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Sample records for near-stoichiometric lithium niobate

  1. The H+ related defects in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals investigated by domain reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wenbo; Kong, Yongfa; Shi, Lihong; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiaochun; Xu, Jingjun; Lou, Cibo; Liu, Hongde; Zhang, Wanlin; Zhang, Guangyin

    2004-07-01

    Domain reversal and heat treatment were carried out on near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals and H+ related defect structure of this crystal was studied through infrared absorption spectra. It is found that the position and halfwidth of some deconvoluted peaks of absorption band change apparently during domain reversal and heat treatment. According to these experimental results, a more suitable model about the location of Li-vacancy in LiNbO3 is introduced. In this model, the four Li vacancies, charge-compensating an anti-site Nb5+ ion (Nb4+Li), occupy two types of lattice positions: three of them at the nearest Li-sites Nb4+Li and the other one at a nearer Li-site above the same oxygen plane with Nb4+Li.

  2. The H+ related defects involved in domain reversal for both near-stoichiometric and heavily Mg-doped lithium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, W.; Kong, Y.; Shi, L.; Yao, J.; Chen, S.; Sun, L.; Zhao, D.; Xu, J.; Zhang, G.

    2005-02-01

    Domain reversal was performed on both near-stoichiometric and heavily Mg-doped lithium niobate crystals. H+ related defect structures in these two types of crystals were studied through the infrared absorption spectra. It is found that the intensity of some decomposed peaks of absorption band change apparently during domain reversal for near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals but not for heavily Mg-doped lithium niobate crystals. According to these experimental results, distinct models about H+ related defect structure in LiNbO3 lattice were supposed for them. Nb4+Li and Mg3-Nb were considered as the centers of H+ related defect complex for near-stoichiometric and heavily Mg-doped lithium niobate crystals respectively. Different behavior of them was used to explain the difference of infrared absorption spectra during domain reversal between two types of crystals.

  3. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, C.H.; Graham, R.A.; Kuehn, S.F.; Precit, R.R.; Rogers, M.S.

    1990-01-09

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier. 8 figs.

  4. Lithium niobate explosion monitor

    DOEpatents

    Bundy, Charles H.; Graham, Robert A.; Kuehn, Stephen F.; Precit, Richard R.; Rogers, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring explosive devices is accomplished with a substantially z-cut lithium niobate crystal in abutment with the explosive device. Upon impact by a shock wave from detonation of the explosive device, the crystal emits a current pulse prior to destruction of the crystal. The current pulse is detected by a current viewing transformer and recorded as a function of time in nanoseconds. In order to self-check the crystal, the crystal has a chromium film resistor deposited thereon which may be heated by a current pulse prior to detonation. This generates a charge which is detected by a charge amplifier.

  5. Optical properties and ferroelectric engineering of vapor-transport-equilibrated, near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate for frequency conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum, D. S.; Route, R. K.; Miller, G. D.; Kondilenko, V.; Alexandrovski, A.; Huang, J.; Urbanek, K.; Byer, R. L.; Fejer, M. M.

    2007-05-01

    Near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate (SLT) crystals were produced from congruent lithium tantalate by vapor transport equilibration, and several important optical and ferroelectric properties were measured. The effect of vapor transport conditions and surface preparation on reproducible ferroelectric engineering of SLT has been studied. Control of these effects along with dramatic decreases in the sensitivity to photorefractive damage and 532 nm absorption has allowed near-room-temperature generation of 10 W of continuous wave 532 nm radiation by second harmonic generation from 29 W of 1064 nm radiation in a 4 cm long device.

  6. Growth and photorefractive properties of Mg, Fe co-doped near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, W. T.; Chen, Z. B.; You, C. A.; Huang, S. W.; Liu, J. P.; Lan, C. W.

    2010-07-01

    Mg, Fe co-doped near-stoichiometric lithium tantalate (SLT) crystals were successfully grown by the zone-leveling Czochralski (ZLCz) technique and the holographic properties were measured by the two-beam coupling method. The fundamental optical properties of crystals were measured by employing the UV-vis-NIR spectrometer and Fourier transformation infrared spectrophotometer as well. By the chemical analysis, the Li/Ta, Mg/Ta and Fe/Ta ratios of the crystals were obtained and the Li/Ta ratios of the crystals were all close to the theoretical limitation of 0.98. In the holographic properties, the recording time constant, erasing time constant, dynamic range, and sensitivity decreased with light intensity; but the maximum diffraction efficiency showed an opposite trend. Furthermore, the diffraction efficiency, dynamic range and sensitivity of the crystals were improved with a relatively higher Fe/Ta ratio. In comparison with Mn-LT crystals, the Mg, Fe co-doped SLT crystal showed the superior photorefractive properties indicating that it could be a promising new material for lifetime holographic data storage.

  7. Optical storage in lithium niobate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphonse, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Holographic storage and retrieval using photorefractive media (electro-optic ferroelectric materials), particularly iron-doped lithium niobate with its enhanced sensitivity, are discussed. Refractive index changes induced by exposure to light render the materials useful for read-write memories and read-write memory simulation. Resolution, dark storage time, write and erase times, reversibility, and noise levels of the materials are examined. The laser source, deflection system, hololens, page composer, and detector array of the holographic memory system are described. High SNR and two orders of magnitude improvement in speed are reported over earlier experimental prototypes, but the system is still too slow to meet practical needs.

  8. Reduced Dimensionality Lithium Niobate Microsystems

    SciTech Connect

    Eichenfield, Matt

    2017-01-01

    The following report describes work performed under the LDRD program at Sandia National Laboratories October 2014 and September 2016. The work presented demonstrates the ability of Sandia Labs to develop state-of-the-art photonic devices based on thin film lithium niobate (LiNbO3 ). Section 1 provides an introduction to integrated LiNbO3 devices and motivation for developing thin film nonlinear optical systems. Section 2 describes the design, fabrication, and photonic performance of thin film optical microdisks fabricated from bulk LiNbO3 using a bulk implantation method developed at Sandia. Sections 3 and 4 describe the development of similar thin film LiNbO3 structures fabricated from LiNbO3 on insulator (LNOI) substrates and our demonstration of optical frequency conversion with state-of-the-art efficiency. Finally, Section 5 describes similar microdisk resonators fabricated from LNOI wafers with a buried metal layer, in which we demonstrate electro-optic modulation.

  9. Optical properties of lithium niobate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palatnikov, M. N.; Sidorov, N. V.; Biryukova, I. V.; Kalinnikov, V. T.; Bormanis, K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies of thermal and -irradiation effects on the optical properties in congruous lithium niobate single crystals containing Y, Mg, Gd, B, and Zn dopants including samples with double dopants Y, Mg and Gd, Mg are reported. Formation of defects at irradiation and thermal treatment of the samples is explored by electron absorption spectra. Considerable increase of absorption with the dose of -radiation is observed at 500 nm. The changes of absorption examined under different conditions are explained by creation and destruction of Nb4+ defects.

  10. The photorefractive characteristics of bismuth-oxide doped lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Dahuai; Yao, Jiaying; Kong, Yongfa; Liu, Shiguo; Zhang, Ling; Chen, Shaolin; Xu, Jingjun

    2015-01-15

    Bismuth-doped lithium niobate (LN:Bi) crystals were grown by Czochralski method and their optical damage resistance, photorefraction, absorption spectra, and defect energy levels were investigated. The experimental results indicate that the photorefractive properties of LN:Bi were enhanced as compared with congruent one, the photorefractive response time was greatly shortened, the photorefractive sensitivity was increased, and the diffraction efficiency of near-stoichiometric LN:Bi (SLN:Bi) reached 31.72% and 49.08% at 532 nm and 488 nm laser, respectively (light intensity of 400 mW/cm{sup 2}). An absorption peak at about 350 nm was observed in the absorption spectrum of LN:Bi. And the defect energy levels simulation indicates new defect levels appear in the forbidden gap of LN:Bi crystals. Therefore bismuth can act as photorefractive centers in LN crystals.

  11. Quantum photonics at telecom wavelengths based on lithium niobate waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alibart, Olivier; D'Auria, Virginia; De Micheli, Marc; Doutre, Florent; Kaiser, Florian; Labonté, Laurent; Lunghi, Tommaso; Picholle, Éric; Tanzilli, Sébastien

    2016-10-01

    Integrated optical components on lithium niobate play a major role in standard high-speed communication systems. Over the last two decades, after the birth and positioning of quantum information science, lithium niobate waveguide architectures have emerged as one of the key platforms for enabling photonics quantum technologies. Due to mature technological processes for waveguide structure integration, as well as inherent and efficient properties for nonlinear optical effects, lithium niobate devices are nowadays at the heart of many photon-pair or triplet sources, single-photon detectors, coherent wavelength-conversion interfaces, and quantum memories. Consequently, they find applications in advanced and complex quantum communication systems, where compactness, stability, efficiency, and interconnectability with other guided-wave technologies are required. In this review paper, we first introduce the material aspects of lithium niobate, and subsequently discuss all of the above mentioned quantum components, ranging from standard photon-pair sources to more complex and advanced circuits.

  12. Study of multiple hologram recording in lithium niobate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaylord, T. K.; Callen, W. R.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a number of theoretical and experimental studies relating to multiple hologram recording in lithium niobate are reported. The analysis of holographic gratings stored in lithium niobate has been extended to cover a more realistic range of physical situations. A new successful dynamic (feedback) theory for describing recording, nondestructive reading, erasure, enhancement, and angular sensitivity has been developed. In addition, the possible architectures of mass data storage systems have been studied.

  13. Two-wave mixing of ion-implanted photorefractive waveguides in near-stoichiometric Fe:LiNbO 3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Baogang; Chen, Feng; Tan, Yang; Kip, Detlef

    2011-04-01

    We report on the two-wave mixing of light in photorefractive waveguides in H ion-implanted Fe-doped near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals. For pump light of 632.8 nm wavelength a gain coefficient as high as 15 cm -1 is found. A response time of the order of a few seconds is achieved for micro-watt input powers.

  14. Nonlinear diffusion model for annealed proton-exchanged waveguides in zirconium-doped lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Langrock, Carsten; Roussev, Rostislav V; Nava, Giovanni; Minzioni, Paolo; Argiolas, Nicola; Sada, Cinzia; Fejer, Martin M

    2016-08-20

    Photorefractive-damage- (PRD) resistant zirconium-oxide-doped lithium niobate is investigated as a substrate for the realization of annealed proton-exchanged (APE) waveguides. Its advantages are a favorable distribution coefficient, PRD resistance comparable to magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate, and a proton-diffusion behavior resembling congruent lithium niobate. A 1D model for APE waveguides was developed based on a previous model for congruently melting lithium niobate. Evidence for a nonlinear index dependence on concentration was found.

  15. Two-Color Holography in Lithium Niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarlane, R.; Guenther, H.; Furukawa, Y.; Kitamura, L.

    The development of a really satisfactory recording material for holographic data storage applications remains perhaps the most important barrier to practical implementation of the technology [1]. As discussed in the chapter entitled "Media Requirement for Digital Holographic Data Storage," the ideal material must simultaneously possess many properties such as good sensitivity, large dynamic range, long data retention times and excellent optical quality. In addition the material must be stable under repeated read cycles. This is easier to achieve in write-once-read-many (WORM) storage systems, since the material can be permanently deactivated after the writing process. In this application, irreversible chemical modification such as photochromism, photopolyrnerization etc. can be used. For reversible media the situtation is more difficult because the "fixing" process must be reversible, allowing rewriting immediately after an earlier recording or reading step. The requirement of reversibility often makes it more difficult to achieve long dark data retention times. Three main schemes for providing nondestructive readout in reversible photorefractive media have been proposed. The first was thermal fixing in lithium niobate [2,3], where a copy of the stored index gratings is made by thermally activating proton diffusion, which creates an optically stable complementary proton grating.

  16. Lithium niobate ultrasonic transducer design for Enhanced Oil Recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenjun; Xu, Yuanming; Gu, Yuting

    2015-11-01

    Due to the strong piezoelectric effect possessed by lithium niobate, a new idea that uses lithium niobate to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for Enhanced Oil Recovery technology is proposed. The purpose of this paper is to lay the foundation for the further research and development of high-power ultrasonic oil production technique. The main contents of this paper are as follows: firstly, structure design technique and application of a new high-power ultrasonic transducer are introduced; secondly, the experiment for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil by this transducer is done, the optimum ultrasonic parameters for reducing the viscosity of super heavy oil are given. Experimental results show that heavy large molecules in super heavy oil can be cracked into light hydrocarbon substances under strong cavitation effect caused by high-intensity ultrasonic wave. Experiment proves that it is indeed feasible to design high-power ultrasonic transducer for ultrasonic oil production technology using lithium niobate.

  17. Ferroelectric domain engineering and micro-structuring of lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailis, Sakellaris

    2010-11-01

    This paper discusses a number of recently developed all optical and optically assisted methods for ferroelectric domain engineering in lithium niobate and their impact on the micro-structuring of this optical ferroelectric crystal. Optical radiation is used to change the response of lithium niobate crystals to externally applied electric field encouraging or inhibiting ferroelectric domain inversion in a simultaneous or latent manner. Optically assisted poling processes have the advantage of producing ferroelectric domains with arbitrary shapes free from crystal symmetry restrictions which is very important for fabricating surface micro/nano-structures in this material.

  18. Precise, reproducible nano-domain engineering in lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Boes, Andreas Sivan, Vijay; Ren, Guanghui; Yudistira, Didit; Mitchell, Arnan; Mailis, Sakellaris; Soergel, Elisabeth

    2015-07-13

    We present a technique for domain engineering the surface of lithium niobate crystals with features as small as 100 nm. A film of chromium (Cr) is deposited on the lithium niobate surface and patterned using electron beam lithography and lift-off and then irradiated with a wide diameter beam of intense visible laser light. The regions patterned with chromium are domain inverted while the uncoated regions are not affected by the irradiation. With the ability to realize nanoscale surface domains, this technique could offer an avenue for fabrication of nano-photonic and phononic devices.

  19. Point imperfections and clusters of intrinsic and extrinsic defects in non-stoichiometric and stoichiometric lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malovichko, G.; Grachev, V.; Kokanyan, E.; Schirmer, O.

    The results of our investigations of different kinds of defects in lithium niobate crystals are summarized in this report. Randomly distributed intrinsic point imperfections are dominating in conventional congruent crystals. This leads to a perturbation of the surroundings of optically or acoustically active impurities and to a broadening of their spectral lines. The great narrowing of resonance lines in nearly stoichiometric samples increases the spectral resolution sufficiently to allow the study of even non-controlled trace impurities and satellite centers, consisting of the impurity and intrinsic defects. The disappearance of satellite centers and the appearance of new centers due to the change of charge compensation mechanism was discovered in stoichiometric crystals. The quantitative characterization of the degree of crystal perfection, a definition of regularly ordered crystal and the necessity of the re-investigation of physical properties for perfect samples are discussed.

  20. Micro- and nano-domain engineering in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Shur, V. Ya.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Baturin, I. S.

    2015-12-15

    The physical basis of the domain engineering in ferroelectrics and its application to lithium niobate crystals were reviewed. The unified kinetic approach to the domain structure evolution in electric field was formulated and its validity for understanding the variety of observed domain evolution scenarios was demonstrated. The kinetics and statics of the domain structure in the crystals of lithium niobate family including congruent, stoichiometric, and MgO doped ones have been discussed. The main stages of the periodical poling process and related problems have been pointed out. The basic poling techniques applied for creation of the periodical domain structures in bulk crystals and waveguides were compared. The recent applications of the periodically poled lithium niobate for light frequency conversion using second harmonic generation and optical parametric oscillation, excitation of the surface acoustic waves, and generation of terahertz radiation have been discussed. The special attention has been paid for achievements in fabrication of high-power optical parametric oscillation and integrated optical devices with periodically poled lithium niobate. The future trends in periodical poling and development of the nanodomain engineering which will allow to create the nanoscale domain patterns necessary for utilization of the new nonlinear interactions were reviewed.

  1. Study of multiple hologram recording in lithium niobate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaylord, T. K.; Callen, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The results of detailed experimental and theoretical considerations relating to multiple hologram recording in lithium niobate are reported. The following problem areas are identified and discussed: (1) the angular selectivity of the stored holograms, (2) interference effects due to the crystal surfaces, (3) beam divergence effects, (4) material recording sensitivity, and (5) scattered light from material inhomogeneities.

  2. Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    We develop a chip-scale cavity optomechanical system in single-crystal lithium niobate that exhibits high optical quality factors and a large frequency-quality product as high as 3.6 × 1012 Hz at room temperature and atmosphere. The excellent optical and mechanical properties together with the strong optomechanical coupling allow us to efficiently excite the coherent regenerative optomechanical oscillation operating at 375 MHz with a threshold power of 174 μW in the air. The demonstrated lithium niobate optomechanical device enables great potential for achieving electro-optic-mechanical hybrid systems for broad applications in sensing, metrology, and quantum physics. PMID:27841301

  3. Chip-scale cavity optomechanics in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wei C.; Lin, Qiang

    2016-11-01

    We develop a chip-scale cavity optomechanical system in single-crystal lithium niobate that exhibits high optical quality factors and a large frequency-quality product as high as 3.6 × 1012 Hz at room temperature and atmosphere. The excellent optical and mechanical properties together with the strong optomechanical coupling allow us to efficiently excite the coherent regenerative optomechanical oscillation operating at 375 MHz with a threshold power of 174 μW in the air. The demonstrated lithium niobate optomechanical device enables great potential for achieving electro-optic-mechanical hybrid systems for broad applications in sensing, metrology, and quantum physics.

  4. Optical waveguides in lithium niobate: Recent developments and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bazzan, Marco Sada, Cinzia

    2015-12-15

    The state of the art of optical waveguide fabrication in lithium niobate is reviewed, with particular emphasis on new technologies and recent applications. The attention is mainly devoted to recently developed fabrication methods, such as femtosecond laser writing, ion implantation, and smart cut waveguides as well as to the realization of waveguides with tailored functionalities, such as photorefractive or domain engineered structures. More exotic systems, such as reconfigurable and photorefractive soliton waveguides, are also considered. Classical techniques, such as Ti in-diffusion and proton exchange, are cited and briefly reviewed as a reference standpoint to highlight the recent developments. In all cases, the application-oriented point of view is preferred, in order to provide the reader with an up-to date panorama of the vast possibilities offered by lithium niobate to integrated photonics.

  5. Liquid crystal deposition on poled, single crystalline lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharath, S. C.; Pimputkar, K. R.; Pronschinske, A. M.; Pearl, T. P.

    2008-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanisms for molecular organization at poled ferroelectric surfaces, single crystalline lithium niobate (LN), 'Z-cut' along the (0 0 0 1) plane, has been prepared and characterized and subsequently exposed to liquid crystal molecules. As a model system we chose to study the anchoring of 4- n-octyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl (8CB) to LN. Liquid crystalline films are of interest because of their useful electronic and optical properties as well as chemical sensing attributes. Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), atomic force microscopy (AFM), surface contact angle measurements (CA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surface of lithium niobate as well as the nature of 8CB films grown on the surface. Atomically flat LN surfaces were prepared as a support for monolayer thick, 8CB molecular domains. 8CB liquid crystal molecules were deposited by an ambient vaporization technique and the films were analyzed using XPS and CA. Understanding electrostatic anchoring mechanisms and thin film organization for this molecule on uniformly poled surfaces allows for a fuller appreciation of how molecular deposition of other polarizable molecules on periodically poled and patterned poled lithium niobate surfaces would occur.

  6. Neutron depth profiling study of lithium niobate optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolářova, P.; Vacík, J.; Špirková-Hradilová, J.; Červená, J.

    1998-05-01

    The relation between optical properties and the structure of proton exchanged and annealed proton exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate was studied using the mode spectroscopy and neutron depth profiling methods. We have found a close correlation between the lithium depletion and the depth profile of the extraordinary refractive index. The form of the observed dependence between Li depletion and refractive index depends on the fabrication procedure by which the waveguide was prepared but it is highly reproducible for specimens prepared by the same procedure.

  7. A Novel Inter Core-Cladding Lithium Niobate Thin Film Coated Fiber Modulator/Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamison, Tracee L.; Komriech, Phillip; Yu, Chung

    2004-01-01

    A fiber modulator/sensor has been fabricated by depositing a lithium niobate sol-gel thin film between the core and cladding of a fiber preform. The preform is then drawn into 125 micron fiber. The proposed design of lithium niobate cylinder fibers can enhance the existing methodology for detecting sound waves under water utilizing the acoustooptic properties of lithium niobate. Upon application of a stress or strain, light propagating inside the core, according to the principle of total internal reflection, escapes, into the cladding because of the photoelastic boundary layer of lithium niobate. Test results of the lithium niobate fiber reveal a reduction in the 1550 nm, 4mW source with applied tension. The source power from an ordinary quartz fiber under the same stress condition remained invariant to applied tension.

  8. Er + medium energy ion implantation into lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svecova, B.; Nekvindova, P.; Mackova, A.; Oswald, J.; Vacik, J.; Grötzschel, R.; Spirkova, J.

    2009-05-01

    Erbium-doped lithium niobate (Er:LiNbO3) is a prospective photonics component, operating at 1.5 μm, which could find its use chiefly as an optical amplifier or waveguide laser. In this study, we have focused on the properties of the optically active Er:LiNbO3 layers, which are fabricated by medium energy ion implantation under various experimental conditions. Erbium ions were implanted at energies of 330 and 500 keV with fluences of 1.0 × 1015, 2.5 × 1015 and 1.0 × 1016 cm-2 into LiNbO3 single-crystalline cuts of various orientations. The as-implanted samples were annealed in air at 350 °C for 5 h. The depth distribution and diffusion profiles of the implanted Er were measured by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) using 2 MeV He+ ions. The projected range RP and projected range straggling ΔRP were calculated employing the SRIM code. The damage distribution and structural changes were described using the RBS/channelling method. Changes of the lithium concentration depth distribution were studied by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). The photoluminescence spectra of the samples were measured to determine whether the emission was in the desired region of 1.5 μm. The obtained data made it possible to reveal the relations between the structural changes of erbium-implanted lithium niobate and its luminescence properties important for photonics applications.

  9. Lithium niobate single-crystal and photo-functional device

    DOEpatents

    Gopalan, Venkatraman; Mitchell, Terrence E.; Kitamura, Kenji; Furukawa, Yasunori

    2001-01-01

    Provided are lithium niobate single-crystal that requires a low voltage of not larger than 10 kV/nm for its ferroelectric polarization inversion and of which the polarization can be periodically inverted with accuracy even at such a low voltage, and a photo-functional device comprising the crystal. The crystal has a molar fraction of Li.sub.2 O/(Nb.sub.2 O.sub.5 +Li.sub.2 O) of falling between 0.49 and 0.52. The photo-functional device can convert a laser ray being incident thereon.

  10. Anisotropic diffraction of bulk acoustic wave beams in lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Natalya F; Chizhikov, Sergey I; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya; Yushkov, Konstantin B

    2015-12-01

    The formalism of planar diffraction tensor was applied to the analysis of anisotropy of bulk acoustic wave diffraction and to build a full map of anisotropic diffractional coefficients for three bulk acoustic wave modes propagating in lithium niobate. For arbitrary propagation direction the diffractional coefficients derived allow estimation of ultrasonic beam divergence in far-field. Analysis of obtained data revealed that the maxima of acousto-optic figure of merit for anisotropic diffraction in the YZ plane correspond to moderate diffractional spreading of the beams exceeding isotropic diffraction 2-3 times.

  11. Surface Acoustic Wave Non-Linear Interactions in Lithium Niobate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    X and Y, Z lithium niobate were investigated for two different angles of interaction. The mixed frequency was at least 8. 5 dB weaker than the...Introduction ............................ 165 5.2 Results for Y,Z LiNb0 3 with w1/w,22.6o ........................ 0............ 166 5.3 Results for 38, X ...LiNbO 3 with 11/w20.41 .................................... 173 *5.14 Results for 38, X LiNbO3 with (-1/’ 2 2.44 .. . . . ...... .. .. ...... 179 i Vi

  12. Stoichiometric Lithium Niobate (SLN) Based Linearized Electro-Optic (EO) Modulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    AFRL-SN-RS-TR-2006-15 Final Technical Report January 2006 STOICHIOMETRIC LITHIUM NIOBATE (SLN) BASED LINEARIZED ELECTRO - OPTIC (EO...LITHIUM NIOBATE (SLN) BASED LINEARIZED ELECTRO - OPTIC (EO) MODULATOR 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr Stuart Kingsley, Dr Sri Sriram 5. FUNDING NUMBERS C...SUBJECT TERMS electro - optic modulator, linearization, directional coupler, variable coupling, optical waveguide, Mach-Zehnder, photonic link, lithium

  13. Tunable Bloch surface waves in anisotropic photonic crystals based on lithium niobate thin films.

    PubMed

    Kovalevich, Tatiana; Ndao, Abdoulaye; Suarez, Miguel; Tumenas, Saulius; Balevicius, Zigmas; Ramanavicius, Arunas; Baleviciute, Ieva; Häyrinen, Markus; Roussey, Matthieu; Kuittinen, Markku; Grosjean, Thierry; Bernal, Maria-Pilar

    2016-12-01

    We present an original type of one-dimensional photonic crystal that includes one anisotropic layer made of a lithium niobate thin film. We demonstrate the versatility of such a device sustaining different Bloch surface waves (BSWs), depending on the orientation of the incident wave. By varying the orientation of the illumination of the multilayer, we measured an angle variation of 7° between the BSWs corresponding to the extraordinary and the ordinary index of the lithium niobate thin film. The potential of such a platform opens the way to novel tunable and active planar optics based on the electro- and thermo-optical properties of lithium niobate.

  14. Novel intercore-cladding lithium niobate thin film coated MOEMS fiber sensor/modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jamlson, Tracee L.; Konreich, Phillip; Yu, Chung

    2005-01-01

    A MOEMS fiber modulator/sensor is fabricated by depositing a lithium niobate sol-gel thin film between the core and cladding of a fiber preform. The preform is then drawn into 125-micron fibers. Such a MOEMS modulator design is expected to enhance existing lithium niobate undersea acousto-optic sound wave detectors. In our proposed version, the lithium niobate thin film alters the ordinary silica core/cladding boundary conditions such that, when a stress or strain is applied to the fiber, the core light confinement factor changes, leading to modulation of fiber light transmission. Test results of the lithium niobate embedded fiber with a 1550-nm, 4-mW laser source revealed a reduction in light transmission with applied tension. As a comparison, using the same laser source, an ordinary silica core/cladding fiber did not exhibit any reduction in transmitted light when the same strain was applied. Further experimental work and theoretical analysis is ongoing.

  15. Direct-writing of inverted domains in lithium niobate using a continuous wave ultra violet laser.

    PubMed

    Muir, A C; Sones, C L; Mailis, S; Eason, R W; Jungk, T; Hoffman, A; Soergel, E

    2008-02-18

    The inversion of ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate by a scanning focused ultra-violet laser beam (lambda = 244 nm) is demonstrated. The resulting domain patterns are interrogated using piezoresponse force microscopy and by chemical etching in hydrofluoric acid. Direct ultra-violet laser poling was observed in un-doped congruent, iron doped congruent and titanium in-diffused congruent lithium niobate single crystals. A model is proposed to explain the mechanism of domain inversion.

  16. Polarization entangled cluster state generation in a lithium niobate chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szep, Attila; Kim, Richard; Shin, Eunsung; Fanto, Michael L.; Osman, Joseph; Alsing, Paul M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a design of a quantum information processing C-phase (Controlled-phase) gate applicable for generating cluster states that has a form of integrated photonic circuits assembled with cascaded directional couplers on a Ti in-diffused Lithium Niobate (Ti-LN) platform where directional couplers as the integrated optical analogue of bulk beam splitters are used as fundamental building blocks. Based on experimentally optimized fabrication parameters of Ti-LN optical waveguides operating at an 810nm wavelength, an integrated Ti-LN quantum C-phase gate is designed and simulated. Our proposed C-phase gate consists of three tunable directional couplers cascaded together with having different weighted switching ratios for providing a tool of routing vertically- and horizontally-polarized photons independently. Its operation mechanism relies on selectively controlling the optical coupling of orthogonally polarized modes via the change in the index of refraction, and its operation is confirmed by the BPM simulation.

  17. Tailoring entanglement through domain engineering in a lithium niobate waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Yang; Tan, Ai-Hong; Wu, Zi-Jian; Chen, Zhao-Xian; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    We propose to integrate the electro-optic (EO) tuning function into on-chip domain engineered lithium niobate (LN) waveguide. Due to the versatility of LN, both the spontaneously parametric down conversion (SPDC) and EO interaction could be realized simultaneously. Photon pairs are generated through SPDC, and the formation of entangled state is modulated by EO processes. An EO tunable polarization-entangled photon state is proposed. Orthogonally-polarized and parallel-polarized entanglements of photon pairs are instantly switchable by tuning the applied field. The characteristics of the source are theoretically investigated showing adjustable bandwidths and high entanglement degrees. Moreover, other kinds of reconfigurable entanglement are also achievable based on suitable domain-design. We believe tailoring entanglement based on domain engineering is a very promising solution for next generation function-integrated quantum circuits. PMID:24770555

  18. Growth, defect structure, and THz application of stoichiometric lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengyel, K.; Péter, Á.; Kovács, L.; Corradi, G.; Pálfalvi, L.; Hebling, J.; Unferdorben, M.; Dravecz, G.; Hajdara, I.; Szaller, Zs.; Polgár, K.

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the extraordinary richness of its physical properties, congruent lithium niobate has attracted multidecade-long interest both for fundamental science and applications. The combination of ferro-, pyro-, and piezoelectric properties with large electro-optic, acousto-optic, and photoelastic coefficients as well as the strong photorefractive and photovoltaic effects offers a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components in high energy laser applications, tailoring of key material parameters, especially stoichiometry, is required. This paper reviews the state of the art of growing large stoichiometric LiNbO3 (sLN) crystals, in particular, the defect engineering of pure and doped sLN with emphasis on optical damage resistant (ODR) dopants (e.g., Mg, Zn, In, Sc, Hf, Zr, Sn). The discussion is focused on crystals grown by the high temperature top seeded solution growth (HTTSSG) technique using alkali oxide fluxing agents. Based on high-temperature phase equilibria studies of the Li2O-Nb2O5-X2O ternary systems (X = Na, K, Rb, Cs), the impact of alkali homologue additives on the stoichiometry of the lithium niobate phase will be analyzed, together with a summary of the ultraviolet, infrared, and far-infrared absorption spectroscopic methods developed to characterize the composition of the crystals. It will be shown that using HTTSSG from K2O containing flux, crystals closest to the stoichiometric composition can be grown characterized by a UV-edge position of at about 302 nm and a single narrow hydroxyl band in the IR with a linewidth of less than 3 cm-1 at 300 K. The threshold concentrations for ODR dopants depend on crystal stoichiometry and the valence of the dopants; Raman spectra, hydroxyl vibration spectra, and Z-scan measurements prove to be useful to distinguish crystals below and above the photorefractive threshold. Crystals just above the threshold are preferred for most nonlinear optical applications apart

  19. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Laser damage resistance of a lithium niobate-tantalate bicrystal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skvortsov, L. A.; Stepantsov, E. S.

    1993-11-01

    The laser damage resistance of a bicrystal system prepared by solid-phase diffusive joining of specially prepared crystals of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate has been studied. This has been the first such study. The damage resistance of the interface is at least twice that of the lithium niobate surface. The damage resistance of the bicrystal is determined by the damage resistance of the lithium tantalate surface and is greater than 600 MW/cm2.

  20. Acoustic spectroscopy of lithium niobate: Elastic and piezoelectric coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogi, Hirotsugu; Kawasaki, Yasunori; Hirao, Masahiko; Ledbetter, Hassel

    2002-09-01

    We report simultaneous measurement of the complete set of elastic and piezoelectric coefficients of lithium niobate (LiNbO3), which has trigonal crystal symmetry (3m point group) and thus six independent elastic-stiffness coefficients Cij, four piezoelectric coefficients eij, and two dielectric coefficients kappaij. We used a single specimen: an oriented rectangular parallelepiped about 5 mm in size. Our measurement method, acoustic spectroscopy, focuses on the crystal's macroscopic resonance frequencies and is sensitive to any property that affects those frequencies. We overcame the principal obstacle to precise measurements--mode misidentification--by using laser-Doppler interferometry to detect the displacement distribution on a vibrating surface. This approach yields unambiguous mode identification. We used 56 resonances ranging in frequency from 0.3 to 1.2 MHz and determined the Cij and eij with known kappaij. The ten unknowns always converged to the same values even with unreasonable initial guesses. The Cij uncertainty averages 0.09% for the diagonal Cij. The eij uncertainty averages 5%. All our coefficients fall within the (surprisingly wide) error limits of previous (conventional) measurements.

  1. Acoustic wave filter based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Courjon, Emilie; Bassignot, Florent; Ulliac, Gwenn; Benchabane, Sarah; Ballandras, Sylvain

    2012-09-01

    Solutions for the development of compact RF passive transducers as an alternative to standard surface or bulk acoustic wave devices are receiving increasing interest. This article presents results on the development of an acoustic band-pass filter based on periodically poled ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate. The fabrication of periodically poled transducers (PPTs) operating in the range of 20 to 650 MHz has been achieved on 3-in (76.2-mm) 500-μm-thick wafers. This kind of transducer is able to excite elliptical as well as longitudinal modes, yielding phase velocities of about 3800 and 6500 ms(-1), respectively. A new type of acoustic band-pass filter is proposed, based on the use of PPTs instead of the SAWs excited by classical interdigital transducers. The design and the fabrication of such a filter are presented, as well as experimental measurements of its electrical response and transfer function. The feasibility of such a PPT-based filter is thereby demonstrated and the limitations of this method are discussed.

  2. Generation of ionizing radiation from lithium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlikov, L. N.; Orlikov, N. L.; Arestov, S. I.; Mambetova, K. M.; Shandarov, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    The work done experimentally explores generation of electron and x-ray radiation in the process of heating and cooling monolithic and iron-doped crystals of lithium niobate. Iron doping to the concentrations in the range of 1023 m3 was carried out by adding ferric oxide into the melt during the process of crystal growth. The research into radiation generation was performed at 1-10 Pa. The speed of heating from -10 to 1070 C was 10-20 degrees a minute. Current pulses appeared at 17, 38, 56, 94, 98, 100, 105, 106, 1070 C with the interval of 1-3 minutes. The obtained electron current increased in direct proportion to the crystal surface area. The maximum current was 3mA at the design voltage 11 kV on the crystal with 14,5x10,5x10 mm3 surface area. The article describes the possibility to control the start of generation by introducing priming pulse. The results achieved are explained by the domain repolarization while heating the crystal and the appearance of electric field local strength. Bias and overcharge currents contribute to the appearance of electric strength, which stimulates breakdown and plasma formation. X-ray radiation appears both at the stage of discharge formation and during electron deceleration on gas and target material.

  3. Diamond micro-milling of lithium niobate for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Dehong; Jie Choong, Zi; Shi, Yilun; Hedley, John; Zhao, Yan

    2016-09-01

    Lithium niobate (LiNbO3) is a crystalline material which is widely applied in surface acoustic wave, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and optical devices, owing to its superior physical, optical, and electronic properties. Due to its low toughness and chemical inactivity, LiNbO3 is considered to be a hard-to-machine material and has been traditionally left as as an inert substrate upon which other micro structures are deposited. However, in order to make use of its superior material properties and increase efficiency, the fabrication of microstructures directly on LiNbO3 is in high demand. This paper presents an experimental investigation on the micro machinability of LiNbO3 via micro milling with the aim of obtaining optimal process parameters. Machining of micro slots was performed on Z-cut LiNbO3 wafers using single crystal diamond tools. Surface and edge quality, cutting forces, and the crystallographic effect were examined and characterized. Ductile mode machining of LiNbO3 was found to be feasible at a low feed rate and small depth of cut. A strong crystallographic effect on the machined surface quality was also observed. Finally, some LiNbO3 micro components applicable to sensing applications were fabricated.

  4. Determining the sign of a polar surface of lithium niobate crystal by UV reflectance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranin, V. D.; Pantelei, E.

    2017-01-01

    We propose to reveal the + Z and- Z surfaces of a polar cut lithium niobate crystal by measuring its UV reflection spectrum. By the example of a congruent lithium niobate, it is shown that the intensities of light reflection from polar crystal surfaces of different signs in the region of 190—260 nm differ by up to several percent. The depth of short-wave radiation penetration into surface layers of the crystal in the spectral range of intrinsic absorption is estimated. It is shown that the proposed method can be used for determining the surface signs of polar crystal layers with thicknesses from several dozen to several hundred microns.

  5. Demonstration of ultraprecision ductile-mode cutting for lithium niobate microring waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, Ryo; Higurashi, Eiji; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Asano, Tanemasa

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the application of the ultraprecision ductile-mode cutting method to the fabrication of microring waveguides in lithium niobate crystal was investigated. Although it was difficult to apply a mechanical cutting method to the fabrication of microring waveguides with smooth sidewalls, it was confirmed that no harmful cutting traces on the machined surface occur with the appropriate movement of the cutting tool. The root-mean-square surface roughness of the resulting sidewall was 6.1 nm, which is sufficiently small to suppress the scattering loss of the circulating light. In addition, the conditions for the ductile-mode cutting of lithium niobate crystal were investigated.

  6. Fundamental investigations of ultrashort-pulse micromachining of different types of crystalline lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolze, M.; Herrmann, T.; L'huillier, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Characteristics by laser micromachining of congruent, stoichiometric and doped lithium niobate by using ultrashort laser pulses with different wavelengths from ultraviolet up to infrared were investigated. The ablation thresholds were determined in dependence of c+-side and accordingly c--side. The strong impact of crystal orientation by micromachining lithium niobate will be additionally shown by the use of a high pulse repetition rate of 1000 kHz. Furthermore, we demonstrate the advantage of processing smooth ridges with high-repetition UV picosecond laser-pulses in combination of post-processing thermal annealing and a low-loss ridge waveguide in congruent LiNbO3 will be demonstrated.

  7. Efficient second harmonic generation in χ(2) profile reconfigured lithium niobate thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Lutong; Wang, Yiwen; Hu, Hui

    2017-03-01

    Second harmonic wave was efficiently generated in proton exchanged lithium niobate thin film channel waveguides. Modal dispersion phase matching was achieved between two guided modes at pump and second-harmonic wavelengths with the same polarization, enabling using the largest second-order nonlinear component d33. The χ(2) profile in the lithium niobate thin film was reconfigured by proton exchange, leading to significantly enhanced modal overlap integral between the interacting modes. Normalized conversion efficiency up to 48% W-1 cm-2 was achieved in experiments.

  8. Tunable dual-wavelength filter and its group delay dispersion in domain-engineered lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Guang-hao; Song, Jing; Ruan, Ya-ping; Cui, Guo-xin; Lu, Yan-qing

    2016-12-01

    A tunable dual-wavelength filter is experimentally demonstrated in domain-engineered lithium niobate. Application of an electric field on the y-surfaces of the sample results in the optical axes rotating clockwise and anticlockwise, which makes selective polarization rotation. The quasi phase-matching wavelengths could be adjusted through suitable domain design. A unique dual valley spectrum is obtained in a periodically poled lithium niobate structure with a central defect if the sample is placed between two parallel polarizers. The expected bandwidth could be varied from ˜1 nm to ˜40 nm. Moreover, both the spectral response and group delay dispersion could be engineered.

  9. Growth, defect structure, and THz application of stoichiometric lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Lengyel, K.; Péter, Á.; Kovács, L.; Corradi, G.; Dravecz, G.; Hajdara, I.; Szaller, Zs.; Polgár, K.; Pálfalvi, L.; Unferdorben, M.; Hebling, J.

    2015-12-15

    Owing to the extraordinary richness of its physical properties, congruent lithium niobate has attracted multidecade-long interest both for fundamental science and applications. The combination of ferro-, pyro-, and piezoelectric properties with large electro-optic, acousto-optic, and photoelastic coefficients as well as the strong photorefractive and photovoltaic effects offers a great potential for applications in modern optics. To provide powerful optical components in high energy laser applications, tailoring of key material parameters, especially stoichiometry, is required. This paper reviews the state of the art of growing large stoichiometric LiNbO{sub 3} (sLN) crystals, in particular, the defect engineering of pure and doped sLN with emphasis on optical damage resistant (ODR) dopants (e.g., Mg, Zn, In, Sc, Hf, Zr, Sn). The discussion is focused on crystals grown by the high temperature top seeded solution growth (HTTSSG) technique using alkali oxide fluxing agents. Based on high-temperature phase equilibria studies of the Li{sub 2}O–Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}–X{sub 2}O ternary systems (X = Na, K, Rb, Cs), the impact of alkali homologue additives on the stoichiometry of the lithium niobate phase will be analyzed, together with a summary of the ultraviolet, infrared, and far-infrared absorption spectroscopic methods developed to characterize the composition of the crystals. It will be shown that using HTTSSG from K{sub 2}O containing flux, crystals closest to the stoichiometric composition can be grown characterized by a UV-edge position of at about 302 nm and a single narrow hydroxyl band in the IR with a linewidth of less than 3 cm{sup −1} at 300 K. The threshold concentrations for ODR dopants depend on crystal stoichiometry and the valence of the dopants; Raman spectra, hydroxyl vibration spectra, and Z-scan measurements prove to be useful to distinguish crystals below and above the photorefractive threshold. Crystals just above the threshold are

  10. Ridge Waveguide Structures in Magnesium-Doped Lithium Niobate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmer, Phillip; Battle, Philip; Suckow, William; Switzer, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes to establish the feasibility of fabricating isolated ridge waveguides in 5% MgO:LN. Ridge waveguides in MgO:LN will significantly improve power handling and conversion efficiency, increase photonic component integration, and be well suited to spacebased applications. The key innovation in this effort is to combine recently available large, high-photorefractive-damage-threshold, z-cut 5% MgO:LN with novel ridge fabrication techniques to achieve high-optical power, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of frequency conversion structures. The proposed ridge waveguide structure should maintain the characteristics of the periodically poled bulk substrate, allowing for the efficient frequency conversion typical of waveguides and the high optical damage threshold and long lifetimes typical of the 5% doped bulk substrate. The low cost and large area of 5% MgO:LN wafers, and the improved performance of the proposed ridge waveguide structure, will enhance existing measurement capabilities as well as reduce the resources required to achieve high-performance specifications. The purpose of the ridge waveguides in MgO:LN is to provide platform technology that will improve optical power handling and conversion efficiency compared to existing waveguide technology. The proposed ridge waveguide is produced using standard microfabrication techniques. The approach is enabled by recent advances in inductively coupled plasma etchers and chemical mechanical planarization techniques. In conjunction with wafer bonding, this fabrication methodology can be used to create arbitrarily shaped waveguides allowing complex optical circuits to be engineered in nonlinear optical materials such as magnesium doped lithium niobate. Researchers here have identified NLO (nonlinear optical) ridge waveguide structures as having suitable value to be the leading frequency conversion structures. Its value is based on having the low-cost fabrication necessary to satisfy the challenging pricing

  11. Surface acoustic wave generation and detection using graphene interdigitated transducers on lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Mayorov, A. S.; Hunter, N.; Muchenje, W.; Wood, C. D.; Rosamond, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Davies, A. G.; Cunningham, J. E.

    2014-02-24

    We demonstrate the feasibility of using graphene as a conductive electrode for the generation and detection of surface acoustic waves at 100 s of MHz on a lithium niobate substrate. The graphene interdigitated transducers (IDTs) show sensitivity to doping and temperature, and the characteristics of the IDTs are discussed in the context of a lossy transmission line model.

  12. Investigations on crystalline structure and optical band gap of nearly stoichiometric LiNbO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, C.; Kar, S.; Verma, S.; Bartwal, K. S.

    2014-11-01

    The structural and optical characteristics of nearly stoichiometric lithium niobate, LiNbO3 nanoparticles have been studied. The results are very different compared to the bulk LiNbO3 single crystals. The nanoparticles were synthesized by citrate gel method and the phase was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction. The size and size distribution of the nanoparticles were obtained by XRD, SEM, TEM and DLS experiments. The particles were in the range of 50-200 nm and most of the particles are about 100 nm of size. The lattice parameters obtained from selected area electron diffraction are aH = 5.213 Å and cH = 14.026 Å for hexagonal system which are slightly larger than the other reported values (JCPDS). The optical properties were obtained from optical absorption spectroscopy in UV-vis.-NIR and IR (FTIR) range, the electronic band gap structure were determined from the fundamental absorption edge in the UV region. The indirect band gap was of 4.78 eV where as the direct gap was of 6.0 eV which are much larger than the other experimental values. The absorption features in the UV range indicate the discrete nature of conduction band and the allowed energy levels in the forbidden gap appeared due to surface defects.

  13. Acoustically determined linear piezoelectric response of lithium niobate up to 1100 V

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2014-04-21

    We present a method to measure high voltages using the piezoelectric crystal lithium niobate without using voltage dividers. A 36° Y-X cut lithium niobate crystal was coupled to two acoustic transducers, where direct current voltages were applied from 128–1100 V. The time-of-flight through the crystal was determined to be linearly dependent on the applied voltage. A model was developed to predict the time-delay in response to the applied voltage. The results show a sensitivity of 17 fs/V with a measurement error of 1 fs/V was achievable using this method. The sensitivity of this method can be increased by measuring the acoustic wave after multiple passes through the crystal. This method has many advantages over traditional techniques such as: favorable scalability for larger voltages, ease of use, cost effectiveness, and compactness.

  14. Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Steffen; Rensberg, Jura; Johannes, Andreas; Thomae, Rainer; Smit, Frederick; Neveling, Retief; Moodley, Mathew; Bierschenk, Thomas; Rodriguez, Matias; Afra, Boshra; Hasan, Shakeeb Bin; Rockstuhl, Carsten; Ridgway, Mark; Bharuth-Ram, Krish; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Spherical silver nanoparticles were prepared by means of ion beam synthesis in lithium niobate. The embedded nanoparticles were then irradiated with energetic 84Kr and 197Au ions, resulting in different electronic energy losses between 8.1 and 27.5 keV nm-1 in the top layer of the samples. Due to the high electronic energy losses of the irradiating ions, molten ion tracks are formed inside the lithium niobate in which the elongated Ag nanoparticles are formed. This process is strongly dependent on the initial particle size and leads to a broad aspect ratio distribution. Extinction spectra of the samples feature the extinction maximum with shoulders on either side. While the maximum is caused by numerous remaining spherical nanoparticles, the shoulders can be attributed to elongated particles. The latter could be verified by COMSOL simulations. The extinction spectra are thus a superposition of the spectra of all individual particles.

  15. Fano resonance-based highly sensitive, compact temperature sensor on thin film lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wentao; Ndao, Abdoulaye; Vila, Venancio Calero; Salut, Roland; Courjal, Nadège; Baida, Fadi Issam; Bernal, Maria-Pilar

    2016-03-15

    In this Letter, we report a Fano resonance-based highly sensitive and compact temperature sensor fabricated on thin film lithium niobate (TFLN) Suzuki phase lattice (SPL) photonic crystal. The experimental sensitivity is estimated to be 0.77 nm/°C with a photonic crystal size of only 25  μm × 24  μm. This sensitivity is 38 times larger than the intrinsic one of lithium niobate which is 0.02 nm/°C. The demonstrated sharp and high extinction ratio characteristics of the Fano lineshape resonance could be an excellent candidate in developing a high sensitivity temperature sensor, electric field sensor, etc.

  16. Interdomain region in single-crystal lithium niobate bimorph actuators produced by light annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kubasov, I. V. Timshina, M. S.; Kiselev, D. A.; Malinkovich, M. D.; Bykov, A. S.; Parkhomenko, Yu. N.

    2015-09-15

    The interdomain region of a bidomain strucrture formed in 127°-cut lithium niobate single crystals using light annealing has been studied by optical and scanning probe microscopies. A periodic subdomain structure on the 180° macrodomain wall is visualized by piezoresponse force microscopy. The piezoresponse signal (polarization) is shown to be a power-law function of the domain width with an exponent n = 0.53.

  17. Dependence of effective internal field of congruent lithium niobate on its domain configuration and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Das, Ranjit E-mail: souvik2cat@gmail.com Ghosh, Souvik E-mail: souvik2cat@gmail.com Chakraborty, Rajib E-mail: souvik2cat@gmail.com

    2014-06-28

    Congruent lithium niobate is characterized by its internal field, which arises due to defect clusters within the crystal. Here, it is shown experimentally that this internal field is a function of the molecular configuration in a particular domain and also on the stability of that particular configuration. The measurements of internal field are done using interferometric technique, while the variation of domain configuration is brought about by room temperature high voltage electric field poling.

  18. Development of a new pulsed source for photoacoustic imaging based on aperiodically poled lithium niobate

    PubMed Central

    Yankelevich, Diego; González, J. E.; Cudney, Roger S.; Ríos, Luis A.; Marcu, Laura

    2014-01-01

    We present the development of a source of deep-red radiation for photoacoustic imaging. This source, which is based on two cascaded wavelength conversion processes in aperiodically poled lithium niobate, emits 10 nanosecond pulses of over 500 µJ at 710 nm. Photoacoustic images were obtained from phantoms designed to mimic the optical and acoustic properties of oral tissue. Results indicate this device is a viable source of optical pulses for photoacoustic applications. PMID:24575341

  19. Graphene Based Surface Plasmon Polariton Modulator Controlled by Ferroelectric Domains in Lithium Niobate

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhao, Hua; Hu, Guangwei; Li, Siren; Su, Hang; Zhang, Jingwen

    2015-01-01

    We proposed a ferroelectric domain controlled graphene based surface plasmon polariton modulator. Ferroelectricity-induced electronic and optical property tuning of graphene by domain in lithium niobate was theoretically investigated considering both interband and intraband contributions of surface conductivity. With the corrected Sellmeier equation of lithium niobate, the propagation of transverse magnetic mode surface plasmon polaritons in an air/graphene/lithium niobate structure was studied when monolayer graphene was tuned by down polarization direction ferroelectric domain with different polarization levels. The length of the ferroelectric domain was optimized to be 90 nm for a wavelength of 5.0 μm with signal extinction per unit 14.7 dB/μm, modulation depth 474.1 dB/μm and figure of merit 32.5. This work may promote the study of highly efficient modulators and other ultra-compact nonvolatile electronic and photonic devices in which two-dimensional materials and ferroelectric materials are combined. PMID:26657622

  20. III-nitride integration on ferroelectric materials of lithium niobate by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namkoong, Gon; Lee, Kyoung-Keun; Madison, Shannon M.; Henderson, Walter; Ralph, Stephen E.; Doolittle, W. Alan

    2005-10-01

    Integration of III-nitride electrical devices on the ferroelectric material lithium niobate (LiNbO3) has been demonstrated. As a ferroelectric material, lithium niobate has a polarization which may provide excellent control of the polarity of III-nitrides. However, while high temperature, 1000°C, thermal treatments produce atomically smooth surfaces, improving adhesion of GaN epitaxial layers on lithium niobate, repolarization of the substrate in local domains occurs. These effects result in multi domains of mixed polarization in LiNbO3, producing inversion domains in subsequent GaN epilayers. However, it is found that AlN buffer layers suppress inversion domains of III-nitrides. Therefore, two-dimensional electron gases in AlGaN /GaN heterojunction structures are obtained. Herein, the demonstration of the monolithic integration of high power devices with ferroelectric materials presents possibilities to control LiNbO3 modulators on compact optoelectronic/electronic chips.

  1. Volumetric integration of photorefractive micromodifications in lithium niobate with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paipulas, D.; Mizeikis, V.; Purlys, V.; ČerkauskaitÄ--, A.; Juodkazis, S.

    2015-03-01

    After the discovery that focused laser pulse is capable to locally change material's refractive index it became possible to integrate various photonic devices or data directly into the volume of transparent material, usually with conventional Direct Laser Writing (DLW) techniques. Many different photonic devices, passive or active, integrated in different materials were demonstrated. In majority of cased the change in refractive index comes from rearrangement (damage) of materials' lattice and are permanent. Metastable (reversible) modification can be beneficial for some applications and these could be realized in photorefractive crystals such as lithium niobate. While photorefractive data recording is a well studied process in holographic applications, the photorefractive induction via femtosecond laser pulses is scarcely investigated. in this work we demonstrate the possibility to form discrete regions for homogeneously-altered refractive index in bulk of pure and iron doped lithium niobate crystals using femtosecond DLW technique. We shoe that non-linear free charge generation and charge separation caused by the bulk photovoltaic effect are the main contributing factors to the change in refractive index. Moreover, femtosecond pulse induced refractive index change can be by an order of magnitude higher than values reached with longer laser pulses. Femtosecond DLW opens opportunities for precise control of topological charge separation in lithium niobate crystals in volume and in micrometer scale. Various examples as well as strategies to control and manipulate refractive index change is presented and discussed.

  2. Annealed proton exchanged optical waveguides in lithium niobate: differences between the X- and Z-cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekvindová, Pavla; Špirková, Jarmila; Červená, Jarmila; Budnar, Milos; Razpet, Alenka; Zorko, Benjamin; Pelicon, Primož

    2002-04-01

    This article summarizes results and assessments of our systematic fabrication and characterization of proton exchanged (PE) and annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguides study in lithium niobate. This study focused on different behavior of crystallographically diverse X(1 1 2¯ 0) and Z(0 0 0 1) substrate cuts during waveguides fabrication, and differences in characteristics of the resulting waveguides. Non-toxic adipic acid was used as a proton source, and the waveguides properties were defined by a mode spectroscopy (waveguides characteristics) and neutron depth profiling (NDP, lithium concentration and distribution), infrared vibration spectra and elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA, concentration and depth distribution of hydrogen). It was discovered that the X-cuts structure is more permeable for moving particles (lithium and hydrogen ions), which leads to a higher effectiveness of the PE process within the X-cut. The explanation of this phenomenon is based on the fitting X-cuts orientation towards cleavage planes of lithium niobate crystal. Higher content of interstitial hydrogen in the X-cuts then prevents lithium from free movement during the post-exchange annealing in direction to the surface of samples, and so causes a typical step-like shape of the depth concentration profiles of lithium within the X-cuts. A free transport of lithium within the Z-cuts is being reflected in a gradient shape of the lithium depth concentration profiles and extraordinary refractive index, as well the last but not least, in a trouble-free good reproducibility of the waveguides fabrication within the Z-cuts.

  3. When Halides Come to Lithium Niobate Nanopowders Purity and Morphology Assistance.

    PubMed

    Lamouroux, Emmanuel; Badie, Laurent; Miska, Patrice; Fort, Yves

    2016-03-07

    The preparation of pure lithium niobate nanopowders was carried out by a matrix-mediated synthesis approach. Lithium hydroxide and niobium pentachloride were used as precursors. The influence of the chemical environment was studied by adding lithium halide (LiCl or LiBr). After thermal treatment of the precursor mixture at 550 °C for 30 min, the morphology of the products was obtained from transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering, whereas the crystallinity and phase purity were characterized by X-ray diffraction and UV-visible and Raman spectroscopies. Our results point out that the chemical environment during lithium niobate formation at 550 °C influences the final morphology. Moreover, direct and indirect band-gap energies have been determined from UV-visible spectroscopy. Their values for the direct-band-gap energies range from 3.97 to 4.36 eV with a slight dependence on the Li/Nb ratio, whereas for the indirect-band-gap energies, the value appears to be independent of this ratio and is 3.64 eV. No dependence of the band-gap energies on the average crystallite and nanoparticle sizes is observed.

  4. The combination methodic of diffusion and implantation technologies for creating optic wave-guided layers in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlikov, L. N.; Orlikov, N. L.; Arestov, S. I.; Mambetova, K. M.; Shandarov, S. M.

    2015-04-01

    The implantation of copper into Lithium Niobate in the prohibited crystal zone forms a definite energetic level for optic transits. This paper examines conditions of optic wave-guided layers formation on Niobate Lithium due to the method of implantation copper ions with the next diffusion. Reflect Spectrum in consequences implantation is extended. The transfer of the optical power from the primary beam into the another beam was discovered and in reverse. Photo galvanic characteristics of implantation specimen identity of crystal by traditional technology and doping CuO manufacture.

  5. 1-3 connectivity composite material made from lithium niobate and cement for ultrasonic condition monitoring at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, G; Cochran, A; Kirk, K J; McNab, A

    2002-05-01

    We have designed, manufactured and tested a piezoelectric composite material to operate at temperatures above 400 degrees C. The material is a 1-3 connectivity composite with pillars of Z-cut lithium niobate in a matrix of alumina cement. The composite material produced shorter pulses than a monolithic plate of lithium niobate and remained intact upon cooling. Results are presented from room temperature and high temperature testing. This material could be bonded permanently to a test object, making it possible to carry out condition monitoring over an extended period. A new excitation method was also developed to enable remote switching between array elements.

  6. Design of optical seven-segment decoder using Pockel's effect inside lithium niobate-based waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    Seven-segment decoder is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs optically, having 11 Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) for their implementation. The layout of the circuit is implemented to fit the electrical method on an optical logic circuit based on the beam propagation method (BPM). Seven-segment decoder is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium niobate-based MZIs. MZI structures are able to switch an optical signal to a desired output port. It consists of a mathematical explanation about the proposed device. The BPM is also used to analyze the study.

  7. Compensating thermal drift of hybrid silicon and lithium niobate ring resonances.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Wood, Michael G; Reano, Ronald M

    2015-04-01

    We present low-power compensation of thermal drift of resonance wavelengths in hybrid silicon and lithium niobate ring resonators based on the linear electro-optic effect. Fabricated devices demonstrate a resonance wavelength tunability of 12.5  pm/V and a tuning range of 1 nm. A capacitive geometry and low thermal sensitivity result in the compensation of 17°C of temperature variation using tuning powers at sub-nanowatt levels. The method establishes a route for stabilizing high-quality factor resonators in chip-scale integrated photonics subject to temperature variations.

  8. Optical 1's and 2's complement devices using lithium-niobate-based waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep

    2016-12-01

    Optical 1's and 2's complement devices are proposed with the help of lithium-niobate-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers. It has a powerful capability of switching an optical signal from one port to the other port with the help of an electrical control signal. The paper includes the optical conversion scheme using sets of optical switches. 2's complement is common in computer systems and is used in binary subtraction and logical manipulation. The operation of the circuits is studied theoretically and analyzed through numerical simulations. The truth table of these complement methods is verified with the beam propagation method and MATLAB® simulation results.

  9. Laser scattering induced holograms in lithium niobate. [observation of diffraction cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnusson, R.; Gaylord, T. K.

    1974-01-01

    A 3.0-mm thick poled single crystal of lithium niobate doped with 0.1 mole% iron was exposed to a single beam and then to two intersecting beams of an argon ion laser operating at 515-nm wavelength. Laser scattering induced holograms were thus written and analyzed. The presence of diffraction cones was observed and is shown to result from the internally recorded interference pattern resulting from the interference of the original incident laser beam with light scattered from material inhomogeneities. This phenomenon is analyzed using Ewald sphere construction techniques which reveal the geometrical relationships existing for the diffraction cones.

  10. Change in the structural imperfection of lithium niobate crystals doped with zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinova, V. A. Litvinova, M. N.

    2015-01-15

    The changes in the degree of structural imperfection of lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) single crystals with an increase in the Li content and doping with zinc (to 1 wt %) have been investigated by the nonlinear optics methods and Raman spectroscopy. The conversion of broadband IR radiation in LiNbO{sub 3} crystals under noncritical (90°) phase-matching condition with vector interactions implemented is investigated. It is shown that the conversion efficiency, spectral width, and the position of maximum in the converted radiation spectrum depend on the ratio R = Li/Nb in LiNbO{sub 3} crystal and the impurity concentration.

  11. Microraman and Photorefractivity Study of Hafnium-Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinetto, Pietro; Rossella, Francesco; Minzioni, Paolo; Razzari, Luca; Cristiani, Ilaria; Degiorgio, Vittorio; Kokanyan, Edvard P.

    We present an investigation of the properties of HfO2-doped lithium niobate crystals, in view of their possible utilization as low-photorefractivity crystals for wavelength converters operating at room temperature. MicroRaman measurements indicate that the linewidth of a specific mode can be used as a local indicator of crystal composition, and show that the grown crystals present very good uniformity. The mechanism by which the photorefractivity is strongly reduced when the HfO2 concentration is above 4 mol% is studied by combining measurements of birefringence variation, under green-light illumination, with electrical phototransport data.

  12. Refractive index changes in lithium niobate crystals by high-energy particle radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peithmann, Konrad; Zamani-Meymian, Mohammad-Reza; Haaks, Matz; Maier, Karl; Andreas, Birk; Breunig, Ingo

    2006-10-15

    Irradiation of lithium niobate crystals with 41 MeV {sup 3}He ions causes strong changes of the ordinary and extraordinary refractive indexes. We present a detailed study of this effect. Small fluence of irradiation already yields refractive index changes about 5x10{sup -4}; the highest values reach 3x10{sup -3}. These index modulations are stable up to 100 degree sign C and can be erased thermally, for which temperatures up to 500 degree sign C are required. A direct correlation between the refractive index changes and the produced lattice vacancies is found.

  13. Ferroelectric domain gratings and Barkhausen spikes in potassium lithium tantalate niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, X.; Yariv, A.; Zhang, M.; Agranat, A.J.; Hofmeister, R.; Leyva, V.

    1997-04-01

    The observation of Barkhausen current spikes during the recording of volume phase holograms in potassium lithium tantalate niobate is reported on. These spikes are due to the ferroelectric domain reversal induced by photorefractive space charge fields. Both {open_quotes}small{close_quotes} (1 nA) and {open_quotes}large{close_quotes} (100 nA) spikes are observed, which correspond to micro and macro domain reversal, respectively. The diffraction efficiency can change as much as 50{percent} during a single macrodomain switching. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Simultaneous stimulated Raman scattering and second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McConnell, Gail; Ferguson, Allister I.

    2005-03-01

    Simultaneous stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) are demonstrated in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). Using a simple single-pass geometry, conversion efficiencies of up to 12% and 19% were observed for the SRS and SHG processes respectively. By changing the PPLN period interacting with the photonic crystal fibre based pump source and varying the PPLN temperature, the SHG signal was measured to be tunable from λ =584 nm to λ =679 nm. The SRS output spectrum was measured at λ=1583 nm, with a spectral full-width at half-maximum of λ =85 nm.

  15. Aperture scaling effects with monolithic periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillators and generators.

    PubMed

    Missey, M; Dominic, V; Powers, P; Schepler, K L

    2000-02-15

    We used elliptical beams to demonstrate aperture scaling effects in nanosecond single-grating and multigrating periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) monolithic optical parametric oscillators and generators. Increasing the cavity Fresnel number in single-grating crystals broadened both the beam divergence and the spectral bandwidth. Both effects are explained in terms of the phase-matching geometry. These effects are suppressed when a multigrating PPLN crystal is used because the individual gratings provide small effective subapertures. A flood-pumped multigrating optical parametric generator displayed a low output beam divergence and contained 19 pairs of signal and idler frequencies.

  16. OTDM to WDM format conversion based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jo; Liu, Sheng; Parmigiani, Francesca; Ibsen, Morten; Petropoulos, Periklis; Gallo, Katia; Richardson, David J

    2010-05-10

    We propose and demonstrate error-free conversion of a 40 Gbit/s optical time division multiplexed signal to 4 x 10 Gbit/s wavelength division multiplexed channels based on cascaded second harmonic and difference frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. The technique relies on the generation of spectrally (and temporally) flat linearly chirped pulses which are then optically switched with short data pulses in the nonlinear waveguide. Error-free operation was obtained for all channels with a power penalty below 2dB.

  17. Fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate microresonators using femtosecond laser micromachining

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jintian; Xu, Yingxin; Fang, Zhiwei; Wang, Min; Song, Jiangxin; Wang, Nengwen; Qiao, Lingling; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2015-01-01

    We report on fabrication of high-Q lithium niobate (LN) whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) microresonators suspended on silica pedestals by femtosecond laser direct writing followed by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The micrometer-scale (diameter ~82 μm) LN resonator possesses a Q factor of ~2.5 × 105 around 1550 nm wavelength. The combination of femtosecond laser direct writing with FIB enables high-efficiency, high-precision nanofabrication of high-Q crystalline microresonators. PMID:25627294

  18. Nanoscale surface and subsurface defects induced in lithium niobate by a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stach, Eric A.; Radmilovic, Velimir; Deshpande, Devesh; Malshe, Ajay; Alexander, Dennis; Doerr, David

    2003-11-01

    In this letter, electron and ion microscopy techniques have been used to characterize the changes that result when single crystals of lithium niobate are processed using a focused femtosecond laser. The prevailing observation is that of competing processes—ablation and partial redeposition, thermal shock, and extreme quenching, as well as effects associated with shock wave propagation, resulting in both amorphization and heavily defective regions at the focal point of the laser pulse. The observed microstructural defects have a direct implication in optical memory or waveguide writing, where the goal is to realize consistent structural features with uniform optical properties.

  19. Mode analysis of photonic crystal L3 cavities in self-suspended lithium niobate membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Diziain, Séverine Geiss, Reinhard; Zilk, Matthias; Schrempel, Frank; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard; Pertsch, Thomas; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-12-16

    We report on a multimodal analysis of photonic crystal L3 cavities milled in lithium niobate free-standing membranes. The classical L3 cavity geometry is compared to an L3 cavity containing a second lattice superimposed on the primary one. Those two different geometries are investigated in terms of vertical radiation and quality (Q) factor for each mode of the cavities. Depending on the cavity geometry, some modes undergo an enhancement of their vertical radiation into small angles while other modes experience a higher Q factor. Experimental characterizations are corroborated by three-dimensional finite difference time domain simulations.

  20. Micro-buried spiral zone plate in a lithium niobate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhen-Nan; Hua, Jian-Guan; Hao, Juan; Yu, Yan-Hao; Chen, Qi-Dai; Sun, Hong-Bo

    2017-01-01

    We present a micro-buried spiral zone plate (MBSZP) in the lithium niobate crystal fabricated with femtosecond laser direct writing technology. The microstructures of the MBSZP are buried under the surface of the crystal, which ensures the stability of the optical performance in various refractive index environments. The optical performances of imaging and focusing capabilities were demonstrated. In addition, the experiment showed good agreement with simulation results based on the optical wave propagation method. This novel optical element will have important applications in multistate information encoding, optical manipulation, quantum communication, and computation, especially in high integration, contact coupling, and variable refractive index environments.

  1. Paramagnetic defects as probes for the study of ferroelastic phase transition in lithium niobate and lithium tantalate under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malovichko, G.; Grachev, V.; Andreev, V.; Nachal'Naya, T.

    It was found by optical polarization microscopy and the EPR study that lithium niobate and tantalate crystals undergo irreversible lattice changes under anisotropic hydrostatic compression. Regions having different cell orientations were registered. The observed changes were explained in terms of "strain switching" of ferroelastic domains. Possible sequence of phase transitions in these crystals (Pm3m<->R (3) over bar3 c<->R 3 c) and the symmetry of the condensed soft modes ( R-25 and Gamma(15) , correspondingly) were obtained by the analysis of the Gibbs free energy under external pressure.

  2. Read-write holographic memory with iron-doped lithium niobate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alphonse, G. A.; Phillips, W.

    1975-01-01

    The response of iron doped lithium niobate under conditions corresponding to hologram storage and retrieval is described, and the material's characteristics are discussed. The optical sensitivity can be improved by heavy chemical reduction of lightly doped crystals such that most of the iron is in the divalent state, the remaining part being trivalent. The best reduction process found to be reproducible so far is the anneal of the doped crystal in the presence of a salt such as lithium carbonate. It is shown by analysis and simulation that a page-oriented read-write holographic memory with 1,000 bits per page would have a cycle time of about 60 ms and a signal-to-noise ratio of 27 db. This cycle time, although still too long for a practical system, represents an improvement of two orders of magnitude over that of previous laboratory prototypes using different storage media.

  3. Bending waveguides made in x-cut lithium niobate crystals for technological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarepi, V.; Perrone, C.; Aveni, M.; Videla, F.; Torchia, GA

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we analyse the performance of several designs of integrated optical deviators made in x-cut lithium niobate crystals by means of femtosecond laser writing using the double line approach. Straight and bent guiding structures have been designed and implemented using this technique. Well-confined propagation modes at communication wavelengths (1.55 μm) were conducted in these structures with acceptable overall losses (less than 2 dB cm-1). Further, a discussion about the optical propagation losses for curved and straight deviators devices is included in this work. At a low aperture angle (less than 0.2°), as expected, low losses were determined for both structures; however, a weak output light was observed for large angles (greater than 0.2°) in the straight optical circuits. In contrast, a smooth variation of the output was measured for the bent structures. The results presented in this paper support the possibility of the technological implementation of integrated optical circuits for optical communications fabricated with ultrashort laser writing in lithium niobate crystals. In addition, some hypotheses of loss mechanisms that are normally not considered are discussed in order to explain the differences between the measured values and predictions obtained by calculating with the usual models.

  4. Stopping power of 1H and 4He in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barradas, N. P.; Marques, J. G.; Alves, E.

    2014-08-01

    Lithium niobate is an important material for applications in bulk optoelectronics and integrated optics devices. Ion beam analysis methods are often used to study this material. However, to our knowledge a single study has been presented in 1996 on measurement of stopping powers in LiNbO3 at velocities usual in ion beam analysis, for protons and deuterons near the stopping power maximum. The results were 15% lower than the values calculated from the elemental Li, Nb and O stopping powers then available together with the Bragg rule. In practice, all ion beam analysis studies of LiNbO3 still use the Bragg rule. We have used a bulk method, previously developed by us and applied successfully to other systems, to determine experimentally the stopping power of lithium niobate for 1H and 4He ions in the energy range 0.3-2.3 MeV. The results of our measurements and bulk method analysis are presented and discussed in the context of currently available stopping power calculations.

  5. Solid sampling determination of magnesium in lithium niobate crystals by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dravecz, Gabriella; Laczai, Nikoletta; Hajdara, Ivett; Bencs, László

    2016-12-01

    The vaporization/atomization processes of Mg in high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS-GFAAS) were investigated by evaporating solid (powder) samples of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) optical single crystals doped with various amounts of Mg in a transversally heated graphite atomizer (THGA). Optimal analytical conditions were attained by using the Mg I 215.4353 nm secondary spectral line. An optimal pyrolysis temperature of 1500 °C was found for Mg, while the compromise atomization temperature in THGAs (2400 °C) was applied for analyte vaporization. The calibration was performed against solid (powered) lithium niobate crystal standards. The standards were prepared with exactly known Mg content via solid state fusion of the oxide components of the matrix and analyte. The correlation coefficient (R value) of the linear calibration was not worse than 0.9992. The calibration curves were linear in the dopant concentration range of interest (0.74-7.25 mg/g Mg), when dosing 3-10 mg of the powder samples into the graphite sample insertion boats. The Mg content of the studied 19 samples was in the range of 1.69-4.13 mg/g. The precision of the method was better than 6.3%. The accuracy of the results was verified by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry with solution sample introduction after digestion of several crystal samples.

  6. Heterogeneous microring and Mach-Zehnder modulators based on lithium niobate and chalcogenide glasses on silicon

    DOE PAGES

    Rao, Ashutosh; Patil, Aniket; Chiles, Jeff; ...

    2015-08-20

    In this study, thin films of lithium niobate are wafer bonded onto silicon substrates and rib-loaded with a chalcogenide glass, Ge23Sb7S70, to demonstrate strongly confined single-mode submicron waveguides, microring modulators, and Mach-Zehnder modulators in the telecom C band. The 200 μm radii microring modulators present 1.2 dB/cm waveguide propagation loss, 1.2 × 105 quality factor, 0.4 GHz/V tuning rate, and 13 dB extinction ratio. The 6 mm long Mach-Zehnder modulators have a half-wave voltage-length product of 3.8 V.cm and an extinction ratio of 15 dB. The demonstrated work is a key step towards enabling wafer scale dense on-chip integration ofmore » high performance lithium niobate electro-optical devices on silicon for short reach optical interconnects and higher order advanced modulation schemes.« less

  7. Heterogeneous microring and Mach-Zehnder modulators based on lithium niobate and chalcogenide glasses on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Ashutosh; Patil, Aniket; Chiles, Jeff; Malinowski, Marcin; Novak, Spencer; Richardson, Kathleen; Rabiei, Payam; Fathpour, Sasan

    2015-08-20

    In this study, thin films of lithium niobate are wafer bonded onto silicon substrates and rib-loaded with a chalcogenide glass, Ge23Sb7S70, to demonstrate strongly confined single-mode submicron waveguides, microring modulators, and Mach-Zehnder modulators in the telecom C band. The 200 μm radii microring modulators present 1.2 dB/cm waveguide propagation loss, 1.2 × 105 quality factor, 0.4 GHz/V tuning rate, and 13 dB extinction ratio. The 6 mm long Mach-Zehnder modulators have a half-wave voltage-length product of 3.8 V.cm and an extinction ratio of 15 dB. The demonstrated work is a key step towards enabling wafer scale dense on-chip integration of high performance lithium niobate electro-optical devices on silicon for short reach optical interconnects and higher order advanced modulation schemes.

  8. Periodic domain inversion in x-cut single-crystal lithium niobate thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackwitz, P.; Rüsing, M.; Berth, G.; Widhalm, A.; Müller, K.; Zrenner, A.

    2016-04-01

    We report the fabrication of periodically poled domain patterns in x-cut lithium niobate thin-film. Here, thin films on insulator have drawn particular attention due to their intrinsic waveguiding properties offering high mode confinement and smaller devices compared to in-diffused waveguides in bulk material. In contrast to z-cut thin film lithium niobate, the x-cut geometry does not require back electrodes for poling. Further, the x-cut geometry grants direct access to the largest nonlinear and electro-optical tensor element, which overall promises smaller devices. The domain inversion was realized via electric field poling utilizing deposited aluminum top electrodes on a stack of LN thin film/SiO2 layer/Bulk LN, which were patterned by optical lithography. The periodic domain inversion was verified by non-invasive confocal second harmonic microscopy. Our results show domain patterns in accordance to the electrode mask layout. The second harmonic signatures can be interpreted in terms of spatially, overlapping domain filaments which start their growth on the +z side.

  9. Argon plasma inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching study for smooth sidewall thin film lithium niobate waveguide application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulliac, G.; Calero, V.; Ndao, A.; Baida, F. I.; Bernal, M.-P.

    2016-03-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN) exhibits unique physical properties such as remarkable electro-optical coefficients and it is thus an excellent material for a wide range of fields like optic communications, lasers, nonlinear optical applications, electric field optical sensors etc. In order to further enhance the optical device performance and to be competitive with silicon photonics, sub-micrometric thickness lithium niobate films are crucial. A big step has been achieved with the development of LN thin films by using smart cut technology and wafer bonding and these films are nowadays available in the market. However, it is a challenge to obtain the requirements of the high quality thin LN film waveguide. In this letter, we show smooth ridge waveguides fabricated on 700 nm thickness thin film lithium niobate (TFLN). The fabrication has been done by developing and optimizing three steps of the technological process, the mask fabrication, the plasma etching, and a final cleaning wet etching step in order to remove the lithium niobate redeposition on the side walls. We have obtained single mode propagation with light overall losses of only 5 dB/cm.

  10. RBS measurement of depth profiles of erbium incorporated into lithium niobate for optical amplifier applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peřina, Vratislav; Vacík, Jiří; Hnatovicz, Vladimír.; Červená, Jarmila; Kolářová, Pavla; Špirková-Hradilová, Jarmila; Schröfel, Josef

    1998-04-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) was used for the determination of Er 3+ concentration profiles in locally doped lithium niobate. The doped layers are the basic substrates for the fabrication of optical waveguiding structures which may be utilized as planar optical amplifiers and waveguiding lasers making use of the 4I 13/2 → 4I 15/2 transition in Er 3+, which falls into the third low loss telecommunication window (1.5 μm). We present a new aproach of fabrication of locally doped lithium niobate single crystal wafers. The doping occurs under moderate temperature (˜350°C) from reaction melts containing ca. 10 wt% of erbium nitrate. The erbium content in particular cuts varies dramatically between ca. 3 at.% in the Y- and Z-cut up to 20 at.% in the X-cuts. Erbium ions are localized in a 50 nm thick layer, but they can be diffused deeper into the substrate by subsequent annealing at 350°C. The Er concentrations of the samples doped at moderated temperature are compared with the Er concentrations of the samples doped by a standard high-temperature diffusion (>1000°C) from evaporated metal layers. To utilize the Er doped substrates in integrated optic circuits high quality waveguides must be subsequently fabricated. For that we used the Annealed Proton Exchange (APE) method with adipic acid. For the actual fabrication of the waveguides the following order of operation should be kept: the erbium doping should be done before the APE because the substantially changed structure of APE layers prevents the doping process. The APE process is checked by measurements of lithium depth profiles by Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP).

  11. Absorption measurement of a 50-mm-Long periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric oscillator pumped at 1064 nm by a Nd: YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Kaneda, Y.; Yarborough, M.

    2008-08-01

    We measured the absorption of different periodically poled lithium niobate crystals when different wavelength beams come through them. The choice of a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal is utilized by a singly resonant oscillator to efficiently generate 3800-nm light when it is pumped by a 1064-nm laser and to generate the 2600-nm signal, and, then, injection seeded at 1550 nm. The temperature-tuning curve and idler output power of the chosen crystal are measured.

  12. Integrated opto-microfluidics platforms in lithium niobate crystals for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettella, G.; Pozza, G.; Zaltron, A.; Ciampolillo, M. V.; Argiolas, N.; Sada, C.; Chauvet, M.; Guichardaz, B.

    2015-02-01

    In micro-analytical chemistry and biology applications, droplet microfluidic technology holds great promise for efficient lab-on-chip systems where higher levels of integration of different stages on the same platform is constantly addressed. The possibility of integration of opto-microfluidic functionalities in lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals is presented. Microfluidic channels were directly engraved in a LiNbO3 substrate by precision saw cutting, and illuminated by optical waveguides integrated on the same substrate. The morphological characterization of the microfluidic channel and the optical response of the coupled optical waveguide were tested. In particular, the results indicate that the optical properties of the constituents dispersed in the fluid flowing in the microfluidic channel can be monitored in situ, opening to new compact optical sensor prototypes based on droplets generation and optical analysis of the relative constituents.

  13. A Novel Coupled Resonator Photonic Crystal Design in Lithium Niobate for Electrooptic Applications

    DOE PAGES

    Ozturk, Birol; Yavuzcetin, Ozgur; Sridhar, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    High-aspect-ratio photonic crystal air-hole fabrication on bulk Lithium Niobate (LN) substrates is extremely difficult due to its inherent resistance to etching, resulting in conical structures and high insertion losses. Here, we propose a novel coupled resonator photonic crystal (CRPC) design, combining a coupled resonator approach with that of Bragg gratings. CRPC design parameters were optimized by analytical calculations and FDTD simulations. CRPC structures with optimized parameters were fabricated and electrooptically tested on bulk LN annealed proton exchange waveguides. Low insertion loss and large electrooptic effect were observed with the fabricated devices, making the CRPC design a promising structure for electroopticmore » device applications.« less

  14. Monolithically integrated multi-wavelength filter and second harmonic generator in aperiodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Chang, C L; Chen, Y H; Lin, C H; Chang, J Y

    2008-10-27

    We report on the design and experimental characterization of aperiodically poled lithium niobate (APLN) crystals for use in monolithically integrated dual nonlinear-optical devices. A cascade and a single aperiodic-domain-structure designs based on simulated annealing method were constructed in LiNbO(3) to simultaneously perform as 4-channel electro-optically active (EOA) filters and 4-channel frequency doublers in the telecom band. We found that we could obtain a 2.44-fold enhancement in second-harmonic-generation conversion efficiency and a 2.4-time reduction in filter transmission bandwidth with the single APLN device over the cascade one when the same device length of 2 cm and the EOA field of 1027 V/mm were used.

  15. Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Velsko, S.P.

    1999-02-01

    We report kilohertz repetition-rate pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning from 3.22 to 3.7 {mu}m in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Rapid tuning over 400thinspcm{sup {minus}1} with random wavelength accessibility is achieved by rotation of the pump beam angle by no more than 24thinspthinspmrad in the PPLN crystal by use of an acousto-optic beam deflector. Over the entire tuning range, a near-transform-limited OPO bandwidth can be obtained by means of injection seeding with a single-frequency 1.5-{mu}m laser diode. The frequency agility, high repetition rate, and narrow bandwidth of this mid-IR PPLN OPO make it well suited as a lidar transmitter source. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Optical Society of America}

  16. Frequency-agile kilohertz repetition-rate optical parametric oscillator based on periodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Yang, S T; Velsko, S P

    1999-02-01

    We report kilohertz repetition-rate pulse-to-pulse wavelength tuning from 3.22 to 3.7 mum in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Rapid tuning over 400 cm(-1) with random wavelength accessibility is achieved by rotation of the pump beam angle by no more than 24 mrad in the PPLN crystal by use of an acousto-optic beam deflector. Over the entire tuning range, a near-transform-limited OPO bandwidth can be obtained by means of injection seeding with a single-frequency 1.5-mum laser diode. The frequency agility, high repetition rate, and narrow bandwidth of this mid-IR PPLN OPO make it well suited as a lidar transmitter source.

  17. Highly sensitive absorption measurements in lithium niobate using whispering gallery resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leidinger, Markus; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo

    2015-02-01

    The absorption coefficient of undoped, congruently grown lithium niobate (LiNbO3) for ordinarily and extraordinarily polarized light is measured in the wavelength range from 390 to 2600 nm using whispering gallery resonators (WGRs). These monolithic cavities guide light by total internal reflection. Their high Q-factor provides several hundred meters of propagation for the coupled light in millimetre size resonators allowing for the measurement of absorption coefficients below 10-2 cm-1, where standard methods such as Fourier-transform or grating spectroscopy meet their limit. In this work the lowest measured value is 10-4 cm-1 at 1700 nm wavelength. Furthermore, the known OH- overtone at 1470 nm wavelength can be resolved clearly.

  18. Phase sensitive amplification based on quadratic cascading in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Jo; Parmigiani, Francesca; Liu, Sheng; Kakande, Joseph; Petropoulos, Periklis; Gallo, Katia; Richardson, David

    2009-10-26

    We propose and demonstrate phase-sensitive amplification based on cascaded second harmonic generation and difference frequency generation within a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide. Excellent agreement between our numerical simulations and proof-of-principle experiments using a 3-cm waveguide device operating at wavelengths around 1550 nm is obtained. Our experiments confirm the validity and practicality of the approach and illustrate the broad gain bandwidths achievable. Additional simulation results show that the maximum gain/attenuation factor increases quadratically with input pump power, reaching a value of +/- 19.0 dB at input pump powers of 33 dBm for a 3 cm-long waveguide. Increased gains/reduced powers for a fixed gain could be achieved using longer crystals.

  19. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics

    SciTech Connect

    Weigel, Peter O.; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T.; Pomerene, Andrew T.; Starbuck, Andrew L.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneath an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost.

  20. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics

    PubMed Central

    Weigel, Peter O.; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T.; Pomerene, Andrew T.; Starbuck, Andrew L.; Lentine, Anthony L.; Stenger, Vincent; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneath an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost. PMID:26927022

  1. Photoreduction of metal nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Balobaid, Laila; Craig Carville, N.; Collins, Liam; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia

    2013-10-28

    Local reactivity on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate (PPE:LN) surfaces is a promising route for the fabrication of regularly spaced nanostructures. Here, using MgO-doped PPE:LN templates, we investigate the influence of the doping on the nanostructure formation as a function of the proton exchange (PE) depth. The deposition is found to occur preferentially along the boundary between MgO-doped LN and the PE region when the PE depth is at least 1.73 μm, however, for shallower depths, deposition occurs across the entire PE region. The results are found to be consistent with an increased photoconductivity of the MgO-doped LN.

  2. Fabrication and investigation of TIPE waveguide lenses based on lithium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, V. A.; Vyrelkin, V. P.; Gan'shin, V. A.; Kvasha, M. Iu.; Korkishko, Iu. N.

    1987-06-01

    The titanium-interdiffused-proton-exchange (TIPE) process for fabricating waveguide lenses is briefly characterized, and a simpler version of the process is proposed. In this process, a single-mode (wavelength, 0.63 micron) Ti:LiNbO3 waveguide is diffused onto the Y-section of lithium niobate at 980 C for 6 hr. An SiO-SiO2 film is then deposited on the crystal surface which serves as a mask for proton-exchange diffusion. Proton exchange diffusion is carried out in the melts of some stable acid salts, making it possible to fabricate TIPE waveguides in open crucibles in air rather than inside evacuated containers. Experimental results are presented for three hyperbolic structures fabricated by the process described here.

  3. Charge and topography patterned lithium niobate provides physical cues to fluidically isolated cortical axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, D.; Blasiak, A.; Baghban, M. A.; Carville, N. C.; Al-Adli, A.; Al-Shammari, R. M.; Rice, J. H.; Lee, G. U.; Gallo, K.; Rodriguez, B. J.

    2017-01-01

    In vitro devices that combine chemotactic and physical cues are needed for understanding how cells integrate different stimuli. We explored the suitability of lithium niobate (LiNbO3), a transparent ferroelectric material that can be patterned with electrical charge domains and micro/nanotopography, as a neural substrate. On flat LiNbO3 z-surfaces with periodically alternating charge domains, cortical axons are partially aligned with domain boundaries. On submicron-deep etched trenches, neurites are aligned with the edges of the topographical features. Finally, we bonded a bicompartmental microfluidic chip to LiNbO3 surfaces patterned by etching, to create isolated axon microenvironments with predefined topographical cues. LiNbO3 is shown to be an emerging neuron culture substrate with tunable electrical and topographical properties that can be integrated with microfluidic devices, suitable for studying axon growth and guidance mechanisms under combined topographical/chemical stimuli.

  4. Spectral broadening in lithium niobate in a self-diffraction geometry using ultrashort pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dharmadhikari, Jayashree A.; Dota, Krithika; Mathur, Deepak; Dharmadhikari, Aditya K.

    2016-05-01

    We report on broadband light generation in the impulsive regime in an un-doped lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystal by two femtosecond laser pulses (36 fs) from a Ti-sapphire laser amplifier. We systematically investigate the role of incident intensity on spectral broadening. At relatively low incident intensity (0.7 TW cm-2), spectral broadening in the transmitted beam occurs due to the combined effect of self-phase modulation and cross-phase modulation. At higher incident intensity (10.2 TW cm-2), we observe generation of as many as 21 anti-Stokes orders due to coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in self-diffraction geometry. Moreover, we observe order-dependent spectral broadening of anti-Stokes lines that may be attributed to the competition with other nonlinear optical effects like cross-phase modulation.

  5. Lightwave Circuits in Lithium Niobate through Hybrid Waveguides with Silicon Photonics

    DOE PAGES

    Weigel, Peter O.; Savanier, Marc; DeRose, Christopher T.; ...

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate a photonic waveguide technology based on a two-material core, in which light is controllably and repeatedly transferred back and forth between sub-micron thickness crystalline layers of Si and LN bonded to one another, where the former is patterned and the latter is not. In this way, the foundry-based wafer-scale fabrication technology for silicon photonics can be leveraged to form lithium-niobate based integrated optical devices. Using two different guided modes and an adiabatic mode transition between them, we demonstrate a set of building blocks such as waveguides, bends, and couplers which can be used to route light underneathmore » an unpatterned slab of LN, as well as outside the LN-bonded region, thus enabling complex and compact lightwave circuits in LN alongside Si photonics with fabrication ease and low cost.« less

  6. Local Lattice Structure and Dopant Occupancy of Doped Lithium Niobate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Xue, Dongfeng

    We present a systematic study of the local distortions produced upon doping metal ions to lithium niobate (LiNbO3, LN) single crystals. The impurity bond length can be predicted by a radial force constant model, when the dopant ions substitute for Li+ or Nb5+ ions in the LN crystallographic frame. From the viewpoint of constituent chemical bonds, the lattice energy can be described as the function of bond valence on the basis of Born-Haber cycle for the formation of an ionic oxide MmOn. The dopant occupancy in the LN matrix can be determined by comparing the deviation of its lattice energy in different locations at both Li+ and Nb5+ sites, on the basis of the bond length relaxation of impurity ions, which can agree well with the experiment results. The effect of impurity ions on the property modification of LN crystals is also discussed according to our calculated results.

  7. Low temperature dc electrical conduction in reduced lithium niobate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Ajay; Singh, Nidhi; Singh, Rajiv K.; Singh, Ramadhar

    2013-01-01

    The direct current (dc) electrical conductivity of unreduced and reduced lithium niobate (LiNbO3) single crystals has been measured at room temperature (˜300 K). The dc conductivity and activation energy show strong dependence on the degree of oxygen reduction in LiNbO3 single crystals. The dc conductivity exhibits a peak as a function of increasing degree of oxygen reduction. These results have been analysed assuming small polaron hopping conduction between Nb4+ and Nb5+ ion sites. The temperature dependence of dc conductivity of reduced LiNbO3 single crystal, exhibiting the highest dc conductivity, has been examined in the temperature range 77-373 K. The observed dc conductivity data has been analyzed and explained in terms of Mott’s variable range hopping (VRH) conduction model involving a single phonon hopping process.

  8. Microlaser-pumped periodically poled lithium niobate optical parametric generator-optical parametric amplifier.

    PubMed

    Aniolek, K W; Schmitt, R L; Kulp, T J; Richman, B A; Bisson, S E; Powers, P E

    2000-04-15

    For what is believed to be the first time, a single-longitudinal-mode passively Q-switched Nd:YAG microlaser is used to pump a narrow-bandwidth periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) optical parametric generator-optical parametric amplifier (OPG-OPA). Before amplification in the OPA, the output of the OPG stage was spectrally filtered with an air-spaced etalon, resulting in spectroscopically useful radiation (bandwidth, ~0.05 cm(-1) FWHM) that was tunable in 15-cm(-1) segments anywhere in the signal range 6820-6220 cm(-1) and the idler range 2580-3180 cm(-1). The ability to pump an OPG-OPA with compact, high-repetition-rate, intrinsically narrow-bandwidth microlasers is made possible by the high gain of PPLN. The result is a tunable light source that is well suited for use in portable spectroscopic gas sensors.

  9. Dependence of stoichiometry of lithium niobate nanocrystals on initial lithium to niobium ratios in the synthesis step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenhuizen, K.; Stone, G. A.; Knabe, B.; Buse, K.; Dierolf, V.

    2017-02-01

    Ferroelectric nanocrystals show promise for application in forming hybridized nonlinear materials with liquid crystals. It is well known that bulk single crystals of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) are most easily grown in a congruent (lithium-deficient) form but can also be grown in a stoichiometric form. This is controlled by the specific growth conditions and the stoichiometric ratio ρ = MLi/(MLi + MNb), where M is the molar fraction. This work explores the dependence of the stoichiometry of LiNbO3 nanocrystals on the value of ρ in the synthesis step. Batches of LiNbO3 nanocrystals were synthesized using a sol-gel method. The nanocrystals were analysed via SEM and Raman spectroscopy to gain information about their morphology, stoichiometry, defect content, and phase. For bulk crystals, previous work has demonstrated that the spectral widths of specific Raman modes strongly depend on ρ. For the nanocrystals, the Raman spectra indeed reveal that the resultant nanocrystal stoichiometry depends on the initial ρ used in the synthesis step. In addition, a close examination of the Raman spectra reveals the presence of an extra phase in batches with ρ ≥ 55%. Somewhat counterintuitively, this phase is identified by its Raman spectra to be LiNb3O8, a relatively lithium-poor phase compared to LiNbO3. Avoiding this extra phase, we find that high quality, roughly spherical LiNbO3 nanocrystals can be synthesized for ρ between 52 and 54%.

  10. Integrated RF photonic devices based on crystal ion sliced lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenger, Vincent; Toney, James; Pollick, Andrea; Busch, James; Scholl, Jon; Pontius, Peter; Sriram, Sri

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the development of thin film lithium niobate (TFLN™) electro-optic devices at SRICO. TFLN™ is formed on various substrates using a layer transfer process called crystal ion slicing. In the ion slicing process, light ions such as helium and hydrogen are implanted at a depth in a bulk seed wafer as determined by the implant energy. After wafer bonding to a suitable handle substrate, the implanted seed wafer is separated (sliced) at the implant depth using a wet etching or thermal splitting step. After annealing and polishing of the slice surface, the transferred film is bulk quality, retaining all the favorable properties of the bulk seed crystal. Ion slicing technology opens up a vast design space to produce lithium niobate electro-optic devices that were not possible using bulk substrates or physically deposited films. For broadband electro-optic modulation, TFLN™ is formed on RF friendly substrates to achieve impedance matched operation at up to 100 GHz or more. For narrowband RF filtering functions, a quasi-phase matched modulator is presented that incorporates domain engineering to implement periodic inversion of electro-optic phase. The thinness of the ferroelectric films makes it possible to in situ program the domains, and thus the filter response, using only few tens of applied volts. A planar poled prism optical beam steering device is also presented that is suitable for optically switched true time delay architectures. Commercial applications of the TFLN™ device technologies include high bandwidth fiber optic links, cellular antenna remoting, photonic microwave signal processing, optical switching and phased arrayed radar.

  11. Optical composite nanostructures produced by silver ion implantation of lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, Sergey S.; Curley, Michael J.; Williams, Eric K.; Ila, Dariush; Svetchnikov, Vasili L.; Zandbergen, Henny W.; Poker, David B.; Hensley, Dale K.

    2000-06-01

    We analyze microstructure and optical properties of thin light-guiding nanocompositte planar structures produced by implantation of MeV Ag into LiNbO3. The structures demonstrate such prominent features as change of color from yellow to pink accompanied by the appearance of light guiding after heat treatment of the implanted sample at 500 degree(s)C for one hour in open air. TEM analysis shows that before heat treatment the implanted region consists of amorphous and porous lithium niobate and nanoclusters of metallic silver localized near the edge of the nuclear stopping region. The surface plasmon resonance peak attributed to the nanoclusters is located near 430 nm giving yellow color to the sample. After heat treatment the implanted region re-crystallizes in the form of randomly oriented sub-micron grains of lithium niobate doped with enlarged and dispersed silver nanoclusters. Optical prism coupling analysis shows that the implanted region performs as a planar light guide with the refractive index apparently higher than the nuclear stopping region beneath it. In addition, the surface plasmon resonance peak of the nanoclusters moves to 550 nm giving pink color to the sample. Using computer simulations based on the Mie model, we explain such significant red frequency shift of the plasmon resonance by the increase of the effective refractive index of the host material after recrystallization and elimination of porosity caused by heat treatment. Theoretical data are in good agreement with experimental spectra of the optical extinction of the sample before and after heat treatment. This is also in agreement with the fact that the implanted planar structure becomes a light guide with substantially increased effective refractive index. Fabricated nanostructure can find application in ultra-fast photonic switches where light guiding is combined with the optical nonlinearity of the third order enhanced by the plasmon resonance.

  12. Lithium niobate stress gauge current diagnostic for noninductive measurement of fast-rise-time multimegampere currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, D. L.; Williams, R. R.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Matzen, M. K.

    1990-11-01

    Accurate modeling of load behavior in Z-pinch plasma radiation sources driven by high-current generators requires the measurement of fast-rise-time multimegampere currents close to the load. Conventional current diagnostics mounted in inductive cavities (such as B-dot loops and Rogowski coils) fail at small radius because of electrical breakdown produced by high dI/dt. In this paper, we describe the use of large-signal, nanosecond-time-resolution lithium niobate piezoelectric stress gauges to directly measure the magnetic pressure B2/2μ0=μ0I2/8π2r2 generated at radius r by a current I flowing in a radial transmission line. Current measurements have been performed at radius r=2.54×10-2 m on Sandia National Laboratories' Proto-II (10 TW) and SATURN (30 TW) gas puff Z-pinch experiments with maximum currents of 10.1 MA and dI/dt to 2.1×1014 A/s. Comparisons with Faraday rotation and B-dot current diagnostic measurements at large radius are presented. Bremsstrahlung noise problems unique to the SATURN gas puff source are discussed. For a Y-cut lithium niobate stress gauge on a pure tungsten electrode, current densities up to I/2πr=78 MA/m can be measured before the electrode yield strength and the piezoelectric operating stress limit are exceeded. Above the Hugoniot elastic limit of the electrode material, the dynamic range and accuracy of the diagnostic are greatly reduced, but it appears that the technique can be extended to higher current densities using an X-cut quartz piezoelectric element and a tungsten-sapphire electrode impedance stack.

  13. Pyroelectric field assisted ion migration induced by ultraviolet laser irradiation and its impact on ferroelectric domain inversion in lithium niobate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ying, C. Y. J.; Mailis, S.; Daniell, G. J.; Steigerwald, H.; Soergel, E.

    2013-08-28

    The impact of UV laser irradiation on the distribution of lithium ions in ferroelectric lithium niobate single crystals has been numerically modelled. Strongly absorbed UV radiation at wavelengths of 244–305 nm produces steep temperature gradients which cause lithium ions to migrate and result in a local variation of the lithium concentration. In addition to the diffusion, here the pyroelectric effect is also taken into account which predicts a complex distribution of lithium concentration along the c-axis of the crystal: two separated lithium deficient regions on the surface and in depth. The modelling on the local lithium concentration and the subsequent variation of the coercive field are used to explain experimental results on the domain inversion of such UV treated lithium niobate crystals.

  14. Comparative study on three highly sensitive absorption measurement techniques characterizing lithium niobate over its entire transparent spectral range.

    PubMed

    Leidinger, M; Fieberg, S; Waasem, N; Kühnemann, F; Buse, K; Breunig, I

    2015-08-24

    We employ three highly sensitive spectrometers: a photoacoustic spectrometer, a photothermal common-path interferometer and a whispering-gallery-resonator-based absorption spectrometer, for a comparative study of measuring the absorption coefficient of nominally transparent undoped, congruently grown lithium niobate for ordinarily and extraordinarily polarized light in the wavelength range from 390 to 3800 nm. The absorption coefficient ranges from below 10(-4) cm(-1) up to 2 cm(-1). Furthermore, we measure the absorption at the Urbach tail as well as the multiphonon edge of the material by a standard grating spectrometer and a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer, providing for the first time an absorption spectrum of the whole transparency window of lithium niobate. The absorption coefficients obtained by the three highly sensitive and independent methods show good agreement.

  15. Impact of the photorefractive and pyroelectric-electro-optic effect in lithium niobate on whispering-gallery modes.

    PubMed

    Leidinger, Markus; Werner, Christoph S; Yoshiki, Wataru; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    Whispering-gallery resonators made of undoped and MgO-doped congruently grown lithium niobate are used to study electro-optic refractive index changes. Hereby, we focus on the volume photovoltaic and the pyroelectric effect, both providing an electric field driving the electro-optic effect. Our findings indicate that the light-induced photorefractive effect, combining the photovoltaic and electro-optic effect, is present only in the non-MgO-doped lithium niobate for exposure with light having wavelengths of up to 850 nm. This leads to strong resonance frequency shifts of the whispering-gallery modes. No photorefractive effect was observed in the MgO-doped material. One has to be aware that surface charges induced by the pyroelectric effect result in a similar phenomenon and are present in both materials.

  16. Influence of annealing on the photodeposition of silver on periodically poled lithium niobate

    DOE PAGES

    Carville, N. Craig; Neumayer, Sabine M.; Manzo, Michele; ...

    2016-02-03

    Here, the preferential deposition of metal nanoparticles onto periodically poled lithium niobate surfaces, whereby photogenerated electrons accumulate in accordance with local electric fields and reduce metal ions from solution, is known to depend on the intensity and wavelength of the illumination and the concentration of the solution used. Here, it is shown that for identical deposition conditions (wavelength, intensity, concentration), post-poling annealing for 10 h at 200 °C modifies the surface reactivity through the reorientation of internal defect fields. Whereas silver nanoparticles deposit preferentially on the +z domains on unannealed crystals, the deposition occurs preferentially along 180 degrees domain wallsmore » for annealed crystals. In neither case is the deposition selective; limited deposition occurs also on the unannealed -z domain surface and on both annealed domain surfaces. The observed behavior is attributed to a relaxation of the poling-induced defect frustration mediated by Li+ ion mobility during annealing, which affects the accumulation of electrons, thereby changing the surface reactivity. The evolution of the defect field with temperature is corroborated using Raman spectroscopy.« less

  17. Influence of annealing on the photodeposition of silver on periodically poled lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Carville, N. Craig; Neumayer, Sabine M.; Manzo, Michele; Baghban, Mohammad-Amin; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Gallo, Katia; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2016-02-03

    Here, the preferential deposition of metal nanoparticles onto periodically poled lithium niobate surfaces, whereby photogenerated electrons accumulate in accordance with local electric fields and reduce metal ions from solution, is known to depend on the intensity and wavelength of the illumination and the concentration of the solution used. Here, it is shown that for identical deposition conditions (wavelength, intensity, concentration), post-poling annealing for 10 h at 200 °C modifies the surface reactivity through the reorientation of internal defect fields. Whereas silver nanoparticles deposit preferentially on the +z domains on unannealed crystals, the deposition occurs preferentially along 180 degrees domain walls for annealed crystals. In neither case is the deposition selective; limited deposition occurs also on the unannealed -z domain surface and on both annealed domain surfaces. The observed behavior is attributed to a relaxation of the poling-induced defect frustration mediated by Li+ ion mobility during annealing, which affects the accumulation of electrons, thereby changing the surface reactivity. The evolution of the defect field with temperature is corroborated using Raman spectroscopy.

  18. Design of a lithium niobate-on-insulator-based optical microring resonator for biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naznin, Shakila; Sher, Md. Sohel Mahmud

    2016-08-01

    A label-free optical microring resonator biosensor based on lithium niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) technology is designed and simulated for biosensing applications. Although silicon-on-insulator technology is quite mature over LNOI for fabricating more compact microring resonators, the latter is attractive for its excellent electro-optic, ferroelectric, piezoelectric, photoelastic, and nonlinear optic properties, which can offer a wide range of tuning facilities for sensing. To satisfy the requirement of high sensitivity in biosensing, the dual-microring resonator model is applied to design the proposed sensor. The transmission spectrum obtained from two-dimensional simulations based on finite-difference time-domain method demonstrates that the designed LNOI microring sensor consisting of a 10-μm outer ring and a 5-μm inner ring offers a sensitivity of ˜68 nm/refractive index unit (RIU) and a minimum detection limit of 10-2 RIU. Finally, the sensor's performance is simulated for glucose sensing, a biosensing application.

  19. High-Q photonic resonators and electro-optic coupling using silicon-on-lithium-niobate.

    PubMed

    Witmer, Jeremy D; Valery, Joseph A; Arrangoiz-Arriola, Patricio; Sarabalis, Christopher J; Hill, Jeff T; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H

    2017-04-13

    Future quantum networks, in which superconducting quantum processors are connected via optical links, will require microwave-to-optical photon converters that preserve entanglement. A doubly-resonant electro-optic modulator (EOM) is a promising platform to realize this conversion. Here, we present our progress towards building such a modulator by demonstrating the optically-resonant half of the device. We demonstrate high quality (Q) factor ring, disk and photonic crystal resonators using a hybrid silicon-on-lithium-niobate material system. Optical Q factors up to 730,000 are achieved, corresponding to propagation loss of 0.8 dB/cm. We also use the electro-optic effect to modulate the resonance frequency of a photonic crystal cavity, achieving a electro-optic modulation coefficient between 1 and 2 pm/V. In addition to quantum technology, we expect that our results will be useful both in traditional silicon photonics applications and in high-sensitivity acousto-optic devices.

  20. Raman spectra of lithium niobate crystals heavily doped with zinc and magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N.

    2016-12-01

    We have examined the Raman spectra of heavily doped lithium niobate single crystals (at close-to-threshold concentrations of doping cations): LiNbO3:Zn (4.5 mol % ZnO), LiNbO3:Mg (5.01 mol %):Fe (0.005 mol %), LiNbO3:Mg (5.1 mol %), and LiNbO3:Mg (5.3 mol % MgO). Low-intensity lines with frequencies at 209, 230, 298, 694, and 880 cm-1 have been revealed for the first time. Analysis of the data from the literature on lattice dynamics calculations from first principles (ab initio) does not make it possible to unambiguously state that these lines correspond to fundamental vibrations of the A2 symmetry species, which are forbidden for the C3 V 6 ( R3c) space group. At the same time, ab initio calculations unambiguously indicate that the experimentally observed low-intensity "superfluous" lines with the frequencies at 104 and 119 cm-1 cannot correspond to vibrations of the A2 symmetry species. It is most likely that they correspond to two-particle states of acoustic phonons with a total wave vector equal to zero.

  1. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Kholkin, Andrei L.

    2015-12-28

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. In addition, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. Polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, demonstrates the rectifying ability of Mg:LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity.

  2. Low energy electron imaging of domains and domain walls in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    PubMed Central

    Nataf, G. F.; Grysan, P.; Guennou, M.; Kreisel, J.; Martinotti, D.; Rountree, C. L.; Mathieu, C.; Barrett, N.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of domain structures, specifically domain walls, currently attracts a significant attention in the field of (multi)-ferroic materials. In this article, we analyze contrast formation in full field electron microscopy applied to domains and domain walls in the uniaxial ferroelectric lithium niobate, which presents a large 3.8 eV band gap and for which conductive domain walls have been reported. We show that the transition from Mirror Electron Microscopy (MEM – electrons reflected) to Low Energy Electron Microscopy (LEEM – electrons backscattered) gives rise to a robust contrast between domains with upwards (Pup) and downwards (Pdown) polarization, and provides a measure of the difference in surface potential between the domains. We demonstrate that out-of-focus conditions of imaging produce contrast inversion, due to image distortion induced by charged surfaces, and also carry information on the polarization direction in the domains. Finally, we show that the intensity profile at domain walls provides experimental evidence for a local stray, lateral electric field. PMID:27608605

  3. Photo-written three-dimensional optical circuits in iron doped lithium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhao, Jianlin; Xu, Honglai; Ma, Yanghua; Yang, Dexing

    2006-02-01

    We present our experimental results on fabricating optical waveguides by laser micromachining, structure-light illuminating, and optical spatial dark solitons in iron doped lithium niobate (LiNbO 3:Fe) crystals. After that we propose a novel approach to fabricate three-dimensional (3-D) optical circuits in LiNbO 3 crystals by combining the three light-induction techniques listed above. By employing laser micromachining, a curved and a Y-branches waveguides are successfully fabricated. With binary and SLM-prepared optical masks, Y-branches and gradient planar waveguides are experimentally demonstrated. By utilizing one-dimensional (1-D) optical spatial dark solitons, planar, Y-branches, and square channel waveguides are formed. The results show that each of the three methods can be employed to write optical waveguides in LiNbO3 crystals. By combing the three methods, 3-D light circuits can be created in 45 °-cut bulk crystals by several procedures. Initially, a quasi-planar optical circuit is created in a thin layer of the crystal by structure-light illuminating with an optical mask. Then, a planar circuit is generated by utilizing a 1-D dark soltion. And then, form multi-layer planar circuits are formed by altering the positions of the crystal or writing beam. Finally, laser micromachining is used to link the different layers to form a 3-D light circuit. Furthermore, functional 3-D integrated optical system may be implemented by using the proposed approach.

  4. Nonlinear mode switching in lithium niobate nanowaveguides to control light directionality.

    PubMed

    Escalé, Marc Reig; Sergeyev, Anton; Geiss, Reinhard; Grange, Rachel

    2017-02-20

    The ability of nanowaveguides to confine and guide light has been applied for developing optical applications such as nanolasers, optical switching and localized imaging. These and others applications can be further complemented by the optical control of the guided modes within the nanowaveguide, which in turn dictates the light emission pattern. It has been shown that the light directionality can be shaped by varying the nanowire cross-sections. Here, we demonstrate that the directionality of the light can be modified using a single nanowaveguide with a nonlinear phenomenon such as second-harmonic generation. In individual lithium niobate nanowaveguides, we use second-harmonic modal phase-matching and we apply it to switch the guided modes within its sub-micron cross-section. In doing so, we can vary the light directionality of the generated light from straight (0° with respect to the propagation direction) to large spread angles (almost 54°). Further, we characterize the directionality of the guided light by means of optical Fourier transformation and show that the directionality of the guided light changes for different wavelengths.

  5. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2015-12-28

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarization as well as atmospheric conditions. Additionally, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. In polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, it the rectifying ability of Mg: LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity is demonstrated.

  6. Multiple-wavelength second-harmonic generations in a two-dimensional periodically poled lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Peigen; Ma, Boqin; Feng, Shuai; Cheng, Bingying; Zhang, Daozhong

    2004-03-01

    A two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal of lithium niobate with rectangular lattice was fabricated. In this crystal, the quasiphase-matching conditions can be satisfied in different directions for different wavelengths. As a tunable optical parametric oscillator pumped by an yttritium-aluminum-garnet laser with about 4 ns pulse duration was used, we obtained the second-harmonic output at 676 nm (red) and 571 nm (yellow) by the first-order quasiphase-matching, and at 532 nm (green) and 460 nm (blue) by the second-order quasiphase-matching, respectively. The conversion efficiency of fundamental wavelength 1352 and 1142 nm was 33% and 48.2% when the average input power was 1.47 and 2.8 mW, respectively. Our results imply that by using only one frequency conversion element, coherent beams with various colors may be attained. The application of such a two-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystal in the field of color display is expected.

  7. Investigation of pyroelectric electron emission from monodomain lithium niobate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourim, El Mostafa; Moon, Chang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Woon; Kyeong Yoo, In

    2006-09-01

    The behaviors of thermally stimulated electron emission from pyroelectric monodomain lithium niobate single crystal (LiNbO 3) were investigated by utilizing a Si p-n junction photodiode as electron detector and a receptive electron beam resist (E-beam resist) as electron collector. In high vacuum (10 -6 Torr), the pyroelectric electron emission (PEE) was found to depend on the exposed emitting polar crystal surface (+ Z face or - Z face) and was significantly influenced by the emitter-electron receiver gap distances. Thus, the PEE from + Z face was detected during heating and was activated, in small gaps (<2 mm), by field emission effect on which was superposed an intense field ionization effect that primed intermittent runway ionizations (plasma breakdown into a glow discharge). In large gaps (>2 mm) the emission was simply mastered by field emission effect. Whereas, The PEE from - Z face was detected during cooling and was solely due to the field ionization effect. Therewith, for small gaps (<2 mm) the emission was governed by intermittent runway ionization ignitions resulting from a high ionization degree leading to dense plasma formation, and for large gaps (>2 mm) PEE was governed by field ionization generating a soft and continuous plasma ambient atmosphere. Significant decrease of electron emission current was observed from + Z face after successive thermal cycles. A fast and fully emission recovery was established after a brief exposure of crystal to a poor air vacuum of 10 -1 Torr.

  8. Generation and tunable enhancement of a sum-frequency signal in lithium niobate nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeyev, Anton; Reig Escalé, Marc; Grange, Rachel

    2017-02-01

    Recent developments in the fabrication of lithium niobate (LiNbO3) structures down to the nanoscale opens up novel applications of this versatile material in nonlinear optics. Current nonlinear optical studies in sub-micron waveguides are mainly restricted to the generation of second and third harmonics. In this work, we demonstrate the generation and waveguiding of the sum-frequency generation (SFG) signal in a single LiNbO3 nanowire with a cross-section of 517 nm  ×  654 nm. Furthermore, we enhance the guided SFG signal 17.9 times by means of modal phase matching. We also display tuning of the phase-matched wavelength by varying the nanowire cross-section and changing the polarization of the incident laser. The results prove that LiNbO3 nanowires can be successfully used for nonlinear wave-mixing applications and assisting the miniaturization of optical devices. , which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J Phys D. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Rachel Grange was selected by the Editorial Board of J Phys D as an Emerging Leader.

  9. Influence of annealing on the photodeposition of silver on periodically poled lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Carville, N. Craig; Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Manzo, Michele; Baghban, Mohammad-Amin; Gallo, Katia; Ivanov, Ilia N.

    2016-02-07

    The preferential deposition of metal nanoparticles onto periodically poled lithium niobate surfaces, whereby photogenerated electrons accumulate in accordance with local electric fields and reduce metal ions from solution, is known to depend on the intensity and wavelength of the illumination and the concentration of the solution used. Here, it is shown that for identical deposition conditions (wavelength, intensity, concentration), post-poling annealing for 10 h at 200 °C modifies the surface reactivity through the reorientation of internal defect fields. Whereas silver nanoparticles deposit preferentially on the +z domains on unannealed crystals, the deposition occurs preferentially along 180° domain walls for annealed crystals. In neither case is the deposition selective; limited deposition occurs also on the unannealed –z domain surface and on both annealed domain surfaces. The observed behavior is attributed to a relaxation of the poling-induced defect frustration mediated by Li{sup +} ion mobility during annealing, which affects the accumulation of electrons, thereby changing the surface reactivity. The evolution of the defect field with temperature is corroborated using Raman spectroscopy.

  10. Domain patterning by electron beam of MgO doped lithium niobate covered by resist

    SciTech Connect

    Shur, V. Ya. Chezganov, D. S.; Akhmatkhanov, A. R.; Kuznetsov, D. K.

    2015-06-08

    Periodical domain structuring by focused electron beam irradiation of MgO-doped lithium niobate (MgOCLN) single crystalline plate covered by resist layer was studied both experimentally and by computer simulation. The dependences of domain size on the charge dose and distance between isolated domains were measured. It has been shown that the quality of periodical domain pattern depends on the thickness of resist layer and electron energy. The experimentally obtained periodic domain structures have been divided into four types. The irradiation parameters for the most uniform patterning were obtained experimentally. It was shown by computer simulation that the space charge slightly touching the crystal surface produced the maximum value of electric field at the resist/LN interface thus resulting in the best pattern quality. The obtained knowledge allowed us to optimize the poling process and to make the periodical domain patterns in 1-mm-thick wafers with an area up to 1 × 5 mm{sup 2} and a period of 6.89 μm for green light second harmonic generation. Spatial distribution of the efficiency of light frequency conversion confirmed the high homogeneity of the tailored domain patterns.

  11. Thickness, humidity, and polarization dependent ferroelectric switching and conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate

    DOE PAGES

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Strelcov, Evgheni; Manzo, Michele; ...

    2015-12-28

    Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) exhibits several advantages over undoped LN such as resistance to photorefraction, lower coercive fields, and p-type conductivity that is particularly pronounced at domain walls and opens up a range of applications, e.g., in domain wall electronics. Engineering of precise domain patterns necessitates well founded knowledge of switching kinetics, which can differ significantly from that of undoped LN. In this work, the role of humidity and sample composition in polarization reversal has been investigated under application of the same voltage waveform. Control over domain sizes has been achieved by varying the sample thickness and initial polarizationmore » as well as atmospheric conditions. Additionally, local introduction of proton exchanged phases allows for inhibition of domain nucleation or destabilization, which can be utilized to modify domain patterns. In polarization dependent current flow, attributed to charged domain walls and band bending, it the rectifying ability of Mg: LN in combination with suitable metal electrodes that allow for further tailoring of conductivity is demonstrated.« less

  12. Probing the pseudo-1-D ion diffusion in lithium titanium niobate anode for Li-ion battery.

    PubMed

    Das, Suman; Dutta, Dipak; Araujo, Rafael B; Chakraborty, Sudip; Ahuja, Rajeev; Bhattacharyya, Aninda J

    2016-08-10

    Comprehensive understanding of the charge transport mechanism in the intrinsic structure of an electrode material is essential in accounting for its electrochemical performance. We present here systematic experimental and theoretical investigations of Li(+)-ion diffusion in a novel layered material, viz. lithium titanium niobate. Lithium titanium niobate (exact composition Li0.55K0.45TiNbO5·1.06H2O) is obtained from sol-gel synthesized potassium titanium niobate (KTiNbO5) by an ion-exchange method. The Li(+)-ions are inserted and de-inserted preferentially into the galleries between the octahedral layers formed by edge and corner sharing TiO6 and NbO6 octahedral units and the effective chemical diffusion coefficient, is estimated to be 3.8 × 10(-11) cm(2) s(-1) using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT). Calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) strongly confirm the anisotropic Li(+)-ion diffusion in the interlayer galleries and that Li(+)-ions predominantly diffuse along the crystallographic b-direction. The preferential Li(+)-ion diffusion along the b-direction is assisted by line-defects, which are observed to be higher in concentration along the b-direction compared to the a- and c-directions, as revealed by high resolution electron microscopy. The Li-Ti niobate can be cycled to low voltages (≈0.2 V) and show stable and satisfactory battery performance over 100 cycles. Due to the possibility of cycling to low voltages, cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy convincingly reveal the reversibility of Ti(3+) ↔ Ti(2+) along with Ti(4+) ↔ Ti(3+) and Nb(5+) ↔ Nb(4+).

  13. Study of structural defects and crystalline perfection of near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals grown from flux and prepared by VTE technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, R.; Bhaumik, Indranil; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Karnal, A. K.; Gupta, P. K.; Swami, M. K.; Patel, H. S.; Sinha, A. K.; Upadhyay, A.

    2014-10-01

    Near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 (SLN) single crystals were grown/prepared by top seeded solution growth/vapor transport equilibration (VTE) technique, and investigated for stoichiometry, disorder and structural defects. The optical absorption and Raman line-width studies revealed higher stoichiometry (i.e., higher Li/Nb) for SLN prepared by vapor transport equilibration (SLN_V) technique in comparison to SLN grown from K2O flux (SLN_K) and Li-rich melt (SLN_L). The nearly symmetric single diffraction curve (DC), though broad, as observed for SLN_L specimen in high resolution X-rays diffraction (HRXRD) analysis depicted lesser low angle grain boundaries. On the other hand, relatively sharp DC with lowest full-width at half-maximum (FWHM ∼45 arc-sec) in HRXRD and lesser Urbach energy (∼80 meV) in the absorption spectra for SLN_V crystal revealed less structural defects with respect to other SLN crystals. The higher FWHM of DCs in HRXRD for SLN_L and SLN_K is attributed to growth related imperfections usually observed in solution growth. Though, VTE process results in SLN crystals with better stoichiometry and lesser structural defects but the limitation being that samples up to ∼1 mm thickness can be prepared with this technique. For bulk SLN, growth from K2O flux resulted in better stoichiometry whereas Li-rich flux resulted in better structural quality. The absorption spectra of the grown SLN crystals depicted oxygen vacancy induced electronic defects (Nb4+, polarons), which was further authenticated by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis at Nb K edge revealing lesser Nb4+ defects in SLN with respect to congruent lithium niobate (CLN) crystal.

  14. Design of 4 to 2 line encoder using lithium niobate based Mach Zehnder Interferometers for high speed communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Amrindra; Kumar, Santosh; Sharma, Sandeep; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev K.

    2016-04-01

    Encoder is a device that allows placing digital information from many inputs to many outputs. Any application of combinational logic circuit can be implemented by using encoder and external gates. In this paper, 4 to 2 line encoder is proposed using electro-optic effect inside lithium-niobate based Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The MZI structures have powerful capability to switching an optical input signal to a desired output port. The paper constitutes a mathematical description of the proposed device and thereafter simulation using MATLAB. The study is verified using beam propagation method (BPM).

  15. Monolithic integration of a lithium niobate microresonator with a free-standing waveguide using femtosecond laser assisted ion beam writing

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhiwei; Xu, Yingxin; Wang, Min; Qiao, Lingling; Lin, Jintian; Fang, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrated integrating a high quality factor lithium niobate microdisk resonator with a free-standing membrane waveguide. Our technique is based on femtosecond laser direct writing which produces the pre-structure, followed by focused ion beam milling which reduces the surface roughness of sidewall of the fabricated structure to nanometer scale. Efficient light coupling between the integrated waveguide and microdisk was achieved, and the quality factor of the microresonator was measured as high as 1.67 × 105. PMID:28358135

  16. Strong forward-backward asymmetry of stimulated Raman scattering in lithium-niobate-based whispering gallery resonators.

    PubMed

    Leidinger, M; Sturman, B; Buse, K; Breunig, I

    2016-06-15

    We show experimentally and prove theoretically that the pump-power thresholds of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in lithium-niobate-based whispering gallery resonators (WGRs) are strongly different for the signal waves propagating in the backward and forward directions with respect to the pump wave. This feature is due to a strong polaritonic effect. It leads to a cascade of alternating forward-backward Raman lines with increasing pump power. The measured polarization and spectral properties of SRS are in good agreement with theory. Similar properties have to be inherent in other WGRs made of polar crystals.

  17. Two-dimensional mapping of electro-optic phase retardation in lithium niobate crystals by digital holography.

    PubMed

    de Angelis, M; De Nicola, S; Finizio, A; Pierattini, G; Ferraro, P; Grilli, S; Paturzo, M; Sansone, L; Alfieri, D; De Natale, P

    2005-07-01

    We demonstrate accurate two-dimensional mapping of the phase retardation induced by the electro-optic effect in lithium niobate crystals. Off-axis digital holography is used to investigate congruent z-cut crystals. The spatially resolved optical path difference is interferometrically measured while a linearly rising voltage ramp is applied to the crystal. This procedure provides information on the uniformity of crystals' electro-optic properties and offers the ability to detect the presence of defects that is of fundamental importance for reliable processing of photonic devices.

  18. IR tunable narrow-band nanosecond converter with a microchip pump source and periodically-poled Lithium Niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kir'yanov, A. V.; Klimentov, S. M.; Powers, P. E.; Mel'nikov, I. V.; Korkishko, Y. N.

    2008-04-01

    We report a compact nanosecond source based on optical parametric generation in a periodically-poled Lithium Niobate slab pumped with a Nd3+:YAG/Cr4+:YAG microchip laser at the wavelength 1.064 μm and capable of generating a diffraction-limited beam widely tunable through the mid-IR. The device efficiency is shown to reach 30% at relatively low (units of μJs) pump pulse energy and its spectrum to be narrowed down to 0.2 nm using low-power CW seed provided by a DFB laser.

  19. Microstructure and defects probed by Raman spectroscopy in lithium niobate crystals and devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, Marc D.; Bourson, Patrice

    2015-12-15

    Raman microprobe applied on LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) crystals and derived materials or devices is shown to be a tool to detect either local variations or changes of the whole structure. Position, width, or intensity of one Raman line can be used as markers of a structural change. Indeed, each Raman line can be assigned to a peculiar ionic motion and is differently sensitive to application of strain, temperature change, and electric field. Some vibrational modes are especially associated to the site of Li ion, or Nb ion, or still oxygen octahedron, so that they can be affected by the introduction of dopant ion on one or another site. Therefore, Raman Spectroscopy (RS) can be used as a site spectroscopy to describe the mechanism of doping incorporation in the LN lattice, allowing the optimization of some linear and non-linear optical properties according to the dopant concentration and substitution site. The composition or the content of non-stoichiometry related defects could be derived from the width of some lines. Any damage or local disorder can be detected by a line broadening. The quality or preservation of the structure after chemical treatment, or laser pulses, can be thus checked. The structure of ion-implanted or proton-exchanged wave-guides and periodically poled lithium niobate as well can be imaged from frequency shift or intensity change of some lines. RS is thus a useful way to control the structure of LN and/or to optimize the preparation parameters and its properties.

  20. Interface and thickness dependent domain switching and stability in Mg doped lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Rodriguez, Brian J. E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Manzo, Michele; Gallo, Katia E-mail: brian.rodriguez@ucd.ie; Kholkin, Andrei L.

    2015-12-14

    Controlling ferroelectric switching in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) is of fundamental importance for optical device and domain wall electronics applications that require precise domain patterns. Stable ferroelectric switching has been previously observed in undoped LN layers above proton exchanged (PE) phases that exhibit reduced polarization, whereas PE layers have been found to inhibit lateral domain growth. Here, Mg doping, which is known to significantly alter ferroelectric switching properties including coercive field and switching currents, is shown to inhibit domain nucleation and stability in Mg:LN above buried PE phases that allow for precise ferroelectric patterning via domain growth control. Furthermore, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and switching spectroscopy PFM reveal that the voltage at which polarization switches from the “up” to the “down” state increases with increasing thickness in pure Mg:LN, whereas the voltage required for stable back switching to the original “up” state does not exhibit this thickness dependence. This behavior is consistent with the presence of an internal frozen defect field. The inhibition of domain nucleation above PE interfaces, observed in this study, is a phenomenon that occurs in Mg:LN but not in undoped samples and is mainly ascribed to a remaining frozen polarization in the PE phase that opposes polarization reversal. This reduced frozen depolarization field in the PE phase also influences the depolarization field of the Mg:LN layer above due to the presence of uncompensated polarization charge at the PE-Mg:LN boundary. These alterations in internal electric fields within the sample cause long-range lattice distortions in Mg:LN via electromechanical coupling, which were corroborated with complimentary Raman measurements.

  1. Interface and thickness dependent domain switching and stability in Mg doped lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Manzo, Michele; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Gallo, Katia; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2015-12-08

    Controlling ferroelectric switching in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg: LN) is of fundamental importance for optical device and domain wall electronics applications that require precise domain patterns. Stable ferroelectric switching has been previously observed in undoped LN layers above proton exchanged (PE) phases that exhibit reduced polarization, whereas PE layers have been found to inhibit lateral domain growth. Here, Mg doping, which is known to significantly alter ferroelectric switching properties including coercive field and switching currents, is shown to inhibit domain nucleation and stability in Mg: LN above buried PE phases that allow for precise ferroelectric patterning via domain growth control. Furthermore, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and switching spectroscopy PFM reveal that the voltage at which polarization switches from the "up" to the "down" state increases with increasing thickness in pure Mg: LN, whereas the voltage required for stable back switching to the original "up" state does not exhibit this thickness dependence. This behavior is consistent with the presence of an internal frozen defect field. The inhibition of domain nucleation above PE interfaces, observed in this study, is a phenomenon that occurs in Mg: LN but not in undoped samples and is mainly ascribed to a remaining frozen polarization in the PE phase that opposes polarization reversal. This reduced frozen depolarization field in the PE phase also influences the depolarization field of the Mg: LN layer above due to the presence of uncompensated polarization charge at the PE-Mg: LN boundary. Furthermore, these alterations in internal electric fields within the sample cause long-range lattice distortions in Mg: LN via electromechanical coupling, which were corroborated with complimentary Raman measurements.

  2. Temperature-stable lithium niobate electro-optic Q-switch for improved cold performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jundt, Dieter H.

    2014-10-01

    Lithium niobate (LN) is commonly used as an electro optic (EO) Q-switch material in infrared targeting lasers because of its relatively low voltage requirements and low cost compared to other crystals. A common challenge is maintaining good performance at the sub-freezing temperatures often experienced during flight. Dropping to low temperature causes a pyro-electric charge buildup on the optical faces that leads to birefringence non-uniformity and depolarization resulting in poor hold-off and premature lasing. The most common solution has been to use radioactive americium to ionize the air around the crystal and bleed off the charge, but the radioactive material requires handling and disposal procedures that can be problematic. We have developed a superior solution that is now being implemented by multiple defense system suppliers. By applying a low level thermo-chemical reduction to the LN crystal optical faces we induce a small conductivity that allows pyro-charges to dissipate. As the material gets more heavily treated, the capacity to dissipate charges improves, but the corresponding optical absorption also increases, causing insertion loss. Even though typical high gain targeting laser systems can tolerate a few percent of added loss, the thermo-chemical processing needs to be carefully optimized. We describe the results of our process optimization to minimize the insertion loss while still giving effective charge dissipation. Treatment is performed at temperatures below 500°C and a conductivity layer less than 0.5mm in depth is created that is uniform across the optical aperture. Because the conductivity is thermally activated, the charge dissipation is less effective at low temperature, and characterization needs to be performed at cold temperatures. The trade-off between optical insertion loss and potential depolarization due to low temperature operation is discussed and experimental results on the temperature dependence of the dissipation time and the

  3. Interface modulated currents in periodically proton exchanged Mg doped lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Manzo, Michele; Kholkin, Andrei L.; Gallo, Katia; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2016-03-01

    Conductivity in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg:LN) plays a key role in the reduction of photorefraction and is therefore widely exploited in optical devices. However, charge transport through Mg:LN and across interfaces such as electrodes also yields potential electronic applications in devices with switchable conductivity states. Furthermore, the introduction of proton exchanged (PE) phases in Mg:LN enhances ionic conductivity, thus providing tailorability of conduction mechanisms and functionality dependent on sample composition. To facilitate the construction and design of such multifunctional electronic devices based on periodically PE Mg:LN or similar ferroelectric semiconductors, fundamental understanding of charge transport in these materials, as well as the impact of internal and external interfaces, is essential. In order to gain insight into polarization and interface dependent conductivity due to band bending, UV illumination, and chemical reactivity, wedge shaped samples consisting of polar oriented Mg:LN and PE phases were investigated using conductive atomic force microscopy. In Mg:LN, three conductivity states (on/off/transient) were observed under UV illumination, controllable by the polarity of the sample and the externally applied electric field. Measurements of currents originating from electrochemical reactions at the metal electrode-PE phase interfaces demonstrate a memresistive and rectifying capability of the PE phase. Furthermore, internal interfaces such as domain walls and Mg:LN-PE phase boundaries were found to play a major role in the accumulation of charge carriers due to polarization gradients, which can lead to increased currents. The insight gained from these findings yield the potential for multifunctional applications such as switchable UV sensitive micro- and nanoelectronic devices and bistable memristors.

  4. Visible quasi-phase-matched harmonic generation by electric-field-poled lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Gregory D.; Batchko, Robert G.; Fejer, Martin M.; Byer, Robert L.

    1996-05-01

    Laser-based displays and illumination systems are applications which can capitalize on the brightness and efficiency of semiconductor lasers, provided that there is a means for converting their output into the visible spectrum. Semiconductor laser manufacturers can adjust their processes to achieve desired wavelengths in several near-infrared bands; an equally agile conversion technology is needed to permit display and illumination system manufacturers to choose visible wavelengths appropriate to their products. Quasi- phasematched second harmonic generation has the potential to convert high-power semiconductor laser output to the visible with 50% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency in a single-pass bulk configuration, using electric-field-poled lithium niobate. Lithographically- defined electrode structures on the positive or negative polar faces of this crystal are used to control the formation of domains under the influence of electric fields applied using those electrode structures. The quality of the resulting domain patterns not only controls the efficiency of quasi-phasematched second harmonic generation, but also controls the degree of resistance to photorefractive damage. We present a model which is used to identify the optimum electrode duty cycle and applied poling field for domain patterning and compare the predicted domain duty cycle with experimental results. We discuss factors which contribute to inhomogeneous domain pattern quality for samples poled under otherwise ideal conditions and our progress in limiting their influence. Finally, we present optical characterization of a 2.4 mm long 500 micrometers thick sample which produced an average second harmonic power of 1.3 W of 532 nm green from a 9 W average power Q-switched 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser in a loose- focus single-pass configuration.

  5. Interface and thickness dependent domain switching and stability in Mg doped lithium niobate

    DOE PAGES

    Neumayer, Sabine M.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Manzo, Michele; ...

    2015-12-08

    Controlling ferroelectric switching in Mg doped lithium niobate (Mg: LN) is of fundamental importance for optical device and domain wall electronics applications that require precise domain patterns. Stable ferroelectric switching has been previously observed in undoped LN layers above proton exchanged (PE) phases that exhibit reduced polarization, whereas PE layers have been found to inhibit lateral domain growth. Here, Mg doping, which is known to significantly alter ferroelectric switching properties including coercive field and switching currents, is shown to inhibit domain nucleation and stability in Mg: LN above buried PE phases that allow for precise ferroelectric patterning via domain growthmore » control. Furthermore, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) and switching spectroscopy PFM reveal that the voltage at which polarization switches from the "up" to the "down" state increases with increasing thickness in pure Mg: LN, whereas the voltage required for stable back switching to the original "up" state does not exhibit this thickness dependence. This behavior is consistent with the presence of an internal frozen defect field. The inhibition of domain nucleation above PE interfaces, observed in this study, is a phenomenon that occurs in Mg: LN but not in undoped samples and is mainly ascribed to a remaining frozen polarization in the PE phase that opposes polarization reversal. This reduced frozen depolarization field in the PE phase also influences the depolarization field of the Mg: LN layer above due to the presence of uncompensated polarization charge at the PE-Mg: LN boundary. Furthermore, these alterations in internal electric fields within the sample cause long-range lattice distortions in Mg: LN via electromechanical coupling, which were corroborated with complimentary Raman measurements.« less

  6. Two telescopes ABCD electro-optic beam combiner based on lithium niobate for near infrared stellar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, S.; Caballero, O.; Nolot, A.; Gineys, M.; Moulin, T.; Delboulbé, A.; Jocou, L.; Le Bouquin, J.-B.; Berger, J.-P.; Martin, G.

    2011-06-01

    Lithium Niobate (LN) based electro-optic modulators are well known in the optical communications field, due to their high bandwidth and deep rejection ratio [1]. These performances could be used in the field of astronomy for stellar interferometry in the mid-infrared domain [2]. With our partners from Photline Technologies, we have conceived, developed and characterized a 2T ABCD [3] beam combiner in the near-infrared (1.5μm, the H-band in astrophysics). The modulation scheme, presented below in Figure 1, allows to determine the fringe characteristics in a single shot measurement, without the need to externally scan the optical phase delay. Fine adjustment of the relative phase can be achieved using the electro-optic properties of the lithium niobate waveguides. In particular, the phase on each output can be electrically controlled and locked by using appropriate electrodes. These devices have to ensure modal filtering to reject optical aberrations of the wavefront and thus optimize the fringes contrast, which means that they have to be single mode through all the spectral range of interest. This also means that the couplers should be achromatic and balanced in order to optimize the fringe contrast. We will present results on global transmission, performance of the couplers and the electro-optic behavior of the device using monochromatic as well as wide spectral sources in the H-band.

  7. Dynamics of photo-induced changes in the elastic characteristics of lithium niobate crystals doped with Jahn-Teller Fe2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golenishchev-Kutuzov, A. V.; Golenishchev-Kutuzov, V. A.; Kalimullin, R. I.; Semennikov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    The effect of admixture Jahn-Teller Fe2+ ions on the elastic characteristics of lithium niobate was studied. The appearance of photostrains and a change in elastic moduli under the influence of laser radiation was established, thus enabling the creation of device elements with optically controlled elastic characteristics.

  8. Reducing the thermal stress in a heterogeneous material stack for large-area hybrid optical silicon-lithium niobate waveguide micro-chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, P. O.; Mookherjea, S.

    2017-04-01

    The bonding of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) to lithium niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) is becoming important for a new category of linear and nonlinear micro-photonic optical devices. In studying the bonding of SOI to LNOI through benzocyclobutene (BCB), a popular interlayer bonding dielectric used in hybrid silicon photonic devices, we use thermal stress calculations to suggest that BCB thickness does not affect thermal stress in this type of structure, and instead, thermal stress can be mitigated satisfactorily by matching the handles of the SOI and LNOI. We bond LNOI with a silicon handle to a silicon chip, remove the handle on the LNOI side, and thermally cycle the bonded stack repeatedly from room temperature up to 300°C and back down without incurring thermal stress cracks, which do appear when using LNOI with a lithium niobate handle, regardless of the BCB thickness. We show that this process can be used to create many hybrid silicon-lithium niobate waveguiding structures on a single patterned SOI chip bonded to a large-area (16 mm × 4.2 mm) lithium niobate film.

  9. Alignment nature of ZnO nanowires grown on polished and nanoscale etched lithium niobate surface through self-seeding thermal evaporation method

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanan, Ajay Achath; Parthiban, R.; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • ZnO nanowires were grown directly on LiNbO{sub 3} surface for the first time by thermal evaporation. • Self-alignment of the nanowires due to step bunching of LiNbO{sub 3} surface is observed. • Increased roughness in surface defects promoted well-aligned growth of nanowires. • Well-aligned growth was then replicated in 50 nm deep trenches on the surface. • Study opens novel pathway for patterned growth of ZnO nanowires on LiNbO{sub 3} surface. - Abstract: High aspect ratio catalyst-free ZnO nanowires were directly synthesized on lithium niobate substrate for the first time through thermal evaporation method without the use of a buffer layer or the conventional pre-deposited ZnO seed layer. As-grown ZnO nanowires exhibited a crisscross aligned growth pattern due to step bunching of the polished lithium niobate surface during the nanowire growth process. On the contrary, scratches on the surface and edges of the substrate produced well-aligned ZnO nanowires in these defect regions due to high surface roughness. Thus, the crisscross aligned nature of high aspect ratio nanowire growth on the lithium niobate surface can be changed to well-aligned growth through controlled etching of the surface, which is further verified through reactive-ion etching of lithium niobate. The investigations and discussion in the present work will provide novel pathway for self-seeded patterned growth of well-aligned ZnO nanowires on lithium niobate based micro devices.

  10. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Siegel, Jan; Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier

    2014-09-01

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.

  11. Integrated source of tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photons in a domain-engineered lithium niobate waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Ming, Yang; Wu, Zi-jian; Xu, Fei Lu, Yan-qing; Cui, Guo-xin; Tan, Ai-hong

    2014-04-28

    The nonmaximally entangled state is a special kind of entangled state, which has important applications in quantum information processing. It has been generated in quantum circuits based on bulk optical elements. However, corresponding schemes in integrated quantum circuits have been rarely considered. In this Letter, we propose an effective solution for this problem. An electro-optically tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photon state is generated in an on-chip domain-engineered lithium niobate (LN) waveguide. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion and electro-optic interaction are effectively combined through suitable domain design to transform the entangled state into our desired formation. Moreover, this is a flexible approach to entanglement architectures. Other kinds of reconfigurable entanglements are also achievable through this method. LN provides a very promising platform for future quantum circuit integration.

  12. Fabrication of polarization-independent waveguides deeply buried in lithium niobate crystal using aberration-corrected femtosecond laser direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Qi, Jia; Liu, Zhengming; Liao, Yang; Chu, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2017-01-01

    Writing optical waveguides with femtosecond laser pulses provides the capability of forming three-dimensional photonic circuits for manipulating light fields in both linear and nonlinear manners. To fully explore this potential, large depths of the buried waveguides in transparent substrates are often desirable to facilitate achieving vertical integration of waveguides in a multi-layer configuration, which, however, is hampered by rapidly degraded axial resolution caused by optical aberration. Here, we show that with the correction of the spherical aberration, polarization-independent waveguides can be inscribed in a nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate (LN) at depths up to 1400 μm, which is more than one order of magnitude deeper than the waveguides written with aberration uncorrected femtosecond laser pulses. Our technique is beneficial for applications ranging from miniaturized nonlinear light sources to quantum information processing.

  13. Fabrication of polarization-independent waveguides deeply buried in lithium niobate crystal using aberration-corrected femtosecond laser direct writing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Qi, Jia; Liu, Zhengming; Liao, Yang; Chu, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2017-01-01

    Writing optical waveguides with femtosecond laser pulses provides the capability of forming three-dimensional photonic circuits for manipulating light fields in both linear and nonlinear manners. To fully explore this potential, large depths of the buried waveguides in transparent substrates are often desirable to facilitate achieving vertical integration of waveguides in a multi-layer configuration, which, however, is hampered by rapidly degraded axial resolution caused by optical aberration. Here, we show that with the correction of the spherical aberration, polarization-independent waveguides can be inscribed in a nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate (LN) at depths up to 1400 μm, which is more than one order of magnitude deeper than the waveguides written with aberration uncorrected femtosecond laser pulses. Our technique is beneficial for applications ranging from miniaturized nonlinear light sources to quantum information processing. PMID:28112246

  14. Fabrication of polarization-independent waveguides deeply buried in lithium niobate crystal using aberration-corrected femtosecond laser direct writing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Qi, Jia; Liu, Zhengming; Liao, Yang; Chu, Wei; Cheng, Ya

    2017-01-23

    Writing optical waveguides with femtosecond laser pulses provides the capability of forming three-dimensional photonic circuits for manipulating light fields in both linear and nonlinear manners. To fully explore this potential, large depths of the buried waveguides in transparent substrates are often desirable to facilitate achieving vertical integration of waveguides in a multi-layer configuration, which, however, is hampered by rapidly degraded axial resolution caused by optical aberration. Here, we show that with the correction of the spherical aberration, polarization-independent waveguides can be inscribed in a nonlinear optical crystal lithium niobate (LN) at depths up to 1400 μm, which is more than one order of magnitude deeper than the waveguides written with aberration uncorrected femtosecond laser pulses. Our technique is beneficial for applications ranging from miniaturized nonlinear light sources to quantum information processing.

  15. Enhanced Cherenkov phase matching terahertz wave generation via a magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate ridged waveguide crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeya, K.; Minami, T.; Okano, H.; Tripathi, S. R.; Kawase, K.

    2017-01-01

    When combined with a nonlinear waveguide crystal, Cherenkov phase matching allows for highly effective generation of high power and broadband terahertz (THz) waves. Using a ridged Lithium Niobate (LiNbO3) waveguide coupled with a specially designed silicon lens, we successfully generated THz waves with intensity of approximately three orders of magnitude stronger than those from conventional photoconductive antenna. The broadband spectrum was from 0.1 THz to 7 THz with a maximum dynamic range of 80 dB. The temporal shape of time domain pulse is a regular single cycle which could be used for high depth resolution time of flight tomography. The generated THz wave can also be easily monitored by compact room-temperature THz camera, enabling us to determine the spatial characteristics of the THz propagation.

  16. Hysteresis-free high-temperature precise bimorph actuators produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Shur, V. Ya.; Baturin, I. S.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Zorikhin, D. V.; Udalov, A. R.; Greshnyakov, E. D.

    2015-02-02

    The current paper presents a piezoelectric bimorph actuator produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers with the mirrored Y and Z axes. Direct bonding technology allowed to fabricate bidomain plate with precise positioning of ideally flat domain boundary. By optimizing the cutting angle (128° Y-cut), the piezoelectric constant became as large as 27.3 pC/N. Investigation of voltage dependence of bending displacement confirmed that bimorph actuator has excellent linearity and hysteresis-free. Decrease of the applied voltage down to mV range showed the perfect linearity up to the sub-nm deflection amplitude. The frequency and temperature dependences of electromechanical transmission coefficient in wide temperature range (from 300 to 900 K) were investigated.

  17. A novel auto-bias control scheme for stabilizing lithium niobate Mach-Zehnder modulator at any operating point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jin-jing; Zhang, Yang-an; Zhang, Jin-nan; Yuan, Xue-guang; Huang, Yong-qing; Li, Yu-peng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an auto-bias control scheme for stabilizing a lithium niobate (LN) Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM) at any operating point along the power transmission curve. It is based on that the bias drift would change the operating point and result in varying the output optical average power of the Mach-Zehnder modulator and its first and second derivatives. The ratio of the first to the second derivative of the output optical average power is used in the proposed scheme as the key parameter. The experimental results show that the output optical average power of the LN MZM hardly changes at the desired operating point, and the maximum deviation of output optical average power is less than ±4%.

  18. Integrated source of tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photons in a domain-engineered lithium niobate waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ming, Yang; Wu, Zi-jian; Cui, Guo-xin; Tan, Ai-hong; Xu, Fei; Lu, Yan-qing

    2014-04-01

    The nonmaximally entangled state is a special kind of entangled state, which has important applications in quantum information processing. It has been generated in quantum circuits based on bulk optical elements. However, corresponding schemes in integrated quantum circuits have been rarely considered. In this Letter, we propose an effective solution for this problem. An electro-optically tunable nonmaximally mode-entangled photon state is generated in an on-chip domain-engineered lithium niobate (LN) waveguide. Spontaneous parametric down-conversion and electro-optic interaction are effectively combined through suitable domain design to transform the entangled state into our desired formation. Moreover, this is a flexible approach to entanglement architectures. Other kinds of reconfigurable entanglements are also achievable through this method. LN provides a very promising platform for future quantum circuit integration.

  19. Hysteresis-free high-temperature precise bimorph actuators produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, V. Ya.; Baturin, I. S.; Mingaliev, E. A.; Zorikhin, D. V.; Udalov, A. R.; Greshnyakov, E. D.

    2015-02-01

    The current paper presents a piezoelectric bimorph actuator produced by direct bonding of lithium niobate wafers with the mirrored Y and Z axes. Direct bonding technology allowed to fabricate bidomain plate with precise positioning of ideally flat domain boundary. By optimizing the cutting angle (128° Y-cut), the piezoelectric constant became as large as 27.3 pC/N. Investigation of voltage dependence of bending displacement confirmed that bimorph actuator has excellent linearity and hysteresis-free. Decrease of the applied voltage down to mV range showed the perfect linearity up to the sub-nm deflection amplitude. The frequency and temperature dependences of electromechanical transmission coefficient in wide temperature range (from 300 to 900 K) were investigated.

  20. Periodic disruptions induced by high repetition rate femtosecond pulses on magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shuanggen; Kan, Hongli; Zhai, Kaili; Ma, Xiurong; Luo, Yiming; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Qingyue

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the periodic disruption formation on magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate surfaces by a femtosecond fiber laser system with wavelength and repetition rate of 1040 nm and 52 MHz, respectively. Three main experimental conditions, laser average power, scanning speed, and orientation of sample were systematically studied. In particular, the ablation morphologies of periodic disruptions under different crystal orientations were specifically researched. The result shows that such disruptions consisting of a bamboo-like inner structure appears periodically for focusing on the surface of X-, Y- and Z-cut wafers, which are formed by a rapid quenching of the material. Meanwhile, due to the anisotropic property, the bamboo-like inner structures consist of a cavity only arise from X- and Z-cut orientation.

  1. Imaging the ultrafast Kerr effect, free carrier generation, relaxation and ablation dynamics of Lithium Niobate irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Lechuga, Mario Siegel, Jan Hernandez-Rueda, Javier; Solis, Javier

    2014-09-21

    The interaction of high-power single 130 femtosecond (fs) laser pulses with the surface of Lithium Niobate is experimentally investigated in this work. The use of fs-resolution time-resolved microscopy allows us to separately observe the instantaneous optical Kerr effect induced by the pulse and the generation of a free electron plasma. The maximum electron density is reached 550 fs after the peak of the Kerr effect, confirming the presence of a delayed carrier generation mechanism. We have also observed the appearance of transient Newton rings during the ablation process, related to optical interference of the probe beam reflected at the front and back surface of the ablating layer. Finally, we have analyzed the dynamics of the photorefractive effect on a much longer time scale by measuring the evolution of the transmittance of the irradiated area for different fluences below the ablation threshold.

  2. Frequency conversion between UV and telecom wavelengths in a lithium niobate waveguide for quantum communication with Yb+ trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasture, Sachin; Lenzini, Francesco; Haylock, Ben; Boes, Andreas; Mitchell, Arnan; Streed, Erik W.; Lobino, Mirko

    2016-10-01

    We study and demonstrate the frequency conversion of UV radiation, resonant with 369.5 nm transition in Yb+ ions to the C-band wavelength 1580.3 nm and vice-versa using a reverse proton-exchanged waveguide in periodically poled lithium niobate. Our integrated device can interface trapped Yb+ ions with a telecom infrastructure for the realization of an Yb+ based quantum repeater protocol and to efficiently distribute entanglement over long distances. We analyse the single photon frequency conversion efficiency from the 369.525 nm to the telecom wavelength and its dependence on pump power, device length and temperature. The single-photon noise generated by the spontaneous Raman scattering of the pump is also measured. From this analysis we estimate a single photon conversion efficiency of ∼9% is achievable with our technology with almost complete suppression of the Raman noise.

  3. High-energy (100-keV) e-beam lithography applied for fabrication of deep-submicrometer SAW devices on lithium niobate and quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondek, Christine A.; Poli, Louis C.

    1995-05-01

    Fabricating submicron feature size Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices on Lithium Niobate and Quartz allows one to take advantage of their unique piezoelectric material properties and operate at higher frequencies. With the recent availability of high performance, high energy e-beam nanowriter tools such as the Leica/Phillips EBPG-HR5 resident at this facility, SAW devices with very narrow line/space transducer gratings can be investigated. Utilizing very high energy (100 keV) direct write electron beam lithography (EBL), allows for processing of deep submicron features with an associated wider process latitude. This is specially desirable when applying EBL to high average Z materials such as lithium niobate. A previously presented paper demonstrated 400 and 500 nm line/space interdigitated transducer fingers on quartz and lithium niobate substrates. E-Beam lithography (30 keV) was used with two and three level, positive and negative tone processes respectively. In this current work a bilevel positive tone process is used by the authors, and involves first spinning a preparation of (1:1) ZEP-320-37 (Nagase Chemical) positive e-beam resist. A commercially available conductive polymer known as TQV-501 (Nitto Chemical) is then spun onto the wafer and serves as a charge removal vehicle. The TQV-501 film is removed by the development procedure. Xylene is used as the developer. Contact pads and interdigitated transducer elements are realized by e-beam metal deposition and lift off process. We will show a direct write positive tone process for the fabrication of deep submicron (400 nM and smaller) interdigitated transducer gratings on Lithium Niobate and Quartz substrates. An improved process dose latitude is seen because of the reduced expected proximity effect at high beam energy.

  4. Interlinked add-drop filter with amplitude modulation routing a fiber-optic microring to a lithium niobate microwaveguide.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Suxu; Dong, Jiangli; He, Donghui; Wang, Yuan; Qiu, Wentao; Yu, Jianhui; Guan, Heyuan; Zhu, Wenguo; Zhong, Yongchun; Luo, Yunhan; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Zhe; Lu, Huihui

    2017-04-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new electro-optically controllable add-drop filter based on light coupling between a microfiber knot ring (MKR) and a lithium niobate (LN) microwaveguide. In our design, the MKR works as a resonator and routes the resonant light into the LN microwaveguide. The LN microwaveguide, as an excellent intermediary between electronics and optics, is a robust platform that not only enables stable support and manipulation of the MKR but also provides amplitude tunability taking advantage of its electro-optic property. Two add-drop filters with different diameters of the MKR, 1.12 mm, and 560 μm respectively, are studied, and a maximum amplitude tunability of ∼0.139  dB/V is obtained. The results show that this design can be a solution to interconnect a microstructured optical fiber with a microstructured on-chip device and provide an effective method to realize the active on-chip integration of the conventional fiber system.

  5. Highly coherent mid-IR supercontinuum by self-defocusing solitons in lithium niobate waveguides with all-normal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin; Zeng, Xianglong; Bache, Morten

    2014-05-19

    We numerically investigate self-defocusing solitons in a lithium niobate (LN) waveguide designed to have a large refractive index (RI) change. The waveguide evokes strong waveguide dispersion and all-normal dispersion is found in the entire guiding band spanning the near-IR and the beginning of the mid-IR. Meanwhile, a self-defocusing nonlinearity is invoked by the cascaded (phase-mismatched) second-harmonic generation under a quasi-phase-matching pitch. Combining this with the all-normal dispersion, mid-IR solitons can form and the waveguide presents the first all-nonlinear and solitonic device where no linear dispersion (i.e. non-solitonic) regimes exist within the guiding band. Soliton compressions at 2 μm and 3 μm are investigated, with nano-joule single cycle pulse formations and highly coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum generations. With an alternative design on the waveguide dispersion, the soliton spectral tunneling effect is also investigated, with which few-cycle pico-joule pulses at 2 μm are formed by a near-IR pump.

  6. Tip-induced domain growth on the non-polar cuts of lithium niobate single-crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alikin, Denis O.; Ievlev, Anton; Turigin, Anton P.; Lobov, Alexei; Kalinin, Sergei V; Shur, Vladimir Ya.

    2015-05-05

    Currently ferroelectric materials with designed domain structures are considered as a perspective material for new generation of photonic, data storage and data processing devices. Application of external electric field is the most convenient way of the domain structure formation. Lots of papers are devoted to investigation of the domain kinetics on polar surface of crystals while the forward growth remains one of the most mysterious stages due to lack of experimental methods allowing to study it. Here we performed tip-induced polarization reversal on X- and Y-non-polar cuts in single-crystal of congruent lithium niobate allows us to study the forward growth with high spatial resolution. The revealed difference in the shape and length of domains induced on X- and Y-cuts is beyond previously developed theoretical approaches used for the theoretical consideration of the domains growth at non-polar ferroelectric surfaces. Lastly, to explain experimental results we used kinetic approach with anisotropy of screening efficiency along different crystallographic directions.

  7. Tip-induced domain growth on the non-polar cuts of lithium niobate single-crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Alikin, Denis O.; Ievlev, Anton; Turigin, Anton P.; ...

    2015-05-05

    Currently ferroelectric materials with designed domain structures are considered as a perspective material for new generation of photonic, data storage and data processing devices. Application of external electric field is the most convenient way of the domain structure formation. Lots of papers are devoted to investigation of the domain kinetics on polar surface of crystals while the forward growth remains one of the most mysterious stages due to lack of experimental methods allowing to study it. Here we performed tip-induced polarization reversal on X- and Y-non-polar cuts in single-crystal of congruent lithium niobate allows us to study the forward growthmore » with high spatial resolution. The revealed difference in the shape and length of domains induced on X- and Y-cuts is beyond previously developed theoretical approaches used for the theoretical consideration of the domains growth at non-polar ferroelectric surfaces. Lastly, to explain experimental results we used kinetic approach with anisotropy of screening efficiency along different crystallographic directions.« less

  8. Substitution mechanisms and location of Co2+ ions in congruent and stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals derived from electron paramagnetic resonance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grachev, V. G.; Hansen, K.; Meyer, M.; Kokanyan, E. P.; Malovichko, G. I.

    2017-03-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra and their angular dependencies were measured for Co2+ trace impurities in stoichiometric samples of lithium niobate doped with rhodium. It was found that Co2+ substitutes for Li+ in the dominant axial center (CoLi) and that the principal substitution mechanism in stoichiometric lithium niobate is 4Co2+ ↔ 3Li+  +  Nb5+. The four Co2+ ions can occupy the nearest possible cation sites by occupying a Nb site and its three nearest-neighbor Li sites, creating a trigonal pyramid with C3 symmetry, as well as non-neighboring sites (e.g. a CoNb–CoLi pair at the nearest sites on the C3 axis with two nearby isolated single Co2+ ions substituted for Li+). In congruent crystals and samples with Li content enriched by vapor transport equilibrium treatment the excess charge of the Co2+ centers is compensated by lithium vacancies located rather far from the Co2+ ions for the dominant axial center or in the nearest neighborhood for low-symmetry satellite centers (the Co2+ ↔ 2Li+ substitution mechanism). The use of exact numerical diagonalization of the spin-Hamiltonian matrices explains all the details of the EPR spectra and gives a value for hyperfine interaction A || that is several times smaller than that obtained using perturbation formulae. The refined values of A and g-tensor components can be used as reliable cornerstones for ab initio and cluster calculations.

  9. The possibility of tailoring the ne vs cLi relationship in lithium niobate optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špirková-Hradilová, Jarmila; Nekvindová, Pavla; Vacík, Jiří; Červená, Jarmila; Schröfel, Josef

    2001-01-01

    We present results of our study of concentration profiles of lithium ( cLi) in annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguiding layers as measured by the neutron depth profiling (NDP) method. This non-destructive method, based on the 6Li(n,α) 3H reaction induced by thermal neutrons, allowed easy monitoring of cLi profiles in a large number of samples fabricated under various fabrication conditions. Our systematic study revealed that, though every particular waveguide could be characterised by very similar mirror-shaped extraordinary refractive index ( ne) as well as cLi depth profiles, in contrast with up to now generally accepted opinion, there was no linear relationship which unambiguously attributed Δne to ΔcLi. The most important fabrication step appeared to be the post-exchange annealing, during which the lithium atoms were transported towards the sample surfaces. The annealing regime pre-destined not only the depth distribution of the lithium atoms but, as a consequence of it, also other properties of the waveguiding region. That knowledge allows us to fabricate the APE waveguides with a priori given properties for a wide range of special applications. We have also formulated the ne vs cLi semi-empirical relationship, which was proved to fit all our fabricated APE waveguides.

  10. Origin of UV-induced poling inhibition in lithium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigerwald, H.; Lilienblum, M.; von Cube, F.; Ying, Y. J.; Eason, R. W.; Mailis, S.; Sturman, B.; Soergel, E.; Buse, K.

    2010-12-01

    Short-term exposure of the +z face of LiNbO3 crystals to focused UV laser light leads to persistent inhibition of ferroelectric domain reversal at the irradiated area, a phenomenon referred to as “poling inhibition.” Different types of crystals (stoichiometric, congruent, or Mg-doped ones) are exposed, creating the so-called “latent state” and domain growth during subsequent electric-field poling is visualized. The latent state is robust against thermal annealing up to 250°C and uniform illumination. With the tip of a scanning force microscope the coercive field is mapped, showing not only the expected resistance against domain reversal in the UV-irradiated region but also easier poling adjacent to the UV-irradiated section. These results and theoretical estimates point to the following mechanism of poling inhibition: the UV light-induced heating results in a local reduction of the lithium concentration, via thermodiffusion. The required charge compensation is provided by UV-excited free electrons/holes. After cooling, the lithium ions become immobile, and the reduced lithium concentration causes a strong local increase in the coercive field in the exposed area, while the increased Li concentration next to this area reduces the coercive field.

  11. Characterization of diced ridge waveguides in pure and Er-doped lithium-niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüter, C. E.; Suntsov, S.; Kip, D.; Stone, G.; Dierolf, V.; Hu, H.; Sohler, W.

    2014-03-01

    Lithium-niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) is a new material platform for integrated optics allowing for small bending radii, high intensities and superior electro-optical and nonlinear properties. Ridge waveguides of different width are fabricated on pure and Er-doped LNOI substrates using diamond-blade dicing, resulting in smooth side walls with lower roughness when compared to dry etching techniques. Propagation losses for polarized modes are measured by the Fabry-Perot method using a fiber coupling setup and a tunable laser at 1.5 μm. Loss values as low as ~1.4dBcm-1 were obtained for quasi-TM (qTM) modes, while losses for qTE modes are slightly higher. Characterization of Er:LNOI ridges is performed using Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy. Spectral scans are obtained using a scanning confocal microscope and a 488nm laser. Besides line broadening that may be attributed to internal strain in the bonded layer and implantation induced defects, analysis of Raman spectra shows no significant difference between waveguide and bulk material. However, Er emission of 2H11/2 and 4S3/2 to 4I15/2 contains small spatial differences across the layer thickness when compared to Er-doped bulk samples. While Raman intensity has a linear relationship with pump power, the intensity of the Er emission starts saturating already at pump levels of a few mW. To investigate fluorescence of the 4I13/2-4I15/2 transition inside the diced ridges, a fiber-coupled laser with wavelength 980nm is used for pumping. The emission is broadened and maxima are shifted to longer wavelengths, which may be attributed to defects induced by implantation, strain induced by the bonded LN-SiO2 interface, and re-absorption of fluorescence light.

  12. Offset-Free Gigahertz Midinfrared Frequency Comb Based on Optical Parametric Amplification in a Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A. S.; Phillips, C. R.; Langrock, C.; Klenner, A.; Johnson, A. R.; Luke, K.; Okawachi, Y.; Lipson, M.; Gaeta, A. L.; Fejer, M. M.; Keller, U.

    2016-11-01

    We report the generation of an optical-frequency comb in the midinfrared region with 1-GHz comb-line spacing and no offset with respect to absolute-zero frequency. This comb is tunable from 2.5 to 4.2 μ m and covers a critical spectral region for important environmental and industrial applications, such as molecular spectroscopy of trace gases. We obtain such a comb using a highly efficient frequency conversion of a near-infrared frequency comb. The latter is based on a compact diode-pumped semiconductor saturable absorber mirror-mode-locked ytterbium-doped calcium-aluminum gadolynate (Yb:CALGO) laser operating at 1 μ m . The frequency-conversion process is based on optical parametric amplification (OPA) in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) chip containing buried waveguides fabricated by reverse proton exchange. The laser with a repetition rate of 1 GHz is the only active element of the system. It provides the pump pulses for the OPA process as well as seed photons in the range of 1.4 - 1.8 μ m via supercontinuum generation in a silicon-nitride (Si3 N4 ) waveguide. Both the PPLN and Si3 N4 waveguides represent particularly suitable platforms for low-energy nonlinear interactions; they allow for mid-IR comb powers per comb line at the microwatt level and signal amplification levels up to 35 dB, with 2 orders of magnitude less pulse energy than reported in OPA systems using bulk devices. Based on numerical simulations, we explain how high amplification can be achieved at low energy using the interplay between mode confinement and a favorable group-velocity mismatch configuration where the mid-IR pulse moves at the same velocity as the pump.

  13. Optimization of the idler wavelength tunable cascaded optical parametric oscillator based on chirp-assisted aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Chen; Rong, Shu; Ye, Ge; Zhuo, Chen

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical results for the optimization of the pump-to-idler conversion efficiencies of nanosecond idler wavelength tunable cascaded optical parametric oscillators (OPO) in different wavelength tuning ranges, where the primary signals from the OPO process are recycled to enhance the pump-to-idler conversion efficiencies via the simultaneous difference frequency generation (DFG) process by monolithic aperiodically poled, magnesium oxide doped lithium niobate (APMgLN) crystals. The APMgLN crystals are designed with different chirp parameters for the DFG process to broaden their thermal acceptance bandwidths to different extents. The idler wavelength tuning of the cascaded OPO is realized by changing the temperature of the designed APMgLN crystal and the cascaded oscillation is achieved in a single pump pass singly resonant linear cavity. The pump-to-idler conversion efficiencies with respect to the pump pulse duration and ratio of OPO coefficient to DFG coefficient are calculated by numerically solving the coupled wave equations. The optimal working conditions of the tunable cascaded OPOs pumped by pulses with energies of 350 μJ and 700 μJ are compared to obtain the general rules of optimization. It is concluded that the optimization becomes the interplay between the ratio of OPO coefficient to DFG coefficient and the pump pulse duration when the idler wavelength tuning range and the pump pulse energy are fixed. Besides, higher pump pulse energy is beneficial for reaching higher optimal pump-to-idler conversion efficiency as long as the APMgLN crystal is optimized according to this pump condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first numerical analysis of idler wavelength tunable cascaded OPOs based on chirp-assisted APMgLN crystals. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61505236), the Innovation Program of Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, China (Grant No. CX-2), and the Program of Shanghai

  14. Tensile Creep Fracture of Polycrystalline Near-Stoichiometric NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.

    2004-01-01

    Tensile creep fracture behavior of polycrystalline near-stoichiometric NiAl has been studied between 700 and 1200 K under initial applied stresses varying between 10 and 200 MPa. The stress exponent for fracture varied between 5.0 and 10.7 while the activation energy for fracture was 250 +/- 22 kJ/mol. The fracture life was inversely proportional to the secondary creep rate in accordance with the Monkman-Grant relation although there was extensive scatter in the data. This observation suggests that the fracture life for near-stoichiometric NiAl was influenced by creep under these stress and temperature conditions. Several different fracture morphologies were observed. Transgranular ductile cleavage fracture occurs at 700 K and at the higher stresses at 800 K. The fracture mode transitions to transgranular creep fracture at 900 and 1000 K and at lower stresses at 800 K, while plastic rupture and grain boundary cavitation occur at 1100 and 1200 K. An experimental fracture mechanism map is constructed for near-stoichiometric NiAl.

  15. Are lithium niobate (LiNbO3) and lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) ferroelectrics bioactive?

    PubMed

    Vilarinho, Paula Maria; Barroca, Nathalie; Zlotnik, Sebastian; Félix, Pedro; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2014-06-01

    The use of functional materials, such as ferroelectrics, as platforms for tissue growth in situ or ex situ, is new and holds great promise. But the usage of materials in any bioapplication requires information on biocompatibility and desirably on bioactive behavior when bone tissue engineering is envisaged. Both requirements are currently unknown for many ferroelectrics. Herein the bioactivity of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 is reported. The formation of apatite-like structures on the surface of LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 powders after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different soaking periods indicates their bioactive potential. The mechanism of apatite formation is suggested. In addition, the significant release of lithium ions from the ferroelectric powders in the very first minutes of soaking in SBF is examined and ways to overcome this likely hurdle addressed.

  16. FABRICATION AND TESTING OF MICROWAVE SINTERED SOL-GEL SPRAY-ON BISMUTH TITANATE-LITHIUM NIOBATE BASED PIEZOELECTRIC COMPOSITE FOR USE AS A HIGH TEMPERATURE (>500 deg. C) ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER

    SciTech Connect

    Searfass, C. T.; Baba, A.; Tittmann, B. R.; Agrawal, D. K.

    2010-02-22

    Bismuth titanate-lithium niobate based ultrasonic transducers have been fabricated using a sol-gel spray-on deposition technique. These transducers were then tested to determine their potential as high temperature ultrasonic transducers. Fabricated transducers were capable of operating to 1000 deg. C in pulse-echo mode; however, the exposure to such extreme temperatures appears to be destructive to the transducers.

  17. Field induced modification of defect complexes in magnesium-doped lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Nadège; Granzow, Torsten; Nataf, Guillaume F.

    2014-12-28

    Dielectric constant, thermally stimulated depolarization currents (TSDC), and conductivity of undoped and 5% Mg-doped LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals between −100 °C and 200 °C have been investigated. A Debye-like dielectric relaxation with an activation energy of 135 meV is observed in the Mg-doped material, but not in undoped crystals. On heating this relaxation disappears near 140 °C and does not reappear after cooling. Anomalies observed in TSDC around this temperature are attributed to the motion of lithium vacancies, in agreement with conductivity measurements. It is proposed that in thermal equilibrium the electrons from the Mg{sub Li}{sup •} donors are trapped in (4Mg{sub Li}{sup •}+4V{sub Li}{sup ′}) defect complexes. High-temperature poling breaks these defect complexes. The transition of the liberated electrons between the Mg{sub Li}{sup •} donor centers and the Nb{sub Nb} forming the conduction band gives rise to the observed dielectric relaxation.

  18. Piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of lead-free niobium-rich potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jun; Li, Yang; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lead-free K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} single crystals were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. • The piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties of as-grown crystals were systematically investigated. • The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N. • The coercive fields of P–E hysteresis loops are quite small, about or less than 1 kV/mm. - Abstract: Lead-free potassium lithium tantalate niobate single crystals with the composition of K{sub 0.95}Li{sub 0.05}Ta{sub 1−x}Nb{sub x}O{sub 3} (abbreviated as KLTN, x = 0.51, 0.60, 0.69, 0.78) were grown using the top-seeded melt growth method. Their piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties in as-grown crystals have been systematically investigated. The phase transitions and Curie temperatures were determined from dielectric and pyroelectric measurements. Piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling factors in thickness mode, length-extensional mode and longitudinal mode were obtained. The piezoelectric properties are very attractive, e.g. for x = 0.60 composition, k{sub t} ≈ 70%, k{sub 31} ≈ 70%, k{sub 33} ≈ 77%, d{sub 31} ≈ 230 pC/N, d{sub 33} ≈ 600 pC/N are comparable to the lead-based PZT composition. The polarization versus electric field hysteresis loops show saturated shapes. In short, lead-free niobium-rich KLTN system possesses comparable properties to those in important lead-based piezoelectric material nowadays.

  19. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-01

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz-100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10-273 ps for DC voltages and 189-813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250-2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115-1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  20. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; Cular, S.

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  1. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y + 36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Cular, S.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-08-15

    A comparison study between Y + 36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y + 36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to both crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y + 36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y + 36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y + 36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. When the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.

  2. Comparative study of 0° X-cut and Y+36°-cut lithium niobate high-voltage sensing

    DOE PAGES

    Patel, N.; Branch, D. W.; Schamiloglu, E.; ...

    2015-08-11

    A comparison study between Y+36° and 0° X-cut lithium niobate (LiNbO3) was performed to evaluate the influence of crystal cut on the acoustic propagation to realize a piezoelectric high-voltage sensor. The acoustic time-of-flight for each crystal cut was measured when applying direct current (DC), alternating current (AC), and pulsed voltages. Results show that the voltage-induced shift in the acoustic wave propagation time scaled quadratically with voltage for DC and AC voltages applied to X-cut crystals. For the Y+36° crystal, the voltage-induced shift scales linearly with DC voltages and quadratically with AC voltages. When applying 5 μs voltage pulses to bothmore » crystals, the voltage-induced shift scaled linearly with voltage. For the Y+36° cut, the voltage-induced shift from applying DC voltages ranged from 10 to 54 ps and 35 to 778 ps for AC voltages at 640 V over the frequency range of 100 Hz–100 kHz. Using the same conditions as the Y+36° cut, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a shift of 10–273 ps for DC voltages and 189–813 ps for AC voltage application. For 5 μs voltage pulses, the 0° X-cut crystal sensed a voltage induced shift of 0.250–2 ns and the Y+36°-cut crystal sensed a time shift of 0.115–1.6 ns. This suggests a frequency sensitive response to voltage where the influence of the crystal cut was not a significant contributor under DC, AC, or pulsed voltage conditions. The measured DC data were compared to a 1-D impedance matrix model where the predicted incremental length changed as a function of voltage. Furthermore, when the voltage source error was eliminated through physical modeling from the uncertainty budget, the combined uncertainty of the sensor (within a 95% confidence interval) decreased to 0.0033% using a Y + 36°-cut crystal and 0.0032% using an X-cut crystal for all the voltage conditions used in this experiment.« less

  3. Growth and property of Zn-doped near-stoichiometric LiTaO 3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Dongpeng; Xu, Yuheng

    2010-05-01

    Near-stoichiometric LiTaO 3 (SLT) and Zn-doped near-stoichiometric LiTaO 3 (Zn:SLT) crystals with 10-15 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length were grown by using TSSG technique with K 2O as the flux. The effect of adding amount of K 2O was discussed in the growing process. The crystals were characterized by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP-OES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The lattice constants of Zn:SLT were smaller than those of SLT and Curie temperature was higher than that of SLT. It was found that Zn doping is an efficient way to improve the optical damage resistance ability of SLT crystal. Compared with SLT crystal, Zn:SLT exhibited a much higher optical damage threshold, more than 500 MW/cm 2, which was attributed to Zn self-compensated effect that formed the charge compensated complexes, (Zn Ta) 3--3(Zn Li) + in SLT crystal.

  4. Optical isolator based on the electro-optic effect in periodically poled lithium niobate with the addition of a half domain.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Tian, Linghao; Chen, Xianfeng

    2012-12-20

    We propose an optical isolator based on the electro-optic (EO) effect of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN). When the EO effect occurs in PPLN under a TE field, each domain serves as a half-wave plate under the quasi-phase-matching condition, and PPLN shows optical activity similar to quartz. The introduction of an additional half-domain to the normal PPLN changes the incident azimuth angle of the reflected light. As a result, the reflected light does not return to the original polarization state. Thus, the optical rotation accumulates and optical isolation occurs. The isolator can be employed for all linearly polarized light and has the advantage of being used in a weak-light system with low driving voltage and high isolation contrast.

  5. Simultaneous subchannel data updating for multiple channels of 16-quadrature amplitude modulation signals using a single periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Wu, Xiaoxia; Khaleghi, Salman; Ziyadi, Morteza; Tur, Moshe; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Paraschis, Loukas; Willner, Alan E

    2012-11-01

    Subchannel data updating of high-order modulation format signals using cascaded sum- and difference-frequency generation in a single periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide is demonstrated. One quadrature phase-shift-keying subchannel of a 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal at 40 Gbit/s is successfully updated, with an optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) penalty of ~2 dB for return-to-zero and ~4 dB for non-return-to-zero at a bit-error rate (BER) of 2×10(-3). Simultaneous processing of four wavelength-multiplexed 16-QAM signals with an average OSNR penalty of 4.5 dB at a BER of 2×10(-3) is also demonstrated.

  6. Electro-optic spectral tuning in a fan-out double-prism domain periodically poled lithium niobate intracavity optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Chang, W K; Chung, H P; Lin, Y Y; Chen, Y H

    2016-08-15

    We report on the design and experimental demonstration of an electro-optically tunable, pulsed intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) based on a unique fan-out double-prism domain periodically poled lithium niobate (DPD PPLN) in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser. The PPLN device combines the functionalities of fan-out and ramped duty-cycle domain structured nonlinear crystals, working simultaneously as a continuous grating-period quasi-phase-matched optical parametric downconverter and an electro-optic beam deflector/Q switch in the laser system. When driving the fan-out DPD PPLN with a voltage pulse train and varying the DC offset of the pulse train, a pulsed IOPO was realized with its signal and idler being electro-optically tunable over the 1880 and 2453 nm bands at spectral tuning rates of 13.5 (measured) and 25.8 (calculated) nm/(kV/mm), respectively.

  7. Amplification of ps-pulses from freely triggerable gain-switched laser diodes at 1062 nm and second harmonic generation in periodically poled lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönau, Thomas; Riecke, Sina M.; Lauritsen, Kristian; Erdmann, Rainer

    2011-03-01

    We present a compact frequency-doubled laser source with fundamental wavelength operation at 1062 nm. A freely triggerable seed diode laser delivers sub-100 ps pulses in the picojoule range at variable repetition rates up to 80 MHz. After amplification in a Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier, the average power exceeds 380mW at 40 MHz, which corresponds to 9.5 nJ pulses and about 75W of peak power. The output beam is then focussed into periodically poled lithium niobate for second harmonic generation (SHG). In this way, green picosecond pulses with an energy of up to 2 nJ at 40MHz are generated. The pulse energy and pulse shape of the second harmonic pulses are systematically studied for various repetition rates, allowing conclusions on the amplifier performance under different operating conditions.

  8. Laser-induced-damage threshold of periodically poled lithium niobate for 1030 nm femtosecond laser pulses at 100 kHz and 75 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipinyté, I.; Grigonis, R.; Stankevičiuté, K.; Kičas, S.; Drazdys, R.; Eckardt, R. C.; Sirutkaitis, V.

    2013-07-01

    We report laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) measurements of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and magnesium-oxide-doped PPLN (MgO:PPLN) in the femtosecond pulse duration regime at 1030 nm with 100 kHz and 75 MHz repetition rate. PPLN and MgO:PPLN crystals with broadband Nb2O5/SiO2 AR coatings for 1.4 - 1.8 um spectral range were used. S-on-1 test for LIDT measurements were performed. S was equal to 106 and 4.56*1010 pulses for 100 kHz CPA laser system and 75 MHz oscillator, respectively. Evaluated LIDT was 20 mJ/cm2 for 290 fs pulses at 100 kHz repetition rate and 0.63 mJ/cm2 for 105 fs pulses at 76 MHz repetition rate.

  9. Broadband frequency-chirped terahertz-wave signal generation using periodically-poled lithium niobate for frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamazaki, Junichi; Ogawa, Yoh; Sekine, Norihiko; Kasamatsu, Akifumi; Kanno, Atsushi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Hosako, Iwao

    2016-02-01

    We have proposed a method by using a nonlinear optical technique to generate frequency-modulated (FM) signals in the terahertz (THz) band with much broader bandwidth. Periodically-poled lithium niobates (PPLNs) are excited by ultrashort pulses, and linearly frequency-chirped THz pulses are obtained by changing the periodicity of the PPLN gradually. The bandwidth achieved is approximately 1 THz at a center frequency of 1.5 THz. Using this wave in a FM continuous (CW) radar system is expected to result in a range resolution of ~150 μm. This FM-THz signal generation technique will thus be useful in or future civil safety applications requiring high-resolution ranging or imaging.

  10. Investigation of defect structure of impurity-doped lithium niobate by combining thermodynamic constraints with lattice constant variations

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, Chihiro; Nozawa, Jun Fujiwara, Kozo; Uda, Satoshi; Maeda, Kensaku

    2015-01-07

    The defect structures of impurity-doped congruent lithium niobates (c-LN) were determined for impurities with various valences, including divalent, trivalent, and tetravalent impurities, in a concentration range where antisite niobium (Nb{sub Li}) exists. On the basis of the “Li site vacancy model,” six kinds of defect structures in impurity-doped c-LN are possible. Using thermodynamic constraints, these can be narrowed down to two kinds. The first structure is that in which impurities, vacancies and Nb exist as defects in the Li site and no defects exist in the Nb site (structure A), described as ([Li{sub Li}] {sub 1-5x-jy}[Nb{sub Li}]{sub x}[M{sub Li}]{sub y}[V{sub Li}]{sub 4x+(j-1)y})[Nb{sub Nb}][O{sub O}] {sub 3} (V: vacancy, M: impurity, j: valence of impurity, x, y: compositional variable (≠0), Li/Nb = congruent ratio). ([Li{sub Li}{sup ×}] {sub 1-5x-2y}[Nb{sub Li}{sup ••••}]{sub x}[M{sub Li}{sup •}]{sub y}[V{sub Li}{sup ′}]{sub 4x+y})[Nb{sub Nb}{sup ×}][O{sub O}{sup ×}] {sub 3} is an example by the Kröger-Vink notation for divalent M. In the second structure, vacancies and Nb exist as defects in the Li site and impurities exist as defects in the Nb site (structure B), described as ([Li{sub Li}] {sub 1-5x-(j-5)y}[Nb{sub Li}]{sub x}[V{sub Li}]{sub 4x+(j-5)y})([Nb{sub Nb}] {sub 1-y}[M{sub Nb}]{sub y})[O{sub O}] {sub 3}. ([Li{sub Li}{sup ×}] {sub 1-5x+y}[Nb{sub Li}{sup ••••}]{sub x}[V{sub Li}{sup ′}]{sub 4x-y})([Nb{sub Nb}{sup ×}] {sub 1-y}[M{sub Nb}{sup ′}]{sub y})[O{sub O}{sup ×}] {sub 3} is an example for tetravalent M. Since the relationship between impurity concentration and lattice constants for structures A and B differs, the defect structures can be differentiated by analyzing lattice constant variations as a function of impurity concentration. The results show that the defect structure of divalent and trivalent impurity-doped c-LN is structure A and that of tetravalent impurity-doped c-LN is

  11. Continuous-wave quasi-phase-matched generation of 60thinspthinspmW at 465thinspthinspnm by single-pass frequency doubling of a laser diode in backswitch-poled lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Batchko, R.G.; Fejer, M.M.; Byer, R.L.; Woll, D.; Wallenstein, R.; Shur, V.Y.; Erman, L.

    1999-09-01

    We report continuous-wave single-pass second-harmonic generation (SHG) in 4-{mu}m -period 0.5-mm-thick backswitch-poled lithium niobate. Pump sources at 920{endash}930thinspthinspnm include both Ti:sapphire and diode-oscillator{endash}amplifier lasers. SHG of a Ti:sapphire laser at 6.1{percent}/W efficiency, producing 61thinspthinspmW of power at 460thinspthinspnm, is demonstrated in 50-mm-long periodically poled lithium niobate samples with a nonlinear coefficient d{sub eff}{approx}9 pm/V , and 60thinspthinspmW at 465thinspthinspnm and 2.8{percent}/W efficiency is obtained by SHG of a laser-diode source. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital Optical Society of America}

  12. Swirl-can combustor performance to near-stoichiometric fuel-air ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.; Biaglow, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions and performance characteristics were determined for full-annulus swirl-can modular combustors operated to near stoichiometric fuel air ratios. The purposes of the tests were to obtain stoichiometric data at inlet air temperatures up to 894 K and to determine the effect of module number by investigating 120 and 72 module swirl-can combustors. The maximum average exit temperature obtained with the 120-module swirl-can combustor was 2465 K with a combustion efficiency of 95 percent at an inlet-air temperature of 894 K. The 72-module swirl-can combustor reached a maximum average exit temperature of 2306 K with a combustion efficiency of 92 percent at an inlet air temperature of 894 K. At a constant inlet air temperature, maximum oxides of nitrogen emission index values occurred at a fuel-air ratio of 0.037 for the 72-module design and 0.044 for the 120-module design. The combustor average exit temperature and combustion efficiency were calculated from emissions measurements. The measured emissions included carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and smoke.

  13. Magnetic properties of nearly stoichiometric CeAuBi{sub 2} heavy fermion compound

    SciTech Connect

    Adriano, C.; Jesus, C. B. R.; Pagliuso, P. G.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Grant, T.; Fisk, Z.; Garcia, D. J.

    2015-05-07

    Motivated by the interesting magnetic anisotropy found in the heavy fermion family CeTX{sub 2} (T = transition metal and X = pnictogen), here, we study the novel parent compound CeAu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub 2−y} by combining magnetization, pressure dependent electrical resistivity, and heat-capacity measurements. The magnetic properties of our nearly stoichiometric single crystal sample of CeAu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub 2−y} (x = 0.92 and y = 1.6) revealed an antiferromagnetic ordering at T{sub N} = 12 K with an easy axis along the c-direction. The field dependent magnetization data at low temperatures reveal the existence of a spin-flop transition when the field is applied along the c-axis (H{sub c} ∼ 7.5 T and T = 5 K). The heat capacity and pressure dependent resistivity data suggest that CeAu{sub 0.92}Bi{sub 1.6} exhibits a weak heavy fermion behavior with strongly localized Ce{sup 3+} 4f electrons. Furthermore, the systematic analysis using a mean field model including anisotropic nearest-neighbors interactions and the tetragonal crystalline electric field (CEF) Hamiltonian allows us to extract a CEF scheme and two different values for the anisotropic J{sub RKKY} exchange parameters between the Ce{sup 3+} ions in this compound. Thus, we discuss a scenario, considering both the anisotropic magnetic interactions and the tetragonal CEF effects, in the CeAu{sub 1−x}Bi{sub 2−y} compounds, and we compare our results with the isostructural compound CeCuBi{sub 2}.

  14. Possibility of tailoring ne vs. cLi relations in lithium niobate optical waveguides for sensors applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirkova-Hradilova, Jarmila; Nekvindova, Pavla; Vacik, Jiri; Cervena, Jarmila; Schroefel, Josef

    1999-12-01

    We present results of our study of concentration profiles of lithium (cLi) in annealed proton exchanged (APE) waveguiding layers as measured by the neutron depth profiling method. This non-destructive method is based on the 6Li(n,(alpha) )3H reaction induced by thermal neutrons and allowed easy monitoring of cLi profiles in a large number of samples fabricated under various fabrication conditions. Our systematic study revealed that there was no linear relationship which unambiguously attributed (Delta) ne to (Delta) cLi, on contrast with up to now generally accepted opinion. Every particular waveguide has very similar mirror-shaped ne as well as cLi depth profiles, but, generally, all the waveguides can not be characterized with the same ne vs. cLi relationship. The most important fabrication step has appeared to be the post-exchange annealing, during which lithium atoms are transported towards the sample surfaces. The annealing regime pre-destined not only the depth distribution of lithium atoms, but as a consequence of it, also other properties of the waveguiding region. We have formulated ne vs. cLi semi-empirical relationship and listed a set of case-dependent empirical constants for our fabrication system. That allows us to fabricate the APE waveguides with a priori given properties for a wide range of special applications.

  15. Femtosecond writing of near-surface waveguides in lithium niobate for low-loss electro-optical modulators of broadband emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharin, Mikhail A.; Skryabin, Nikolay N.; Khudyakov, Dmitriy V.; Vartapetov, Sergey K.

    2016-05-01

    In the investigation we demonstrated technique of direct femtosecond laser writing of tracks with induced refractive index at record low depth under surface of lithium niobate (3-15 μm). It was shown that with the help of proposed technique one can be written claddings of near surface optical waveguides that plays a key role in fabrication of fast electro-optical modulators with low operating voltage. Fundamental problem resolved in the investigation consists in suppression of negative factors impeding femtosecond inscription of waveguides at low depths. To prevent optical breakdown of crystal surface we used high numerical aperture objectives for focusing of light. It was shown, that advanced heat accumulation regime of femtosecond inscription is inapplicable for writing of near-surface waveguides, and near the surface waveguides should be written in non-thermal regime in contrast to widespread femtosecond writing at depths of tens micrometers. Inscribed waveguides were examined for optical losses and polarization properties. It was experimentally shown, that femtosecond written near surface waveguides have such advantages over widely used proton exchanged and Ti-diffusion waveguides as lower optical losses (down to 0.3 dB/cm) and maintaining of all polarization states of propagation light, which is crucial for development of electro-optical modulators for broadband and ultrashort laser emission. Novelty of the results consists in technique of femtosecond inscription of waveguides at record low depths under the surface of crystals. As compared to previous investigations in the field (structures at depths near 50 um with buried electrodes), the obtained waveguides could be used with simple closely adjacent on-surface electrodes.

  16. Complex investigations of structural and optical homogeneities of low-photorefractivity lithium niobate crystals by the conoscopy and photoinduced and Raman light scattering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, N. V.; Pikoul, O. Yu.; Kruk, A. A.; Teplyakova, N. A.; Yanichev, A. A.; Palatnikov, M. N.

    2015-02-01

    Using photoinduced light scattering, conoscopy, and Raman spectroscopy methods, we have studied stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals and congruent crystals that were doped with Mg(0.078, 0.89 mas %), Zn(0.03, 0.52, 0.62), Cu(0.015), B(0.12), Gd(0.51), Y(0.46), Gd(0.23):Mg(0.75), Mg(0.86):Fe(0.0036), Ta(1.13):Mg(0.011), and Y(0.24):Mg(0.63) cations. It has been found that, depending on the kind of the pattern of photoinduced light scattering, investigated specimens can be divided into three groups. We have shown that the asymmetry of the indicatrix of photoinduced light scattering of LiNbO3 crystals is caused by birefringence of exciting laser radiation as it propagates perpendicularly to the polar axis of the crystal, whereas the asymmetry of the Raman spectrum arises due to the occurrence of spontaneous polarization, the vector of which is directed along the polar axis, and by birefringence. The pattern of the photoinduced light scattering depends on the difference of the refractive indices Δ n = n o - n e of the ordinary ( n o ) and extraordinary ( n e ) rays and their energies E. If En o {ie259-1} En e , the proportion of the photoinduced light scattering has the shape of a three-layer round spot. For equal energies, the pattern has the shape of a symmetric figure-eight. At En o < En e , the figure-eight is asymmetric. In this case, its large "lobe" is directed in the positive direction of the polar axis of the crystal.

  17. Low Temperature Creep of Hot-Extruded Near-Stoichiometric NiTi Shape Memory Alloy. Part I; Isothermal Creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Noebe, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This two-part paper is the first published report on the long term, low temperature creep of hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi. Constant load tensile creep tests were conducted on hot-extruded near-stoichiometric NiTi at 300, 373 and 473 K under initial applied stresses varying between 200 and 350 MPa as long as 15 months. These temperatures corresponded to the martensitic, two-phase and austenitic phase regions, respectively. Normal primary creep lasting several months was observed under all conditions indicating dislocation activity. Although steady-state creep was not observed under these conditions, the estimated creep rates varied between 10(exp -10) and 10(exp -9)/s. The creep behavior of the two phases showed significant differences. The martensitic phase exhibited a large strain on loading followed by a primary creep region accumulating a small amount of strain over a period of several months. The loading strain was attributed to the detwinning of the martensitic phase whereas the subsequent strain accumulation was attributed to dislocation glide-controlled creep. An "incubation period" was observed before the occurrence of detwinning. In contrast, the austenitic phase exhibited a relatively smaller loading strain followed by a primary creep region, where the creep strain continued to increase over several months. It is concluded that the creep of the austenitic phase occurs by a dislocation glide-controlled creep mechanism as well as by the nucleation and growth of deformation twins.

  18. Anisotropy of thermal conductivities in non- and Mg-doped near-stoichiometric LiTaO 3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masaru; Takekawa, Shunji; Kitamura, Kenji

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the thermal conductivities of non-doped near-stoichiometric LiTaO 3 (SLT) and Mg (1 mol%)-doped near-stoichiometric LiTaO 3 (Mg:SLT) crystals along the X-, Y-, and Z-axes at room temperature. Those of non-doped congruent LiTaO 3 (CLT) crystal along the same axes were also estimated to investigate the effect of non-stoichiometric defects. The thermal conductivities were determined by measuring the thermal diffusivity using a laser-flash method and measuring the specific heat using a differential scanning calorimeter. Anisotropy of the thermal conductivities was found for all three crystals. That is, the thermal conductivities along the X-axis were the same as those along the Y-axis and less than those along the Z-axis. The thermal conductivities of the SLT crystal were the highest and were twice those of the CLT crystal. The thermal conductivities of the Mg:SLT crystal were slightly lower than those of the SLT crystal apparently due to the Mg-doping. We also investigated the effect of the difference in domain structure on thermal conductivity using as-grown Mg:SLT crystal with randomly distributed multi-domains and found that it did not affect the thermal conductivity along any axis. These findings regarding thermal conductivity should be useful for designing high-power laser applications using SLT and Mg:SLT crystals.

  19. Optical properties of MgO doped near-stoichiometric LiTaO 3 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Pengchao; Zhang, Lianhan; Xiong, Jing; Yin, Jigang; Zhao, Chengchun; He, Xiaoming; Hang, Yin

    2011-09-01

    Comparative study of the optical properties of undoped and 1-3 mol% MgO doped near-stoichiometric LiTaO 3 (SLT) crystals were undertaken. It was observed that the red shift in the absorption edge occurred with the increasing MgO doping concentration. The infrared absorption spectrum of the OH-stretch-mode in SLT was measured for crystals of undoped and 1-3 mol% MgO doped compositions. The coercive field for the crystals was measured to be 0.913, 0.610 and 0.735 kV/mm for 1-3 mol% MgO doped SLT, respectively. Photorefractive damage of SLT single crystals with 1-3 mol% MgO doping levels was measured to be 136.29, 180.25 and 222.54 MW/cm 2.

  20. 4.0 μm, high repetition rate periodically poled magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by steep leading edge pulsed fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Liu, Qiang; Ji, Encai; Chen, Hailong; Gong, Mali

    2014-10-10

    A high repetition rate optical parametric oscillator (OPO) generating an idler laser with a wavelength as long as 4.0 μm at 200 and 400 kHz was demonstrated in this paper. The OPO was pumped by a master oscillator power amplifier structure fiber laser with excellent characteristics. The pump pulse from the fiber laser had a steep leading edge, which was theoretically proved to improve the OPO's performance, compared with the Gaussian pump pulse. A homemade periodically poled magnesium-oxide-doped lithium niobate crystal with a grating period of 29 μm was employed in our experiment. By optimizing the resonator, 2.75 and 1.67 W idler lasers were finally achieved at repetition rates as high as 200 and 400 kHz, respectively, with a wavelength as long as 4.0 μm. The conversion efficiencies were 12.03% and 7.31%, respectively.

  1. Efficient 1.54 μm laser property in near- stoichiometric Er:LiNbO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yannan; Xie, Zhongxiang; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Haiyan; Wu, Qibai

    2015-11-01

    Near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal heavily doped with Er3+ ions (Er:NSLN) was grown by Czochralski technique. An enhancement of 1.54 μm emission and a lengthening lifetime of 4I13/2→4I15/2 transition observed in Er:NSLN crystal would meet the requirement of the greatly shortening optical diffusion route for Er-doped waveguide amplifiers (EDWAs). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine the concentration of Er3+ ion in the crystal. Based on Judd-Ofelt theory, the spectroscopic properties of Er:NSLN crystal were discussed, and the obtained intensity parameters Ωt implied that the increased [Li]/[Nb] ratio had a large influence on the value of Ω2. The emission cross-sections of 1.54 μm emission were calculated by Füchtbauer-Ladenburg and reciprocity methods. Studies on the gain cross-section, estimated as a function of the population inversion ratio, suggested that Er:NSLN crystal could be considered as a potential material in the application of the tunable lasers around 1.54 μm wavelength.

  2. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1.2 kt (1,300 st) of contained lithium, a 40-percent decrease from 2008. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium, and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2009, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 18.7 kt (20,600 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds.

  3. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, lithium consumption in the United States was estimated to have been about 1 kt (1,100 st) of contained lithium, a 23-percent decrease from 2009. The United States was estimated to be the fourth largest consumer of lithium. It remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. Only one company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic resources. In 2010, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 21 kt (22,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 12-percent increase from 2009.

  4. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, world lithium consumption was estimated to have been about 25 kt (25,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, a 10-percent increase from 2010. U.S. consumption was estimated to have been about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, a 100-percent increase from 2010. The United States was estimated to be the fourth-ranked consumer of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Chemetall Foote Corp. (a subsidiary of Chemetall GmbH of Germany), produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  5. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, lithium consumption in the United States was at 2.5 kt of contained lithium, nearly 32% more than the estimate for 2004. World consumption was 14.1 kt of lithium contained in minerals and compounds in 2003. Exports from the US increased slightly compared with 2004. Due to strong demand for lithium compounds in 2005, both lithium carbonate plants in Chile were operating at or near capacity.

  6. Photorefractive effect in iron-doped lithium niobate crystals induced by femtosecond pulses of 1.5 {mu}m wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, O.; Breunig, I.; Kalkum, F.; Buse, K.

    2006-01-30

    Illumination of iron-doped lithium crystals (LiNbO{sub 3}:Fe) with femtosecond pulses of 1.5 {mu}m wavelength results in large refractive index changes {delta}n in the order of 10{sup -3}. The sign of the refractive index changes depends on the polarization of the recording light. The results can be very useful for fabrication of tailored holographic components for telecommunication.

  7. Lithium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.

    1998-01-01

    The lithium industry can be divided into two sectors: ore concentrate producers and chemical producers. Ore concentrate producers mine lithium minerals. They beneficiate the ores to produce material for use in ceramics and glass manufacturing.

  8. Lithium

    MedlinePlus

    ... bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium ... Lithium is also sometimes used to treat depression, schizophrenia (a mental ... emotions), disorders of impulse control (inability to resist the urge ...

  9. Widely-tunable terahertz parametric oscillator based on MgO-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Longhuang; Wang, Yuye; Xu, Degang; Yang, Zhen; Yan, Chao; Xu, Wentao; Duan, Pan; He, Yixin; Shi, Jia; Nie, Meitong; Yao, Jianquan

    2016-11-01

    A widely tunable, high-energy terahertz wave parametric oscillator based on 1 mol. % MgO-doped near-stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal has been proposed with 1064 nm nanosecond pulsed laser pumping. The tunable range of 1.16 to 4.64 THz was obtained. Under the pump energy of 150 mJ/pulse, the maximum THz wave output energy of 12.56 μJ was achieved at 1.88 THz, corresponding to the THz wave conversion efficiency of 7.61×10-5 and the photon conversion efficiency of 1.14%, respectively. Moreover, the THz half maximum (FWHM) beam diameters of MgO:SLN TPO measured at 4 cm from the output surface were 7.42 mm and 6.06 mm in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively.

  10. Mixed structural face-centered cubic and body-centered cubic orders in near stoichiometric Fe2MnGa alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, Y. V.; Perekos, A. E.; Uvarov, N. V.; Kolchiba, M. R.; Synoradzki, K.; Dubowik, J.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic and transport properties of near stoichiometric metastable FexMnyGaz alloys (46 ≤ x ≤ 52, 17 ≤ y ≤ 25, 26 ≤ z ≤ 30) with face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and two-phase (FCC + BCC) structures are investigated. The experimental results are analyzed in terms of first-principles calculations of stoichiometric Fe2MnGa alloy with the L21, L12, and the tetragonally distorted L21 structural orderings. It is shown that the pure BCC and FCC phases have distinct magnetic and transport properties. Two-phase Fe2MnGa alloys have magnetic and transport properties typical of the mixed BCC and FCC phases. Among the investigated alloys, Fe46Mn24Ga30 has a martensitic transformation accompanied with significant changes of its magnetic and transport properties.

  11. Selective optical bleaching of Cr3+ luminescence at low temperature in MgO codoped near stoichiometric LiNbO3:Cr crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, T. P.; Jaque, F.; Arizméndi, L.; Bermúdez, V.; Suchocki, A.; Kaminska, A.; Kobyakov, S.

    2003-10-01

    Selective R-line emission of the Cr3+ ions in near stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystals codoped with MgO has been studied at low temperature under excitation into the 4A2→4T1 transition. The emission intensity of R lines associated with Cr3+ ions located in Nb5+ sites, [Cr]Nb centers, was observed to decrease with the illumination time, whereas those ascribed to other Cr3+ ions, such as those located in the Li site, [Cr]Li centers, are optically stable. The selective bleaching is explained by considering the photoinization of Cr3+ ions in Nb sites and the formation of Nb4+ complexes (small polaron).

  12. Ndp and Rbs Study of Lithium Niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackova, A.; Perina, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Vacik, J.; Cervena, J.; Groetzschel, R.; Nekvindova, P.; Spirkova, J.

    2003-06-01

    Nuclear analytical methods are very important in materials research. We provide in Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI) several nuclear analytical methods, i.e. Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (ERDA), and Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP). The methods mentioned above were applied in the study of nonlinear optical materials, such as LiNbO3, to explain the mechanism of ion exchange in the near-surface layers of the substrates and to determine the profile of laser active Er ions. Depth profiles of Li in LiNbO3 were measured by NDP. We are able to evaluate the hydrogen depth profiles from ERDA measurement and Er depth profile from RBS measurement. We present the results of the complex study of LiNbO3 treated by ion exchange and low temperature diffusion of laser active ions by NDP, RBS and ERDA.

  13. Low Temperature Creep of Hot-Extruded Near-Stoichiometric NiTi Shape Memory Alloy. Part 2; Effect of Thermal Cycling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, S. V.; Noebe, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first report on the effect prior low temperature creep on the thermal cycling behavior of NiTi. The isothermal low temperature creep behavior of near-stoichiometric NiTi between 300 and 473 K was discussed in Part I. The effect of temperature cycling on its creep behavior is reported in the present paper (Part II). Temperature cycling tests were conducted between either 300 or 373 K and 473 K under a constant applied stress of either 250 or 350 MPa with hold times lasting at each temperature varying between 300 and 700 h. Each specimen was pre-crept either at 300 or at 473 K for several months under an identical applied stress as that used in the subsequent thermal cycling tests. Irrespective of the initial pre-crept microstructures, the specimens exhibited a considerable increase in strain with each thermal cycle so that the total strain continued to build-up to 15 to 20 percent after only 5 cycles. Creep strains were immeasurably small during the hold periods. It is demonstrated that the strains in the austenite and martensite are linearly correlated. Interestingly, the differential irrecoverable strain, in the material measured in either phase decreases with increasing number of cycles, similar to the well-known Manson-Coffin relation in low cycle fatigue. Both phases are shown to undergo strain hardening due to the development of residual stresses. Plots of true creep rate against absolute temperature showed distinct peaks and valleys during the cool-down and heat-up portions of the thermal cycles, respectively. Transformation temperatures determined from the creep data revealed that the austenitic start and finish temperatures were more sensitive to the pre-crept martensitic phase than to the pre-crept austenitic phase. The results are discussed in terms of a phenomenological model, where it is suggested that thermal cycling between the austenitic and martensitic phase temperatures or vice versa results in the deformation of the austenite and

  14. Lithium tetraborate transducer cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosinski, John; Ballato, Arthur; Lukaszek, Theodore

    1990-03-01

    Lithium tetraborate is a tetragonal material of considerable promise for frequency control and signal processing applications. It exhibits piezoelectric coupling values that fall between those of lithium niobate and quartz, but possesses orientations for which the temperature coefficient of frequency and delay time is zero for bulk and surface acoustic waves. In this report, we discuss the properties of two doubly rotated bulk wave resonator orientations having both first- and second-order temperature coefficients equal to zero. These are suitable for shear and compressional wave transducers in applications where very low temperature sensitivity is required simultaneously with moderately strong piezocoupling coefficients.

  15. Lithium tetraborate transducers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, Arthur; Kosinski, John A.; Lukaszek, Ted J.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium tetraborate is a tetragonal material of considerable promise for frequency control and signal processing applications. It exhibits piezoelectric coupling values that fall between those of lithium niobate and quartz, but possesses orientations for which the temperature coefficient of frequency and delay time is zero for bulk and surface acoustic waves. The properties of two doubly rotated bulk wave resonator orientations having first- and second-order temperature coefficients equal to zero are discussed. These are suitable for shear and compressional wave transducers in applications where very low temperature sensitivity is required simultaneously with moderately strong piezocoupling coefficients.

  16. Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

    2006-10-17

    Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves having significant activity for multivalent cations and a method for synthesizing such sieves are disclosed. The sieves have a net negatively charged octahedral framework, comprising niobium, oxygen, and octahedrally coordinated lower valence transition metals. The framework can be charge balanced by the occluded alkali cation from the synthesis method. The alkali cation can be exchanged for other contaminant metal ions. The ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be backexchanged in acidic solutions to yield a solution concentrated in the contaminant metal. Alternatively, the ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be thermally converted to a durable perovskite phase waste form.

  17. Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves

    DOEpatents

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Nyman, May D.

    2003-07-22

    Niobate-based octahedral molecular sieves having significant activity for multivalent cations and a method for synthesizing such sieves are disclosed. The sieves have a net negatively charged octahedral framework, comprising niobium, oxygen, and octahedrally coordinated lower valence transition metals. The framework can be charge balanced by the occluded alkali cation from the synthesis method. The alkali cation can be exchanged for other contaminant metal ions. The ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be backexchanged in acidic solutions to yield a solution concentrated in the contaminant metal. Alternatively, the ion-exchanged niobate-based octahedral molecular sieve can be thermally converted to a durable perovskite phase waste form.

  18. Green up-conversion and near-infrared luminescence of femtosecond-laser-written waveguides in Er3+, MgO co-doped nearly stoichiometric LiNbO3 crystal.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jinman; Hao, Xiaotao; Chen, Feng

    2016-10-31

    We report on the green up-conversion and near-infrared (NIR) emission in Er3+, MgO co-doped nearly stoichiometric LiNbO3 waveguides fabricated by femtosecond laser writing. The waveguides with so-called Type I geometry by laser writing support nearly single-mode propagation of light at NIR wavelength of 1.55 μm. In addition, it has been found that the guidance is only along the vertical (i.e., TM) polarization, which is due to the laser-induced positive changes of extraordinary index in the guiding core. The green up-conversion at 550 nm and 528 nm, corresponding to the transitions of 4S3/24I15/2, 2H11/24I15/2, as well as the NIR luminescence emission at C-band centered at 1550 nm under 4I13/24I15/2 transition have been realized in the waveguides, respectively. Our results have shown that the intensities of the guided-wave green up-conversion and NIR emissions are higher than those obtained from the bulk, which may be owing to the enhanced intracavity optical intensities of the waveguide with respect to the bulk.

  19. Chemically Prepared Lead Magnesium Niobate Dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Olson, W.R.; Goy, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    A chemical solution powder synthesis technique has been developed that produces fine uniform powders of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) with 60 to 80 nm crystallite size. The synthesis technique was based on the dissolution of lead acetate and alkoxide precursors in acetic acid followed by precipitation with oxalic acid/propanol solutions. Lead magnesium niobate ceramics fabricated from these chemically derived powders had smaller, more uniform grain size and higher dielectric constants than ceramics fabricated from mixed oxide powders that were processed under similar thermal conditions.

  20. Optical nonlinearities of small polarons in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imlau, Mirco; Badorreck, Holger; Merschjann, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    An overview of optical nonlinearities of small bound polarons is given, which can occur in the congruently melting composition of LiNbO3. Such polarons decisively influence the linear and nonlinear optical performance of this material that is important for the field of optics and photonics. On the basis of an elementary phenomenological approach, the localization of carriers in a periodic lattice with intrinsic defects is introduced. It is applied to describe the binding energies of four electron and hole small polarons in LiNbO3: small free NbNb4 + polarons, small bound NbLi4 + polarons, small bound NbLi4 +:NbNb4 + bipolarons, and small bound O- hole polarons. For the understanding of their linear interaction with light, an optically induced transfer between nearest-neighboring polaronic sites is assumed. It reveals spectrally well separated optical absorption features in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, their small polaron peak energies and lineshapes. Nonlinear interaction of light is assigned to the optical formation of short-lived small polarons as a result of carrier excitation by means of band-to-band transitions. It is accompanied by the appearance of a transient absorption being spectrally constituted by the individual fingerprints of the small polarons involved. The relaxation dynamics of the transients is thermally activated and characterized phenomenologically by a stretched exponential behavior, according to incoherent 3D small polaron hopping between regular and defect sites of the crystal lattice. It is shown that the analysis of the dynamics is a useful tool for revealing the recombination processes between small polarons of different charge. Nonlinear interaction of small polarons with light furthermore results in changes of the index of refraction. Besides its causal relation to the transients via Kramers-Kronig relation, pronounced index changes may occur due to optically generated electric fields modulating the index of refraction via the linear electro-optic effect, also. Based on a microscopic picture and by considering the local structural environment of bound polarons, the appearance of photovoltaic currents is explained straightforwardly as a result of the optically induced carrier transfer. Both transient absorption and index changes are spatially confined to the intensity profile of the interacting light allowing for the recording of efficient mixed absorption and phase volume holograms. By means of holographic spectroscopy, these small-polaron based optical nonlinearities are verified either without or with the action of the linear electro-optic effect; their prominent features are highlighted by appropriate experimental studies wherin the ultrafast response on the picosecond time scale is the most recognized one. Based on these findings, the consequences for applications of LiNbO3 in the field of nonlinear optics and photonics are presented. Besides visionary examples like real-time, 3D holographic displays, the impact of optical nonlinearities of small polarons for present applications are discussed with frequency conversion and respective limiting effects, such as green-induced infrared absorption and optical damage, as important example.

  1. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Charles D.; Bergum, John W.

    1994-01-01

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated.

  2. Lead magnesium niobate actuator for micropositioning

    DOEpatents

    Swift, C.D.; Bergum, J.W.

    1994-10-25

    An improved lead magnesium niobate actuator is disclosed comprising a cylindrical lead magnesium niobate crystal stack mounted in a cylindrical casing wherein a bias means, such as one or more belleville washers, is located between one end of the crystal stack and a partially closed end of the casing; and adjustment means are provided which bear against the opposite end of the crystal stack, whereby an adjustable compressive force is constantly applied against the crystal stack, whether the crystal stack is actuated in an extended position, or is in an unactuated contracted position. In a preferred embodiment, cooling ports are provided for the circulation of coolant in the actuator to cool the crystal stack, and provision is made for removal and replacement of the crystal stack without disconnecting the actuator from the external device being actuated. 3 figs.

  3. Chemically prepared lead magnesium niobate dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, B.A.; Voigt, J.A.; Sipola, D.L.; Olson, W.R.; Goy, D.M.

    1998-11-01

    A chemical solution powder synthesis technique has been developed that produces first, uniform powders of lead magnesium niobate (PMN) with 60 to 80 nm crystallite size. The synthesis technique was based on the dissolution of lead acetate and alkoxide precursors in acetic acid followed by precipitation with oxalic acid/propanol solutions. Lead magnesium niobate ceramics fabricated from these chemically derived powders had smaller, more uniform grain size and higher dielectric constants than ceramics fabricated from mixed oxide powders that were processed under similar thermal conditions. Chem-prep PMN dielectrics with peak dielectric constants greater than 22,000 and polarizations in excess of 29 {micro}C/cm{sup 2} were obtained for 1,100 C firing treatments. Substantial decreases in dielectric constant and polarization were measured for chemically prepared PMN ceramics fired at lower temperatures, consistent with previous work on mixed oxide materials.

  4. Electrocaloric properties of potassium tantalate niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwa, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    The electrocaloric properties of potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) crystals were investigated by indirect estimation and direct measurement of temperature-electric field (T-E) hysteresis loops. The measured T-E loops showed a similar shape to strain-electric field (s-E) loops. The adiabatic temperature change ΔT due to the electrocaloric effect was estimated from the polarization change of this sample to be 0.49 K under a field of 20 kV/cm. The measured temperature change ΔT in these samples upon the release of the electric field from 20 kV/cm to zero was 0.42 K. The temperature dependences of the electromechanical and electrocaloric properties were measured. The maximum performance appeared at approximately the phase transition temperature of KTN crystal and the properties were relatively moderate-temperature-dependent.

  5. Short-Pitch Periodically Poled Lithium-Niobate And Lithium Tantalate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    noise ( Barkhausen pulses) which can be related with jump-like motion of the domain walls [24,25]. 18 Figure 15 Switching currents measured for...the only source of the steps. It is clear that the observed jump-like wall motion should lead to switching current noise ( Barkhausen jumps) (Fig. 25

  6. Hydrogen, lithium, and lithium hydride production

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Sam W; Spencer, Larry S; Phillips, Michael R; Powell, G. Louis; Campbell, Peggy J

    2014-03-25

    A method of producing high purity lithium metal is provided, where gaseous-phase lithium metal is extracted from lithium hydride and condensed to form solid high purity lithium metal. The high purity lithium metal may be hydrided to provide high purity lithium hydride.

  7. Tensile Creep of Polycrystalline Near-Stoichiometric NiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.

    2002-01-01

    Long term tensile creep studies were conducted on binary NiAl in the temperature range 700-1200 K with the objectives of characterizing and understanding the creep mechanisms. Inverse and normal primary creep curves were observed depending on stress and temperature. It was concluded that the creep of NiAl is limited by dislocation mobility. The stress exponent for creep, n, increased from 5.5 at 1200 K to 13.9 at 700 K. The true activation energy for creep, Qc, was constant and equal to about 400 kJ per mole between 20 and 50 MPa but decreased to a constant value of 250 kJ per mole between 50 and 110 MPa. The activation energy was observed to be stress dependent above 110 MPa. The tensile creep results reported in this investigation were compared with compression creep data reported in the literature. A detailed discussion of the probable dislocation creep mechanisms governing compressive and tensile creep of NiAl is presented. It is concluded that the non-conservative motion of jogs on screw dislocations influenced the nature of the primary creep curves, where the climb of these jogs involves either the next nearest neighbor or the six-jump cycle vacancy diffusion mechanism. The probable nature of the atom vacancy exchange that occur within the core of an edge dislocation undergoing climb in NiAl are schematically examined.

  8. Electro-optical polycrystalline barium lanthanum titanium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Mehrotra, A.K.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes a transparent electro-optic article. It comprises: of a barium lanthanum titanium niobate wherein substantially all grains are of a grain size between about 2 and about 20 micron, the article has a pore volume of less than about 1 percent, and the article has a grain size of between about 2 and about 20 microns. This patent also describes a method of forming transparent electro-optical barium lanthanum titanium niobate. It comprises: providing particles of barium carbonate, lanthanum oxide, titanium oxide, and niobium oxide, calcining the particles, sintering the calcined particles at a temperature of between about 1200{degrees} C and 1300{degrees} C. and a vacuum of between about 10{sup {minus}3} and 10{sup {minus}4} torr while under pressure to form a sintered mass, cooling the sintered mass, slicing the mass to form wafers, heating the wafers in an oxidizing atmosphere.

  9. Complex Impedance Studies of Optically Excited Strontium Barium Niobate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    has a tetragonal tungsten - bronze structure. The unit cell for this structure, illustrated below in Fig. 2.1, consists of ten oxygen octahedra joined...4 Kittel, pp. 373-374. 5 P. B. Jamieson, et al, “Ferroelectric Tungsten Bronze -Type Crystal Structures. I. Barium Strontium Niobate...Oxford, 1987). 2. C. Kittel, Introduction to Solid State Physics, (Wiley, New York, 1986). 3. P. B. Jamieson, et al, “Ferroelectric Tungsten

  10. Tunable, pulsed multiline intracavity optical parametric oscillator using two-dimensional MgO: periodically poled lithium niobate-aperiodically poled lithium niobate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y H; Chang, W K; Chung, H P; Liu, B Z; Tseng, C H; Chang, J W

    2013-09-15

    We report a tunable, pulsed multiline intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) realized in an Nd:YVO4 laser using a two-dimensionally domain engineered MgO:LiNbO3 as simultaneously an electro-optic Bragg Q switch and a multichannel optical parametric downconverter. The MgO:LiNbO3 was periodically and aperiodically poled along the crystallographic y and x axes, respectively, to simultaneously satisfy the phase-matching conditions required by the two quasi-phase-matching devices. When Q switched by 1 kHz, 300 V pulses, three signal lines at 1518, 1526, and 1534 nm were simultaneously generated, each with a peak power of ∼1  kW from the IOPO at 8.3 W diode power at 50°C. Spectral tuning of the three-line IOPO with temperature was demonstrated.

  11. Lithium nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Jobson Lopes de; Silva Júnior, Geraldo Bezerra da; Abreu, Krasnalhia Lívia Soares de; Rocha, Natália de Albuquerque; Franco, Luiz Fernando Leonavicius G; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Daher, Elizabeth de Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Lithium has been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Its renal toxicity includes impaired urinary concentrating ability and natriuresis, renal tubular acidosis, tubulointerstitial nephritis progressing to chronic kidney disease and hypercalcemia. The most common adverse effect is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, which affects 20-40% of patients within weeks of lithium initiation. Chronic nephropathy correlates with duration of lithium therapy. Early detection of renal dysfunction should be achieved by rigorous monitoring of patients and close collaboration between psychiatrists and nephrologists. Recent experimental and clinical studies begin to clarify the mechanisms by which lithium induces changes in renal function. The aim of this study was to review the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, histopathological aspects and treatment of lithium-induced nephrotoxicity.

  12. [Lithium nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarczyk, Ireneusz; Sułowicz, Władysław

    2013-01-01

    Lithium salts are the first-line drug therapy in the treatment of uni- and bipolar disorder since the sixties of the twentieth century. In the mid-70s, the first information about their nephrotoxicity appeared. Lithium salts have a narrow therapeutic index. Side effects during treatment are polyuria, polydipsia and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Accidental intoxication can cause acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy while receiving long-term lithium salt can lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. The renal biopsy changes revealed a type of chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. The imaging studies revealed the presence of numerous symmetric microcysts. Care of the patient receiving lithium should include regular determination of serum creatinine, creatinine clearance and monitoring of urine volume. In case of deterioration of renal function reducing the dose should be considered.

  13. Lithium toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lithonate Note: Lithium is also commonly found in batteries, lubricants, high performance metal alloys, and soldering supplies. ... Kidney failure Memory problems Movement disorders Problems ... your body Psychosis (disturbed thought processes, unpredictable ...

  14. On the nature of striae in strontium barium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monchamp, R. R.; Mihalik, G. B.; Franks, L. A.

    1994-08-01

    Strontium barium niobate crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique. These crystals were 15-20 mm in diameter and 25 to 75 mm long. Two types of striae, designated as coarse and fine, were characterized. The coarse striae are optically dense and are spaced by 100 to 500 microns apart; the fine striae are optically less dense and spaced 5-50 microns apart. The origins of the striae are attributed to thermal fluctuations in the melt related to the control system and to rotation of the growing crystal in non-isothermal radial gradients. Analysis of the crystals indicated that the coarse striae may contain increased concentrations of sodium.

  15. Growth and Preparation of Lead-Potassium-Niobate (PKN) Single Crystals Specimens.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    POTASSIUM - NIOBATE (PKN) SINGLE CRYSTAL S SPECIMENS ,, Texas A&M University....... ’DTIC ELECTE MAR?7 1M8 R. K. Pandey B APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE...and Subtitle) S. TYPE Of REPORT II PERIOD COVERED Final Technical Report GROWTH AND PREPARATION OF LEAD- POTASSIUM -Ap80-Sp1 NIOBATE (PKN) SINGLE...Ba, Pb, Sr, Ca, Na, K etc. and B = Nb or Ta. Lead- potassium - niobate (PKN), Pb2KNb5015, is one of the members of the family of TB- ferroelectrics

  16. Navy Lithium Battery Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-14

    lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2), lithium - thionyl chloride (Li- SOCL2), and lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S02CL2...and 1980’s with active primary cells: Lithium -sulfur dioxide (Li-SO2) Lithium - thionyl chloride (Li-SOCL2) Lithium -sulfuryl chloride (Li-S0 CL ) 2 2...DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. NAVY LITHIUM BATTERY SAFETY John Dow1 and Chris Batchelor2 Naval

  17. Photochemical Reaction Patterns on Heterostructures of ZnO on Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manpuneet; Liu, Qianlang; Crozier, Peter A; Nemanich, Robert J

    2016-10-05

    The internal electric field in LiNbO3 provides a driving force for heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, where photoexcited holes or electrons can participate in redox reactions on positive (+c) and negative (-c) domain surfaces and at the domain boundaries. One method to characterize the surface chemical reactivity is to measure photoinduced Ag deposition by immersing the LiNbO3 in an aqueous AgNO3 solution and illuminating with above bandgap light. Reduction of Ag(+) ions leads to the formation of Ag nanoparticles at the surface, and a high density of Ag nanoparticles indicates enhanced surface photochemical reactions. In this study, an n-type semiconducting ZnO layer is deposited on periodically poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) to modulate the surface electronic properties and impact the surface redox reactions. After plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of 1, 2, 4, and 10 nm ZnO thin films on PPLN substrates, the substrates were immersed in aqueous AgNO3 and illuminated with above band gap UV light. The Ag nanoparticle density increased for 1 and 2 nm ZnO/PPLN heterostructures, indicating an enhanced electron density at the ZnO/PPLN surface. However, increasing the ZnO thickness beyond 2 nm resulted in a decrease in the Ag nanoparticle density. The increase in nanoparticle density is related to the photoexcited charge density at the ZnO/PPLN interface and the presence of a weakly adsorbed Stern layer at the ZnO surface. The decrease in the nanoparticle density for thicker ZnO is attributed to photoexcited electron screening in the ZnO layer that suppresses electron flow from the LiNbO3 to ZnO surface.

  18. Modelling of Optical Guided Wave Devices in Lithium Niobate Using Test Structures for Process Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Eddie Lynn

    This dissertation presents a study of the modelling of optical guided wave devices in LiNbO_3 with emphasis on experimental verification of the models. The goals are to identify the main sources of error in the modelling process, construct a model capable of achieving qualitative and quantitative accuracy, and develop a method of determining the correct set of input parameters to the model for a given fabrication process. The investigation is limited to mode interference type devices and the switching voltage is used as a basis for comparison. The finite element method is used for calculation of optical modes in waveguides with graded refractive index profiles. The integral equation method is used for calculation of the static electric field due to electrodes in a three layer anisotropic structure. It is proposed that the main source of error in the modelling process is not in the model itself, but in determining the correct input parameters to the model. The investigation of the input parameters focusses on a priori knowledge of the parameters and the sensitivity of the model to each parameter. The five parameters responsible for the largest errors in Ti:LiNbO_3 devices are identified as the Ti diffusion coefficients, the peak index change in the waveguides, the electrooptic coefficient, and the buffer layer dielectric constant. A method is presented for determining each of the selected parameters using a set of test devices fabricated on a single chip. The test set includes a planar waveguide, Mach-Zehnder modulators, and symmetrically perturbed directional couplers. Several sets of these devices have been fabricated using different fabrication conditions. The parameter values determined using this method compare favorably to those reported in the literature. The diffusion of Ti for x-cut crystals is found to be highly anisotropic, with the lateral diffusion length being about twice as large as the diffusion depth. The dependence of the diffusion lengths on diffusion time and Ti thickness is as predicted by diffusion theory. The refractive index change for channel waveguides appears to be much less than that of planar guides. The electrooptic coefficient at a wavelength of 1.3 μm in the waveguide is slightly lower than the value reported for the bulk crystal at a wavelength of 0.63 mum.

  19. Voltage-induced waveguides in lithium niobate films on silicon substrates.

    PubMed

    Chauvet, M; Thoa, P; Bassignot, F

    2017-03-15

    Electrically tunable channel waveguides have been fabricated by domain inversion of a LiNbO3 thin film bonded to a silicon wafer. The electro-optic effect is used to induce the waveguides and to alter its guiding properties. A low amplitude electric signal can tune the voltage-induced structure from an efficient waveguide to an antiguide giving a waveguide transmission that varies over more than 25 dB. The frequency response of the components is given.

  20. [Calculation of spectroscopic parameters of highly doped Er3+ in lithium niobate].

    PubMed

    Sun, Dun-lu; Zhang, Qing-li; Wang, Ai-hua; Hang, Yin; Zhang, Lian-han; Qian, Xiao-bo; Zhu, Shi-ning; Yin, Shao-tang

    2005-09-01

    A highly doped Er3+: LiNbO3 (concentration 6 mol%) crystal was grown successfully by Czochralski method. The crystal is higher than that of the lowly doped Er3+ in LiNbO3 crystal, which is helpful to improve absorption coefficient of the grown the pumping efficiency. The absorption spectra at two unpolarized directions (X and Z) and two polarized directions (E parallel Z, E perpendicular Z) were measured. Using the Judd-Ofelt theory, and according to the measured absorption spectra, the intensity parameters omegalambda of Er3+ were fitted. The results of root-mean square (r. m. s) deviation show that the error of polarized fitting is less than that of unpolarized one. Thus fluorescence transition probabilities (Ajj), radioactive lifetime (tau), fluorescence branching ratio (beta), and integrated emission cross section (sigmap) were calculated and accepted according to the polarized results, and were also discussed and compared with the ones reported in the literature.

  1. A coupled effect of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion irradiation damage in lithium niobate

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Xue, Haizhou; ...

    2016-01-09

    Understanding irradiation effects induced by elastic energy loss to atomic nuclei and inelastic energy loss to electrons in a crystal, as well as the coupled effect between them, is a scientific challenge. Damage evolution in LiNbO3 irradiated by 0.9 and 21 MeV Si ions at 300 K has been studied utilizing Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode. During the low-energy ion irradiation process, damage accumulation produced due to elastic collisions is described utilizing a disorder accumulation model. Moreover, low electronic energy loss is shown to induce observable damage that increases with ion fluence. For the same electronic energy loss, themore » velocity of the incident ion could affect the energy and spatial distribution of excited electrons, and therefore effectively modify the diameter of the ion track. Furthermore, nonlinear additive phenomenon of irradiation damage induced by high electronic energy loss in pre-damaged LiNbO3 has been observed. The result indicates that pre-existing damage induced from nuclear energy loss interacts synergistically with inelastic electronic energy loss to promote the formation of amorphous tracks and lead to rapid phase transformation, much more efficient than what is observed in pristine crystal solely induced by electronic energy loss. As a result, this synergistic effect is attributed to the fundamental mechanism that the defects produced by the elastic collisions result in a decrease in thermal conductivity, increase in the electron-phonon coupling, and further lead to higher intensity in thermal spike from intense electronic energy deposition along high-energy ion trajectory.« less

  2. Impact of longitudinal fields on second harmonic generation in lithium niobate nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghban, Mohammad Amin; Gallo, Katia

    2016-09-01

    An optimized focused ion beam process is used to fabricate micrometer-long LiNbO3 nanopillars with diameters varying between 150 and 325 nm. Polarimetric mappings of second harmonic generation from a wavelength of 850 nm demonstrate the ability to modify the polarization features of the nonlinear response through a fine adjustment of the pillar size. The effect is ascribed to the non-negligible contribution of the longitudinal fields associated with sub-wavelength light confinement in the LiNbO3 nanopillars. The results also highlight the importance of a fine control over the nanopillar size in order to effectively engineer their nonlinear response.

  3. A coupled effect of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion irradiation damage in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Xue, Haizhou; Jin, Ke; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Wang, Xuelin; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-09

    Understanding irradiation effects induced by elastic energy loss to atomic nuclei and inelastic energy loss to electrons in a crystal, as well as the coupled effect between them, is a scientific challenge. Damage evolution in LiNbO3 irradiated by 0.9 and 21 MeV Si ions at 300 K has been studied utilizing Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode. During the low-energy ion irradiation process, damage accumulation produced due to elastic collisions is described utilizing a disorder accumulation model. Moreover, low electronic energy loss is shown to induce observable damage that increases with ion fluence. For the same electronic energy loss, the velocity of the incident ion could affect the energy and spatial distribution of excited electrons, and therefore effectively modify the diameter of the ion track. Furthermore, nonlinear additive phenomenon of irradiation damage induced by high electronic energy loss in pre-damaged LiNbO3 has been observed. The result indicates that pre-existing damage induced from nuclear energy loss interacts synergistically with inelastic electronic energy loss to promote the formation of amorphous tracks and lead to rapid phase transformation, much more efficient than what is observed in pristine crystal solely induced by electronic energy loss. As a result, this synergistic effect is attributed to the fundamental mechanism that the defects produced by the elastic collisions result in a decrease in thermal conductivity, increase in the electron-phonon coupling, and further lead to higher intensity in thermal spike from intense electronic energy deposition along high-energy ion trajectory.

  4. Femtosecond laser-written lithium niobate waveguide laser operating at 1085 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yang; de Aldana, Javier R. Vázquez; Chen, Feng

    2014-10-01

    We report on the channel waveguide lasers at 1085 nm in femtosecond laser written Type II waveguides in an Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. The waveguide was constructed in a typical dual-line approach. In the geometry, we found that four vicinal regions of the track pair could guide light propagation. In addition, these guiding cores support polarization-dependent-guided modes. The propagation losses of the waveguides were measured to be as low as 1 dB/cm. Under an optical pump at 808 nm, the continuous-wave waveguide lasing at 1085 nm was generated, reaching a slope efficiency of 27% and maximum output power of 8 mW. The lasing threshold was 71 mW. Our results show that with the femtosecond laser written Nd:MgO:LiNbO3 waveguide as the miniature light source, it was possible to construct all-LiNbO3-based integrated devices for diverse photonic applications.

  5. Long-term large-scale holographic storage in iron doped lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Xin

    1998-11-01

    The centerpiece of my work described in this thesis is a large-scale fast random-access holographic memory using LiNbO3:Fe. This system is described in detail in Chapter 2 and 3 and has been used repeatedly and extensively through all of our works. In Chapter 2, various design issues related to this system are discussed. High, system dynamic-range-limited storage capacity is demonstrated by using angle, fractal and spatial multiplexing with a key custom-designed component-the segmented mirror array. The SNR and BER obtained from the reconstructed information are comparable to those of conventional CD-ROMs. Fast random access to the memory contents is materialized in a separate system using an acousto-optic deflector (AOD) as the addressing device and an electro-optic modulator (EOM) to compensate for the Doppler shift. Chapter 3 discusses the design issues and presents experimental demonstration of holographic storage using the system. The design and application of an optical phase-lock loop using the AOD and EOM for phase stabilization are also described at the end of this chapter. Chapter 4 and 5 address two methods of thermal fixing to solve the volatility problem in holographic memories using photorefractive materials. First, 'Low-High-Low' fixing is described in Chapter 4, along with the characterization of system error performance of non- volatile holographic storage using thermal fixing. A novel 'incremental fixing schedule' is introduced to improve the system fixing efficiency. Experimental demonstration of a large-scale non-volatile memory with good error performance is also presented. Chapter 5 shows theoretical treatment and experimental demonstration of high-temperature recording in LiNbO3:Fe. Different charge transport mechanisms and their influence on the dynamics of holographic recording as well as the system dynamic range are discussed in detail. The two thermal fixing methods are examined and compared in terms of the M/#. In Chapter 6, a very important holographic noise source, the inter-pixel grating noise, is evaluated theoretically based on a linear (small-signal) model, followed by experimental investigation of its influence on the system error performance of a large-scale memory. Random-phase modulation in the signal beam is discussed and demonstrated as an effective way to suppress this holographic noise.

  6. Growth mechanism of photoreduced silver nanostructures on periodically proton exchanged lithium niobate: Time and concentration dependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig Carville, N.; Manzo, Michele; Denning, Denise; Gallo, Katia; Rodriguez, Brian J.

    2013-05-01

    Photodeposition of metallic nanostructures onto ferroelectric surfaces, which have been chemically patterned using a proton exchange process, has recently been demonstrated. By varying the molar concentration of the AgNO3 solution and the illumination time, one can determine the initial nucleation sites, control the rate of nucleation and the height of silver nanostructures formed, and study the mechanisms by which these processes occurs. The nanoparticles are found to deposit preferentially in the boundary between ferroelectric and proton exchanged regions, in an area proton exchanged via lateral diffusion under the masking layer used for chemical patterning, consistent with our previous results. Using a short illumination time (3 min), we are able to determine that the initial nucleation of the silver nanostructure, having a width of 0.17 ± 0.02 μm and a height of 1.61 ± 0.98 nm, occurs near the edge of the reactive ion etched area within this lateral diffusion region. Over longer illumination times (15 min), we find that the silver deposition has spread to a width of 1.29 ± 0.06 μm, extending across the entire lateral diffusion region. We report that at a high molar concentration of AgNO3 (10-2 M), the amount of silver deposition for 5 min UV illumination is greater (2.88 ± 0.58 nm) compared to that at low (10-4 M) concentrations (0.78 ± 0.35 nm), however, this is not the case for longer time periods. With increasing illumination time (15 min), experiments at 10-4 M had greater overall deposition, 6.90 ± 1.52 nm, compared to 4.50 ± 0.76 nm at 10-2 M. For longer exposure times (30 min) at 10-2 M, the nanostructure height is 4.72 ± 0.59 nm, suggesting a saturation in the nanostructure height. The results are discussed in terms of the electric double layer that forms at the crystal surface. There is an order of magnitude difference between the Debye lengths for 10-2 and 10-4 M solutions, i.e., 3.04 vs. 30.40 nm, which suggests the Debye length plays a role in the availability of Ag+ ions at the surface.

  7. Titanium Indiffusion Proton Exchange (tipe) Waveguide Lenses in Lithium-Niobate and Their Applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, De-Yu.

    1988-06-01

    We have developed a new type of waveguide lenses in LiNbO_3, the Titanium-Indiffusion Proton-Exchanged (TIPE) lens which has many desirable performance characteristics including near diffraction focal spot size, short focal length, large numerical aperture, large angular field of view, and low insertion loss. Since only a single -mask photolithographic process is required in fabrication of the TIPE waveguide lenses, it is extremely simple and flexible for their design and fabrication. The process also facilitates accurate optical alignment with other components in the waveguide substrate. Specifically, large linear microlens arrays that consist of very very short focal length lenses and a single large-aperture integrating lens can be formed simultaneously using the TIPE technique with very accurate optical alignment. A number of acoustooptic (AO) and electrooptic (EO) Bragg modulators have been fabricated together with the TIPE lenses on channel-planar composite waveguides with applications to information processing and computing. Specifically, matrix-vector multiplication has been successfully carried out using the integrated AO Bragg modulator modules and the EO single-grating array modulator modules. In addition, the EO herringbone-grating array modulator modules were built to carry out matrix -matrix multiplication. Finally, multichannel integrated optic modules that utilize arrays of EO herringbone-grating modulators were constructed to perform programmable correlations of binary sequences. These multichannel integrated optic modules represent the highest degree of integration that has been accomplished in the LiNbO_3 substrate thus far. A series of correlation waveforms between two binary sequences have been obtained. These correlation waveforms are shown to be in excellent agreement with the theoretical calculations.

  8. Fabrication and characterization of Titanium Indiffused Proton Exchanged (TIPE) waveguides in lithium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Micheli, M.; Botineau, J.; Sibillot, P.; Ostrowsky, D. B.; Papuchon, M.

    1982-06-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides realized in LiNbO 3 by a combined titanium indiffusion proton exchange (TIPE) process. These guides provide several unique advantages which include permitting tailorong of guide birefringence, realizing proton exchanged Y-cut plates of good optical quality, and the realization of imbedded TM guides due to a lowering of no caused by proton exchange.

  9. First-principles study on phase transition and ferroelectricity in lithium niobate and tantalate

    SciTech Connect

    Toyoura, Kazuaki Ohta, Masataka; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki

    2015-08-14

    The phase transitions and ferroelectricity of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiTaO{sub 3} have been investigated theoretically from first principles. The phonon analyses and the molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the ferroelectric phase transition is not conventional displacive type but order-disorder type with strong correlation between cation displacements. According to the evaluated potential energy surfaces around the paraelectric structures, the large difference in ferroelectricity between the two oxides results from the little difference in short-range interionic interaction between Nb-O and Ta-O. As the results of the crystal orbital overlap population analyses, the different short-range interaction originates from the difference in covalency between Nb4d-O2p and Ta5d-O2p orbitals, particularly d{sub xz}-p{sub x}/d{sub yz}-p{sub y} orbitals (π orbitals), from the electronic point of view.

  10. Humidity effects on tip-induced polarization switching in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, A. V.; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, V. Ya.; Kalinin, S. V.

    2014-03-03

    In the last several decades, ferroelectrics have attracted much attention as perspective materials for nonlinear optics and data storage devices. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a powerful tool both for studies of domain structures with nanoscale spatial resolution and for writing the isolated nanodomains by local application of the electric field. Quantitative analysis of the observed behavior requires understanding the role of environmental factors on imaging and switching process. Here, we study the influence of the relative humidity in the SPM chamber on tip-induced polarization switching. The observed effects are attributed to existence of a water meniscus between the tip and the sample surface in humid atmosphere. These results are important for a deeper understanding of complex investigations of ferroelectric materials and their applications and suggest the necessity for fundamental studies of electrocapillary phenomena at the tip-surface junction and their interplay with bias-induced materials responses.

  11. Humidity effects on tip-induced polarization switching in lithium niobate

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2014-01-01

    In the last several decades, ferroelectrics have attracted much attention as perspective materials for nonlinear optics and data storage devices. Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) has emerged as a powerful tool both for studies of domain structures with nanoscale spatial resolution and for writing the isolated nanodomains by local application of the electric field. Quantitative analysis of the observed behavior requires understanding the role of environmental factors on imaging and switching process. Here we study the influence of the relative humidity in the SPM chamber on tip-induced polarization switching. The observed effects are attributed to existence of a water meniscus between the tip and the sample surface in humid atmosphere. These results are important for a deeper understanding of complex investigations of ferroelectric materials and their applications, and suggest the necessity for fundamental studies of electrocapillary phenomena at the tip-surface junction and their interplay with bias-induced materials responses.

  12. Analysis of Self-Pumped Optical Parametric Interaction for NEODYMIUM:MAGNESIUM OXIDE:LITHIUM Niobate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Narasimha Srikantaiah

    With the advent of lasers an era in optics began. Initially, lasers were designed and engineered to generate discrete wavelengths. Subsequent research yielded commercially successful solid state lasers with limited tunability. Triggered by the availability of lasers delivering high intensity, extensive research was carried out in experimental nonlinear optics. In the realm of nonlinear optics, parametric interaction or three wave mixing process has attained significant importance. Nonlinear devices such as optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) and broadly tunable coherent sources known as optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) were developed based on parametric interaction. Parametric devices normally operate using an intense pump which is external to the device. Currently, research is being conducted to develop highly efficient intra-cavity parametric devices in which the nonlinear crystals is placed inside the laser cavity. Further, advances are being made in semiconductor diode laser (SDL) technology to achieve laser beams of high quality. Considerations include compactness, high efficiency, low power requirements, and cost effectiveness. The desire to replace flash lamps with highly efficient SDLs as optical pump sources and to develop high performance crystalline media have stimulated active areas of research today. The main objective of the present investigation involves the study of three wave mixing processes due to pump radiation that is generated internally inside a crystalline medium. A medium that offers both stimulated emission and parametric gain i.e., a lasing medium that satisfies all the requirements of a parametric process is considered. One such medium that is identified is Nd:MgO:LiNbO _3 crystal. This material is established as a lasing material with excellent electro-optic and nonlinear optical properties. Until now efficient lasing action, internal Q-switching, and self-doubling have been demonstrated. In this study, the requirements to achieve parametric interaction is analytically formulated and experimentally demonstrated using Nd:MgO:LiNbO_3. The results obtained form a sound basis to subsequent analysis of parametric interaction by a pump radiation that is generated internally in the same crystal. Using laser theory and principles of optical parametric interaction, the theory of self-pumped optical parametric interaction is formulated. This encompasses, the requirements of an interaction medium, laser pump generation, Q-switching, cavity analysis, and conditions for parametric interaction. Driven by an internally generated laser pump, the specific processes of optical parametic amplification, optical parametric oscillation, and frequency up-conversion are explored. In this study, novel tuning techniques are considered and spectral performance characteristics of these devices are presented. The design architectures of self-pumped OPO, OPA, and frequency up-converter devices using Nd:MgO:LiNbO _3 crystals are described. It is envisaged that self-pumped parametric devices can outperform present day intra-cavity devices which are bulky and expensive.

  13. Defect-Free, Edge Polishing of Lithium Niobate and Other Optical Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    sawing. (A 10 cm OD. 400 grit diamond blade is used.) The blocking pitch consists of I part Montan wax. I part beeswax and 2 parts rosin. Its melting...rosin, beeswax , paraffin, pitch and other waxes. Polishing abrasives such as Microgrit aluminas; Cabosil; Linde A, B and C; diamond powders (1/4 p...pitch (containing 3 parts rosin, I part beeswax and 1 part light Montan wax) is easily melted by touching it to the surface of the tool (approximately

  14. Electro-optic properties of indium/erbium-codoped lithium niobate crystal for integrated optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Zi-Bo; Ren, Shuai; Wong, Wing-Han; Yu, Dao-Yin; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Zhang, De-Long

    2017-02-01

    Clamped and unclamped electro-optic coefficients γ13 and γ33 of In3+/Er3+-codoped LiNbO3 crystals, which were grown by Czochralski method from the melts containing 0.5 mol% Er2O3 while varied In2O3 contents of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol%, were measured by Mach-Zehnder interferometry. The results show that In3+/Er3+ codoping does not cause change of γ13 and γ33, and both γ13 and γ33 can be regarded as unchanged in the studied In3+ concentration range of 0-2.6 mol% (in crystal) within the experimental error of 3%. The small doping effect is desired in light of the electro-optic application of the crystal. A qualitative, comprehensible explanation for the small effect is given on the basis of the EO coefficient model of LiNbO3 and doping effect on the defect structure of LiNbO3.

  15. Modified sol-gel method for patterned lithium niobate thin film preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen R.; Guo, Ruyan; Grigoryan, Stepan G.; Manukyan, Aleksandr L.; Vardanyan, Eduard S.

    2008-08-01

    A key stage in production of the integrated optics devices is forming of microtopography on crystalline films. The current methods generally comprise two separate steps: producing of thin film and creation a topographical pattern on it. But the inherently large chemical stability of crystalline LiNbO3 has effectively precluded the use of standard photolithographic patterning techniques. We present new approach based on the modified sol-gel technology using the photosensitive gel. In this case, the photolithography is used on the stage of dried gel whereupon the direct crystallization of patterned precursor film allows to create integrated optical element without subsequent etching of crystalline film. Presented method of patterned thin film preparation involves synthesis of photo-reactive complex of metal, which undergoes change under the UV light. This technology has allowed to obtain first samples of different types of waveguide devices.

  16. Reaping the benefits of ferroelectricity in selectively precipitated lithium niobate microcrystals in silica matrix for photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastogi, Monisha; Chauhan, Aditya; Kushwaha, Himmat Singh; Kumar, Ramachandran Vasant; Vaish, Rahul

    2016-11-01

    Microcrystals of LiNbO3 (size ˜200 nm) can be selectively precipitated in a glass matrix which can assist in the photocatalytic activity through ferroelectricity. Glass with the composition 30SiO2-35Li2CO3-35Nb2O5 was utilized for the process. A remarkably high Estriol (E3) degradation rate of 232.54 min-1 m-2 was obtained. The degradation was monitored using fluorescence spectroscopy with a detection limit in nanomolar (nM) range. From the fitting of fluorescence intensity versus time, it was observed that degradation of estriol follows a pseudo first-order reaction kinetics. The results indicate that LiNbO3 based glass-ceramics have a great potential to be employed as a well embedded photocatalyst.

  17. Synthesis of transparent aqueous sols of colloidal layered niobate nanocrystals at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Ban, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Shogo; Ohya, Yutaka

    2011-12-01

    Transparent aqueous sols of colloidal tetramethylammonium niobate nanocrystals were synthesized by mixing tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAOH), niobium ethoxide, and water at TMAOH/Nb≥0.7 at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the thin films prepared by evaporating the colloidal solutions on a glass substrate indicated that the colloidal niobate had a layered crystalline structure. Two types of layered structures are known as a layered niobate, i.e. M(4)Nb(6)O(17)·nH(2)O and MNb(3)O(8) (M=H, H(3)O, or alkaline metal). Raman spectra and electron diffraction suggested that the niobate nanocrystals were similar in crystal structure to M(4)Nb(6)O(17)·nH(2)O compounds. Moreover, when niobium oxide thin films were fabricated from the niobate colloidal solutions by the sol-gel method, oriented T-Nb(2)O(5) thin films, whose c-axis was parallel to the substrate surface, were obtained. The orientation of the thin films was probably attributed to the layered structure of the colloidal niobate nanocrystals.

  18. Lithium in 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaskula, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, estimated world lithium consumption was about 28 kt (31,000 st) of lithium contained in minerals and compounds, an 8 percent increase from that of 2011. Estimated U.S. consumption was about 2 kt (2,200 st) of contained lithium, the same as that of 2011. The United States was thought to rank fourth in consumption of lithium and remained the leading importer of lithium carbonate and the leading producer of value-added lithium materials. One company, Rockwood Lithium Inc., produced lithium compounds from domestic brine resources near Silver Peak, NV.

  19. Validity Using Pump-Probe Pulses to Determine the Optical Response of Niobate Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Huimin; Jia, Weiyi

    1997-01-01

    A variety of niobate crystals have found their places in nonlinear optical applications as well as in laser devices. In recent years much attention has been paid to study the ultrafast optical response in a variety of photorefractive crystals such as KTa(1-x)Nb(x)O3 and KNbO3 crystals, glasses, semiconductors and polymers for applications in optical switching, information processing, optical computing, and all-optical device systems. Third-order optical nonlinearity is the most important property for realization of all-optical switching. Therefore experiments have been performed on the third order susceptibility using a variety of techniques such as the third-order harmonic generation, EFISH and degenerate four-wave mixing(DFWM). The latter has been conducted with a variety of pump wavelengths and with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosecond pulses. Niobate crystals, such as potassium niobate KNbO3, potassium tantalate niobate KTN family (KTa(1-x)Nb(x)O3), strontium barium niobate SBN (Sr(x)Ba(1-x)Nb2O6) and potassium-sodium niobate SBN (KNSBN) are attractive due to their photorefractive properties for application in optical storage and processing. The pulsed probe experiments performed on theses materials have suggested two types of time responses. These responses have been associated with an coherent response due to Chi(sup 3), and a long lived component due to excited state population. Recent study of DFWM on KNbO3 and KTN family reveals that the long lived component of those crystals depends on the crystal orientation. A slowly decaying signal is observable when the grating vector K(sub g) is not perpendicular to the C-axis of those photorefractive crystals', otherwise the optical response signal would be only a narrow coherent peak with FWHM equal to the cross-correlation width of the write beam pulses. Based on this understanding, we study the photodynamical process of a variety of niobate crystals using DFWM in a Kg perpindicular to C geometry with a ps

  20. Lithium-associated hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Siyam, Fadi F; Deshmukh, Sanaa; Garcia-Touza, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    Goiters and hypothyroidism are well-known patient complications of the use of lithium for treatment of bipolar disease. However, the occurrence of lithium-induced hyperthyroidism is a more rare event. Many times, the condition can be confused with a flare of mania. Monitoring through serial biochemical measurement of thyroid function is critical in patients taking lithium. Hyperthyroidism induced by lithium is a condition that generally can be controlled medically without the patient having to discontinue lithium therapy, although in some circumstances, discontinuation of lithium therapy may be indicated. We report on a patient case of lithium-associated hyperthyroidism that resolved after discontinuation of the medication.

  1. Growth and Transverse Field Muon Spin Rotation of Cobalt Niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munsie, Timothy; Millington, Anna; Marjerrison, Casey; Medina, Teresa; Wilson, Murray; Kermarrec, Edwin; Liu, Lian; Dabkowska, Hanna; Uemura, Yasutomo; Williams, Travis; Luke, Graeme

    2014-03-01

    Cobalt niobate, CoNb2O6, is a material whose spins, when in a transverse field, act like the theoretical ideal 1D-Ising model. This occurs due to the magnetic spins aligning highly anisotropically along the Co2+ chains. Because of this unique structure and material performance, the creation and characterization of this material is of both experimental and theoretical interest. The research we will present is a detailing of changes in the characteristics of the growth of the material utilizing the optical floating zone crystal growth method compared to previous growth parameters and an examination of this material in a moderately high transverse field using the technique of muon spin rotation (μSR). We have determined that the quality of crystals created by the floating zone are highly dependent on the growth parameters utilized (original ceramic shape and rotation rate) and dictate the speed at which the growth can be performed. Transverse Field μSR shows a gradual but significant change to the magnetic structure of the material below 5 K. Second Affiliation: Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research.

  2. New, dense, and fast scintillators based on rare-earth tantalo-niobates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshyna, O. V.; Boiaryntseva, I. A.; Baumer, V. N.; Ivanov, A. I.; Korjik, M. V.; Sidletskiy, O. Ts.

    2014-11-01

    Samples of undoped yttrium and gadolinium tantalo-niobates with common formulae RE(NbxTa1-x)O4, where RE=Y or Gd and x=0-1, have been obtained by solid-state reaction. Systematic study of structural, luminescent, and scintillation properties of these compounds was carried out. Lattice parameters and space groups of the mixed compounds were identified. UV- and X-ray luminescence spectra, as well as relative light outputs and scintillation decay times are measured. Gadolinium tantalo-niobate with the formulae GdNb0.2Ta0.8O4 showed the light output around 13 times larger than PbWO4 and fast decay with time constant 12 ns without additional slow component. Gadolinium tantalo-niobates may be considered as promising materials for high energy physics due to extremely high density, substantial light output, and fast decay.

  3. Dielectric properties of lead indium niobate ceramics synthesized by conventional solid state reaction method

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, G.; Subramanian, V.; Sivasubramanian, V.

    2010-12-15

    Pyrochlore free lead indium niobate ceramics are successfully prepared using wolframite precursor by conventional solid state reaction method in air atmosphere, by adding an excess amount of MgO in PbO-InNbO{sub 4} mixture. The dielectric properties of lead indium niobate ceramic studied as a function of both temperature and frequency indicate relaxor ferroelectric behavior with maximum dielectric constant of 4310 at 40 {sup {omicron}}C for 1 kHz. Lowering of transition temperature and enhancement of dielectric constant at room temperature, compared to earlier reports, may be due to the diffusion of magnesium ion into the lead indium niobate. The saturation polarization P{sub s}, measured at room temperature, is found to be 22.5 {mu}C/cm{sup 2} for 40 kV/cm.

  4. Preparation of porous solids composed of layered niobate walls from colloidal mixtures of niobate nanosheets and polystyrene spheres.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2007-09-01

    Macroporous solids with crystalline layered walls were fabricated from colloidal mixtures of size-controlled niobate nanosheets and polystyrene spheres. The macroporous solids, obtained after burning off the spheres, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The obtained structures strongly depended on the lateral dimension L of the nanosheets used. When small nanosheets (L=100 nm) were used, partly ordered macroporous solids with interconnected pores were obtained, whereas sponge-like random macroporous structures were obtained with larger nanosheets (L=190 and 270 nm). Peapod-like hollow structures were obtained when we used small (L=190 nm) and very large (L=3 microm) nanosheets at the same time. The microstructure of the pore walls was controllable by changing the calcination conditions. The walls were composed of propylammonium/K(4)Nb(6)O(17) intercalation compound which has a layered structure with exchangeable cations in the interlayer space, stable up to 350 degrees C for 6 h on calcination. The walls were converted to crystalline K(8)Nb(18)O(49) after calcination at 500 degrees C for 6 h.

  5. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1983-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  6. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Poris, J.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-18

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell which may be operated at temperatures between about 100 to 170/sup 0/C. The cell is comprised of an electrolyte, which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode.

  7. Molten salt lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Poris, Jaime; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-02-09

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and is operated in the temperature range of about 400.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems and a substantial amount of energy is lost through heat transfer. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell (10) which may be operated at temperatures between about 100.degree.-170.degree. C. Cell (10) comprises an electrolyte (16), which preferably includes lithium nitrate, and a lithium or lithium alloy electrode (12).

  8. Lightning arrestor connector lead magnesium niobate qualification pellet test procedures.

    SciTech Connect

    Tuohig, W.; Mahoney, Patrick A.; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Wheeler, Jill Susanne

    2009-02-01

    Enhanced knowledge preservation for DOE DP technical component activities has recently received much attention. As part of this recent knowledge preservation effort, improved documentation of the sample preparation and electrical testing procedures for lead magnesium niobate--lead titanate (PMN/PT) qualification pellets was completed. The qualification pellets are fabricated from the same parent powders used to produce PMN/PT lightning arrestor connector (LAC) granules at HWF&T. In our report, the procedures for fired pellet surface preparation, electrode deposition, electrical testing and data recording are described. The dielectric measurements described in our report are an information only test. Technical reasons for selecting the electrode material, electrode size and geometry are presented. The electrical testing is based on measuring the dielectric constant and dissipation factor of the pellet during cooling from 280 C to 220 C. The most important data are the temperature for which the peak dielectric constant occurs (Curie Point temperature) and the peak dielectric constant magnitude. We determined that the peak dielectric constant for our procedure would be that measured at 1 kHz at the Curie Point. Both the peak dielectric constant and the Curie point parameters provide semi-quantitative information concerning the chemical and microstructural homogeneity of the parent material used for the production of PMN/PT granules for LACs. Finally, we have proposed flag limits for the dielectric data for the pellets. Specifically, if the temperature of the peak dielectric constant falls outside the range of 250 C {+-} 30 C we propose that a flag limit be imposed that will initiate communication between production agency and design agency personnel. If the peak dielectric constant measured falls outside the range 25,000 {+-} 10,000 we also propose that a flag limit be imposed.

  9. Lithium Battery Diaper Ulceration.

    PubMed

    Maridet, Claire; Taïeb, Alain

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of lithium battery diaper ulceration in a 16-month-old girl. Gastrointestinal and ear, nose, and throat lesions after lithium battery ingestion have been reported, but skin involvement has not been reported to our knowledge.

  10. Giant piezoelectricity in potassium-sodium niobate lead-free ceramics.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Wu, Jiagang; Xiao, Dingquan; Zhu, Jianguo; Cheng, Xiaojing; Zheng, Ting; Zhang, Binyu; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Xiangjian

    2014-02-19

    Environment protection and human health concern is the driving force to eliminate the lead from commercial piezoelectric materials. In 2004, Saito et al. [ Saito et al., Nature , 2004 , 432 , 84 . ] developed an alkali niobate-based perovskite solid solution with a peak piezoelectric constant d33 of 416 pC/N when prepared in the textured polycrystalline form, intriguing the enthusiasm of developing high-performance lead-free piezoceramics. Although much attention has been paid on the alkali niobate-based system in the past ten years, no significant breakthrough in its d33 has yet been attained. Here, we report an alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramic with the largest d33 of ∼490 pC/N ever reported so far using conventional solid-state method. In addition, this material system also exhibits excellent integrated performance with d33∼390-490 pC/N and TC∼217-304 °C by optimizing the compositions. This giant d33 of the alkali niobate-based lead-free piezoceramics is ascribed to not only the construction of a new rhombohedral-tetragonal phase boundary but also enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Our finding may pave the way for "lead-free at last".

  11. Optical planar waveguide in sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystals by carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jin-Hua; Qin, Xi-Feng; Wang, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Gang; Wang, Hui-Lin; Wang, Xue-Lin

    2013-07-01

    There is great interest in niobate crystals which belong to the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) families owing to their intriguing properties. As one representative of such crystals, CBN (calcium barium niobate) has attracted rapidly growing attention. Because it has a higher Curie temperature than SBN (strontium barium niobate), possesses outstanding ferroelectric and it possesses optical properties. In addition, doped with sodium, CBN will show a higher Curie temperature than pure CBN. We report on the fabrication and characterization of optical planar waveguide in x-cut sodium-doped calcium barium niobate crystal by using C ion implantation. The guided-mode properties at the wavelength of 633 and 1539 nm are investigated through prism-coupling measurements, respectively. By applying direct end-face coupling arrangement, the near-field optical intensity distribution of waveguide modes is measured at 633 nm. For comparison, the modal profile of the same guided mode is also numerically calculated by the finite difference beam-propagation method via computer software BeamPROP. The transmission spectra of the waveguide before and after ion implantation treatments were investigated also. Our experiment results reveal that the waveguide could propagate light with transverse magnetic polarized direction only and it is assumed that the polarization selectivity of CBN crystal may responsible for this phenomenon.

  12. Etude par spectroscopie vibrationnelle des niobates de sodium et d'argent de structure perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, E.; Repelin, Y.

    Infrared and Raman spectra of the niobates NaNbO 3 and AgNbO 3 of perovskite structure are analysed. An assignment of the frequencies is proposed. The influence of the antiferroelectric direction upon the NbO bonds is shown, as the influence of the A cation upon the AO and NbO bonds.

  13. Safe disposal of radioactive iodide ions from solutions by Ag2O grafted sodium niobate nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Mu, Wanjun; Li, Xingliang; Liu, Guoping; Yu, Qianhong; Xie, Xiang; Wei, Hongyuan; Jian, Yuan

    2016-01-14

    Radioactive iodine isotopes are released into the environment by the nuclear industry and medical research institutions using radioactive materials, and have negative effects on organisms living within the ecosystem. Thus, safe disposal of radioactive iodine is necessary and crucial. For this reason, the uptake of iodide ions was investigated in Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate nanofibers, which were prepared by forming a well-matched phase coherent interface between them. The resulting composite was applied as an efficient adsorbent for I(-) anions by forming an AgI precipitate, which also remained firmly attached to the substrates. Due to their one-dimensional morphology, the new adsorbents can be easily dispersed in liquids and readily separated after purification. This significantly enhances the adsorption efficiency and reduces the separation costs. The change in structure from the pristine sodium niobate to Ag2O anchored sodium niobate and to the used adsorbent was examined by using various characterization techniques. The effects of Ag(+) concentration, pH, equilibration time, ionic strength and competing ions on the iodide ion removal ability of the composite were studied. The Ag2O nanocrystal grafted sodium niobate adsorbent showed a high adsorption capacity and excellent selectivity for I(-) anions in basic solutions. Our results are useful for the further development of improved adsorbents for removing I(-) anions from basic wastewater.

  14. Hydrothermal method of synthesis of rare-earth tantalates and niobates

    DOEpatents

    Nyman, May D; Rohwer, Lauren E.S.; Martin, James E

    2012-10-16

    A hydrothermal method of synthesis of a family of rare-earth Group 5 oxides, where the Group 5 oxide is a niobate or tantalate. The rare-earth Group 5 oxides can be doped with suitable emitter ions to form nanophosphors.

  15. Lithium Cell Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    Page 1. INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL, ELECTROCHEMICAL AND PARASITIC REACTIONS IN LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS ....... ................. 1 1.1 INTRODUCTION...OF LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS. ................ 56 1.4.1 Carbon Limited Overdischarge...............56 1.4.1.1 Background... LITHIUM THIONYL - CHLORIDE CELLS. .. ............ ...... 101 1.5.1 Background. ....... ............ .... 101 1.5.2 Microphotography

  16. Lithium Cell Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES It. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse .,ide if necessary and Identify by block number) Batteries Thionyl Chloride Batteries Lithium ...Batteries Lithium Cells Primary Batteries Thionyl Chloride Cells Non Rechargeable Batteries Electrochemical Reactions 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse...INVESTIGATION OF CHEMICAL, ELECTROCHEMICAL AND PARASITIC REACTIONS IN LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLS .......................................... 1 1.0 IN TRO D UC

  17. Defect Chemistry and Microstructure of Complex Perovskite Barium Zinc Niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Ping

    1991-02-01

    This dissertation presents a systematic study of the characterization of the phase transitions, microstructures, defects and transport properties of undoped and doped complex perovskite barium zinc niobate (BZN). Complex perovskite BZN is a paraelectric material while its parent material barium titanate is ferroelectric. With codoping of (Zn + 2Nb) into Ti site, BaTiO_3 shows three distinguished features. First, the Curie temperature is lowered; second, the three phase transitions (cubic-tetragonal-orthorhombic-rhombohedral) coalesce; and lastly, the transition becomes diffuse showing a typical 2nd order phase transition compared with 1st order in undoped BaTiO_3. Complex microchemical ordering is another characteristic of BZN. Stoichiometric BZN shows a mixture of two types of ordering schemes. 1:1, 1:2 ordered microdomains and the disordered matrix co-exist. The 1:1 type ordering involves an internal charge imbalance which inhibits the growth of 1:1 type of ordered microdomains. The 1:2 type ordering is consistent with the chemical composition of BZN. These ordering patterns can be modified by either adjustment of the Zn/Nb ratio or by doping. The defect structure of the stoichiometric BZN is closely related to that of BaTiO_3. Stoichiometric BZN is an insulator with wide band gap (~ 3.70 eV). Undoped BZN has a high oxygen vacancy concentration which comes from three possible sources, such as unavoidable acceptor impurities, due to their natural abundance, Zn/Nb ratio uncertainty due to processing limitations, and high temperature ZnO loss due to sintering process. The oxygen vacancy concentration for undoped BZN lays in the neighborhood of 1500 ppm (atm.). The compensation defects for various dopants have also been identified. Both electrons and holes conduct by a small polaron mechanism. Various thermodynamic parameters, such as enthalpies of oxidation and reduction, mass action constants for intrinsic electronic disorder, oxidation and reduction have been

  18. Lithium use in batteries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Lithium has a number of uses but one of the most valuable is as a component of high energy-density rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Because of concerns over carbon dioxide footprint and increasing hydrocarbon fuel cost (reduced supply), lithium may become even more important in large batteries for powering all-electric and hybrid vehicles. It would take 1.4 to 3.0 kilograms of lithium equivalent (7.5 to 16.0 kilograms of lithium carbonate) to support a 40-mile trip in an electric vehicle before requiring recharge. This could create a large demand for lithium. Estimates of future lithium demand vary, based on numerous variables. Some of those variables include the potential for recycling, widespread public acceptance of electric vehicles, or the possibility of incentives for converting to lithium-ion-powered engines. Increased electric usage could cause electricity prices to increase. Because of reduced demand, hydrocarbon fuel prices would likely decrease, making hydrocarbon fuel more desirable. In 2009, 13 percent of worldwide lithium reserves, expressed in terms of contained lithium, were reported to be within hard rock mineral deposits, and 87 percent, within brine deposits. Most of the lithium recovered from brine came from Chile, with smaller amounts from China, Argentina, and the United States. Chile also has lithium mineral reserves, as does Australia. Another source of lithium is from recycled batteries. When lithium-ion batteries begin to power vehicles, it is expected that battery recycling rates will increase because vehicle battery recycling systems can be used to produce new lithium-ion batteries.

  19. The synergetic effect of lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate to prevent lithium dendrite growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiyang; Yao, Hongbin; Yan, Kai; Zheng, Guangyuan; Liang, Zheng; Chiang, Yet-Ming; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Lithium metal has shown great promise as an anode material for high-energy storage systems, owing to its high theoretical specific capacity and low negative electrochemical potential. Unfortunately, uncontrolled dendritic and mossy lithium growth, as well as electrolyte decomposition inherent in lithium metal-based batteries, cause safety issues and low Coulombic efficiency. Here we demonstrate that the growth of lithium dendrites can be suppressed by exploiting the reaction between lithium and lithium polysulfide, which has long been considered as a critical flaw in lithium-sulfur batteries. We show that a stable and uniform solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed due to a synergetic effect of both lithium polysulfide and lithium nitrate as additives in ether-based electrolyte, preventing dendrite growth and minimizing electrolyte decomposition. Our findings allow for re-evaluation of the reactions regarding lithium polysulfide, lithium nitrate and lithium metal, and provide insights into solving the problems associated with lithium metal anodes.

  20. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through diborane

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a diborane intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  1. Investigation of the femtosecond optical limiting properties of monoclinic copper niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priyadarshani, N.; Venugopal Rao, S.; Sabari Girisun, T. C.

    2016-10-01

    Investigation of the third-order nonlinear optical properties and optical limiting behaviour of microstructured monoclinic phase copper niobate (CuNb2O6) was performed by the Z-scan technique using femtosecond laser pulses (800 nm, 150 fs, 80 MHz). CuNb2O6 was synthesized by solid-state reaction at a sintering temperature of 700 °C maintained at different times of 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Formation of rods at higher reaction time of 12 h was observed and is attributed to the mass transport and coalescence processes. From the absorption tail of UV-Vis spectrum, the optical band gap was estimated to be 3.5 eV. In the fluorescence spectra, blue emission was observed near 430 nm and was assigned to the charge transfer from oxygen to central niobium of Nb-O6 octahedra. Open-aperture Z-scan data demonstrated the presence of nonlinear absorption in copper niobate and are ascribed to two-photon absorption process. Closed-aperture data indicated a sign reversal in nonlinear refraction as the sintering time increased. Third-order nonlinear optical coefficients were estimated, and the largest coefficient was observed for the rod-structured CuNb2O6. Copper niobate exhibited optical limiting behaviour, and the limiting threshold was found to be lowest for microrod structures (~0.21 µJ/cm2). Due to the top-notch third-order nonlinear optical coefficients and excellent limiting behaviour, monoclinic copper niobate microrods can be used as a potential material for utilization as an optical limiter for femtosecond pulses.

  2. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, R.F.; Meadows, G.E.

    1984-01-10

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  3. Lithium purification technique

    DOEpatents

    Keough, Robert F.; Meadows, George E.

    1985-01-01

    A method for purifying liquid lithium to remove unwanted quantities of nitrogen or aluminum. The method involves precipitation of aluminum nitride by adding a reagent to the liquid lithium. The reagent will be either nitrogen or aluminum in a quantity adequate to react with the unwanted quantity of the impurity to form insoluble aluminum nitride. The aluminum nitride can be mechanically separated from the molten liquid lithium.

  4. Lithium and hematopoiesis.

    PubMed Central

    Barr, R. D.; Galbraith, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Some of lithium's effects on blood cell formation suggest that the element may be of value in treating hematologic disorders. Lithium enhances granulopoiesis and thereby induces neutrophilia. Two possible mechanisms of action are suggested: a direct action on the pluripotent stem cells, or an inhibition of the suppressor cells (thymus-dependent lymphocytes) that limit hematopoiesis. Lithium also inhibits erythropoiesis. Although most studies use concentrations at or above pharmacologic levels there is evidence that lithium plays a role in normal cell metabolism. PMID:6336655

  5. Lithium nephrotoxicity revisited.

    PubMed

    Grünfeld, Jean-Pierre; Rossier, Bernard C

    2009-05-01

    Lithium is widely used to treat bipolar disorder. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is the most common adverse effect of lithium and occurs in up to 40% of patients. Renal lithium toxicity is characterized by increased water and sodium diuresis, which can result in mild dehydration, hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis and renal tubular acidosis. The concentrating defect and natriuretic effect develop within weeks of lithium initiation. After years of lithium exposure, full-blown nephropathy can develop, which is characterized by decreased glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease. Here, we review the clinical and experimental evidence that the principal cell of the collecting duct is the primary target for the nephrotoxic effects of lithium, and that these effects are characterized by dysregulation of aquaporin 2. This dysregulation is believed to occur as a result of the accumulation of cytotoxic concentrations of lithium, which enters via the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) on the apical membrane and leads to the inhibition of signaling pathways that involve glycogen synthase kinase type 3beta. Experimental and clinical evidence demonstrates the efficacy of the ENaC inhibitor amiloride for the treatment of lithium-induced NDI; however, whether this agent can prevent the long-term adverse effects of lithium is not yet known.

  6. [Parkinsonism during lithium use].

    PubMed

    Walrave, T R W M; Bulens, C

    2009-01-01

    Two patients with bipolar disorder had been treated for years with lithium without any complications but began to develop symptoms of rigidity and an altered gait, namely symptoms compatible with a diagnosis of Parkinsonism with an action tremor. In both patients lithium levels were within the therapeutic range. Medication-induced Parkinsonism occurs frequently in patients using antipsychotic medication, but is a rare complication in patients receiving long term treatment with lithium. The lithium dosage was reduced gradually and within a few months all neurological symptoms subsided completely.

  7. LITHIUM AND RENAL FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, N.; Trivedi, J.K.; Sethi, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    SUMMARY Thirty patients of affective disorder who were on lithium for a year and thirty patients on antidepressant were studied in detail for renal functions. Our observation is that lithium therapy does not lead to any deterioration in kidney functions. The results are discussed. PMID:21927211

  8. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2013-07-23

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  9. Cathode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-13

    A method of manufacture an article of a cathode (positive electrode) material for lithium batteries. The cathode material is a lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide material and is prepared by mixing in a solid state an intermediate molybdenum composite transition metal oxide and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain the lithium molybdenum composite transition metal oxide cathode material.

  10. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  11. Investigation of Local Structures in Layered Niobates by Solid-state NMR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ting

    Research on ion-exchangeable layered niobates has attracted great attention due to their unique structures and corresponding variations in properties and applications, such as ion conductors, solid acids, and water splitting catalysts. Families of layered niobates include double-layered or triple-layered Dion-Jacobson type perovskites (ALaNb2O7, A = Cs, Rb, K, H; AM2Nb3O10, A = Rb, K, H; M = Sr, Ca), layered niobates with both edge and corner sharing of NbO6 octahedra (KNb3O8, HNb3O6, Nb 6O17 and H4Nb6O17) and many others. Lately, more developments in the layered niobates through a variety of topochemical manipulations have been achieved. The topochemical reactions include ion exchange, exfoliation, substitution, and etc. As a result, many new materials have been successfully prepared, for example, solid solutions (ALa2NbTi2O10, ACaLaNb2TiO 10 and ACa2Nb3-xTaxO10, etc.), nanosheets (HNb3O8, H4Nb6O17, HLaNb2O7, HCa2Nb3O10, etc., to intercalate with organic molecules such as tetrabutylammonium hydroxide or n-butylamines), and nanoscrolls (from H2K2Nb 6O17). While these structural modifications often induce improvements in properties, the fundamental mechanisms of improvements in properties upon the modifications, especially local structural arrangements are poorly understood, which is often limited by structural characterizations. Particularly, the characterizations of the exfoliated nanosheets can be difficult by conventional X-ray diffraction (XRD) method due to disordered structures. Alternatively, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a useful tool to study local structures in solids. The structural information can be extracted by examining intrinsic interactions, such as quadrupolar, chemical shielding, and dipolar interactions, which are all associated with local environments surrounding a specific nucleus, 1H or 93Nb in layered niobates. The ultimate goal of this dissertation is to understand the relationships between local structures of

  12. Structural refinement and optical band gap studies of manganese-doped modified sodium potassium lithium niobate lead — piezoelectric ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Mishra, R. K.; Brajesh, Kumar; Ray, Rajyavardhan; Himanshu, A. K.; Pandey, H. K.; Singh, N. K.

    2014-05-01

    Li-doped NKLN ceramic (Na0.5 K0.5)0.935Li0.065NbO3 (NKLN935) in pure and MnO2 doped compositions have been revisited to carry out a detailed analysis of the structural and optical properties. Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern reveals the system to be tetragonal (space group P4mm). UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and an equivalent Kubelka-Munk function is used to obtain the optical band gap values. It is reported that with increasing Mn doping, the band gap values decreases, which has been analyzed and understood in terms of the tetragonal structure and is found to be consistent with dielectric properties.

  13. Continuous tuning of a microlaser-pumped optical parametric generator by use of a cylindrical periodically poled lithium niobate crystal.

    PubMed

    Fève, Jean-Philippe; Boulanger, Benoît; Ménaert, Bertrand; Pacaud, Olivier

    2003-06-15

    An optical parametric generator with a cylindrical periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal and a Nd:YAG commercial microchip pump laser yields continuous tuning of the emitted wavelengths over a broad spectral range (1.42-1.7 microm and 2.8-4.2 microm), with large efficiency, a high repetition rate, and low divergence, in a compact and stable device.

  14. Type-I cascaded quadratic soliton compression in lithium niobate: Compressing femtosecond pulses from high-power fiber lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, Morten; Wise, Frank W.

    2010-05-15

    The output pulses of a commercial high-power femtosecond fiber laser or amplifier are typically around 300-500 fs with wavelengths of approximately 1030 nm and tens of microjoules of pulse energy. Here, we present a numerical study of cascaded quadratic soliton compression of such pulses in LiNbO{sub 3} using second-harmonic generation in a type-I phase-matching configuration. We find that because of competing cubic material nonlinearities, compression can only occur in the nonstationary regime, where group-velocity-mismatch-induced Raman-like nonlocal effects prevent compression to less than 100 fs. However, the strong group-velocity dispersion implies that the pulses can achieve moderate compression to durations of less than 130 fs in available crystal lengths. Most of the pulse energy is conserved because the compression is moderate. The effects of diffraction and spatial walk-off are addressed, and in particular the latter could become an issue when compressing such long crystals (around 10 cm long). We finally show that the second harmonic contains a short pulse locked to the pump and a long multi-picosecond red-shifted detrimental component. The latter is caused by the nonlocal effects in the nonstationary regime, but because it is strongly red-shifted to a position that can be predicted, we show that it can be removed using a bandpass filter, leaving a visible component of less than 100 fs at {lambda}=515 nm with excellent pulse quality.

  15. Stimulated Photorefractive Backscatter Leading to Six-Wave Mixing and Phase Conjugation in Iron Doped Lithium Niobate (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    anisotropic higher-order generation and mutually pumped phase conjugation in photore&active barium titanate ," Photore&active Fiber and Crystal Devices...strong stimulated backscatter leading to self-pumped phase conjugation has been observed in LiNb03:Mg at 351 nm where the PR sample exhibits large...coatings, and thicknesses are used as PR samples . The crystals and their different parameters are 3 presented in Table 1. All crystals have a cross

  16. Temperature insensitive, high-power cascaded optical parametric oscillator based on an aperiodically poled lithium niobate crystal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tao; Jiang, Peipei; Wu, Bo; Shu, Rong; Hu, Chengzhi; Shen, Yonghang

    2014-11-03

    We report a novel temperature insensitive, APMgLN-based, high-power cascaded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an Ytterbium-doped fiber laser. A monolithic APMgLN crystal was designed to compensate the phase mismatches for the nonlinear conversions from the pump to the idler and the primary signal to the idler simultaneously in a wide temperature range. Efficient parametric conversion with pump-to-idler conversion efficiency over 15% and slope efficiency higher than 20% was realized from 25 °C to 55 °C. The idler wavelength was down-shifted from 3.82 μm to 3.78 μm accordingly during the temperature rise. The highest idler power of 4.1 W at 3.8 μm under the pump power of 26.5 W was recorded which was improved by ~32% in pump-to-idler conversion efficiency when compared with the PPMgLN-based conventional OPO, in which the highest idler output power was 3.1W under the same pump and thermal condition.

  17. Surface plasmon polariton excitation by electrostatic modulation and phase grating in indium-tin-oxide coated lithium niobate slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Jingwen; Zhao, Hua

    2015-08-14

    Excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in a non-metal system in visible regime is discussed. With the assistance of phase grating resulted from photorefractive effect and electrostatic modulation of ITO induced by strong photovoltaic effect in iron-doped LiNbO{sub 3}, phase matching condition could be satisfied for SPP excitation in this semiconductor/dielectric system. Both the phase grating instead of metal grating and electrostatic modulation of semiconductor could be used for the design of tunable plasmonic devices based on nonlinear photorefractive crystals.

  18. Anomalous angular dispersion in lithium niobate one-dimensional waveguide array in the near-infrared wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apetrei, Alin Marian; Rambu, Alicia Petronela; Minot, Christophe; Moison, Jean-Marie; Belabas, Nadia; Tascu, Sorin

    2017-02-01

    Knowing the dispersion properties of a device is important in many applications (e.g., wavelength separation). For an isolated waveguide, besides the material dispersion, one must consider the waveguide influence as well, through waveguide dispersion and mode dispersion. For a waveguide array, one must consider the influence of evanescent coupling between adjacent waveguides as well. We investigate by the Finite Element Method the angular dispersion of a LiNbO3 waveguide array using two techniques. The first one assumes the Coupled Mode Theory in a 2-waveguide system. The other one uses the actual diffraction curve determined in a 7-waveguide system. In both approaches, we find that by decreasing the array period, one passes from normal angular dispersion by an achromatic point to anomalous angular dispersion. We then illustrate the wavelength separation by the waveguide array by doing Runge-Kutta light propagation simulations. As all the values of parameters are technologically feasible, this opens new possibilities for optical data processing, such as WDM and dispersion compensation.

  19. Holographic recording in a doubly doped lithium niobate crystal with two wavelengths: a blue laser diode and a green laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komori, Yuichi; Ishii, Yukihiro

    2010-08-01

    A doubly-doped LiNbO3 (LN) crystal has been well used as a nonvolatile two-wavelength recording material. By using two levels of the crystal, two-kind holograms can be recorded on one crystal; a hologram is recorded with a 405-nm blue laser diode (LD) for a deep Mn level, and another hologram is with a 532-nm green laser for a shallow Fe level. The recording capacity doubles. A 780-nm LD is non-volatile reconstructing source since the LD line is insensitive to both levels. Multiplexed reconstructed images are demonstrated by using a sharp angular selectivity of a volume LN crystal keeping Bragg condition with spherical reconstructions.

  20. Theoretical analysis of surface acoustic wave propagating properties of Y-cut nano lithium niobate film on silicon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jing Zhang, Qiaozhen; Han, Tao; Zhou, Liu; Tang, Gongbin; Liu, Boquan; Ji, Xiaojun

    2015-08-15

    The surface acoustic wave (SAW) propagating characteristics of Y-cut nano LiNbO{sub 3} (LN) film on SiO{sub 2}/LN substrate have been theoretically calculated. The simulated results showed a shear horizontal (SH) SAW with enhanced electromechanical coupling factor K{sup 2} owing to a dimensional effect of the nanoscale LN film. However, a Rayleigh SAW and two other resonances related to thickness vibrations caused spurious responses for wideband SAW devices. These spurious waves could be fully suppressed by properly controlling structural parameters including the electrode layer height, thickness, and the Euler angle (θ) of the LN thin film. Finally, a pure SH SAW was obtained with a wide θ range, from 0° to 5° and 165° to 180°. The largest K{sup 2} achieved for the pure SH SAW was about 35.1%. The calculated results demonstrate the promising application of nano LN film to the realization of ultra-wideband SAW devices.

  1. Effect of size and composition on the second harmonic generation from lithium niobate powders at different excitation wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Dena, O.; García-Ramírez, E. V.; Fierro-Ruiz, C. D.; Vigueras-Santiago, E.; Farías, Rurik; Reyes-Esqueda, J. A.

    2017-03-01

    LiNbO3 microcrystalline systems, possessing almost stoichiometric composition, were produced by varying the temperature and time parameters in the annealing processes following a mechanochemical reaction of raw powders. SHG from these samples, detected for every fundamental wavelength in the range 800–1300 nm, and being maximal at a certain wavelength, λ max, for each sample, has been addressed to a random scattering of the induced nonlinear polarizations. Possible tuning of λ max could be ascribed to control of composition and grain size of the sample. Random orientation of the produced nanocrystallites was verified since no dependence for SHG intensity on incident polarization was observed.

  2. Sub-Nanosecond Infrared Optical Parametric Pulse Generation in Periodically Poled Lithium Niobate Pumped by a Seeded Fiber Amplifier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    element, such as erbium or ytterbium, to act as a gain medium. Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifiers ( EDFAs ) have been used by the telecommunications industry...FIBER AMPLIFIER Matthew D. Cocuzzi Electro-Optical Countermeasures Technology Branch Electro-Optical Sensor Technology Division...BRIAN C. FORD, Col, USAF Chief, EO Sensor Technology Division Sensors Directorate This report is published in the interest of

  3. Lithium Combustion: A Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    lithium vapors generated with air formed an intense white flame that produced branched- chain condensation aerosol particles, of concentrations 򓆄 mg/im3...generated chain -aggregate lithium combustion aerosols in dry, COg-free air prior to reaction with 0, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, 1.75, or 5.0% CO in air at a...In order to burn in gaseous chlorine or in bromine or iodine vapor, lithium needs to be heated. With iodine vapor, the reaction is accompanied by

  4. Sealed Lithium Inorganic Battery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-01

    MuWrn , 1,ad iw..am m4 IdM.D to We"L406W) Inorganic Electrolyte lattery Carbon Cathode Evaluation Thionyl Chloride Gas Generation Lithium C ell sign...hardware surface to carry the reductIon of thionyl chloride when in contact with lithium (self discharge) and the corro,’ion of hardware materials... Lithium - Aluminum Chloride 10) AOSTSAC? (Cmawl/e o ade H .m.eewr W MWO, AV 600 nwe w) Stdies were continued of the effects of hardware materials on the

  5. Lithium cell test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bragg, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    Three lithium SO2 cells, two lithium CF cells, and a vinyl chloride cell, all with crimped seals, and all strictly experimental, were independently discharged on resistors. Three temperatures were used and several different storage temperatures. Discharge rate generally on the nominal discharges were 0.1 amp, 0.5 amp, and 1 amp. Tests results show that the crimp seals are inadequate, especially for the SO2 cells. Normal discharges present no hazards. All cells discharge to zero. The problem of lithium cell explosions, such as occurred during off-limits testing, is discussed.

  6. Lithium Dendrite Formation

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-06

    Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have captured the first real-time nanoscale images of lithium dendrite structures known to degrade lithium-ion batteries. The ORNL team’s electron microscopy could help researchers address long-standing issues related to battery performance and safety. Video shows annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging (ADF STEM) of lithium dendrite nucleation and growth from a glassy carbon working electrode and within a 1.2M LiPF6 EC:DM battery electrolyte.

  7. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  8. Electret-based Unsteady Thermal Energy Harvester using Potassium Tantalate Niobate Crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hong; Morimoto, Kenichi; Suzuki, Yuji

    2016-11-01

    An electret-based unsteady thermal energy harvester is proposed using potassium tantalate niobate (KTa1-xNbxO3, KTN) as a dielectric for the capacitor. By connecting in series the capacitor and an electret serving as a permanent voltage source, the capacitance change with temperature fluctuations alters the amount of induced charges thereby produces the external current. By using KTN having extremely-large temperature coefficient of permittivity together with the CYTOP electret, the output power of 572 nJ has been obtained from one heating cycle, which corresponds to 20 times higher output power than the previous result with BaTiO3.

  9. Structural, topographical and electrical properties of cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN60) ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, S. Gokul; Mathivanan, V.; Kumar, G. Ramesh; Yathavan, S.; Mohan, R.

    2016-05-01

    Tungsten bronze type cerium doped strontium barium niobate (Ce:SBN - Sr0.6B0.4Nb2O6) ceramics were synthesized by solid state process. Cerium was used as dopant to improve its electrical properties. Influence of Ce+ ions on the photoluminescence properties was investigated in detail. The grain size topographical behavior of SBN powders and their associated abnormal grain growth (AGG) were completely analyzed through SEM studies. Finally dielectric, measurement discusses about the broad phase transition observed due to cerium dopant The results were discussed in detail.

  10. Ultrashort pulse chirp measurement via transverse second-harmonic generation in strontium barium niobate crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Trull, J.; Wang, B.; Parra, A.; Vilaseca, R.; Cojocaru, C.; Sola, I.; Sheng, Y.

    2015-06-01

    Pulse compression in dispersive strontium barium niobate crystal with a random size and distribution of the anti-parallel orientated nonlinear domains is observed via transverse second harmonic generation. The dependence of the transverse width of the second harmonic trace along the propagation direction allows for the determination of the initial chirp and duration of pulses in the femtosecond regime. This technique permits a real-time analysis of the pulse evolution and facilitates fast in-situ correction of pulse chirp acquired in the propagation through an optical system.

  11. Direct writing of ferroelectric domains on strontium barium niobate crystals using focused ultraviolet laser light

    SciTech Connect

    Boes, Andreas; Crasto, Tristan; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Mitchell, Arnan; Wade, Scott; Frohnhaus, Jakob; Soergel, Elisabeth

    2013-09-30

    We report ferroelectric domain inversion in strontium barium niobate (SBN) single crystals by irradiating the surface locally with a strongly focused ultraviolet (UV) laser beam. The generated domains are investigated using piezoresponse force microscopy. We propose a simple model that allows predicting the domain width as a function of the irradiation intensity, which indeed applies for both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3}. Evidently, though fundamentally different, the domain structure of both SBN and LiNbO{sub 3} can be engineered through similar UV irradiation.

  12. Field induced polarization and magnetization behaviour of Gd-doped lead magnesium niobate ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Adityanarayan; Gupta, Surya Mohan; Nigam, Arun Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Both superparaelectric and superparamagnetic behaviour has been observed in rare earth magnetic ion Gd3+ doped Lead Magnesium Niobate (Gd-PMN). Field induced polarization and magnetization studies reveal hystresis loss free P-E and M-H loop at 300K and 5K, respectively. Temperature dependence of inverse susceptibility plot shows deviation at a temperature "td" when fitted with the Curie-Weiss law. This deviation has been attributed to transition from paramagnetic to superparamagnetic behaviour as reported in amorphous Pd-Ni-Fe-P alloys.

  13. Observation of bright spatial photorefractive solitons in a planar strontium barium niobate waveguide.

    PubMed

    Kip, D; Wesner, M; Shandarov, V; Moretti, P

    1998-06-15

    We have obtained stationary bright spatial solitons in a planar photorefractive strontium barium niobate waveguide for visible light ranging from 514.5 to 780 nm. Even for larger wavelengths (lambda=1047 nm) strong self-focusing of the beam was observed; however, input power had to be some orders of magnitude higher than for visible light for self-focusing to occur. Furthermore, we found transient self-trapping of red light (lambda=632.8 nm) that corresponds to the formation of bright quasi-steady-state solitons.

  14. Porosity Dependence of Piezoelectric Properties for Porous Potassium Niobate System Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, S.; Mase, Y.; Shimizu, S.; Maeda, K.; Fujii, I.; Nakashima, K.; Pulpan, P.; Miyajima, N.

    2011-10-01

    Porous potassium niobate (KNbO3, KN) system ceramics were prepared by a conventional sintering method using carbon black (CB) nanoparticles. First, KN nanoparticles with a size of 100 nm was mixed with CB nanoparticles and binder using ball milling with ethanol. The mixture was dried, and pressed into pellets using uniaxial pressing. After binder burnout, these ceramics was sintered in air. Their piezoelectric properties were measured and discussed a relationship between porosity and piezoelectric properties. As the results, with increasing porosity, piezoelectric g33 constant increased significantly, which suggested that porous ceramics were effective for stress sensor application.

  15. Lithium concentration profiles in APE:LiNbO3 optical waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekvindova, Pavla; Spirkova-Hradilova, Jarmila; Vacik, Jiri; Cervena, Jarmila; Schroefel, Josef

    1999-12-01

    Lithium concentration depth profiles of proton exchanged (PE) and annealed proton exchanged (APE) lithium niobate optical waveguides were monitored by neutron depth profiling (NDP) for a large variety of the samples. Results of the measurements are related to the corresponding ne depth profiles as measure by the standard prisms coupling method. It was found that cLi depth profiles of the PE waveguides fabricated in X- and Z-cuts using the same fabrication conditions are almost identical indicating thus very similar extend of H+ $ARLR Li+ exchange reaction. The maximal depths of the exchanged layers were 3 micrometers . The following annealing causes a massive transport of lithium atoms towards the exchanged regions of the as- exchanged samples which is differs in the both types of the cuts. The Li-transport in the X-cuts seems to be hampered by a barrier formed by the larger amount of in-diffused interstitial hydrogen in the X-cuts, which results in a more-less step-like profiles of the X-cuts parameters. A formula relating nc to CLi values for the APE waveguides is also presented.

  16. APPARATUS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF LITHIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Baker, P.S.; Duncan, F.R.; Greene, H.B.

    1961-08-22

    Methods and apparatus for the production of high-purity lithium from lithium halides are described. The apparatus is provided for continuously contacting a molten lithium halide with molten barium, thereby forming lithium metal and a barium halide, establishing separate layers of these reaction products and unreacted barium and lithium halide, and continuously withdrawing lithium and barium halide from the reaction zone. (AEC)

  17. Lithium and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, a drug used to treat bipolar disorders, has a variety of neuroprotective mechanisms, including autophagy regulation, in various neuropsychiatric conditions. In neurodegenerative diseases, lithium enhances degradation of aggregate-prone proteins, including mutated huntingtin, phosphorylated tau, and α-synuclein, and causes damaged mitochondria to degrade, while in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer’s disease autophagy downregulation by lithium is observed. The signaling pathway of lithium as an autophagy enhancer might be associated with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-independent pathway, which is involved in myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in Huntington’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. However, the mTOR-dependent pathway might be involved in inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) in other diseases. Lithium’s autophagy-enhancing property may contribute to the therapeutic benefit of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24738557

  18. Lithium Sulfuryl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Electrochemistry, Ionic current, Electrolytes, Cathodes(Electrolytic cell), Anodes(Electrolytic cell), Thionyl chloride ...Phosphorus compounds, Electrical conductivity, Calibration, Solutions(Mixtures), Electrical resistance, Performance tests, Solvents, Lithium compounds

  19. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  20. Solid-state lithium battery

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  1. Lithium battery management system

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  2. A Method for Microscale Combustion of Near Stoichiometric Energy Dense Liquid Fuel Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolmachoff, E. D.; Allmon, W. R.; Waits, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on the potential of a heterogeneous/homogeneous (HH) reactor for use as a fuel-flexible heat source, meeting the needs of the next generation of high temperature thermal-to-electric (TEC) portable power converters. In this class of reactor, low activation energy catalytic reactions provide a means to stabilize high activation energy homogeneous reactions. Diffusion limited surface reactions play a critical role in HH reactor operation. Surface conversion must be sufficiently fast to generate the high temperatures (~1000 K) necessary to initiate gas phase reactions. Therefore, fuel diffusivity and the reactor dimension are important parameters in governing HH reactor operation. We examine the performance of an HH reactor fuelled by propane and n-dodecane, representing two extremes of liquid hydrocarbon diffusivity, as a function of confining reactor dimension. Unburned fuel/air mixtures are close to stoichiometric, which is an important factor in minimizing the amount of excess air and, therefore, balance of plant energy costs. At moderate levels of confinement, the reactor is capable producing high, uniform temperatures for both fuels.

  3. The Production and Characterization of Near Stoichiometric NdFeB-Type HDDR Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Shaaban, A.

    2010-03-11

    A study of the processing of HDDR powder with the composition Nd{sub 12.7}Fe{sub 81.3}B{sub 6.0} and Nd{sub 12.2}Fe{sub 81.2}B{sub 5.9}Zr{sub 0.1} have been undertaken. The homogenized alloys were disproportionated at 850 deg. C for 30 minutes and employing a range of recombination temperatures from 790 deg. C to 920 deg. C. The optimum recombination temperature in the HDDR treatment was found to be 880 deg. C. Zr-addition appears to inhibit grain growth during the treatment process.

  4. The Production and Characterization of Near Stoichiometric NdFeB-Type HDDR Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaaban, A.

    2010-03-01

    A study of the processing of HDDR powder with the composition Nd12.7Fe81.3B6.0 and Nd12.2Fe81.2B5.9Zr0.1 have been undertaken. The homogenized alloys were disproportionated at 850° C for 30 minutes and employing a range of recombination temperatures from 790° C to 920° C. The optimum recombination temperature in the HDDR treatment was found to be 880° C. Zr-addition appears to inhibit grain growth during the treatment process.

  5. Effect of niobium on the HDDR behaviour of near-stoichiometric NdFeB alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, F. M.; Ataie, A.; Williams, A. J.; Harris, I. R.

    1996-05-01

    The HDDR behaviours of Nd11.8Fe81.3Nb1B5.9, Nd11.8Fe80.3Nb2B5.9 (at%) alloys were studied using a high resolution scanning electron microscope (HRSEM) in order to relate the initial, intermediate and final microstructures, to that of NdFeB-type alloys without additions. The disproportionation of the Nd2Fe14B (φ) matrix phase starts at the grain boundary and at the interface of the Nb26Fe32B42/φ phases, resulting in the formation of a submicron structure consisting of Fe, Fe2B and Nd-hydride. The HDDR process proved to be a very rapid and efficient method of homogenising the as-cast alloys. Promising magnetic properties have been obtained for bonded magnets using the HDDR powder.

  6. Experimental evaluation of catalytic combustion with heat removal at near stoichiometric conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulzan, D. L.

    1980-01-01

    Two concentric tube configurations were tested. Tests were conducted at an inlet pressure of 150,000 Pa, inlet fuel air mixture temperatures from 780 to 960 K, combustion air flow rates from 0.78 to 1.5 g/s, equivalence ratios up to 0.90, and a range of cooling air flow rates. Propane and propylene fuels were used. Both configurations used air flowing through the center tube for cooling and combustion in the annulus on the catalytic surface. One configuration had the catalyst applied to the outside surface of the inner tube. Conversion of the fuel was very low for this configuration. The other configuration had the catalyst applied to the inside surface of the outer tube. Conversion of the fuel was considerably better in this configuration.

  7. Alloy Modeling and Experimental Correlation for Ductility Enhancement in Near Stoichiometric Single Crystal Nickel Aluminide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-31

    Here, the charge density at the midpoint between the Ru-Al nearest neighbors is approximately half that for Ru-Ru and the charge transfer from Al to Ru...the Ni-Al-V phase diagram [43], along with the reported existence of a Ni 2AlV Heusler phase [301, indicates that vanadium substitutes for aluminum. In...positions of the B2 structure indicate that the precipitates consist of the Heusler (L2 1) phase (see Figure 21b). In 3 40 F49620-88-C-0052 3 200

  8. Half-Heusler phase related structural perturbations near stoichiometric composition FeZnSb

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Ding-Bang; Zhao, Yufeng

    2011-05-15

    Half-Heusler phases XYZ (Pearson symbol cF12) are chemically versatile and rich in physical properties. The half-Heusler phase in the Fe-Zn-Sb ternary system was reported in the year 2000. In this work, two new ternary phases are identified in the vicinity of the equiatomic composition FeZnSb in the same system: Fe{sub 1-x}ZnSb (tetragonal, space group P4/nmm, Pearson symbol tP6-{delta}, Z=2: a=4.1113(6) A, c=6.0127(12) A for x=0.08 (1), and a=4.1274(6) A, c=6.0068(12) A for x=0.12 (2)); and Fe{sub 7.87}Zn{sub 6.72}Sb{sub 8} (Fe{sub 0.98}Zn{sub 0.84}Sb) (3) (cubic, space group Fm-3m, Pearson symbol cF96-{delta}, Z=4, a=11.690(13) A). 1 and 2 crystallize in the PbFCl-type structure, and 3 adopts a unique 2x2x2 supercell of a normal half-Heusler structure. The structures of both the tetragonal and cubic phases can be described as assemblies of half-Heusler structure related subunits. Electrical resistivity measurement on the pure sample of 2 shows it has metallic-like behavior, and its thermal and magnetic properties are also characterized. -- Graphical Abstract: Three types of half-Heusler structure related subunit are identified in the vicinity of the equiatomic composition FeZnSb in the Fe-Zn-Sb system. Display Omitted Highlights: {yields} Two new related phases around equiatomic composition FeZnSb. {yields} Structural perturbation with the small variation of composition. {yields} Magnetic properties of the structure with defects.

  9. Prediction of a New Phase of Cu x S near Stoichiometric Composition

    DOE PAGES

    Khatri, Prashant; Huda, Muhammad N.

    2015-01-01

    Cumore » 2 S is known to be a promising solar absorber material due to its suitable band gap and the abundance of its constituent elements.2 S is known to have complex phase structures depending on the concentration ofvacancies. Its instability of phases is due to favorable formation ofvacancies and the mobility ofatoms within the crystal. Understanding its phase structures is of crucial important for its application as solar absorber material. In this paper, we have predicted a new crystal phase of copper sulfide (Cu x S) around chemical composition of x = 1.98 by utilizing crystal database search and density functional theory. We have shown that this new crystal phase of x S is more favorable than low chalcocite structure even at stoichiometric composition of x = 2 . However,vacancy formation probability was found to be higher in this new phase than the low chalcocite structure.« less

  10. Hydrogen Outgassing from Lithium Hydride

    SciTech Connect

    Dinh, L N; Schildbach, M A; Smith, R A; Balazs1, B; McLean II, W

    2006-04-20

    Lithium hydride is a nuclear material with a great affinity for moisture. As a result of exposure to water vapor during machining, transportation, storage and assembly, a corrosion layer (oxide and/or hydroxide) always forms on the surface of lithium hydride resulting in the release of hydrogen gas. Thermodynamically, lithium hydride, lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide are all stable. However, lithium hydroxides formed near the lithium hydride substrate (interface hydroxide) and near the sample/vacuum interface (surface hydroxide) are much less thermally stable than their bulk counterpart. In a dry environment, the interface/surface hydroxides slowly degenerate over many years/decades at room temperature into lithium oxide, releasing water vapor and ultimately hydrogen gas through reaction of the water vapor with the lithium hydride substrate. This outgassing can potentially cause metal hydriding and/or compatibility issues elsewhere in the device. In this chapter, the morphology and the chemistry of the corrosion layer grown on lithium hydride (and in some cases, its isotopic cousin, lithium deuteride) as a result of exposure to moisture are investigated. The hydrogen outgassing processes associated with the formation and subsequent degeneration of this corrosion layer are described. Experimental techniques to measure the hydrogen outgassing kinetics from lithium hydride and methods employing the measured kinetics to predict hydrogen outgassing as a function of time and temperature are presented. Finally, practical procedures to mitigate the problem of hydrogen outgassing from lithium hydride are discussed.

  11. Electrochemical reactions of layered niobate material as novel anode for sodium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Nose, Masafumi; Nakanishi, Shinji; Iba, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The electrochemical performances of layered niobium oxide materials were investigated for the first time as novel anode active materials for the sodium-ion battery. The layered niobate with the formula KNb3O8 was synthesized by a solid-state reaction and has been evaluated as an anode electrode by a cyclic voltammetry technique and galvanostatic charge/discharge tests. The crystal structure of KNb3O8 contains the NbO6 octahedral units and potassium alkali-metal ions interlayer to form the layered structure. KNb3O8 has a redox reaction around 1 V vs. Na/Na+ and has a reversible capacity of 104 mAh/g corresponding to the 1.7 Na+ insertion/extraction in the KNb3O8 structure. The Nb K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) shows that the Nb oxidation state is converted from Nb5+ to Nb4+ during the Na+ insertion stage, and reversibly recovered to Nb5+ during the Na+ extraction stage. This is the first report that the layered niobate of KNb3O8 reversibly reacts with Na+ at the potential around 1 V vs. Na/Na+ via the Nb5+/4+ redox reaction.

  12. Lithium: for harnessing renewable energy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Dwight; Jaskula, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium, which has the chemical symbol Li and an atomic number of 3, is the first metal in the periodic table. Lithium has many uses, the most prominent being in batteries for cell phones, laptops, and electric and hybrid vehicles. Worldwide sources of lithium are broken down by ore-deposit type as follows: closed-basin brines, 58%; pegmatites and related granites, 26%; lithium-enriched clays, 7%; oilfield brines, 3%; geothermal brines, 3%; and lithium-enriched zeolites, 3% (2013 statistics). There are over 39 million tons of lithium resources worldwide. Of this resource, the USGS estimates there to be approximately 13 million tons of current economically recoverable lithium reserves. To help predict where future lithium supplies might be located, USGS scientists study how and where identified resources are concentrated in the Earth’s crust, and they use that knowledge to assess the likelihood that undiscovered resources also exist.

  13. US Navy lithium cell applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, F. M.

    1978-01-01

    Applications of lithium systems that are already in the fleet are discussed. The approach that the Navy is taking in the control of the introduction of lithium batteries into the fleet is also discussed.

  14. Lithium Inorganic Electrolyte Battery Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-01-01

    rjp 3.2 PRISMATIC CELLS This subsection presents the results of the investigations conducted on large prismatic lithium thionyl chloride cells, both...91 5.0 PASSIVATION 5.1 INTRODUCTION Passivation in Li/SOC12 cells consists of the surface reaction of lithium directly with thionyl chloride to...produce a film of lithium chloride (LiCI). This film prevents the complete and rapid reaction of lithium and thionyl chloride at moderate temperatures. On

  15. Reversibility of anodic lithium in rechargeable lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Shui, Jiang-Lan; Okasinski, John S; Kenesei, Peter; Dobbs, Howard A; Zhao, Dan; Almer, Jonathan D; Liu, Di-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Non-aqueous lithium-air batteries represent the next-generation energy storage devices with very high theoretical capacity. The benefit of lithium-air batteries is based on the assumption that the anodic lithium is completely reversible during the discharge-charge process. Here we report our investigation on the reversibility of the anodic lithium inside of an operating lithium-air battery using spatially and temporally resolved synchrotron X-ray diffraction and three-dimensional micro-tomography technique. A combined electrochemical process is found, consisting of a partial recovery of lithium metal during the charging cycle and a constant accumulation of lithium hydroxide under both charging and discharging conditions. A lithium hydroxide layer forms on the anode separating the lithium metal from the separator. However, numerous microscopic 'tunnels' are also found within the hydroxide layer that provide a pathway to connect the metallic lithium with the electrolyte, enabling sustained ion-transport and battery operation until the total consumption of lithium.

  16. Lithium Dinitramide as an Additive in Lithium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkovenko, Alexander A.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium dinitramide, LiN(NO2)2 has shown promise as an additive to nonaqueous electrolytes in rechargeable and non-rechargeable lithium-ion-based electrochemical power cells. Such non-aqueous electrolytes consist of lithium salts dissolved in mixtures of organic ethers, esters, carbonates, or acetals. The benefits of adding lithium dinitramide (which is also a lithium salt) include lower irreversible loss of capacity on the first charge/discharge cycle, higher cycle life, lower self-discharge, greater flexibility in selection of electrolyte solvents, and greater charge capacity. The need for a suitable electrolyte additive arises as follows: The metallic lithium in the anode of a lithium-ion-based power cell is so highly reactive that in addition to the desired main electrochemical reaction, it engages in side reactions that cause formation of resistive films and dendrites, which degrade performance as quantified in terms of charge capacity, cycle life, shelf life, first-cycle irreversible capacity loss, specific power, and specific energy. The incidence of side reactions can be reduced through the formation of a solid-electrolyte interface (SEI) a thin film that prevents direct contact between the lithium anode material and the electrolyte. Ideally, an SEI should chemically protect the anode and the electrolyte from each other while exhibiting high conductivity for lithium ions and little or no conductivity for electrons. A suitable additive can act as an SEI promoter. Heretofore, most SEI promotion was thought to derive from organic molecules in electrolyte solutions. In contrast, lithium dinitramide is inorganic. Dinitramide compounds are known as oxidizers in rocket-fuel chemistry and until now, were not known as SEI promoters in battery chemistry. Although the exact reason for the improvement afforded by the addition of lithium dinitramide is not clear, it has been hypothesized that lithium dinitramide competes with other electrolyte constituents to react with

  17. Lithium Ion Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Lithium ion batteries, which use a new battery chemistry, are being developed under cooperative agreements between Lockheed Martin, Ultralife Battery, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. The unit cells are made in flat (prismatic) shapes that can be connected in series and parallel to achieve desired voltages and capacities. These batteries will soon be marketed to commercial original-equipment manufacturers and thereafter will be available for military and space use. Current NiCd batteries offer about 35 W-hr/kg compared with 110 W-hr/kg for current lithium ion batteries. Our ultimate target for these batteries is 200 W-hr/kg.

  18. Investigation of Lithium Ion Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Leonine; Rao, Gopalkrishna M.

    1999-01-01

    NASA/GSFC is interested in flying lithium ion cells for geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) satellites. To determine the preferred solstice storage conditions for the lithium ion chemistry, we have been studying either a constant current storage with a maximum voltage clamp or storage with only a voltage clamp. The cells used for this study are two 4Ah SAFT cylindrical lithium ion cells, two 1.5Ah Wilson Great Batch lithium ion cells, and one 8Ah Lithium Technology lithium polymer cell. In each pair, one cell is clamped at 4V, and the other is trickle charged at C/500 with a 4.lV clamp. The Lithium Technology cell is only undergoing voltage clamped storage testing. After each storage period the cells are subjected to a capacity test (C/2 discharge, C/10 charge) and a charge retention test at room temperature. Results after 4 weeks and 8 weeks of storage testing will be presented here.

  19. 77 FR 28259 - Mailings of Lithium Batteries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... for mailpieces containing lithium metal or lithium-ion cells or batteries and applies regardless of...'' instead of ``lithium content'' for secondary lithium-ion batteries when describing maximum quantity limits...-ion (Rechargeable) Cells and Batteries Small consumer-type lithium-ion cells and batteries like...

  20. Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 - niobate nanosheet composites

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jian; Nichols, Eric; Howe, Jane Y; Misture, S T

    2013-01-01

    Protonized niobate nanosheets H1.8Bi0.2CaNaNb3O10 were synthesized using a new, organic-free simultaneous ion-exchange and exfoliation process from the Aurivillius phase Bi2CaNaNb3O12. Nanosheet/TiO2 composites were prepared by thermal treatment of physical mixtures of commercially available anatase TiO2 and the nanosheet suspension. Methylene blue dye degradation studies for the composite show a clear correlation between the methylene blue surface adsorption and the degradation rate. The composite exhibits strongly enhanced photocatalytic activity as the calcination temperature increases, suggesting the possibility of the charge transfer at BCNN-TiO2 interface and the existence of Nb5+ and O2- acid-base pairs. Both phenomena are attributed to the processing approach, which includes topochemcial dehydration of the BCNN nanosheets during heat treatment.

  1. Potassium Niobate Nanolamina: A Promising Adsorbent for Entrapment of Radioactive Cations from Water

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jin; Yang, Dongjiang; Sun, Cuihua; Liu, Long; Yang, Shuanglei; (Alec) Jia, Yi; Cai, Rongsheng; Yao, Xiangdong

    2014-01-01

    Processing and managing radioactive waste is a great challenge worldwide as it is extremely difficult and costly; the radioactive species, cations or anions, leaked into the environment are a serious threat to the health of present and future generations. We report layered potassium niobate (K4Nb6O17) nanolamina as adsorbent to remove toxic Sr2+, Ba2+ and Cs+ cations from wastewater. The results show that K4Nb6O17 nanolamina can permanently confine the toxic cations within the interlayer spacing via a considerable deformation of the metastable layered structure during the ion exchange process. At the same time, the nanolaminar adsorbent exhibits prompt adsorption kinetics, high adsorption capacity and selectivity, and superior acid resistance. These merits make it be a promising material as ion exchanger for the removal of radioactive cations from wastewater. PMID:25472721

  2. Laser irradiation in Nd{sup 3+} doped strontium barium niobate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Haro-Gonzalez, P.; Martin, I. R.; Arbelo-Jorge, E.; Gonzalez-Perez, S.; Caceres, J. M.; Nunez, P.

    2008-07-01

    A local nanocrystalline formation in a neodymium doped strontium barium niobate (SBN) glass has been obtained under argon laser irradiation. The intense emission around 880 nm, originated from the {sup 4}F{sub 3/2} ({sup 4}F{sub 5/2}) thermalized level when the glass structure changes to a glass ceramic structure due to the irradiation of the laser beam, has been studied. The intensities and lifetimes change from this level inside and outside the irradiated area made by the laser excitation. They have been analyzed and demonstrated that the desvitrification process has been successfully achieved. These results confirm that nanocrystals of SBN have been created by the laser action confirming that the transition from glass to glass ceramic has been completed. These results are in agreement with the emission properties of nanocrystals of the bulk glass ceramic sample. The present study also suggests that the SBN nanocrystal has a potential application as temperature detector.

  3. Single potassium niobate nano/microsized particles as local mechano-optical Brownian probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mor, Flavio M.; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej; Magrez, Arnaud; Forró, László; Jeney, Sylvia

    2016-03-01

    Perovskite alkaline niobates, due to their strong nonlinear optical properties, including birefringence and the capability to produce second-harmonic generation (SHG) signals, attract a lot of attention as potential candidates for applications as local nano/microsized mechano-optical probes. Here, we report on an implementation of photonic force microscopy (PFM) to explore the Brownian motion and optical trappability of monocrystalline potassium niobate (KNbO3) nano/microsized particles having sizes within the range of 50 to 750 nm. In particular, we exploit the anisotropic translational diffusive regime of the Brownian motion to quantify thermal fluctuations and optical forces of singly-trapped KNbO3 particles within the optical trapping volume of a PFM microscope. We also show that, under near-infrared (NIR) excitation of the highly focused laser beam of the PFM microscope, a single optically-trapped KNbO3 particle reveals a strong SHG signal manifested by a narrow peak (λem = 532 nm) at half the excitation wavelength (λex = 1064 nm). Moreover, we demonstrate that the thus induced SHG emission can be used as a local light source that is capable of optically exciting molecules of an organic dye, Rose Bengal (RB), which adhere to the particle surface, through the mechanism of luminescence energy transfer (LET).Perovskite alkaline niobates, due to their strong nonlinear optical properties, including birefringence and the capability to produce second-harmonic generation (SHG) signals, attract a lot of attention as potential candidates for applications as local nano/microsized mechano-optical probes. Here, we report on an implementation of photonic force microscopy (PFM) to explore the Brownian motion and optical trappability of monocrystalline potassium niobate (KNbO3) nano/microsized particles having sizes within the range of 50 to 750 nm. In particular, we exploit the anisotropic translational diffusive regime of the Brownian motion to quantify thermal

  4. Probing local structure of pyrochlore lead zinc niobate with synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchiang, Kanokwan; Pramchu, Sittichain; Yimnirun, Rattikorn; Pakawanit, Phakkhananan; Ananta, Supon; Laosiritaworn, Yongyut

    2013-08-01

    Local structure of lead zinc niobate (PZN) ceramic, synthesized via B-site oxide precursor route in atmospheric pressure, was investigated using synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) technique. The x-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) simulation was first carried out. The XANES simulation results indicate that the PZN ceramic is in pyrochlore phase having Zn2+ substituted on Nb5+ site. Afterwards, the extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis was performed to extract the bond length information between Zn2+ and its neighboring atoms. From the EXAFS fitting, the bond length between Zn2+ and Pb2+ in the pyrochlore phase was found to be longer than the previously reported bond length in the perovskite phase. Further, with the radial distribution information of Zn2+'s neighboring atoms, the formation energies along the precursor-to-pyrochlore and precursor-to-perovskite reaction paths were calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated results show that the formation energy of the perovskite phase is noticeably higher than that of the pyrochlore phase, which is influenced by the presence of energetic Pb2+ lone pair, as the perovskite phase has shorter Zn2+ to Pb2+ bonding. This therefore suggests the steric hindrance of Pb2+ lone pair and the mutual interactions between Pb2+ lone pair and Zn2+ are main causes of the instability of lead zinc niobate in the perovskite structure and confirm the efficacy of XAS and DFT analysis in revealing local structural details of complex pyrochlore materials.

  5. Lithium disulfide battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1988-01-01

    A negative electrode limited secondary electrochemical cell having dense FeS.sub.2 positive electrode operating exclusively on the upper plateau, a Li alloy negative electrode and a suitable lithium-containing electrolyte. The electrolyte preferably is 25 mole percent LiCl, 38 mole percent LiBr and 37 mole percent KBr. The cell may be operated isothermally.

  6. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Liu, C.

    1996-04-09

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH{sub 3}CN), succinnonitrile (CH{sub 2}CN){sub 2}, and tetraglyme (CH{sub 3}--O--CH{sub 2}--CH{sub 2}--O--){sub 2} (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg{sup +2} cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100 C conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone. 2 figs.

  7. Lithium ion conducting electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte having exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature, and comprising the lithium salts selected from the group consisting of the thiocyanate, iodide, bromide, chloride, perchlorate, acetate, tetrafluoroborate, perfluoromethane sulfonate, perfluoromethane sulfonamide, tetrahaloaluminate, and heptahaloaluminate salts of lithium, with or without a magnesium-salt selected from the group consisting of the perchlorate and acetate salts of magnesium. Certain of the latter embodiments may also contain molecular additives from the group of acetonitrile (CH.sub.3 CN) succinnonitrile (CH.sub.2 CN).sub.2, and tetraglyme (CH.sub.3 --O--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --O--).sub.2 (or like solvents) solvated to a Mg.sup.+2 cation to lower the freezing point of the electrolyte below room temperature. Other particularly useful embodiments contain up to about 40, but preferably not more than about 25, mol percent of a long chain polyether polymer dissolved in the lithium salts to provide an elastic or rubbery solid electrolyte of high ambient temperature conductivity and exceptional 100.degree. C. conductivity. Another embodiment contains up to about but not more than 10 mol percent of a molecular solvent such as acetone.

  8. Lithium battery discharge tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C. J.

    1980-01-01

    The long term discharge of a variety of lithium cells was characterized and the susceptibility of the cells to chemical variation during the slow discharge was tested. A shunt resistor was set across the terminals to monitor the voltage as a function of time. Failures were identified by premature voltage drops.

  9. Efficient blue light generation using periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate via resonant frequency doubling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademian, Ali; Jadhav, Shilpa; Shiner, David

    2014-05-01

    Convenient high power blue diode lasers with single frequency operation are still under developments and are not as well developed and cost effective as IR laser sources. Harmonic generation of IR lasers provide a viable alternative source of blue and UV light. Magnesium oxide doped periodically poled Stoichiometric Lithium Tantalate (PPMgO:SLT) has been reported to have the lowest blue, IR and blue induced IR absorption (BLIIRA) among ferroelectric crystals such as Lithium Niobate (PPLN) and Potassium Titanyl Phosphate (PPKTP). All these properties, along with higher thermal conductivity, make this crystal an excellent candidate for efficient blue light generation using second harmonic generation (SHG) in a resonant buildup cavity. Efficient resonant doubling is very sensitive to various cavity and crystal loss mechanisms. Recently we obtained 400 mW of blue light at 486 nm with net conversion efficiency of 77% using a 515 mW fiber grating stabilized IR source. Sources of conversion loss have been identified and evaluated with various methods in our investigation. These include reflection, scattering, absorption, and polarization rotation of IR light in the crystal, as well as mode mismatching and spherical aberration due to focusing lenses. The locking and electronic control functions of the cavity are automated using an internally mounted single chip microcontroller with embedded DSP (digital signal processor). Work is supported by NSF grant.

  10. Photo-induced morphological winding and unwinding motion of nanoscrolls composed of niobate nanosheets with a polyfluoroalkyl azobenzene derivative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabetani, Yu; Takamura, Hazuki; Uchikoshi, Akino; Hassan, Syed Zahid; Shimada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Masui, Dai; Tong, Zhiwei; Inoue, Haruo

    2016-06-01

    Photo-responsive nanoscrolls can be successfully fabricated by mixing a polyfluoroalkyl azobenzene derivative and a niobate nanosheet, which is exfoliated from potassium hexaniobate. In this study, we have found that the photo-responsive nanoscroll shows a morphological motion of winding and unwinding, which is basically due to the nanosheet sliding within the nanoscroll, by efficient photo-isomerization reactions of the intercalated azobenzene in addition to the interlayer distance change of the nanoscrolls. The relative nanosheet sliding of the nanoscroll is estimated to be ca. 280 nm from the AFM morphology analysis. The distance of the sliding motion is over 20 times that of the averaged nanosheet sliding in the azobenzene/niobate hybrid film reported previously. Photo-responsive nanoscrolls can be expected to be novel photo-activated actuators and artificial muscle model materials.Photo-responsive nanoscrolls can be successfully fabricated by mixing a polyfluoroalkyl azobenzene derivative and a niobate nanosheet, which is exfoliated from potassium hexaniobate. In this study, we have found that the photo-responsive nanoscroll shows a morphological motion of winding and unwinding, which is basically due to the nanosheet sliding within the nanoscroll, by efficient photo-isomerization reactions of the intercalated azobenzene in addition to the interlayer distance change of the nanoscrolls. The relative nanosheet sliding of the nanoscroll is estimated to be ca. 280 nm from the AFM morphology analysis. The distance of the sliding motion is over 20 times that of the averaged nanosheet sliding in the azobenzene/niobate hybrid film reported previously. Photo-responsive nanoscrolls can be expected to be novel photo-activated actuators and artificial muscle model materials. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. Photo-isomerization reaction of nanoscrolls. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr02177h

  11. Sputter deposition of lithium silicate - lithium phosphate amorphous electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Luck, C.F. ); Robertson, J.D. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of an amorphous lithium-conducting electrolyte were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering of ceramic targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} and Li{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. The lithium content of the films was found to depend more strongly on the nature and composition of the targets than on many other sputtering parameters. For targets containing Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}, most of the lithium was found to segregate away from the sputtered area of the target. Codeposition using two sputter sources achieves a high lithium content in a controlled and reproducible film growth. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cernescu, C; Popescu, L; Constantinescu, S; Cernescu, S

    1988-01-01

    Studies in human embryo fibroblasts infected with measles or herpes simplex virus showed a reduction in virus yield when cultures were pretreated with 1-10 mM lithium chloride doses. Maximum effect was obtained by a 1 h treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride, preceding viral infection by 19-24 hours. A specific antiviral effect against measles virus was manifest immediately after culture pretreatment. Intermittent treatment with 10 mM lithium chloride of cultures persistently infected with measles or herpes virus obtained from human myeloid K-562 cell line shows a reduction in the extracellular virus yield. In the K-562/herpes virus system, the culture treatment with lithium chloride and acyclovir (10 microM) has an additive inhibitory effect on virus production. The paper is focused on the mechanism of lithium chloride antiviral action and the expediency of lithium therapy in SSPE (subacute sclerosing panencephalitis).

  13. Experimental lithium system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolowith, R.; Berg, J.D.; Miller, W.C.

    1985-04-01

    A full-scale mockup of the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) Facility lithium system was built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). This isothermal mockup, called the Experimental Lithium System (ELS), was prototypic of FMIT, excluding the accelerator and dump heat exchanger. This 3.8 m/sup 3/ lithium test loop achieved over 16,000 hours of safe and reliable operation. An extensive test program demonstrated satisfactory performance of the system components, including the HEDL-supplied electromagnetic lithium pump, the lithium jet target, the purification and characterization hardware, as well as the auxiliary argon and vacuum systems. Experience with the test loop provided important information on system operation, performance, and reliability. This report presents a complete overview of the entire Experimental Lithium System test program and also includes a summary of such areas as instrumentation, coolant chemistry, vapor/aerosol transport, and corrosion.

  14. Membranes in lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Hou, Junbo

    2012-07-04

    Lithium ion batteries have proven themselves the main choice of power sources for portable electronics. Besides consumer electronics, lithium ion batteries are also growing in popularity for military, electric vehicle, and aerospace applications. The present review attempts to summarize the knowledge about some selected membranes in lithium ion batteries. Based on the type of electrolyte used, literature concerning ceramic-glass and polymer solid ion conductors, microporous filter type separators and polymer gel based membranes is reviewed.

  15. Sealed Lithium Inorganic Electrolyte Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    revere side it necoeery and idM,1117 "~ bfoh numiber) Inorganic Electrolyte Battery Carbon Cathode Evaluation Thionyl Chloride Gas Generation Lithium ...hardware corrosion in cold rolled steel cans, due to cathodic protection of the cans by the lithium . Recent data 4 showed that thionyl chloride is reduced...very slowly on the surface of nickel and stainless steel, when these materials were in contact with a lithium anode in the thionyl chloride

  16. Advanced lithium ion battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Teofilo, V.L.; Merritt, L.V.; Hollandsworth, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    A lithium ion battery charger has been developed for four and eight cell batteries or multiples thereof. This charger has the advantage over those using commercial lithium ion charging chips in that the individual cells are allowed to be taper charged at their upper charging voltage rather than be cutoff when all cells of the string have reached the upper charging voltage limit. Since 30--60% of the capacity of lithium ion cells maybe restored during the taper charge, this charger has a distinct benefit of fully charging lithium ion batteries by restoring all of the available capacity to all of its cells.

  17. Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Batteries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PRIMARY BATTERIES , TEMPERATURE, LITHIUM , CATHODES, ELECTRODES, PROTECTIVE COATINGS, PLATINUM, NICKEL, SULFUR, STORAGE, GOLD, RELIABILITY(ELECTRONICS...CHEMICAL ANALYSIS, CARBON BLACK, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, THIONYL CHLORIDE , REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY).

  18. Optimized lithium oxyhalide cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilroy, W. P.; Schlaikjer, C.; Polsonetti, P.; Jones, M.

    1993-04-01

    Lithium thionyl chloride cells were optimized with respect to electrolyte and carbon cathode composition. Wound 'C-size' cells with various mixtures of Chevron acetylene black with Ketjenblack EC-300J and containing various concentrations of LiAlCl4 and derivatives, LiGaCl4, and mixtures of SOCl2 and SO2Cl2 were evaluated as a function of discharge rate, temperature, and storage condition.

  19. Study of the crystalline and optical properties of lithium tantalate thin films deposited by high power RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Dong; Wang, Jun; Sun, Binwei; Gou, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) thin films were deposited by high power (250 W) RF magnetron sputtering on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates and were annealed from 600 °C–700 °C in an O2 or N2 environment. The crystallinity of those films were examined by x-ray diffraction and Raman spectra to study the effects of annealing temperature and annealing gas on the crystal properties of LiTaO3 thin films. LiTaO3 thin films annealing at 650 °C in O2 have a better crystalline quality in a (012) preferential orientation. However, LiTaO3 thin films annealed at 700 °C in O2 contain impurities with titanium oxide (Ta2O5). This is attributable to the fact that the crystal structure is unstable above the Curie temperature and the tantalum reacts with oxygen in the annealing process. At the same time, the result of the Raman spectra suggests that LiTaO3 thin films annealed at 600 °C and 650 °C are closer to near-stoichiometric LiTaO3 and have less Li diffusivity and Li-deficient phases. Finally, optical constants of LiTaO3 films are also primarily probed by spectroscopic ellipsometry. For LiTaO3 thin films annealed at 650 °C in O2, the refractive index is 2.33, the extinction coefficient is 0.002 34 and the direct optical band gap energy is estimated to be minimal at 3.66 eV.

  20. Determination of g-tensors of low-symmetry Nd{sup 3+} centers in LiNbO{sub 3} by rectification of angular dependence of electron paramagnetic resonance spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Grachev, V. Malovichko, G.; Munro, M.; Kokanyan, E.

    2015-07-28

    Two procedures for facilitation of line tracing and deciphering of complicated spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were developed: a correction of microwave frequencies for every orientation of external magnetic field on the base of known values of g-tensor components for a reference paramagnetic center and followed rectification of measured angular dependences using plots of effective deviation of g{sup 2}-factors of observed lines from effective g{sup 2}-factors of the reference center versus angles or squared cosines of angles describing magnetic field orientations. Their application to EPR spectra of nearly stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals doped with neodymium allowed identifying two axial and six different low-symmetry Nd{sup 3+} centers, to determine all components of their g-tensors, and to propose common divacancy models for a whole family of Nd{sup 3+} centers.

  1. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  2. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Ji-Guang; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  3. Preparation and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity of graphitic carbon nitride/bismuth niobate heterojunctions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shengqu; Yang, Yuxin; Guo, Yingna; Guo, Wan; Wang, Mei; Guo, Yihang; Huo, Mingxin

    2013-10-15

    A series of graphitic carbon nitride/bismuth niobate (g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15) heterojunctions with g-C3N4 doping level of 10-90 wt% were prepared by a facile milling-heat treatment method. The phase and chemical structures, surface compositions, electronic and optical properties as well as morphologies of the prepared g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15 were well-characterized. Subsequently, the photocatalytic activity and stability of g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15 were evaluated by the degradation of aqueous methyl orange (MO) and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) under the visible-light irradiation. At suitable g-C3N4 doping levels, g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15 exhibited enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity compared with pure g-C3N4 or Bi5Nb3O15. This excellent photocatalytic activity was revealed in terms of the extension of visible-light response and efficient separation and transportation of the photogenerated electrons and holes due to coupling of g-C3N4 and Bi5Nb3O15. Additionally, the active species yielded in the pure g-C3N4- and g-C3N4/Bi5Nb3O15-catalyzed 4-CP photodegradation systems were investigated by the free radical and hole scavenging experiments.

  4. Nonresonant dielectric hole-burning spectroscopy on a titanium-modified lead magnesium niobate ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kircher, O.; Diezemann, G.; Böhmer, R.

    2001-08-01

    Nonresonant dielectric hole-burning experiments were performed on the titanium-modified relaxor ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate around the diffuse maximum in the dielectric permittivity. After applying large alternating electric pump fields we monitored the polarization response to small field steps for times between 0.3 ms and 100 s. Depending on the frequency of the pump oscillation a speedup of the polarization response was observed with a maximum located around times corresponding to the inverse pump frequency. The refilling of the dielectric holes was investigated for several temperatures, pump frequencies, and pump field amplitudes. It proceeded always slower than the time scale set by the pump frequencies. Additionally, we observe a significant increase of the refilling times for increasing pump field amplitudes. This finding can be interpreted to indicate that increasingly large pump fields enable the domain walls to cross larger and larger pinning barriers. The subsequent recovery process, which leads back to the equilibrium domain size distribution, proceeds in the absence of an external electrical field. This rationalizes that recovery is slowed down significantly by application of large pump field amplitudes since then the pinning barriers that have to be traversed back are larger.

  5. Fabrication and performance of a single-crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate cylindrical hydrophone.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeremy A; Dunphy, Kevin; Leadbetter, Jeff R; Adamson, Robert B A; Beslin, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    The development of a piezoelectric hydrophone based on lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate [PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT)] single-crystal piezoelectric as the hydrophone substrate is reported. Although PMN-PT can possess much higher piezoelectric sensitivity than traditional lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoelectrics, it is highly anisotropic and therefore there is a large gain in sensitivity only when the crystal structure is oriented in a specific direction. Because of this, simply replacing the PZT substrate with a PMN-PT cylinder is not an optimal solution because the crystal orientation does not uniformly align with the circumferential axis of the hydrophone. Therefore, a composite hydrophone that maintains the optimal crystal axis around the hydrophone circumference has been developed. An 11.3 mm diameter composite hydrophone cylinder was fabricated from a single <110> cut PMN-PT rectangular plate. Solid end caps were applied to the cylinder and the sensitivity was directly compared with a solid PZT-5A cylindrical hydrophone of equal dimensions in a hydrophone test tank. The charge sensitivity showed a 9.1 dB improvement over the PZT hydrophone and the voltage sensitivity showed a 3.5 dB improvement. This was in good agreement with the expected theoretical improvements of 10.1 and 4.5 dB, respectively.

  6. Modification of Relaxor and Impedance Spectroscopy Properties of Lead Magnesium Niobate by Bismuth Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, S. N.; Pradhan, S.; Bhuyan, S.; Choudhary, R. N. P.; Das, P.

    2017-03-01

    The relaxor and impedance characteristics of classic or traditional lead magnesium niobate (PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3; PMN) ferroelectric relaxor material have been modified by chemically synthesizing with multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3; BFO). Detailed studies of structural, morphological and electrical properties of PMN-BFO-prepared solid solutions [((Pb1- x Bi x ) (Mg0.33(1- x)Nb0.66(1- x)Fe x ) O3) with x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4] reveal some interesting findings on structure-properties relationships. The formation of single phase material of each compound in orthorhombic crystal system is identified from x-ray diffraction. The microstructure analyses reveal that the grain size of PMN-BFO increases for increasing BFO weight percent with PMN. The increase of BFO concentration not only improves the dielectric response of PMN-BFO but also modifies the nature of attained phase transition from a typical relaxor to a normal ferroelectric. The impedance spectroscopy studies exhibit the presence of grain and grain boundary effects, and the existence of a positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTCR) in the material. The ac conductivity increases with the increase in frequency in the low-temperature region for larger content of BFO in the solid solutions. It is observed that the prepared electronic materials obey the non-Debye-type of conductivity relaxation behavior.

  7. Variation of the viscosity of molten potassium niobate with annealing time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Xinguo; Chen, Yufeng

    1996-07-01

    Using the double-wire torsion pendulum method, we have measured the viscosity of a potassium niobate molten system with excess K 2O from 50 to 56 mol% at temperatures up to 1190°C in air. Both the viscosity and its activation energy show strong time dependence. While the values for viscosity increase for melts with 50 and 51 mol% K 2O, which are annealed at 1150°C in air, the viscosity, however, of the melt with more than 2 mol% excess K 2O shows a completely different time dependence, i.e. drastic decrease with annealing time. A similar striking reversed variation of temperature-dependent viscosity with annealing time is observed when the K 2O content in the melt is up to 52 mol%. These anomalous variations in viscosity give clear evidence why the KNbO 3 single crystal should be grown from mother melts with excess K 2O above 51 mol%, and after being annealed for a long time. This result also confirms that the double-wire torsion pendulum method is a useful tool to study the time-dependent viscosity of melts at high temperature in air.

  8. Electric fatigue process in lead-free alkali niobate ceramics at various pressures and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Alexander; Kakimoto, Ken-ichi

    2015-10-01

    Electric fatigue tests are important for evaluating the reliability of piezoceramics. However, these tests have not been the focus of studies of lead-free alkali niobate (NKN) ceramics so far. For this purpose, two different materials, Li0.06Na0.47K0.47NbO3 (LNKN6) and Na0.55K0.45NbO3 + 0.25% MnO (Mn-NKN), have been examined at various uniaxial pressures ranging from 0.1 to 100 MPa and various temperatures ranging from room temperature to 150 °C. It was shown that the harder ferroelectric Mn-NKN could maintain its piezoelectric properties at pressures up to 25 MPa. When bipolar fatigue occurred under pressures over the coercive stress of ∼30 MPa, the sample depolarized and formed microcracks. In contrast, the softer LNKN6 did not show fatigue at higher pressures between 25 and 50 MPa. However, in both materials, higher temperatures enhanced domain wall and charge carrier movements and conclusively domain wall pinning.

  9. On the lattice parameters of sodium niobate at room temperature and above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darlington, C. N. W.; Knight, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Sodium niobate undergoes a complicated sequence of phase transitions on heating from room temperature, before becoming cubic above 641°C. In all five non-cubic phases exhibited, the octahedra are tilted about <1 0 0> pseudocubic directions. The phases stable between -80°C and 360°C, and between 360°C and 480°C are antiferroelectric with the niobiums displaced from the centres of the octahedra. The combination of octahedral tilts and cation displacements leads to the edge lengths of the psedocubic cell of each phase becoming a multiple of the cubic cell found above 641°C. We have re-examined these phases using HRPD at ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, and find that the multiplicities of the pseudocubic cells describing the phases stable in the ranges 360-480°C and 480-520°C are both 2×4×6, and not 2×2×6 and 2×2×2 as reported in the literature. Furthermore, the high resolution used in the scattering experiment has revealed that the phase stable at room temperature has symmetry which is lower than orthorhombic.

  10. Study on the Effect of Pt Intercalation into Layered Niobate Perovskite for Photocatalytic Behavior.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nan; Takei, Takahiro; Miura, Akira; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Katsumata, Ken-ichi; Matsushita, Nobuhiro; Okada, Kiyoshi

    2015-07-14

    A novel photocatalyst consisting of an intercalated perovskite H(1-2x)Pt(x)LaNb2O7 was fabricated by ion exchange. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results confirmed that Pt(2+) exists within the interlayer space of the layered perovskite. H(1-2x)Pt(x)LaNb2O7 composed of layered niobate perovskite and intercalated Pt(2+) completely degraded a 20 ppm phenol solution in 3 h under irradiation by Xe light, which exhibits photocatalytic activity superior to those of RbLaNb2O7, Pt-deposited RbLaNb2O7, and HLaNb2O7. From first-principles density functional theory simulation, high photocatalytic activity of H(1-2x)Pt(x)LaNb2O7 is attributed to the emergence of a new O 2p-Pt 5d hybridized band on top of the valence band.

  11. Lithium/bromine cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of lithium molybdenum selenide nanowires for chemical sensing applications and of nanosheets derived from potassium tetratitanate, potassium calcium niobate, and potassium niobate for photocatalytic water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Mark Ryan

    This work describes both the fabrication of LiMo3Se3 nanowire films and assessment their ability to detect analytes in aqueous solution, and the construction of layered photocatalysts, including heterojunction multicomponent materials, from K2Ti4O9, KCa 2Nb3O10, and K4Nb6O 17 nanosheets, and the characterization of these for their photocatalytic water splitting properties. The LiMo3Se3 nanowire film sensors were conceived by drop-coating a 0.05% (mass) aqueous nanowire solution onto microfabricated indium tin oxide electrode pairs. According to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), the films are made of a dense network of 3-7 nm thick nanowire bundles. Immersion of the films in 1.0 M aqueous solutions of group 1 or 2 metal halides or of Zn(II), Mn(II), Fe(II), or Co(II) chlorides results in an increase of the electrical resistance of the films. The resistance change is always positive and reaches up to 9% of the base resistance of the films. It occurs over the course of 30-240 s, and it is reversible for monovalent ions and partially reversible for divalent ions. The signal depends on the concentration of the electrolyte and on the size and charge of the metal cation. Anions do not play a significant role, presumably because they are repelled by the negatively charged nanowire strands. The magnitude of the electrical response and its sign suggest that it is due to analyte-induced scattering of conduction electrons in the nanowires. An ion-induced field effect can be excluded based on gated conductance measurements of the nanowire films. The tetratitanate K2Ti4O9 has been known as a photocatalyst for the oxidation of methanol under UV irradiation. Here we study the evolution of the morphological, optical, and photocatalytic properties of this titanate as it is converted into H2Ti4O 9 and subsequently exfoliated into individual tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-supported [Ti4O9]-2 nanosheets. We find that proton exchange and exfoliation are accompanied by a red shift of the optical absorption edge and fluorescence maximum, suggesting a reduction of the bandgap in the series K2Ti4O9 (3.54 eV), H2Ti 4O9 (3.25 eV), (TBA)2[Ti4O9] (3.00 eV). Neither compound is active for photochemical water splitting, even after photochemical deposition of platinum nanoparticles. However, in aqueous methanol, all platinated compounds are moderately active for H2 evolution upon bandgap irradiation, and in 0.01 M AgNO3, they all produce moderate quantities of O2. From the onset potentials for photoelectrochemical methanol oxidation, the values for the valence band edges at pH 7 are deduced to be lie between -0.23 and -0.53 V (NHE) for the non-platinated compounds, and at +0.08 V and -0.30 V for the platinated compounds. This Pt-induced decrease of negative charge on the titanates is likely due to Fermi level equilibration of metal and semiconductor. Its effect can also be seen in a shift of the onset potentials for electrochemical water oxidation, as measured by cyclic voltammetry. Transient absorption data reveal that photogenerated electrons are trapped in mid band gap states, from which they decay exponentially with a time-constant of 43.67 +/- 0.28 ms, much slower than observed for 68 +/- 1 ns for TiO2 nanocrystals (Degussa, P25). Heterojunction multicomponent photocatalysts have been shown to possess enhanced charge separation upon photoexcitation. Nanostructured heterojunctions were prepared through soft chemical routes from nanosheets derived from the parent vi compounds K2Ti4O9, KCa2Nb 3O10, and K4Nb6O17. Five composites in total, consisting of either one or two types of nanosheets, were synthesized by precipitation of the precursor nanosheets with KOH. Resultant stacked materials were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy and characterized via powder x-ray diffraction. The layered catalysts were found to be inactive for photocatalytic water splitting under illumination of ultraviolet light. However, when irradiated in aqueous methanol, all five materials did yield substantial amounts of H2 gas. Photochemical deposition of platinum nanoparticles onto the materials resulted in them all being active toward evolving H2 when irradiated in both water and in aqueous methanol. Photocatalytic activity of the restacked materials comprised of two types of nanosheets were compared to the single-component catalysts and discussed in context of experimentally determined valence band edges of the single-component catalysts.

  13. Positive electrode for a lithium battery

    DOEpatents

    Park, Sang-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2015-04-07

    A method for producing a lithium alkali transition metal oxide for use as a positive electrode material for lithium secondary batteries by a precipitation method. The positive electrode material is a lithium alkali transition metal composite oxide and is prepared by mixing a solid state mixed with alkali and transition metal carbonate and a lithium source. The mixture is thermally treated to obtain a small amount of alkali metal residual in the lithium transition metal composite oxide cathode material.

  14. Lithium electric dipole polarizability

    SciTech Connect

    Puchalski, M.; KePdziera, D.; Pachucki, K.

    2011-11-15

    The electric dipole polarizability of the lithium atom in the ground state is calculated including relativistic and quantum electrodynamics corrections. The obtained result {alpha}{sub E}=164.0740(5) a.u. is in good agreement with the less accurate experimental value of 164.19(1.08) a.u. The small uncertainty of about 3 parts per 10{sup 6} comes from the approximate treatment of quantum electrodynamics corrections. Our theoretical result can be considered as a benchmark for more general atomic structure methods and may serve as a reference value for the relative measurement of polarizabilities of the other alkali-metal atoms.

  15. Halo Star Lithium Depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Pinsonneault, M. H.; Walker, T. P.; Steigman, G.; Narayanan, Vijay K.

    1999-12-10

    The depletion of lithium during the pre-main-sequence and main-sequence phases of stellar evolution plays a crucial role in the comparison of the predictions of big bang nucleosynthesis with the abundances observed in halo stars. Previous work has indicated a wide range of possible depletion factors, ranging from minimal in standard (nonrotating) stellar models to as much as an order of magnitude in models that include rotational mixing. Recent progress in the study of the angular momentum evolution of low-mass stars permits the construction of theoretical models capable of reproducing the angular momentum evolution of low-mass open cluster stars. The distribution of initial angular momenta can be inferred from stellar rotation data in young open clusters. In this paper we report on the application of these models to the study of lithium depletion in main-sequence halo stars. A range of initial angular momenta produces a range of lithium depletion factors on the main sequence. Using the distribution of initial conditions inferred from young open clusters leads to a well-defined halo lithium plateau with modest scatter and a small population of outliers. The mass-dependent angular momentum loss law inferred from open cluster studies produces a nearly flat plateau, unlike previous models that exhibited a downward curvature for hotter temperatures in the 7Li-Teff plane. The overall depletion factor for the plateau stars is sensitive primarily to the solar initial angular momentum used in the calibration for the mixing diffusion coefficients. Uncertainties remain in the treatment of the internal angular momentum transport in the models, and the potential impact of these uncertainties on our results is discussed. The 6Li/7Li depletion ratio is also examined. We find that the dispersion in the plateau and the 6Li/7Li depletion ratio scale with the absolute 7Li depletion in the plateau, and we use observational data to set bounds on the 7Li depletion in main-sequence halo

  16. Method of recycling lithium borate to lithium borohydride through methyl borate

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the recycling of lithium borate to lithium borohydride which can be reacted with water to generate hydrogen for utilization as a fuel. The lithium borate by-product of the hydrogen generation reaction is reacted with hydrogen chloride and water to produce boric acid and lithium chloride. The boric acid and lithium chloride are converted to lithium borohydride through a methyl borate intermediate to complete the recycle scheme.

  17. Diffraction properties of transmission photorefractive volume gratings in a cerium-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate crystal.

    PubMed

    Liang, B L; Wang, Z Q; Mu, G G; Guan, J H; Cartwright, C M

    1999-09-10

    The diffraction efficiency of volume gratings written by two-wave mixing in a cerium-doped potassium sodium strontium barium niobate (Ce:KNSBN) photorefractive crystal is studied. It is found that the diffraction efficiency strongly depends on the polarization of writing beams and exhibits loop behavior with respect to the fringe modulation. The fringe modulations before and behind the crystal are compared. Modified coupled-wave theory is used to fit the experimental data. This research presents data that are relevant to the application of Ce:KNSBN crystals to holographic recording and optical information processing.

  18. Investigation on probing quadratic electro-optic coefficient of tantalum potassium niobate crystal based on Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ch. Y.; Yu, H. T.; Wen, J.; Zhao, M.; Shang, J. J.; Li, X. L.

    2016-02-01

    A method for probing quadratic electro-optic(QEO) coefficient of tantalum potassium niobate crystal based on Fourier transform was proposed. We acquired all the independent component of QEO coefficient tensor of crystal, they are h11 = 1.56 ×10-14m2 /V2 , h12 = 1.24 ×10-14m2 /V2 and h44 = 0.160 ×10-14m2 /V2 respectively. With the help of the computer digital image processing technology, this method should have further application prospect in the areas of optical properties parameters measuring to the optical functional materials.

  19. A lithium superionic conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaya, Noriaki; Homma, Kenji; Yamakawa, Yuichiro; Hirayama, Masaaki; Kanno, Ryoji; Yonemura, Masao; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kato, Yuki; Hama, Shigenori; Kawamoto, Koji; Mitsui, Akio

    2011-09-01

    Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10-2 S cm-1) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li10GeP2S12 that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm-1 at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).

  20. Anodes for rechargeable lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kepler, Keith D.; Vaughey, John T.

    2003-01-01

    A negative electrode (12) for a non-aqueous electrochemical cell (10) with an intermetallic host structure containing two or more elements selected from the metal elements and silicon, capable of accommodating lithium within its crystallographic host structure such that when the host structure is lithiated it transforms to a lithiated zinc-blende-type structure. Both active elements (alloying with lithium) and inactive elements (non-alloying with lithium) are disclosed. Electrochemical cells and batteries as well as methods of making the negative electrode are disclosed.

  1. Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    EEEElhIhEEEEEE 1111 1 - MI(CRO( fy Hl ff1Sf UIIIUN Ift I IA I~t Research and Development Technical Report DELET - TR - 78 - 0563 - F Cq LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE ...2b(1110) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Lithium - Thionyl Chloride Battery -10/1/78 - 11/30/80 6. PNING ORG. REPORT NUMBER Z %A a.~as B.,OWRACT OR...block number) Inorganic Electrolyte battery, Thionyl Chloride , lithium , high rate D cell, high rate flat cylindrical cell, laser designator battery. C//i

  2. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C.A.; Xu, K.; Liu, C.

    1996-01-16

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100 C or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors. 4 figs.

  3. Lithium ion conducting ionic electrolytes

    DOEpatents

    Angell, C. Austen; Xu, Kang; Liu, Changle

    1996-01-01

    A liquid, predominantly lithium-conducting, ionic electrolyte is described which has exceptionally high conductivity at temperatures of 100.degree. C. or lower, including room temperature. It comprises molten lithium salts or salt mixtures in which a small amount of an anionic polymer lithium salt is dissolved to stabilize the liquid against recrystallization. Further, a liquid ionic electrolyte which has been rubberized by addition of an extra proportion of anionic polymer, and which has good chemical and electrochemical stability, is described. This presents an attractive alternative to conventional salt-in-polymer electrolytes which are not cationic conductors.

  4. Ambient Temperature Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    AD-AI O297 EIC LA BS INC NEWTON MA F/6 10/3 AMB IENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERAU AG(MARHMU)L TI ARI AK IC07 UNCLASSIFIED C-655DEE TB6...036FL -T Research and Development Technical Report -N DELET-TR-81-0378-F AMBIENT TEMPERATURE RECHARGEABLE LITHIUM BATTERY K. M. Abraham D. L. Natwig...WORDS (Cenimne an revee filf Of ~"#amp Pu l41"lfr bg’ 61WA amober) Rechargeable lithium battery, CrO.5VO.5S2 positive electrode, 2Me-THF/LiAsF6, cell

  5. Core-shell potassium niobate nanowires for enhanced nonlinear optical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, J.; Steinbrück, A.; Zilk, M.; Sergeyev, A.; Pertsch, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Grange, R.

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis as well as the optical characterization of core-shell nanowires. The wires consist of a potassium niobate (KNbO3) core and a gold shell. The nonlinear optical properties of the core are combined with the plasmonic resonance of the shell and offer an enhanced optical signal in the near infrared spectral range. We compare two different functionalization schemes of the core material prior to the shell growth process: silanization and polyelectrolyte. We show that the latter leads to a smoother and complete core-shell nanostructure and an easier-to-use synthesis process. A Mie-theory based theoretical approach is presented to model the enhanced second-harmonic generated (SHG) signal of the core-shell wires, illustrating the influence of the fabrication-induced varying geometrical factors of wire radius and shell thickness. A spectroscopic measurement on a core-shell nanowire shows a strong localized surface plasmon resonance close to 900 nm, which matches with the SHG resonance obtained from nonlinear optical experiments with the same nanowire. According to the simulation, this corresponds to a wire radius of 35 nm and a shell thickness of 7.5 nm. By comparing SHG signals measured from an uncoated nanowire and the coated one, we obtain a 250 times enhancement factor. This is less than the calculated enhancement, which considers a cylindrical nanowire with a perfectly smooth shell. Thus, we explain this discrepancy mainly with the roughness of the synthesized gold shell.We demonstrate the synthesis as well as the optical characterization of core-shell nanowires. The wires consist of a potassium niobate (KNbO3) core and a gold shell. The nonlinear optical properties of the core are combined with the plasmonic resonance of the shell and offer an enhanced optical signal in the near infrared spectral range. We compare two different functionalization schemes of the core material prior to the shell growth process: silanization and polyelectrolyte

  6. Lithium metal doped electrodes for lithium-ion rechargeable chemistry

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Gao; Battaglia, Vince; Wang, Lei

    2016-09-13

    An embodiment of the invention combines the superior performance of a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) or polyethyleneoxide (POE) binder, the strong binding force of a styrene-butadiene (SBR) binder, and a source of lithium ions in the form of solid lithium metal powder (SLMP) to form an electrode system that has improved performance as compared to PVDF/SBR binder based electrodes. This invention will provide a new way to achieve improved results at a much reduced cost.

  7. Cyanoethylated compounds as additives in lithium/lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan

    1999-01-01

    The power loss of lithium/lithium ion battery cells is significantly reduced, especially at low temperatures, when about 1% by weight of an additive is incorporated in the electrolyte layer of the cells. The usable additives are organic solvent soluble cyanoethylated polysaccharides and poly(vinyl alcohol). The power loss decrease results primarily from the decrease in the charge transfer resistance at the interface between the electrolyte and the cathode.

  8. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  9. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  10. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  11. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  12. 21 CFR 862.3560 - Lithium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lithium test system. 862.3560 Section 862.3560....3560 Lithium test system. (a) Identification. A lithium test system is a device intended to measure lithium (from the drug lithium carbonate) in serum or plasma. Measurements of lithium are used to...

  13. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 20 Wh for a lithium ion cell or 100 Wh for a lithium ion battery. After December 31, 2015, each lithium ion battery subject to this provision must be marked with the Watt-hour rating on the outside case... cell and 25 g for a lithium metal battery and 60 Wh for a lithium ion cell or 300 Wh for a lithium......

  14. Grain Boundary Engineering of Lithium-Ion-Conducting Lithium Lanthanum Titanate for Lithium-Air Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Tojo T, Sakurai Y. Synthesis and lithium - ion conductivity for perovskite-type Li3/8Sr7/16Ta3/4Zr1/4O3 solid electrolyte by powder-bed sintering...battery performance is limited by the electrolytic membrane, which needs high Li-ionic conductivity. Lithium lanthanum titanate (Li3xLa(2/3)-xTiO3, or...of the A-site ions and lithium ion conductivity in the perovskite solid solution La0.67-xLi3xTiO3 (x=0.11). Journal of Solid State Ionics. 1999;121

  15. Silica Precipitation and Lithium Sorption

    SciTech Connect

    Jay Renew

    2015-09-20

    This file contains silica precipitation and lithium sorption data from the project. The silica removal data is corrected from the previous submission. The previous submission did not take into account the limit of detection of the ICP-MS procedure.

  16. Secondary lithium batteries for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, B.; Khanna, S. K.; Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D.; Somoano, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary lithium cells which use a LiAsF6-2-Me-THF electrolyte and a TiS2 intercalatable cathode exhibit encouraging cycle life at ambient temperature. Electrochemical and surface analytical studies indicate that the electrolyte is unstable in the presence of metallic lithium, leading to the formation of a lithium passivating film composed of lithium arsenic oxyfluorides and lithium fluorsilicates. The lithium cyclability remains as the most important problem to solve. Different electrolyte solvents, such as sulfolane, exhibit promising characteristics but lead to new compatibility problems with the other cell component materials.

  17. Lithium compensation for full cell operation

    DOEpatents

    Xiao, Jie; Zheng, Jianming; Chen, Xilin; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Jiguang, Jiguang

    2016-05-17

    Disclosed herein are embodiments of a lithium-ion battery system comprising an anode, an anode current collector, and a layer of lithium metal in contact with the current collector, but not in contact with the anode. The lithium compensation layer dissolves into the electrolyte to compensate for the loss of lithium ions during usage of the full cell. The specific placement of the lithium compensation layer, such that there is no direct physical contact between the lithium compensation layer and the anode, provides certain advantages.

  18. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator, such as porous polypropylene, adjacent to the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator, such as polytetrafluoroethylene, that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  19. Dendrite preventing separator for secondary lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, David H. (Inventor); Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Huang, Chen-Kuo (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Dendrites are prevented from shorting a secondary lithium battery by use of a first porous separator such as porous polypropylene adjacent the lithium anode that is unreactive with lithium and a second porous fluoropolymer separator between the cathode and the first separator such as polytetrafluoroethylene that is reactive with lithium. As the tip of a lithium dendrite contacts the second separator, an exothermic reaction occurs locally between the lithium dendrite and the fluoropolymer separator. This results in the prevention of the dendrite propagation to the cathode.

  20. Air breathing lithium power cells

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, Joseph C.

    2014-07-15

    A cell suitable for use in a battery according to one embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; a stabilized zirconia electrolyte for selective oxygen anion transport; a molten salt electrolyte; and a lithium-based anode. A cell suitable for use in a battery according to another embodiment includes a catalytic oxygen cathode; an electrolyte; a membrane selective to molecular oxygen; and a lithium-based anode.

  1. Modeling the Lithium Ion Battery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summerfield, John

    2013-01-01

    The lithium ion battery will be a reliable electrical resource for many years to come. A simple model of the lithium ions motion due to changes in concentration and voltage is presented. The battery chosen has LiCoO[subscript 2] as the cathode, LiPF[subscript 6] as the electrolyte, and LiC[subscript 6] as the anode. The concentration gradient and…

  2. Erosive effects in liquid lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Down, M.G.; Bagnall, C.; Keeton, A.R.; Tsu, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    Results are reported of experimental testing to investigate the potential erosive effect of liquid lithium at 270/sup 0/C and velocities up to 24 ms/sup -1/, on type 304 stainless steel. Two experiments were performed in order to compare data from a conventional flow-through isothermal test leg with those from specimens attached to the circumference of a rotating disc in static lithium.

  3. Lithium-iodine pacemaker cell

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.A.; Snyder, S.E.; DeVan, T.; Harney, M.J.; Harney, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The lithium-iodine pacemaker cell is described as supplied by several manufacturers. The features of each design are discussed along with their effect on energy density, self-discharge and shape of the discharge curve. Differences in performance characteristics are related to morphology of the lithium iodine electrolyte and to the form of the cathode. A new, high-drain cell is mentioned which can supply 60 /mu/a/cm/sup 2/. 10 refs.

  4. Glass-Like Thermal Conductivity of (010)-Textured Lanthanum-Doped Strontium Niobate Synthesized with Wet Chemical Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Foley, Brian M.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan J.; Campion, Michael J.; ...

    2014-11-08

    We have measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity (κ) of (010)-textured, undoped, and lanthanum-doped strontium niobate (Sr2-xLaxNb2O7-δ) thin films via time-domain thermoreflectance. Then the thin films were deposited on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates via the highly-scalable technique of chemical solution deposition. We find that both film thickness and lanthanum doping have little effect on κ, suggesting that there is a more dominant phonon scattering mechanism present in the system; namely the weak interlayer-bonding along the b-axis in the Sr2Nb2O7 parent structure. We also compare our experimental results with two variations of the minimum-limit model for κ and discuss the nature of transportmore » in material systems with weakly-bonded layers. The low cross-plane κ of these scalably-fabricated films is comparable to that of similarly layered niobate structures grown epitaxially.« less

  5. Glass-Like Thermal Conductivity of (010)-Textured Lanthanum-Doped Strontium Niobate Synthesized with Wet Chemical Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Brian M.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan J.; Campion, Michael J.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Clem, Paul G.; Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2014-11-08

    We have measured the cross-plane thermal conductivity (κ) of (010)-textured, undoped, and lanthanum-doped strontium niobate (Sr2-xLaxNb2O7-δ) thin films via time-domain thermoreflectance. Then the thin films were deposited on (001)-oriented SrTiO3 substrates via the highly-scalable technique of chemical solution deposition. We find that both film thickness and lanthanum doping have little effect on κ, suggesting that there is a more dominant phonon scattering mechanism present in the system; namely the weak interlayer-bonding along the b-axis in the Sr2Nb2O7 parent structure. We also compare our experimental results with two variations of the minimum-limit model for κ and discuss the nature of transport in material systems with weakly-bonded layers. The low cross-plane κ of these scalably-fabricated films is comparable to that of similarly layered niobate structures grown epitaxially.

  6. Protective lithium ion conducting ceramic coating for lithium metal anodes and associate method

    DOEpatents

    Bates, John B.

    1994-01-01

    A battery structure including a cathode, a lithium metal anode and an electrolyte disposed between the lithium anode and the cathode utilizes a thin-film layer of lithium phosphorus oxynitride overlying so as to coat the lithium anode and thereby separate the lithium anode from the electrolyte. If desired, a preliminary layer of lithium nitride may be coated upon the lithium anode before the lithium phosphorous oxynitride is, in turn, coated upon the lithium anode so that the separation of the anode and the electrolyte is further enhanced. By coating the lithium anode with this material lay-up, the life of the battery is lengthened and the performance of the battery is enhanced.

  7. High performance discharges in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment with liquid lithium walls

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C.; Bell, R. E.; Boyle, D. P.; Esposti, B.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lucia, M.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Punjabi-Vinoth, S.; Tchilingurian, G.; Capece, A.; Koel, B.; Roszell, J.; Biewer, T. M.; Gray, T. K.; Kubota, S.; Beiersdorfer, P.; and others

    2015-05-15

    The first-ever successful operation of a tokamak with a large area (40% of the total plasma surface area) liquid lithium wall has been achieved in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX). These results were obtained with a new, electron beam-based lithium evaporation system, which can deposit a lithium coating on the limiting wall of LTX in a five-minute period. Preliminary analyses of diamagnetic and other data for discharges operated with a liquid lithium wall indicate that confinement times increased by 10× compared to discharges with helium-dispersed solid lithium coatings. Ohmic energy confinement times with fresh lithium walls, solid and liquid, exceed several relevant empirical scaling expressions. Spectroscopic analysis of the discharges indicates that oxygen levels in the discharges limited on liquid lithium walls were significantly reduced compared to discharges limited on solid lithium walls. Tokamak operations with a full liquid lithium wall (85% of the total plasma surface area) have recently started.

  8. Recent advances in lithium ion technology

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    Lithium ion technology is based on the use of lithium intercalating electrodes. Carbon is the most commonly used anode material, while the cathode materials of choice have been layered lithium metal chalcogenides (LiMX{sub 2}) and lithium spinel-type compounds. Electrolytes may be either organic liquids or polymers. Although the first practical use of graphite intercalation compounds as battery anodes was reported in 1981 for molten salt cells (1) and in 1983 for ambient temperature systems (2) it was not until Sony Energytech announced a new lithium ion rechargeable cell containing a lithium ion intercalating carbon anode in 1990, that interest peaked. The reason for this heightened interest is that these cells have the high energy density, high voltage and fight weight of metallic lithium systems plus a very long cycle life, but without the disadvantages of dendrite formation on charge and the safety considerations associated with metallic lithium.

  9. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil Amine

    2009-09-14

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Michael Thackeray on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Thackeray, Michael

    2016-07-12

    Michael Thackeray, Distinguished Fellow at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  11. Khalil Amine on Lithium-air Batteries

    ScienceCinema

    Khalil Amine

    2016-07-12

    Khalil Amine, materials scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, speaks on the new technology Lithium-air batteries, which could potentially increase energy density by 5-10 times over lithium-ion batteries.

  12. The development of potassium tantalate niobate thin films for satellite-based pyroelectric detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, Hilary B.B.

    1997-05-01

    Potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) pyroelectric detectors are expected to provide detectivities, of 3.7 x 1011 cmHz 1/2W-1 for satellite-based infrared detection at 90 K. The background limited detectivity for a room-temperature thermal detector is 1.8 x 1010 cmHz1/2W-1 . KTN is a unique ferroelectric for this application because of the ability to tailor the temperature of its pyroelectric response by adjusting its ratio of tantalum to niobium. The ability to fabricate high quality KTN thin films on Si-based substrates is crucial to the development of KTN pyroelectric detectors. SixNymembranes created on the Si substrate will provide the weak thermal link necessary to reach background limited detectivities. The device dimensions obtainable by thin film processing are expected to increase the ferroelectric response by 20 times over bulk fabricated KTN detectors. In addition, microfabrication techniques allow for easier array development. This is the first reported attempt at growth of KTN films on Si-based substrates. Pure phase perovskite films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on SrRuO3/Pt/Ti/SixNy/Si and SrRuO3/SixNy/Si structures; room temperature dielectric permittivities for the KTN films were 290 and 2.5, respectively. The dielectric permittivity for bulk grown, single crystal KTN is ~380. In addition to depressed dielectric permittivities, no ferroelectric hysteresis was found between 80 and 300 K for either structure. RBS, AES, TEM and multi-frequency dielectric measurements were used to investigate the origin of this apparent lack of ferroelectricity. Other issues addressed by this dissertation include: the role of oxygen and target density during pulsed laser deposition of KTN thin films; the use of YBCO, LSC and Pt as direct contact bottom electrodes to the KTN films, and the adhesion of the bottom

  13. SBN60, strontium-barium niobate at 100 K

    PubMed Central

    Stachowicz, Marcin; Gawryszewska, Olga; Swirkowicz, Marek A.; Lukasiewicz, Tadeusz

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, Sr0.6Ba0.4Nb2O6 (strontium barium niobium oxide), belongs to the group of strontium–barium niobates with varying composition of Sr and Ba. Their general formula can be written as SrxBa1 - xNb2O6. Below the Curie temperature, T c, these materials indicate ferroelectric properties. The Curie temperature for SBN60 is equal to 346±0.5 K so the structure is in the ferroelectric phase at the measurement temperature of 100 K. Characteristic for this family of compounds is the packing along the z-axis. The NbO6 corner-sharing octa­hedra surround three types of vacancy tunnels with penta­gonal, square and triangular shapes. The Sr2+ ions partially occupy two unique sites, the first one located inside the penta­gon and the second one in the square tunnels. Consequently, they are situated on the mirror plane and the inter­section of two glide planes, respectively. The site inside the penta­gonal tunnel is additionally disordered so that the same position is shared by Ba2+ and Sr2+ ions whereas another part of the Ba2+ ion occupies a different position (relative occupancies 0.43:0.41:0.16). One of the NbV atoms and three of the O2− ions occupy general positions. The second NbV atom is located on the inter­section of the mirror planes. Two remaining O2− ions are located on the same mirror plane. Only the NbV atom and one of the O2− ions which is located on the mirror plane are not disordered. Each of the remaining O2− ions is split between two sites, with relative occupancies of 0.52:0.48 (O2− ions in general positions) and 0.64:0.36 (O2− ion on the mirror plane). PMID:24098159

  14. Optical and Electrooptical Properties of Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Titanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHenry, Dean Alan

    1992-01-01

    The optical and electrooptical properties of a relaxor ferroelectric solid solution, Lead magnesium niobate - Lead titanate (1 - x) Pb(Mg_ {1/3},Nb_{2/3}) O3 - (x) PbTiO_3 (PMN-PT), have been examined in hopes of realizing its potential usefulness as an electrooptic material. Fundamental optical property measurements such as spectral transmission, refractive index, birefringence, thermooptic, and electrooptic properties were undertaken. Spectral transmission measurements for these perovskite structure materials indicate an optical bandgap of about 3.35 eV. Increasing transmission of light (near 60% for thin polished ceramic samples) occurs without significant absorption to wavelengths greater than 5mu m. The refractive index increases nearly linearly from PMN (n = 2.5219) by 2.415 times 10^{-3}/mole % PbTiO _3 added. The optical dispersion was successfully modeled using a single term Sellmeier oscillator equation. Thermooptic properties, n(T), were undertaken over a temperature range sufficient to ascertain the ferroelectric polarization contribution to the refractive index. Birefringence measurements were also performed as a complement to the n(T) measurements. The response to simultaneous optical and electrical fields as an electrooptic media was examined as a function of temperature and frequency. The large quadratic electrooptic coefficients in polycrystalline ceramics (e.g. 14.1 times 10^{-16} @632.8nm for.90PMN-.10PT) and linear electrooptic coefficients demonstrated in morphotropic phase boundary single crystals of PMN-PT may prove to be of interest for electrooptic modulation applications. Electrooptic shuttering experiments indicated that speeds of the order 700 nsec could be achieved in.93PLMN-.07PT ceramics. Polarization optic coefficients were found to be of order.01m^4/C ^2. In addition to electrically controllable birefringence, longitudinal electrooptic light scattering, and spectral filtering effects were also demonstrated. Photorefractive induced

  15. Multi-layered, chemically bonded lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narula, Chaitanya Kumar; Nanda, Jagjit; Bischoff, Brian L; Bhave, Ramesh R

    2014-05-13

    Disclosed are multilayer, porous, thin-layered lithium-ion batteries that include an inorganic separator as a thin layer that is chemically bonded to surfaces of positive and negative electrode layers. Thus, in such disclosed lithium-ion batteries, the electrodes and separator are made to form non-discrete (i.e., integral) thin layers. Also disclosed are methods of fabricating integrally connected, thin, multilayer lithium batteries including lithium-ion and lithium/air batteries.

  16. Lithium in Medicine: Mechanisms of Action.

    PubMed

    Mota de Freitas, Duarte; Leverson, Brian D; Goossens, Jesse L

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the mechanism of action of lithium salts from a chemical perspective. A description on how lithium salts are used to treat mental illnesses, in particular bipolar disorder, and other disease states is provided. Emphasis is not placed on the genetics and the psychopharmacology of the ailments for which lithium salts have proven to be beneficial. Rather we highlight the application of chemical methodologies for the characterization of the cellular targets of lithium salts and their distribution in tissues.

  17. Sealed Primary Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    Battery , Thionyl Chloride , Lithium , Lithium Aluminum Chloride , Hermetic Lithium Battery , D Cell, Voltage-Delay, Shelf Life, High Energy Density Battery ... lithium - thionyl chloride , inorganic electrclyte system is one of the highest energy density systems known to date (1-4). The cells contain an Li anoae, a...However, this is not tne case with te thionyl chloride system. A completely discharged battery , while sitting on

  18. Rechargeable lithium battery technology - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, Gerald; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1990-01-01

    The technology of the rechargeable lithium battery is discussed with special attention given to the types of rechargeable lithium cells and to their expected performance and advantages. Consideration is also given to the organic-electrolyte and polymeric-electrolyte cells and to molten salt lithium cells, as well as to technical issues, such as the cycle life, charge control, rate capability, cell size, and safety. The role of the rechargeable lithium cell in future NASA applications is discussed.

  19. Novel Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lucht, Brett L.

    2014-12-12

    We have been investigating three primary areas related to lithium ion battery electrolytes. First, we have been investigating the thermal stability of novel electrolytes for lithium ion batteries, in particular borate based salts. Second, we have been investigating novel additives to improve the calendar life of lithium ion batteries. Third, we have been investigating the thermal decomposition reactions of electrolytes for lithium-oxygen batteries.

  20. Primary lithium batteries, some consumer considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bro, P.

    1983-01-01

    In order to determine whether larger size lithium batteries would be commercially marketable, the performance of several D size lithium batteries was compared with that of an equivalent alkaline manganese battery, and the relative costs of the different systems were compared. It is concluded that opportunities exist in the consumer market for the larger sizes of the low rate and moderate rate lithium batteries, and that the high rate lithium batteries need further improvements before they can be recommended for consumer applications.

  1. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Binod; Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G.

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  2. Anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    DOEpatents

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Meduri, Praveen; Sumanasekera, Gamini

    2014-12-30

    An anode material for lithium-ion batteries is provided that comprises an elongated core structure capable of forming an alloy with lithium; and a plurality of nanostructures placed on a surface of the core structure, with each nanostructure being capable of forming an alloy with lithium and spaced at a predetermined distance from adjacent nanostructures.

  3. Magnetism in lithium-oxygen discharge product.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jun; Jung, Hun-Ji; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Schlueter, John A; Du, Peng; Assary, Rajeev S; Greeley, Jeffrey; Ferguson, Glen A; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Hassoun, Jusef; Iddir, Hakim; Zhou, Jigang; Zuin, Lucia; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Yang-Kook; Scrosati, Bruno; Curtiss, Larry A; Amine, Kahlil

    2013-07-01

    Nonaqueous lithium-oxygen batteries have a much superior theoretical gravimetric energy density compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries, and thus could render long-range electric vehicles a reality. A molecular-level understanding of the reversible formation of lithium peroxide in these batteries, the properties of major/minor discharge products, and the stability of the nonaqueous electrolytes is required to achieve successful lithium-oxygen batteries. We demonstrate that the major discharge product formed in the lithium-oxygen cell, lithium peroxide, exhibits a magnetic moment. These results are based on dc-magnetization measurements and a lithium-oxygen cell containing an ether-based electrolyte. The results are unexpected because bulk lithium peroxide has a significant band gap. Density functional calculations predict that superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with unpaired electrons exist on stoichiometric lithium peroxide crystalline surfaces and on nanoparticle surfaces; these computational results are consistent with the magnetic measurement of the discharged lithium peroxide product as well as EPR measurements on commercial lithium peroxide. The presence of superoxide-type surface oxygen groups with spin can play a role in the reversible formation and decomposition of lithium peroxide as well as the reversible formation and decomposition of electrolyte molecules.

  4. Lithium toxicity: the importance of clinical signs.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Francis J

    2010-04-01

    Although there appears to be a decline in its use, lithium is still used extensively in the UK to treat bipolar disorder. However, lithium can be quite toxic and lead to long-term problems, rarely death. Therefore, doctors need to carefully monitor patients taking lithium and seek appropriate advice whenever concerns are raised.

  5. Lithium Battery Fire Tests and Mitigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-25

    referred to as a separator. An electrolyte composed of an organic solvent and dissolved lithium salt provides the medium for lithium ion transport. A...inorganic solvents containing dissolved ionic lithium salts. Where the electrolytes are not organic esters/carbonate mixtures, they are inorganic

  6. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Bloking, Jason T.; Andersson, Anna M.

    2008-03-18

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z(A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).s- ub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  7. Conductive lithium storage electrode

    DOEpatents

    Chiang, Yet-Ming [Framingham, MA; Chung, Sung-Yoon [Incheon, KR; Bloking, Jason T [Mountain View, CA; Andersson, Anna M [Vasteras, SE

    2012-04-03

    A compound comprising a composition A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z, or A.sub.x(M'.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z, and have values such that x, plus y(1-a) times a formal valence or valences of M', plus ya times a formal valence or valence of M'', is equal to z times a formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7, or DXD.sub.4 group; or a compound comprising a composition (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(XD.sub.4).sub.z, (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(DXD.sub.4).sub.z (A.sub.1-aM''.sub.a).sub.xM'.sub.y(X.sub.2D.sub.7).sub.z and have values such that (1-a).sub.x plus the quantity ax times the formal valence or valences of M'' plus y times the formal valence or valences of M' is equal to z times the formal valence of the XD.sub.4, X.sub.2D.sub.7 or DXD.sub.4 group. In the compound, A is at least one of an alkali metal and hydrogen, M' is a first-row transition metal, X is at least one of phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, molybdenum, and tungsten, M'' any of a Group IIA, IIIA, IVA, VA, VIA, VIIA, VIIIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, IVB, VB, and VIB metal, D is at least one of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, or a halogen, 0.0001lithium phosphate that can intercalate lithium or hydrogen. The compound can be used in an electrochemical device including electrodes and storage batteries and can have a gravimetric capacity of at least about 80 mAh/g while being charged/discharged at greater than about C rate of the compound.

  8. Space-charge at the lithium-lithium chloride interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamnik, J.; Gaberscek, M.; Meden, A.; Pejovnik, S.

    1991-06-01

    The electrical properties of the passive layer formed on lithium as the product of the corrosion reaction in thionyl chloride are discussed. The passive layer is regarded as a thin layer of an ionic crystal placed between two party blocking electrodes (i.e., lithium and liquid electrolyte). After a short review of thermodynamic properties of the system, a model for description of the electric properties of the static space-charge regions is presented. On this basis, a comment on and partial reinterpretation of impedance measurements of the passive layer is given. The suggested approach leads to the conclusion that the quality of Li/SOCl2 batteries decisively depends on the properties of the lithium passive layer interface. Finally, experiments to confirm the model are suggested.

  9. Lithium-associated kidney microcysts.

    PubMed

    Tuazon, Jennifer; Casalino, David; Syed, Ehteshamuddin; Batlle, Daniel

    2008-08-31

    Long-term lithium therapy is associated with impairment in concentrating ability and, occasionally, progression to advanced chronic kidney disease from tubulointerstitial nephropathy. Biopsy findings in patients with lithium-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy include tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis interspersed with tubular cysts and dilatations. Recent studies have shown that cysts are seen in 33-62.5% of the patients undergoing lithium therapy. MR imaging is highly capable of defining renal morphological features and has been demonstrated to be superior to US and CT scan for the visualization of small renal cysts. The microcysts are found in both cortex and medulla, particularly in the regions with extensive atrophy and fibrosis, and can be multiple and bilateral. They tend to be sparse and do not normally exceed 1-2 mm in diameter. The renal microcysts in the image here reported are subtle, but consistent with lithium-induced chronic nephropathy. An MRI of the kidneys provides noninvasive evidence that strengthens the diagnosis of lithium-induced nephropathy.

  10. The lithium vapor box divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-02-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  11. Structure and dehydration of layered perovskite niobate with bilayer hydrates prepared by exfoliation/self-assembly process

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yufeng; Zhao Xinhua; Ma Hui; Ma Shulan; Huang Gailing; Makita, Yoji; Bai Xuedong; Yang Xiaojing

    2008-07-15

    The crystals of an H-form niobate of HCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}.xH{sub 2}O (x=0.5) being tetragonal symmetry (space group P4/mbm) with unit cell parameters a=5.4521(6) and c=14.414(2) A were exfoliated into nanosheets with the triple-layered perovskite structure. The colloid suspension of the nanosheets was put into dialysis membrane tubing and allowed self-assembly in a dilute KCl solution. By this method, a novel layered K-form niobate KCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}.xH{sub 2}O (x=1.3, typically) with bilayer hydrates in the interlayer was produced. The Rieveld refinement and transmission electron microscope (TEM)/selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) observation indicated that the orientations of the a-/b-axis of each nanosheet as well as the c-axis are uniform, and the self-assembled compound had the same symmetry, tetragonal (P4/mbm) with a=5.453(2) and c=16.876(5) A, as the H-form precursor; the exfoliation/self-assembly process does not markedly affect the two-dimensional lattice of the layer. The large basal spacing resulted from the interlayer K{sup +} ions solvated by two layers of water molecules. The interlayer bilayers-water was gradually changed to monolayer when the temperatures higher than 100 deg. C, and all the water molecules lost when over 600 deg. C. Accompanying the dehydration, the crystal structure transformed from tetragonal to orthorhombic symmetry. Water molecules may take an important role for the layer layered compound to adjust the unit cell to tetragonal symmetry. - Graphical abstract: The structure of layered perovskite niobate KCa{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}.xH{sub 2}O (x=1.3) having a bilayers-hydrates interlayer, obtained via the exfoliation of an H-form precursor and the self-assembly of Ca{sub 2}Nb{sub 3}O{sub 10}{sup -} nanosheets, was first discussed in detail and determined to be tetragonal symmetry (P4/mbm). The dehydration resulted in the structural transformation to orthorhombic structure.

  12. A new uranyl niobate sheet in the cesium uranyl niobate Cs{sub 9}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 4}(NbO{sub 5})(Nb{sub 2}O{sub 8}){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Saad, S.; Obbade, S. Yagoubi, S.; Renard, C.; Abraham, F.

    2008-04-15

    A new cesium uranyl niobate, Cs{sub 9}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 4}(NbO{sub 5})(Nb{sub 2}O{sub 8}){sub 2}] or Cs{sub 9}U{sub 8}Nb{sub 5}O{sub 41} has been synthesized by high-temperature solid-state reaction, using a mixture of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. Single crystals were obtained by incongruent melting of a starting mixture with metallic ratio=Cs/U/Nb=1/1/1. The crystal structure of the title compound was determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data, and solved in the monoclinic system with the following crystallographic data: a=16.729(2) A, b=14.933(2) A, c=20.155(2) A{beta}=110.59(1){sup o}, P2{sub 1}/c space group and Z=4. The crystal structure was refined to agreement factors R{sub 1}=0.049 and wR{sub 2}=0.089, calculated for 4660 unique observed reflections with I{>=}2{sigma}(I), collected on a BRUKER AXS diffractometer with MoK{alpha} radiation and a CCD detector. In this structure the UO{sub 7} uranyl pentagonal bipyramids are connected by sharing edges and corners to form a uranyl layer {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[U{sub 8}O{sub 36}] corresponding to a new anion-sheet topology, and creating triangular, rectangular and square vacant sites. The two last sites are occupied by Nb{sub 2}O{sub 8} entities and NbO{sub 5} square pyramids, respectively, to form infinite uranyl niobate sheets {sub {infinity}}{sup 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 8}O{sub 4}(NbO{sub 5})(Nb{sub 2}O{sub 8}){sub 2}]{sup 9-} stacking along the [010] direction. The Nb{sub 2}O{sub 8} entities result from two edge-shared NbO{sub 5} square pyramids. The Cs{sup +} cations are localized between layers and ensured the cohesion of the structure. The cesium cation mobility between the uranyl niobate sheets was studied by electrical measurements. The conductivity obeys the Arrhenius law in all the studied temperature domains. The observed low conductivity values with high activation energy may be explained by the strong connection of the Cs{sup +} cations to the infinite

  13. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  14. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  15. Research on lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, I. R.; Goledzinowski, M.; Dore, R.

    1993-12-01

    Research was conducted on two types of lithium batteries. The first is a rechargeable Li-SO2 system using an all-inorganic electrolyte. A Li/liquid cathode system was chosen to obtain a relatively high discharge rate capability over the +20 to -30 C range. The fabrication and cycling performance of research cells are described, including the preparation and physical properties of porous polytetra fluoroethylene bonded carbon electrodes. Since the low temperature performance of the standard electrolyte was unsatisfactory, studies of electrolytes containing mixed salts were made. Raman spectroscopy was used to study the species present in these electrolytes and to identify discharge products. Infrared spectroscopy was used to measure electrolyte impurities. Film growth on the LiCl was also monitored. The second battery is a Li-thionyl chloride nonrechargeable system. Research cells were fabricated containing cobalt phthalo cyanine in the carbon cathode. The cathode was heat treated at different temperatures and the effect on cell discharge rate and capacity evaluated. Commercially obtained cells were used in an investigation of a way to identify substandard cells. The study also involved electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cell discharging at various rates. The results are discussed in terms of LiCl passivation.

  16. Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

  17. Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

    1995-06-01

    Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

  18. Martensitic transformation in as-grown and annealed near-stoichiometric epitaxial Ni2MnGa thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machain, P.; Condó, A. M.; Domenichini, P.; Pozo López, G.; Sirena, M.; Correa, V. F.; Haberkorn, N.

    2015-08-01

    Magnetic shape memory nanostructures have a great potential in the field of the nanoactuators. The relationship between dimensionality, microstructure and magnetism characterizes the materials performance. Here, we study the martensitic transformation in supported and free-standing epitaxial Ni47Mn24Ga29 films grown by sputtering on (0 0 1) MgO using a stoichiometric Ni2MnGa target. The films have a Curie temperature of ~390 K and a martensitic transition temperature of ~120 K. Similar transition temperatures have been observed in films with thicknesses of 1, 3 and 4 μm. Thicker films (with longer deposition time) present a wider martensitic transformation range that can be associated with small gradients in their chemical concentration due to the high vapour pressure of Mn and Ga. The magnetic anisotropy of the films shows a strong change below the martensitic transformation temperature. No features associated with variant reorientation induced by magnetic field have been observed. Annealed films in the presence of a Ni2MnGa bulk reference change their chemical composition to Ni49Mn26Ga25. The change in the chemical composition increases the martensitic transformation temperature, being closer to the stoichiometric compound, and reduces the transformation hysteresis. In addition, sharper transformations are obtained, which indicate that chemical inhomogeneities and defects are removed. Our results indicate that the properties of Ni-Mn-Ga thin films grown by sputtering can be optimized (fixing the chemical concentration and removing crystalline defects) by the annealing process, which is promising for the development of micromagnetic shape memory devices.

  19. Symmetry breaking and electrical frustration during tip-induced polarization switching in the non-polar cut of lithium niobate single crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Ievlev, Anton; Alikin, Denis O.; Morozovska, A. N.; ...

    2014-12-15

    Polarization switching in ferroelectric materials is governed by a delicate interplay between bulk polarization dynamics and screening processes at surfaces and domain walls. Here we explore the mechanism of tip-induced polarization switching in the non-polar cuts of uniaxial ferroelectrics. In this case, in-plane component of polarization vector switches, allowing for detailed observations of resultant domain morphologies. We observe surprising variability of resultant domain morphologies stemming from fundamental instability of formed charged domain wall and associated electric frustration. In particular, we demonstrate that controlling vertical tip position allows the polarity of the switching to be controlled. This represents very unusual formmore » of symmetry breaking where mechanical motion in vertical direction controls the lateral domain growth. The implication of these studies for ferroelectric devices and domain wall electronics are discussed.« less

  20. Beam Switching of an Nd:YAG Laser Using Domain-Engineered Prisms in Magnesium-Oxide-Doped Congruent Lithium Niobate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    In this work, a novel electro - optic beam switch (EOBS) is designed, fabricated and demonstrated. The EOBS presented in this work is designed for a...consists of a series of electronically controlled prisms fabricated by ferroelectric domain inversion in an electro - optic crystal wafer. The prisms are

  1. Effect of defect accumulation on ion-beam damage morphology by electronic excitation in lithium niobate: A MonteCarlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A.; Crespillo, M. L.; Olivares, J.; García, G.; Agulló-López, F.

    2010-07-01

    We present a MonteCarlo approach to the non-radiative exciton-decay model recently proposed to describe ion-beam damage in LiNbO 3 produced in the electronic excitation regime. It takes into account the statistical (random) spatial distribution of ion impacts on the crystal surface. The MonteCarlo approach is necessary to simulate the evolution of the damage morphology with irradiation fluence from the single track regime to the overlapping track regime. A detailed comparison between the morphologies found for sub-threshold and above threshold irradiations is presented. Moreover, a good representation of the Avrami's type kinetics for amorphization has been achieved and it is in fair accordance with experiment. For moderate fluences where homogeneous amorphous layers are generated, the new approach predicts that the amorphous and crystalline layers are separated by a diffuse (thick) boundary that includes a mixed amorphous-crystalline composition.

  2. Submicron e-beam lithography process using an overcoating conducting polymer for the reduction of beam charging effects on lithium niobate and quartz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondek, Christine A.; Poli, Louis C.

    1994-05-01

    This paper presents a processing methodology for direct write E-beam lithography on insulating substrates. Processes suitable for use with negative tone SAL-601-ER7 and positive tone PMMA are presented. Both are three level processes and are used for fabrication of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices with transducer electrode line space dimensions of 0.7 and 0.4 micron, respectively. The authors method involves spinning a film of a commercially available conductive polymer, known as TQV-501, as the final coating. A Leica Instruments EBMF 10.5 electron beam tool operating at an energy of 30 keV is used to perform lithography. SAW devices were patterned with these processes and then realized by metallization with aluminum via lift-off. A two level positive tone process was used consisting of a film of P(MMA-MAA) followed by a film of PMMA. This is followed by a final spin coating of TQV-501 to provide a discharge medium. The negative tone process consists of a film of SAL-601-ER7 which is followed by a film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). A final film layer of TQV-501 is then applied. The PVA serves as both a diffusion barrier to prevent intermixing of the TQV-501 and SAL-601-ER7 during layering and later to prevent stripping the SAL-601-ER7 during the solvent strip of the TQV-501. Patterns are written in reversed tone form on negative resist to provide the proper final positive image tone suitable for lift-off. TQV-501 offers the advantage of simple application via spin coating and a soft bake and easy removal by stripping in solvent.

  3. Fabrication of low-loss ridge waveguides in z-cut lithium niobate by combination of ion implantation and UV picosecond laser micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolze, M.; Herrmann, T.; L'huillier, J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Ridge waveguides in ferroelectric materials like LiNbO3 attended great interest for highly efficient integrated optical devices, for instance, electro-optic modulators, frequency converters and ring resonators. The main challenges are the realization of high index barrier towards the substrate and the processing of smooth ridges for minimized scattering losses. For fabricating ridges a variety of techniques, like chemical and wet etching as well as optical grade dicing, have been investigated in detail. Among them, laser micromachining offers a versatile and flexible processing technology, but up to now only a limited side wall roughness has been achieved by this technique. Here we report on laser micromachining of smooth ridges for low-loss optical waveguides in LiNbO3. The ridges with a top width of 7 µm were fabricated in z-cut LiNbO3 by a combination of UV picosecond micromachining and thermal annealing. The laser processing parameters show a strong influence on the achievable sidewall roughness of the ridges and were systematically investigated and optimized. Finally, the surface quality is further improved by an optimized thermal post-processing. The roughness of the ridges were analysed with confocal microscopy and the scattering losses were measured at an optical characterization wavelength of 632.8 nm by using the end-fire coupling method. In these investigations the index barrier was formed by multi-energy low dose oxygen ion implantation technology in a depth of 2.7 μm. With optimized laser processing parameters and thermal post-processing a scattering loss as low as 0.1 dB/cm has been demonstrated.

  4. Complete sets of elastic constants and photoelastic coefficients of pure and MgO-doped lithium niobate crystals at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Andrushchak, A. S.; Laba, H. P.; Yurkevych, O. V.; Mytsyk, B. G.; Solskii, I. M.; Kityk, A. V.; Sahraoui, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the results of ultrasonic measurements of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiNbO{sub 3}:MgO crystals. The tensors of piezoelectric coefficients, elastic stiffness constants, and elastic compliances are determined for both crystals at room temperature. Combining these data with the results of piezo-optical measurements, a complete set of photoelastic tensor coefficients is also calculated. Doping of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals by MgO does not lead to a considerable modification of their elastic and photoelastic properties. However, LiNbO{sub 3}:MgO is characterized by a considerably higher resistance with respect to powerful light radiation, making it promising for future application in acousto-optic devices that deal with superpowerful laser radiation. Presented here are the complete tensor sets of elastic constants and photoelastic coefficients of LiNbO{sub 3} and LiNbO{sub 3}:MgO crystals that may be used for a geometry optimization of acousto-optical interaction providing the best diffraction efficiency of acousto-optical cells made of these materials.

  5. Investigation of the optical-absorption bands of Nb4+ and Ti3+ in lithium niobate using magnetic circular dichroism and optically detected magnetic-resonance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyher, H.-J.; Schulz, R.; Thiemann, O.

    1994-08-01

    The magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of the absorption of Nb4+Li and Ti3+Li centers in LiNbO3 has been selectively measured by applying optically detected magnetic resonance. The attribution of a well-known broad and unstructured absorption band peaking at 1.6 eV to the Nb4+Li bound small polaron is now unambiguously confirmed. In the MCD spectrum of the isoelectronic Ti3+Li center, bands show up, which closely resemble the MCD bands at 1.6 eV of this bound small polaron. This striking similarity is explained by a cluster model, representing both defects. Either TiLi or NbLi is at the center of this cluster. In both cases, the small polaron is bound to the cluster, and its MCD bands correspond to intervalence transfer transitions within the constituents of the cluster. A study of the spin-orbit coupling of the molecular orbitals of the cluster allows one to analyze the structure of the MCD bands at 2.9 eV of Ti3+Li have no counterpart in the Nb4+Li spectrum. These bands are assigned to transitions to excited states, which are specific to the impurity and are related to the 10Dq transitions known for the crystal field states of a d1 ion.

  6. Symmetry breaking and electrical frustration during tip-induced polarization switching in the non-polar cut of lithium niobate single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Ievlev, Anton; Alikin, Denis O.; Morozovska, A. N.; Varenyk, O. V.; Eliseev, E. A.; Kholkin, Andrei; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2014-12-15

    Polarization switching in ferroelectric materials is governed by a delicate interplay between bulk polarization dynamics and screening processes at surfaces and domain walls. Here we explore the mechanism of tip-induced polarization switching in the non-polar cuts of uniaxial ferroelectrics. In this case, in-plane component of polarization vector switches, allowing for detailed observations of resultant domain morphologies. We observe surprising variability of resultant domain morphologies stemming from fundamental instability of formed charged domain wall and associated electric frustration. In particular, we demonstrate that controlling vertical tip position allows the polarity of the switching to be controlled. This represents very unusual form of symmetry breaking where mechanical motion in vertical direction controls the lateral domain growth. The implication of these studies for ferroelectric devices and domain wall electronics are discussed.

  7. Lithium iron phosphates as cathode materials in lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaojun; Chen, Linfeng; Mathur, Gyanesh N.; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2012-04-01

    Olivine-structured lithium iron phosphates are promising cathode materials in the development of high power lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles. However, the low electronic conductivity and ionic conductivity of lithium iron phosphates hinder their commercialization pace. This work aims to verify the approaches for improving the electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphates. In this work, sol-gel method was used to synthesize carbon coated lithium iron phosphates and nickel doped lithium iron phosphates, and their particle sizes were controlled in the nanometer to sub-micrometer range. The crystalline structures of the synthesized lithium iron phosphates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and their morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. To study their electrochemical properties, prototype lithium ion batteries were assembled with the synthesized lithium iron phosphates as cathode active materials, and with lithium metal discs as the anodes, and the discharge / charge properties and cycling behaviors of the prototype batteries were tested at different rates. The synthesized lithium iron phosphate materials exhibited high capacity and high cycling stability. It was confirmed that particle size reduction, carbon coating and metal doping are three effective approaches for increasing the conductivity of lithium iron phosphates, and thus improving their electrochemical properties. Experimental results show that by combing the three approaches for improving the electrochemical properties, lithium iron phosphate composites with characteristics favorable for their applications in lithium ion batteries for electric vehicles can be developed, including high specific capacity, high rate capacity, flat discharge voltage plateau and high retention ratio.

  8. Dual-channel cathodic electrochemiluminescence of luminol induced by injection of hot electrons on a niobate semiconductor modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huifeng; Ye, Hongzhi; Zhu, Xi; Liang, Shijing; Guo, Longhua; Lin, Zhenyu; Liu, Xianxiang; Chen, Guonan

    2013-01-07

    In this paper, a new niobate semiconductor photocatalyst Sr(0.4)H(1.2)Nb(2)O(6)·H(2)O (HSN) nanoparticle was applied to investigate the cathodic electrochemiluminescent (ECL) behavior of luminol for the first time. The results presented here demonstrated that there were two ECL peaks of luminol at the cathodic potential attributed to immobilization of HSN on the electrode surface. It is implied that HSN can be electrically excited and injected electrons into aqueous electrolytes from this electrode under a quite low potential that only excites luminol. A mechanism for this luminol-ECL system on HSN/GCE has been proposed. Additionally, this HSN/GCE has lots of advantages, such as high stability, good anti-interference ability, simple instrumentation, rapid procedure and ultrasensitive ECL response. It is envisioned that this HSN/GCE has further applications in biosensors.

  9. Self-Growth of Centimeter-Scale Single Crystals by Normal Sintering Process in Modified Potassium Sodium Niobate Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Lee, Ho-Yong; Han, Guifang; Zhang, Shujun; Choi, Si-Young; Choi, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Park, Dong-Soo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Ryu, Jungho

    2015-12-03

    In this manuscript, an interesting phenomenon is reported. That is the self-growth of single crystals in Pb-free piezoelectric ceramics. These crystals are several centimeters in size. They are grown without any seed addition through a normal sintering process in modified potassium sodium niobate ceramics. It has been achieved by the composition designed to compensate the Na(+) loss which occurs during the liquid phase sintering. The composition of the crystals is (K0.4925Na(0.4925-x)Ba(0.015+x/2))Nb(0.995+x)O3 [x is determined by the Na(+) loss, due to Na2O volatilization]. These crystals have high piezoelectric voltage coefficients (g33, 131 10(-3)Vm/N), indicating that they are good candidates for piezoelectric sensors and energy harvesting devices. We hope that this report can offer the opportunity for many researchers to have an interest in these crystals.

  10. Self-Growth of Centimeter-Scale Single Crystals by Normal Sintering Process in Modified Potassium Sodium Niobate Ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Lee, Ho-Yong; Han, Guifang; Zhang, Shujun; Choi, Si-Young; Choi, Jong-Jin; Kim, Jong-Woo; Yoon, Woon-Ha; Choi, Joon-Hwan; Park, Dong-Soo; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Ryu, Jungho

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, an interesting phenomenon is reported. That is the self-growth of single crystals in Pb-free piezoelectric ceramics. These crystals are several centimeters in size. They are grown without any seed addition through a normal sintering process in modified potassium sodium niobate ceramics. It has been achieved by the composition designed to compensate the Na+ loss which occurs during the liquid phase sintering. The composition of the crystals is (K0.4925Na0.4925−xBa0.015+x/2)Nb0.995+xO3 [x is determined by the Na+ loss, due to Na2O volatilization]. These crystals have high piezoelectric voltage coefficients (g33, 131 10−3Vm/N), indicating that they are good candidates for piezoelectric sensors and energy harvesting devices. We hope that this report can offer the opportunity for many researchers to have an interest in these crystals. PMID:26631973

  11. Lithium nephropathy: unique sonographic findings.

    PubMed

    Di Salvo, Donald N; Park, Joseph; Laing, Faye C

    2012-04-01

    This case series describes a unique sonographic appearance consisting of numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci seen on renal sonograms of 10 adult patients receiving chronic lithium therapy. Clinically, chronic renal insufficiency was present in 6 and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in 2. Sonography showed numerous microcysts and punctate echogenic foci. Computed tomography in 5 patients confirmed microcysts and microcalcifications, which were fewer in number than on sonography. Magnetic resonance imaging in 2 patients confirmed microcysts in each case. Renal biopsy in 1 patient showed chronic interstitial nephritis, microcysts, and tubular dilatation. The diagnosis of lithium nephropathy should be considered when sonography shows these findings.

  12. Lithium-cupric sulfide cell

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, A.J.; Bump, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    Lithium cells have become the primary power source for cardiac pacemakers due to their reliability and longevity at low current drain rates. A lithium-cupric sulfide cell was developed which makes maximum use of the shape of a pacemaker's battery compartment. The cell has a stable voltage throughout 90% of its lifetime. It then drops to a second stable voltage before depletion. The voltage drop creates a small decrease in pacemaker rate, which alerts the physician to replace the pacemaker. No loss of capacity due to self-discharge as been seen to date, and cells have proven to be safe under extreme conditions. 2 refs.

  13. Solid solution lithium alloy cermet anodes

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Thomas J.

    2013-07-09

    A metal-ceramic composite ("cermet") has been produced by a chemical reaction between a lithium compound and another metal. The cermet has advantageous physical properties, high surface area relative to lithium metal or its alloys, and is easily formed into a desired shape. An example is the formation of a lithium-magnesium nitride cermet by reaction of lithium nitride with magnesium. The reaction results in magnesium nitride grains coated with a layer of lithium. The nitride is inert when used in a battery. It supports the metal in a high surface area form, while stabilizing the electrode with respect to dendrite formation. By using an excess of magnesium metal in the reaction process, a cermet of magnesium nitride is produced, coated with a lithium-magnesium alloy of any desired composition. This alloy inhibits dendrite formation by causing lithium deposited on its surface to diffuse under a chemical potential into the bulk of the alloy.

  14. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  15. Photoelectrochemistry, Electronic Structure, and Bandgap Sizes of Semiconducting Cu(I)-Niobates and Cu(I)-Tantalates

    SciTech Connect

    Maggard, Paul A.

    2013-11-14

    Semiconducting metal-oxides have remained of intense research interest owing to their potential for achieving efficient solar-driven photocatalytic reactions in aqueous solutions that occur as a result of their bandgap excitation. The photocatalytic reduction of water or carbon dioxide to generate hydrogen or hydrocarbon fuels, respectively, can be driven on p-type (photocathodic) electrodes with suitable band energies. However, metal-oxide semiconductors are typically difficult to dope as p-type with a high mobility of carriers. The supported research led to the discovery of new p-type Cu(I)-niobate and Cu(I)-tantalate film electrodes that can be prepared on FTO glass. New high-purity flux syntheses and the full structural determination of several Cu(I)-containing niobates and tantalates have been completed, as well as new investigations of their optical and photoelectrochemical properties and electronic structures via density-functional theory calculations. For example, CuNbO3, Cu5Ta11O30 and CuNb3O8 were prepared in high purity and their structures were characterized by both single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. These two classes of Cu(I)-containing compounds exhibit optical bandgap sizes ranging from ~1.3 eV to ~2.6 eV. Photoelectrochemical measurements of these compounds show strong photon-driven cathodic currents that confirm the p-type semiconductor behavior of CuNbO3, CuNb3O8, and Cu5Ta11O30. Incident-photon-to-current efficiencies are measured that approach greater than ~1%. Electronic-structure calculations based on density functional theory reveal the visible-light absorption stems from a nearly-direct bandgap transition involving a copper-to-niobium or tantalum (d10 to d0) charge-transfer excitations.

  16. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  17. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  18. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  19. 49 CFR 173.185 - Lithium cells and batteries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lithium cells and batteries. 173.185 Section 173... Class 7 § 173.185 Lithium cells and batteries. (a) Cells and batteries. A lithium cell or battery, including a lithium polymer cell or battery and a lithium-ion cell or battery, must conform to all of...

  20. Development of lithium powder based anode with conductive carbon materials for lithium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Man Su

    Current lithium ion battery with a graphite anode shows stable cycle performance and safety. However, the lithium ion battery still has the limitation of having a low energy density caused by the application of lithium intercalated cathode and anode with low energy density. The combination of high capacity non-lithiated cathode such as sulfur and carbon and lithium metal anode has been researched for a long time to maximize battery's energy density. However, this cell design also has a lot of technical challenges to be solved. Among the challenges, lithium anode's problem related to lithium dendrite growth causing internal short and low cycling efficiency is very serious. Thus, extensive research on lithium metal anode has been performed to solve the lithium dendrite problem and a major part of the research has been focused on the control of the interface between lithium and electrolyte. However, research on lithium anode design itself has not been much conducted. In this research, innovative lithium anode design for less dendrite growth and higher cycling efficiency was suggested. Literature review for the lithium dendrite growth mechanism was conducted in Chapter 2 to develop electrode design concept and the importance of the current density on lithium dendrite growth was also found in the literatures. The preliminary test was conducted to verify the developed electrode concept by using lithium powder based anode (LIP) with conductive carbon materials and the results showed that lithium dendrite growth could be suppressed in this electrode design due to its increased electrochemical surface area and lithium deposition sites during lithium deposition. The electrode design suggested in Chapter 2 was extensively studied in Chapter 3 in terms of lithium dendrite growth morphology, lithium cycling efficiency and full cell cycling performance. This electrode concept was further developed to maximize the electrode's performance and safety in Chapter 4. In this new

  1. Lithium-free transition metal monoxides for positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Sung-Kyun; Kim, Hyunchul; Cho, Min Gee; Cho, Sung-Pyo; Lee, Byungju; Kim, Hyungsub; Park, Young-Uk; Hong, Jihyun; Park, Kyu-Young; Yoon, Gabin; Seong, Won Mo; Cho, Yongbeom; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Kim, Haegyeom; Gwon, Hyeokjo; Hwang, Insang; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Yoon, Won-Sub; Kang, Kisuk

    2017-01-01

    Lithium-ion batteries based on intercalation compounds have dominated the advanced portable energy storage market. The positive electrode materials in these batteries belong to a material group of lithium-conducting crystals that contain redox-active transition metal and lithium. Materials without lithium-conducting paths or lithium-free compounds could be rarely used as positive electrodes due to the incapability of reversible lithium intercalation or the necessity of using metallic lithium as negative electrodes. These constraints have significantly limited the choice of materials and retarded the development of new positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Here, we demonstrate that lithium-free transition metal monoxides that do not contain lithium-conducting paths in their crystal structure can be converted into high-capacity positive electrodes in the electrochemical cell by initially decorating the monoxide surface with nanosized lithium fluoride. This unusual electrochemical behaviour is attributed to a surface conversion reaction mechanism in contrast with the classic lithium intercalation reaction. Our findings will offer a potential new path in the design of positive electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries.

  2. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2011-04-05

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  3. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias [Westmont, IL; Amine, Khalil [Downers Grove, IL

    2012-01-31

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell systems. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plasticized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  4. Anode material for lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2008-06-24

    Primary and secondary Li-ion and lithium-metal based electrochemical cell system. The suppression of gas generation is achieved through the addition of an additive or additives to the electrolyte system of respective cell, or to the cell itself whether it be a liquid, a solid- or plastized polymer electrolyte system. The gas suppression additives are primarily based on unsaturated hydrocarbons.

  5. Lithium equation-of-state

    SciTech Connect

    Blink, J.A.

    1983-09-01

    In 1977, Dave Young published an equation-of-state (EOS) for lithium. This EOS was used by Lew Glenn in his AFTON calculations of the HYLIFE inertial-fusion-reactor hydrodynamics. In this paper, I summarize Young's development of the EOS and demonstrate a computer program (MATHSY) that plots isotherms, isentropes and constant energy lines on a P-V diagram.

  6. Lithium and the kidney: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Gitlin, M

    1999-03-01

    Despite the availability of alternative agents, lithium continues to be the standard against which all mood stabilisers, prescribed for acute and maintenance treatment of bipolar (and, to a lesser extent, unipolar) mood disorders, are compared. As a medication often used on a maintenance basis for a lifelong disorder, the potential for lithium to cause long term organ toxicity has generated appropriate concern. Foremost among these concerns are its renal effects. Lithium adversely affects renal tubular function, causing polyuria secondary to a deficit in urine concentrating ability. This effect is probably progressive for the first decade of lithium therapy, i.e. it correlates with duration of lithium therapy. Although this effect of lithium is probably functional and reversible early in treatment, it may become structural and irreversible over time. In contrast, the effect of lithium on glomerular function is not progressive. Conclusions in this area are hampered by the evidence that patients with psychiatric disorders who are not receiving lithium also show defects in certain aspects of renal function. Despite the generally sanguine data on glomerular function, a very small group of patients may develop renal insufficiency due to lithium (possibly in conjunction with other somatic factors) in the form of interstitial nephritis. However, for the vast majority of patients, the renal effects of lithium are benign. Current strategies for minimising the renal effects of lithium include: (i) assiduously avoiding episodes of renal toxicity; (ii) monitoring serum lithium concentrations in order to achieve optimal efficacy at the lowest possible concentration; (iii) monitoring serum creatinine levels on a yearly basis, getting further medical evaluation when the serum creatinine level consistently rises above 140 mmol/L (1.6 mg/dl); and (iv) possibly administering lithium once a day.

  7. Primary lithium cell life studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capulli, John; Donley, Sam; Deligiannis, Frank; Shen, David

    1990-01-01

    One solution for providing a truly independent power source is to package, within the critical subsystem element, a primary battery that can remain dormant for time periods as long as the mission life, which can be 10-15 years, maximum. When primary power from the spacecraft solar array/battery system is interrupted, the backup battery system, which is connected through a diode to the power input line, would automatically support the load to avoid a power interruption to the critical load for a time period long enough to ensure that ground control could access the satellite and correct the anomaly by sending appropriate commands to the spacecraft. Critical subsystems identified for the application are telemetry and command circuits, volatile computer memory, attitude control circuits, and some critical payloads. Due to volume packaging and weight restrictions that exist on most spacecraft, coupled with the long storage periods required, lithium cell technology was selected for the backup power source. Because of the high energy density (200-400 Wh/kg), long shelf life, and load capability, soluble cathode primary lithium technology was chosen. The most important lithium cell properties that require detail characterization for this application are capacity loss, shelf life, and the voltage delay mechanism. These are functions of storage time and temperature. During storage, a passive film builds up on the lithium electrode. The film protects the lithium electrode from progressive capacity decay but requires time to break down when a load is applied. This phenomenon results in a depressed voltage during the period of film breakdown which can last from fractions of a second to minutes.

  8. The lithium vapor box divertor

    DOE PAGES

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-01-13

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Our recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al asmore » well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. Furthermore, at the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required in order to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.« less

  9. The lithium vapor box divertor

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R. J.; Myers, R.; Schwartz, J.

    2016-01-13

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Our recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m-2, implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. Furthermore, at the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required in order to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma.

  10. What do patients in a lithium outpatient clinic know about lithium therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Rainer T.; Berghoefer, Anne; Müller-Oerlinghausen, Bruno

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine how much patients know about lithium therapy and to examine factors that might influence this knowledge. Setting Lithium outpatient clinic. Patients Patients (n = 123) affiliated with a lithium outpatient clinic (mean treatment duration of 12 years). Diagnoses, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition, revised, included bipolar disorder, recurrent unipolar depression and schizoaffective disorder. Outcome measures Quantitative assessment of lithium-related knowledge, obtained by responses to a questionnaire adapted from the Lithium Knowledge Test, and factors affecting this knowledge. Results Age was negatively correlated with lithium therapy knowledge scores, whereas duration of treatment, sex, education and diagnosis appeared to be unrelated to knowledge. Conclusion Patient education about lithium treatment should be intensified, especially for older patients taking lithium because adverse drug reactions pose a greater risk to the elderly. PMID:11590971

  11. Lithium cell technology and safety report of the Tri-Service Lithium Safety Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiss, E.

    1980-01-01

    The organization of the Tri-Service Lithium Safety Committee is described. The following areas concerning lithium batteries are discussed: transportation--DOT Exemption 7052, FAA; disposal; storage; individual testing/test results; and battery design and usage.

  12. Light-assisted delithiation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals towards photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Paolella, Andrea; Faure, Cyril; Bertoni, Giovanni; Marras, Sergio; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Darwiche, Ali; Hovington, Pierre; Commarieu, Basile; Wang, Zhuoran; Prato, Mirko; Colombo, Massimo; Monaco, Simone; Zhu, Wen; Feng, Zimin; Vijh, Ashok; George, Chandramohan; Demopoulos, George P; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2017-04-10

    Recently, intensive efforts are dedicated to convert and store the solar energy in a single device. Herein, dye-synthesized solar cell technology is combined with lithium-ion materials to investigate light-assisted battery charging. In particular we report the direct photo-oxidation of lithium iron phosphate nanocrystals in the presence of a dye as a hybrid photo-cathode in a two-electrode system, with lithium metal as anode and lithium hexafluorophosphate in carbonate-based electrolyte; a configuration corresponding to lithium ion battery charging. Dye-sensitization generates electron-hole pairs with the holes aiding the delithiation of lithium iron phosphate at the cathode and electrons utilized in the formation of a solid electrolyte interface at the anode via oxygen reduction. Lithium iron phosphate acts effectively as a reversible redox agent for the regeneration of the dye. Our findings provide possibilities in advancing the design principles for photo-rechargeable lithium ion batteries.

  13. [Lithium can be given to patients on haemodialysis treatment].

    PubMed

    Kancir, Anne Sophie Pinholt; Viftrup, Jens Emil; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2015-01-26

    Lithium-induced nephropathy is a known complication of lithium treatment in bipolar disorder. Treatment with lithium should be discontinued, if there is evidence of lithium-induced nephropathy. However, lithium can be given to patients with end-stage-renal-disease on haemodialysis treatment, if there is no other way to control the bipolar disorder. We report one patient who was successfully treated with lithium in parallel with haemodialysis.

  14. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  15. Study of lithium absorption by users of spas treated with lithium ion.

    PubMed

    McCarty, J D; Carter, S P; Fletcher, M J; Reape, M J

    1994-05-01

    This study examines the possible dermal absorption of lithium ion into the blood serum of spa/hot tub bathers. Fifty-three participants (28 males and 25 females) spent 20 minutes per day, 4 days per week for 2 consecutive weeks in one of two assigned spas. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the two spas after matching based on sex, age, and use of oral contraceptives. The test spa contained 40 +/- 5 ppm lithium ion, while the control spa contained no additional lithium ion above the background levels of approximately 0.02 ppm. The exposure in the spa treated with lithium ion (from lithium chloride) simulated the maximum exposure that would be expected in a spa sanitized with lithium hypochlorite. The two spas were maintained at 101 +/- 2 degrees F. Serum lithium ion levels before and after spa use were determined using graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy with a minimum detectable level of lithium ion in serum of 2 micrograms l-1 (ppb). There was no statistically significant difference in serum lithium levels between the control and treatment group at any stage. We conclude that dermal exposure to lithium ion (as would be present after treatment of a spa with lithium hypochlorite) did not result in a detectable increase in the serum lithium ion level.

  16. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  17. Prismatic cell lithium-ion battery using lithium manganese oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, G.M.; Hellen, R.M.; Reddy, T.B.

    1997-12-01

    Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have demonstrated the ability to fulfill the energy storage needs of many new technologies. The most significant drawbacks of currently available technologies, such as LiCoO{sub 2} based Li-ion cells, is their high cost and significant environmental hazards. Li-ion cells which use a lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}) spinel based cathode material should be much less costly and safer than LiCoO{sub 2} based cells. Performance data from prismatic design cells which use a LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} based cathode material is presented and shown to meet many military performance criteria. The most significant drawback of this technology, at the present time, is the short cycle life.

  18. The role of SEI in lithium and lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Peled, E.; Golodnitsky, D.; Ardel, G.; Menachem, C.; Bar-Tow, D.; Eshkenazy, V.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents and discusses fundamental processes taking place at the lithium and Li{sub x}C{sub 6} electrode/electrolyte interphases and models for these interphases. The authors deal with both nonaqueous and polymer (dry and gel) electrolytes, graphitized and nongraphitized carbonaceous materials as anodes for Li-ion batteries. Each electrode/electrolyte combination has its own unique features and problems but there are some general phenomena common to all of them. Issues to be reviewed include SEI composition, morphology and formation reactions, graphite surface modifications including chemical bonded SEI and micro channels formation, electrode degradation processes, lithium deposition-dissolution and intercalation-deintercalation mechanisms, rate-determining steps (RDS), electrolyte and electrode parameters and conditions affecting the above mentioned processes. Technology-related issues are emphasized.

  19. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOEpatents

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  20. Sealed Primary Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Cell

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    Thionyl Chloride , Lithium , Lithium Aluminum Chloride , Hermetic Lithium Battery, D Cell I Voltage-Delay 1 Shelf Life 1 High_ Energy Density...and the propagation of the thermal runaway en- countered in the thionyl cells. For our initial studies we restricted ourselves to the stable...types of sulfur e.g. rhombic (^) and monoclinic (A ). 3. Thionyl Chloride (SOCI2) The thermogram of SOCI2 (0.161 gm) at 50C/min heating rate is

  1. Electrode materials and lithium battery systems

    DOEpatents

    Amine, Khalil; Belharouak, Ilias; Liu, Jun

    2011-06-28

    A material comprising a lithium titanate comprising a plurality of primary particles and secondary particles, wherein the average primary particle size is about 1 nm to about 500 nm and the average secondary particle size is about 1 .mu.m to about 4 .mu.m. In some embodiments the lithium titanate is carbon-coated. Also provided are methods of preparing lithium titanates, and devices using such materials.

  2. High Efficiency Lithium-Thionyl Chloride Cell.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    AD-Al14 672 HONEYWELL POWER SOURCES CENTER HORSHAM PA F/S 10/3 HIGH EFFICIENCY LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELLo(U) APR 82 N DODDAPANEN! OAAK20-81-C...CHART NATIONAl BUREAU OF STANDARDS 1963 A Research and Development Technical Report DELET-TR-81-0381-3 HIGH EFFICIENCY LITHIUM - THIONYL CHLORIDE CELL...reverse aide it necessary and Identify by block number) Thionyl chloride , lithium , high discharge rates, low temperatures, catalysis, cyclic

  3. Improving electrolytes for lithium-ion and lithium oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalasani, Dinesh

    There is an ever increasing demand for fossil fuels. Lithium ion batteries (LIBs) can effectively reduce the production of greenhouse gases and lessen the need for fossil fuels. LIBs also have great potential in electric vehicle applications as an alternative to petroleum modes of transportation. Understanding the chemical reactions between the electrolyte and electrodes in LIBs is very crucial in developing batteries which can work over a wide temperature range and also give a wide potential window. The Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), formed by the reduction of solvent molecules on the surface of electrodes, is an important component of LIBs. The SEI is very essential to the performance of LIBs. One electron reduction pathway products of solvent molecules was investigated using lithium-naphthalenide. Methylene ethylene carbonate, a high temperature additive has been synthesized and its performance has been tested at 60°C. Lithium-Oxygen batteries have an energy density ten times greater than that of LIBs. However, lithium-oxygen batteries have rechargability problems associated with them. The most common electrolyte used in this type of batteries is LiPF6 in carbonate or ether based solvents. LiPF6 inherently decreases electrolyte stability, since LiPF 6 can undergo thermal dissociation into PF5 and LiF. PF 5 being a strong Lewis acid, can react with electron rich species. The thermal decomposition reactions of LiPF6 based electrolytes are studied in detail with regard to LIBs. The comprehensive study has been conducted on the thermal degradation of several electrolyte systems in the presence of Li2O2.

  4. A lithium-oxygen battery based on lithium superoxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Jun; Lee, Yun Jung; Luo, Xiangyi; Lau, Kah Chun; Wen, Jianguo; Wang, Hsien-Hau; Zhai, Dengyun; Miller, Dean; Jeong, Yo-Sub; Park, Jin-Bum; Curtiss, Larry A.; Amine, Khalil

    2016-01-11

    Although the superoxide of lithium (LiO2) is believed to be a key intermediate in Li-O2 batteries leading to the formation of lithium peroxide, LiO2 has never been observed in its pure state. In this work, we provide evidence that use of a cathode based on a reduced graphene oxide with Ir nanoparticles in a Li-O2 battery results in a LiO2 discharge product formed by single electron transfer without further electron transfer or disproportionation to form Li2O2. High energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD) patterns indicates the presence of crystalline LiO2 with no evidence of Li2O2 or Li2O. The HEXRD studies as a function of time also show that LiO2 can be stable in its crystalline form after one week of aging in the presence of electrolyte. The results provide evidence that LiO2 is stable enough that it can be repeatedly charged and discharged with a very low charge potential (~3.2 V) and may open the avenue for a lithium superoxide-based battery.

  5. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, Ian D.; Godshall, Ned A.; Huggins, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350.degree.-500.degree. C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  6. Ternary compound electrode for lithium cells

    DOEpatents

    Raistrick, I.D.; Godshall, N.A.; Huggins, R.A.

    1980-07-30

    Lithium-based cells are promising for applications such as electric vehicles and load-leveling for power plants since lithium is very electropositive and of light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated in the temperature range of about 350 to 500/sup 0/C. Such high temperature operation accelerates corrosion problems. The present invention provides an electrochemical cell in which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell has a positive electrode which includes a ternary compound generally represented as Li-M-O, wherein M is a transition metal. Corrosion of the inventive cell is considerably reduced.

  7. Lithium Based Anodes for Solid State Batteries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-30

    AFOSR- 77- 3460 LITHIUM BASED ANODES FOR SOLID STATE BATTERIES R.A.H. Edwards, J.R. Owen and B.C.H. Steele I!Tolfson Unit for Solid State Ionics, D...use in secondary lithium batteries . Three main problems associated with the use of pure lithium as the negative plate are as follows: (a) Formation of...Proceedings of the Workshop on Lithium Non aque ous Battery Electrochemistry. Case Western Reserve Univ. June 4-6 1980, pp.130-142, The Electrochemical Soc

  8. Sealed Primary Lithium-Inorganic Electrolyte Cell.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Primary batteries , Reliability(Electronics), Lithium compounds, Aluminum compounds, Chlorides , Thionyl chloride , Battery components, Storage, Life tests, Explosions, Hazards, Temperature, Ventilation

  9. Growth energizes lithium ion interest

    SciTech Connect

    D`Amico, E.

    1996-03-20

    The prospects for big growth in the US for lithium ion batteries (LIBs) has sparked the interest of potential domestic suppliers. {open_quotes}The money that can be made in this market is staggering,{close_quotes} says one industry expert. {open_quotes}Everybody who is remotely related to this industry is interested.{close_quotes} The size of the market, still in its infancy, is difficult to gauge, say consultants, who estimate that leading Japanese producers are each making millions of lithium ion cells/month. {open_quotes}The market is not too measurable right now because the only production is really limited to prototypes being sampled,{close_quotes} says Ward Seitz, a consultant with SRI International (Menlo Park, CA), {open_quotes}but there is phenomenal interest.{close_quotes}

  10. Lithium-Air Cell Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Concha M.; Dobley, Arthur; Seymour, Frasier W.

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-air (Li-air) primary batteries have a theoretical specific capacity of 11,400 Wh/kg, the highest of any common metal-air system. NASA is developing Li-air technology for a Mobile Oxygen Concentrator for Spacecraft Emergencies, an application which requires an extremely lightweight primary battery that can discharge over 24 hours continuously. Several vendors were funded through the NASA SBIR program to develop Li-air technology to fulfill the requirements of this application. New catalysts and carbon cathode structures were developed to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction and increase surface area to improve cell performance. Techniques to stabilize the lithium metal anode surface were explored. Experimental results for prototype laboratory cells are given. Projections are made for the performance of hypothetical cells constructed from the materials that were developed.

  11. Electrolytes for lithium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughey, John; Jansen, Andrew N.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2014-08-05

    A family of electrolytes for use in a lithium ion battery. The genus of electrolytes includes ketone-based solvents, such as, 2,4-dimethyl-3-pentanone; 3,3-dimethyl 2-butanone(pinacolone) and 2-butanone. These solvents can be used in combination with non-Lewis Acid salts, such as Li.sub.2[B.sub.12F.sub.12] and LiBOB.

  12. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, Mohamed; Abraham, Kuzhikalail M.

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  13. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Alamgir, M.; Abraham, K.M.

    1993-10-12

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li[sup +]) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride). 3 figures.

  14. Crystallization of lithium borate glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goktas, A. A.; Neilson, G. F.; Weinberg, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    The glass-forming ability and crystallization behavior of lithium borate compositions, in the diborate-to-metaborate-range, were studied. In particular, the nature and sequence of formation of crystalline phases and the tendency toward devitrification were investigated as functions of temperature, thermal history and batch composition. It was found that the sequence of crystalline phase formation was sensitive to all of the three latter factors, and it was observed that under certain conditions metastable defect structures of the metaborate can appear.

  15. Aluminum-lithium target behavior

    SciTech Connect

    McDonell, W.R.

    1989-10-01

    Information on physical properties and irradiation behavior of aluminum-lithium target alloys employed for the production of tritium in Savannah River reactors has been reviewed to support development of technology for the New Production Reactor (NPR). Phase compositions and microstructures, thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, and constituent diffusion phenomena of the alloys, established in prior site studies, are presented. Irradiation behavior, including distributions of product tritium and helium and related exposure limits due to swelling and cracking of the target alloys is discussed, along with gas release processes occurring during subsequent product recovery operations. The property review supports designation of the aluminum-lithium alloys as ideally well-suited target materials for low-temperature, tritium-producing reactors, demonstrated over 35 years of Savannah River reactor operation. Low temperature irradiation and reaction with lithium in the alloy promotes tritium retention during reactor exposure, and the aluminum provides a matrix from which the product is readily recovered on heating following irradiation. 33 refs., 26 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. EADS-Astrium Lithium Technology Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattesco, P.

    2008-09-01

    The Lithium-ion battery has been perceived ten years ago by EADS Astrium as a very promising technology in terms of technical, industrial and cost aspects for satellite platforms with respect to NiCd and NiH2 technologies. In 2008, lithium technology is the baseline for all new spacecrafts, whatever the missions.For telecommunication satellite, since 2003, more than 18 Lithium batteries for Eurostar E3000 platform have been fully tested and integrated (with SAFT VES140S Lithium cells) up to now. 6 E3000 satellites are in orbit equipped with Lithium batteries with more than 4 years in orbit for the first E3000 satellite equipped with Lithium-ion batteries. 7 others E3000 satellites with lithium batteries are currently at various stage of production.For LEO missions (THEOS, PLEIADES…), ABSL batteries with Sony 18650 HC lithium cells will replace, on the latest LEO platform the NiCd technology. The same technology change has been also successfully done previously for scientific missions: since June 2003 for Mars Express and November 2005 for Venus Express.Associated expected system improvements (weight reduction of the battery system, easiest on ground and launch pad management, highest available energy during launch, ….) driven by specific lithium-ion technology features are today demonstrated and in orbit behaviours are as expected [1], [13].The paper will give an overview of experience of EADS-Astrium on lithium battery technology with the description (design, management, architecture) of lithium batteries used on board LEO and GEO satellites. It will give also a picture of the effort done the last ten years to reach this level of experience (test characterisation, simulation…).

  17. XPS analysis of lithium surface and modification of surface state for uniform deposition of lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamura, K.; Shiraishi, S.; Takehara, Z.

    1995-12-31

    The surface modification of lithium deposited at various current densities in propylene carbonate containing 1.0 ml dm{sup {minus}3} LiClO{sub 4} was performed by addition of various amounts of HF into the electrolyte, in order to investigate the effect of the HF addition on the surface reaction of lithium. XPS and SEM analyses showed that the surface state of lithium was influenced by the concentration of HF and the electrodeposition current. These two parameters are related to the chemical reaction rate of the lithium surface with HF and the electrodeposition rate of lithium, respectively. The surface modification was highly effective in suppressing lithium dendrite formation when the chemical reaction rate with HF was greater than the electrochemical deposition rate of lithium.

  18. Manufacturing of Protected Lithium Electrodes for Advanced Lithium-Air, Lithium-Water & Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Visco, Steven J

    2015-11-30

    The global demand for rechargeable batteries is large and growing rapidly. Assuming the adoption of electric vehicles continues to increase, the need for smaller, lighter, and less expensive batteries will become even more pressing. In this vein, PolyPlus Battery Company has developed ultra-light high performance batteries based on its proprietary protected lithium electrode (PLE) technology. The Company’s Lithium-Air and Lithium-Seawater batteries have already demonstrated world record performance (verified by third party testing), and we are developing advanced lithium-sulfur batteries which have the potential deliver high performance at low cost. In this program PolyPlus Battery Company teamed with Corning Incorporated to transition the PLE technology from bench top fabrication using manual tooling to a pre- commercial semi-automated pilot line. At the inception of this program PolyPlus worked with a Tier 1 battery manufacturing engineering firm to design and build the first-of-its-kind pilot line for PLE production. The pilot line was shipped and installed in Berkeley, California several months after the start of the program. PolyPlus spent the next two years working with and optimizing the pilot line and now produces all of its PLEs on this line. The optimization process successfully increased the yield, throughput, and quality of PLEs produced on the pilot line. The Corning team focused on fabrication and scale-up of the ceramic membranes that are key to the PLE technology. PolyPlus next demonstrated that it could take Corning membranes through the pilot line process to produce state-of-the-art protected lithium electrodes. In the latter part of the program the Corning team developed alternative membranes targeted for the large rechargeable battery market. PolyPlus is now in discussions with several potential customers for its advanced PLE-enabled batteries, and is building relationships and infrastructure for the transition into manufacturing. It is likely

  19. Thermistor behaviour and electric conduction analysis of Ni-doped niobate ferroelectric: the role of multiple β parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanfredi, Silvania; Palacio, Gustavo; Bellucci, Felipe S.; Colin, Claire V.; Nobre, Marcos A. L.

    2012-10-01

    A new engineered non-stoichiometric niobate ceramic with a tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB)-type structure is prepared by non-isovalent substitution at the niobium backbone. The compound's formula is KSr2(Ni0.75Nb4.25)O15-δ, with space group equal to P4bm (#100), a polar group. Electrical properties of this new ferroelectric-semiconductor ceramic are investigated by impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range from 453 up to 953 K. The curve of the resistance as a function of temperature presents further characteristics of a temperature sensor with a negative temperature coefficient (NTC). At high temperatures, the analysis of electrical parameters shows an NTC behaviour ceramic with three distinct thermistor characteristic parameters, β. The values of the β parameter change from 9.82 × 103 to 1.29 × 104 K, while the temperature coefficient of resistance α changes from -0.047 to -0.023 K-1. The NTC behaviour of KSr2(Ni0.75Nb4.25)O15-δ is compared with the behaviour of some dielectric and other ferroelectric semiconductors. β dependence with dc or the ac conductivity mechanism and its correlation with β quality are discussed.

  20. Giant electric field tunable magnetic properties in a Co50Fe50/lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate multiferroic heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei-Gang; Morley, Nicola A.; Sharp, Joanne; Rainforth, W. Mark

    2015-08-01

    Co50Fe50/(0 1 1)-oriented lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) multiferroic (MF) heterostructures were fabricated by RF sputtering magnetic films onto PMN-PT substrates. The effect of magnetic layer thickness (30 nm to 100 nm) on the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in the heterostructures was studied independently, due to the almost constant magnetostriction constant (λ = 40   ±   5 ppm) and similar as-grown magnetic anisotropies for all studied magnetic layer thicknesses. A record high remanence ratio (M r/M s) tunability of 95% has been demonstrated in the 65 nm Co50Fe50/PMN-PT heterostructure, corresponding to a large ME constant (α) of 2.5   ×   10-6 s m-1, when an external electric field (E-field) of 9 kV cm-1 was applied. Such an MF heterostructure provides considerable opportunities for E-field-controlled multifunctional devices.