timing/control signals so as to expose a latent image of the input information on the storage medium. A rotating drum in conjunction with an incrementally driven lens carriage associated with the laser optical system provides the raster generation. The drum is automatically loaded with the storage medium from a supply means and automatically unloaded to a thermal processor upon completion of recording. The latent image is processed by the controlled application of heat so as to produce an actual displayable image corresponding to the data input at the output of the apparatus.

  12. Near-Field Noise Computation for a Supersonic Circular Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2005-01-01

    A fully expanded, high-Reynolds-number, supersonic circular jet of Mach number 1.4 is simulated, using a 3-D finite-volume Navier-Stokes solver, with emphasis on the near field noise. The numerical results are generally in good agreement with existing experimental findings.

  13. Near-Field Noise Computation for a Subsonic Coannular Jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loh, Ching Y.; Hultgren, Lennart S.; Jorgenson, Philip C. E.

    2008-01-01

    A high-Reynolds-number, subsonic coannular jet is simulated, using a three-dimensional finite-volume LES method, with emphasis on the near field noise. The nozzle geometry used is the NASA Glenn 3BB baseline model. The numerical results are generally in good agreement with existing experimental findings.

  14. High performance near field measurements for antennas and microstrip circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Zuercher, J.F.

    1994-12-31

    A simple and efficient computer-controlled setup for measuring near fields has been realized. It uses the modulated scatterer technique, together with a homodyne receiver to measure both the amplitude and phase of the fields. To move the probe, a standard plotter is used. Special probes have been designed for measuring all field components.

  15. Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near-field communication.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Banks, Anthony; Cheng, Huanyu; Xie, Zhaoqian; Xu, Sheng; Jang, Kyung-In; Lee, Jung Woo; Liu, Zhuangjian; Gutruf, Philipp; Huang, Xian; Wei, Pinghung; Liu, Fei; Li, Kan; Dalal, Mitul; Ghaffari, Roozbeh; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Gupta, Sanjay; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2015-02-25

    Epidermal electronics with advanced capabilities in near field communications (NFC) are presented. The systems include stretchable coils and thinned NFC chips on thin, low modulus stretchable adhesives, to allow seamless, conformal contact with the skin and simultaneous capabilities for wireless interfaces to any standard, NFC-enabled smartphone, even under extreme deformation and after/during normal daily activities.

  16. Lower corner of Face B Array with near field horn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lower corner of Face B Array with near field horn, foreground left, looking north/northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  17. Optically Recording Velocity Interferometer System: Applications and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Marcia

    2015-06-01

    The Optically Recording Velocity Interferometer System (ORVIS) is a useful variant of the single point Velocity Interferometer System Any Reflector (VISAR) for the measurement of spatially dependent surface motion. Despite being similar in name, the two systems fundamentally differ in terms of the light recombination afforded by the interferometer geometry and subsequent recording method of the fringe phase variations. While both techniques have long been established as useful measurement technologies in shock physics studies of homogeneous and heterogeneous materials, the number of researchers employing spatially resolved ORVIS remains small. The first part of this presentation will discuss the baseline system including data examples only possible with the diagnostic's ability for continuous spatial recording. Recent adaptations of the baseline system have extended capabilities to incorporate multiple interferometers and laser illumination sources for observations in multiple spatial dimensions and non-planar geometries. The second part of this presentation will discuss efforts to overcome noted practical challenges when fielding the diagnostic and post-processing of image data. Application to non-planar geometries and highly heterogeneous materials motivates an appreciation of the coupling between the target surface reflectance properties and the light collection optics which can be quantitatively assessed through the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of the reflector. Challenges of practically locating fringe jumps in post-processing are discussed in the context of appreciating the underlying quadrature relationships of the fringe records. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  18. Light concentration in the near-field of dielectric spheroidal particles with mesoscopic sizes.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Manuel J; Tobías, Ignacio; Martí, Antonio; Luque, Antonio

    2011-08-15

    This paper presents a numerical study of the light focusing properties of dielectric spheroids with sizes comparable to the illuminating wavelength. An analytical separation-of-variables method is used to determine the electric field distribution inside and in the near-field outside the particles. An optimization algorithm was implemented in the method to determine the particles' physical parameters that maximize the forward scattered light in the near-field region. It is found that such scatterers can exhibit pronounced electric intensity enhancement (above 100 times the incident intensity) in their close vicinity, or along wide focal regions extending to 10 times the wavelength. The results reveal the potential of wavelength-sized spheroids to manipulate light beyond the limitations of macroscopic geometrical optics. This can be of interest for several applications, such as light management in photovoltaics. PMID:21934983

  19. Near-field radiative heat transfer between metamaterials coated with silicon carbide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Soumyadipta Yang, Yue; Wang, Liping

    2015-01-19

    In this letter, we study the near-field radiative heat transfer between two metamaterial substrates coated with silicon carbide (SiC) thin films. It is known that metamaterials can enhance the near-field heat transfer over ordinary materials due to excitation of magnetic plasmons associated with s polarization, while strong surface phonon polariton exists for SiC. By careful tuning of the optical properties of metamaterial, it is possible to excite electrical and magnetic resonances for the metamaterial and surface phonon polaritons for SiC at different spectral regions, resulting in the enhanced heat transfer. The effect of the SiC film thickness at different vacuum gaps is investigated. Results obtained from this study will be beneficial for application of thin film coatings for energy harvesting.

  20. Light concentration in the near-field of dielectric spheroidal particles with mesoscopic sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Manuel J.; Tobías, Ignacio; Martí, Antonio; Luque, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of the light focusing properties of dielectric spheroids with sizes comparable to the illuminating wavelength. An analytical separation-of-variables method is used to determine the electric field distribution inside and in the near-field outside the particles. An optimization algorithm was implemented in the method to determine the particles' physical parameters that maximize the forward scattered light in the near-field region. It is found that such scatterers can exhibit pronounced electric intensity enhancement (above 100 times the incident intensity) in their close vicinity, or along wide focal regions extending to 10 times the wavelength. The results reveal the potential of wavelength-sized spheroids to manipulate light beyond the limitations of macroscopic geometrical optics. This can be of interest for several applications, such as light management in photovoltaics.

  1. Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part I. Transmission holographic optical elements.

    PubMed

    Kim, J M; Choi, B S; Kim, S I; Kim, J M; Bjelkhagen, H I; Phillips, N J

    2001-02-10

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOE's). The drawback of DCG is its low sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-high-resolution silver halide emulsions. An optimized processing technique for transmission HOE's recorded in these materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained for transmissive diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of the selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOE's.

  2. Piezoresistor-equipped fluorescence-based cantilever probe for near-field scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Shimoyama, Isao

    2007-08-01

    Scanning near-field optical microscopes (SNOMs) with fluorescence-based probes are promising tools for evaluating the optical characteristics of nanoaperture devices used for biological investigations, and this article reports on the development of a microfabricated fluorescence-based SNOM probe with a piezoresistor. The piezoresistor was built into a two-legged root of a 160-μm-long cantilever. To improve the displacement sensitivity of the cantilever, the piezoresistor's doped area was shallowly formed on the cantilever surface. A fluorescent bead, 500nm in diameter, was attached to the bottom of the cantilever end as a light-intensity-sensitive material in the visible-light range. The surface of the scanned sample was simply detected by the probe's end being displaced by contact with the sample. Measuring displacements piezoresistively is advantageous because it eliminates the noise arising from the use of the optical-lever method and is free of any disturbance in the absorption or the emission spectrum of the fluorescent material at the probe tip. The displacement sensitivity was estimated to be 6.1×10-6nm-1, and the minimum measurable displacement was small enough for near-field measurement. This probe enabled clear scanning images of the light field near a 300×300nm2 aperture to be obtained in the near-field region where the tip-sample distance is much shorter than the light wavelength. This scanning result indicates that the piezoresistive way of tip-sample distance regulation is effective for characterizing nanoaperture optical devices.

  3. Optical and thermal properties of some indolenine cyanine dyes used as optical recording materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuqing; Chen, Ping; Zheng, Deshui; Okasaki, Tsuneki; Hayami, Masaaki

    1998-08-01

    Compact Disc Recordable (CD-R) and Digital Versatile Disc Recordable (DVD-R) are discs where enormous mounts of digital data can be recorded. The reflection, absorption and transmission rate of laser beam in the layer of CD-R at 780 nm and DVD-R at 650 nm with no reflecting layer were numerically calculated and optical properties of a dye film was measured. The results indicate that it is preferable to use dye as the recording media with n and k value in the range of 2.0 to 2.8 and 0.02 to 0.22, respectively. Thermal properties of these dye materials were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorie method. The decomposition temperature of dyes were varied from 200 to 300 degree(s)C resulted from different methine length, substitutes and counter anions. The optical recording mechanism of CD-R and DVD-R were also briefly discussed based on the above results.

  4. Vectorial near-field imaging of a GaN based photonic crystal cavity

    SciTech Connect

    La China, F. Intonti, F.; Caselli, N.; Lotti, F.; Vinattieri, A.; Gurioli, M.; Vico Triviño, N.; Carlin, J.-F.; Butté, R.; Grandjean, N.

    2015-09-07

    We report a full optical deep sub-wavelength imaging of the vectorial components of the electric local density of states for the confined modes of a modified GaN L3 photonic crystal nanocavity. The mode mapping is obtained with a scanning near-field optical microscope operating in a resonant forward scattering configuration, allowing the vectorial characterization of optical passive samples. The optical modes of the investigated cavity emerge as Fano resonances and can be probed without the need of embedded light emitters or evanescent light coupling into the nanocavity. The experimental maps, independently measured in the two in-plane polarizations, turn out to be in excellent agreement with numerical predictions.

  5. Density measurements using near-field background-oriented Schlieren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hinsberg, N. P.; Rösgen, T.

    2014-04-01

    A modification of the constant correction factor in the known equations of the background-oriented Schlieren is presented in order to be applicable to the near-field. Near-Field background-oriented Schlieren has the advantage over standard background-oriented Schlieren of being able to obtain reliable density distributions for set-ups in which the background pattern is placed directly behind the investigated flow field. It is proven that the modified correction factor depends solely on the distance between the background pattern and the flow field and on the external shape of the investigated flow field itself. The proof of principle and the accuracy of the proposed technique are obtained by the simulation of a 2D density variation with the use of glass wedge prism. The measurement of the whole-field density information of a supersonic underexpanded free jet is presented as an example that confirms the theoretical predictions.

  6. Near-field effects of asteroid impacts in deep water

    SciTech Connect

    Gisler, Galen R; Weaver, Robert P; Gittings, Michael L

    2009-06-11

    Our previous work has shown that ocean impacts of asteroids below 500 m in diameter do not produce devastating long-distance tsunamis. Nevertheless, a significant portion of the ocean lies close enough to land that near-field effects may prove to be the greatest danger from asteroid impacts in the ocean. Crown splashes and central jets that rise up many kilometres into the atmosphere can produce, upon their collapse, highly non-linear breaking waves that could devastate shorelines within a hundred kilometres of the impact site. We present illustrative calculations, in two and three dimensions, of such impacts for a range of asteroid sizes and impact angles. We find that, as for land impacts, the greatest dangers from oceanic impacts are the short-term near-field, and long-term atmospheric effects.

  7. Thermal excitation of plasmons for near-field thermophotovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Yu; Molesky, Sean; Hu, Huan; Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin

    2014-08-18

    The traditional approaches of exciting plasmons consist of either using electrons (e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy) or light (Kretchman and Otto geometry) while more recently plasmons have been excited even by single photons. A different approach: thermal excitation of a plasmon resonance at high temperatures using alternate plasmonic media was proposed by S. Molesky et al. [Opt. Express 21, A96–A110 (2013)]. Here, we show how the long-standing search for a high temperature narrowband near-field emitter for thermophotovoltaics can be fulfilled by thermally exciting plasmons. We also describe a method to control Wein's displacement law in the near-field using high temperature epsilon-near-zero metamaterials. Finally, we show that our work opens up an interesting direction of research for the field of slow light: thermal emission control.

  8. Nanoscale Spectroscopy with a Scanning Near-Field Infrared Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaels, Chris; Richter, Lee; Cavanagh, Richard; Stranick, Stephan

    2001-03-01

    The development of a scanning near-field microscope that allows the measurement of infrared spectra with nanoscale spatial resolution will be described. This instrument couples the spatial resolution of a scanning probe microscope with the chemical specificity of vibrational spectroscopy. This combination allows the in situ mapping of chemical functional groups with subwavelength spatial resolution. Infrared transmission images of a micropatterned thin gold film will be presented that demonstrate spatial resolution of λ/10 at 3.4 micrometers in the absence of artifacts due to topography-induced contrast. Near-field infrared absorption spectra of thin polymer films that demonstrate sensitivity sufficient for sub-diffraction absorption imaging in the aliphatic and aromatic C-H stretching regions will also be presented. Images of thin film polymer blends and nanocomposites acquired in the C-H stretching region will be used to benchmark the nanoscale chemical imaging capabilities of this microscope.

  9. Probe Station and Near-Field Scanner for Testing Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz; Lee, Richard Q.; Darby, William G.; Barr, Philip J.; Miranda, Felix A.; Lambert, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A facility that includes a probe station and a scanning open-ended waveguide probe for measuring near electromagnetic fields has been added to Glenn Research Center's suite of antenna-testing facilities, at a small fraction of the cost of the other facilities. This facility is designed specifically for nondestructive characterization of the radiation patterns of miniaturized microwave antennas fabricated on semiconductor and dielectric wafer substrates, including active antennas that are difficult to test in traditional antenna-testing ranges because of fragility, smallness, or severity of DC-bias or test-fixture requirements. By virtue of the simple fact that a greater fraction of radiated power can be captured in a near-field measurement than in a conventional far-field measurement, this near-field facility is convenient for testing miniaturized antennas with low gains.

  10. Near-field heat transfer between gold nanoparticle arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Phan, Anh D.; Phan, The-Long; Woods, Lilia M.

    2013-12-07

    The radiative heat transfer between gold nanoparticle layers is presented using the coupled dipole method. Gold nanoparticles are modelled as effective electric and magnetic dipoles interacting via electromagnetic fluctuations. The effect of higher-order multipoles is implemented in the expression of electric polarizability to calculate the interactions at short distances. Our findings show that the near-field radiation reduces as the radius of the nanoparticles is increased. Also, the magnetic dipole contribution to the heat exchange becomes more important for larger particles. When one layer is displayed in parallel with respect to the other layer, the near-field heat transfer exhibits oscillatory-like features due to the influence of the individual nanostructures. Further details about the effect of the nanoparticles size are also discussed.

  11. Relation between near field and far field acoustic measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bies, D. A.; Scharton, T. D.

    1974-01-01

    Several approaches to the problem of determining the far field directivity of an acoustic source located in a reverberant environment, such as a wind tunnel, are investigated analytically and experimentally. The decrease of sound pressure level with distance is illustrated; and the spatial extent of the hydrodynamic and geometric near fields, the far field, and the reverberant field are described. A previously-prosposed analytical technique for predicting the far field directivity of the acoustic source on the basis of near field data is investigated. Experiments are conducted with small acoustic sources and an analysis is performed to determine the variation with distance from the source of the directionality of the sound field. A novel experiment is conducted in which the sound pressure measured at various distances from an acoustic driver located in the NASA Ames 40 x 80 ft wind tunnel is crosscorrelated with the driver excitation voltage.

  12. Near-Field Source Localization Using a Special Cumulant Matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Han; Wei, Gang

    A new near-field source localization algorithm based on a uniform linear array was proposed. The proposed algorithm estimates each parameter separately but does not need pairing parameters. It can be divided into two important steps. The first step is bearing-related electric angle estimation based on the ESPRIT algorithm by constructing a special cumulant matrix. The second step is the other electric angle estimation based on the 1-D MUSIC spectrum. It offers much lower computational complexity than the traditional near-field 2-D MUSIC algorithm and has better performance than the high-order ESPRIT algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed algorithm is close to the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB).

  13. Phase Change Super Resolution near Field Structure ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyunki; Hwang, Inoh; Kim, Jooho; Park, Changmin; Ro, Myongdo; Lee, Jinkyung; Jung, Moonil; Park, Insik

    2005-05-01

    We confirmed a super resolution phenomenon and a typical super resolution near field structure threshold phenomenon in a read only memory (ROM)-type sample disk. We found that this super resolution phenomenon originates from a phase-change layer and is closely related to the thermal properties of the super resolution layer. We also improved the readout stability using a co-sputtered layer with phase change (GST) and dielectric materials (ZnS-SiO2).

  14. Near-field coupling and resonant cavity modes in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Song, Haojie; Zhang, Junxi; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Kang; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonghua; Iorsh, Ivan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Junhui; Zhang, Lide; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Lin

    2016-10-14

    Plasmonic resonant cavities are capable of confining light at the nanoscale, resulting in both enhanced local electromagnetic fields and lower mode volumes. However, conventional plasmonic resonant cavities possess large Ohmic losses at metal-dielectric interfaces. Plasmonic near-field coupling plays a key role in a design of photonic components based on the resonant cavities because of the possibility to reduce losses. Here, we study the plasmonic near-field coupling in the silver nanorod metamaterials treated as resonant nanostructured optical cavities. Reflectance measurements reveal the existence of multiple resonance modes of the nanorod metamaterials, which is consistent with our theoretical analysis. Furthermore, our numerical simulations show that the electric field at the longitudinal resonances forms standing waves in the nanocavities due to the near-field coupling between the adjacent nanorods, and a new hybrid mode emerges due to a coupling between nanorods and a gold-film substrate. We demonstrate that this coupling can be controlled by changing the gap between the silver nanorod array and gold substrate.

  15. Near-field coupling and resonant cavity modes in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haojie; Zhang, Junxi; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Kang; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonghua; Iorsh, Ivan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Junhui; Zhang, Lide; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Lin

    2016-10-01

    Plasmonic resonant cavities are capable of confining light at the nanoscale, resulting in both enhanced local electromagnetic fields and lower mode volumes. However, conventional plasmonic resonant cavities possess large Ohmic losses at metal-dielectric interfaces. Plasmonic near-field coupling plays a key role in a design of photonic components based on the resonant cavities because of the possibility to reduce losses. Here, we study the plasmonic near-field coupling in the silver nanorod metamaterials treated as resonant nanostructured optical cavities. Reflectance measurements reveal the existence of multiple resonance modes of the nanorod metamaterials, which is consistent with our theoretical analysis. Furthermore, our numerical simulations show that the electric field at the longitudinal resonances forms standing waves in the nanocavities due to the near-field coupling between the adjacent nanorods, and a new hybrid mode emerges due to a coupling between nanorods and a gold-film substrate. We demonstrate that this coupling can be controlled by changing the gap between the silver nanorod array and gold substrate.

  16. Near-field coupling and resonant cavity modes in plasmonic nanorod metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Song, Haojie; Zhang, Junxi; Fei, Guangtao; Wang, Junfeng; Jiang, Kang; Wang, Pei; Lu, Yonghua; Iorsh, Ivan; Xu, Wei; Jia, Junhui; Zhang, Lide; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Lin

    2016-10-14

    Plasmonic resonant cavities are capable of confining light at the nanoscale, resulting in both enhanced local electromagnetic fields and lower mode volumes. However, conventional plasmonic resonant cavities possess large Ohmic losses at metal-dielectric interfaces. Plasmonic near-field coupling plays a key role in a design of photonic components based on the resonant cavities because of the possibility to reduce losses. Here, we study the plasmonic near-field coupling in the silver nanorod metamaterials treated as resonant nanostructured optical cavities. Reflectance measurements reveal the existence of multiple resonance modes of the nanorod metamaterials, which is consistent with our theoretical analysis. Furthermore, our numerical simulations show that the electric field at the longitudinal resonances forms standing waves in the nanocavities due to the near-field coupling between the adjacent nanorods, and a new hybrid mode emerges due to a coupling between nanorods and a gold-film substrate. We demonstrate that this coupling can be controlled by changing the gap between the silver nanorod array and gold substrate. PMID:27607837

  17. Near-field light design with colloidal quantum dots for photonics and plasmonics.

    PubMed

    Kress, Stephan J P; Richner, Patrizia; Jayanti, Sriharsha V; Galliker, Patrick; Kim, David K; Poulikakos, Dimos; Norris, David J

    2014-10-01

    Colloidal quantum-dots are bright, tunable emitters that are ideal for studying near-field quantum-optical interactions. However, their colloidal nature has hindered their facile and precise placement at desired near-field positions, particularly on the structured substrates prevalent in plasmonics. Here, we use high-resolution electro-hydrodynamic printing (<100 nm feature size) to deposit countable numbers of quantum dots on both flat and structured substrates with a few nanometer precision. We also demonstrate that the autofocusing capability of the printing method enables placement of quantum dots preferentially at plasmonic hot spots. We exploit this control and design diffraction-limited photonic and plasmonic sources with arbitrary wavelength, shape, and intensity. We show that simple far-field illumination can excite these near-field sources and generate fundamental plasmonic wave-patterns (plane and spherical waves). The ability to tailor subdiffraction sources of plasmons with quantum dots provides a complementary technique to traditional scattering approaches, offering new capabilities for nanophotonics.

  18. Near-field spatial mapping of strongly interacting multiple plasmonic infrared antennas.

    PubMed

    Grefe, Sarah E; Leiva, Daan; Mastel, Stefan; Dhuey, Scott D; Cabrini, Stefano; Schuck, P James; Abate, Yohannes

    2013-11-21

    Near-field dipolar plasmon interactions of multiple infrared antenna structures in the strong coupling limit are studied using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) and theoretical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. We monitor in real-space the evolution of plasmon dipolar mode of a stationary antenna structure as multiple resonantly matched dipolar plasmon particles are closely approaching it. Interparticle separation, length and polarization dependent studies show that the cross geometry structure favors strong interparticle charge-charge, dipole-dipole and charge-dipole Coulomb interactions in the nanometer scale gap region, which results in strong field enhancement in cross-bowties and further allows these structures to be used as polarization filters. The nanoscale local field amplitude and phase maps show that due to strong interparticle Coulomb coupling, cross-bowtie structures redistribute and highly enhance the out-of-plane (perpendicular to the plane of the sample) plasmon near-field component at the gap region relative to ordinary bowties.

  19. Near-field thermal electromagnetic transport: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edalatpour, Sheila; DeSutter, John; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2016-07-01

    A general near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism that is independent of the size, shape and number of heat sources is derived. The formalism is based on fluctuational electrodynamics, where fluctuating currents due to thermal agitation are added to Maxwell's curl equations, and is thus valid for heat sources in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Using a volume integral formulation, it is shown that the proposed formalism is a generalization of the classical electromagnetic scattering framework in which thermal emission is implicitly assumed to be negligible. The near-field thermal electromagnetic transport formalism is afterwards applied to a problem involving three spheres with size comparable to the wavelength, where all multipolar interactions are taken into account. Using the thermal discrete dipole approximation, it is shown that depending on the dielectric function, the presence of a third sphere slightly affects the spatial distribution of power absorbed compared to the two-sphere case. A transient analysis shows that despite a non-uniform spatial distribution of power absorbed, the sphere temperature remains spatially uniform at any instant due to the fact that the thermal resistance by conduction is much smaller than the resistance by radiation. The formalism proposed in this paper is general, and could be used as a starting point for adapting solution methods employed in traditional electromagnetic scattering problems to near-field thermal electromagnetic transport.

  20. Near-field scanning study for radio frequency interference estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jingnan

    This dissertation discusses the novel techniques using near-fields scanning to do radio frequency interference (RFI) estimation. As the electronic products are becoming more and more complicated, the radio frequency (RF) receiver in the system is very likely interfered by multiple noise sources simultaneously. A method is proposed to identify the interference from different noise sources separately, even when they are radiating at the same time. This method is very helpful for engineers to identify the contribution of the coupling from different sources and further solve the electromagnetic interference issues efficiently. On the other hand, the equivalent dipole-moment models and a decomposition method based on reciprocity theory can also be used together to estimate the coupling from the noise source to the victim antennas. This proposed method provides convenience to estimate RFI issues in the early design stage and saves the time of RFI simulation and measurements. The finite element method and image theory can also predict the far fields of the radiation source, locating above a ground plane. This method applies the finite element method (FEM) to get the equivalent current sources from the tangential magnetic near fields. With the equivalent current sources, the far-field radiation can be calculated based on Huygens's Principle and image theory. By using only the magnetic near fields on the simplified Huygens's surface, the proposed method significantly saves measurement time and cost while also retaining good far-field prediction.

  1. Complex Near-Field Plasmonic Response of Au Nanospirals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachtel, Jordan; Davidson, Roderick; Lupini, Andrew; Lawrie, Benjamin; Haglund, Richard; Pantelides, Sokrates

    Complex metallic nanostructures that support unique near-field surface plasmon modes have shown applications across the fields of photovoltaics, bio-sensing, and even quantum computing. Chiral Au nanospirals not only possess a non-symmetric morphology that results in second-harmonic generation, but possess multiple distinct near-field plasmonic modes that cover a wide range of plasmon frequencies. We use cathodoluminescence (CL) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) within a scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) to study the surface plasmons and map them with nanoscale precision. The two techniques are complementary as EELS measures excitations in the sample, while CL measures the subsequent radiative decays. We STEM-EELS/CL to map and analyze the spatial profile, intensity and polarization response of the intricate near-field plasmon modes in these versatile nanostructures. This work was funded by the Department of Energy Grant DE-FG02-09ER46554 and the Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  2. High RF Magnetic Field Near-Field Microwave Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Tamin; Mircea, Dragos I.; Anlage, Steven M.

    2010-03-01

    Near-field microwave microscopes have been developed to quantitatively image RF and microwave properties of a variety of materials on deep sub-wavelength scales [1]. Microscopes that develop high-RF magnetic fields on short length scales are useful for examining the fundamental electrodynamic properties of superconductors [2]. We are creating a new class of near-field microwave microscopes that develop RF fields on the scale of 1 Tesla on sub-micron length scales. These microscopes will be employed to investigate defects that limit the RF properties of bulk Nb materials used in accelerator cavities, and the nonlinear Meissner effect in novel superconductors. Work funded by the US Department of Energy. [1] S. M. Anlage, V. V. Talanov, A. R. Schwartz, ``Principles of Near-Field Microwave Microscopy,'' in Scanning Probe Microscopy: Electrical and Electromechanical Phenomena at the Nanoscale, Volume 1, edited by S. V. Kalinin and A. Gruverman (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2007), pp. 215-253. [2] D. I. Mircea, H. Xu, S. M. Anlage, ``Phase-sensitive Harmonic Measurements of Microwave Nonlinearities in Cuprate Thin Films,'' Phys. Rev. B 80, 144505 (2009).

  3. Solomon Islands 2007 Tsunami Near-Field Modeling and Source Earthquake Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uslu, B.; Wei, Y.; Fritz, H.; Titov, V.; Chamberlin, C.

    2008-12-01

    The earthquake of 1 April 2007 left behind momentous footages of crust rupture and tsunami impact along the coastline of Solomon Islands (Fritz and Kalligeris, 2008; Taylor et al., 2008; McAdoo et al., 2008; PARI, 2008), while the undisturbed tsunami signals were also recorded at nearby deep-ocean tsunameters and coastal tide stations. These multi-dimensional measurements provide valuable datasets to tackle the challenging aspects at the tsunami source directly by inversion from tsunameter records in real time (available in a time frame of minutes), and its relationship with the seismic source derived either from the seismometer records (available in a time frame of hours or days) or from the crust rupture measurements (available in a time frame of months or years). The tsunami measurements in the near field, including the complex vertical crust motion and tsunami runup, are particularly critical to help interpreting the tsunami source. This study develops high-resolution inundation models for the Solomon Islands to compute the near-field tsunami impact. Using these models, this research compares the tsunameter-derived tsunami source with the seismic-derived earthquake sources from comprehensive perceptions, including vertical uplift and subsidence, tsunami runup heights and their distributional pattern among the islands, deep-ocean tsunameter measurements, and near- and far-field tide gauge records. The present study stresses the significance of the tsunami magnitude, source location, bathymetry and topography in accurately modeling the generation, propagation and inundation of the tsunami waves. This study highlights the accuracy and efficiency of the tsunameter-derived tsunami source in modeling the near-field tsunami impact. As the high- resolution models developed in this study will become part of NOAA's tsunami forecast system, these results also suggest expanding the system for potential applications in tsunami hazard assessment, search and rescue operations

  4. Comparison and Properties of Near-Field and Far-Field Events of High Speed Jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Pinqing; Lewalle, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    Two independent algorithms are applied to different signals to extract events that are potentially responsible for jet noise production. The data consist of 10 kHz TRPIV measurement and pressure sampling in both near- and far-field. One method uses near-field diagnostics (representatives of 2D velocity sections, e.g. velocity, vorticity, Q criterion, etc.) and near-field and far-field pressure. Applying cross-correlation and continuous wavelet to pairs of these signals, we look for the more dominant events in the time, frequency and lag domain. These are regarded as the main contributors of communication between the selected signals and are recorded as Near-Field Events. The other method only uses far-field microphones. The short time excerpts are identified as Far-Field Events that are common to three FF signals and responsible for peak energy spectrum. To compare these events, we map out their property distribution, including frequency, magnitude and time of occurrence. The individual events are also compared and a high portion is found to be common to both lists. We regard this as a verification of both algorithms. This work is supported in part by a Syracuse University Graduate Fellowship, by the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering at SU, and by Spectral Energies LLC, under an SBIR grant from AFRL.

  5. Near-field imaging of obstacles with the factorization method: fluid-solid interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Tao; Hu, Guanghui; Xu, Liwei; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Consider a time-harmonic acoustic point source incident on a bounded isotropic linearly elastic body immersed in a homogeneous compressible inviscid fluid. This paper is concerned with the inverse fluid-solid interaction problem of recovering the elastic body from near-field data generated by infinitely many incident point source waves at a fixed energy. The incident point sources and the receivers for recording scattered signals are both located on a non-spherical closed surface, on which an outgoing-to-incoming operator is appropriately defined. We provide a theoretical justification of the factorization method for precisely characterizing the scatterer by utilizing the spectrum of the near-field operator. This generalizes the imaging scheme developed in (Hu et al 2014 Inverse Problems 30 095005) to the case when near-field data are measured on non-spherical surfaces. Numerical examples in 2D are demonstrated to show the validity and accuracy of the inversion algorithm, even if limited aperture data are available on one or several line segments.

  6. Nanomovement of azo polymers induced by metal tip enhanced near-field irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishitobi, Hidekazu; Tanabe, Mamoru; Sekkat, Zouheir; Kawata, Satoshi

    2007-08-27

    Nanomovement of azo polymers induced by metal tip enhanced near-field illumination was studied. A protrusion with 47 nm full width at half maximum was induced with a resolution beyond the diffraction limit. At the top of the protrusion, an anisotropic movement occurs in a direction nearly parallel to the polarization of the incident light, and suggests the existence at the tip end of not only a longitudinal but also a lateral component of the electric field of light. The anisotropic photofluidity and the optical gradient force played important roles in the process of the light induced polymer movement.

  7. Three-dimensional propagation in near-field tomographic X-ray phase retrieval.

    PubMed

    Ruhlandt, Aike; Salditt, Tim

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an extension of phase retrieval algorithms for near-field X-ray (propagation) imaging to three dimensions, enhancing the quality of the reconstruction by exploiting previously unused three-dimensional consistency constraints. The approach is based on a novel three-dimensional propagator and is derived for the case of optically weak objects. It can be easily implemented in current phase retrieval architectures, is computationally efficient and reduces the need for restrictive prior assumptions, resulting in superior reconstruction quality. PMID:26919373

  8. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser.

    PubMed

    Craig, Ian M; Taubman, Matthew S; Lea, A Scott; Phillips, Mark C; Josberger, Erik E; Raschke, Markus B

    2013-12-16

    Utilizing a broadly-tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser for scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), we measure infrared spectra of particles of explosives by probing characteristic nitro-group resonances in the 7.1-7.9 µm wavelength range. Measurements are presented with spectral resolution of 0.25 cm(-1), spatial resolution of 25 nm, sensitivity better than 100 attomoles, and at a rapid acquisition time of 90 s per spectrum. We demonstrate high reproducibility of the acquired s-SNOM spectra with very high signal-to-noise ratios and relative noise of <0.02 in self-homodyne detection.

  9. Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, Ian M.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Lea, Alan S.; Phillips, Mark C.; Josberger, Erik E.; Raschke, Markus Bernd

    2013-12-16

    Utilizing a broadly-tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser for scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM), we measure infrared spectra of explosives particles by probing characteristic nitro-group resonances in the 7.1-7.9 µm wavelength range. Measurements are presented with spectral resolution of 0.25 cm-1, spatial resolution of 25 nm, <100 attomolar sensitivity, and at a rapid acquisition time of 90 s per spectrum. We demonstrate high reproducibility of the acquired s-SNOM spectra with very high signal-to-noise ratios and relative noise of <0.02 in self-homodyne detection.

  10. Detection in near-field domain of biomolecules adsorbed on a single metallic nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Barbillon, G; Bijeon, J-L; Bouillard, J-S; Plain, J; Lamy De la Chapelle, M; Adam, P-M; Royer, P

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we study the performances of nanosensors based on Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance in the context of biological sensing. We demonstrate the sensitivity and the selectivity of our designed nanosensors by studying the influence of the concentration of Streptavidin on the shift of Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance wavelength. In addition, to study the detection of biomolecules on a single Au nanoparticle, we used a Scanning Near-field Optical Microscope. These results represent new steps for applications in biological research and medical diagnostics.

  11. Error Rate Reduction of Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jooho; Bae, Jaecheol; Hwang, Inoh; Lee, Jinkyung; Park, Hyunsoo; Chung, Chongsam; Kim, Hyunki; Park, Insik; Tominaga, Junji

    2007-06-01

    We report the error rate improvement of super-resolution near-field structure (super-RENS) write-once read-many (WORM) and read-only-memory (ROM) discs in a blue laser optical system [laser wavelength (λ), 405 nm; numerical aperture (NA), 0.85]. We prepared samples of higher carrier level WORM discs and wider pit width ROM discs. Using controlled equalization (EQ) characteristics and an adaptive write strategy and an advanced adaptive partial response maximum likelihood (PRML) technique, we obtained a bit error rate (bER) of 10-4 level. This result shows the high feasibility of super-RENS technology for practical use.

  12. Super Resolution Read Only Memory Disc Using Super-Resolution Near-Field Structure Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Duseop; Kim, Jooho; Kim, Hyunki; Hwang, Inoh; Park, Insik; Shin, Dongho; Park, Yunchang; Tominaga, Junji

    2004-07-01

    Super resolution near-field structure (super-RENS) technology is one of the promising technologies for a sub-terabyte optical storage of around 200 GB capacity. We confirmed the possibility of super-RENS read only memory (ROM) media with multilayer structure using the combination of the PtOx, AgInSbTe, ZnS-SiO2 films. The carrier to noise ratio (CNR) and readout cyclability was measured for the super-RENS ROM disc in both the red laser and the blue laser systems.

  13. Near-field surface plasmon effects on Au-double-slit diffraction for polychromatic light

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The surface plasmon effects on near-field diffraction for polychromatic light are studied. An Au-double-slit is used as the model and Fresnel integral is employed to perform the theoretic analysis. The results are illustrated with numerical examples and they show that, compared with the normal double-slit, the plasmon effect changes the spectral shift from redshift to blueshift and also enhances the intensity peak. This effect can be used in optical data transmission or specific spectral selectors. PMID:25386100

  14. Ultrafast Optical Beam Deflection in a Planar Waveguide for High Dynamic Range Recording at Picosecond Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Sarantos, C H; Heebner, J E

    2008-07-02

    We report the latest performance of an ultrafast, all-optical beam deflector based on a prism array imprinted in a planar waveguide. The deflector enables single-shot, high dynamic range optical recording with picosecond resolution.

  15. Atomistic near-field nanoplasmonics: reaching atomic-scale resolution in nanooptics.

    PubMed

    Barbry, M; Koval, P; Marchesin, F; Esteban, R; Borisov, A G; Aizpurua, J; Sánchez-Portal, D

    2015-05-13

    Electromagnetic field localization in nanoantennas is one of the leitmotivs that drives the development of plasmonics. The near-fields in these plasmonic nanoantennas are commonly addressed theoretically within classical frameworks that neglect atomic-scale features. This approach is often appropriate since the irregularities produced at the atomic scale are typically hidden in far-field optical spectroscopies. However, a variety of physical and chemical processes rely on the fine distribution of the local fields at this ultraconfined scale. We use time-dependent density functional theory and perform atomistic quantum mechanical calculations of the optical response of plasmonic nanoparticles, and their dimers, characterized by the presence of crystallographic planes, facets, vertices, and steps. Using sodium clusters as an example, we show that the atomistic details of the nanoparticles morphologies determine the presence of subnanometric near-field hot spots that are further enhanced by the action of the underlying nanometric plasmonic fields. This situation is analogue to a self-similar nanoantenna cascade effect, scaled down to atomic dimensions, and it provides new insights into the limits of field enhancement and confinement, with important implications in the optical resolution of field-enhanced spectroscopies and microscopies.

  16. Quantitative and Direct Near-Field Analysis of Plasmonic-Induced Transparency and the Observation of a Plasmonic Breathing Mode.

    PubMed

    Khunsin, Worawut; Dorfmüller, Jens; Esslinger, Moritz; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Etrich, Christoph; Kern, Klaus

    2016-02-23

    We investigated experimentally and numerically in the optical near-field a plasmonic model system similar to a dolmen-type structure for phenomena such as plasmon-induced transparency. Through engineering of coupling strength, structure orientation, and incident angle and phase of the excitation source it was possible to control near-field excitation of the dark modes. We showed that quantitative analysis of near-field amplitude and excitation strength provided essential information that allowed identifying the interaction between the bright and the dark mode and how it causes the formation of plasmon-induced transparency features and a Fano resonance. In addition, we introduced a mechanism to excite field distributions in plasmonic structures that cannot be accessed directly using far-field illumination and demonstrated the excitation of a dark mode akin to a symmetry-forbidden plasmonic breathing mode using a linearly polarized far-field source. PMID:26789080

  17. Source Models and Near-Field Impact of the 1 April 2007 Solomon Islands Tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yong; Fritz, Hermann M.; Titov, Vasily V.; Uslu, Burak; Chamberlin, Chris; Kalligeris, Nikos

    2015-03-01

    Within weeks of the Solomon Islands earthquake of 1 April 2007, international tsunami survey teams discovered important biomarkers of crust rupture and tsunami heights along the islands' coastlines. Deep-ocean tsunameters recorded the tsunami waves of this event, enabling a real-time inversion of the tsunami source and model evaluation of near-field tsunami impact. The survey measurements provide valuable datasets for further confirmation of the tsunami source of the 1 April 2007 Solomon earthquake. These survey results also aided investigation of the correlation between sources determined by use of tsunameter records and those derived from seismometer records or crust-rupture measurements. In this study, to assess the near-field tsunami impact, we developed tsunami inundation models for the Solomon Islands, including tsunami waveforms, co-seismic land-level changes, and tsunami height distributions on individual islands. Compared with seismic-derived tsunami sources, modeling results based on the tsunameter-derived tsunami sources were a good match with field survey measurements. These results highlight the accuracy and efficiency of the tsunameter-derived tsunami source in modeling the near-field tsunami impact along a complex archipelago. We show that the source models, although derived by use of different methods, are all suited to initiation of inundation models developed for Solomon Islands. As these source models become available in real time or near real time, they can be implemented immediately in the inundation models to provide rapid guidance on tsunami hazard assessment, focused search and rescue operations, and post-event recovery and reconstruction.

  18. Noncontact sub-10 nm temperature measurement in near-field laser heating.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yanan; Chen, Xiangwen; Wang, Xinwei

    2011-06-28

    An extremely focused optical field down to sub-10 nm in an apertureless near-field scanning optical microscope has been used widely in surface nanostructuring and structure characterization. The involved sub-10 nm near-field heating has not been characterized quantitatively due to the extremely small heating region. In this work, we present the first noncontact thermal probing of silicon under nanotip focused laser heating at a sub-10 nm scale. A more than 200 °C temperature rise is observed under an incident laser of 1.2 × 10(7) W/m(2), while the laser polarization is well aligned with the tip axis. To explore the mechanism of heating and thermal transport at sub-10 nm scale, a simulation is conducted on the enhanced optical field by the AFM tip. The high intensity of the optical field generated in this region results in nonlinear photon absorption. The optical field intensity under low polarization angles (∼10(14) W/m(2) within 1 nm region for 15° and 30°) exceeds the threshold for avalanche breakdown in silicon. The measured high-temperature rise is a combined effect of the low thermal conductivity due to ballistic thermal transport and the nonlinear photon absorption in the enhanced optical field. Quantitative analysis reveals that under the experimental conditions the temperature rise can be about 235 and 105 °C for 15° and 30° laser polarization angles, agreeing well with the measurement result. Evaluation of the thermal resistances of the tip-substrate system concludes that little heat in the substrate can be transferred to the tip because of the very large thermal contact resistance between them.

  19. Extracting 220 Hz information from 55 Hz field data by near-field superresolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Gaurav; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Tarhini, Ahmad; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-08-01

    Field experiments are used to unequivocally demonstrate seismic superresolution imaging of subwavelength objects in the near-field region of the source. The field test is for a conventional hammer source striking a metal plate near subwavelength scatterers and the seismic data are recorded by vertical-component geophones in the far-field locations of the sources. Time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) are then used to refocus the scattered energy with subwavelength resolution to the position of the original source. A spatial resolution of λ/10, where λ is the dominant wavelength associated with the data, is seen in the field tests that exceeds the Abbe resolution limit of λ/2.

  20. Nonlinear spectroscopy in the near-field: time resolved spectroscopy and subwavelength resolution non-invasive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namboodiri, Mahesh; Khan, Tahirzeb; Karki, Khadga; Kazemi, Mehdi Mohammad; Bom, Sidhant; Flachenecker, Günter; Namboodiri, Vinu; Materny, Arnulf

    2014-04-01

    The combination of near-field microscopy along with nonlinear optical spectroscopic techniques is presented here. The scanning near-field imaging technique can be integrated with nonlinear spectroscopic techniques to improve spatial and axial resolution of the images. Additionally, ultrafast dynamics can be probed down to nano-scale dimension. The review shows some examples for this combination, which resulted in an exciton map and vibrational contrast images with sub-wavelength resolution. Results of two-color femtosecond time-resolved pump-probe experiments using scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) on thin films of the organic semiconductor 3,4,9,10 Perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA) are presented. While nonlinear Raman techniques have been used to obtain highly resolved images in combination with near-field microscopy, the use of femtosecond laser pulses in electronic resonance still constitutes a big challenge. Here, we present our first results on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) with femtosecond laser pulses detected in the near-field using SNOM. We demonstrate that highly spatially resolved images can be obtained from poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) nano-structures where the fs-CARS process was in resonance with the P3HT absorption and with characteristic P3HT vibrational modes without destruction of the samples. Sub-diffraction limited lateral resolution is achieved. Especially the height resolution clearly surpasses that obtained with standard microCARS. These results will be the basis for future investigations of mode-selective dynamics in the near-field.

  1. Near-field radiative heat transfer in mesoporous alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Li; Yan-Hui, Feng; Xin-Xin, Zhang; Cong-Liang, Huang; Ge, Wang

    2015-01-01

    The thermal conductivity of mesoporous material has aroused the great interest of scholars due to its wide applications such as insulation, catalyst, etc. Mesoporous alumina substrate consists of uniformly distributed, unconnected cylindrical pores. Near-field radiative heat transfer cannot be ignored, when the diameters of the pores are less than the characteristic wavelength of thermal radiation. In this paper, near-field radiation across a cylindrical pore is simulated by employing the fluctuation dissipation theorem and Green function. Such factors as the diameter of the pore, and the temperature of the material are further analyzed. The research results show that the radiative heat transfer on a mesoscale is 2˜4 orders higher than on a macroscale. The heat flux and equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation across a cylindrical pore decrease exponentially with pore diameter increasing, while increase with temperature increasing. The calculated equivalent thermal conductivity of radiation is further developed to modify the thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina. The combined thermal conductivity of the mesoporous alumina is obtained by using porosity weighted dilute medium and compared with the measurement. The combined thermal conductivity of mesoporous silica decreases gradually with pore diameter increasing, while increases smoothly with temperature increasing, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. The larger the porosity, the more significant the near-field effect is, which cannot be ignored. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51422601), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB720404), and the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013BAJ01B03).

  2. Interior near-field acoustical holography in flight.

    PubMed

    Williams, E G; Houston, B H; Herdic, P C; Raveendra, S T; Gardner, B

    2000-10-01

    In this paper boundary element methods (BEM) are mated with near-field acoustical holography (NAH) in order to determine the normal velocity over a large area of a fuselage of a turboprop airplane from a measurement of the pressure (hologram) on a concentric surface in the interior of the aircraft. This work represents the first time NAH has been applied in situ, in-flight. The normal fuselage velocity was successfully reconstructed at the blade passage frequency (BPF) of the propeller and its first two harmonics. This reconstructed velocity reveals structure-borne and airborne sound-transmission paths from the engine to the interior space.

  3. Dispersion extraction with near-field measurements in periodic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Ha, Sangwoo; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2009-03-01

    We formulate and demonstrate experimentally the high-resolution spectral method based on Bloch-wave symmetry properties for extracting mode dispersion in periodic waveguides from measurements of near-field profiles. We characterize both the propagating and evanescent modes, and also determine the amplitudes of forward and backward waves in different waveguide configurations, with the estimated accuracy of several percent or less. Whereas the commonly employed spatial Fourier-transform (SFT) analysis provides the wavenumber resolution which is limited by the inverse length of the waveguide, we achieve precise dispersion extraction even for compact photonic structures.

  4. Near Field Imaging at Microwave and Millemeter Wave Frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Sheen, David M.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Hall, Thomas E.

    2007-06-03

    Near field imaging at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies is useful for a wide variety of applications including concealed weapon detection, through-wall and inner-wall imaging, ground penetrating radar imaging, radar cross section analysis, and non-destructive evaluation of materials. A variety of novel imaging techniques have been developed for many of these applications at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) . These techniques make use of wideband holographic wavefront reconstruction methods, and have been developed to optimize the image quality and resolution. This paper will summarize several of these techniques and show imaging results for several interesting application areas.

  5. Upgraded Near-Field Antenna-Testing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunath, Richard R.; Garrett, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    Upgraded system for near-field testing of large microwave antenna built around commercial automated network analyzer (HP8510) designed for measurement and characterization of microwave circuits and components. Contains highly capable microwave receiver also suitable for far-field and radar-cross-section measurements. Receiver operates in fast-data-acquisition mode at rate of one new data point every millisecond without averaging. Also operates with greater sensitivity by use of averaging feature at time penalty of 0.2 ms per average. Time-domain option added to analyzer enables it to perform time-domain reflectometry.

  6. Inverse elastic surface scattering with near-field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peijun; Wang, Yuliang; Zhao, Yue

    2015-03-01

    Consider the scattering of a time-harmonic plane wave by a one-dimensional periodic surface. A novel computational method is proposed for solving the inverse elastic surface scattering problem by using the near-field data. Above the surface, the space is filled with a homogeneous and isotropic elastic medium, while the space below the surface is assumed to be elastically rigid. Given an incident field, the inverse problem is to reconstruct the surface from the displacement of the wave field at a horizontal line above the surface. This paper is a nontrivial extension of the authors’ recent work on near-field imaging of the Helmholtz equation and the Maxwell equation to the more complicated Navier equation due to coexistence of the compressional and shear waves that propagate at different speed. Based on the Helmholtz decomposition, the wave field is decomposed into its compressional and shear parts by using two scalar potential functions. The transformed field expansion is then applied to each component and a coupled recurrence relation is obtained for their power series expansions. By solving the coupled system in the frequency domain, simple and explicit reconstruction formulas are derived for two types of measurement data. The method requires only a single illumination with a fixed frequency and incident angle. Numerical experiments show that it is simple, effective, and efficient to reconstruct the scattering surfaces with subwavelength resolution. The research was supported in part by the NSF grant DMS-1151308.

  7. Assessment of Near-Field Sonic Boom Simulation Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casper, J. H.; Cliff, S. E.; Thomas, S. D.; Park, M. A.; McMullen, M. S.; Melton, J. E.; Durston, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study for the Supersonics Project, within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, has been conducted to assess current in-house capabilities for the prediction of near-field sonic boom. Such capabilities are required to simulate the highly nonlinear flow near an aircraft, wherein a sonic-boom signature is generated. There are many available computational fluid dynamics codes that could be used to provide the near-field flow for a sonic boom calculation. However, such codes have typically been developed for applications involving aerodynamic configuration, for which an efficiently generated computational mesh is usually not optimum for a sonic boom prediction. Preliminary guidelines are suggested to characterize a state-of-the-art sonic boom prediction methodology. The available simulation tools that are best suited to incorporate into that methodology are identified; preliminary test cases are presented in support of the selection. During this phase of process definition and tool selection, parallel research was conducted in an attempt to establish criteria that link the properties of a computational mesh to the accuracy of a sonic boom prediction. Such properties include sufficient grid density near shocks and within the zone of influence, which are achieved by adaptation and mesh refinement strategies. Prediction accuracy is validated by comparison with wind tunnel data.

  8. Cryogenic apparatus for study of near-field heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Kralik, T; Hanzelka, P; Musilova, V; Srnka, A; Zobac, M

    2011-05-01

    For bodies spaced in vacuum at distances shorter than the wavelength of the thermal radiation, radiative heat transfer substantially increases due to the contribution of evanescent electromagnetic waves. Experimental data on heat transfer in near-field regime are scarce. We have designed a cryogenic apparatus for the study of heat transfer over microscopic distances between metallic and non-metallic surfaces. Using a mechanical positioning system, a planeparallel gap between the samples, concentric disks, each 35 mm in diameter, is set and varied from 10(0) to 10(3) μm. The heat transferred from the hot (10 - 100 K) to the cold sample (∼5 K) sinks into a liquid helium bath through a thermal resistor, serving as a heat flux meter. Transferred heat power within ∼2 nW∕cm(2) and ∼30 μW∕cm(2) is derived from the temperature drop along the thermal resistor. For tungsten samples, the distance of the near-field effect onset was inversely proportional to temperature and the heat power increase was observed up to three orders of magnitude greater than the power of far-field radiative heat transfer.

  9. Cryogenic apparatus for study of near-field heat transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Kralik, T.; Hanzelka, P.; Musilova, V.; Srnka, A.; Zobac, M.

    2011-05-15

    For bodies spaced in vacuum at distances shorter than the wavelength of the thermal radiation, radiative heat transfer substantially increases due to the contribution of evanescent electromagnetic waves. Experimental data on heat transfer in near-field regime are scarce. We have designed a cryogenic apparatus for the study of heat transfer over microscopic distances between metallic and non-metallic surfaces. Using a mechanical positioning system, a planeparallel gap between the samples, concentric disks, each 35 mm in diameter, is set and varied from 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 3} {mu}m. The heat transferred from the hot (10 - 100 K) to the cold sample ({approx}5 K) sinks into a liquid helium bath through a thermal resistor, serving as a heat flux meter. Transferred heat power within {approx}2 nW/cm{sup 2} and {approx}30 {mu}W/cm{sup 2} is derived from the temperature drop along the thermal resistor. For tungsten samples, the distance of the near-field effect onset was inversely proportional to temperature and the heat power increase was observed up to three orders of magnitude greater than the power of far-field radiative heat transfer.

  10. Cryogenic apparatus for study of near-field heat transfer.

    PubMed

    Kralik, T; Hanzelka, P; Musilova, V; Srnka, A; Zobac, M

    2011-05-01

    For bodies spaced in vacuum at distances shorter than the wavelength of the thermal radiation, radiative heat transfer substantially increases due to the contribution of evanescent electromagnetic waves. Experimental data on heat transfer in near-field regime are scarce. We have designed a cryogenic apparatus for the study of heat transfer over microscopic distances between metallic and non-metallic surfaces. Using a mechanical positioning system, a planeparallel gap between the samples, concentric disks, each 35 mm in diameter, is set and varied from 10(0) to 10(3) μm. The heat transferred from the hot (10 - 100 K) to the cold sample (∼5 K) sinks into a liquid helium bath through a thermal resistor, serving as a heat flux meter. Transferred heat power within ∼2 nW∕cm(2) and ∼30 μW∕cm(2) is derived from the temperature drop along the thermal resistor. For tungsten samples, the distance of the near-field effect onset was inversely proportional to temperature and the heat power increase was observed up to three orders of magnitude greater than the power of far-field radiative heat transfer. PMID:21639537

  11. Surface Wave Multipath Signals in Near-Field Microwave Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Meaney, Paul M.; Shubitidze, Fridon; Fanning, Margaret W.; Kmiec, Maciej; Epstein, Neil R.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2012-01-01

    Microwave imaging techniques are prone to signal corruption from unwanted multipath signals. Near-field systems are especially vulnerable because signals can scatter and reflect from structural objects within or on the boundary of the imaging zone. These issues are further exacerbated when surface waves are generated with the potential of propagating along the transmitting and receiving antenna feed lines and other low-loss paths. In this paper, we analyze the contributions of multi-path signals arising from surface wave effects. Specifically, experiments were conducted with a near-field microwave imaging array positioned at variable heights from the floor of a coupling fluid tank. Antenna arrays with different feed line lengths in the fluid were also evaluated. The results show that surface waves corrupt the received signals over the longest transmission distances across the measurement array. However, the surface wave effects can be eliminated provided the feed line lengths are sufficiently long independently of the distance of the transmitting/receiving antenna tips from the imaging tank floor. Theoretical predictions confirm the experimental observations. PMID:22566992

  12. Cryogenic apparatus for study of near-field heat transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, T.; Hanzelka, P.; Musilova, V.; Srnka, A.; Zobac, M.

    2011-05-01

    For bodies spaced in vacuum at distances shorter than the wavelength of the thermal radiation, radiative heat transfer substantially increases due to the contribution of evanescent electromagnetic waves. Experimental data on heat transfer in near-field regime are scarce. We have designed a cryogenic apparatus for the study of heat transfer over microscopic distances between metallic and non-metallic surfaces. Using a mechanical positioning system, a planeparallel gap between the samples, concentric disks, each 35 mm in diameter, is set and varied from 100 to 103 μm. The heat transferred from the hot (10 - 100 K) to the cold sample (˜5 K) sinks into a liquid helium bath through a thermal resistor, serving as a heat flux meter. Transferred heat power within ˜2 nW/cm2 and ˜30 μW/cm2 is derived from the temperature drop along the thermal resistor. For tungsten samples, the distance of the near-field effect onset was inversely proportional to temperature and the heat power increase was observed up to three orders of magnitude greater than the power of far-field radiative heat transfer.

  13. Near-field dipole radiation dynamics through FDTD modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzevicius, Stanley J.; Chen, Chi-Chih; Peters, Leon; Daniels, Jeffrey J.

    2003-02-01

    We use finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical simulations to study horizontal dipole radiation mechanisms and patterns near half-space interfaces. Time snapshots illustrating propagation of wavefronts at an instance in time are included with antenna patterns to provide a visualization tool for understanding antenna radiation properties. Near-field radiation patterns are compared with far-field asymptotic solutions and the effects of electrical properties, antenna height, and observation distance are investigated through numerical simulations. Numerical simulations show excellent agreement with measured data collected over a water-filled tank. Near-field H-plane radiation patterns are broader and contain radiation maxima beyond the critical angle predicted by far-field solutions. A large amplitude E-plane radiation lobe is located directly below the antenna in all simulations, while the two large amplitude sidelobes are less distinct and occur at larger incidence angles than predicted by far-field solutions. Radiation patterns resemble far-field solutions by a distance of 10 wavelengths, except near the critical angle where H-plane radiation maxima and E-plane sidelobes occur at larger incidence angles than predicted by far-field solutions.

  14. Unidirectional wireless power transfer using near-field plates

    SciTech Connect

    Imani, Mohammadreza F.; Grbic, Anthony

    2015-05-14

    One of the obstacles preventing wireless power transfer from becoming ubiquitous is their leakage of power: high-amplitude electromagnetic fields that can interfere with other electronic devices, increase health concerns, or hinder power metering. In this paper, we present near-field plates (NFPs) as a novel method to tailor the electromagnetic fields generated by a wireless power transfer system while maintaining high efficiency. NFPs are modulated arrays or surfaces designed to form prescribed near-field patterns. The NFP proposed in this paper consists of an array of loaded loops that are designed to confine the electromagnetic fields of a resonant transmitting loop to the desired direction (receiving loop) while suppressing fields in other directions. The step-by-step design procedure for this device is outlined. Two NFPs are designed and examined in full-wave simulation. Their performance is shown to be in close agreement with the design predictions, thereby verifying the proposed design and operation. A NFP is also fabricated and experimentally shown to form a unidirectional wireless power transfer link with high efficiency.

  15. Surface wave multipath signals in near-field microwave imaging.

    PubMed

    Meaney, Paul M; Shubitidze, Fridon; Fanning, Margaret W; Kmiec, Maciej; Epstein, Neil R; Paulsen, Keith D

    2012-01-01

    Microwave imaging techniques are prone to signal corruption from unwanted multipath signals. Near-field systems are especially vulnerable because signals can scatter and reflect from structural objects within or on the boundary of the imaging zone. These issues are further exacerbated when surface waves are generated with the potential of propagating along the transmitting and receiving antenna feed lines and other low-loss paths. In this paper, we analyze the contributions of multi-path signals arising from surface wave effects. Specifically, experiments were conducted with a near-field microwave imaging array positioned at variable heights from the floor of a coupling fluid tank. Antenna arrays with different feed line lengths in the fluid were also evaluated. The results show that surface waves corrupt the received signals over the longest transmission distances across the measurement array. However, the surface wave effects can be eliminated provided the feed line lengths are sufficiently long independently of the distance of the transmitting/receiving antenna tips from the imaging tank floor. Theoretical predictions confirm the experimental observations.

  16. Feasibility of near-field odr imaging of multi-GeV electron beams at ;

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.; Evtushenko, P.; Freyberger, A. P.; Liu, C. Y.; High Energy Physics; Thomas Jefferson Lab.

    2007-01-01

    We have evaluated the feasibility of using the optical diffraction radiation (ODR) generated as a 1- to 6-GeV CW electron beam passes nearby the edge of a single metal conducting plane as a nonintercepting (NI) relative beam size monitor for CEBAF. Previous experiments were successfully done using near-field imaging on the lower-current, 7-GeV beam at APS, and an analytical model was developed for near-field imaging. Calculations from this model indicate sufficient beam size sensitivity in the ODR profiles for beam sizes in the 30- to 50- micron regime as found in the transport lines of CEBAF before the experimental targets. With anticipated beam currents of 100 muA, the ODR signal from the charge integrated over the video field time should be -500 times larger than in the APS case. These signal strengths will allow a series of experiments to be done on beam energy dependencies, impact parameters, polarization effects, and wavelength effects that should further elucidate the working regime of this technique and test the model. Plans for the diagnostics station that will provide reference optical transition radiation (OTR) images will also be described.

  17. Parameterized source term in the diffusion approximation for enhanced near-field modeling of collimated light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Mengyu; Wang, Shuang; Chen, Xueying; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Huijuan

    2016-03-01

    Most analytical methods for describing light propagation in turbid medium exhibit low effectiveness in the near-field of a collimated source. Motivated by the Charge Simulation Method in electromagnetic theory as well as the established discrete source based modeling, we have reported on an improved explicit model, referred to as "Virtual Source" (VS) diffuse approximation (DA), to inherit the mathematical simplicity of the DA while considerably extend its validity in modeling the near-field photon migration in low-albedo medium. In this model, the collimated light in the standard DA is analogously approximated as multiple isotropic point sources (VS) distributed along the incident direction. For performance enhancement, a fitting procedure between the calculated and realistic reflectances is adopted in the nearfield to optimize the VS parameters (intensities and locations). To be practically applicable, an explicit 2VS-DA model is established based on close-form derivations of the VS parameters for the typical ranges of the optical parameters. The proposed VS-DA model is validated by comparing with the Monte Carlo simulations, and further introduced in the image reconstruction of the Laminar Optical Tomography system.

  18. Near-field nonuniformities in angularly multiplexed KrF fusion lasers with induced spatial incoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmberg, Robert H.; Chan, Yung

    2005-05-01

    Induced spatial incoherence (ISI) has been proposed for KrF laser drivers to achieve the high degree of spatial beam uniformity required for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Although ISI provides ultrasmooth illumination at the far field of the laser, where the target is located, it can still allow the beams in the quasi-near field to develop a time-averaged spatial structure. This speckle, which arises primarily from random-phase aberration, builds up as the laser beams propagate away from the pupil plane located at the final amplifier stage; it is distinct from any structure imposed by gain nonuniformities in the amplifiers. Because of the spatial incoherence, the speckle is significantly smaller than that experienced by coherent beams. Nevertheless, it remains a damage issue, especially for the long beam delay paths required in angularly multiplexed KrF lasers. We develop a novel algorithm for calculating the time-integrated intensities; compare simulations and measurements of the near-field speckle in the Nike KrF laser; and explore options, such as aberration reduction and optical relaying, for controlling the problem in future angularly multiplexed KrF drivers. © Optical Society of America

  19. Resonant antenna probes for tip-enhanced infrared near-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Huth, Florian; Chuvilin, Andrey; Schnell, Martin; Amenabar, Iban; Krutokhvostov, Roman; Lopatin, Sergei; Hillenbrand, Rainer

    2013-03-13

    We report the development of infrared-resonant antenna probes for tip-enhanced optical microscopy. We employ focused-ion-beam machining to fabricate high-aspect ratio gold cones, which replace the standard tip of a commercial Si-based atomic force microscopy cantilever. Calculations show large field enhancements at the tip apex due to geometrical antenna resonances in the cones, which can be precisely tuned throughout a broad spectral range from visible to terahertz frequencies by adjusting the cone length. Spectroscopic analysis of these probes by electron energy loss spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared near-field spectroscopy corroborates their functionality as resonant antennas and verifies the broad tunability. By employing the novel probes in a scattering-type near-field microscope and imaging a single tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), we experimentally demonstrate high-performance mid-infrared nanoimaging of molecular absorption. Our probes offer excellent perspectives for optical nanoimaging and nanospectroscopy, pushing the detection and resolution limits in many applications, including nanoscale infrared mapping of organic, molecular, and biological materials, nanocomposites, or nanodevices. PMID:23362918

  20. Holographic optical elements recorded in silver halide sensitized gelatin emulsions. Part 2. Reflection holographic optical elements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung So; Choi, Yoon Sun; Kim, Jong Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I; Phillips, Nicholas J

    2002-03-10

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOEs). The drawback of DCG is its low energetic sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such away that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-fine-grain silver halide (AgHal) emulsions. In particular, high spatial-frequency fringes associated with HOEs of the reflection type are difficult to construct when SHSG processing methods are employed. Therefore an optimized processing technique for reflection HOEs recorded in the new AgHal materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained repeatably for reflection diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of a selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOEs, also including high-quality display holograms of the reflection type in both monochrome and full color.

  1. Measurement of birefringence for optical recording disk substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Hong; Sugaya, S.; Erwin, J. K.; Goodman, T.; Yan, Z.; Tang, W. J.; Mansuripur, M.

    1993-01-01

    The birefringence of bare and coated substrates for magneto-optical recording is experimentally investigated using ellipsometry at the wavelengths of 632.8 nm and 780 nm. The rotation and ellipticity of the polarization state of the reflected or transmitted light is measured for different incident angles and different orientations of the incident linear polarization. The measured data is then fitted by a computer program which solves the Maxwell equations for the plane-wave propagation in a multilayer structure and minimizes the error between the measured and calculated data by adjusting the unknown parameters of the multilayer. This approach enables us to determine orientations of the three principal axes in the substrate and the corresponding refractive indices. A special feature of our ellipsometers is that a glass hemisphere is placed in contact with the substrate, which eliminates the refraction of the incident light and enables a maximum propagation angle of 70 degrees (with respect to the normal) in the substrate. This increases the sensitivity of the measurement. Certain anomalies were observed, which we believe are associated with the presence of grooves on these substrates.

  2. Improved near field lithography by surface plasmon resonance in groove-patterned masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Beibei; Pan, Li; Liu, Ling; Fang, Liang; Wang, Changtao; Luo, Xiangang

    2009-12-01

    Near field lithography (NFL) provides an effective way for obtaining lithography features' sizes far beyond the diffraction limit. However, optical transmission through isolated subwavelength apertures is very low in the lithography process. It also makes it difficult to obtain a uniform lithography pattern where isolated and arrayed slit structures coexist because of different optical transmission through these two kinds of structures. It is proposed in this paper that using appropriately designed groove structures around subwavelength metallic slits could solve this problem. Numerical calculations performed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method demonstrate that about ten times transmission enhancement could be obtained. This occurs as a surface plasmon is resonantly excited and light is concentrated into nanometer scale apertures, resulting in not only greatly enhanced NFL efficiency but also uniform distribution of light intensity for isolated and arrayed slit patterns. Also discussed is the enhancement dependence on the structural parameters of NFL masks.

  3. Local excitation and interference of surface phonon polaritons studied by near-field infrared microscopy.

    PubMed

    Huber, A J; Ocelic, N; Hillenbrand, R

    2008-03-01

    We demonstrate that mid-infrared surface phonon polariton excitation, propagation and interference can be studied by scattering-type near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). In our experiments we image surface phonon polaritons (SPPs) propagating on flat SiC crystals. They are excited by weakly focused illumination of single or closely spaced metal disks we fabricated on the SiC surface by conventional photolithography. SPP imaging is performed by pseudo-heterodyne interferometric detection of infrared light scattered by the metal tip of our s-SNOM. The pseudo-heterodyne technique simultaneously yields optical amplitude and phase images which allows us to measure the SPP wave vector--including its sign--and the propagation length and further to study SPP interference. High resolution imaging of SPPs could be applied to investigate for example SPP focusing or heat transfer by SPPs in low dimensional nanostructures.

  4. At-wavelength metrology of hard X-ray mirror using near field speckle.

    PubMed

    Berujon, Sebastien; Wang, Hongchang; Alcock, Simon; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-03-24

    We present a method to measure the surface profile of hard X-ray reflective optics with nanometer height accuracy and sub-millimetre lateral resolution. The technique uses X-ray near-field speckle, generated by a scattering membrane translated using a piezo motor, to infer the deflection of X-rays from the surface. The method provides a nano-radian order accuracy on the mirror slopes in both the tangential and sagittal directions. As a demonstration, a pair of focusing mirrors mounted in a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) configuration were characterized and the results were in good agreement with offline metrology data. It is hoped that the new technique will provide feedback to optic manufacturers to improve mirror fabrication and be useful for the online optimization of active, nano-focusing mirrors on modern synchrotron beamlines.

  5. Study of pattern fabrication model using near-field photolithography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Been

    2011-01-01

    This study established a pattern fabrication model for near-field photolithography (NFP) and conducted pattern fabrication and analysis to understand the process of NFP. This study proposed that exposure energy density can accumulate when two exposure beams overlap. We also presented a method to analyze the exposure energy density of patterns and an error function derived from the results of the exposure energy simulation and the maximum exposure energy density. Using the Levenberg-Marquardt method and a reasonable convergence criterion, the exposure interval of two line segments for optimum pattern flatness was obtained. A simulation of the pattern fabrication model showed that when the exposure interval S = 1.66ρ(0) , optimum flatness could be obtained. The results of this study have potential for industrial application in fabrication of micro- and nano-scale channels.

  6. Near-field measurement facility plans at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, R. G.

    1983-05-01

    The direction of future antenna technology will be toward antennas which are large, both physically and electrically, will operate at frequencies up to 60 GHz, and are non-reciprocal and complex, implementing multiple-beam and scanning beam concepts and monolithic semiconductor devices and techniques. The acquisition of accurate antenna performance measurements is a critical part of the advanced antenna research program and represents a substantial antenna measurement technology challenge, considering the special characteristics of future spacecraft communications antennas. Comparison of various antenna testing techniques and their relative advantages and disadvantages shows that the near-field approach is necessary to meet immediate and long-term testing requirements. The LeRC facilities, the 22 ft x 22 ft horizontal antenna boresight planar scanner and the 60 ft x 60 ft vertical antenna boresight plant scanner (with a 60 GHz frequency and D/lamdba = 3000 electrical size capabilities), will meet future program testing requirements.

  7. Directional generation of graphene plasmons by near field interference.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xu, Jingjun; Luo, Yongsong

    2016-08-22

    The highly unidirectional excitation of graphene plasmons (GPs) through near-field interference of orthogonally polarized dipoles is investigated. The preferred excitation direction of GPs by a circularly polarized dipole can be simply understood with the angular momentum conservation law. Moreover, the propagation direction of GPs can be switched not only by changing the phase difference between dipoles, but also by placing the z-polarized dipole to its image position, whereas the handedness of the background field remains the same. The unidirectional excitation of GPs can be extended into arc graphene surface as well. Furthermore, our proposal on directional generation of GPs can be realized in a semiconductor nanowire/graphene system, where a semiconductor nanowire can mimic a circularly polarized dipole when illuminated by two orthogonally polarized plane waves. PMID:27557254

  8. Theoretical and experimental examination of near-field acoustic levitation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Hideyuki; Kamakura, Tomoo; Matsuda, Kazuhisa

    2002-04-01

    A planar object can be levitated stably close to a piston sound source by making use of acoustic radiation pressure. This phenomenon is called near-field acoustic levitation [Y. Hashimoto et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100, 2057-2061 (1996)]. In the present article, the levitation distance is predicted theoretically by numerically solving basic equations in a compressible viscous fluid subject to the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Additionally, experiments are carried out using a 19.5-kHz piston source with a 40-mm aperture and various aluminum disks of different sizes. The measured levitation distance agrees well with the theory, which is different from a conventional theory, and the levitation distance is not inversely proportional to the square root of the surface density of the levitated disk in a strict sense. PMID:12002842

  9. Electromagnetic Near Field Measurements of Two Critical Assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goettee, Jeffrey; Goorley, Tim; Mayo, Douglas; Myers, William; Goda, Joetta; Sage, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Preliminary measurements of the fast metal nuclear reactors at the National Criticality Experiments Research Center (NCERC) and at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) within the past year characterize the very near field environment of these critical assemblies. Both reactors are fast, highly enriched uranium metal reactors and can be operated in a burst mode above prompt supercritical. Initial measurements of the electric and the magnetic fields within the reactor cell are consistent between the two facilities, and begin to describe the dependance on distance and polarization as might be assumed from initial Monte Carlo modelling of these facilities. The amplitude and time variation of the electric and magnetic fields are consistent with burst time scales. The polarization is consistent with the geometry of the source and with Compton scattering from fission gammas as the dominant ionization mechanism. An overview of the two fast neutron sources and the excursion dynamics, the experimental details, and summary of the modelling calculations will be provided as background.

  10. Radiant Flux of Near Field in Temperature Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez-Romero, J. G.; Resendiz Barron, A. J.; Farias Arguello, J. O.

    2008-04-15

    In this work we present a calculation of the radiant flux exiting from an object which is at a constant temperature. The flux calculation is based in the propagation model of irradiance and it permit to predict the small variations in measurements of infrared radiation sources when the pyrometer is going far from the source, this variation is known as distance effect. The classical radiometry defines the quantity radiance, which is used in temperature measurements of objects through the infrared radiation they emit. Unfortunately the radiance does not permit to take into account the variations of the radiant flux measured by the pyrometer due to the wave propagation of the radiation given that the radiance definition is based in ray propagation, the geometrical model. Due to the anterior in this work we present a radiant flux calculation using wave model and considering the approximation of the near field or Fresnel approximation. We show experimental results that confirm our proposal.

  11. Manipulating quantum dot fluorescence by utilizing Brownian induced near-field interactions with plasmonic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palombo, Nola

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals with size-dependent optical properties; thus making them supreme fluorophores. Plasmonic nanoparticles (PNPs), such as gold and silver nanoparticles, support localized surface plasmons on their surface. When the localized surface plasmons are excited, a highly concentrated electromagnetic field is formed near the particle. Therefore, if a QD is within the near-field of a PNP, the emission or excitation of the QD can be enhanced. However, due to Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), the QD fluorescence could instead be quenched by the proximity of PNPs. Whether enhancement or quenching occurs, is dependent upon the distance and geometry of the nanoparticles. Enhanced QD fluorescence would be helpful in biomedical sensing and imaging and solar energy conversion applications. In addition, quenched QD fluorescence caused by FRET could be applied to FRET-based sensing and imaging in medical diagnosis. This master's thesis first theoretically models the stochastic movement of QDs and PNPs in an aqueous solution. The simulation is based upon the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method coupled with Langevin equations. Using this simulation, we were able to predict the percentage of QDs in the near-field region of PNPs. The percentage of QDs in the near-field region of GNPs for a concentration of 1 × 1013 QDs/mL and 5 × 108 GNPs/mL, is a very small percentage of 2 × 10-5%. Yet, the concentration of QDs in the near-field region of GNPs was calculated to be 1,510,000 QDs mL-1. In addition, this master's thesis experimentally explores the enhancement and quenching of QD emission for different concentrations and sizes of PNPs in aqueous solutions. The fluorescence spectra of two types of QD-PNP mixtures were measured. The first mixture was QDs and gold nanoparticles (GNPs) dispersed in distilled water, where the emission wavelength of the QDs matches the localized surface plasmon excitation wavelength of the GNPs. The second

  12. Near-field Light Scattering Techniques for Measuring Nanoparticle-Surface Interaction Energies and Forces

    PubMed Central

    O'Dell, Dakota; Adam, Ian S.; DiPaolo, Brian; Sabharwal, Manit; Shi, Ce; Hart, Robert; Earhart, Christopher; Erickson, David

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are quickly becoming commonplace in many commercial and industrial products, ranging from cosmetics to pharmaceuticals to medical diagnostics. Predicting the stability of the engineered nanoparticles within these products a priori remains an important and difficult challenge. Here we describe our techniques for measuring the mechanical interactions between nanoparticles and surfaces using near-field light scattering. Particle-surface interfacial forces are measured by optically “pushing” a particle against a reference surface and observing its motion using scattered near-field light. Unlike atomic force microscopy, this technique is not limited by thermal noise, but instead takes advantage of it. The integrated waveguide and microfluidic architecture allow for high-throughput measurements of about 1000 particles per hour. We characterize the reproducibility of and experimental uncertainty in the measurements made using the NanoTweezer surface instrument. We report surface interaction studies on gold nanoparticles with 50 nm diameters, smaller than previously reported in the literature using similar techniques. PMID:26855473

  13. Parallel near-field photolithography with metal-coated elastomeric masks.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Yu, Cheng-han; Li, Shaozhou; Zou, Binghua; Liu, Yayuan; Zhu, Xiaoqun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Xu, Hongbo; Zhang, Weina; Zhang, Liping; Liu, Bin; Tian, Danbi; Huang, Wei; Sheetz, Michael P; Huo, Fengwei

    2015-01-27

    Developing a cost-effective nanolithography strategy that enables the production of subwavelength features with various shapes over large areas is a long-standing goal in the nanotechnology community. Herein, an inexpensive nanolithographic technique that combines the wafer-scale production capability of photolithography with the subwavelength feature size controllability of near-field photolithography was developed to fabricate centimeter-scale up to wafer-scale sub-100-nm variously shaped nanopatterns on surfaces. The wafer-scale elastomeric trench-based photomasks with subwavelength apertures created at the apexes were compatible with mask aligners, allowing for the production of wafer-scale subwavelength nanopatterns with adjustable feature sizes, shapes, and periodicities. The smallest feature sizes of 50 and 80 nm were achieved on positive tone and negative tone photoresist surfaces, respectively, which could be ascribed to a near-field optical effect. The fabricated centimeter-scale nanopatterns were functionalized to study cell-matrix adhesion and migration. Compared to currently developed nanolithographic methods that approach similar functionalities, this facile nanolithographic strategy combines the merits of low cost, subwavelength feature size, high throughput, and varied feature shapes, making it an affordable approach to be used in academic research for researchers at most institutions.

  14. Nanometal Skin of Plasmonic Heterostructures for Highly Efficient Near-Field Scattering Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zito, Gianluigi; Rusciano, Giulia; Vecchione, Antonio; Pesce, Giuseppe; di Girolamo, Rocco; Malafronte, Anna; Sasso, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    In this work, atomic force microscopy probes are functionalized by virtue of self-assembling monolayers of block copolymer (BCP) micelles loaded either with clusters of silver nanoparticles or bimetallic heterostructures consisting of mixed species of silver and gold nanoparticles. The resulting self-organized patterns allow coating the tips with a sort of nanometal skin made of geometrically confined nanoislands. This approach favors the reproducible engineering and tuning of the plasmonic properties of the resulting structured tip by varying the nanometal loading of the micelles. The newly conceived tips are applied for experiments of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) spectroscopy and scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). TERS and s-SNOM probe characterizations on several standard Raman analytes and patterned nanostructures demonstrate excellent enhancement factor with the possibility of fast scanning and spatial resolution <12 nm. In fact, each metal nanoisland consists of a multiscale heterostructure that favors large scattering and near-field amplification. Then, we verify the tips to allow challenging nongap-TER spectroscopy on thick biosamples. Our approach introduces a synergistic chemical functionalization of the tips for versatile inclusion and delivery of plasmonic nanoparticles at the tip apex, which may promote the tuning of the plasmonic properties, a large enhancement, and the possibility of adding new degrees of freedom for tip functionalization.

  15. Mapping plasmonic near-field profiles and interferences by surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Du, Luping; Lei, Dang Yuan; Yuan, Guanghui; Fang, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Qian; Tang, Dingyuan; Min, Changjun; Maier, Stefan A.; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2013-01-01

    Mapping near-field profiles and dynamics of surface plasmon polaritons is crucial for understanding their fundamental optical properties and designing miniaturized photonic devices. This requires a spatial resolution on the sub-wavelength scale because the effective polariton wavelength is shorter than free-space excitation wavelengths. Here by combining total internal reflection excitation with surface-enhanced Raman scattering imaging, we mapped at the sub-wavelength scale the spatial distribution of the dominant perpendicular component of surface plasmon fields in a metal nanoparticle-film system through spectrally selective and polarization-resolved excitation of the vertical gap mode. The lateral field-extension at the junction, which is determined by the gap-mode volume, is small enough to distinguish a spot size ~0.355λ0 generated by a focused radially polarized beam with high reproducibility. The same excitation and imaging schemes are also used to trace near-field nano-focusing and interferences of surface plasmon polaritons created by a variety of plasmon lenses. PMID:24165970

  16. Nanometal Skin of Plasmonic Heterostructures for Highly Efficient Near-Field Scattering Probes

    PubMed Central

    Zito, Gianluigi; Rusciano, Giulia; Vecchione, Antonio; Pesce, Giuseppe; Di Girolamo, Rocco; Malafronte, Anna; Sasso, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, atomic force microscopy probes are functionalized by virtue of self-assembling monolayers of block copolymer (BCP) micelles loaded either with clusters of silver nanoparticles or bimetallic heterostructures consisting of mixed species of silver and gold nanoparticles. The resulting self-organized patterns allow coating the tips with a sort of nanometal skin made of geometrically confined nanoislands. This approach favors the reproducible engineering and tuning of the plasmonic properties of the resulting structured tip by varying the nanometal loading of the micelles. The newly conceived tips are applied for experiments of tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) spectroscopy and scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). TERS and s-SNOM probe characterizations on several standard Raman analytes and patterned nanostructures demonstrate excellent enhancement factor with the possibility of fast scanning and spatial resolution <12 nm. In fact, each metal nanoisland consists of a multiscale heterostructure that favors large scattering and near-field amplification. Then, we verify the tips to allow challenging nongap-TER spectroscopy on thick biosamples. Our approach introduces a synergistic chemical functionalization of the tips for versatile inclusion and delivery of plasmonic nanoparticles at the tip apex, which may promote the tuning of the plasmonic properties, a large enhancement, and the possibility of adding new degrees of freedom for tip functionalization. PMID:27502178

  17. Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Ge, Shijun; Chen, Zhaoxian; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yanqing

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterial-based absorbers play a significant role in applications ranging from energy harvesting and thermal emitters to sensors and imaging devices. The middle dielectric layer of conventional metamaterial absorbers has always been solid. Researchers could not detect the near field distribution in this layer or utilize it effectively. Here, we use anisotropic liquid crystal as the dielectric layer to realize electrically fast tunable terahertz metamaterial absorbers. We demonstrate strong, position-dependent terahertz near-field enhancement with sub-wavelength resolution inside the metamaterial absorber. We measure the terahertz far-field absorption as the driving voltage increases. By combining experimental results with liquid crystal simulations, we verify the near-field distribution in the middle layer indirectly and bridge the near-field and far-field observations. Our work opens new opportunities for creating high-performance, fast, tunable, terahertz metamaterial devices that can be applied in biological imaging and sensing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61225026, 61490714, 11304151, and 61435008), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20150845 and 15KJB140004), the Open Foundation Project of National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, China (Grant No. M28003), and the Research Center of Optical Communications Engineering & Technology, Jiangsu Province, China.

  18. Finite Element Method Simulations of the Near-Field Enhancement at the Vicinity of Fractal Rough Metallic Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Micic, Miodrag; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Lu, H PETER.

    2004-03-04

    Near-field optical enhancement at metal surfaces and methods such as surface plasmon resonance (SPR), surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), fluorescent quenching and enhancement, and various near-field scanning microscopies (NSOM) all depend on a metals surface properties, mainly on its morphology and SPR resonant frequency. We report on simulations of the influence of different surface morphologies on electromagnetic field enhancements at the rough surfaces of noble metals and also evaluate the optimal conditions for the generation of a surface-enhanced Raman signal of absorbed species on a metallic substrate. All simulations were performed with a classical electrodynamics approach using the full set of Maxwells equations, which were solved with the three-dimensional finite element method (FEM). Two different classes of surfaces where modeled using fractals, representing diffusion limited aggregation growth dendritic structures, such as one on the surface of electrodes, and second one representing the sponge-like structure used to model surfaces of particles with high porosity, such as metal coated catalyst supports. The simulations depict the high inhomogeneity of an enhanced electromagnetic field as both a field enhancement and field attenuation near the surface. While the diffusion limited aggregation dendritical fractals enhanced the near-field electromagnetic field, the sponge fractals significantly reduced the local electromagnetic field intensity. Moreover, the fractal orders of the fractal objects did not significantly alter the total enhancement, and the distribution of a near-field enhancement was essentially invariant to the changes in the angle of an incoming laser beam.

  19. Analysing one isolated single walled carbon nanotube in the near-field domain with selective nanovolume Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Atalay, Han; Lefrant, Serge

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, we describe a new method to the selective nanovolume analysing of one isolated single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT). This concept is based on actually available imaging micro-spectrometry systems for working in near-field domain combined with a stigmatic solid immersion lens. This combination of different analytical methods, and modified and configured equipment entitles us to expand the functionality toward a three-dimensional (3D) nanovolume Raman mapping and photoluminescence intensity with a possible discrimination in polarization, as well as photoluminescence decaytime constant mapping with their unique combination. Subsequently, selective spectra can be acquired from the same location on the samples. By spectrally selecting a SWNT, we registered the spatial distribution of the emitted photons in x, y, z vectors to determine the position of a SWNT in the near-field domain. For the SWNTs that are localized with an accuracy better than 18 nm in the x, y and <1 nm in the z directions, we demonstrate an analytical sensitivity close to a single nanotube with unity throughput. This near-field capability is applied to resolve local variations unambiguously in the Raman spectrum along one single SWNT. Finally, in this paper, we report what we believe to be the first evidence of Raman mapping and 3D real optical imaging of carbon nanotubes with near-field resolution.

  20. Bridging the terahertz near-field and far-field observations of liquid crystal based metamaterial absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Ge, Shijun; Chen, Zhaoxian; Hu, Wei; Lu, Yanqing

    2016-09-01

    Metamaterial-based absorbers play a significant role in applications ranging from energy harvesting and thermal emitters to sensors and imaging devices. The middle dielectric layer of conventional metamaterial absorbers has always been solid. Researchers could not detect the near field distribution in this layer or utilize it effectively. Here, we use anisotropic liquid crystal as the dielectric layer to realize electrically fast tunable terahertz metamaterial absorbers. We demonstrate strong, position-dependent terahertz near-field enhancement with sub-wavelength resolution inside the metamaterial absorber. We measure the terahertz far-field absorption as the driving voltage increases. By combining experimental results with liquid crystal simulations, we verify the near-field distribution in the middle layer indirectly and bridge the near-field and far-field observations. Our work opens new opportunities for creating high-performance, fast, tunable, terahertz metamaterial devices that can be applied in biological imaging and sensing. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61225026, 61490714, 11304151, and 61435008), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20150845 and 15KJB140004), the Open Foundation Project of National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, China (Grant No. M28003), and the Research Center of Optical Communications Engineering & Technology, Jiangsu Province, China.

  1. A Methodology for Near-Field Tsunami Inundation Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusman, A. R.; Tanioka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Here we describe a new methodology for near-field tsunami inundation forecasting. We designed an algorithm that can produce high-resolution tsunami inundation maps of near-field sites before the actual tsunami hits the shore. This algorithm relies on a database of precomputed tsunami waveforms at several near-shore points and precomputed tsunami inundation maps from various earthquake fault model scenarios. By using numerical forward model, it takes several hours to simulate tsunami inundation in each site from each fault model. After information about a tsunami source is estimated, tsunami waveforms at near-shore points can be simulated in real-time. A scenario that gives the most similar tsunami waveforms is selected as the site-specific best scenario and the tsunami inundation from that scenario is selected as the tsunami inundation forecast. To test the algorithm, tsunami inundation along the Sanriku coast is forecasted by using source models for the 2011 Tohoku earthquake estimated from GPS, W phase, or offshore tsunami waveform data. The forecasting algorithm is capable of providing a tsunami inundation forecast that is similar to that obtained by numerical forward modeling, but with remarkably smaller CPU time. The time required to forecast tsunami inundation in 15 coastal sites from the Sendai Plain to Miyako City is approximately 3 minutes after information about the tsunami source is obtained. We found that the tsunami inundation forecasts from the 5-min GPS, 10-min W phase fault models, and 35-min tsunami source model are all reliable for tsunami early warning purposes and quantitatively match the observations well, although the latter model gives tsunami forecasts with highest overall accuracy. We evaluated the effectiveness of this algorithm in the real world by carrying out a tsunami evacuation drill in Kushiro City, Hokkaido, Japan, involving the city residents. The participants found that the use of the tsunami inundation forecast map produced by

  2. Analysis and Simulations of Near-Field Ground Motion from Source Physics Experiments (spe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, O.; Xu, H.; Lomov, I.; Herbold, E. B.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T.

    2012-12-01

    This work is focused on analysis of near-field measurements (up to 50-70 m from the source) recorded during Source Physics Experiments SPE1, SPE2 and SPE3 in a granitic formation (the Climax Stock) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The explosive source used in these experiments is a sensitized heavy ANFO (SHANFO) with a well characterized equation of state. The first event, SPE1, had a yield of 0.1 ton, and was detonated at a 55 m depth of burial in a spherical cavity of about 0.3 m radius. SPE2 and SPE3 had an explosive yield of 1 ton, and they were both detonated in the same cavity at a depth of burial of 45 meters. One of the main goals of these experiments was to investigate the possible mechanisms of shear wave generation in the nonlinear source region. Another objective, relating specifically to the SPE2-SPE3 sequence, was to investigate the effect of damage from one explosion on the response of the medium to a second explosion of the same yield and at the same location as the first explosion. Comparison of the results from SPE2 and SPE3 show some interesting trends. . At the shot level, and at deeper locations, the data from SPE3 seem to agree quite well with SPE2 data, indicating that damage from SPE2 had little to no effect on the response of the medium at these locations. On the other hand, SPE3 data consistently show delay in arrival times as well as reduced wave amplitudes both at 50 ft (16 m) depth and at the ground surface, indicating that above the shot horizon damage from SPE2 had a perceptible effect on the SPE3 near field motions. The quality of the near field data at some gages from the SPE1 and SPE2 events is somewhat questionable, with orientation uncertainties making it difficult to ascertain with confidence the extent to which shear wave generation in the source region affected near field motions. New gages were strategically added to the SPE3 test bed to provide the data needed to address this issue and verify previous

  3. Broadband near-field infrared spectromicroscopy using photothermal probes and synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Paul M; Kelley, Chris S; Frogley, Mark D; Filik, Jacob; Wehbe, Katia; Cinque, Gianfelice

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate the use of infrared synchrotron radiation (IR-SR) as a broadband source for photothermal near-field infrared spectroscopy. We assess two methods of signal transduction; cantilever resonant thermal expansion and scanning thermal microscopy. By means of rapid mechanical chopping (50-150 kHz), we modulate the IR-SR at rates matching the contact resonance frequencies of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers, allowing us to record interferograms yielding Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) photothermal absorption spectra of polystyrene and cyanoacrylate films. Complementary offline measurements using a mechanically chopped CW IR laser confirmed that the resonant thermal expansion IR-SR measurements were below the diffraction limit, with a spatial resolution better than 500 nm achieved at a wavelength of 6 μm, i.e. λ/12 for the samples studied. Despite achieving the highest signal to noise so far for a scanning thermal microscopy measurement under conditions approaching near-field (dictated by thermal diffusion), the IR-SR resonant photothermal expansion FT-IR spectra measured were significantly higher in signal to noise in comparison with the scanning thermal data.

  4. Combined Experimental and Numerical Diagnostics for Near-field Flow around a Supersonic Flight Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Shimizu, Katsuya; Suzuki, Kakuei; Sasoh, Akihiro; Murakami, Keiichi; Aoyama, Takashi

    A system for evaluating the near-field pressure distribution around a supersonic flight model by combining experimental and numerical diagnostics has been developed. Experimental measurement is conducted using a ballistic range with four kinds of axi-symmetric flight models. Schlieren flow visualization is recorded using a high-speed framing camera and near-field pressure histories are measured using piezoelectric pressure transducers flush-mounted on the surface of flat plates in the test section. The numerical diagnostics is done using FaSTAR, a numerical simulation tool developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The experimental and numerical data are compared to each other, and the numerical results well validated. Based on the numerical results, it becomes possible to estimate the accuracy of experimental conditions including the flight path and angle of attack, which cannot readily be determined only from experimental data, and to discuss the relationship between peak overpressure and aerodynamic performance. Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and numerical results at a flight Mach number of 1.66±0.02 and important insights related to rear boom strength are obtained.

  5. Ocean-bottom Pressure Signals as Potential Identifiers of Tsunami Earthquakes in the Near Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaree, A.; Okal, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The real-time detection of "tsunami earthquakes" remains a challenge, especially in the near field. These events are characterized by an anomalously slow seismic rupture, with their true long-period seismic moment, and hence, tsunami potential, deceptively concealed from short-period waves and in particular felt accelerations. In the context of the deployment of long-period ocean-bottom sensors in epicentral areas, we explore simple but robust ways to quantify source parameters which could potentially lead to the real-time identification of tsunami earthquakes in the near field. We use records of 2011 Tohoku aftershocks on the JAMSTEC stations deployed off the coast of Japan in the wake of the mainshock. Because seismic phases are not resolvable at short distances, we simply consider an integrated measurement Ω of the square of pressure variations, sharing the philosophy of Boatwright and Choy's (1986) seismic energy, and compare this parameter, scaled to seismic moment, with other discriminants, such as Newman and Okal's (1998) energy-to-moment ratio, Θ, Okal et al.'s (2002) T-wave parameter Γ, or Okal's (2013) parameter Φ combining (in the far field) body-wave duration and energy. We also consider the duration of the pressure signal, and examine its relation to Ω.

  6. Theory and operation of a near-field scanning microwave microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahacos, C. P.; Steinhauer, David E.; Dutta, S.; Anlage, S. M.; Wellstood, F. C.; Newman, H.

    1997-03-01

    We will describe the operation and capabilities of a near-field microwave microscope with a spatial resolution of 10-100 μm in the frequency range 7.5-12.4 GHz.(C. P. Vlahacos, et al.), Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3272 (1996).^,(S. M. Anlage, et al.), IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1997) The microscope consists of a resonant section of a coaxial cable which is terminated with a small-diameter open-ended coaxial probe. Images are made by scanning the sample under the probe while recording the signal collected in the near-field as a function of sample position. Images can be made of fields produced by a powered circuit or of sample properties such as topography, dielectric constant and loss. To illustrate the operation of the system, images will be presented of microwave devices, such as a planar ferrite microwave circulator and a high-temperature superconducting microstrip YBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ resonator.

  7. Retrieving the spatial distribution of cavity modes in dielectric resonators by near-field imaging and electrodynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Alejandro R; Güell, Frank; Pérez, Luis A; López-Vidrier, Julian; Ossó, J Oriol; Coronado, Eduardo A; Morante, Joan R

    2012-03-01

    For good performance of photonic devices whose working principle is based on the enhancement of electromagnetic fields obtained by confining light into dielectric resonators with dimensions in the nanometre length scale, a detailed knowledge of the optical mode structure becomes essential. However, this information is usually lacking and can only be indirectly obtained by conventional spectroscopic techniques. Here we unraveled the influence of wire size, incident wavelength, degree of polarization and the presence of a substrate on the optical near fields generated by cavity modes of individual hexagonal ZnO nanowires by combining scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) with electrodynamics calculations within the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). The near-field patterns obtained with very high spatial resolution, better than 50 nm, exhibit striking size and spatial-dispersion effects, which are well accounted for within DDA, using a wavevector-dependent dipolar interaction and considering the dielectric anisotropy of ZnO. Our results show that both SNOM and DDA simulations are powerful tools for the design of optoelectronic devices able to manipulate light at the nanoscale.

  8. Parallel scanning near-field photolithography: the snomipede.

    PubMed

    ul Haq, Ehtsham; Liu, Zhuming; Zhang, Yuan; Ahmad, Shahrul A Alang; Wong, Lu-Shin; Armes, Steven P; Hobbs, Jamie K; Leggett, Graham J; Micklefield, Jason; Roberts, Clive J; Weaver, John M R

    2010-11-10

    The “Millipede”, developed by Binnig and co-workers (Bining, G. K.; et al. IBM J. Res. Devel. 2000, 44, 323.), elegantly solves the problem of the serial nature of scanning probe lithography processes, by deploying massive parallelism. Here we fuse the “Millipede” concept with scanning near-field photolithography to yield a “Snomipede” that is capable of executing parallel chemical transformations at high resolution over macroscopic areas. Our prototype has sixteen probes that are separately controllable using a methodology that is, in principle, scalable to much larger arrays. Light beams generated by a spatial modulator or a zone plate array are coupled to arrays of cantilever probes with hollow, pyramidal tips. We demonstrate selective photodeprotection of nitrophenylpropyloxycarbonyl-protected aminosiloxane monolayers on silicon dioxide and subsequent growth of nanostructured polymer brushes by atom-transfer radical polymerization, and the fabrication of 70 nm structures in photoresist by a Snomipede probe array immersed under water. Such approaches offer a powerful means of integrating the top-down and bottom-up fabrication paradigms, facilitating the reactive processing of materials at nanometer resolution over macroscopic areas.

  9. Entropic and Near-Field Improvements of Thermoradiative Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan K.; Liao, Bolin; Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Chen, Gang

    2016-10-01

    A p-n junction maintained at above ambient temperature can work as a heat engine, converting some of the supplied heat into electricity and rejecting entropy by interband emission. Such thermoradiative cells have potential to harvest low-grade heat into electricity. By analyzing the entropy content of different spectral components of thermal radiation, we identify an approach to increase the efficiency of thermoradiative cells via spectrally selecting long-wavelength photons for radiative exchange. Furthermore, we predict that the near-field photon extraction by coupling photons generated from interband electronic transition to phonon polariton modes on the surface of a heat sink can increase the conversion efficiency as well as the power generation density, providing more opportunities to efficiently utilize terrestrial emission for clean energy. An ideal InSb thermoradiative cell can achieve a maximum efficiency and power density up to 20.4% and 327 Wm‑2, respectively, between a hot source at 500 K and a cold sink at 300 K. However, sub-bandgap and non-radiative losses will significantly degrade the cell performance.

  10. Near-Field Acoustical Characterization of Clustered Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Vu, Bruce T.; Lindsay Halie K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for the prediction and characterization of the near-field acoustic levels from closely-spaced clustered rocket engines. The calculations are based on the method proposed by Eldred, wherein the flowfield from the clustered rockets is divided into two zones. Zone 1 contains the isolated nozzles which produce noise independently, and extends up to a distance where the individual flows completely mix to form an equivalent single nozzle flow. Zone 2 is occupied by the single mixed stream starting from the station where the jets merge. The acoustic fields from the two zones are computed separately on the basis of the NASA-SP method of Eldred developed for a single equivalent nozzle. A summation of the spectra for the two zones yields the total effective sound pressure level for the clustered engines. Under certain conditions of nozzle spacing and flow parameters, the combined sound pressure level spectrum for the clustered nozzles displays a double peak. Test cases are presented here to demonstrate the importance of hydrodynamic interactions responsible for the double peak in the sound spectrum in the case of clustered rocket nozzles, and the role of ground reflections in the case of non-interfering jets. A graphics interface (Rocket Acoustic Prediction Tool) has been developed to take into account the effects of clustered nozzles and ground reflections.

  11. A novel mathematical model for controllable near-field electrospinning

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, Changhai E-mail: luojun@shu.edu.cn; Chen, Jie; Shao, Zhushuai; Pang, Ming; Luo, Jun E-mail: luojun@shu.edu.cn

    2014-01-15

    Near-field electrospinning (NFES) had better controllability than conventional electrospinning. However, due to the lack of guidance of theoretical model, precise deposition of micro/nano fibers could only accomplished by experience. To analyze the behavior of charged jet in NFES using mathematical model, the momentum balance equation was simplified and a new expression between jet cross-sectional radius and axial position was derived. Using this new expression and mass conservation equation, expressions for jet cross-sectional radius and velocity were derived in terms of axial position and initial jet acceleration in the form of exponential functions. Based on Slender-body theory and Giesekus model, a quadratic equation for initial jet acceleration was acquired. With the proposed model, it was able to accurately predict the diameter and velocity of polymer fibers in NFES, and mathematical analysis rather than experimental methods could be applied to study the effects of the process parameters in NFES. Moreover, the movement velocity of the collector stage can be regulated by mathematical model rather than experience. Therefore, the model proposed in this paper had important guiding significance to precise deposition of polymer fibers.

  12. Near field magnetic communications for helmet-mounted display applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Mark; Sailer, Alan

    2005-05-01

    Helmet-mounted displays need a data feed that is typically provided by a cable or RF wireless data link to an external computer. In defense applications these solutions are problematic: a cable gets in the way and restricts use and emergency egress, while an RF wireless link can be detected at some distance giving away position and is susceptible to jamming. What is required is an alternative wireless technology that is low power, extremely localized and difficult to detect or jam. Near field magnetic communications is one possible alternative to RF communications that may fulfill these needs. This technology uses a time varying magnetic field to carry information, and is only useable over small distances of order six feet. This is expected to have significant advantages for particular applications: notably power requirements and security compared with RF wireless links. The power stored in a magnetic field falls off as 1/r6, compared with 1/r2 for RF, which means that all the power is localized around the transmitter. By having a physically small communications region around each platform or user, a large bandwidth can be guaranteed by allowing the reuse of the frequency spectrum outside the immediate vicinity. It also confers security on the data-link, as the signal is undetectable beyond the short range of the system.

  13. Nanosensors: From near field to far field applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Gloria M.; Félix, Hilsamar; Fierro, Pedro M.; Balaguera, Marcia; Pacheco, Leonardo; Briano, Julio G.; Marquez, Francisco; Ríos, Carlos; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2011-06-01

    The DoD Center for Chemical Sensors Development at the University of Puerto Rico-Mayagüez has worked in developing sensors for threat agents for over 8 years. Work has continued under the ALERT DHS Center of Excellence. The approaches for sensing have covered many types of threat chemicals and some types of biological simulants, including high energetic materials, homemade explosives, mixtures and formulations, chemical agents simulants, toxic industrial chemicals and spore forming microorganisms. Sensing in the far field has been based in vibrational spectroscopy: Raman and infrared. Near field detection has been mainly based on nanotechnology enabled sensing platforms for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering. Initial use of colloidal suspensions of silver and gold nanospheres eventually evolved to metallic and metal oxide nanorods and to particle immobilization, including sample smearing on substrates and drop-on-demand thermal inkjet printing of nanoparticles. Chemical reduction of metal ions has been substituted by clean photonic physical reduction that leaves the nanoactive surface highly exposed and overcomes the physico-chemical problem of double electrical layers posed by colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles. New avenues have open wide research endeavors by using laser techniques to form nanoprisms and interference based metallic nano-images and micro-images. UV based metal reduction on top of metal oxides nanostructures promises to provide the selectivity and sensitivity expected for the last 30-40 years. Various applications and experimental setups will be discussed.

  14. Entropic and Near-Field Improvements of Thermoradiative Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Wei-Chun; Tong, Jonathan K.; Liao, Bolin; Huang, Yi; Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    A p-n junction maintained at above ambient temperature can work as a heat engine, converting some of the supplied heat into electricity and rejecting entropy by interband emission. Such thermoradiative cells have potential to harvest low-grade heat into electricity. By analyzing the entropy content of different spectral components of thermal radiation, we identify an approach to increase the efficiency of thermoradiative cells via spectrally selecting long-wavelength photons for radiative exchange. Furthermore, we predict that the near-field photon extraction by coupling photons generated from interband electronic transition to phonon polariton modes on the surface of a heat sink can increase the conversion efficiency as well as the power generation density, providing more opportunities to efficiently utilize terrestrial emission for clean energy. An ideal InSb thermoradiative cell can achieve a maximum efficiency and power density up to 20.4% and 327 Wm−2, respectively, between a hot source at 500 K and a cold sink at 300 K. However, sub-bandgap and non-radiative losses will significantly degrade the cell performance. PMID:27734902

  15. Investigation of the Arcjet near Field Plume Using Electrostatic Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plume of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in.) and 15 cm (5.9 in.) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in.) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in.) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  16. Investigation of the arcjet plume near field using electrostatic probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankovic, John M.

    1990-01-01

    The near field plum of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster was investigated using electrostatic probes of various geometries. The electron number densities and temperatures were determined in a simulated hydrazine plume at axial distances between 3 cm (1.2 in) and 15 cm (5.9 in) and radial distances extending to 10 cm (3.9 in) off centerline. Values of electron number densities obtained using cylindrical and spherical probes of different geometries agreed very well. The electron density on centerline followed a source flow approximation for axial distances as near as 3 cm (1.2 in) from the nozzle exit plane. The model agreed well with previously obtained data in the far field. The effects of propellant mass flow rate and input power level were also studied. Cylindrical probes were used to obtain ion streamlines by changing the probe orientation with respect to the flow. The effects of electrical configuration on the plasma characteristics of the plume were also investigated by using a segmented anode/nozzle thruster. The results showed that the electrical configuration in the nozzle affected the distribution of electrons in the plume.

  17. Photoconductive terahertz near-field detector with a hybrid nanoantenna array cavity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting S.; Reno, John L.

    2015-11-19

    Nanoscale structuring of optical materials leads to modification of their properties and can be used for improving efficiencies of photonic devices and for enabling new functionalities. In ultrafast optoelectronic switches for generation and detection of terahertz (THz) radiation, incorporation of nanostructures allows us to overcome inherent limitations of photoconductive materials. We propose and demonstrate a nanostructured photoconductive THz detector for sampling highly localized THz fields, down to the level of λ/150. The nanostructure that consists of an array of optical nanoantennas and a distributed Bragg reflector forms a hybrid cavity, which traps optical gate pulses within the photoconductive layer. Themore » effect of photon trapping is observed as enhanced absorption at a designed wavelength. This optically thin photoconductive THz detector allows us to detect highly confined evanescent THz fields coupled through a deeply subwavelength aperture as small as 2 μm (λ/150 at 1 THz). As a result, by monolithically integrating the THz detector with apertures ranging from 2 to 5 μm we realize higher spatial resolution and higher sensitivity in aperture-type THz near-field microscopy and THz time-domain spectroscopy.« less

  18. Photoconductive terahertz near-field detector with a hybrid nanoantenna array cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrofanov, Oleg; Brener, Igal; Luk, Ting S.; Reno, John L.

    2015-11-19

    Nanoscale structuring of optical materials leads to modification of their properties and can be used for improving efficiencies of photonic devices and for enabling new functionalities. In ultrafast optoelectronic switches for generation and detection of terahertz (THz) radiation, incorporation of nanostructures allows us to overcome inherent limitations of photoconductive materials. We propose and demonstrate a nanostructured photoconductive THz detector for sampling highly localized THz fields, down to the level of λ/150. The nanostructure that consists of an array of optical nanoantennas and a distributed Bragg reflector forms a hybrid cavity, which traps optical gate pulses within the photoconductive layer. The effect of photon trapping is observed as enhanced absorption at a designed wavelength. This optically thin photoconductive THz detector allows us to detect highly confined evanescent THz fields coupled through a deeply subwavelength aperture as small as 2 μm (λ/150 at 1 THz). As a result, by monolithically integrating the THz detector with apertures ranging from 2 to 5 μm we realize higher spatial resolution and higher sensitivity in aperture-type THz near-field microscopy and THz time-domain spectroscopy.

  19. Optical Storage Systems for Records and Information Management: Overview, Recommendations and Guidelines for Local Governments. Local Government Records Technical Information Series. Number 45.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stanley F.

    This publication discusses optical storage, a term encompassing technologies that use laser-produced light to record and store information in digital form. The booklet also discusses how optical storage systems relate to records management, in particular to the management of local government records in New York State. It describes components of…

  20. Nanoscale line segment fabrication using super-resolution near-field photolithography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Been

    2012-01-01

    This study proposed a method to combine near-field photolithography (NFP) with thermally induced super-resolution, and conducted simulation and analysis on nanoscale line segment fabrication. A theoretical model of optical metal film was used to calculate the transmittance of indium film during line segment fabrication. A theoretical heat transfer model was employed to analyze the exposure power density on the surface of the photoresist after laser beams penetrated the indium film. This study divided the photoresist into finite nodes. Through a simulation combining an exposure energy density formula, an exposure model, and a developmental model, we derived the theoretical width and profile of the line segment fabricated using super-resolution NFP. The widths of the derived line segments were 88 nm for photoresist with indium coating and 130 nm without. The indium film accounted for a reduction in width of 32%.

  1. Near-field resonance shifts of ferroelectric barium titanate domains upon low-temperature phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Döring, Jonathan; Ribbeck, Hans-Georg von; Kehr, Susanne C.; Eng, Lukas M.; Fehrenbacher, Markus

    2014-08-04

    Scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) has been established as an excellent tool to probe domains in ferroelectric crystals at room temperature. Here, we apply the s-SNOM possibilities to quantify low-temperature phase transitions in barium titanate single crystals by both temperature-dependent resonance spectroscopy and domain distribution imaging. The orthorhombic-to-tetragonal structural phase transition at 263 K manifests in a change of the spatial arrangement of ferroelectric domains as probed with a tunable free-electron laser. More intriguingly, the domain distribution unravels non-favored domain configurations upon sample recovery to room temperature as explainable by increased sample disorder. Ferroelectric domains and topographic influences are clearly deconvolved even at low temperatures, since complementing our s-SNOM nano-spectroscopy with piezoresponse force microscopy and topographic imaging using one and the same atomic force microscope and tip.

  2. Multimode near-field microwave monitoring of free water content of skin and imaging of tissue.

    PubMed

    Lofland, S E; Mazzatenta, J D; Croman, J; Tyagi, S D

    2007-03-01

    We have used the near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) technique in the 1-10 GHz range to monitor the free water content of skin. The water content is interpreted from the measured dielectric properties of the epidermis. The finger skin was first hydrated by soaking in water at 37 degrees C for 30 min followed by monitoring of water content as the free water evaporated under ambient conditions. The same technique has also been employed to image a 1 cm x 1 cm sample of chicken skin. It has been shown that variations exist in the resonant frequencies and quality factors of tissue under varying physical parameters. The samples analysed were as-received and thermally dehydrated or damaged chicken tissue samples. We contrast between the dielectric properties with the optical images. We also discuss possible application of our imaging technique in clinical monitoring of the wound healing process.

  3. Near-field interferometry of a free-falling nanoparticle from a point-like source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, James; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Hornberger, Klaus; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    Matter-wave interferometry performed with massive objects elucidates their wave nature and thus tests the quantum superposition principle at large scales. Whereas standard quantum theory places no limit on particle size, alternative, yet untested theories—conceived to explain the apparent quantum to classical transition—forbid macroscopic superpositions. Here we propose an interferometer with a levitated, optically cooled and then free-falling silicon nanoparticle in the mass range of one million atomic mass units, delocalized over >150 nm. The scheme employs the near-field Talbot effect with a single standing-wave laser pulse as a phase grating. Our analysis, which accounts for all relevant sources of decoherence, indicates that this is a viable route towards macroscopic high-mass superpositions using available technology.

  4. Simultaneous observation of the quantization and the interference pattern of a plasmonic near-field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piazza, L.; Lummen, T. T. A.; Quiñonez, E.; Murooka, Y.; Reed, B. W.; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.

    2015-03-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons can confine electromagnetic fields in subwavelength spaces and are of interest for photonics, optical data storage devices and biosensing applications. In analogy to photons, they exhibit wave-particle duality, whose different aspects have recently been observed in separate tailored experiments. Here we demonstrate the ability of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to simultaneously image both the spatial interference and the quantization of such confined plasmonic fields. Our experiments are accomplished by spatiotemporally overlapping electron and light pulses on a single nanowire suspended on a graphene film. The resulting energy exchange between single electrons and the quanta of the photoinduced near-field is imaged synchronously with its spatial interference pattern. This methodology enables the control and visualization of plasmonic fields at the nanoscale, providing a promising tool for understanding the fundamental properties of confined electromagnetic fields and the development of advanced photonic circuits.

  5. Simultaneous observation of the quantization and the interference pattern of a plasmonic near-field

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, L; Lummen, T.T.A.; Quiñonez, E; Murooka, Y; Reed, B.W.; Barwick, B; Carbone, F

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons can confine electromagnetic fields in subwavelength spaces and are of interest for photonics, optical data storage devices and biosensing applications. In analogy to photons, they exhibit wave–particle duality, whose different aspects have recently been observed in separate tailored experiments. Here we demonstrate the ability of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to simultaneously image both the spatial interference and the quantization of such confined plasmonic fields. Our experiments are accomplished by spatiotemporally overlapping electron and light pulses on a single nanowire suspended on a graphene film. The resulting energy exchange between single electrons and the quanta of the photoinduced near-field is imaged synchronously with its spatial interference pattern. This methodology enables the control and visualization of plasmonic fields at the nanoscale, providing a promising tool for understanding the fundamental properties of confined electromagnetic fields and the development of advanced photonic circuits. PMID:25728197

  6. Simultaneous observation of the quantization and the interference pattern of a plasmonic near-field

    SciTech Connect

    Piazza, L.; Lummen, T. T. A.; Quiñonez, E.; Murooka, Y.; Reed, B. W.; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.

    2015-03-02

    Surface plasmon polaritons can confine electromagnetic fields in subwavelength spaces and are of interest for photonics, optical data storage devices and biosensing applications. In analogy to photons, they exhibit wave–particle duality, whose different aspects have recently been observed in separate tailored experiments. Here we demonstrate the ability of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to simultaneously image both the spatial interference and the quantization of such confined plasmonic fields. Our experiments are accomplished by spatiotemporally overlapping electron and light pulses on a single nanowire suspended on a graphene film. The resulting energy exchange between single electrons and the quanta of the photoinduced near-field is imaged synchronously with its spatial interference pattern. In conclusion, this methodology enables the control and visualization of plasmonic fields at the nanoscale, providing a promising tool for understanding the fundamental properties of confined electromagnetic fields and the development of advanced photonic circuits.

  7. Simultaneous observation of the quantization and the interference pattern of a plasmonic near-field

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Piazza, L.; Lummen, T. T. A.; Quiñonez, E.; Murooka, Y.; Reed, B. W.; Barwick, B.; Carbone, F.

    2015-03-02

    Surface plasmon polaritons can confine electromagnetic fields in subwavelength spaces and are of interest for photonics, optical data storage devices and biosensing applications. In analogy to photons, they exhibit wave–particle duality, whose different aspects have recently been observed in separate tailored experiments. Here we demonstrate the ability of ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to simultaneously image both the spatial interference and the quantization of such confined plasmonic fields. Our experiments are accomplished by spatiotemporally overlapping electron and light pulses on a single nanowire suspended on a graphene film. The resulting energy exchange between single electrons and the quanta of the photoinducedmore » near-field is imaged synchronously with its spatial interference pattern. In conclusion, this methodology enables the control and visualization of plasmonic fields at the nanoscale, providing a promising tool for understanding the fundamental properties of confined electromagnetic fields and the development of advanced photonic circuits.« less

  8. Multimode near-field microwave monitoring of free water content of skin and imaging of tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofland, S. E.; Mazzatenta, J. D.; Croman, J.; Tyagi, S. D.

    2007-03-01

    We have used the near-field scanning microwave microscopy (NSMM) technique in the 1-10 GHz range to monitor the free water content of skin. The water content is interpreted from the measured dielectric properties of the epidermis. The finger skin was first hydrated by soaking in water at 37 °C for 30 min followed by monitoring of water content as the free water evaporated under ambient conditions. The same technique has also been employed to image a 1 cm × 1 cm sample of chicken skin. It has been shown that variations exist in the resonant frequencies and quality factors of tissue under varying physical parameters. The samples analysed were as-received and thermally dehydrated or damaged chicken tissue samples. We contrast between the dielectric properties with the optical images. We also discuss possible application of our imaging technique in clinical monitoring of the wound healing process.

  9. Research Studies on Advanced Optical Module/Head Designs for Optical Disk Recording Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, James J.; Seery, Bernard D.

    1993-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Optical Data Storage Center of the University of Arizona is presented. Summary reports on continuing projects are presented. Research areas include: magneto-optic media, optical heads, and signal processing.

  10. Turbulence Measurements in the Near Field of a Wingtip Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, Jim; Zilliac, Greg; Bradshaw, Peter

    1997-01-01

    The roll-up of a wingtip vortex, at Reynolds number based on chord of 4.6 million was studied with an emphasis on suction side and near wake measurements. The research was conducted in a 32 in. x 48 in. low-speed wind tunnel. The half-wing model had a semi-span of 36 in. a chord of 48 in. and a rounded tip. Seven-hole pressure probe measurements of the velocity field surrounding the wingtip showed that a large axial velocity of up to 1.77 U(sub infinity) developed in the vortex core. This level of axial velocity has not been previously measured. Triple-wire probes have been used to measure all components of the Reynolds stress tensor. It was determined from correlation measurements that meandering of the vortex was small and did not appreciably contribute to the turbulence measurements. The flow was found to be turbulent in the near-field (as high as 24 percent RMS w - velocity on the edge of the core) and the turbulence decayed quickly with streamwise distance because of the nearly solid body rotation of the vortex core mean flow. A streamwise variation of the location of peak levels of turbulence, relative to the core centerline, was also found. Close to the trailing edge of the wing, the peak shear stress levels were found at the edge of the vortex core, whereas in the most downstream wake planes they occurred at a radius roughly equal to one-third of the vortex core radius. The Reynolds shear stresses were not aligned with the mean strain rate, indicating that an isotropic-eddy-viscosity based prediction method cannot accurately model the turbulence in the cortex. In cylindrical coordinates, with the origin at the vortex centerline, the radial normal stress was found to be larger than the circumferential.

  11. Extracting 220 Hz information from 55 Hz field data by near-field superresolution imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Gaurav; AlTheyab, Abdullah; Tarhini, Ahmad; Hanafy, Sherif; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2016-05-01

    Field experiments are used to unequivocally demonstrate seismic superresolution imaging of subwavelength objects in the near-field region of the source. The field test is for a conventional hammer source striking a metal plate near sub-wavelength scatterers and the seismic data are recorded by vertical-component geophones in the far-field locations of the sources. Time-reversal mirrors (TRMs) are then used to refocus the scattered energy with subwavelength resolution to the position of the original source. A spatial resolution of λ/10, where λ is the dominant wavelength associated with the data, is seen in the field tests that exceeds the Abbe resolution limit of λ/2.

  12. Structured interference force for enhanced optical trapping (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Michael A.; Waleed, Muhammad; Stilgoe, Alexander B.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2015-08-01

    Interferometry can completely redirect light, providing the potential for exceptionally strong and controllable optical forces. When a beamsplitter combines two fields, the output power is directed via the relative phase between the incident fields. Since the phase changes with beamsplitter displacement, the interference force can be used to stably trap; with displacements as small as (λ/4n) able to completely redirect the light. The resulting change in optical momentum causes an opposing optical force. However, optical forces are most useful for trapping and manipulating small scattering particles. Optical scattering is not generally thought to allow efficient interference; essentially, it appears that small particles cannot act as beamsplitters. As such, optical traps have relied upon much weaker deflection-based forces. Here we show that efficient interference can be achieved by appropriately structuring the incident light. This relies on Mie scattering fringes to combine light which is incident from different incident angles. This results in a force, which we call the structured interference force, which offers order-of-magnitude higher trap stiffness over the usual Gaussian trap. We demonstrate structured interference force trapping (SIFT) of 10μm diameter silica spheres with a stiffness 20.1 times higher than is possible using Gaussian traps, while also increasing the measurement signal-to-noise ratio by two orders of magnitude. This is demonstrated using only phase control of the incident light, making the technique directly compatible with most existing holographic optical traps. These results are highly relevant to many applications, including cellular manipulation, fluid dynamics, micro-robotics, and tests of fundamental physics.

  13. Linearity in the response of photopolymers as optical recording media.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Sergi; Marquez, Andrés; Guardiola, Francisco J; Riquelme, Marina; Fernández, Roberto; Pascual, Inmaculada; Beléndez, Augusto

    2013-05-01

    Photopolymer are appealing materials for diffractive elements recording. Two of their properties when they are illuminated are useful for this goal: the relief surface changes and the refractive index modifications. To this goal the linearity in the material response is crucial to design the optimum irradiance for each element. In this paper we measured directly some parameters to know how linear is the material response, in terms of the refractive index modulation versus exposure, then we can predict the refractive index distributions during recording. We have analyzed at different recording intensities the evolution of monomer diffusion during recording for photopolymers based on PVA/Acrylamide. This model has been successfully applied to PVA/Acrylamide photopolymers to predict the transmitted diffracted orders and the agreement with experimental values has been increased.

  14. Non-near-field focus and imaging of an unpolarized electromagnetic wave through high-symmetry quasicrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Li, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Bingying; Zhang, Dao-Zhong

    2007-02-01

    The focus behaviors of electromagnetic wave through two-dimensional (2D) high-symmetry photonic quasicrystals (PQCs) have been investigated by using exact multi-scattering numerical simulation. We have found that the high-symmetry PQC flat lenses possess universal feature for non-near-field focus of two kinds of polarized waves. That is to say, the non-near-field focus for two kinds of polarized waves can be realized by using these flat lenses, which are consisting of 12-fold, 10-fold and 8-fold 2D PQCs with the same structures and parameters. Such a superior feature originates from higher rotational symmetry and negative refraction in the PQCs. Thus, potential applications of such a phenomenon to optical devices can be anticipated.

  15. Non-near-field focus and imaging of an unpolarized electromagnetic wave through high-symmetry quasicrystals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangdong; Li, Zhiyuan; Cheng, Bingying; Zhang, Dao-Zhong

    2007-02-01

    The focus behaviors of electromagnetic wave through two-dimensional (2D) high-symmetry photonic quasicrystals (PQCs) have been investigated by using exact multi-scattering numerical simulation. We have found that the high-symmetry PQC flat lenses possess universal feature for non-near-field focus of two kinds of polarized waves. That is to say, the non-near-field focus for two kinds of polarized waves can be realized by using these flat lenses, which are consisting of 12-fold, 10-fold and 8-fold 2D PQCs with the same structures and parameters. Such a superior feature originates from higher rotational symmetry and negative refraction in the PQCs. Thus, potential applications of such a phenomenon to optical devices can be anticipated.

  16. Spectral degeneracy breaking of the plasmon resonance of single metal nanoparticles by nanoscale near-field photopolymerization.

    PubMed

    El Ahrach, H Ibn; Bachelot, R; Vial, A; Lérondel, G; Plain, J; Royer, P; Soppera, O

    2007-03-01

    We report on controlled nanoscale photopolymerization triggered by enhanced near fields of silver nanoparticles excited close to their dipolar plasmon resonance. By anisotropic polymerization, symmetry of the refractive index of the surrounding medium was broken: C infinity v symmetry turned to C2v symmetry. This allowed for spectral degeneracy breaking in particles plasmon resonance whose apparent peak became continuously tunable with the incident polarization. From the spectral peak, we deduced the refractive-index ellipsoid fabricated around the particles. In addition to this control of optical properties of metal nanoparticles, this method opens new routes for nanoscale photochemistry and provides a new way of quantification of the magnitude of near fields of localized surface plasmons.

  17. Nano-imaging collagen by atomic force, near-field and nonlinear microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ken Choong; Tang, Jinkai; Li, Hao; Ng, Boon Ping; Kok, Shaw Wei; Wang, Qijie; Zhang, Ying

    2015-03-01

    As the most abundant protein in the human body, collagen has a very important role in vast numbers of bio-medical applications. The unique second order nonlinear properties of fibrillar collagen make it a very important index in nonlinear optical imaging based disease diagnosis of the brain, skin, liver, colon, kidney, bone, heart and other organs in the human body. The second-order nonlinear susceptibility of collagen has been explored at the macroscopic level and was explained as a volume-averaged molecular hyperpolarizability. However, details about the origin of optical second harmonic signals from collagen fibrils at the molecular level are still not clear. Such information is necessary for accurate interpolation of bio-information from nonlinear optical imaging techniques. The later has shown great potential in collagen based disease diagnosis methodologies. In this paper, we report our work using an atomic force microscope (AFM), near field (SNOM) and nonlinear laser scanning microscope (NLSM) to study the structure of collagen fibrils and other pro-collagen structures.

  18. A high transmittance optical recording material with long-term reliability for super-multilayer discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomai, Kenichi; Asano, Sho; Oshita, Junji; Matsuda, Isao; Kojo, Shinichi; Murai, Wakaaki; Hattori, Masashi; Shimizu, Atsuo; Fujii, Toru

    2015-09-01

    As a means of increasing data capacity, the multilayer optical disc is a promising approach. Because the recording layers in multilayer optical discs must have a high transmittance, they are commonly made of transparent oxide films. Moreover, the recording layer must have sufficient long-term reliability for data archival. In this work, a recording material with high transmittance and long-term reliability for use in super-multilayer discs was investigated. This paper clarifies the recording mechanism of GeBi oxide material and proposes a suitable material design that satisfies the abovementioned characteristics. Furthermore, experimental results of recording on super-multilayer discs based on GeBi oxide recording material are presented.

  19. Response of marine composites subjected to near field blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LiVolsi, Frank

    Experimental studies were performed to understand the explosive response of composite panels when exposed to near-field explosive loading in different environments. The panel construction under consideration was an E-glass fiber-reinforced composite laminate infused with vinyl ester resin (Derakane 8084). The panel was layered bi-axially with plain-woven fiber orientations at 0° and 90°. Panel dimensions were approximately 203 mm x 203 mm x 1 mm (8 in x 8 in x 0.04 in). Experiments were carried out with the panel fully clamped in a holding fixture, which was in turn fastened inside a water tank. The fixture was fastened in such a way as to allow for explosive loading experiments in the following environments: water submersion with water backing, water submersion with air backing, and air immersion with air backing. Experiments were performed in room temperature conditions, and additional experiments in the submerged environments were also performed at high and low water temperatures of 40°C and 0°C, respectively. A stereo Digital Image Correlation (DIC) system was employed to capture the full-field dynamic behavior of the panel during the explosive event. Results indicated that the immersion environment contributes significantly to the blast response of the material and to the specimens' appreciable damage characteristics. The water submersion with air backing environment was found to encourage the greatest panel center point deflection and the most significant damage mechanisms around the boundary. The air immersion with air backing environment was found to encourage less center point deflection and exhibited significant impact damage from the explosive capsule. The water submersion with water backing environment encouraged the least panel deflection and minimal interlaminate damage around the panel boundary and center. Water temperature was found to influence the panel center point deflection, but not damage mechanisms. Maximum positive center point

  20. Structured light-matter interactions in optical nanostructures (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Sun, Jingbo; Shalaev, Mikhail I.; Xu, Tianboyu; Xu, Yun; Pandey, Apra

    2015-09-01

    We show that unique optical properties of metamaterials open unlimited prospects to "engineer" light itself. For example, we demonstrate a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using metamaterials highlighting how unique properties of metamaterials, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light. We discuss several approaches to ultra-compact structured light generation, including a nanoscale beam converter based on an ultra-compact array of nano-waveguides with a circular graded distribution of channel diameters that coverts a conventional laser beam into a vortex with configurable orbital angular momentum and a novel, miniaturized astigmatic optical element based on a single biaxial hyperbolic metamaterial that enables the conversion of Hermite-Gaussian beams into vortex beams carrying an orbital angular momentum and vice versa. Such beam converters is likely to enable a new generation of on-chip or all-fiber structured light applications. We also present our initial theoretical studies predicting that vortex-based nonlinear optical processes, such as second harmonic generation or parametric amplification that rely on phase matching, will also be strongly modified in negative index materials. These studies may find applications for multidimensional information encoding, secure communications, and quantum cryptography as both spin and orbital angular momentum could be used to encode information; dispersion engineering for spontaneous parametric down-conversion; and on-chip optoelectronic signal processing.

  1. Far-field head-media optical interaction in heat-assisted magnetic recording.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruoxi; Jones, Paul; Klemmer, Timmothy; Olson, Heidi; Zhang, Deming; Perry, Tyler; Scholz, Werner; Yin, Huaqing; Hipwell, Roger; Thiele, Jan-Ulrich; Tang, Huan; Seigler, Mike

    2016-02-20

    We have used a plane wave expansion method to theoretically study the far-field head-media optical interaction in heat-assisted magnetic recording. For the Advanced Storage Technology Consortium media stack specifically, we notice the outstanding sensitivity related to the interlayer's optical thickness for media reflection and the magnetic layer's light absorption. With 10 nm interlayer thickness change, the recording layer absorption can be changed by more than 25%. The 2D results are found to correlate well with the full 3D model and magnetic recording tests on a flyable disc with different interlayer thickness.

  2. Optical multichannel recorder and its application in studying a picosecond dye laser

    SciTech Connect

    Vinogradov, S.V.; Kuznetsov, V.V.; Lyutinskii, V.V.; Nazarov, V.N.; Neporent, B.S.; Nikolaev, G.E.; Poznyak, R.I.; Revinskii, V.V.; Sokolov, A.V.; Tovmasyan, S.K.; Chernyavskii, A.F.

    1987-09-01

    The authors created and applied an optical multichannel recorder with a PZS matrix detector for investigating the parameters of laser radiation. The instrument, called on OMR (optical multichannel recorder), records the spatial intensity distribution of a radiation pulse incident on the detector, memorizes it, reproduces it in the form of a semitone map on a television display, and outputs the signal intensity at any point, the intensity distribution over a given cross-section (line), and the integral over the cross section to a digital display.

  3. Nanofocusing beyond the near-field diffraction limit via plasmonic Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Maowen; Wang, Changtao; Zhao, Zeyu; Pu, Mingbo; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Wei; Yu, Honglin; Luo, Xiangang

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a great deal of optical systems designed for exceeding the Abbe's diffraction limit. Unfortunately, a deep subwavelength spot is obtained at the price of extremely short focal length, which is indeed a near-field diffraction limit that could rarely go beyond in the nanofocusing device. One method to mitigate such a problem is to set up a rapid oscillatory electromagnetic field that converges at the prescribed focus. However, abrupt modulation of phase and amplitude within a small fraction of a wavelength seems to be the main obstacle in the visible regime, aggravated by loss and plasmonic features that come into function. In this paper, we propose a periodically repeated ring-disk complementary structure to break the near-field diffraction limit via plasmonic Fano resonance, originating from the interference between the complex hybrid plasmon resonance and the continuum of propagating waves through the silver film. This plasmonic Fano resonance introduces a π phase jump in the adjacent channels and amplitude modulation to achieve radiationless electromagnetic interference. As a result, deep subwavelength spots as small as 0.0045λ2 at 36 nm above the silver film have been numerically demonstrated. This plate holds promise for nanolithography, subdiffraction imaging and microscopy.The past decade has witnessed a great deal of optical systems designed for exceeding the Abbe's diffraction limit. Unfortunately, a deep subwavelength spot is obtained at the price of extremely short focal length, which is indeed a near-field diffraction limit that could rarely go beyond in the nanofocusing device. One method to mitigate such a problem is to set up a rapid oscillatory electromagnetic field that converges at the prescribed focus. However, abrupt modulation of phase and amplitude within a small fraction of a wavelength seems to be the main obstacle in the visible regime, aggravated by loss and plasmonic features that come into function. In this

  4. A compact, short-pulse laser for near-field, range-gated imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.; Loubriel, G.M.; Yates, G.J.; Gallegos, R.A.; McDonald, T.E.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes a compact laser, which produces high power, wide-angle emission for a near-field, range-gated, imaging system. The optical pulses are produced by a 100 element laser diode array (LDA) which is pulsed with a GaAs, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS). The LDA generates 100 ps long, gain-switched, optical pulses at 904 nm when it is driven with 3 ns, 400 A, electrical pulses from a high gain PCSS. Gain switching is facilitated with this many lasers by using a low impedance circuit to drive an array of lasers, which are connected electrically in series. The total optical energy produced per pulse is 10 microjoules corresponding to a total peak power of 100 kW. The entire laser system, including prime power (a nine volt battery), pulse charging, PCSS, and LDA, is the size of a small, hand-held flashlight. System lifetime, which is presently limited by the high gain PCSS, is an active area of research and development. Present limitations and potential improvements will be discussed. The complete range-gated imaging system is based on complementary technologies: high speed optical gating with intensified charge coupled devices (ICCD) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and high gain, PCSS-driven LDAs developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The system is designed for use in highly scattering media such as turbid water or extremely dense fog or smoke. The short optical pulses from the laser and high speed gating of the ICCD are synchronized to eliminate the back-scattered light from outside the depth of the field of view (FOV) which may be as short as a few centimeters. A high speed photodiode can be used to trigger the intensifier gate and set the range-gated FOV precisely on the target. The ICCD and other aspects of the imaging system are discussed in a separate paper.

  5. Compact short-pulse laser for near-field range-gated imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zutavern, Fred J.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Yates, George J.; Gallegos, Robert A.; McDonald, Thomas E., Jr.

    1997-05-01

    This paper describes a compact laser, which produces high power, wide-angle emission for a near-field, range-gated, imaging system. The optical pulses are produced by a 100 element laser diode array (LDA) which is pulsed with a GaAs, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS). The LDA generates 100 ps long, gain-switched, optical pulses at 904 nm when it is driven with 3 ns, 400 A, electrical pulses from a high gain PCSS. Gain switching is facilitated with this many lasers by using a low impedance circuit to drive an array of lasers, which are connected electrically in series. The total optical energy produced per pulse is 100 microjoules corresponding to a total peak power of 100 kW. The entire laser system, including prime power (a nine volt battery), pulse charging, PCSS, and LDA, is the size of a small, hand-held flashlight, System lifetime, which is presently limited by the high gain PCSS, is an active area of research and development. Present limitations and potential improvements will be discussed. The complete range-gated imaging system is based on complementary technologies: high speed optical gating with intensified charge coupled devices (ICCD) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory and high gain, PCSS-driven LDAs developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The system is designed for use in highly scattering media such as turbid water or extremely dense fog or smoke. The short optical pulses from the laser and high speed gating of the ICCD are synchronized to eliminate the back-scattered light from outside the depth of the field of view (FOV) which may be as short as a few centimeters. A high speed photodiode can be used to trigger the intensifier gate and set the range-gated FOV precisely on the target. The ICCD and other aspects of the imaging system are discussed in a separate paper.

  6. The interaction of the near-field plasma with antennas used in magnetic fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, John

    2015-09-01

    Plasma heating and current drive using antennas in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF) are important elements for the success of magnetic fusion. The antennas must operate in a harsh environment, where local plasma densities can be >1018/m3, magnetic fields can range from 0.2-5 Tesla, and antenna operating voltages can be >40 kV. This environment creates operational issues due to the interaction of the near-field of the antenna with the local plasma. In addition to parasitic losses in this plasma region, voltage and current distributions on the antenna structure lead to the formation of high electric fields and RF plasma sheaths, which can lead to enhanced particle and energy fluxes on the antenna and on surfaces intersected by magnetic field lines connected to or passing near the antenna. These issues are being studied using a simple electrode structure and a single-strap antenna on the Prototype Materials Plasma EXperiment (Proto-MPEX) at ORNL, which is a linear plasma device that uses an electron Bernstein wave heated helicon plasma source to create a high-density plasma suitable for use in a plasma-material interaction test stand. Several diagnostics are being used to characterize the near-field interactions, including double-Langmuir probes, a retarding field energy analyzer, and optical emission spectroscopy. The RF electric field is being studied utilizing Dynamic Stark Effect spectroscopy and Doppler-Free Saturation Spectroscopy. Recent experimental results and future plans will be presented. ORNL is managed by UT-Battelle, LLC, for the U.S. DOE under Contract DE-AC-05-00OR22725.

  7. Discrete and continuum simulations of near-field ground motion from Source Physics Experiments (SPE) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; Vorobiev, O.; Herbold, E. B.; Glenn, L. A.; Antoun, T.

    2013-12-01

    This work is focused on analysis of near-field measurements (up to 100 m from the source) recorded during Source Physics Experiments in a granitic formation. One of the main goals of these experiments is to investigate the possible mechanisms of shear wave generation in the nonlinear source region. SPE experiments revealed significant tangential motion (up to 30 % of the magnitude in the radial direction) at many locations. Furthermore, azimuthal variations in radial velocities were also observed which cannot be generated by a spherical source in isotropic materials. Understanding the nature of this non-radial motion is important for discriminating between the natural seismicity and underground explosions signatures. Possible mechanisms leading to such motion include, but not limited to, heterogeneities in the rock such as joints, faults and geologic layers as well as surface topography and vertical motion at the surface caused by material spall and gravity. We have performed a three dimensional computational studies considering all these effects. Both discrete and continuum methods have been employed to model heterogeneities. In the discrete method, the joints and faults were represented by cohesive contact elements. This enables us to examine various friction laws at the joints which include softening, dilatancy, water saturation and rate-dependent friction. Yet this approach requires the mesh to be aligned with joints, which may present technical difficulties in three dimensions when multiple non-persistent joints are present. In addition, the discrete method is more computationally expensive. The continuum approach assumes that the joints are stiff and the dilatancy and shear softening can be neglected. In this approach, the joints are modeled as weakness planes within the material, which are imbedded into and pass through many finite elements. The advantage of this approach is that it requires neither sophisticated meshing algorithms nor contact detection

  8. Magnetic bearings for a spaceflight optical disk recorder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hockney, Richard; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hawkey, Timothy

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a magnetic bearing system for the translator of the read/write head in a magneto-optic disk drive are discussed. The asymmetrical three-pole actuators with permanent magnet bias support the optical head, and its tracking and focusing servos, through their radial excursion above the disk. The specifications for the magnetic bearing are presented, along with the configuration of the magnetic hardware. Development of a five degree of freedom collision model is examined which allowed assessment of the system response during large scale transients. Experimental findings and the results of performance testing are presented, including the roll-off of current-to-force due to eddy current loss in the magnetic materials.

  9. Prediction of sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data. Volume 1: Method and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, C. R.; Hague, D. S.; Reiners, S. J.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized procedure for predicting sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data has been developed. The procedure extrapolates near-field pressure signatures for a specified flight condition to the ground by the Thomas method. Near-field pressure signatures are interpolated from a data base of experimental pressure signatures. The program is an independently operated ODIN (Optimal Design Integration) program which obtains flight path information from other ODIN programs or from input.

  10. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using a time microscope

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2015-04-21

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  11. Phase-Sensitive Near Field Investigation of Bloch Surface Wave Propagation in Curved Waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Barakat, E.; Yu, L.; Sun, L.; Wang, J.; Tan, Q.; Herzig, H. P.

    2014-10-01

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are electromagnetic surface waves excited in the band gap of a one dimensional dielectric photonic crystal. They are confined at the interface of two media. Due to the use of dielectric material, the losses are very low, which allows the propagation of BSWs over long distances. Another advantage is the possibility of operating within a broad range of wavelengths. In this paper, we study and demonstrate the propagation of light in ultra-thin curved polymer waveguides having different radii fabricated on a BSWs sustaining multilayer. A phase-sensitive multi-parameter near-field optical measurement system (MH-SNOM), which combines heterodyne interferometry and SNOM, is used for the experimental characterization. Propagating properties, bending loss, mode conversion and admixture are investigated. We experimentally show that when light goes through the curved part of the waveguide, energy can be converted into different modes. The superposition and interference of different modes lead to a periodically alternating bright and dark beat phenomenon along the propagation direction. Experimental optical phase and amplitude distributions in the curved waveguide show a very good agreement with simulation results.

  12. Analysis of point fabrication model for near-field photolithography with experimental study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zone-Ching; Yang, Ching-Been

    2006-01-01

    For the Gaussian beam, the power density distribution of the aluminum-coated optical tapered fiber probe is discussed and a theoretical fixed-point fabrication model for near-field photolithography is established. The energy density theorem is used to explore the surface exposure of photoresist, which is divided into multiple grids to evaluate the changes in the concentration of photoactive compounds at specific nodes of the interior layer. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the contour of the photolithograph following development are then calculated. The fixed-point lithographic experiment and aperture verification of the optic fiber probe are performed to confirm the reliability of the present model, and Dill A, B, C parameters are first measured in this article. According to the experimental results, a better image of the probe aperture can be achieved by increasing the conductivity of the measured articles and reducing the electric charges during the image taken by field-emission scanning electron microscope. The FWHM measured is 166.6 nm, while the measured average probe aperture size is 317.4 nm and the FWHM simulated by the proposed model is 151.3 nm. The error between experiment and simulation is <-9.2%. It is thus concluded that the proposed theoretical model is reasonable and acceptable. PMID:16502624

  13. Phase resolved near-field imaging of propagating waves in infrared tapered slot antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florence, Louis A.; Kinzel, Edward C.; Olmon, Robert L.; Ginn, James C.; Raschke, Markus B.; Boreman, Glenn D.

    2012-11-01

    Tapered slot antennas (TSAs) consist of a planar non-resonant structure which couples incident radiation to a propagating waveguide mode. They are commonly used at microwave and radio frequencies because they are fundamentally broadband and have small profiles. Because of their planar layout and broadband response they have recently been scaled to infrared frequencies where they have advantages for sensing and energy harvesting. We use scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) to study the mode transformation of two types of TSA operating in the thermal infrared (λ0 = 10.6 μm) with respect to electric field amplitude and phase. The results agree well with simulation showing both the phase reversal across the tapered slot and the traveling of wave fronts along the tapered slot, yet they also reveal high sensitivity of device performance to inhomogeneities in the geometry or illumination. This study will aid future design and analysis of practical non-resonant antennas operating at optical and infrared frequencies.

  14. Graphene-Based Platform for Infrared Near-Field Nanospectroscopy of Water and Biological Materials in an Aqueous Environment.

    PubMed

    Khatib, Omar; Wood, Joshua D; McLeod, Alexander S; Goldflam, Michael D; Wagner, Martin; Damhorst, Gregory L; Koepke, Justin C; Doidge, Gregory P; Rangarajan, Aniruddh; Bashir, Rashid; Pop, Eric; Lyding, Joseph W; Thiemens, Mark H; Keilmann, Fritz; Basov, D N

    2015-08-25

    Scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) has emerged as a powerful nanoscale spectroscopic tool capable of characterizing individual biomacromolecules and molecular materials. However, applications of scattering-based near-field techniques in the infrared (IR) to native biosystems still await a solution of how to implement the required aqueous environment. In this work, we demonstrate an IR-compatible liquid cell architecture that enables near-field imaging and nanospectroscopy by taking advantage of the unique properties of graphene. Large-area graphene acts as an impermeable monolayer barrier that allows for nano-IR inspection of underlying molecular materials in liquid. Here, we use s-SNOM to investigate the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in water underneath graphene. We resolve individual virus particles and register the amide I and II bands of TMV at ca. 1520 and 1660 cm(-1), respectively, using nanoscale Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (nano-FTIR). We verify the presence of water in the graphene liquid cell by identifying a spectral feature associated with water absorption at 1610 cm(-1).

  15. A terahertz confocal microscope for far-field thermal radiation detection and near-field sub-wavelength imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Qianchun; Yang, Le; Xu, Jie; Qian, Qingbai; Yu, Haochi; Zhang, Bo; An, Zhenghua; Zhu, Ziqiang; Lu, Wei

    2015-11-01

    We present a novel scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope (s-SNOM) operating in the terahertz (THz) wavelength. A home-made ultra-high sensitive detector named charge sensitive infrared phototransistor (CSIP, detection wavelength ~15 μm) is equipped for spontaneous thermal radiation detection (external illumination should be avoided). Thermal emission from room-temperature objects is collected by a cassegrain objective lens placed above the sample, and focused to a pinhole (d=250 μm) which is kept in liquid-helium (LHe) temperature(4.2 K). With the background radiation from environment efficiently blocked by the low-temperature pinhole, the detector is only sensitive to the THz radiation from a small spot (~λ) on sample surface (the confocal point). As a result, thermal radiation spontaneously emitted by object itself is measured with an excellent spatial resolution of ~14 μm (diffraction-limit). For overcoming the diffraction limit by detecting the near-field evanescent waves, this THz microscope is combined with a home-built atomic-force microscope (AFM). With sharp AFM tip (<100 nm) scattering the evanescent waves with an improved tip-modulation method, we successfully obtained thermal near-field images with a spatial resolution of ~100 nm, which is already less than 1% of the detection wavelength (15 μm). This THz s-SNOM should be a powerful tool for various material research down to the nanometer scale.

  16. Method for ultrafast optical deflection enabling optical recording via serrated or graded light illumination

    DOEpatents

    Heebner, John E.

    2009-09-08

    In one general embodiment, a method for deflecting an optical signal input into a waveguide is provided. In operation, an optical input signal is propagated through a waveguide. Additionally, an optical control signal is applied to a mask positioned relative to the waveguide such that the application of the optical control signal to the mask is used to influence the optical input signal propagating in the waveguide. Furthermore, the deflected optical input signal output from the waveguide is detected in parallel on an array of detectors. In another general embodiment, a beam deflecting structure is provided for deflecting an optical signal input into a waveguide, the structure comprising at least one wave guiding layer for guiding an optical input signal and at least one masking layer including a pattern configured to influence characteristics of a material of the guiding layer when an optical control signal is passed through the masking layer in a direction of the guiding layer. In another general embodiment, a system is provided including a waveguide, an attenuating mask positioned on the waveguide, and an optical control source positioned to propagate pulsed laser light towards the attenuating mask and the waveguide such that a pattern of the attenuating mask is applied to the waveguide and material properties of at least a portion of the waveguide are influenced.

  17. Development of full color holographic optical element recorded on aspherical substrate with photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piao, Mei-Lan; Wu, Hui-Ying; Kim, Nam

    2014-11-01

    Holographic optical element (HOE) have classically been designed using grating theory, logically so, since an HOE is a grating produced on film by two interfering beams of coherent light. This paper describes the development of full color HOE recorded on aspherical substrate using a photopolymer. The reflection HOE was evaluated by measuring the diffraction efficiencies of holographic volume gratings recorded individually at 633 nm, 532 nm, and 473nm wavelengths. The spectral characterization of the HOE, recorded using a combined single beam, and recorded using sequential beam, was carried out. Practical methods for fabrication of high efficiency aspheric HOE by single layer photopolymer were developed.

  18. Detecting single DNA molecule interactions with optical microcavities (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Detecting molecules and their interactions lies at the heart of all biosensor devices, which have important applications in health, environmental monitoring and biomedicine. Achieving biosensing capability at the single molecule level is, moreover, a particularly important goal since single molecule biosensors would not only operate at the ultimate detection limit by resolving individual molecular interactions, but they could also monitor biomolecular properties which are otherwise obscured in ensemble measurements. For example, a single molecule biosensor could resolve the fleeting interaction kinetics between a molecule and its receptor, with immediate applications in clinical diagnostics. We have now developed a label-free biosensing platform that is capable of monitoring single DNA molecules and their interaction kinetics[1], hence achieving an unprecedented sensitivity in the optical domain, Figure 1. We resolve the specific contacts between complementary oligonucleotides, thereby detecting DNA strands with less than 2.4 kDa molecular weight. Furthermore we can discern strands with single nucleotide mismatches by monitoring their interaction kinetics. Our device utilizes small glass microspheres as optical transducers[1,2, 3], which are capable of increasing the number of interactions between a light beam and analyte molecules. A prism is used to couple the light beam into the microsphere. Ourr biosensing approach resolves the specific interaction kinetics between single DNA fragments. The optical transducer is assembled in a simple three-step protocol, and consists of a gold nanorod attached to a glass microsphere, where the surface of the nanorod is further modified with oligonucleotide receptors. The interaction kinetics of an oligonucleotide receptor with DNA fragments in the surrounding aqueous solution is monitored at the single molecule level[1]. The light remains confined inside the sphere where it is guided by total internal reflections along a

  19. Detecting single DNA molecule interactions with optical microcavities (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Detecting molecules and their interactions lies at the heart of all biosensor devices, which have important applications in health, environmental monitoring and biomedicine. Achieving biosensing capability at the single molecule level is, moreover, a particularly important goal since single molecule biosensors would not only operate at the ultimate detection limit by resolving individual molecular interactions, but they could also monitor biomolecular properties which are otherwise obscured in ensemble measurements. For example, a single molecule biosensor could resolve the fleeting interaction kinetics between a molecule and its receptor, with immediate applications in clinical diagnostics. We have now developed a label-free biosensing platform that is capable of monitoring single DNA molecules and their interaction kinetics[1], hence achieving an unprecedented sensitivity in the optical domain, Figure 1. We resolve the specific contacts between complementary oligonucleotides, thereby detecting DNA strands with less than 2.4 kDa molecular weight. Furthermore we can discern strands with single nucleotide mismatches by monitoring their interaction kinetics. Our device utilizes small glass microspheres as optical transducers[1,2, 3], which are capable of increasing the number of interactions between a light beam and analyte molecules. A prism is used to couple the light beam into the microsphere. Ourr biosensing approach resolves the specific interaction kinetics between single DNA fragments. The optical transducer is assembled in a simple three-step protocol, and consists of a gold nanorod attached to a glass microsphere, where the surface of the nanorod is further modified with oligonucleotide receptors. The interaction kinetics of an oligonucleotide receptor with DNA fragments in the surrounding aqueous solution is monitored at the single molecule level[1]. The light remains confined inside the sphere where it is guided by total internal reflections along a

  20. Analysis of near-field seismic waveforms from underground nuclear explosions. Technical report, 5 March-5 September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, J.S.; Burdick, L.J.; Wallace, T.C.

    1985-09-15

    The first part compares the Mueller Murphy and Helmberger Hadley source representations and investigate whether there are any features of the near-field observations that tend to favor one over the other. The scaling relations in the two formalisms are such that the spectra are virtually indistinguishable between 2 and 5 Hz. Although the Mueller Murphy source is too rich in high frequency energy, a moderately low Q value for the near-field crust can make it agree with the observations. In the second part, the vertical particle-velocity records for three nuclear explosions (DISCUS THROWER, MUDPACK and MERLIN) detonated in dry tuff of alluvium were modeled using generalized ray theory to determine the effective source functions. It was found that simple ray theory can be used to consistently predict the amplitude of the initial P wave for ranges greater than one depth of burial. At closer ranges the amplitudes are systematically overpredicted. Using the announced yields of the events, a scaling law was determined for source strength of nuclear explosions detonated in dry tuff or alluvium, and was used to predict the amplitudes from several other Yucca Flats events. The third part, introduces a method for the simultaneous inversion of near-field waveforms for source and structure parameters. The source may be parameterized by any of several effective source functions.

  1. Near-field measurements of vegetation by laser-induced fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowinska, Malgorzata; Cunin, Bernard; Deruyver, Aline; Heisel, Francine; Miehe, Joseph-Albert; Langsdorf, Gabriele; Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K.

    1999-12-01

    In this paper, a validation of a new UV-A laser-induced fluorescence imaging system implemented in an all-road car for near-field remote sensing of vegetation will be presented. It has been developed as a part of a European Community Program INTERREG II and is consisting of three main parts: excitation, detection and control units. The excitation source is a frequency tripled Nd:YAG laser and the laser spot size is adjusted via a variable beam expander. Fluorescence images are recorded at four characteristic fluorescence bands: 440, 520, 690 and 740 nm with a gated intensified digital CCD camera. The laser head and camera are situated on a directed in site and azimuth platform which can be high up to 6 meters. The platform positioning, localization and distance detection, spot size determination and adjustment, focus, sharpness, selection of the filter, laser and camera synchronization, gain of the intensifier, real time visualization of images, acquisition time are controlled by a newly developed software which allows also image storage, analysis and treatment. Examples of remote sensing fluorescence images from several plant species recorded at a distance of 10 - 30 m will be given and discussed further in this paper.

  2. Analysis and Simulation of Near-Field Ground Motions from the Source Physics Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoun, T. H.; Vorobiev, O.; Xu, H.; Herbold, E. B.; Glenn, L.; Lomov, I.

    2011-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) at the Nevada National Security Site is planned as a series of chemical explosions under a variety of emplacement conditions. The goal of the SPE is to improve our physical understanding and ability to model explosively generated seismic waves, particularly S-waves. The first SPE explosion (SPE1) consisted of a 100 kg shot at a depth of 60 meters in granite (Climax Stock). The shot was well-recorded by an array of over 150 instruments, including both near-field wave motion measurements as well as far-field seismic measurements. This paper focuses on measurements and modeling of the near-field data, which included triaxial acceleration measurements at eighteen different locations azimuthally distributed around the explosive charge. Three triaxial accelerometers were embedded in each of six vertical boreholes, distributed in two concentric rings around the charge. The inner ring consisted of three equidistant boreholes at a radius of 10 m from the charge, and the outer ring consisted of another three equidistant boreholes at a radius of 20 m. In each borehole, the accelerometers were vertically distributed at depths of 60 m (shot horizon), 50 m and 15 m. Surface accelerations were also recorded along a radial line centered at surface ground zero. A review of the SPE1 data shows that the peak radial velocity as a function of scaled range is consistent with previous nuclear explosion data but exhibits greater variability. The scaled peak radial displacement also exhibits greater variability but the mean values are significantly higher than exhibited in previous nuclear explosion data. These higher displacements were also observed in calculations performed with a constitutive model based on nuclear explosion data in hard rock, but employed a JWL equation of state for the ANFO explosive used in SPE1. The reason for this behavior is believed to be the higher effective ratio of specific heats in the explosion products of the chemical

  3. A novel ultrasonic clutch using near-field acoustic levitation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kuo-Tsi

    2004-10-01

    This paper investigates design, fabrication and drive of an ultrasonic clutch with two transducers. For the two transducers, one serving as a driving element of the clutch is connected to a driving shaft via a coupling, and the other serving as a slave element of the clutch is connected to a slave shaft via another coupling. The principle of ultrasonic levitation is first expressed. Then, a series-resonant inverter is used to generate AC voltages at input terminals of each transducer, and a speed measuring system with optic sensors is used to find the relationship between rotational speed of the slave shaft and applied voltage of each transducer. Moreover, contact surfaces of the two transducers are coupled by the frictional force when both the two transducers are not energized, and separated using the ultrasonic levitation when at least one of the two transducers is energized at high voltages at resonance. PMID:15358528

  4. Panel discussion on near-field coupled processes with emphasis on performance assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Codell, R.B.; Baca, R.G.; Ahola, M.P.

    1996-04-01

    The presentations in this panel discussion involve the general topic of near-field coupled processes and postclosure performance assessment with an emphasis on rock mechanics. The potential impact of near-field rock mass deformation on repository performance was discussed, as well as topics including long term excavation deterioration, the performance of geologic seals, and coupled processes concerning rock mechanics in performance assessments.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency with large delay-bandwidth product induced by magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin Liu, Si-yuan; Zhang, Hai-feng; Bian, Bo-rui; Kong, Xiang-kun; Wang, Shen-yun

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response with magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance. Six split-ring resonators and a cut wire are chosen as the bright and dark resonator, respectively. An EIT-like transmission peak located between two dips can be observed with incident magnetic field excitation. A large delay bandwidth product (0.39) is obtained, which has potential application in quantum optics and communications. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulated results.

  6. The feasibility of near-field ODR beam-size monitoring at 23 GeV at FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Yao, C.-Y.; Hogan, M.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.

    2011-03-01

    Extension of near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) imaging to the 23 GeV beams at the proposed FACET facility at SLAC has been evaluated. The beam-size sensitivity at the 10- to 20-{micro}m sigma level based on a simple model will be reported. Polarization effects are also seen to be important and will be discussed. The comparisons to previous experimental results and the modeling results indicate sufficient feasibility for planning of the experiments in the coming year.

  7. The Feasibility of Near-field ODR Beam-size Monitoring at 23 GeV at FACET

    SciTech Connect

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Yao, C.-Y.; Hogan, M.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.

    2012-06-01

    Extension of near-field optical diffraction radiation (ODR) imaging to the 23 GeV beams at the proposed FACET facility at SLAC has been evaluated. The beam-size sensitivity at the 10- to 20-{micro}m sigma level based on a simple model will be reported. Polarization effects are also seen to be important and will be discussed. The comparisons to previous experimental results and the modeling results indicate sufficient feasibility for planning of the experiments in the coming year.

  8. Influence of the set-up on the recording of diffractive optical elements into photopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallego, S.; Fernández, R.; Márquez, A.; Neipp, C.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2014-05-01

    Photopolymers are often used as a base of holographic memories displays. Recently the capacity of photopolymers to record diffractive optical elements (DOE's) has been demonstrated. To fabricate diffractive optical elements we use a hybrid setup that is composed by three different parts: LCD, optical system and the recording material. The DOE pattern is introduced by a liquid crystal display (LCD) working in the amplitude only mode to work as a master to project optically the DOE onto the recording material. The main advantage of this display is that permit us modify the DOE automatically, we use the electronics of the video projector to send the voltage to the pixels of the LCD. The LCD is used in the amplitude-mostly modulation regime by proper orientation of the external polarizers (P); then the pattern is imaged onto the material with an increased spatial frequency (a demagnifying factor of 2) by the optical system. The use of the LCD allows us to change DOE recorded in the photopolymer without moving any mechanical part of the set-up. A diaphragm is placed in the focal plane of the relay lens so as to eliminate the diffraction orders produced by the pixelation of the LCD. It can be expected that the final pattern imaged onto the recording material will be low filtered due to the finite aperture of the imaging system and especially due to the filtering process produced by the diaphragm. In this work we analyze the effect of the visibility achieved with the LCD and the high frequency cut-off due to the diaphragm in the final DOE recorded into the photopolymer. To simulate the recording we have used the fitted values parameters obtained for PVA/AA based photopolymers and the 3 dimensional models presented in previous works.

  9. Enhanced luminescence excitation via efficient optical energy transfer (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, Roy; Nomenyo, Komla D.; Bercu, Bogdan; Couteau, Christophe; Sallet, Vincent; Rogers, David J.; Molinari, Michael; Lérondel, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Luminescent nanoscale materials (LNMs) have received widespread interest in sensing and lighting applications due to their enhanced emissive properties. For sensing applications, LNMs offer improved sensitivity and fast response time which allow for lower limits of detection. Meanwhile, for lighting applications, LNMs, such as quantum dots, offer an improved internal quantum efficiency and controlled color rendering which allow for better lighting performances. Nevertheless, due to their nanometric dimensions, nanoscale materials suffer from extremely weak luminescence excitation (i.e. optical absorption) limiting their luminescence intensity, which in turn results in a downgrade in the limits of detection and external quantum efficiencies. Therefore, enhancing the luminescence excitation is a major issue for sensing and lighting applications. In this work, we report on a novel photonic approach to increase the luminescence excitation of nanoscale materials. Efficient luminescence excitation increase is achieved via a gain-assisted waveguided energy transfer (G-WET). The G-WET concept consists on placing nanoscale materials atop of a waveguiding active (i.e. luminescent) layer with optical gain. Efficient energy transfer is thus achieved by exciting the nanoscale material via the tail of the waveguided mode of the active layer emission. The G-WET concept is demonstrated on both a nanothin layer of fluorescent sensitive polymer and on CdSe/ZnS quantum dots coated on ZnO thin film, experimentally proving up to an 8-fold increase in the fluorescence of the polymer and a 3-fold increase in the luminescence of the CdSe/ZnS depending of the active layer emission regime (stimulated vs spontaneous emission). Furthermore, we will discuss on the extended G-WET concept which consists on coating nanoscale materials on a nanostructured active layer. The nanostructured active layer offers the necessary photonic modulation and a high specific surface which can presumably lead to

  10. Plasma-etched nanostructures for optical applications (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Ulrike; Rickelt, Friedrich; Munzert, Peter; Kaiser, Norbert

    2015-08-01

    A basic requirement for many optical applications is the reduction of Fresnel-reflections. Besides of interference coatings, nanostructures with sub-wavelength size as known from the eye of the night-flying moth can provide antireflective (AR) properties. The basic principle is to mix a material with air on a sub-wavelength scale to decrease the effective refractive index. To realize AR nanostructures on polymers, the self-organized formation of stochastically arranged antireflective structures using a low-pressure plasma etching process was studied. An advanced procedure involves the use of additional deposition of a thin oxide layer prior etching. A broad range of different structure morphologies exhibiting antireflective properties can be generated on almost all types of polymeric materials. For applications on glass, organic films are used as a transfer medium. Organic layers as thin film materials were evaluated to identify compounds suitable for forming nanostructures by plasma etching. The vapor deposition and etching of organic layers on glass offers a new possibility to achieve antireflective properties in a broad spectral range and for a wide range of light incidence.

  11. High-Speed Recording up to 15,000 rpm Using Thin Optical Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koide, Daiichi; Takano, Yoshimichi; Tokumaru, Haruki; Onagi, Nobuaki; Aman, Yasutomo; Murata, Shozo; Sugimoto, Yasunori; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    2008-07-01

    We propose a high-speed optical disk system using thin flexible optical disks (HS-FOD) recording up to 15,000 rpm. The thin optical disk system is composed of three technical elements: media employing a thin and flexible substrate 0.1 mm thick, a mechanical stabilizer, and a high-speed tracking servo employing a feed-forward control with zero phase error tracking (ZPET-FF control). The HS-FOD system has an optical head with numerical aperture (NA) of 0.85 and is compatible with the optical system of a Blu-ray disc or a broadcast-use optical disk. We have successfully performed disk rotation stably and have performed precisely a focus servo and a tracking servo at 15,000 rpm. We also achieved writing and reading data at 15,000 rpm and recording 252 Mbps of random pattern data and could get small values of jitter below the tolerance. These results are enough to record professional high-definition television (HDTV) video signals in formats such as HD-D5 for broadcast-use.

  12. Damage potential characteristics of near-field earthquake motions

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.; Chokshi, N.

    1997-04-01

    In recent major earthquakes; i.e., 1994 Northridge earthquake in the US and 1995 Great Kansai earthquake in Japan, several close-distance strong ground motions have been obtained, which may be of significant interest to earthquake/structural engineers. The damage potential of those recently obtained ground motions is examined based on the nonlinear response analyses of various SDOF systems. For comparison purposes, the El Centro records from the 1940 Imperial Valley earthquake, as well as a set of artificial motions consistent with the R.G. 1.60 spectrum were also used. The engineering insights regarding the seismic design of structures are discussed based on a series of parametric studies.

  13. Near field to far field transformations and multiple beam forming and steering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The feasibility of acoustic verification of microwave near field to far field transformation algorithms using the Phased Array Sonic Simulation System was studied. Existing electromagnetic near field measurement techniques and transformation algorithms (equations) were investigated. It was analytically determined that acoustic verification is valid. Acoustic simulation of electromagnetic near field to far field transformations is emphasized. The acoustic simulation of electromagnetic near field to far field transformation is verified for the modal expansion method. In the modal expansion method, data from antenna near field measurements are converted to a summation or spectrum of modes corresponding to wave numbers in the measurement coordinate system. Fourier transformation of those measurements preserves the far field information in a spectral form that is then readily extractable.

  14. Wireless Links in the Radiative Near Field via Bessel Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heebl, Jason D.; Ettorre, Mauro; Grbic, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    The generation of propagating Bessel beams is typically limited to optical frequencies with bulky experimental setups. Recent works have demonstrated Bessel-beam generation at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies utilizing low-profile, planar, leaky-wave antennas. These studies have assumed a single leaky mode in the antenna. In this work, the rigorous analysis of a planar Bessel-beam launcher supporting multiple modes is presented. By employing the mode-matching technique, a complete electromagnetic solution of the structure, its supported modes, and radiated fields is obtained. Additionally, a coupled system of two planar Bessel launchers is analyzed, and it is shown that the system can both transmit and receive Bessel beams. The energy-transfer characteristics of the coupled system are analyzed and discussed. An analysis of the coupled system's even and odd modes of operation show that efficient power transfer is possible, and that an odd mode is preferred since it yields higher field confinement and power-transfer efficiency.

  15. Electronic heterodyne recording and processing of optical holograms using phase modulated reference waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, A. J.; Pao, Y.-H.; Claspy, P. C.

    1978-01-01

    The use of a phase-modulated reference wave for the electronic heterodyne recording and processing of a hologram is described. Heterodyne recording is used to eliminate the self-interference terms of a hologram and to create a Leith-Upatnieks hologram with coaxial object and reference waves. Phase modulation is also shown to be the foundation of a multiple-view hologram system. When combined with hologram scale transformations, heterodyne recording is the key to general optical processing. Spatial filtering is treated as an example.

  16. Hamilton-Jacobi approach to photon wave mechanics: near-field aspects.

    PubMed

    Keller, O

    2008-02-01

    After having briefly reviewed the Hamilton-Jacobi theory of classical point-particle mechanics, its extension to the quantum regime and the formal identity between the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for Hamilton's characteristic function and the eikonal equation of geometrical optics, an eikonal theory for free photons is established. The space-time dynamics of the photon is described on the basis of the six-component Riemann-Silberstein energy wave function. Form-identical eikonal equations are obtained for the positive and negative helicity dynamics. Microscopic response theory is used to describe the linear photon-matter interaction. In the presence of matter the free-photon concept is replaced by a quasi-photon concept, and there is a quasi-photon for each of the two helicity states. After having established integro-differential equations for the wave functions of the two quasi-photons, the eikonal conditions for the quasi-photons are determined. It appears that the eikonal condition contains complicated space integrals of the gradient of the eikonal over volumes of near-field domain size. In these space integrals the dynamics of the electrons (matter particles) appears via transverse transition current densities between pairs of many-body states. Generalized microscopic polarization and magnetization fields are introduced to establish the connection between the quasi-photon and macroscopic eikonal theories. PMID:18304094

  17. Photonic crystal carpet: Manipulating wave fronts in the near field at 1.55 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, G.; Hofman, M.; Śmigaj, W.; Kadic, M.; Chang, T.-M.; Mélique, X.; Lippens, D.; Vanbésien, O.; Cluzel, B.; de Fornel, F.; Guenneau, S.; Gralak, B.

    2013-09-01

    Ground-plane cloaks, which transform a curved mirror into a flat one, and recently reported at wavelengths ranging from the optical to the visible spectrum, bring the realm of optical illusion a step closer to reality. However, all carpet-cloaking experiments have thus far been carried out in the far field. Here, we demonstrate numerically and experimentally that a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) of an irregular shape made of a honeycomb array of air holes can scatter waves in the near field like a PC with a flat boundary at stop band frequencies. This mirage effect relies upon a specific arrangement of dielectric pillars placed at the nodes of a quasiconformal grid dressing the PC. Our carpet is experimentally shown to flatten the scattered wave fronts of a PC with a bump throughout the range of wavelengths from 1520 to 1580 nm within the stop band extending from 1280 to 1940 nm. The device has been fabricated using a single-mask advanced nanoelectronics technique on III-V semiconductors and the near field measurements have been carried out in order to image the wave fronts’ curvatures around the telecommunication wavelength 1550 nm. Interestingly, comparisons of our near-field experimental results with full-wave simulations suggest the relatively low aspect ratio of the fabricated carpet (pillars have 200 nm diameter and 2 μm height) makes it inherently three dimensional. Moreover, this carpet is constrained to normal incidence. We therefore propose an elaborated design of the carpet (with pillars of varying radii) which should work at different angles of incidence.

  18. Integrated device for combined optical neuromodulation and electrical recording for chronic in vivo applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wagner, Fabien; Borton, David A.; Zhang, Jiayi; Ozden, Ilker; Burwell, Rebecca D.; Nurmikko, Arto V.; van Wagenen, Rick; Diester, Ilka; Deisseroth, Karl

    2012-02-01

    Studying brain function and its local circuit dynamics requires neural interfaces that can record and stimulate the brain with high spatiotemporal resolution. Optogenetics, a technique that genetically targets specific neurons to express light-sensitive channel proteins, provides the capability to control central nervous system neuronal activity in mammals with millisecond time precision. This technique enables precise optical stimulation of neurons and simultaneous monitoring of neural response by electrophysiological means, both in the vicinity of and distant to the stimulation site. We previously demonstrated, in vitro, the dual capability (optical delivery and electrical recording) while testing a novel hybrid device (optrode-MEA), which incorporates a tapered coaxial optical electrode (optrode) and a 100 element microelectrode array (MEA). Here we report a fully chronic implant of a new version of this device in ChR2-expressing rats, and demonstrate its use in freely moving animals over periods up to 8 months. In its present configuration, we show the device delivering optical excitation to a single cortical site while mapping the neural response from the surrounding 30 channels of the 6 × 6 element MEA, thereby enabling recording of optically modulated single-unit and local field potential activity across several millimeters of the neocortical landscape.

  19. Near-field radiative thermal control with graphene covered on different materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ao; Zheng, Zhiheng; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-09-01

    Based on the structure of double-layer parallel plates, this paper demonstrates that thermal radiation in near field is greatly enhanced due to near-field effects, exceeding Planck‧s blackbody radiation law. To study the effect of graphene on thermal radiation in near field, the authors add graphene layer into the structure and analyze the ability of graphene to control near-field thermal radiation with different materials. The result indicates that the graphene layer effectively suppresses the near-field thermal radiation between metal plates or polar-dielectric plates, having good ability of thermal insulation. But for doped-silicon plates, depending on the specific models, graphene has different control abilities, suppressing or enhancing, and the control abilities mainly depend on the material graphene is attached to. The authors also summarize some common rules about the different abilities of graphene to control the near-field thermal radiation. In consideration of the thickness of 0.34 nm of monolayer graphene, this paper points out that graphene plays a very important role in controlling the near-field thermal radiation.

  20. Evaluation of Near Field Atmospheric Dispersion Around Nuclear Facilities Using a Lorentzian Distribution Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkley, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric dispersion modeling within the near field of a nuclear facility typically applies a building wake correction to the Gaussian plume model, whereby a point source is modeled as a plane source. The plane source results in greater near field dilution and reduces the far field effluent concentration. However, the correction does not account for the concentration profile within the near field. Receptors of interest, such as the maximally exposed individual, may exist within the near field and thus the realm of building wake effects. Furthermore, release parameters and displacement characteristics may be unknown, particularly during upset conditions. Therefore, emphasis is placed upon the need to analyze and estimate an enveloping concentration profile within the near field of a release. This investigation included the analysis of 64 air samples collected over 128 wk. Variables of importance were then derived from the measurement data, and a methodology was developed that allowed for the estimation of Lorentzian-based dispersion coefficients along the lateral axis of the near field recirculation cavity; the development of recirculation cavity boundaries; and conservative evaluation of the associated concentration profile. The results evaluated the effectiveness of the Lorentzian distribution methodology for estimating near field releases and emphasized the need to place air-monitoring stations appropriately for complete concentration characterization. Additionally, the importance of the sampling period and operational conditions were discussed to balance operational feedback and the reporting of public dose.