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Sample records for near-zero emissions part

  1. Preferential emission into epsilon-near-zero metamaterial [Invited

    SciTech Connect

    Galfsky, Tal; Sun, Zheng; Jacob, Zubin; Menon, Vinod M.

    2015-11-23

    We report the use of epsilon near zero (ENZ) metamaterial to control spontaneous emission from Zinc-Oxide (ZnO) excitons. The ENZ material consists of alternating layers of silver and alumina with subwavelength thicknesses, resulting in an effective medium where one of the components of the dielectric constant approach zero between 370nm-440nm wavelength range. Bulk ZnO with photoluminescence maximum in the ENZ regime was deposited via atomic layer deposition to obtain a smooth film with near field coupling to the ENZ metamaterial. Preferential emission from the ZnO layer into the metamaterial with suppression of forward emission by 90% in comparison to ZnO on silicon is observed. We attribute this observation to the presence of dispersionless plasmonic modes in the ENZ regime as shown by the results of theoretical modeling presented here. Integration of ENZ metamaterials with light emitters is an attractive platform for realizing a low threshold subwavelength laser.

  2. Propulsion Investigation for Zero and Near-Zero Emissions Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald v.; Dolce, James L.; Dravid, Marayan V.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Jones, Scott M.; Kundu, Krishna P.; Marek, Cecil J.; Millis, Marc G.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Roach, Timothy M.; Smith, Timothy D.; Stefko, George L.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Geiselhat, Karl A.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    As world emissions are further scrutinized to identify areas for improvement, aviation s contribution to the problem can no longer be ignored. Previous studies for zero or near-zero emissions aircraft suggest aircraft and propulsion system sizes that would perform propulsion system and subsystems layout and propellant tankage analyses to verify the weight-scaling relationships. These efforts could be used to identify and guide subsequent work on systems and subsystems to achieve viable aircraft system emissions goals. Previous work quickly focused these efforts on propulsion systems for 70- and 100-passenger aircraft. Propulsion systems modeled included hydrogen-fueled gas turbines and fuel cells; some preliminary estimates combined these two systems. Hydrogen gas-turbine engines, with advanced combustor technology, could realize significant reductions in nitrogen emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell propulsion systems were further laid out, and more detailed analysis identified systems needed and weight goals for a viable overall system weight. Results show significant, necessary reductions in overall weight, predominantly on the fuel cell stack, and power management and distribution subsystems to achieve reasonable overall aircraft sizes and weights. Preliminary conceptual analyses for a combination of gas-turbine and fuel cell systems were also performed, and further studies were recommended. Using gas-turbine engines combined with fuel cell systems can reduce the fuel cell propulsion system weight, but at higher fuel usage than using the fuel cell only.

  3. Preferential emission into epsilon-near-zero metamaterial [Invited

    DOE PAGES

    Galfsky, Tal; Sun, Zheng; Jacob, Zubin; ...

    2015-11-23

    We report the use of epsilon near zero (ENZ) metamaterial to control spontaneous emission from Zinc-Oxide (ZnO) excitons. The ENZ material consists of alternating layers of silver and alumina with subwavelength thicknesses, resulting in an effective medium where one of the components of the dielectric constant approach zero between 370nm-440nm wavelength range. Bulk ZnO with photoluminescence maximum in the ENZ regime was deposited via atomic layer deposition to obtain a smooth film with near field coupling to the ENZ metamaterial. Preferential emission from the ZnO layer into the metamaterial with suppression of forward emission by 90% in comparison to ZnOmore » on silicon is observed. We attribute this observation to the presence of dispersionless plasmonic modes in the ENZ regime as shown by the results of theoretical modeling presented here. Integration of ENZ metamaterials with light emitters is an attractive platform for realizing a low threshold subwavelength laser.« less

  4. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    SciTech Connect

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  5. Near Zero Emissions at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2012-12-31

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a 10 year DOE sponsored heavy-duty truck engine program, hereafter referred to as the NZ-50 program. This program was split into two major phases. The first phase was called Near-Zero Emission at 50 Percent Thermal Efficiency, and was completed in 2007. The second phase was initiated in 2006, and this phase was named Advancements in Engine Combustion Systems to Enable High-Efficiency Clean Combustion for Heavy-Duty Engines. This phase was completed in September, 2010. The key objectives of the NZ-50 program for this first phase were to: Quantify thermal efficiency degradation associated with reduction of engine-out NOx emissions to the 2007 regulated level of ~1.1 g/hp-hr. Implement an integrated analytical/experimental development plan for improving subsystem and component capabilities in support of emerging engine technologies for emissions and thermal efficiency goals of the program. Test prototype subsystem hardware featuring technology enhancements and demonstrate effective application on a multi-cylinder, production feasible heavy-duty engine test-bed. Optimize subsystem components and engine controls (calibration) to demonstrate thermal efficiency that is in compliance with the DOE 2005 Joule milestone, meaning greater than 45% thermal efficiency at 2007 emission levels. Develop technology roadmap for meeting emission regulations of 2010 and beyond while mitigating the associated degradation in engine fuel consumption. Ultimately, develop technical prime-path for meeting the overall goal of the NZ-50 program, i.e., 50% thermal efficiency at 2010 regulated emissions. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the NZ-50 program. The most noteworthy achievements in this program are summarized as follows: Demonstrated technologies through advanced integrated experiments and analysis to achieve the technical objectives of the NZ-50 program with 50.2% equivalent thermal efficiency under

  6. Near-zero emissions combustor system for syngas and biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Yongho, Kim; Rosocha, Louis

    2010-01-01

    research necessary to develop a novel, high-efficiency, low-emissions (near-zero, or as low as reasonably achievable), advanced combustion technology for electricity and heat production from biofuels and fuels derived from MSW. For any type of combustion technology, including the advanced technology of this project, two problems of special interest must be addressed: developing and optimizing the combustion chambers and the systems for igniting and sustaining the fuel-burning process. For MSW in particular, there are new challenges over gaseous or liquid fuels because solid fuels must be ground into fine particulates ({approx} 10 {micro}m diameter), fed into the advanced combustor, and combusted under plasma-assisted conditions that are quite different than gaseous or liquid fuels. The principal idea of the combustion chamber design is to use so-called reverse vortex gas flow, which allows efficient cooling of the chamber wall and flame stabilization in the central area of the combustor (Tornado chamber). Considerable progress has been made in design ing an advanced, reverse vortex flow combustion chamber for biofuels, although it was not tested on biofuels and a system that could be fully commercialized has never been completed.

  7. Controlling thermal emission with refractory epsilon-near-zero metamaterials via topological transitions

    PubMed Central

    Dyachenko, P. N.; Molesky, S.; Petrov, A. Yu; Störmer, M.; Krekeler, T.; Lang, S.; Ritter, M.; Jacob, Z.; Eich, M.

    2016-01-01

    Control of thermal radiation at high temperatures is vital for waste heat recovery and for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion. Previously, structural resonances utilizing gratings, thin film resonances, metasurfaces and photonic crystals were used to spectrally control thermal emission, often requiring lithographic structuring of the surface and causing significant angle dependence. In contrast, here, we demonstrate a refractory W-HfO2 metamaterial, which controls thermal emission through an engineered dielectric response function. The epsilon-near-zero frequency of a metamaterial and the connected optical topological transition (OTT) are adjusted to selectively enhance and suppress the thermal emission in the near-infrared spectrum, crucial for improved TPV efficiency. The near-omnidirectional and spectrally selective emitter is obtained as the emission changes due to material properties and not due to resonances or interference effects, marking a paradigm shift in thermal engineering approaches. We experimentally demonstrate the OTT in a thermally stable metamaterial at high temperatures of 1,000 °C. PMID:27263653

  8. Controlling thermal emission with refractory epsilon-near-zero metamaterials via topological transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, P. N.; Molesky, S.; Petrov, A. Yu; Störmer, M.; Krekeler, T.; Lang, S.; Ritter, M.; Jacob, Z.; Eich, M.

    2016-06-01

    Control of thermal radiation at high temperatures is vital for waste heat recovery and for high-efficiency thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion. Previously, structural resonances utilizing gratings, thin film resonances, metasurfaces and photonic crystals were used to spectrally control thermal emission, often requiring lithographic structuring of the surface and causing significant angle dependence. In contrast, here, we demonstrate a refractory W-HfO2 metamaterial, which controls thermal emission through an engineered dielectric response function. The epsilon-near-zero frequency of a metamaterial and the connected optical topological transition (OTT) are adjusted to selectively enhance and suppress the thermal emission in the near-infrared spectrum, crucial for improved TPV efficiency. The near-omnidirectional and spectrally selective emitter is obtained as the emission changes due to material properties and not due to resonances or interference effects, marking a paradigm shift in thermal engineering approaches. We experimentally demonstrate the OTT in a thermally stable metamaterial at high temperatures of 1,000 °C.

  9. FutureGen: Pathway to Near-Zero Emissions and Sustainable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Zitney, S E; Sarkus, T A

    2007-11-04

    This presentation will highlight the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) FutureGen project - a $1 billion government-industry partnership to design, build, and operate a near-zero emissions coal-fueled power plant. The lead organization for the FutureGen initiative is the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), a multi-purpose laboratory operated by the U.S. DOE’s Office of Fossil Energy. NETL has a mission to conduct R&D from fundamental science to technology demonstration for resolving the environmental, supply, and reliability constraints of producing and using fossil energy resources. The commercial-scale FutureGen R&D facility is a pathway toward future fossil-energy power plants that will produce hydrogen and electricity while nearly eliminating emissions, including carbon dioxide. The 275-megawatt FutureGen plant will initiate operations around 2012 and employ advanced coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation, hydrogen production, and carbon capture and sequestration. Low carbon emissions would be achieved by integrating CO2 capture and sequestration operations with the power plant.

  10. Advanced exergoenvironmental analysis of a near-zero emission power plant with chemical looping combustion.

    PubMed

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Tsatsaronis, George; Morosuk, Tatiana

    2012-03-06

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) from power plants can be used to mitigate CO(2) emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels. However, CCS technologies are energy intensive, decreasing the operating efficiency of a plant and increasing its costs. Recently developed advanced exergy-based analyses can uncover the potential for improvement of complex energy conversion systems, as well as qualify and quantify plant component interactions. In this paper, an advanced exergoenvironmental analysis is used for the first time as means to evaluate an oxy-fuel power plant with CO(2) capture. The environmental impacts of each component are split into avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous parts. In an effort to minimize the environmental impact of the plant operation, we focus on the avoidable part of the impact (which is also split into endogenous and exogenous parts) and we seek ways to decrease it. The results of the advanced exergoenvironmental analysis show that the majority of the environmental impact related to the exergy destruction of individual components is unavoidable and endogenous. Thus, the improvement potential is rather limited, and the interactions of the components are of lower importance. The environmental impact of construction of the components is found to be significantly lower than that associated with their operation; therefore, our suggestions for improvement focus on measures concerning the reduction of exergy destruction and pollutant formation.

  11. Near-zero refractive index photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liberal, Iñigo; Engheta, Nader

    2017-03-01

    Structures with near-zero parameters (for example, media with near-zero relative permittivity and/or relative permeability, and thus a near-zero refractive index) exhibit a number of unique features, such as the decoupling of spatial and temporal field variations, which enable the exploration of qualitatively different wave dynamics. This Review summarizes the underlying principles and salient features, physical realizations and technological potential of these structures. In doing so, we revisit their distinctive impact on multiple optical processes, including scattering, guiding, trapping and emission of light. Their role in emphasizing secondary responses of matter such as nonlinear, non-reciprocal and non-local effects is also discussed.

  12. The plasma properties and electron emission characteristics of near-zero differential resistance of hollow cathode-based plasma contactors with a discharge chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Kan; Farnell, Casey C.; Williams, John D.

    2014-08-15

    The formation of electron emission-bias voltage (I-V) characteristics of near-zero differential resistance in the cathodic plasma contactor for bare electrodynamic tether applications, based on a hollow cathode embedded in a ring-cusp ionization stage, is studied. The existence of such an I-V regime is important to achieve low impedance performance without being affected by the space plasma properties for a cathodic plasma contactor. Experimental data on the plasma structure and properties downstream from the ionization stage are presented as functions of the xenon flow rate and the electron emission current. The electrons were emitted from the cathode to the cylindrical vacuum chamber wall (r = 0.9 m) under ≈10{sup −5 }Torr of vacuum pressure. The ring-cusp configuration selected for the plasma contactor created a 125-Gauss axial field near the cathode orifice, along with a large-volume 50-Gauss magnitude pocket in the stage. A baseline ion energy cost of ≈300 eV/ion was measured in the ionization stage when no electrons were emitted to the vacuum chamber wall. In addition, the anode fall growth limited the maximum propellant unitization to below ≈75% in the discharge loss curves for this ion stage. Detailed measurements on the plasma properties were carried out for the no-electron emission and 3 A emission conditions. The experimental data are compared with 1-D models, and the effectiveness of the model is discussed. The four key issues that played important roles in the process of building the near-zero different resistance I-V regime are: a significant amount of ionization by the emission electrons, a decrease in the number of reflected electrons in the plume, the electron-temperature increment, and low initial ion energy at the source outlet.

  13. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  14. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 3: SOx/NOx/Hg Removal for Low Sulfur Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zanfir, Monica; Solunke, Rahul; Shah, Minish

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxycombustion technology. The objective of Task 3 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning low sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was to conduct an experimental investigation and to develop a novel process for simultaneously removal of SOx and NOx from power plants that would operate on low sulfur coal without the need for wet-FGD & SCRs. A novel purification process operating at high pressures and ambient temperatures was developed. Activated carbon's catalytic and adsorbent capabilities are used to oxidize the sulfur and nitrous oxides to SO{sub 3} and NO{sub 2} species, which are adsorbed on the activated carbon and removed from the gas phase. Activated carbon is regenerated by water wash followed by drying. The development effort commenced with the screening of commercially available activated carbon materials for their capability to remove SO{sub 2}. A bench-unit operating in batch mode was constructed to conduct an experimental investigation of simultaneous SOx and NOx removal from a simulated oxyfuel flue gas mixture. Optimal operating conditions and the capacity of the activated carbon to remove the contaminants were identified. The process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx. In the longevity tests performed on a batch unit, the retention capacity could be maintained at high level over 20 cycles. This process was able to effectively remove up to 4000 ppm SOx from the simulated feeds corresponding to oxyfuel flue gas from high sulfur coal plants. A dual bed continuous unit with five times the capacity of the batch unit was constructed to test continuous operation and longevity. Full

  15. Directional and monochromatic thermal emitter from epsilon-near-zero conditions in semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Campione, Salvatore; Marquier, Francois; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Ellis, A Robert; Klem, John F; Sinclair, Michael B; Luk, Ting S

    2016-10-05

    The development of novel thermal sources that control the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern is of fundamental importance. In this paper, we investigate the thermal emission properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs). Our structure does not require the use of any periodic corrugation to provide monochromatic and directional emission properties. We show that these properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in SHMs. The thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the SHM. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  16. Directional and monochromatic thermal emitter from epsilon-near-zero conditions in semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Campione, Salvatore; Marquier, Francois; Hugonin, Jean-Paul; Ellis, A. Robert; Klem, John F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Luk, Ting S.

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel thermal sources that control the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern is of fundamental importance. In this paper, we investigate the thermal emission properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs). Our structure does not require the use of any periodic corrugation to provide monochromatic and directional emission properties. We show that these properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in SHMs. The thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the SHM. Furthermore, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials. PMID:27703223

  17. Directional and monochromatic thermal emitter from epsilon-near-zero conditions in semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Campione, Salvatore; Marquier, Francois; Hugonin, Jean -Paul; Ellis, A. Robert; Klem, John F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Luk, Ting S.

    2016-10-05

    The development of novel thermal sources that control the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern is of fundamental importance. In this paper, we investigate the thermal emission properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs). Our structure does not require the use of any periodic corrugation to provide monochromatic and directional emission properties. We show that these properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in SHMs. The thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the SHM. In conclusion, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy of hyperbolic metamaterials.

  18. Broadband Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) and Mu-Near-Zero (MNZ) Active Metamaterial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    Single-Negative ( SNG ) and Single-Near-Zero (SNZ) behavior (Figure 1-2). This class incoming plane wave scatterer (implant) host material a E H P Chapter...constitutive parameters ( SNG , DNG, SNZ, DNZ) offer many unexpected and counter-intuitive physical phenomena such as backward-wave propagation...of all SNG , SNZ, DNZ or DNG metamaterials do change significantly with frequency. This change is, in general, described by Lorentz dispersion model

  19. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bestwick, A. J.; Fox, E. J.; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  20. Broadband epsilon-near-zero metamaterials with steplike metal-dielectric multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong

    2013-04-01

    The concept of the broadband epsilon-near-zero meta-atom consisting of layered stacks with specified metallic filling ratio and thickness is proposed based on the Bergman spectral representation of the effective permittivity. The steplike metal-dielectric multilayer structures are designed to achieve realistic broadband epsilon-near-zero meta-atoms in optical frequency range. These meta-atoms can be integrated as building blocks for unconventional optical components with exotic electromagnetic properties over a wide frequency range, such as the demonstrated broadband directional emission and phase front shaping.

  1. Directional and monochromatic thermal emitter from epsilon-near-zero conditions in semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Campione, Salvatore; Marquier, Francois; Hugonin, Jean -Paul; ...

    2016-10-05

    The development of novel thermal sources that control the emission spectrum and the angular emission pattern is of fundamental importance. In this paper, we investigate the thermal emission properties of semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials (SHMs). Our structure does not require the use of any periodic corrugation to provide monochromatic and directional emission properties. We show that these properties arise because of epsilon-near-zero conditions in SHMs. The thermal emission is dominated by the epsilon-near-zero effect in the doped quantum wells composing the SHM. In conclusion, different properties are observed for s and p polarizations, following the characteristics of the strong anisotropy ofmore » hyperbolic metamaterials.« less

  2. Ultrasonic gas alloy atomization under near-zero aspiration pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Pengfei; Wang, Deping; Yan, Biao

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, ultrasonic gas atomization (USGA) of Zn-Al under near-zero aspiration pressure was discussed. The protrusion length of delivery tube was modified to adjust the aspiration pressure. Under near-zero aspiration pressure, melt filming was observed by camera and more fine powders were produced. While under larger subambient aspiration pressure, melt filming was unavailable, corresponding to less fine powders. The results suggest that the position of the wake near the delivery tube can be optimized under near-zero aspiration. Less protrusion of delivery tube reduces the energy loss in gas flow deflection. Both facilitate to produce finer powders.

  3. All-angle collimation of incident light in μ-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Vladimir Yu.; Nakajima, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    We use the theory of inhomogeneous waves to study the transmission of light in $\\mu$-near-zero metamaterials. We find the effect of all-angle collimation of incident light, which means that the vector of energy flow in a wave transmitted to a $\\mu$-near-zero metamaterial is perpendicular to the interface for any incident angles if an incident wave is s-polarized. This effect is similar to the all-angle collimation of incident light recently found through a different theoretical framework in $\\varepsilon$-near-zero metamaterials for a p-polarized incident wave [S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193904 (2012)]. To provide a specific example, we consider the transmission of light in a negative-index metamaterial in the spectral region with a permeability resonance, and show that all-angle collimation indeed takes place at the wavelength for which the real part of permeability is vanishingly small.

  4. All-angle collimation of incident light in μ-near-zero metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Fedorov, Vladimir Yu; Nakajima, Takashi

    2013-11-18

    We use the theory of inhomogeneous waves to study the transmission of light in μ-near-zero metamaterials. We find the effect of all-angle collimation of incident light, which means that the vector of energy flow in a wave transmitted to a μ-near-zero metamaterial is perpendicular to the interface for any incident angles if an incident wave is s-polarized. This effect is similar to the all-angle collimation of incident light recently found through a different theoretical framework in ε-near-zero metamaterials for a p-polarized incident wave [S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193904 (2012)]. To provide a specific example, we consider the transmission of light in a negative-index metamaterial in the spectral region with a permeability resonance, and show that all-angle collimation indeed takes place at the wavelength for which the real part of permeability is vanishingly small.

  5. Cool flames at terrestrial, partial, and near-zero gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, Michael; Pearlman, Howard

    2006-10-15

    Natural convection plays an important role in all terrestrial, Lunar, and Martian-based, unstirred, static reactor cool flame and low-temperature autoignitions, since the Rayleigh number (Ra) associated with the self-heating of the reaction exceeds the critical Ra (approximately 600) for onset of convection. At near-zero gravity, Ra<600 can be achieved and the effects of convection suppressed. To systematically vary the Ra without varying the mixture stoichiometry, reactor pressure, or vessel size, cool flames are studied experimentally in a closed, unstirred, static reactor subject to different gravitational accelerations (terrestrial, 1g; Martian, 0.38g; Lunar, 0.16g; and reduced gravity, {approx}10{sup -2}g). Representative results show the evolution of the visible light emission using an equimolar n-butane:oxygen premixture at temperatures ranging from 320 to 350? deg C (593-623 K) at subatmospheric pressures. For representative reduced-gravity, spherically propagating cool flames, the flame radius based on the peak light intensity is plotted as a function of time and the flame radius (and speed) is calculated from a polynomial fit to data. A skeletal chemical kinetic Gray-Yang model developed previously for a one-dimensional, reactive-diffusive system by Fairlie and co-workers is extended to a two-dimensional axisymmetric, spherical geometry. The coupled species, energy, and momentum equations are solved numerically and the spatio-temporal variations in the temperature profiles are presented. A qualitative comparison is made with the experimental results. (author)

  6. Efficient Vortex Generation in Subwavelength Epsilon-Near-Zero Slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Marini, Andrea; Rizza, Carlo

    2017-03-01

    We show that a homogeneous and isotropic slab, illuminated by a circularly polarized beam with no topological charge, produces vortices of order 2 in the opposite circularly polarized components of the reflected and transmitted fields, as a consequence of the transverse magnetic and transverse electric asymmetric response of the rotationally invariant system. In addition, in the epsilon-near-zero regime, we find that vortex generation is remarkably efficient in subwavelength thick slabs up to the paraxial regime. This physically stems from the fact that a vacuum paraxial field can excite a nonparaxial field inside an epsilon-near-zero slab since it hosts slowly varying fields over physically large portions of the bulk. Our theoretical predictions indicate that epsilon-near-zero media hold great potential as nanophotonic elements for manipulating the angular momentum of the radiation, since they are available without resorting to complicated micro- or nanofabrication processes and can operate even at very small (ultraviolet) wavelengths.

  7. Roles of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials in optical metatronic circuit networks.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Fereshteh; Engheta, Nader

    2014-10-20

    The concept of metamaterial-inspired nanocircuits, dubbed metatronics, was introduced in [Science 317, 1698 (2007); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 095504 (2005)]. It was suggested how optical lumped elements (nanoelements) can be made using subwavelength plasmonic or non-plasmonic particles. As a result, the optical metatronic equivalents of a number of electronic circuits, such as frequency mixers and filters, were suggested. In this work we further expand the concept of electronic lumped element networks into optical metatronic circuits and suggest a conceptual model applicable to various metatronic passive networks. In particular, we differentiate between the series and parallel networks using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) and mu-near-zero (MNZ) materials. We employ layered structures with subwavelength thicknesses for the nanoelements as the building blocks of collections of metatronic networks. Furthermore, we explore how by choosing the non-zero constitutive parameters of the materials with specific dispersions, either Drude or Lorentzian dispersion with suitable parameters, capacitive and inductive responses can be achieved in both series and parallel networks. Next, we proceed with the one-to-one analogy between electronic circuits and optical metatronic filter layered networks and justify our analogies by comparing the frequency response of the two paradigms. Finally, we examine the material dispersion of near-zero relative permittivity as well as other physically important material considerations such as losses.

  8. Electric levitation using ϵ-near-zero metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J; Vakil, Ashkan; Engheta, Nader

    2014-01-24

    The ability to manufacture metamaterials with exotic electromagnetic properties has potential for surprising new applications. Here we report how a specific type of metamaterial--one whose permittivity is near zero--exerts a repulsive force on an electric dipole source, resulting in levitation of the dipole. The phenomenon relies on the expulsion of the time-varying electric field from the metamaterial interior, resembling the perfect diamagnetic expulsion of magnetostatic fields. Leveraging this concept, we study some realistic requirements for the levitation or repulsion of a polarized particle radiating at any frequency, from microwave to optics.

  9. Resurrection of the flagellar rotary motor near zero load

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Junhua; Berg, Howard C.

    2008-01-01

    Flagellated bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, are propelled by helical flagellar filaments, each driven at its base by a reversible rotary motor, powered by a transmembrane proton flux. Torque is generated by the interaction of stator proteins, MotA and MotB, with a rotor protein FliG. The physiology of the motor has been studied extensively in the regime of relatively high load and low speed, where it appears to operate close to thermodynamic equilibrium. Here, we describe an assay that allows systematic study of the motor near zero load, where proton translocation and movement of mechanical components are rate limiting. Sixty-nanometer-diameter gold spheres were attached to hooks of cells lacking flagellar filaments, and light scattered from a sphere was monitored at the image plane of a microscope through a small pinhole. Paralyzed motors of cells carrying a motA point mutation were resurrected at 23°C by expression of wild-type MotA, and speeds jumped from zero to a maximum value (≈300 Hz) in one step. Thus, near zero load, the speed of the motor is independent of the number of torque-generating units. Evidently, the units act independently (they do not interfere with one another), and there are no intervals during which a second unit can add to the speed generated by the first (the duty ratio is close to 1). PMID:18202173

  10. Gain enhancement with near-zero-index metamaterial superstrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouzouad, M.; Chaker, S. M.; Bensafielddine, D.; Laamari, E. M.

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to use a near-zero-index ( n) metamaterial as a single- or a double-layer superstrate suspended above a microstrip patch antenna, operating at 43 GHz, for the gain enhancement. The single metamaterial layer superstrate consists of a periodic arrangement of Jerusalem cross unit cells and behaves as an homogeneous medium characterized by a refractive index close to zero. This metamaterial property allows gathering radiated waves from the antenna and collimates them toward the superstrate normal direction. The proposed design improves the antenna gain by 5.1 dB with the single-layer superstrate and 7 dB with the double-layer superstrate.

  11. Terahertz epsilon-near-zero graded-index lens.

    PubMed

    Torres, Víctor; Pacheco-Peña, Víctor; Rodríguez-Ulibarri, Pablo; Navarro-Cía, Miguel; Beruete, Miguel; Sorolla, Mario; Engheta, Nader

    2013-04-08

    An epsilon-near-zero graded-index converging lens with planar faces is proposed and analyzed. Each perfectly-electric conducting (PEC) waveguide comprising the lens operates slightly above its cut-off frequency and has the same length but different cross-sectional dimensions. This allows controlling individually the propagation constant and the normalized characteristic impedance of each waveguide for the desired phase front at the lens output while Fresnel reflection losses are minimized. A complete theoretical analysis based on the waveguide theory and Fermat's principle is provided. This is complemented with numerical simulation results of two-dimensional and three-dimensional lenses, made of PEC and aluminum, respectively, and working in the terahertz regime, which show good agreement with the analytical work.

  12. Enhanced Nonlinear Refractive Index in ɛ -Near-Zero Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspani, L.; Kaipurath, R. P. M.; Clerici, M.; Ferrera, M.; Roger, T.; Kim, J.; Kinsey, N.; Pietrzyk, M.; Di Falco, A.; Shalaev, V. M.; Boltasseva, A.; Faccio, D.

    2016-06-01

    New propagation regimes for light arise from the ability to tune the dielectric permittivity to extremely low values. Here, we demonstrate a universal approach based on the low linear permittivity values attained in the ɛ -near-zero (ENZ) regime for enhancing the nonlinear refractive index, which enables remarkable light-induced changes of the material properties. Experiments performed on Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films show a sixfold increase of the Kerr nonlinear refractive index (n2) at the ENZ wavelength, located in the 1300 nm region. This in turn leads to ultrafast light-induced refractive index changes of the order of unity, thus representing a new paradigm for nonlinear optics.

  13. Optically induced metal-to-dielectric transition in Epsilon-Near-Zero metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kaipurath, R. M.; Pietrzyk, M.; Caspani, L.; Roger, T.; Clerici, M.; Rizza, C.; Ciattoni, A.; Di Falco, A.; Faccio, D.

    2016-01-01

    Epsilon-Near-Zero materials exhibit a transition in the real part of the dielectric permittivity from positive to negative value as a function of wavelength. Here we study metal-dielectric layered metamaterials in the homogenised regime (each layer has strongly subwavelength thickness) with zero real part of the permittivity in the near-infrared region. By optically pumping the metamaterial we experimentally show that close to the Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) wavelength the permittivity exhibits a marked transition from metallic (negative permittivity) to dielectric (positive permittivity) as a function of the optical power. Remarkably, this transition is linear as a function of pump power and occurs on time scales of the order of the 100 fs pump pulse that need not be tuned to a specific wavelength. The linearity of the permittivity increase allows us to express the response of the metamaterial in terms of a standard third order optical nonlinearity: this shows a clear inversion of the roles of the real and imaginary parts in crossing the ENZ wavelength, further supporting an optically induced change in the physical behaviour of the metamaterial. PMID:27292270

  14. Electrically Tunable Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) Metafilm Absorbers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Junghyun; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Liu, Xiaoge; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Enhancing and spectrally controlling light absorption is of great practical and fundamental importance. In optoelectronic devices consisting of layered semiconductors and metals, absorption has traditionally been manipulated with the help of Fabry-Pérot resonances. Even further control over the spectral light absorption properties of thin films has been achieved by patterning them into dense arrays of subwavelength resonant structures to form metafilms. As the next logical step, we demonstrate electrical control over light absorption in metafilms constructed from dense arrays of actively tunable plasmonic cavities. This control is achieved by embedding indium tin oxide (ITO) into these cavities. ITO affords significant tuning of its optical properties by means of electrically-induced carrier depletion and accumulation. We demonstrate that particularly large changes in the reflectance from such metafilms (up to 15% P) can be achieved by operating the ITO in the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) frequency regime where its electrical permittivity changes sign from negative to positive values. PMID:26549615

  15. Experimental verification of epsilon-near-zero plasmon polariton modes in degenerately doped semiconductor nanolayers.

    PubMed

    Campione, Salvatore; Kim, Iltai; de Ceglia, Domenico; Keeler, Gordon A; Luk, Ting S

    2016-08-08

    We investigate optical polariton modes supported by subwavelength-thick degenerately doped semiconductor nanolayers (e.g. indium tin oxide) on glass in the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) regime. The dispersions of the radiative (R, on the left of the light line) and non-radiative (NR, on the right of the light line) ENZ polariton modes are experimentally measured and theoretically analyzed through the transfer matrix method and the complex-frequency/real-wavenumber analysis, which are in remarkable agreement. We observe directional near-perfect absorption using the Kretschmann geometry for incidence conditions close to the NR-ENZ polariton mode dispersion. Along with field enhancement, this provides us with an unexplored pathway to enhance nonlinear optical processes and to open up directions for ultrafast, tunable thermal emission.

  16. Nonradiating and radiating modes excited by quantum emitters in open epsilon-near-zero cavities

    PubMed Central

    Liberal, Iñigo; Engheta, Nader

    2016-01-01

    Controlling the emission and interaction properties of quantum emitters (QEs) embedded within an optical cavity is a key technique in engineering light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, as well as in the development of quantum information processing. State-of-the-art optical cavities are based on high quality factor photonic crystals and dielectric resonators. However, wealthier responses might be attainable with cavities carved in more exotic materials. We theoretically investigate the emission and interaction properties of QEs embedded in open epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) cavities. Using analytical methods and numerical simulations, we demonstrate that open ENZ cavities present the unique property of supporting nonradiating modes independently of the geometry of the external boundary of the cavity (shape, size, topology, etc.). Moreover, the possibility of switching between radiating and nonradiating modes enables a dynamic control of the emission by, and the interaction between, QEs. These phenomena provide unprecedented degrees of freedom in controlling and trapping fields within optical cavities, as well as in the design of cavity opto- and acoustomechanical systems. PMID:27819047

  17. Preliminary Performance Evaluation of a Near Zero Energy Home in Callaway, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Eric; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Colon, Carlos

    2009-02-20

    This case study reports on a near zero energy home in Callaway, FL. This paper briefly reviews the design and then focuses on the first four months of energy performance during the second half of 2008.

  18. Life and Death Near Zero: The distribution and evolution of NEA orbits of near-zero MOID, (e, i), and q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Granvik, Mikael

    2016-10-01

    Modeling the distribution of orbits with near-zero orbital parameters requires special attention to the dimensionality of the parameters in question. This is even more true since orbits of near-zero MOID, (e, i), or q are especially interesting as sources or sinks of NEAs. An essentially zero value of MOID (Minimum Orbital Intersection Distance) with respect to the Earth's orbit is a requirement for an impact trajectory, and initially also for ejecta from lunar impacts into heliocentric orbits. The collision cross section of the Earth goes up greatly with decreasing relative encounter velocity, venc, thus the impact flux onto the Earth is enhanced in such low-venc objects, which correspond to near-zero (e,i) orbits. And lunar ejecta that escapes from the Earth-moon system mostly does so at only barely greater than minimum velocity for escape (Gladman, et al., 1995, Icarus 118, 302-321), so the Earth-moon system is both a source and a sink of such low-venc orbits, and understanding the evolution of these populations requires accurately modeling the orbit distributions. Lastly, orbits of very low heliocentric perihelion distance, q, are particularly interesting as a "sink" in the NEA population as asteroids "fall into the sun" (Farinella, et al., 1994, Nature 371, 314-317). Understanding this process, and especially the role of disintegration of small asteroids as they evolve into low-q orbits (Granvik et al., 2016, Nature 530, 303-306), requires accurate modeling of the q distribution that would exist in the absence of a "sink" in the distribution. In this paper, we derive analytical expressions for the expected steady-state distributions near zero of MOID, (e,i), and q in the absence of sources or sinks, compare those to numerical simulations of orbit distributions, and lastly evaluate the distributions of discovered NEAs to try to understand the sources and sinks of NEAs "near zero" of these orbital parameters.

  19. Radiative engineering with refractory epsilon-near-zero metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyachenko, Pavel N.; Molesky, Sean; Petrov, Alexander Y.; Störmer, Michael; Krekeler, Tobias; Lang, Slawa; Ritter, Martin; Jacob, Zubin; Eich, Manfred

    2016-04-01

    Improvement in high-temperature stable spectrally selective absorbers and emitters is integral for the further development of thermophotovoltaic (TPV), lighting and solar thermal applications. However, the high operational temperatures (T>1000oC) required for efficient energy conversion, along with application specific criteria such as the operational range of low bandgap semiconductors, greatly restrict what can be accomplished with natural materials. Motivated by this challenge, we demonstrate the first example of high temperature thermal radiation engineering with metamaterials. By employing the naturally selective thermal excitation of radiative modes that occurs near topological transitions, we show that thermally stable highly selective emissivity features are achieved for temperatures up to 1000°C with low angular dependence in a sub-micron thick refractory tungsten/hafnium dioxide epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial. We also investigate the main mechanisms of thermal degradation of the fabricated refractory metamaterial both in terms of optical performance and structural stability using spectral analysis and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) techniques. Importantly, we observe chemical stability of the constituent materials for temperatures up to 1000°C and structural stability beyond 1100°C. The scalable fabrication, requiring magnetron sputtering, and thermally robust optical properties of this metamaterial approach are ideally suited to high temperature emitter applications such as lighting or TPV. Our findings provide a first concrete proof of radiative engineering with high temperature topological transition in ENZ metamaterials, and establish a clear path for implementation in TPV energy harvesting applications.

  20. Field Evaluation of a Near Zero Energy Home in Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Hancock, E.; Barker, G.; Reeves, P.

    2008-08-01

    The authors evaluated a zero energy home built by Ideal Homes in Edmond, Oklahoma, that included an extensive package of energy-efficient technologies and a photovoltaic array for site electricity generation. The home was part of a Building America research project in partnership with the Building Science Consortium to exhibit high efficiency technologies while keeping costs within the reach of average home buyers.

  1. Comprehensive energy analysis of a near zero energy home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jannumahanthi, Madhuri

    Buildings consume nearly 40% of the entire energy used in the United States. To reduce the residential energy consumption, the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with Building America is evaluating various energy efficient technologies that might be integrated to produce a Zero Energy Home (ZEH). The research presented in this thesis focuses on evaluating the energy use of individual energy saving components and a near ZEH system in Salt Lake City, Utah. A state-of-the-art software tool, DesignBuilder, which employs an EnergyPlus simulation engine, was used to evaluate the performance of the prototype models. The major energy saving features in the house included photovoltaic thermal (PVT) panels; the hybrid solar panels that combine PV and solar thermal panel technology in a single entity; OASys, a new evaporative cooling unit that has a SEER 40+; structural insulated panels (SIPs); and a hydronic furnace. With real time data acquisition, the performance of the individual components and the near ZEH system was studied. PVT performs with nearly 20% greater efficiency than a conventional photovoltaic (PV) system. OASys reduces the cooling energy use by 60% in comparison with a regular vapor compression air conditioning system. Simulation results indicate 30% reduced energy use with SIPs. The hydronic furnace provides comfortable heating with 2% of the total heating energy as preheat to the water heater. The high efficiency water heater has a peak monthly efficiency of 83%. The actual data usage indicates that the energy efficient house has nearly 50% reduced energy use over a simulated model without the energy saving features and 60% fewer carbon dioxide emissions than a regular house.

  2. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestwick, Andrew; Fox, Eli; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang; Goldhaber-Gordon, David

    2015-03-01

    The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has recently been of great interest due to its recent experimental realization in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3, a ferromagnetic 3D topological insulator. The presence of ferromagnetic exchange breaks time-reversal symmetry, opening a gap in the surface states, but gives rise to dissipationless chiral conduction at the edge of a magnetized film. Ideally, this leads to vanishing longitudinal resistance and Hall resistance quantized to h /e2 , where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge, but perfect quantization has so far proved elusive. Here, we study the QAHE in the limit of zero applied magnetic field, and measure Hall resistance quantized to within one part per 10,000. Deviation from quantization is due primarily to thermally activated carriers, which can be nearly eliminated through adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This result demonstrates an important step toward dissipationless electron transport in technologically relevant conditions.

  3. Perfect electromagnetic absorption using graphene and epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobet, Michaël; Majerus, Bruno; Henrard, Luc; Lambin, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The ability of graphene/polymer heterostructures to absorb GHz electromagnetic radiation was recently evidenced both theoretically and experimentally [Batrakov et al., Sci. Rep. 4, 7191 (2014), 10.1038/srep07191 and Lobet et al., Nanotechnology 26, 285702 (2015), 10.1088/0957-4484/26/28/285702]. Maximum absorption was shown to depend solely on refractive indices of incident and emergence media once impedance matching conditions are fulfilled. In this paper, analytical models and numerical simulations are performed for both semi-infinite and finite slab substrate. We evidenced that only three graphene layers separated by a dielectric spacer and an epsilon-near-zero metamaterial as emergence medium allow a perfect absorption for normal incidence. The use of lossless epsilon-near-zero metamaterial prevents radiations to go through the device, because of infinite impedance, and forces them to be totally absorbed in the dissipative medium (graphene). The device is proved to be robust regarding angular incidence up to 45 deg for a semi-infinite epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. The proposed strategy is universal and can be applied to any kind of two-dimensional dissipative materials lying on epsilon-near-zero metamaterial. The proposed absorber does not rely on surface patterning or texturing and hence is more appealing for device applications.

  4. Preminary Performance Evaluation of a Near Zero Energy Home in Gainesville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Hoak, David; Chandra, Subrao; Martin, Eric

    2009-02-20

    This case study is a summary on a near zero energy home that was built in Gainesville, FL as a result of collaboration between the Florida Solar Enegery Center and the Florida H.E.R.O., an innovative developer and builder.

  5. Near-Zero NOx Combustion Technology for ATS Mercury 50 Gas Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Smith

    2004-12-31

    A project to demonstrate a near-zero NOx, catalytic combustion technology for natural gas-fired, industrial gas turbines is described. In a cooperative effort between Solar Turbines Incorporated and Precision Combustion Incorporated (PCI), proof-of-concept rig testing of PCI's fuel-rich catalytic combustion technology has been completed successfully. The primary technical goal of the project was to demonstrate NOx and CO emissions below 5ppm and 10 ppm, respectively, (corrected to 15% O{sub 2}) at realistic gas turbine operating conditions. The program consisted of two tasks. In the first task, a single prototype RCL{trademark} (Rich Catalytic Lean Burn) module was demonstrated at Taurus 70 (7.5 Mw) operating conditions (1.6 MPa, 16 atm) in a test rig. For a Taurus 70 engine, eight to twelve RCL modules will be required, depending on the final system design. In the second task, four modules of a similar design were adapted to a Saturn engine (1 Mw) test rig (600 kPa, 6 atm) to demonstrate gas turbine light-off and operation with an RCL combustion system. This project was initially focused on combustion technology for the Mercury 50 engine. However, early in the program, the Taurus 70 replaced the Mercury. This substitution was motivated by the larger commercial market for an ultra-low NOx Taurus 70 in the near-term. Rig tests using a single prototype RCL module at Taurus 70 conditions achieved NOx emissions as low as 0.75 ppm. A combustor turndown of approximately 110C (200F) was achieved with NOx and CO emissions below 3 ppm and 10 ppm, respectively. Catalyst light-off occurred at an inlet temperature of 310C (590F). Once lit the module remained active at inlet air temperatures as low as 204C (400F). Combustor pressure oscillations were acceptably low during module testing. Single module rig tests were also conducted with the Taurus 70 module reconfigured with a central pilot fuel injector. Such a pilot will be required in a commercial RCL system for turbine light

  6. Stability and multiple bifurcations of a damped harmonic oscillator with delayed feedback near zero eigenvalue singularity.

    PubMed

    Song, Yongli; Zhang, Tonghua; Tadé, Moses O

    2008-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a damped harmonic oscillator with delayed feedback near zero eigenvalue singularity. We perform a linearized stability analysis and multiple bifurcations of the zero solution of the system near zero eigenvalue singularity. Taking the time delay as the bifurcation parameter, the presence of steady-state bifurcation, Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation, triple zero, and Hopf-zero singularities is demonstrated. In the case when the system has a simple zero eigenvalue, center manifold reduction and normal form theory are used to investigate the stability and the types of steady-state bifurcation. The stability of the zero solution of the system near the simple zero eigenvalue singularity is completely solved.

  7. Loss-induced Enhanced Transmission in Anisotropic Density-near-zero Acoustic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chen; Jing, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this paper and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation and subwavelength imaging enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves. PMID:27885268

  8. Density-near-zero using the acoustically induced transparency of a Fano acoustic resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elayouch, A.; Addouche, M.; Farhat, M.; Amin, M.; Bağcı, H.; Khelif, A.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental results of near-zero mass density involving an acoustic metamaterial supporting Fano resonance. For this, we designed and fabricated an acoustic resonator with two closely coupled modes and measured its transmission properties. Our study reveals that the phenomenon of acoustically induced transparency is accompanied by an effect of near-zero density. Indeed, the dynamic effective parameters obtained from experimental data show the presence of a frequency band where the effective mass density is close to zero, with high transmission levels reaching 0.7. Furthermore, we demonstrate that such effective parameters lead to wave guiding in a 90-degrees-bent channel. This kind of acoustic metamaterial can, therefore, give rise to acoustic functions like controlling the wavefront, which may lead to very promising applications in acoustic cloacking or imaging.

  9. Negative and near zero refraction metamaterials based on permanent magnetic ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Ke; Guo, Yunsheng; Zhou, Ji; Dong, Guoyan; Zhao, Hongjie; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Zongqi; Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen

    2014-02-01

    Ferrite metamaterials based on the negative permeability of ferromagnetic resonance in ferrites are of great interest. However, such metamaterials face a limitation that the ferromagnetic resonance can only take place while an external magnetic field applied. Here, we demonstrate a metamaterial based on permanent magnetic ferrite which exhibits not only negative refraction but also near zero refraction without applied magnetic field. The wedge-shaped and slab-shaped structures of permanent magnetic ferrite-based metamaterials were prepared and the refraction properties were measured in a near-field scanning system. The negative and near zero refractive behaviors are confirmed by the measured spatial electric field maps. This work offers new opportunities for the development of ferrite-based metamaterials.

  10. Negative and near zero refraction metamaterials based on permanent magnetic ferrites

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Ke; Guo, Yunsheng; Zhou, Ji; Dong, Guoyan; Zhao, Hongjie; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Zongqi; Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen

    2014-01-01

    Ferrite metamaterials based on the negative permeability of ferromagnetic resonance in ferrites are of great interest. However, such metamaterials face a limitation that the ferromagnetic resonance can only take place while an external magnetic field applied. Here, we demonstrate a metamaterial based on permanent magnetic ferrite which exhibits not only negative refraction but also near zero refraction without applied magnetic field. The wedge-shaped and slab-shaped structures of permanent magnetic ferrite-based metamaterials were prepared and the refraction properties were measured in a near-field scanning system. The negative and near zero refractive behaviors are confirmed by the measured spatial electric field maps. This work offers new opportunities for the development of ferrite-based metamaterials. PMID:24553188

  11. Acoustic planar hyperlens based on anisotropic density-near-zero metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Yuan; Cheng, Ying Liu, Xiaojun

    2015-09-28

    Based on anisotropic density-near-zero metamaterials, we demonstrate a planar hyperlens with resolution beyond the diffraction limit in both one and two lateral dimensions. In contrast to the cylindrical hyperlens with elliptical dispersions of finite anisotropy, the proposed planar hyperlens is designed with flat near-zero dispersion that supports wave tunneling with extremely high phase velocity for infinite large transverse wave vectors. Therefore, the acoustic evanescent waves immediately concentrate into the designed oblique path till the output surface, leading to a subwavelength resolution. Prototype hyperlens is constructed with a membrane-network by means of equivalent lumped-circuit model, and the subwavelength magnifying performance for a pair of one-dimensional line objects as well as the complex two-dimensional structure is demonstrated. This method provides diverse routes to construct hyperlens operating without the limitation on imaging region in practical applications.

  12. Loss-induced Enhanced Transmission in Anisotropic Density-near-zero Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chen; Jing, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Anisotropic density-near-zero (ADNZ) acoustic metamaterials are investigated theoretically and numerically in this paper and are shown to exhibit extraordinary transmission enhancement when material loss is induced. The enhanced transmission is due to the enhanced propagating and evanescent wave modes inside the ADNZ medium thanks to the interplay of near-zero density, material loss, and high wave impedance matching in the propagation direction. The equi-frequency contour (EFC) is used to reveal whether the propagating wave mode is allowed in ADNZ metamaterials. Numerical simulations based on plate-type acoustic metamaterials with different material losses were performed to demonstrate collimation and subwavelength imaging enabled by the induced loss in ADNZ media. This work provides a different way for manipulating acoustic waves.

  13. Negative and near zero refraction metamaterials based on permanent magnetic ferrites.

    PubMed

    Bi, Ke; Guo, Yunsheng; Zhou, Ji; Dong, Guoyan; Zhao, Hongjie; Zhao, Qian; Xiao, Zongqi; Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen

    2014-02-20

    Ferrite metamaterials based on the negative permeability of ferromagnetic resonance in ferrites are of great interest. However, such metamaterials face a limitation that the ferromagnetic resonance can only take place while an external magnetic field applied. Here, we demonstrate a metamaterial based on permanent magnetic ferrite which exhibits not only negative refraction but also near zero refraction without applied magnetic field. The wedge-shaped and slab-shaped structures of permanent magnetic ferrite-based metamaterials were prepared and the refraction properties were measured in a near-field scanning system. The negative and near zero refractive behaviors are confirmed by the measured spatial electric field maps. This work offers new opportunities for the development of ferrite-based metamaterials.

  14. Epsilon-near-zero strong coupling in metamaterial-semiconductor hybrid structures.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young Chul; Reno, John; Ribaudo, Troy; Shaner, Eric; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Vassant, Simon; Marquier, Francois; Sinclair, Mike; Brener, Igal

    2013-01-01

    We present a new type of electrically tunable strong coupling between planar metamaterials and epsilon-near-zero modes that exist in a doped semiconductor nanolayer. The use of doped semiconductors makes this strong coupling tunable over a wide range of wavelengths through the use of different doping densities. We also modulate this coupling by depleting the doped semiconductor layer electrically. Our hybrid approach incorporates strong optical interactions into a highly tunable, integrated device platform.

  15. Near-Zero-Energy Homes Help Electric Utilities Meet Record System Peaks

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Jeffrey E

    2007-01-01

    Five near zero energy houses (ZEH) are under test at an energy research park near Oak Ridge, TN. Data from 2006-2007 show that these homes have {approx}7 kW lower summer peak electric demand than typical conventional homes in the same region. Combining 17,000 such homes in a 'zero energy neighbourhood' could provide a utility with peak demand management capability equivalent to a 120 MW power plant.

  16. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Different Industrial Microbes at Near-Zero Specific Growth Rates.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Onur; Bisschops, Markus M M; Overkamp, Wout; Jørgensen, Thomas R; Ram, Arthur F; Smid, Eddy J; Pronk, Jack T; Kuipers, Oscar P; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2015-09-01

    The current knowledge of the physiology and gene expression of industrially relevant microorganisms is largely based on laboratory studies under conditions of rapid growth and high metabolic activity. However, in natural ecosystems and industrial processes, microbes frequently encounter severe calorie restriction. As a consequence, microbial growth rates in such settings can be extremely slow and even approach zero. Furthermore, uncoupling microbial growth from product formation, while cellular integrity and activity are maintained, offers perspectives that are economically highly interesting. Retentostat cultures have been employed to investigate microbial physiology at (near-)zero growth rates. This minireview compares information from recent physiological and gene expression studies on retentostat cultures of the industrially relevant microorganisms Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Shared responses of these organisms to (near-)zero growth rates include increased stress tolerance and a downregulation of genes involved in protein synthesis. Other adaptations, such as changes in morphology and (secondary) metabolite production, were species specific. This comparison underlines the industrial and scientific significance of further research on microbial (near-)zero growth physiology.

  17. Physiological and Transcriptional Responses of Different Industrial Microbes at Near-Zero Specific Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Onur; Bisschops, Markus M. M.; Overkamp, Wout; Jørgensen, Thomas R.; Ram, Arthur F.; Smid, Eddy J.; Pronk, Jack T.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2015-01-01

    The current knowledge of the physiology and gene expression of industrially relevant microorganisms is largely based on laboratory studies under conditions of rapid growth and high metabolic activity. However, in natural ecosystems and industrial processes, microbes frequently encounter severe calorie restriction. As a consequence, microbial growth rates in such settings can be extremely slow and even approach zero. Furthermore, uncoupling microbial growth from product formation, while cellular integrity and activity are maintained, offers perspectives that are economically highly interesting. Retentostat cultures have been employed to investigate microbial physiology at (near-)zero growth rates. This minireview compares information from recent physiological and gene expression studies on retentostat cultures of the industrially relevant microorganisms Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger. Shared responses of these organisms to (near-)zero growth rates include increased stress tolerance and a downregulation of genes involved in protein synthesis. Other adaptations, such as changes in morphology and (secondary) metabolite production, were species specific. This comparison underlines the industrial and scientific significance of further research on microbial (near-)zero growth physiology. PMID:26048933

  18. Molecular and Metabolic Adaptations of Lactococcus lactis at Near-Zero Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Ercan, Onur; Wels, Michiel; Smid, Eddy J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the molecular and metabolic adaptations of Lactococcus lactis during the transition from a growing to a near-zero growth state by using carbon-limited retentostat cultivation. Transcriptomic analyses revealed that metabolic patterns shifted between lactic- and mixed-acid fermentations during retentostat cultivation, which appeared to be controlled at the level of transcription of the corresponding pyruvate dissipation-encoding genes. During retentostat cultivation, cells continued to consume several amino acids but also produced specific amino acids, which may derive from the conversion of glycolytic intermediates. We identify a novel motif containing CTGTCAG in the upstream regions of several genes related to amino acid conversion, which we propose to be the target site for CodY in L. lactis KF147. Finally, under extremely low carbon availability, carbon catabolite repression was progressively relieved and alternative catabolic functions were found to be highly expressed, which was confirmed by enhanced initial acidification rates on various sugars in cells obtained from near-zero-growth cultures. The present integrated transcriptome and metabolite (amino acids and previously reported fermentation end products) study provides molecular understanding of the adaptation of L. lactis to conditions supporting low growth rates and expands our earlier analysis of the quantitative physiology of this bacterium at near-zero growth rates toward gene regulation patterns involved in zero-growth adaptation. PMID:25344239

  19. Quantitative Physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at Near-Zero Specific Growth Rates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Boender, Léonie G. M.; de Hulster, Erik A. F.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale A. S.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2009-01-01

    Growth at near-zero specific growth rates is a largely unexplored area of yeast physiology. To investigate the physiology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under these conditions, the effluent removal pipe of anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat culture (dilution rate, 0.025 h−1) was fitted with a 0.22-μm-pore-size polypropylene filter unit. This setup enabled prolonged cultivation with complete cell retention. After 22 days of cultivation, specific growth rates had decreased below 0.001 h−1 (doubling time of >700 h). Over this period, viability of the retentostat cultures decreased to ca. 80%. The viable biomass concentration in the retentostats could be accurately predicted by a maintenance coefficient of 0.50 mmol of glucose g−1 of biomass h−1 calculated from anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures grown at dilution rates of 0.025 to 0.20 h−1. This indicated that, in contrast to the situation in several prokaryotes, maintenance energy requirements in S. cerevisiae do not substantially change at near-zero specific growth rates. After 22 days of retentostat cultivation, glucose metabolism was predominantly geared toward alcoholic fermentation to meet maintenance energy requirements. The strict correlation between glycerol production and biomass formation observed at higher specific growth rates was not maintained at the near-zero growth rates reached in the retentostat cultures. In addition to glycerol, the organic acids acetate, d-lactate, and succinate were produced at low rates during prolonged retentostat cultivation. This study identifies robustness and by-product formation as key issues in attempts to uncouple growth and product formation in S. cerevisiae. PMID:19592533

  20. Magneto-optical characteristics of layered Epsilon-Near-Zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi-Ghaleh, Reza; Suldozi, Reza

    2016-09-01

    The transmittance magneto-optical (MO) characteristics of Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) metamaterials are studied, using 4 by 4 transfer matrix method. The considered structures are a free standing ENZ-MO slab, and a microcavity type multi-layer structure containing an ENZ-MO layer. The transmittance coefficients of the right- and left-handed circular polarizations for the slab are analytically obtained and numerically investigated. Furthermore, these characteristics are numerically studied for the multi-layer structure. In addition, the Faraday rotations of both structures are investigated. The results reveal the circular polarization filtering effects.

  1. Evanescent wave amplification and subwavelength imaging by ultrathin uniaxial μ-near-zero material

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yan

    2014-02-15

    We demonstrate strong evanescent wave amplification by a thin slab of uniaxial μ-near-zero (UMNZ) material. It is found that while retaining the same amplification effect, the slab can be made arbitrarily thin when the negative permeability along the axis of anisotropy approaches zero. Numerical results show that using a single layer of split-ring resonators (SRRs) with its thickness equal three thousandth of the incident wavelength (λ/3000), a subwavelength source distribution with λ/4 resolution can be transferred to a distance of λ/3.

  2. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-05-01

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials.

  3. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-05-23

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials.

  4. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification - Power Plant Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Seltzer; Zhen Fan

    2011-03-01

    A technical feasibility assessment was performed for retrofitting oxy-fuel technology to an existing power plant burning low sulfur PRB fuel and high sulfur bituminous fuel. The focus of this study was on the boiler/power generation island of a subcritical steam cycle power plant. The power plant performance in air and oxy-firing modes was estimated and modifications required for oxy-firing capabilities were identified. A 460 MWe (gross) reference subcritical PC power plant was modeled. The reference air-fired plant has a boiler efficiency (PRB/Bituminous) of 86.7%/89.3% and a plant net efficiency of 35.8/36.7%. Net efficiency for oxy-fuel firing including ASU/CPU duty is 25.6%/26.6% (PRB/Bituminous). The oxy-fuel flue gas recirculation flow to the boiler is 68%/72% (PRB/bituminous) of the flue gas (average O{sub 2} in feed gas is 27.4%/26.4%v (PRB/bituminous)). Maximum increase in tube wall temperature is less than 10ºF for oxy-fuel firing. For oxy-fuel firing, ammonia injected to the SCR was shut-off and the FGD is applied to remove SOx from the recycled primary gas stream and a portion of the SOx from the secondary stream for the high sulfur bituminous coal. Based on CFD simulations it was determined that at the furnace outlet compared to air-firing, SO{sub 3}/SO{sub 2} mole ratio is about the same, NOx ppmv level is about the same for PRB-firing and 2.5 times for bituminous-firing due to shutting off the OFA, and CO mole fraction is approximately double. A conceptual level cost estimate was performed for the incremental equipment and installation cost of the oxyfuel retrofit in the boiler island and steam system. The cost of the retrofit is estimated to be approximately 81 M$ for PRB low sulfur fuel and 84 M$ for bituminous high sulfur fuel.

  5. Development of Biomimetic Membranes for Near Zero PC Power Plant Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Trachtenberg; Robert Cowan; David Smith; Ira Sider

    2009-07-31

    The first objective of this project was to develop, evaluate and compare two different CO2 separation (capture) systems. The second was to carry the preferred solution to pre-pilot development and testing. To achieve these objectives we undertook several infrastructure enabling elements: (1) development of a preferred catalyst coupled with its immobilization onto a microporous polymer membrane, (2) design and development of a microporous membrane-based, contained liquid membrane permeator and a membrane-based absorber/desorber apparatus, (3) development of a resin-wafer electrodialytic absorber/desorber apparatus, (4) development and demonstration of a pre-treatment process to condition the feed gas stream, (5) and development of computer modeling of the components and of the integrated system. The first technology was an enzyme catalyzed, membrane supported, contained liquid membrane apparatus whose gas capture was pressure/vacuum and temperature driven. A first embodiment was as a permeator, i.e. a combined absorber/desorber in a single housing. The second embodiment was as discrete absorber and desorber units. The second technology was an enzyme catalyzed, ion exchange resin wafer electrodialytically-based separation. For each of these technologies the objective was to design, manufacture, test and demonstrate the apparatus, first in the laboratory and then at pre-pilot scale, and to run it for sufficient time at the pre-pilot scale to demonstrate stability even in the face of upset. Tests would include several ranks of coal, which had been appropriately pre-treated to remove NOx, SOx and particles, to a pre-determined acceptance level, as a basis for demonstrating efficient CO{sub 2} capture. The pre-pilot tests would be run at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) in North Dakota. A larger scale test (400m{sup 2} test unit) would later be run also at EERC. An economic goal was to compare the cost of CO{sub 2} capture by each of these methods with values obtained when using MEA (monoethanolamine) as a baseline case. Other metrics included capital and operating expense, parasitic loss and cost of electricity. A final goal was to carry out an initial examination of market forces to understand what barriers to entry for installation of CO{sub 2} capture equipment might exist and their relative importance.

  6. Self-organization of frozen light in near-zero-index media with cubic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, A.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2016-02-01

    Optical beams are generally unbound in bulk media, and propagate with a velocity approximately amounting to the speed of light in free-space. Guidance and full spatial confinement of light are usually achieved by means of waveguides, mirrors, resonators, and photonic crystals. Here we theoretically demonstrate that nonlinear self-organization can be exploited to freeze optical beams in bulk near-zero-index media, thus enabling three-dimensional self-trapping of still light without the need of optical resonators. Light is stopped to a standstill owing to the divergent wavelength and the vanishing group velocity, effectively rendering, through nonlinearity, a positive-epsilon trapping cavity carved in an otherwise slightly-negative-epsilon medium. By numerically solving Maxwell’s equations, we find a soliton-like family of still azimuthal doughnuts, which we further study through an adiabatic perturbative theory that describes soliton evaporation in lossy media or condensation in actively pumped materials. Our results suggest applications in optical data processing and storage, quantum optical memories, and soliton-based lasers without cavities. Additionally, near-zero-index conditions can also be found in the interplanetary medium and in the atmosphere, where we provide a complementary explanation to the rare phenomenon of ball-lightning.

  7. Quasi-Static Magnetic Field Shielding Using Longitudinal Mu-Near-Zero Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S.; Smith, David R.; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2015-08-01

    The control of quasi-static magnetic fields is of considerable interest in applications including the reduction of electromagnetic interference (EMI), wireless power transfer (WPT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The shielding of static or quasi-static magnetic fields is typically accomplished through the use of inherently magnetic materials with large magnetic permeability, such as ferrites, used sometimes in combination with metallic sheets and/or active field cancellation. Ferrite materials, however, can be expensive, heavy and brittle. Inspired by recent demonstrations of epsilon-, mu- and index-near-zero metamaterials, here we show how a longitudinal mu-near-zero (LMNZ) layer can serve as a strong frequency-selective reflector of magnetic fields when operating in the near-field region of dipole-like sources. Experimental measurements with a fabricated LMNZ sheet constructed from an artificial magnetic conductor - formed from non-magnetic, conducting, metamaterial elements - confirm that the artificial structure provides significantly improved shielding as compared with a commercially available ferrite of the same size. Furthermore, we design a structure to shield simultaneously at the fundamental and first harmonic frequencies. Such frequency-selective behavior can be potentially useful for shielding electromagnetic sources that may also generate higher order harmonics, while leaving the transmission of other frequencies unaffected.

  8. Quasi-Static Magnetic Field Shielding Using Longitudinal Mu-Near-Zero Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S.; Smith, David R.; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2015-01-01

    The control of quasi-static magnetic fields is of considerable interest in applications including the reduction of electromagnetic interference (EMI), wireless power transfer (WPT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The shielding of static or quasi-static magnetic fields is typically accomplished through the use of inherently magnetic materials with large magnetic permeability, such as ferrites, used sometimes in combination with metallic sheets and/or active field cancellation. Ferrite materials, however, can be expensive, heavy and brittle. Inspired by recent demonstrations of epsilon-, mu- and index-near-zero metamaterials, here we show how a longitudinal mu-near-zero (LMNZ) layer can serve as a strong frequency-selective reflector of magnetic fields when operating in the near-field region of dipole-like sources. Experimental measurements with a fabricated LMNZ sheet constructed from an artificial magnetic conductor – formed from non-magnetic, conducting, metamaterial elements – confirm that the artificial structure provides significantly improved shielding as compared with a commercially available ferrite of the same size. Furthermore, we design a structure to shield simultaneously at the fundamental and first harmonic frequencies. Such frequency-selective behavior can be potentially useful for shielding electromagnetic sources that may also generate higher order harmonics, while leaving the transmission of other frequencies unaffected. PMID:26234929

  9. Quasi-Static Magnetic Field Shielding Using Longitudinal Mu-Near-Zero Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Guy; Ensworth, Joshua; Seetharam, Kushal; Lee, Jae Seung; Schmalenberg, Paul; Nomura, Tsuyoshi; Reynolds, Matthew S; Smith, David R; Urzhumov, Yaroslav

    2015-08-03

    The control of quasi-static magnetic fields is of considerable interest in applications including the reduction of electromagnetic interference (EMI), wireless power transfer (WPT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The shielding of static or quasi-static magnetic fields is typically accomplished through the use of inherently magnetic materials with large magnetic permeability, such as ferrites, used sometimes in combination with metallic sheets and/or active field cancellation. Ferrite materials, however, can be expensive, heavy and brittle. Inspired by recent demonstrations of epsilon-, mu- and index-near-zero metamaterials, here we show how a longitudinal mu-near-zero (LMNZ) layer can serve as a strong frequency-selective reflector of magnetic fields when operating in the near-field region of dipole-like sources. Experimental measurements with a fabricated LMNZ sheet constructed from an artificial magnetic conductor - formed from non-magnetic, conducting, metamaterial elements - confirm that the artificial structure provides significantly improved shielding as compared with a commercially available ferrite of the same size. Furthermore, we design a structure to shield simultaneously at the fundamental and first harmonic frequencies. Such frequency-selective behavior can be potentially useful for shielding electromagnetic sources that may also generate higher order harmonics, while leaving the transmission of other frequencies unaffected.

  10. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  11. Self-organization of frozen light in near-zero-index media with cubic nonlinearity

    PubMed Central

    Marini, A.; García de Abajo, F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Optical beams are generally unbound in bulk media, and propagate with a velocity approximately amounting to the speed of light in free-space. Guidance and full spatial confinement of light are usually achieved by means of waveguides, mirrors, resonators, and photonic crystals. Here we theoretically demonstrate that nonlinear self-organization can be exploited to freeze optical beams in bulk near-zero-index media, thus enabling three-dimensional self-trapping of still light without the need of optical resonators. Light is stopped to a standstill owing to the divergent wavelength and the vanishing group velocity, effectively rendering, through nonlinearity, a positive-epsilon trapping cavity carved in an otherwise slightly-negative-epsilon medium. By numerically solving Maxwell’s equations, we find a soliton-like family of still azimuthal doughnuts, which we further study through an adiabatic perturbative theory that describes soliton evaporation in lossy media or condensation in actively pumped materials. Our results suggest applications in optical data processing and storage, quantum optical memories, and soliton-based lasers without cavities. Additionally, near-zero-index conditions can also be found in the interplanetary medium and in the atmosphere, where we provide a complementary explanation to the rare phenomenon of ball-lightning. PMID:26847877

  12. Ultrathin and lightweight microwave absorbers made of mu-near-zero metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Shuomin; He, Sailing

    2013-01-01

    We present a theory of perfect absorption in a bilayer model composed of a mu-near-zero (MNZ) metamaterial (MM) absorbing layer on a metallic substrate. Our analytical solutions reveal that a MM layer with a large purely imaginary permeability and a moderate permittivity backed by a metallic plane has a zero reflection at normal incidence when the thickness is ultrathin. The impedance-mismatched metamaterial absorber (MA) can be 77.3% thinner than conventional impedance-matched MAs with the same material loss in order to get the same absorption. A microwave absorber using double-layered spiral MMs with a thickness of only about one percent of the operating wavelength is designed and realized. An absorption efficiency above 93% at 1.74 GHz is demonstrated experimentally at illumination angles up to 60 degrees. Our absorber is 98% lighter than traditional microwave absorbers made of natural materials working at the same frequencies. PMID:23803861

  13. Terahertz epsilon-near-zero cut-through metal-slit array antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takehito; Kimura, Tatsuya; Togashi, Takahisa; Kitahara, Hideaki; Ishihara, Koki; Sato, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    Metamaterials can give rise to unprecedented refractive indices and drive the rapid development of metadevices with on-demand electromagnetic properties. Recent advances in terahertz science demand high-performance optical elements beyond conventional designs of naturally occurring materials in the terahertz wave band. However, how an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) structure can exploit terahertz metadevices is still not fully demonstrated based on a physical analysis. Here, inspired by the ENZ concept, we demonstrate a design guideline of a terahertz ENZ cut-through metal-slit array antenna. Measurements by a terahertz imager visualize the beam profile of a terahertz wave, and the measured permittivity of 0.26 agrees well with that of 0.27 obtained by simulation and theory. The terahertz ENZ antenna provides a wide range of potential applications such as high-directivity antennas, beam dividers, beam-steering elements, phase-control devices, and novel filters.

  14. Acoustic gain in piezoelectric semiconductors at ɛ-near-zero response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willatzen, M.; Christensen, J.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate strong acoustic gain in electric-field biased piezoelectric semiconductors at frequencies near the plasmon frequency in the terahertz range. When the electron drift velocity produced by an external electric field is higher than the speed of sound, Cherenkov radiation of phonons generates amplification of sound. It is demonstrated that this effect is particularly effective at ɛ-near-zero response, leading to giant levels of acoustic gain. Operating at conditions with strong acoustic amplification, we predict unprecedented enhancement of the scattered sound field radiated from an electrically controlled piezoelectric slab waveguide. This extreme sound field enhancement in an active piezo material shows potential for acoustic sensing and loss compensation in metamaterials and nonlinear devices.

  15. Low-damping epsilon-near-zero slabs: Nonlinear and nonlocal optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ceglia, Domenico; Campione, Salvatore; Vincenti, Maria Antonietta; Capolino, Filippo; Scalora, Michael

    2013-04-01

    We investigate second-harmonic generation, low-threshold multistability, all-optical switching, and inherently nonlocal effects due to the free-electron gas pressure in an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial slab made of cylindrical, plasmonic nanoshells illuminated by TM-polarized light. Damping compensation in the ENZ frequency region, achieved by using gain medium inside the nanoshells’ dielectric cores, enhances the nonlinear properties. Reflection is inhibited, and the electric field component normal to the slab interface is enhanced near the effective pseudo-Brewster angle, where the effective ɛ≈0 condition triggers a nonresonant, impedance-matching phenomenon. We show that the slab displays a strong effective, spatial nonlocality associated with leaky modes that are mediated by the compensation of damping. The presence of these leaky modes then induces further spectral and angular conditions, where the local fields are enhanced, thus opening new windows of opportunity for the enhancement of nonlinear optical processes.

  16. Near-zero-residual layer nanoimprint based on hybrid nanoimprint soft lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yushuang; Lu, Jingjun; Fu, XinXin; Bian, Jie; Yuan, Changsheng; Ge, Haixiong; Chen, Yanfeng

    2015-11-01

    A thin and uniform residual layer, especially zero-residual layer, is highly desired in the nanoimprint lithography, because it is critical to the succeeding pattern transfer process. In this study, a partial cavity filling method was applied on UV-curable resins instead of thermal plastic polymer to realize zero-residual layer based on a hybrid nanoimprint technique. The initial thickness of the UV-curable resin on the substrate was precisely quantified less than the cavity volume of the imprint mold by adjusting the resin concentration and spin coating speed. A near-zero-residual layer was successfully achieved under an extremely low imprint pressure by the control of the viscosity, surface tension and thickness of the UV-curable resist.

  17. Experimental demonstration of near-infrared epsilon-near-zero multilayer metamaterial slabs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodong; Hu, Changyu; Deng, Huixu; Rosenmann, Daniel; Czaplewski, David A; Gao, Jie

    2013-10-07

    Near-infrared epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial slabs based on silver-germanium (Ag-Ge) multilayers are experimentally demonstrated. Transmission, reflection and absorption spectra are characterized and used to determine the complex refractive indices and the effective permittivities of the ENZ metamaterial slabs, which match the results obtained from both the numerical simulations and the optical nonlocalities analysis. A rapid post-annealing process is used to reduce the collision frequency of silver and therefore decrease the optical absorption loss of multilayer metamaterial slabs. Furthermore, multilayer grating structures are studied to enhance the optical transmission and also tune the location of ENZ wavelength. The demonstrated near-infrared ENZ multilayer metamaterial slabs are important for realizing many exotic applications, such as phase front shaping and engineering of photonic density of states.

  18. Design of zero index metamaterials with PT symmetry using epsilon-near-zero media with defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaojing; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Huanyang

    2017-03-01

    Inspired by the design of matched zero-index metamaterials (ZIMs) using defects in epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) media, we demonstrate in this letter that ZIMs with parity-time (PT) symmetry in a waveguide system can be achieved by introducing defects with loss/gain inside ENZ media. Such results are well verified from the phenomenon of unidirectional transparency, corresponding to the exceptional points in PT symmetric systems. Moreover, by changing the geometry configuration of ENZ, the effective loss/gain in the structure composed of ENZ and defects can be amplified immensely by virtue of the resonances of defects. Therefore, our work also provides a blueprint for obtaining amplified loss/gain in PT symmetric systems.

  19. Metamaterial-based lossy anisotropic epsilon-near-zero medium for energy collimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Nian-Hai; Zhang, Peng; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M.

    2016-06-01

    A lossy anisotropic epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) medium may lead to a counterintuitive phenomenon of omnidirectional bending-to-normal refraction [S. Feng, Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 193904 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.193904], which offers a fabulous strategy for energy collimation and energy harvesting. Here, in the scope of effective medium theory, we systematically investigate two simple metamaterial configurations, i.e., metal-dielectric-layered structures and the wire medium, to explore the possibility of fulfilling the conditions of such an anisotropic lossy ENZ medium by playing with materials' parameters. Both realistic metamaterial structures and their effective medium equivalences have been numerically simulated, and the results are in excellent agreement with each other. Our study provides clear guidance and therefore paves the way towards the search for proper designs of anisotropic metamaterials for a decent effect of energy collimation and wave-front manipulation.

  20. Goos-Hänchen effect in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yadong; Chan, C. T.; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-03-01

    Light reflection and refraction at an interface between two homogeneous media is analytically described by Snell's law. For a beam with a finite waist, it turns out that the reflected wave experiences a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics. Such Goos-Hänchen (G-H) effect has been extensively investigated among all kinds of optical media, such as dielectrics, metals, photonic crystals and metamaterials. As a fundamental physics phenomenon, the G-H effect has been extended to acoustics and quantum mechanics. Here we report the unusual G-H effect in zero index metamaterials. We show that when linearly polarized light is obliquely incident from air to epsilon-near-zero metamaterials, no G-H effect could be observed for p polarized light. While for s polarization, the G-H shift is a constant value for any incident angle.

  1. Goos-Hänchen effect in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yadong; Chan, C. T.; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    Light reflection and refraction at an interface between two homogeneous media is analytically described by Snell's law. For a beam with a finite waist, it turns out that the reflected wave experiences a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics. Such Goos-Hänchen (G-H) effect has been extensively investigated among all kinds of optical media, such as dielectrics, metals, photonic crystals and metamaterials. As a fundamental physics phenomenon, the G-H effect has been extended to acoustics and quantum mechanics. Here we report the unusual G-H effect in zero index metamaterials. We show that when linearly polarized light is obliquely incident from air to epsilon-near-zero metamaterials, no G-H effect could be observed for p polarized light. While for s polarization, the G-H shift is a constant value for any incident angle. PMID:25731726

  2. Goos-Hänchen shift of partially coherent light fields in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ziauddin; Chuang, You-Lin; Qamar, Sajid; Lee, Ray-Kuang

    2016-01-01

    The Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts in the reflected light are investigated both for p and s polarized partial coherent light beams incident on epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. In contrary to the coherent counterparts, the magnitude of GH shift becomes non-zero for p polarized partial coherent light beam; while GH shift can be relatively large with a small degree of spatial coherence for s polarized partial coherent beam. Dependence on the beam width and the permittivity of ENZ metamaterials is also revealed for partial coherent light fields. Our results on the GH shifts provide a direction on the applications for partial coherent light sources in ENZ metamaterials. PMID:27211050

  3. Goos-Hänchen effect in epsilon-near-zero metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yadong; Chan, C T; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-03-03

    Light reflection and refraction at an interface between two homogeneous media is analytically described by Snell's law. For a beam with a finite waist, it turns out that the reflected wave experiences a lateral displacement from its position predicted by geometric optics. Such Goos-Hänchen (G-H) effect has been extensively investigated among all kinds of optical media, such as dielectrics, metals, photonic crystals and metamaterials. As a fundamental physics phenomenon, the G-H effect has been extended to acoustics and quantum mechanics. Here we report the unusual G-H effect in zero index metamaterials. We show that when linearly polarized light is obliquely incident from air to epsilon-near-zero metamaterials, no G-H effect could be observed for p polarized light. While for s polarization, the G-H shift is a constant value for any incident angle.

  4. Giant field enhancement in anisotropic epsilon-near-zero films (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamandi, Mohammad; Guclu, Caner; Capolino, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    We investigated anisotropic epsilon-near-zero (AENZ) films under TM-polarized plane wave incidence and found they possess peculiar properties. In particular we studied uniaxially anisotropic films where either the permittivity along the surface normal or along the transverse plane tends to zero while the other one does not. Previously, numerous applications of isotropic epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) films including radiation pattern tailoring, enhanced harmonic generation, optical bistability and energy squeezing have been studied. A notable property of these materials is the capability of enhancing electric field. In this paper the capability of AENZ films in local electric field enhancement has been quantified and several AENZ conditions are reported with superior performance in comparison to (isotropic) ENZ films. Specifically, sensitivity to film thickness and losses, and the range of angles of incidence have been elaborated with the aim of achieving large electric field enhancement in the film. It has been proved that in comparison to the (isotropic) ENZ case the AENZ film's field enhancement is not only much larger but it also occurs for a wider range of angles of incidence. Furthermore the field enhancement in AENZ does not exhibit significant dependence on the film thickness unlike the isotropic case. The effect of loss on the value of the field enhancement is also investigated emphasizing the advantages of AENZ versus ENZ. Realization of AENZ materials can be done by a multilayered media made of a stack of conductive and insulator layers or by stacking semiconductor layers. This giant field enhancement is an important target in nonlinear optics for applications like second harmonic generation and other applications like light generation

  5. Physiological and cell morphology adaptation of Bacillus subtilis at near-zero specific growth rates: a transcriptome analysis.

    PubMed

    Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P

    2015-02-01

    Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions.

  6. 40 CFR Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Provides guidance on the requirements of 40 CFR Part 75 through a series of questions and answers that can be used by units to monitor mass sulfur dioxide emissions, mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide rate and heat input.

  7. An acoustic bending waveguide designed by anisotropic density-near-zero metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang-Yang; Ding, Er-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2016-12-01

    Anisotropic metamaterial with only one component of the mass density tensor near zero (ADNZ) is proposed to control the sound wave propagation. We find that such an anisotropic metamaterial can be used to realize perfect bending waveguides. According to a coordinate transformation, the surface waves on the input and output interfaces of the ADNZ metamaterial induces the sound energy flow to be redistributed and match smoothly with the propagating modes inside the metamaterial waveguide. According to the theory of bending waveguide, we realize the “T”-type sound shunting and convergence, as well as acoustic channel selection by embedding small-sized defects. Numerical calculations are performed to confirm the above effects. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB921504), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11474160), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 020414380001), the State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. SKLA201609), and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institution, China.

  8. Uniaxial epsilon-near-zero metamaterials: from superlensing to double refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rodríguez, Carlos J.; Pastor, David; Miret, Juan J.; Vuković, Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    We investigated optical properties of nanostructured metal-dielectric multilayered lattices under the conditions of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ), a concept derived from the effective-medium approach (EMA). We theoretically found that the periodic array of metallic nanolayers may exhibit either superlensing driven by broadband canalization from point emitters or single-polarization double refraction, and conventional positive as well as negative, even at subwavelength regimes. For the latter case, we formulated a modified EMA, and subsequently a generalized refraction law, that describes both refractive behaviors concurrently. The modal coupling of plasmonic lattice resonances, and nonlocality induced by partial screening across the nanolayer length, are responsible for these distinct effects. Numerical simulations show that deep-subwavelength lensing along the optical axis of Ag-GaAs metamaterial is clearly enhanced at optical wavelengths. On the other hand, transverse-magnetic-polarized radiation that is obliquely incident on the ENZ periodic nanostructures with the same materials in the infrared (around 1.55 μm) undergoes double refraction neighboring 50/50 beamsplitting.

  9. Zoned near-zero refractive index fishnet lens antenna: Steering millimeter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco-Peña, V. Orazbayev, B. Beaskoetxea, U. Beruete, M.; Navarro-Cía, M.

    2014-03-28

    A zoned fishnet metamaterial lens is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated at millimeter wavelengths to work as a negative near-zero refractive index lens suitable for compact lens antenna configurations. At the design frequency f = 56.7 GHz (λ{sub 0} = 5.29 mm), the zoned fishnet metamaterial lens, designed to have a focal length FL = 9λ{sub 0}, exhibits a refractive index n = −0.25. The focusing performance of the diffractive optical element is briefly compared with that of a non-zoned fishnet metamaterial lens and an isotropic homogeneous zoned lens made of a material with the same refractive index. Experimental and numerically-computed radiation diagrams of the fabricated zoned lens are presented and compared in detail with that of a simulated non-zoned lens. Simulation and experimental results are in good agreement, demonstrating an enhancement generated by the zoned lens of 10.7 dB, corresponding to a gain of 12.26 dB. Moreover, beam steering capability of the structure by shifting the feeder on the xz-plane is demonstrated.

  10. Epsilon-near-zero modes for tailored light-matter interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Campione, Salvatore; Liu, Sheng; Benz, Alexander; Klem, John F.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal

    2015-10-20

    Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) modes arising from condensed-matter excitations such as phonons and plasmons are a new path for tailoring light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. Complex spectral shaping can be achieved by creating such modes in nanoscale semiconductor layers and controlling their interaction with multiple, distinct, dipole resonant systems. Examples of this behavior are presented at midinfrared frequencies for ENZ modes that are strongly coupled to metamaterial resonators and simultaneously strongly coupled to semiconductor phonons or quantum-well intersubband transitions (ISTs), resulting in double- and triple-polariton branches in transmission spectra. For the double-polariton branch case, we find that the best strategy to maximize the Rabi splitting is to use a combination of a doped layer supporting an ENZ feature and a layer supporting ISTs, with overlapping ENZ and IST frequencies. As a result, this design flexibility renders this platform attractive for low-voltage tunable filters, light-emitting diodes, and efficient nonlinear composite materials.

  11. Flat band degeneracy and near-zero refractive index materials in acoustic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shiqiao; Mei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    A Dirac-like cone is formed by utilizing the flat bands associated with localized modes in an acoustic crystal (AC) composed of a square array of core-shell-structure cylinders in a water host. Although the triply-degeneracy seems to arise from two almost-overlapping flat bands touching another curved band, the enlarged view of the band structure around the degenerate point reveals that there are actually two linear bands intersecting each other at the Brillouin zone center, with another flat band passing through the same crossing point. The linearity of dispersion relations is achieved by tuning the geometrical parameters of the cylindrical scatterers. A perturbation method is used to not only accurately predict the linear slopes of the dispersions, but also confirm the linearity of the bands from first principles. An effective medium theory based on coherent potential approximation is developed, and it shows that a slab made of the AC carries a near-zero refractive index around the Dirac-like point. Full-wave simulations are performed to unambiguously demonstrate the wave manipulating properties of the AC structures such as perfect transmission, unidirectional transmission and wave front shaping.

  12. Epsilon-near-zero modes for tailored light-matter interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Campione, Salvatore; Liu, Sheng; Benz, Alexander; ...

    2015-10-20

    Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) modes arising from condensed-matter excitations such as phonons and plasmons are a new path for tailoring light-matter interactions at the nanoscale. Complex spectral shaping can be achieved by creating such modes in nanoscale semiconductor layers and controlling their interaction with multiple, distinct, dipole resonant systems. Examples of this behavior are presented at midinfrared frequencies for ENZ modes that are strongly coupled to metamaterial resonators and simultaneously strongly coupled to semiconductor phonons or quantum-well intersubband transitions (ISTs), resulting in double- and triple-polariton branches in transmission spectra. For the double-polariton branch case, we find that the best strategy to maximizemore » the Rabi splitting is to use a combination of a doped layer supporting an ENZ feature and a layer supporting ISTs, with overlapping ENZ and IST frequencies. As a result, this design flexibility renders this platform attractive for low-voltage tunable filters, light-emitting diodes, and efficient nonlinear composite materials.« less

  13. Near-Zero Thermal Expansion and High Ultraviolet Transparency in a Borate Crystal of Zn4 B6 O13.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xingxing; Molokeev, Maxim S; Gong, Pifu; Yang, Yi; Wang, Wei; Wang, Shuaihua; Wu, Shaofan; Wang, Yingxia; Huang, Rongjin; Li, Laifeng; Wu, Yicheng; Xing, Xianran; Lin, Zheshuai

    2016-09-01

    Intrinsic isotropic near-zero thermal expansion is discovered in borate crystal Zn4 B6 O13 with high transparency in the ultraviolet region. First-principles calculations demonstrate that the very low thermal expansion originates mainly from the invariability of the solid [B24 O48 ] truncated octahedra that are fixed by the [Zn4 O13 ] clusters in the ZBO structure.

  14. Broadband Epsilon-near-Zero Reflectors Enhance the Quantum Efficiency of Thin Solar Cells at Visible and Infrared Wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Labelle, A J; Bonifazi, M; Tian, Y; Wong, C; Hoogland, S; Favraud, G; Walters, G; Sutherland, B; Liu, M; Li, Jun; Zhang, Xixiang; Kelley, S O; Sargent, E H; Fratalocchi, A

    2017-02-15

    The engineering of broadband absorbers to harvest white light in thin-film semiconductors is a major challenge in developing renewable materials for energy harvesting. Many solution-processed materials with high manufacturability and low cost, such as semiconductor quantum dots, require the use of film structures with thicknesses on the order of 1 μm to absorb incoming photons completely. The electron transport lengths in these media, however, are 1 order of magnitude smaller than this length, hampering further progress with this platform. Herein, we show that, by engineering suitably disordered nanoplasmonic structures, we have created a new class of dispersionless epsilon-near-zero composite materials that efficiently harness white light. Our nanostructures localize light in the dielectric region outside the epsilon-near-zero material with characteristic lengths of 10-100 nm, resulting in an efficient system for harvesting broadband light when a thin absorptive film is deposited on top of the structure. By using a combination of theory and experiments, we demonstrate that ultrathin layers down to 50 nm of colloidal quantum dots deposited atop the epsilon-near-zero material show an increase in broadband absorption ranging from 200% to 500% compared to a planar structure of the same colloidal quantum-dot-absorber average thickness. When the epsilon-near-zero nanostructures were used in an energy-harvesting module, we observed a spectrally averaged 170% broadband increase in the external quantum efficiency of the device, measured at wavelengths between 400 and 1200 nm. Atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence excitation measurements demonstrate that the properties of these epsilon-near-zero structures apply to general metals and could be used to enhance the near-field absorption of semiconductor structures more widely. We have developed an inexpensive electrochemical deposition process that enables scaled-up production of this nanomaterial for large

  15. Nanoscale field effect optical modulators based on depletion of epsilon-near-zero films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhaolin; Shi, Kaifeng; Yin, Peichuan

    2016-12-01

    The field effect in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors plays a key role in field-effect transistors (FETs), which are the fundamental building blocks of modern digital integrated circuits. Recent works show that the field effect can also be used to make optical/plasmonic modulators. In this paper, we report the numerical investigation of field effect electro-absorption modulators each made of an ultrathin epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) film, as the active material, sandwiched in a silicon or plasmonic waveguide. Without a bias, the ENZ films maximize the attenuation of the waveguides and the modulators work at the OFF state; on the other hand, depletion of the carriers in the ENZ films greatly reduces the attenuation and the modulators work at the ON state. The double capacitor gating scheme with two 10-nm HfO2 films as the insulator is used to enhance the modulation by the field effect. The depletion requires about 10 V across the HfO2 layers. According to our simulation, extinction ratio up to 3.44 dB can be achieved in a 500-nm long Si waveguide with insertion loss only 0.71 dB (85.0% pass); extinction ratio up to 7.86 dB can be achieved in a 200-nm long plasmonic waveguide with insertion loss 1.11 dB (77.5% pass). The proposed modulators may find important applications in future on-chip or chip-to-chip optical interconnection.

  16. Three-dimensionally bonded spongy graphene material with super compressive elasticity and near-zero Poisson’s ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yingpeng; Yi, Ningbo; Huang, Lu; Zhang, Tengfei; Fang, Shaoli; Chang, Huicong; Li, Na; Oh, Jiyoung; Lee, Jae Ah; Kozlov, Mikhail; Chipara, Alin C.; Terrones, Humberto; Xiao, Peishuang; Long, Guankui; Huang, Yi; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Long; Lepró, Xavier; Haines, Carter; Lima, Márcio Dias; Lopez, Nestor Perea; Rajukumar, Lakshmy P.; Elias, Ana L.; Feng, Simin; Kim, Seon Jeong; Narayanan, N. T.; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Terrones, Mauricio; Aliev, Ali; Chu, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhong; Baughman, Ray H.; Chen, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    It is a challenge to fabricate graphene bulk materials with properties arising from the nature of individual graphene sheets, and which assemble into monolithic three-dimensional structures. Here we report the scalable self-assembly of randomly oriented graphene sheets into additive-free, essentially homogenous graphene sponge materials that provide a combination of both cork-like and rubber-like properties. These graphene sponges, with densities similar to air, display Poisson’s ratios in all directions that are near-zero and largely strain-independent during reversible compression to giant strains. And at the same time, they function as enthalpic rubbers, which can recover up to 98% compression in air and 90% in liquids, and operate between -196 and 900 °C. Furthermore, these sponges provide reversible liquid absorption for hundreds of cycles and then discharge it within seconds, while still providing an effective near-zero Poisson’s ratio.

  17. Improved production of Br atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, L. Z. Yin, J. P.

    2014-10-28

    We theoretically investigated the improvement on the production rate of the decelerated bromine (Br) atoms near zero speed by photodissociating laser aligned Br{sub 2} precursors. Adiabatic alignment of Br{sub 2} precursors exposed to long laser pulses with duration on the order of nanoseconds was investigated by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The dynamical fragmentation of adiabatically aligned Br{sub 2} precursors was simulated and velocity distribution of the Br atoms produced was analyzed. Our study shows that the larger the degree of the precursor alignment, 〈cos{sup 2} θ〉, the higher the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed. For Br{sub 2} molecules with an initial rotational temperature of ∼1 K, a 〈cos{sup 2} θ〉 value of ∼0.88 can result in an improvement factor of over ∼20 on the production rate of the decelerated Br atoms near zero speed, requiring a laser intensity of only ∼1 × 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} for alignment.

  18. Solute partitioning in multi-component γ/γ' Co–Ni-base superalloys with near-zero lattice misfit

    DOE PAGES

    Meher, S.; Carroll, L. J.; Pollock, T. M.; ...

    2015-11-21

    The addition of nickel to cobalt-base alloys enables alloys with a near zero γ – γ' lattice misfit. The solute partitioning between ordered γ' precipitates and the disordered γ matrix have been investigated using atom probe tomography. Lastly, the unique shift in solute partitioning in these alloys, as compared to that in simpler Co-base alloys, derives from changes in site substitution of solutes as the relative amounts of Co and Ni change, highlighting new opportunities for the development of advanced tailored alloys.

  19. Plasma equilibrium and confinement in a tokamak with nearly zero central current density in JT-60U.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Oikawa, T; Suzuki, T; Ide, S; Sakamoto, Y; Koide, Y; Hatae, T; Naito, O; Isayama, A; Hayashi, N; Shirai, H

    2001-12-10

    A high confinement equilibrium with nearly zero toroidal current in the central region (a "current hole") has been observed for the first time to persist stably for several seconds in the JT-60U tokamak. This observation indicates the possibility of stable tokamak operation without central toroidal current; the central current has previously been believed to be necessary in tokamaks. The radius of the current hole extended up to 40% of the plasma minor radius. It was observed that the current hole was formed by the increase of the off-axis noninductive current.

  20. Active tuning of epsilon-near-zero point of hyperbolic metamaterial at visible and near-infrared regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao; Zhao, Hua; Su, Hang; Hu, Guangwei; Zhang, Jingwen

    2016-09-01

    An active method of continuously tuning the effective permittivity of a hyperbolic metamaterial at visible and near-infrared spectra is introduced in this letter. A transparent conducting oxide, whose optical properties can be altered accurately by applying an external voltage, is inserted into a traditional metal-dielectric multilayer structure to increase the degree of freedom for tuning the epsilon-near-zero point by shifting the topological transition point. The tuning effect is explained in detail by combining the relationship between permittivity and voltage with wavevector analysis. This may promote other active applications of hyperbolic metamaterials and ultrafast tunable optoelectronic devices.

  1. Quantitation of Bone Growth Rate Variability in Rats Exposed to Micro-(near zero G) and Macrogravity (2G)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromage, Timothy G.; Doty, Stephen B.; Smolyar, Igor; Holton, Emily

    1997-01-01

    Our stated primary objective is to quantify the growth rate variability of rat lamellar bone exposed to micro- (near zero G: e.g., Cosmos 1887 & 2044; SLS-1 & SLS-2) and macrogravity (2G). The primary significance of the proposed work is that an elegant method will be established that unequivocally characterizes the morphological consequences of gravitational factors on developing bone. The integrity of this objective depends upon our successful preparation of thin sections suitable for imaging individual bone lamellae, and our imaging and quantitation of growth rate variability in populations of lamellae from individual bone samples.

  2. T300HoneySiC: a new near-zero CTE molded C/SiC material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, William A.; Ghasemi Nejhad, Mehrdad N.; Wright, Stan; Welson, Darren

    2015-09-01

    Using an Additive Manufacturing process, Trex Enterprises and teammates were successful in producing a 12-inch by 12-inch by 0.5-inch vented, lightweight, Honeycomb C/SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel which had a density relative to bulk silicon carbide of 11% (89% lightweighting). The so-called T300HoneySiC™ panel and facesheet stock material were fabricated into ASTM standard coupons and tested at Southern Research Institute to obtain basic materials properties data. The material properties data showed that we had made a near-zero coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE= -0.22 ppm/°C from -196°C to +24°C) CMC C/SiC material with good strength. This material will be ideal for space opto-mechanical structures and optical benches due to its near-zero CTE and light weight. The material is initially molded and then converted to a C/SiC ceramic matrix composite, thus the fabrication time can be less than 3 weeks from start to finish, resulting in low cost.

  3. Cellular responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at near-zero growth rates: transcriptome analysis of anaerobic retentostat cultures.

    PubMed

    Boender, Léonie G M; van Maris, Antonius J A; de Hulster, Erik A F; Almering, Marinka J H; van der Klei, Ida J; Veenhuis, Marten; de Winde, Johannes H; Pronk, Jack T; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale

    2011-12-01

    Extremely low specific growth rates (below 0.01 h(-1) ) represent a largely unexplored area of microbial physiology. In this study, anaerobic, glucose-limited retentostats were used to analyse physiological and genome-wide transcriptional responses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cultivation at near-zero specific growth rates. While quiescence is typically investigated as a result of carbon starvation, cells in retentostat are fed by small, but continuous carbon and energy supply. Yeast cells cultivated near-zero specific growth rates, while metabolically active, exhibited characteristics previously associated with quiescence, including accumulation of storage polymers and an increased expression of genes involved in exit from the cell cycle into G(0) . Unexpectedly, analysis of transcriptome data from retentostat and chemostat cultures showed, as specific growth rate was decreased, that quiescence-related transcriptional responses were already set in at specific growth rates above 0.025 h(-1) . These observations stress the need for systematic dissection of physiological responses to slow growth, quiescence, ageing and starvation and indicate that controlled cultivation systems such as retentostats can contribute to this goal. Furthermore, cells in retentostat do not (or hardly) divide while remaining metabolically active, which emulates the physiological status of metazoan post-mitotic cells. We propose retentostat as a powerful cultivation tool to investigate chronological ageing-related processes.

  4. LASER STABILIZATION FOR NEAR ZERO NO{sub x} GAS TURBINE COMBUSTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek Khanna

    2002-09-30

    Historically, the development of new industrial gas turbines has been primarily driven by the intent to achieve higher efficiency, lower operating costs and lower emissions. Higher efficiency and lower cost is obtained through higher turbine operating temperatures, while reduction in emissions is obtained by extending the lean operating limit of the combustor. However reduction in the lean stability limit of operation is limited greatly by the chemistry of the combustion process and by the occurrence of thermo-acoustic instabilities. Solar Turbines, CFD Research Corporation, and Los Alamos National Laboratory have teamed to advance the technology associated with laser-assisted ignition and flame stabilization, to a level where it could be incorporated onto a gas turbine combustor. The system being developed is expected to enhance the lean stability limit of the swirl stabilized combustion process and assist in reducing combustion oscillations. Such a system has the potential to allow operation at the ultra-lean conditions needed to achieve NO{sub x} emissions below 5 ppm without the need of exhaust treatment or catalytic technologies. The research effort was focused on analytically modeling laser-assisted flame stabilization using advanced CFD techniques, and experimentally demonstrating the technology, using a solid-state laser and low-cost durable optics. A pulsed laser beam was used to generate a plasma pool at strategic locations within the combustor flow field such that the energy from the plasma became an ignition source and helped maintain a flame at ultra lean operating conditions. The periodic plasma generation and decay was used to nullify the fluctuations in the heat release from the flame itself, thus decoupling the heat release from the combustor acoustics and effectively reducing the combustion oscillations. The program was built on an existing technology base and includes: extending LANL's existing laser stabilization experience to a sub

  5. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part II: How ammonia emission abatement strategies affect secondary aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna M.; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-02-01

    In central Europe, ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate make up a large fraction of fine particles which pose a threat to human health. Most studies on air pollution through particulate matter investigate the influence of emission reductions of sulphur- and nitrogen oxides on aerosol concentration. Here, we focus on the influence of ammonia (NH3) emissions. Emission scenarios have been created on the basis of the improved ammonia emission parameterization implemented in the SMOKE for Europe and CMAQ model systems described in part I of this study. This includes emissions based on future European legislation (the National Emission Ceilings) as well as a dynamic evaluation of the influence of different agricultural sectors (e.g. animal husbandry) on particle formation. The study compares the concentrations of NH3, NH4+, NO3 -, sulphur compounds and the total concentration of particles in winter and summer for a political-, technical- and behavioural scenario. It was found that a reduction of ammonia emissions by 50% lead to a 24% reduction of the total PM2.5 concentrations in northwest Europe. The observed reduction was mainly driven by reduced formation of ammonium nitrate. Moreover, emission reductions during winter had a larger impact than during the rest of the year. This leads to the conclusion that a reduction of the ammonia emissions from the agricultural sector related to animal husbandry could be more efficient than the reduction from other sectors due to its larger share in winter ammonia emissions.

  6. Pichia pastoris Exhibits High Viability and a Low Maintenance Energy Requirement at Near-Zero Specific Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Rebnegger, Corinna; Vos, Tim; Graf, Alexandra B.; Valli, Minoska; Pronk, Jack T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for recombinant protein production. Understanding its physiology at extremely low growth rates is a first step in the direction of decoupling product formation from cellular growth and therefore of biotechnological relevance. Retentostat cultivation is an excellent tool for studying microbes at extremely low specific growth rates but has so far not been implemented for P. pastoris. Retentostat feeding regimes were based on the maintenance energy requirement (mS) and maximum biomass yield on glucose (YX/Smax) estimated from steady-state glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Aerobic retentostat cultivation enabled reproducible, smooth transitions from a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.025 h−1 to near-zero specific growth rates (μ < 0.001 h−1). At these near-zero specific growth rates, viability remained at least 97%. The value of mS at near-zero growth rates was 3.1 ± 0.1 mg glucose per g biomass and h, which was 3-fold lower than the mS estimated from faster-growing chemostat cultures. This difference indicated that P. pastoris reduces its maintenance energy requirement at extremely low μ, a phenomenon not previously observed in eukaryotes. Intracellular levels of glycogen and trehalose increased, while μ progressively declined during retentostat cultivation. Transcriptional reprogramming toward zero growth included the upregulation of many transcription factors as well as stress-related genes and the downregulation of cell cycle genes. This study underlines the relevance of comparative analysis of maintenance energy metabolism, which has an important impact on large-scale industrial processes. IMPORTANCE The yeast Pichia pastoris naturally lives on trees and can utilize different carbon sources, among them glucose, glycerol, and methanol. In biotechnology, it is widely used for the production of recombinant proteins. For both the understanding of life in its natural habitat and optimized production

  7. Compact transformable acoustic logic gates for broadband complex Boolean operations based on density-near-zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ting; Cheng, Ying; Yuan, Bao-Guo; Guo, Jian-Zhong; Liu, Xiao-Jun

    2016-05-01

    The extraordinary transmission in density-near-zero (DNZ) acoustic metamaterials (AMs) provides possibilities to manipulate acoustic signals with extremely large effective phase velocity and wavelength. Here, we report compact transformable acoustic logic gates with a subwavelength size as small as 0.82λ based on DNZ AMs. The basic acoustic logic gates, composed of a tri-port structure filled with space-coiling DNZ AMs, enable precise direct linear interference of input signals with considerably small phase lag and wavefront distortion. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally the basic Boolean logic operations such as OR, AND, XOR, and NOT with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability, by adjusting the phase difference between two input signals. More complex logic calculus, such as "I1 + I2 × I3," are also realized by cascading of the basic logic gates. Our proposal provides diverse routes to construct devices for acoustic signal computing and manipulations.

  8. Periodic Imbert-Fedrov shift in a prism-coupling waveguide with epsilon-near-zero metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tingting; Li, Jie; Luo, Li; Li, Chaoyang

    2017-01-01

    We study the periodic Imbert-Fedrov (IF) shift in a prism-coupling waveguide with epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial. We take into account the influence of ENZ metamaterial and gold layer thicknesses as well as the metal material on the IF effect in our proposed waveguide. The calculation method is derived and theoretical analysis is given. Based on simulation results, we can find periodic IF shifts can be observed which provides us an opportunity to realize enhanced IF effect at various incident angle. Further calculations shows that ENZ metamaterial thickness determines the maximum IF shift value, the periodic property and incident angle corresponding to IF shift peak. However, the metal thickness and permittivity only has an important influence on maximum IF shift value which will not affect the periodic property and incident angle corresponding to IF shift peak.

  9. Mechanical 144 GHz beam steering with all-metallic epsilon-near-zero lens antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco-Peña, V. Torres, V. Orazbayev, B. Beruete, M. Sorolla, M.; Navarro-Cía, M.; Engheta, N.

    2014-12-15

    An all-metallic steerable beam antenna composed of an ε-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial lens is experimentally demonstrated at 144 GHz (λ{sub 0} = 2.083 mm). The ENZ lens is realized by an array of narrow hollow rectangular waveguides working just near and above the cut-off of the TE{sub 10} mode. The lens focal arc on the xz-plane is initially estimated analytically as well as numerically and compared with experimental results demonstrating good agreement. Next, a flange-ended WR-6.5 waveguide is placed along the lens focal arc to evaluate the ENZ-lens antenna steerability. A gain scan loss below 3 dB is achieved for angles up to ±15°.

  10. Near zero temperature coefficient of resistance in Ti:Si:O thin films deposited by magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, Marcela; Quevedo Lopez, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    Thin films of titanium/silicon/oxygen (Ti:Si:O) deposited by sputtering were evaluated as thin film resistors and the resulting resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) was studied. The films were deposited in an Argon atmosphere at room temperature with 1% oxygen and their electrical properties evaluated before and after forming gas (5% H2: 95% N2) annealing at 325 and 450 °C for 1 h. The physical structure was characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), elemental composition and depth profile by Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and film composition by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Carrier mobility, type and concentration were evaluated by Hall effect measurements. Thin films with a Ti:Si ratio of 1.6 exhibited a near zero TCR (-405 ppm °C-1) and sheet resistance (Rsh) at 25 °C of 1 kOhm sq-1.

  11. Epsilon-near-zero behavior from plasmonic Dirac point: Theory and realization using two-dimensional materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattheakis, Marios; Valagiannopoulos, Constantinos A.; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2016-11-01

    The electromagnetic response of a two-dimensional metal embedded in a periodic array of a dielectric host can give rise to a plasmonic Dirac point that emulates epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) behavior. This theoretical result is extremely sensitive to structural features like periodicity of the dielectric medium and thickness imperfections. We propose that such a device can actually be realized by using graphene as the two-dimensional metal and materials like the layered semiconducting transition-metal dichalcogenides or hexagonal boron nitride as the dielectric host. We propose a systematic approach, in terms of design characteristics, for constructing metamaterials with linear, elliptical, and hyperbolic dispersion relations which produce ENZ behavior, normal or negative diffraction.

  12. Equation of state calculations for two-dimensional dust coulomb crystal at near zero temperature by molecular dynamics simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Djouder, M. Kermoun, F.; Mitiche, M. D.; Lamrous, O.

    2016-01-15

    Dust particles observed in universe as well as in laboratory and technological plasma devices are still under investigation. At low temperature, these particles are strongly negatively charged and are able to form a 2D or 3D coulomb crystal. In this work, our aim was to check the ideal gas law validity for a 2D single-layer dust crystal recently reported in the literature. For this purpose, we have simulated, using the molecular dynamics method, its thermodynamic properties for different values of dust particles number and confinement parameters. The obtained results have allowed us to invalidate the ideal gas behaviour and to propose an effective equation of state which assumes a near zero dust temperature. Furthermore, the value of the calculated sound velocity was found to be in a good agreement with experimental data published elsewhere.

  13. Development of near zero-order release dosage forms using three-dimensional printing (3-DP) technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen-Chao; Tejwani Motwani, Monica R; Roach, Willie J; Kay, Jennifer L; Yoo, Jaedeok; Surprenant, Henry L; Monkhouse, Donald C; Pryor, Timothy J

    2006-03-01

    Three near zero-order controlled-release pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (PEH) formulations demonstrating proportional release rates were developed using 3-Dimensional Printing (3-DP) technology. Mixtures of Kollidon SR and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) were used as drug carriers. The release rates were adjusted by varying the Kollidon SR-HPMC ratio while keeping fabrication parameters constant. The dosage forms were composed of an immediate release core and a release rate regulating shell, fabricated with an aqueous PEH and an ethanolic triethyl citrate (TEC) binder, respectively. The dosage form design called for the drug to be released via diffusional pathways formed by HPMC in the shell matrix. The release rate was shown to increase correspondingly with the fraction of HPMC contained in the polymer blend. The designed formulations resulted in dosage forms that were insensitive to changes in pH of the dissolution medium, paddle stirring rate, and the presence/absence of a sinker. The near zero-order release properties were unchanged regardless of the dissolution test being performed on either single cubes or on a group of eight cubes encased within a gelatin capsule shell. The chemical and dissolution properties of the three formulations remained unchanged following 1 month's exposure to 25 degrees C/60% RH or 40 degrees C/75% RH environment under open container condition. The in vivo performance of the three formulations was evaluated using a single-dose, randomized, open-label, four-way crossover clinical study composed of 10 fasted healthy volunteers. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed using a noncompartmental model. Qualitative rank order linear correlations between in vivo absorption profiles and in vitro dissolution parameters (with slope and intercept close to unity and origin, respectively) were obtained for all three formulations, indicating good support for a Level A in vivo/in vitro correlation.

  14. Controlled release of cyclosporine A self-nanoemulsifying systems from osmotic pump tablets: near zero-order release and pharmacokinetics in dogs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi; Yi, Yueneng; Qi, Jianping; Lu, Yi; Tian, Zhiqiang; Xie, Yunchang; Yuan, Hailong; Wu, Wei

    2013-08-16

    It is very important to enhance the absorption simultaneously while designing controlled release delivery systems for poorly water-soluble and poorly permeable drugs (BCS IV). In this study, controlled release of cyclosporine (CyA) was achieved by the osmotic release strategy taking advantage of the absorption-enhancing capacity of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDSs). The liquid SNEDDS consisting of Labrafil M 1944CS, Transcutol P and Cremophor EL was absorbed by the osmotic tablet core excipients (sucrose, lactose monohydrate, polyethylene oxide, and partly pregelatinized starch) and then transformed into osmotic tablets. Near zero-order release could be achieved for CyA-loaded nanoemulsions reconstituted from the SNEDDS. In general, the influencing factor study indicated that the release rate increased with increase of inner osmotic pressure, ratio of osmotic agent to suspending agent, content of pore-forming agent, and size of release orifice, whereas the thickness of the membrane impeded the release of CyA nanoemulsion. Pharmacokinetic study showed steady blood CyA profiles with prolonged Tmax and MRT, and significantly reduced Cmax for self-nanoemulsifying osmotic pump tablet (SNEOPT) in comparison with highly fluctuating profiles of the core tablet and Sandimmune Neoral(®). However, similar oral bioavailability was observed for either controlled release or non-controlled release formulations. It was concluded that simultaneous controlling on CyA release and absorption-enhancing had been achieved by a combination of osmotic tablet and SNEDDS.

  15. Near-infrared strong coupling between metamaterials and epsilon-near-zero modes in degenerately doped semiconductor nanolayers

    DOE PAGES

    Campione, Salvatore; Wendt, Joel R.; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; ...

    2016-01-14

    Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) modes provide a new path for tailoring light–matter interactions at the nanoscale. In this paper, we analyze a strongly coupled system at near-infrared frequencies comprising plasmonic metamaterial resonators and ENZ modes supported by degenerately doped semiconductor nanolayers. In strongly coupled systems that combine optical cavities and intersubband transitions, the polariton splitting (i.e., the ratio of Rabi frequency to bare cavity frequency) scales with the square root of the wavelength, thus favoring the long-wavelength regime. In contrast, we observe that the polariton splitting in ENZ/metamaterial resonator systems increases linearly with the thickness of the nanolayer supporting the ENZ modes.more » In this work, we employ an indium-tin-oxide nanolayer and observe a large experimental polariton splitting of approximately 30% in the near-infrared. As a result, this approach opens up many promising applications, including nonlinear optical components and tunable optical filters based on controlling the polariton splitting by adjusting the frequency of the ENZ mode.« less

  16. Near-infrared strong coupling between metamaterials and epsilon-near-zero modes in degenerately doped semiconductor nanolayers

    SciTech Connect

    Campione, Salvatore; Wendt, Joel R.; Keeler, Gordon Arthur; Luk, Ting S.

    2016-01-14

    Epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) modes provide a new path for tailoring light–matter interactions at the nanoscale. In this paper, we analyze a strongly coupled system at near-infrared frequencies comprising plasmonic metamaterial resonators and ENZ modes supported by degenerately doped semiconductor nanolayers. In strongly coupled systems that combine optical cavities and intersubband transitions, the polariton splitting (i.e., the ratio of Rabi frequency to bare cavity frequency) scales with the square root of the wavelength, thus favoring the long-wavelength regime. In contrast, we observe that the polariton splitting in ENZ/metamaterial resonator systems increases linearly with the thickness of the nanolayer supporting the ENZ modes. In this work, we employ an indium-tin-oxide nanolayer and observe a large experimental polariton splitting of approximately 30% in the near-infrared. As a result, this approach opens up many promising applications, including nonlinear optical components and tunable optical filters based on controlling the polariton splitting by adjusting the frequency of the ENZ mode.

  17. Spin Hall effect of transmitted light in a three-layer waveguide with lossy epsilon-near-zero metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Tang, Tingting; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yanfen; Li, Chaoyang; Luo, Li

    2016-11-28

    We study spin Hall effect (SHE) of transmitted light in a three-layer waveguide with epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterial. As the increased loss of anisotropic ENZ metamaterial brings decreased propagation loss for oblique incidence, the transmission of incident light is enhanced which induces a different distribution of transverse shift peaks. Based on simulation results, the influences of ENZ permittivity components and thickness as well as gold layer thickness on transverse shift of left-circularly polarized light in ENZ/Au/ENZ waveguide are analyzed. In order to make our results convincing we make use of alternating thin layers of silver and germanium stacking to construct anisotropic ENZ metamaterial. The transverse shifts of incident light with different ENZ metamaterial and gold layer thicknesses are obtained. Calculation results show the maximum transverse shifts of left-polarized light for linear polarized light can achieve 49.6 microns. Meanwhile, the enhanced SHE of transmitted light is invariant with the variation of gold layer which shows a great tolerance to fabrication error.

  18. Broadband zero-backward and near-zero-forward scattering by metallo-dielectric core-shell nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wan, Mingjie; Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Zhuo; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    Efficient control of optical radiation at subwavelength scales plays important roles for various applications. Dielectric nanoparticles or dielectric shells with a large refractive index of n ~ 3–4, which are only achievable for limited semiconductors, are involved in most designs so far to control the scattering by overlapping the electric and magnetic dipolar modes of the same magnitude. Here we propose a new mechanism based on the interplay between dipolar and quadrupolar resonances of different amplitudes, both magnetic and electric, to suppress the backward scattering or the forward scattering by using metallo-dielectric core-shell nanoparticles with a dielectric shell layer having a refractive index of n = 2.0. We demonstrate that broadband zero-backward or near-zero-forward scattering can be achieved by optimizing the structural parameters. We also demonstrate that the core-shell nanoparticles with identical dielectric shells but metal cores with various sizes are able to suppress the backward or forward scattering at the same wavelength, thus revealing a large tolerance to fabrication errors induced by the size distributions in the metal cores. These features make the proposed core-shell nanoparticles beyond the dipole limit more easily realized in practical experiments. PMID:26282896

  19. Lithium rich cathode/graphite anode combination for lithium ion cells with high tolerance to near zero volt storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crompton, K. R.; Staub, J. W.; Hladky, M. P.; Landi, B. J.

    2017-03-01

    Management of reversible lithium is an advantageous approach to design lithium ion cells that are tolerant to near zero volt (NZV) storage under fixed resistive load towards highly controllable, enhanced user-inactive safety. Presently, the first cycle loss from a high energy density Li-rich HE5050 cathode is used to provide excess reversible lithium when paired with an appropriately capacity matched mesocarbon microbead (MCMB) anode. Cells utilizing 1.2 M LiPF6 3:7 v/v ethylene carbonate:ethyl methyl carbonate electrolyte and a lithium reference were used for 3-electrode testing. After conditioning, a fixed resistive load was applied to 3-electrode cells for 72 or 168-h during which the anode potential and electrode asymptotic potential (EAP) remained less than the copper dissolution potential. After multiple storage cycles (room temperature or 40 °C), the NZV coulombic efficiency (cell reversibility) exceeded 97% and the discharge capacity retention was >98%. Conventional 2-electrode HE5050/MCMB pouch cells stored at NZV or open circuit for 3 days had nearly identical rate capability (up to 5C) and discharge performance stability (for 500 cycles under a 30% depth of discharge low-earth-orbit regime). Thus, lithium ion cells with appropriately capacity matched HE5050/MCMB electrodes have excellent tolerance to prolonged NZV storage, which can lead to enhanced user-inactive safety.

  20. Theory of supercoupling, squeezing wave energy, and field confinement in narrow channels and tight bends using {epsilon} near-zero metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Silveirinha, Mario G.; Engheta, Nader

    2007-12-15

    In this work, we investigate the detailed theory of the supercoupling, anomalous tunneling effect, and field confinement originally identified by Silveirinha and Engheta [Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 157403 (2006)], where we demonstrated the possibility of using materials with permittivity {epsilon} near zero to drastically improve the transmission of electromagnetic energy through a narrow irregular channel with very subwavelength transverse cross section. Here, we present additional physical insights, describe applications of the tunneling effect in relevant waveguide scenarios (e.g., the 'perfect' or 'super' waveguide coupling), and study the effect of metal losses in the metallic walls and the possibility of using near-zero {epsilon} materials to confine energy in a subwavelength cavity with gigantic field enhancement. In addition, we systematically study the propagation of electromagnetic waves through narrow channels filled with anisotropic near-zero {epsilon} materials. It is demonstrated that these materials may have interesting potentials, and that for some particular geometries, the reflectivity of the channel is independent of the specific dimensions or parameters of near-zero {epsilon} transition. We also describe several realistic metamaterial implementations of the studied problems, based on standard metallic waveguides, microstrip line configurations, and wire media.

  1. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance: Part A: Combustor Performance Part B: Combustor Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shouse, D. T.; Neuroth, C.; Henricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, T.

    2010-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 (2010) standards, respectively, and are classified as drop-in fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are certified individually on the basis of feedstock. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires smart fueling systems or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements. This paper provides preliminary performance (Part A) and emissions and particulates (Part B) combustor sector data for synthetic-parafinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type fuel and blends with JP-8+100 relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling.

  2. A pesticide emission model (PEM) Part II: model evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholtz, M. T.; Voldner, E.; Van Heyst, B. J.; McMillan, A. C.; Pattey, E.

    In the first part of the paper, the development of a numerical pesticide emission model (PEM) is described for predicting the volatilization of pesticides applied to agricultural soils and crops through soil incorporation, surface spraying, or in the furrow at the time of planting. In this paper the results of three steps toward the evaluation of PEM are reported. The evaluation involves: (i) verifying the numerical algorithms and computer code through comparison of PEM simulations with an available analytical solution of the advection/diffusion equation for semi-volatile solutes in soil; (ii) comparing hourly heat, moisture and emission fluxes of trifluralin and triallate modeled by PEM with fluxes measured using the relaxed eddy-accumulation technique; and (iii) comparison of the PEM predictions of persistence half-life for 29 pesticides with the ranges of persistence found in the literature. The overall conclusion from this limited evaluation study is that PEM is a useful model for estimating the volatilization rates of pesticides from agricultural soils and crops. The lack of reliable estimates of chemical and photochemical degradation rates of pesticide on foliage, however, introduces large uncertainties in the estimates from any model of the volatilization of pesticide that impacts the canopy.

  3. Automatic robotic arm operations and sampling in near zero gravity environment - functional tests results from Phobos-Grunt mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Tatiana; Karol Seweryn, D..; Grygorczuk, Jerzy; Kozlov, Oleg

    sampling; (ii) technical characteristics of both devices, i.e. progress cycles of CHOMIK device in different materials and torque in the manipulator joints during sampling operations; (iii) confirmation of applicability of both devices to perform such type of tasks. The phases in operational scenario were prepared to meet mission and system requirements mainly connected with: (i) environment (near zero gravity, vacuum, dust), (ii) safety and (iii) to avoid common operation of both devices at the same time.

  4. Clean Air Markets - Part 75 Emissions Monitoring Policy Manual

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about monitoring mass sulfur dioxide and mass carbon dioxide emissions, nitrogen oxide emission rate, and heat input by units affected by the Acid Rain Program and the Clean Air Interstate Rule.

  5. Gain and bandwidth investigation in a near-zero ultra-flat dispersion PCF for optical parametric amplification around the communication wavelength.

    PubMed

    Maji, Partha Sona; Chaudhuri, Partha Roy

    2015-04-10

    In this work, we explore the fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) gain and bandwidth spectra of near-zero ultra-flattened photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) around the communication wavelength. The parametric gain and spectral bandwidth have been explored for all the three zero-dispersion wavelengths (ZDWs) of the near-zero ultra-flat fiber. Our numerical analysis establishes a dispersion profile with D=0±0.35  ps/nm/km for a bandwidth of 440 nm around the communication wavelength to fully exploit the four-wave mixing effect with three ZDWs for broadband applications. It has been observed that the broader gain spectrum of FOPAs can be achieved with the near-zero and ultra-flattened dispersion curve with proper tuning of the pumping condition. A broader bandwidth with sufficient peak gain value has been achieved with small negative anomalous dispersion (β2≤0) and positive value of fourth-order dispersion parameter (+ve  β4) around the pumping wavelength. Wider bandwidth of the parametric amplifier has been observed around the second ZDW with a negative slope of the dispersion curve. A total bandwidth ≈520  nm could be achieved with the ultra-flat dispersion nature of the optimized PCF. The design methodology of achieving wider gain by tuning the pumping wavelength for favorable higher-order dispersion parameters would be very useful for future dispersion engineered devices.

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1042 - Summary of Previous Emission Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... I Appendix I to Part 1042 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Pt. 1042, App. I Appendix I to Part 1042—Summary of Previous Emission Standards The following... CFR part 89 and summarized in the following table: Table 1 to Appendix I—Emission Standards...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Required Emission Inventory Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Required Emission Inventory Information... Appendix D to Part 60—Required Emission Inventory Information (a) Completed NEDS point source form(s) for... more than one device operates in series. (4) An estimate of the designated pollutant emissions from...

  8. The Fano-type transmission and field enhancement in heterostructures composed of epsilon-near-zero materials and truncated photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhi-fang; Jiang, Hai-tao E-mail: jiang-haitao@tongji.edu.cn; Li, Yun-hui; Chen, Hong; Xue, Chun-hua E-mail: jiang-haitao@tongji.edu.cn; Lu, Hai

    2013-11-11

    The Fano-type interference effect is studied in the heterostructure composed of an epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material and a truncated photonic crystal for transverse magnetic polarized light. In the Fano-type interference effect, the ENZ material provides narrow reflection pathway and the photonic crystal provides broadband reflection pathway. The boundary condition across the ENZ interface and the confinement effect provided by the photonic crystal can enhance the electric fields in the ENZ material greatly. The field enhancements, together with the asymmetric property of Fano-type spectrum, possess potential applications for significantly lowering the threshold of nonlinear processes such as optical switching and bistability.

  9. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Determination of CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Determination of CO2 Emissions G Appendix G to Part 75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Pt. 75, App. G Appendix G to Part 75—Determination of...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission-Related Components I Appendix I to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION..., emission-related components include any engine parts related to the following systems: 1....

  11. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology for... section 402(18) of the CAA. Many emission limits are enforced on a shorter term basis (or averaging...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 94 - Emission-Related Engine Parameters and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Specifications I Appendix I to Part 94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Pt. 94, App. I Appendix I to Part 94—Emission-Related Engine Parameters and Specifications I. Basic Engine...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 94 - Emission-Related Engine Parameters and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Specifications I Appendix I to Part 94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Pt. 94, App. I Appendix I to Part 94—Emission-Related Engine Parameters and Specifications I. Basic Engine...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 94 - Emission-Related Engine Parameters and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Specifications I Appendix I to Part 94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Pt. 94, App. I Appendix I to Part 94—Emission-Related Engine Parameters and Specifications I. Basic Engine...

  15. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 3 - chemical emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on study to the National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS). The objective of this study was to measure odor emissions and corresponding concentrations and emissions of target odorous gases. Odor and odorous gas measurements at four NAEMS sites (dairy barns in Wisconsin-WI5B...

  16. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 2. Odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on project to the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) and focused on comprehensive measurement of odor emissions considering variations in seasons, animal types and olfactometry laboratories. Odor emissions from four of 14 NEAMS sites with nine barns/rooms (two dair...

  17. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 2 - odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was an add-on project to the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) and focused on comprehensive measurement of odor emissions. Odor emissions from two animal species (dairy and swine) from four sites with nine barns/rooms (two dairy barns in Wisconsin, two dairy barns and two sw...

  18. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 3. Chemical emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to measure the long-term odor emissions and corresponding concentrations and emissions of 20 odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study was an add-on study to the National Air Emission Monitoring Study (NAEMS). Odor and odorous gas measurements at four NAEM...

  19. Characterization of gaseous pollutant and particulate matter emission rates from a commercial broiler operation part I: Observed trends in emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumeliotis, Taylor S.; Dixon, Brad J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2010-10-01

    This paper characterizes the emission rates of size fractionated particulate matter, inorganic aerosols, acid gases, ammonia and methane measured over four flocks at a commercial broiler chicken facility. Mean emission rates of each pollutant, along with sampling notes, were reported in this paper, the first in a series of two. Sampling notes were needed because inherent gaps in data may bias the mean emission rates. The mean emission rates of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were 5.0 and 0.78 g day -1 [Animal Unit, AU] -1, respectively, while inorganic aerosols mean emission rates ranged from 0.15 to 0.46 g day -1 AU -1 depending on the season. The average total acid gas emission rate was 0.43 g day -1 AU -1 with the greatest contribution from nitrous and nitric acids and little contribution from sulfuric acid (as SO 2). Ammonia emissions were seasonally dependent, with a mean emission rate of 66.0 g day -1 AU -1 in the cooler seasons and 94.5 g day -1 AU -1 during the warmer seasons. Methane emissions were relatively consistent with a mean emission rate of 208 g day -1 AU -1. The diurnal pattern in each pollutant's emission rate was relatively consistent after normalizing the hourly emissions according to each daily mean emission rate. Over the duration of a production cycle, all the measured pollutants' emissions increased proportionally to the total live mass of birds in the house, with the exception of ammonia. Interrelationships between pollutants provide evidence of mutually dependent release mechanisms, which suggests that it may be possible to fill data gaps with minimal data requirements. In the second paper (Roumeliotis, T.S., Dixon, B.J., Van Heyst, B.J. Characterization of gaseous pollutants and particulate matter emission rates from a commercial broiler operation part II: correlated emission rates. Atmospheric Environment, 2010.), regression correlations are developed to estimate daily mean emission rates for data gaps and, using the normalized hourly diurnal

  20. Smoke emission factors from medium scale fires: Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Dod, R.L.; Brown, N.J.; Mowrer, F.W.; Novakov, T.; Williamson, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    Smoke emmission factors, (i.e., the mass of smoke per mass of fuel burned), were measured in eleven separate experiments. The size distribution of the smoke particles was determined using a cascade impactor. The percentages of ''black'' carbon (also called ''graphitic'' or ''elemental'' carbon) and organic carbon have been determined for all the experiments as a function of particle aerodynamic diameter. Values in the range of .1 to .2% are reported for the smoke particle emission factors for Douglas fire whole wood and plywood burning under well ventilated conditions. Approximately 65% of the particles have aerodynamic diameters less than 1 ..mu..m. Douglas fir whole wood gave smoke emission factors in the range of 2 to 3.5% when burned under poorly ventilated conditions representative of a building fire that is limited by air entrainment. For this case the size distribution was much broader, with substantial quantities of particles up to 5 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter. For all experiments, the black carbon content represented between 50 and 75% of the total mass of the smoke particles. The smoke emission factor for burning asphalt roofing shingles is reported as 12.1% with black carbon content greater than 70%. Over half of the mass consisted of particles of less than 1 ..mu..m aerodynamic diameter.

  1. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission-Related Parameters and Specifications II Appendix II to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... Pressure and vacuum relief settings. XI. Warning Systems Related to Emission Controls. 1....

  2. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 92 - Guidelines for Determining Equivalency Between Emission Measurement Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Between Emission Measurement Systems IV Appendix IV to Part 92 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Measurement Systems This appendix describes a series of correlation criteria that EPA considers to... guidelines. When requested to make a finding of equivalency, EPA could base its decision on criteria...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1045 - Summary of Previous Emission Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Summary of Previous Emission Standards I Appendix I to Part 1045 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt....

  4. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1045 - Summary of Previous Emission Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Summary of Previous Emission Standards I Appendix I to Part 1045 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt....

  5. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1045 - Summary of Previous Emission Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Summary of Previous Emission Standards I Appendix I to Part 1045 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt....

  6. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1045 - Summary of Previous Emission Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Summary of Previous Emission Standards I Appendix I to Part 1045 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt....

  7. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1045 - Summary of Previous Emission Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Summary of Previous Emission Standards I Appendix I to Part 1045 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt....

  8. Patterns in Volatile Emission of Different Aerial Parts of Caper (Capparis spinosa L.).

    PubMed

    Ascrizzi, Roberta; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Giusti, Giulia; Pistelli, Luisa; Flamini, Guido

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the spontaneous volatile emission of different aerial parts of the caper (Capparis spinosa L.) by HS-SPME-GC/MS. We identified 178 different compounds of which, in different proportions based on the sample type, the main ones were (E)-β-ocimene, methyl benzoate, linalool, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene B, (E)-nerolidol, isopropyl tetradecanoate, and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone. The multivariate statistical analyses seem to point out that the parameter leading the emission patterns is the function of the analyzed sample; the flower samples showed differences in the emission profile between their fertile and sterile portions and between the other parts of the plant. The green parts emission profiles group together in a cluster and are different from those of seeds and fruits. We also hydrodistilled fully bloomed caper flowers, whose volatile oil showed significant differences in the composition from those of other parts of the plant reported.

  9. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn3+xNi1-xN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Wu, Hui; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Huang, Qingzhen; Wang, Cong

    2016-01-01

    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn3+xNi1-xN (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn3+xNi1-xN from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  10. Large magnetocaloric effect and near-zero thermal hysteresis in the rare earth intermetallic Tb1-x Dy x Co2 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Yuyang; Tian, Fanghua; Chang, Tieyan; Chen, Kaiyun; Yang, Sen; Cao, Kaiyan; Zhou, Chao; Song, Xiaoping

    2017-02-01

    We report the magnetocaloric effect in a Tb1-x Dy x Co2 compound which exhibits a wide working temperature window around the Curie temperature (T C) and delivers a large refrigerant capacity (RC) with near-zero thermal hysteresis. Specifically, the wide full width at half maxima ({δ\\text{WFHM}} ) can reach up to 62 K and the RC value changes from 216.5 to 274.3 J Kg-1 when the external magnetic field increases to 5 T. Such magnetocaloric effects are attributed to a magnetic and structural transition from a paramagnetic and cubic phase to a ferromagnetic (M S along [1 1 1] direction) and rhombohedral phase or ferromagnetic (M S along [0 0 1] direction) and tetragonal phase.

  11. Near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity associated with magnetic ordering in antiperovskite Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Sihao; Sun, Ying; Wang, Lei; Shi, Kewen; Hu, Pengwei; Wang, Cong; Wu, Hui; Huang, Qingzhen

    2016-01-25

    The near-zero temperature coefficient of resistivity (NZ-TCR) behavior is reported in the antiperovskite compounds Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.333). Our results indicate that the broad temperature range (above 275 K extending to above 220 K) of NZ-TCR is obtained by Mn doping at the Ni site. The short-range magnetic ordering is revealed by both neutron powder diffraction and inverse magnetic susceptibility. Further, we find a strong correlation between the anomalous resistivity change of Mn{sub 3+x}Ni{sub 1−x}N from the metal-like to the NZ-TCR behavior and the lack of the long-range magnetic ordering. The possible mechanism of NZ-TCR behavior is discussed using the spin-disorder scattering model.

  12. Ammonia emissions in Europe, part I: Development of a dynamical ammonia emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backes, Anna; Aulinger, Armin; Bieser, Johannes; Matthias, Volker; Quante, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen input from agricultural ammonia emissions into the environment causes numerous environmental and health problems. The purpose of this study is to present and evaluate an improved ammonia emission inventory based on a dynamical temporal parameterization suitable to compare and assess ammonia abatement strategies. The setup of the dynamical time profile (DTP) consists of individual temporal profiles for ammonia emissions, calculated for each model grid cell, depending on temperature, crop type, fertilizer and manure application, as well as on local legislation. It is based on the method of Skjøth et al., 2004 and Gyldenkærne et al., 2005. The method has been modified to cover the study area and to improve the performance of the emission model. To compare the results of the dynamical approach with the results of the static time profile (STP) the ammonia emission parameterizations have been implemented in the SMOKE for Europe emission model. Furthermore, the influence on secondary aerosol formation in the North Sea region and possible changes triggered through the use of a modified temporal distribution of ammonia emissions were analysed with the CMAQ chemistry transport model. The results were evaluated with observations of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP). The correlation coefficient of NH3 improved significantly for 12 out of 16 EMEP measurement stations and an improvement in predicting the Normalized Mean Error can be seen for particulate NH4+ and NO3-. The prediction of the 95th percentile of the daily average concentrations has improved for NH3, NH4+ and NO3-. The NH3 concentration modelled with the STP is 157% higher in winter, and about 22% lower in early summer than the one modelled with the new DTP. Consequently, the influence of the DTP on the formation of secondary aerosols is particularly noticeable in winter, when the PM2.5 concentration is 25% lower in comparison to the use of STP for temporal disaggregation. Besides

  13. Emissions from residential combustion considering end-uses and spatial constraints: Part II, emission reduction scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking, heating, and other activities in the residential sector are major sources of indoor and outdoor air pollution, especially when solid fuels are used to provide energy. Because of their deleterious effects on the atmosphere and human health, multinational strategies to reduce emissions have been proposed. This study examines the effects of some possible policies, considering realistic factors that constrain mitigation: end-uses, spatial constraints involving proximity to forest or electricity, existing technology, and assumptions about user behavior. Reduction scenarios are applied to a year-2010, spatially distributed baseline of emissions of particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen oxides, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Scenarios explored are: (1) cleanest current stove, where we assume that existing technology in each land type is applied to burn existing fuels; (2) stove standards, where we assume that stoves are designed to meet performance standards; and (3) clean fuels, where users adopt the cleanest fuels plausible in each land type. We assume that people living in forest access areas continue to use wood regardless of available fuels, so the clean-fuels scenario leads to a reduction in emissions of 18-25%, depending on the pollutant, across the study region. Cleaner stoves preferentially affect land types with forest access, where about half of the fuel is used; emission reductions range from 25 to 82%, depending on the pollutant. If stove performance standards can be met, particulate matter emissions are reduced by 62% for the loosest standards and 95% for the tightest standards, and carbon monoxide is reduced by 40% and 62% for the loosest and tightest standards. Reductions in specific regions and countries depend on the existing fuel mixture and the population division among land types, and are explored for Latin America, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Required Emission Inventory Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. D Appendix D to Part 60—Required Emission Inventory Information (a) Completed NEDS point source form(s)...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Required Emission Inventory Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. D Appendix D to Part 60—Required Emission Inventory Information (a) Completed NEDS point source form(s)...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Required Emission Inventory Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... D Appendix D to Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES (CONTINUED) Pt. 60, App. D Appendix D to Part 60—Required Emission Inventory Information (a) Completed NEDS point source form(s)...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 72 - Methodology for Conversion of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Methodology for Conversion of Emissions Limits B Appendix B to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. B Appendix B to Part 72—Methodology...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 72 - Methodology for Conversion of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methodology for Conversion of Emissions Limits B Appendix B to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. B Appendix B to Part 72—Methodology...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 72 - Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methodology for Annualization of Emissions Limits A Appendix A to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. A Appendix A to Part 72—Methodology...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation C Appendix C to Part 72 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Pt. 72, App. C Appendix C to Part 72—Actual 1985 Yearly...

  3. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  4. General Strategy for Broadband Coherent Perfect Absorption and Multi-wavelength All-optical Switching Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Multilayer Films

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Young; Badsha, Md. Alamgir; Yoon, Junho; Lee, Seon Young; Jun, Young Chul; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2016-01-01

    We propose a general, easy-to-implement scheme for broadband coherent perfect absorption (CPA) using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) multilayer films. Specifically, we employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as a tunable ENZ material, and theoretically investigate CPA in the near-infrared region. We first derive general CPA conditions using the scattering matrix and the admittance matching methods. Then, by combining these two methods, we extract analytic expressions for all relevant parameters for CPA. Based on this theoretical framework, we proceed to study ENZ CPA in a single layer ITO film and apply it to all-optical switching. Finally, using an ITO multilayer of different ENZ wavelengths, we implement broadband ENZ CPA structures and investigate multi-wavelength all-optical switching in the technologically important telecommunication window. In our design, the admittance matching diagram was employed to graphically extract not only the structural parameters (the film thicknesses and incident angles), but also the input beam parameters (the irradiance ratio and phase difference between two input beams). We find that the multi-wavelength all-optical switching in our broadband ENZ CPA system can be fully controlled by the phase difference between two input beams. The simple but general design principles and analyses in this work can be widely used in various thin-film devices. PMID:26965195

  5. Interface Passivation and Trap Reduction via a Solution-Based Method for Near-Zero Hysteresis Nanowire Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Marios; Stolojan, Vlad; Rajeev, Kiron Prabha; Hinder, Steven; Fisher, Brett; Bogart, Timothy D; Korgel, Brian A; Shkunov, Maxim

    2015-10-14

    In this letter, we demonstrate a solution-based method for a one-step deposition and surface passivation of the as-grown silicon nanowires (Si NWs). Using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a mild oxidizing agent, the NWs' surface traps density was reduced by over 2 orders of magnitude from 1×10(13) cm(-2) in pristine NWs to 3.7×10(10) cm(-2) in DMF-treated NWs, leading to a dramatic hysteresis reduction in NW field-effect transistors (FETs) from up to 32 V to a near-zero hysteresis. The change of the polyphenylsilane NW shell stoichiometric composition was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showing a 35% increase in fully oxidized Si4+ species for DMF-treated NWs compared to dry NW powder. Additionally, a shell oxidation effect induced by DMF resulted is a more stable NW FET performance with steady transistor currents and only 1.5 V hysteresis after 1000 h of air exposure.

  6. Bio-effects of near-zero magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus and brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens.

    PubMed

    Wan, Gui-jun; Jiang, Shou-lin; Zhao, Zong-chao; Xu, Jing-jing; Tao, Xiao-rong; Sword, Gregory A; Gao, Yue-bo; Pan, Wei-dong; Chen, Fa-jun

    2014-09-01

    Magnetic fields markedly affect the growth and development of many species of organisms potentially due to cryptochrome and endogenous presence of magnetic materials. Sensitivity to magnetic fields can also be involved in geomagnetic orientation by some long-distance migratory insects. In this study, near-zero magnetic fields (NZMF) in relation to normal geomagnetic fields (GMF) were setup using the Hypomagnetic Field Space System (HMFs) to investigate the effects of magnetic fields on the growth, development and reproduction of two species of migratory planthopper, the small brown planthopper (abbr. SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus, and the brown planthopper (abbr. BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. Exposure of both L. striatellus and N. lugens to NZMF delayed egg and nymphal developmental durations and decreased adult weight and female fecundity. The 1st-5th instars of SBPH and BPH showed different responses to NZMF. The 4th instar was significantly affected by NZMF, especially for BPH males, in which NZMF exposure reduced the difference in development duration between females and males. Compared with GMF, the vitellogenin transcript levels of newly molted female adults and the number of eggs per female were significantly reduced in both planthopper species, indicating a negative effect on fertility under NZMF. Our findings provided experimental evidence that NZMF negatively affected the growth and development of SBPH and BPH, with particularly strong effects on reproduction.

  7. General Strategy for Broadband Coherent Perfect Absorption and Multi-wavelength All-optical Switching Based on Epsilon-Near-Zero Multilayer Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Young; Badsha, Md. Alamgir; Yoon, Junho; Lee, Seon Young; Jun, Young Chul; Hwangbo, Chang Kwon

    2016-03-01

    We propose a general, easy-to-implement scheme for broadband coherent perfect absorption (CPA) using epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) multilayer films. Specifically, we employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as a tunable ENZ material, and theoretically investigate CPA in the near-infrared region. We first derive general CPA conditions using the scattering matrix and the admittance matching methods. Then, by combining these two methods, we extract analytic expressions for all relevant parameters for CPA. Based on this theoretical framework, we proceed to study ENZ CPA in a single layer ITO film and apply it to all-optical switching. Finally, using an ITO multilayer of different ENZ wavelengths, we implement broadband ENZ CPA structures and investigate multi-wavelength all-optical switching in the technologically important telecommunication window. In our design, the admittance matching diagram was employed to graphically extract not only the structural parameters (the film thicknesses and incident angles), but also the input beam parameters (the irradiance ratio and phase difference between two input beams). We find that the multi-wavelength all-optical switching in our broadband ENZ CPA system can be fully controlled by the phase difference between two input beams. The simple but general design principles and analyses in this work can be widely used in various thin-film devices.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission-Related Components I Appendix I to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION...*. 8. Control Solenoids*. 9. Electronic Controls*. 10. Vacuum Control Diaphragms*. 11. Control...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission-Related Components I Appendix I to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION...*. 9. Electronic Controls*. 10. Vacuum Control Diaphragms*. 11. Control Cables*. 12. Control...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 94 - Emission-Related Engine Parameters and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission-Related Engine Parameters and Specifications I Appendix I to Part 94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... calibrations. b. Transient enrichment system calibration. c. Air-fuel flow calibration. d....

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission-Related Components I Appendix I to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App....

  12. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1068 - Emission-Related Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission-Related Components I Appendix I to Part 1068 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS GENERAL COMPLIANCE PROVISIONS FOR HIGHWAY, STATIONARY, AND NONROAD PROGRAMS Pt. 1068, App....

  13. Cryptochromes and Hormone Signal Transduction under Near-Zero Magnetic Fields: New Clues to Magnetic Field Effects in a Rice Planthopper

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Gui-Jun; Wang, Wen-Jing; Xu, Jing-Jing; Yang, Quan-Feng; Dai, Ming-Jiang; Zhang, Feng-Jiao; Sword, Gregory A.; Pan, Wei-Dong; Chen, Fa-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although there are considerable reports of magnetic field effects (MFE) on organisms, very little is known so far about the MFE-related signal transduction pathways. Here we establish a manipulative near-zero magnetic field (NZMF) to investigate the potential signal transduction pathways involved in MFE. We show that exposure of migratory white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera, to the NZMF results in delayed egg and nymphal development, increased frequency of brachypterous females, and reduced longevity of macropterous female adults. To understand the changes in gene expression underlying these phenotypes, we examined the temporal patterns of gene expression of (i) CRY1 and CRY2 as putative magnetosensors, (ii) JHAMT, FAMeT and JHEH in the juvenile hormone pathway, (iii) CYP307A1 in the ecdysone pathway, and (iv) reproduction-related Vitellogenin (Vg). The significantly altered gene expression of CRY1 and CRY2 under the NZMF suggest their developmental stage-specific patterns and potential upstream location in magnetic response. Gene expression patterns of JHAMT, JHEH and CYP307A1 were consistent with the NZMF-triggered delay in nymphal development, higher proportion of brachypterous female adults, and the shortened longevity of macropterous female adults, which show feasible links between hormone signal transduction and phenotypic MFE. By conducting manipulative NZMF experiments, our study suggests an important role of the geomagnetic field (GMF) in modulating development and physiology of insects, provides new insights into the complexity of MFE-magnetosensitivity interactions, and represents an initial but crucial step forward in understanding the molecular basis of cryptochromes and hormone signal transduction involved in MFE. PMID:26173003

  14. [Calculating emissions of exhaust particulate matter from motor vehicles with PART5 model].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye; Hao, Jiming; Li, Wei; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-30

    PART5, a vehicle particulate emission factor model developed by USEPA, was modified and then used to obtain the emission factors of exhaust PM10 and PM2.5 from on-road automobiles, trucks and motorcycles in Beijing. The total exhaust PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from motor vehicles in 1995 and 1998 were calculated separately. The contribution ratios of different types of vehicles to the total vehicular emissions, and the share of different exhaust particulate components including Pb, direct SO4(2-), soluble organic fraction (SOF) and remaining carbon portion (RCP), were also estimated. It was shown that the emission factors of exhaust PM10 and PM2.5 from gasoline motor vehicles, motorcycles and heavy-duty diesel vehicles in Beijing were 1.7-8.6 times, 2.1-3.5 times and 1.3-1.5 times, respectively, of the USA average emission levels during the same period. The total exhaust PM10 and PM2.5 from vehicles were 2445 tons and 1890 tons in 1995 in Beijing, and increased to 3359 tons and 2694 tons in 1998, which increase by 37.4% and 42.5%, respectively.

  15. 40 CFR Table W - 7 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-7 Table W-7 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution Natural gas distribution Emission factor...

  16. 40 CFR Table W - 7 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-7 Table W-7 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Natural Gas Distribution Natural gas distribution Emission factor...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 52 - Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emissions From Stationary Sources by Continuous Monitors D Appendix D to Part 52 Protection of Environment... PLANS (CONTINUED) Pt. 52, App. D Appendix D to Part 52—Determination of Sulfur Dioxide Emissions From... sulfur dioxide by the Reference method and record the results on the example sheet shown in Figure...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  3. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection...-3 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural...

  4. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing...

  5. 40 CFR Table W - 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 3 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Transmission Compression W Table W Protection...-3 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural...

  6. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  7. 40 CFR Table W - 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Underground Natural Gas Storage...

  8. 40 CFR Table W - 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing W Table W Protection of... of Part 98—Default Total Hydrocarbon Emission Factors for Onshore Natural Gas Processing...

  9. Dayglow Emission Line Profiles from the Outer Planets Cycle 4-MED Part 2 OF 5414

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John

    1994-01-01

    Recent IUE observations of the H Ly alpha emission line profilefrom Jupiter's dayglow and aurora reveal a substantial line broadening,implying that the observed high brightness is due to resonantscattering of solar emission with a broad line rather than chargedparticle excitation. This may reflect highly energetic processesproducing a 5-10 km/sec suprathermal population of H atoms in Jupiter'supper atmosphere, which in turn may be related to the unresolved questionof the high exospheric temperatures of 400-1200 K detected on all 4 giantplanets during the Voyager encounters. It is clear that if the bright HLy alpha emissions from the outer planets are due mainly to resonantscattering of solar and interplanetary emissions, as observedon Jupiter and Saturn from long term correlations with the solarLy alpha flux, then the lines from all 4 planets must be broad toexplain the observed high albedos. The H Ly alpha lineshapes providea discriminant between the processes of resonant scattering andcharged particle excitation. We propose to obtain high signal to noiseH Ly alpha line profile measurements from Saturn, Uranus, and Neptuneto resolve the questions about the excitation processes for the brightairglow emissions.SATURN PART ONLY - NEPTUNE AND URANUS IN ORIGIAL PROP (5414).

  10. Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 1 - compact sampler methodology and performance

    SciTech Connect

    England, G.C.; Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Chang, M.C.O.; Loos, K.R.; Hidy. G.M.

    2007-01-15

    The paper presents the design and performance of a compact dilution sampler (CDS) for characterizing fine particle emissions from stationary sources. The sampler is described, along with the methodology adopted for its use. Dilution sampling has a number of advantages, including source emissions that are measured under conditions simulating stack gas entry and mixing in the ambient atmosphere. This is particularly important for characterizing the semivolatile species in effluents as a part of particulate emissions. The CDS characteristics and performance are given, along with sampling methodology. The CDS was compared with a reference dilution sampler. The results indicate that the two designs are comparable for tests on gas-fired units and a diesel electrical generator. The performance data indicate that lower detection limits can be achieved relative to current regulatory methods for particulate emissions. Test data for the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions are provided for comparison with US Environment Protection Agency (EPA) Conditional Test Method 040 for filterable particulate matter (FPM) and the EPA Method 202 for condensable particulate matter. This comparison showed important differences between methods, depending on whether a comparison is done between in situ FPM determinations or the sum of such values with condensable PM from liquid filled impingers chilled in an ice bath. These differences are interpretable in the light of semivolatile material present in the stack effluent and, in some cases, differences in detection and quantification limits. Determination of emissions from combustors using liquid fuels can be readily achieved using 1-hr sampling with the CDS. Emissions from gas-fired combustors are low, requiring careful attention to sample volumes. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. Initial Business Case Analysis of Two Integrated Heat Pump HVAC Systems for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Update to Include Evaluation of Impact of Including a Humidifier Option

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Van D

    2007-02-01

    The long range strategic goal of the Department of Energy's Building Technologies (DOE/BT) Program is to create, by 2020, technologies and design approaches that enable the construction of net-zero energy homes at low incremental cost (DOE/BT 2005). A net zero energy home (NZEH) is a residential building with greatly reduced needs for energy through efficiency gains, with the balance of energy needs supplied by renewable technologies. While initially focused on new construction, these technologies and design approaches are intended to have application to buildings constructed before 2020 as well resulting in substantial reduction in energy use for all building types and ages. DOE/BT's Emerging Technologies (ET) team is working to support this strategic goal by identifying and developing advanced heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and water heating (HVAC/WH) technology options applicable to NZEHs. In FY05 ORNL conducted an initial Stage 1 (Applied Research) scoping assessment of HVAC/WH systems options for future NZEHs to help DOE/BT identify and prioritize alternative approaches for further development. Eleven system concepts with central air distribution ducting and nine multi-zone systems were selected and their annual and peak demand performance estimated for five locations: Atlanta (mixed-humid), Houston (hot-humid), Phoenix (hot-dry), San Francisco (marine), and Chicago (cold). Performance was estimated by simulating the systems using the TRNSYS simulation engine (Solar Energy Laboratory et al. 2006) in two 1800-ft{sup 2} houses--a Building America (BA) benchmark house and a prototype NZEH taken from BEopt results at the take-off (or crossover) point (i.e., a house incorporating those design features such that further progress towards ZEH is through the addition of photovoltaic power sources, as determined by current BEopt analyses conducted by NREL). Results were summarized in a project report, HVAC Equipment Design options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes

  12. A review of biomass burning emissions part II: intensive physical properties of biomass burning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Koppmann, R.; Eck, T. F.; Eleuterio, D. P.

    2005-03-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous advances in atmospheric aerosol particle research that is often performed in the context of climate and global change science. Biomass burning, one of the largest sources of accumulation mode particles globally, has been closely studied for its radiative, geochemical, and dynamic impacts. These studies have taken many forms including laboratory burns, in situ experiments, remote sensing, and modeling. While the differing perspectives of these studies have ultimately improved our qualitative understanding of biomass-burning issues, the varied nature of the work make inter-comparisons and resolutions of some specific issues difficult. In short, the literature base has become a milieu of small pieces of the biomass-burning puzzle. This manuscript, the second part of four, examines the properties of biomass-burning particle emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning the measurement of smoke particle size, chemistry, thermodynamic properties, and emission factors. Where appropriate, critiques of measurement techniques are presented. We show that very large differences in measured particle properties have appeared in the literature, in particular with regards to particle carbon budgets. We investigate emissions uncertainties using scale analyses, which shows that while emission factors for grass and brush are relatively well known, very large uncertainties still exist in emission factors of boreal, temperate and some tropical forests. Based on an uncertainty analysis of the community data set of biomass burning measurements, we present simplified models for particle size and emission factors. We close this review paper with a discussion of the community experimental data, point to lapses in the data set, and prioritize future research topics.

  13. A review of biomass burning emissions, part II: Intensive physical properties of biomass burning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. S.; Koppmann, R.; Eck, T. F.; Eleuterio, D. P.

    2004-09-01

    The last decade has seen tremendous advances in atmospheric aerosol particle research that is often performed in the context of climate and global change science. Biomass burning, one of the largest sources of accumulation mode particles globally, has been closely studied for its radiative, geochemical, and dynamic impacts. These studies have taken many forms including laboratory burns, in situ experiments, remote sensing, and modeling. While the differing perspectives of these studies have ultimately improved our qualitative understanding of biomass burning issues, the varied nature of the work make inter-comparisons and resolutions of some specific issues difficult. In short, the literature base has become a milieu of small pieces of the biomass-burning puzzle. This manuscript, the second part of four, examines the properties of biomass-burning particle emissions. Here we review and discuss the literature concerning the measurement of smoke particle size, chemistry, thermodynamic properties, and emission factors. Where appropriate, critiques of measurement techniques are presented. We show that very large differences in measured particle properties have appeared in the literature, in particular with regards to particle carbon budgets. We investigate emissions uncertainties using scale analyses, which shows that while emission factors for grass and brush are relatively well known, very large uncertainties still exist in emission factors of boreal, temperate and some tropical forests. Based on an uncertainty analysis of the community data set of biomass burning measurements, we present simplified models for particle size and emission factors. We close this review paper with a discussion of the community experimental data, point to lapses in the data set, and prioritize future research topics.

  14. Alternative strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste Part B: Emission and cost estimates.

    PubMed

    Consonni, S; Giugliano, M; Grosso, M

    2005-01-01

    This two-part paper assesses four strategies for energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by dedicated Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants. In strategy 1, the residue of Material Recovery (MR) is fed directly to a grate combustor, while in strategy 2 the grate combustor comes downstream of light mechanical treatment. In strategies 3 and 4, the MR residue is converted into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), in a fluidized cumbuster bed. The results of Part A, devoted to mass and energy balances, clearly show that pre-treating the MR residue in order to increase the heating value of the feedstock fed to the WTE plant has marginal effects on the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. When considering the efficiency of the whole strategy of waste management, the energy balances show that the more thorough the pre-treatment, the smaller the amount of energy recovered per unit of MR residue. Starting from the heat/mass balances illustrated in Part A, Part B examines the environmental impacts and economics of the various strategies by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Results show that treating the MR residues ahead of the WTE plant does not provide environmental or economic benefits. RDF production worsens almost all impact indicators because it reduces net electricity production and thus the displacement of power plant emissions; it also increases costs, because the benefits of improving the quality of the material fed to the WTE plant do not compensate the cost of such improvement.

  15. Characterization of gaseous pollutant and particulate matter emission rates from a commercial broiler operation part II: Correlated emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumeliotis, Taylor S.; Dixon, Brad J.; Van Heyst, Bill J.

    2010-10-01

    Emission rates of ammonia, acid gases, inorganic aerosols, methane, and size fractionated particulate matter were measured from a commercial broiler facility. This paper discusses the statistically influential parameters on numerous pollutants' emission from a broiler chicken facility and generates emission correlations to fill data gaps and develop averaged emission factors. Live mass of the birds was commonly a significant variable to each pollutant's emission. Some variables significantly impacted the pollutants' emissions, such as litter moisture content, but were measured discretely and cannot be used for filling in data gaps. House parameter correlations were, therefore, developed using parameters measured at the facility, such as indoor temperature, relative humidity, and the live mass of the birds, and relied on the mutual behaviour of discretely measured explanatory parameters and continuously monitored confounding variables. The live mass and the difference in the indoor temperature and the house set-point temperature were the most significant variables in each pollutant's correlation. The correlations predicted each pollutants emission to within 20% (total mass basis) over most broiler production cycles. Their validation on independent datasets also successfully estimated the flocks' emissions to within 3%. Emission factors (EFs) were developed for methane, ammonia, and size fractionated particulate matter using measured data and correlated emissions to fill in data gaps. PM 10 (particulate matter ≤10 microns) EFs were estimated to be 4.6 and 5.9 g d -1 [Animal Unit, AU] -1 for five and six week production cycles, respectively. PM 2.5 (PM ≤ 2.5 microns) EFs were 0.8 and 1.4 g d -1 AU -1 for five and six week cycles, respectively. Ammonia and methane emission factors were estimated at 120.8 and 197.0 g d -1 AU -1, respectively for a five week production cycle.

  16. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 1: gaseous and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Prem; Rye, Lucas; Williams, Paul I; Christie, Simon; Uryga-Bugajska, Ilona; Wilson, Christopher W; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Blakey, Simon; Coe, Hugh; Raper, David; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2012-10-02

    Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. One such strategy being investigated is the use of alternative fuels in aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs) as a means to diversify fuel supplies and reduce emissions. This paper summarizes the results of a study to characterize the emissions of an APU, a small gas turbine engine, burning conventional Jet A-1, a fully synthetic jet fuel, and other alternative fuels with varying compositions. Gas phase emissions were measured at the engine exit plane while PM emissions were recorded at the exit plane as well as 10 m downstream of the engine. Five percent reduction in NO(x) emissions and 5-10% reduction in CO emissions were observed for the alternative fuels. Significant reductions in PM emissions at the engine exit plane were achieved with the alternative fuels. However, as the exhaust plume expanded and cooled, organic species were found to condense on the PM. This increase in organic PM elevated the PM mass but had little impact on PM number.

  17. Characterization of Delayed-Particle Emission Signatures for Pyroprocessing. Part 1: ABTR Fuel Assembly.

    SciTech Connect

    Durkee, Jr., Joe W.

    2015-06-19

    A three-part study is conducted using the MCNP6 Monte Carlo radiation-transport code to calculate delayed-neutron (DN) and delayed-gamma (DG) emission signatures for nondestructive assay (NDA) metal-fuel pyroprocessing. In Part 1, MCNP6 is used to produce irradiation-induced used nuclear fuel (UNF) isotopic inventories for an Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Advanced Burner Test Reactor (ABTR) preconceptual design fuel assembly (FA) model. The initial fuel inventory consists of uranium mixed with light-water-reactor transuranic (TRU) waste and 10 wt% zirconium (U-LWR-SFTRU-10%Zr). To facilitate understanding, parametric evaluation is done using models for 3% and 5% initial 235U a% enrichments, burnups of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, …, 120 GWd/MTIHM, and 3-, 5-, 10-, 20-, and 30- year cooling times. Detailed delayed-particle radioisotope source terms for the irradiate FA are created using BAMF-DRT and SOURCES3A. Using simulation tallies, DG activity ratios (DGARs) are developed for 134Cs/137Cs 134Cs/154Eu, and 154Eu/137Cs markers as a function of (1) burnup and (2) actinide mass, including elemental uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium, and curium. Spectral-integrated DN emission is also tallied. The study reveals a rich assortment of DGAR behavior as a function of DGAR type, enrichment, burnup, and cooling time. Similarly, DN emission plots show variation as a function of burnup and of actinide mass. Sensitivity of DGAR and DN signatures to initial 235U enrichment, burnup, and cooling time is evident. Comparisons of the ABTR radiation signatures and radiation signatures previously reported for a generic Westinghouse oxide-fuel assembly indicate that there are pronounced differences in the ABTR and Westinghouse oxide-fuel DN and DG signatures. These differences are largely attributable to the initial TRU inventory in the ABTR fuel. The actinide and nonactinide inventories for the

  18. Imaging of SO2 emissions from anthropogenic sources as part of AROMAT campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenot, H. H.; Merlaud, A.; Meier, A.; Ruhtz, T.; Van Roozendael, M.; Stebel, K.; Constantin, D.; Belegante, L.; Dekemper, E.; Theys, N.; Campion, R.; Schuettemeyer, D.

    2015-12-01

    This study presents field campaign measurements of SO2 emissions from pollution source in Romania. Three types of instruments (SO2 camera, whisk and push broom imager) proceeded ground-based and airborne data acquisition as part of the AROMAT ESA project (monitoring of SO2 plume from a large thermoelectric plant). The SO2 camera used is an imaging system composed of two UV cameras (synchronised in space and time) allowing fast acquisitions of intensity. Each camera is equipped with the same lens and a specific narrow band-pass filter (one at the wavelength at which SO2 absorbs and one at an off-band wavelength). The combination of two UV cameras provides a 2D image of the integrated content of SO2. The Small Whisk broom Imager for trace gases monitoriNG (SWING) used in this study and developed at the Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA), is based on a compact ultra-violet visible spectrometer and a scanning mirror. The Airborne imaging instrument for Measurements of Atmospheric Pollution (AirMAP) constructed at the Institute of Environmental Physics of the University of Bremen (IUP), performed SO2 measurements in the UV-visible spectral range. Both whisk and push broom scanner use the DOAS technique, that is based on the relationship between the quantity of light absorbed and the number of SO2 molecules in the light path. SWING and AirMAP instruments provide scans of SO2 column density. Quantification of 2D field contents and fluxes of anthropogenic SO2 emissions from Turceni power station (Romania) are shown. Preparatory results from data acquisition in the harbour of Antwerp (monitoring of SO2 emissions from refinery and chemical industry) are also presented.

  19. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within the Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS) a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a data base containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 in high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea, which was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25% in summer and 15% in winter. Some hundred kilometers away from the sea the contribution was about 6% in summer and 4% in

  20. Work function measurements by the field emission retarding potential method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, L. W.; Strayer, R. W.; Mackie, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Using the field emission retarding potential method true work functions have been measured for the following monocrystalline substrates: W(110), W(111), W(100), Nb(100), Ni(100), Cu(100), Ir(110) and Ir(111). The electron elastic and inelastic reflection coefficients from several of these surfaces have also been examined near zero primary beam energy.

  1. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide via zero emissions--an alternative way to a stable global environment. Part 2: a practical zero-emissions scenario.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Taroh; Maruyama, Koki; Tsutsui, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Following Part 1, a comparison of CO(2)-emissions pathways between "zero-emissions stabilization (Z-stabilization)" and traditional stabilization is made under more realistic conditions that take into account the radiative forcings of other greenhouse gases and aerosols with the constraint that the temperature rise must not exceed 2 °C above the preindustrial level. It is shown that the findings in Part 1 on the merits of Z-stabilization hold under the more realistic conditions. The results clarify the scientific basis of the policy claim of 50% reduction of the world CO(2) emissions by 2050. Since the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and temperature occur only temporarily in Z-stabilization pathways, we may slightly relax the upper limit of the temperature rise. We can then search for a scenario with larger emissions in the 21st century; such a scenario may have potential for practical application. It is suggested that in this Z-stabilization pathway, larger emissions in the near future may be important from a socioeconomic viewpoint.

  2. Gunshot residue testing in suicides: Part II: Analysis by inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Molina, D Kimberley; Castorena, Joe L; Martinez, Michael; Garcia, James; DiMaio, Vincent J M

    2007-09-01

    Several different methods can be employed to test for gunshot residue (GSR) on a decedent's hands, including scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray (SEM/EDX) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In part I of this 2-part series, GSR results performed by SEM/EDX in undisputed cases of suicidal handgun wounds were studied. In part II, the same population was studied, deceased persons with undisputed suicidal handgun wounds, but GSR testing was performed using ICP-AES. A total of 102 cases were studied and analyzed for caliber of weapon, proximity of wound, and the results of the GSR testing. This study found that 50% of cases where the deceased was known to have fired a handgun immediately prior to death had positive GSR results by ICP/AES, which did not differ from the results of GSR testing by SEM/EDX. Since only 50% of cases where the person is known to have fired a weapon were positive for GSR by either method, this test should not be relied upon to determine whether someone has discharged a firearm and is not useful as a determining factor of whether or not a wound is self-inflicted or non-self-inflicted. While a positive GSR result may be of use, a negative result is not helpful in the medical examiner setting as a negative result indicates that either a person fired a weapon prior to death or a person did not fire a weapon prior to death.

  3. Alternate-Fueled Combustor-Sector Performance. Parts A and B; (A) Combustor Performance; (B) Combustor Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shouse, D. T.; Hendricks, R. C.; Lynch, A.; Frayne, C. W.; Stutrud, J. S.; Corporan, E.; Hankins, T.

    2012-01-01

    Alternate aviation fuels for military or commercial use are required to satisfy MIL-DTL-83133F(2008) or ASTM D 7566 (2010) standards, respectively, and are classified as "drop-in" fuel replacements. To satisfy legacy issues, blends to 50% alternate fuel with petroleum fuels are certified individually on the basis of processing and assumed to be feedstock agnostic. Adherence to alternate fuels and fuel blends requires "smart fueling systems" or advanced fuel-flexible systems, including combustors and engines, without significant sacrifice in performance or emissions requirements. This paper provides preliminary performance (Part A) and emissions and particulates (Part B) combustor sector data. The data are for nominal inlet conditions at 225 psia and 800 F (1.551 MPa and 700 K), for synthetic-paraffinic-kerosene- (SPK-) type (Fisher-Tropsch (FT)) fuel and blends with JP-8+100 relative to JP-8+100 as baseline fueling. Assessments are made of the change in combustor efficiency, wall temperatures, emissions, and luminosity with SPK of 0%, 50%, and 100% fueling composition at 3% combustor pressure drop. The performance results (Part A) indicate no quantifiable differences in combustor efficiency, a general trend to lower liner and higher core flow temperatures with increased FT fuel blends. In general, emissions data (Part B) show little differences, but with percent increase in FT-SPK-type fueling, particulate emissions and wall temperatures are less than with baseline JP-8. High-speed photography illustrates both luminosity and combustor dynamic flame characteristics.

  4. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... = (coal SO2 emissions) + (oil SO2 emissions) (in tons) If gas is the only fuel, gas emissions are... AP-42 factor Bituminous, anthracite 39 lbs/ton Subbituminous 35 Lignite 30 For oil, the yearly fuel... (light) 142 lbs/1,000 gal Residual (heavy) 157 For all fuel, the units conversion factor is 1...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... = (coal SO2 emissions) + (oil SO2 emissions) (in tons) If gas is the only fuel, gas emissions are... AP-42 factor Bituminous, anthracite 39 lbs/ton Subbituminous 35 Lignite 30 For oil, the yearly fuel... (light) 142 lbs/1,000 gal Residual (heavy) 157 For all fuel, the units conversion factor is 1...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 72 - Actual 1985 Yearly SO2 Emissions Calculation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... = (coal SO2 emissions) + (oil SO2 emissions) (in tons) If gas is the only fuel, gas emissions are... AP-42 factor Bituminous, anthracite 39 lbs/ton Subbituminous 35 Lignite 30 For oil, the yearly fuel... (light) 142 lbs/1,000 gal Residual (heavy) 157 For all fuel, the units conversion factor is 1...

  7. Odor and chemical emissions from dairy and swine facilities: Part 1 - project overview and collection methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock facilities have received numerous criticisms due to their emissions of odorous air and chemicals. Hence, there is a significant need for odor emission factors and identification of principle odorous chemicals. Odor emission factors are used as inputs to odor setback models, while chemica...

  8. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 6.Odor activity value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a growing concern with air and odor emissions from agricultural facilities. A supplementary research project was conducted to complement the U.S. National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS). The overall goal of the project was to establish odor and chemical emission factors for animal...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Determination of Emission Rate Change

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission rate to the atmosphere. The method used is the Student's t test, commonly used to make inferences... difference between E b and E a is significant, and an increase in emission rate to the atmosphere has... significant, and there has been an increase in emission rate to the atmosphere. 6.Continuous Monitoring Data...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Determination of Emission Rate Change

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission rate to the atmosphere. The method used is the Student's t test, commonly used to make inferences... difference between E b and E a is significant, and an increase in emission rate to the atmosphere has... significant, and there has been an increase in emission rate to the atmosphere. 6.Continuous Monitoring Data...

  11. Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    BIRCH, M. EILEEN

    2015-01-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High-volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010; 54:514–31)]. Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported in Part I [Birch ME et al. (Exposure and emissions monitoring during carbon nanofiber production—Part I: elemental carbon and iron–soot aerosols. Ann Occup Hyg 2011; 55: 1016–36.)] whereas results for PAHs are reported here. Naphthalene and acenaphthylene were the dominant PAHs with average concentrations ranging from 115 to 336 μg m−3 and 35 to 84 μg m−3, respectively. Concentrations of other PAHs ranged from ~1 to 10 μg m−3. PMID:21976308

  12. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part I. Black carbon.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Xu, Hui; Du, Ke

    2016-12-01

    Compressed natural gas (CNG) is considered to be a "cleaner" fuel compared to other fossil fuels. Therefore, it is used as an alternative fuel in motor vehicles to reduce emissions of air pollutants in transportation. To quantify "how clean" burning CNG is compared to burning gasoline, quantification of pollutant emissions under the same driving conditions for motor vehicles with different fuels is needed. In this study, a fleet of bi-fuel vehicles was selected to measure the emissions of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) for driving in CNG mode and gasoline mode respectively under the same set of constant speeds and accelerations. Comparison of emission factors (EFs) for the vehicles burning CNG and gasoline are discussed. This part of the paper series reports BC EFs for bi-fuel vehicles driving on the real road, which were measured using an in situ method. Our results show that burning CNG will lead to 54%-83% reduction in BC emissions per kilometer, depending on actual driving conditions. These comparisons show that CNG is a cleaner fuel than gasoline for motor vehicles in terms of BC emissions and provide a viable option for reducing BC emissions cause by transportation.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 136 - Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometric Method for Trace Element Analysis of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic... to Part 136—Inductively Coupled Plasma—Atomic Emission Spectrometric Method for Trace Element... technique. Samples are nebulized and the aerosol that is produced is transported to the plasma torch...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 136 - Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometric Method for Trace Element Analysis of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic... to Part 136—Inductively Coupled Plasma—Atomic Emission Spectrometric Method for Trace Element... technique. Samples are nebulized and the aerosol that is produced is transported to the plasma torch...

  15. Characterizing biofuel combustion with patterns of real-time emission data (PaRTED).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanju; Roden, Christoph A; Bond, Tami C

    2012-06-05

    Emission properties and quantities from combustion sources can vary significantly during operation, and this characteristic variability is hidden in the traditional presentation of emission test averages. As a complement to the emission test averages, we introduce the notion of statistical pattern analysis to characterize temporal fluctuations in emissions, using cluster analysis and frequency plots. We demonstrate this approach by comparing emissions from traditional and improved wood-burning cookstoves under in-field conditions, and also to contrast laboratory and in-field cookstove performance. Compared with traditional cookstoves, improved cookstoves eliminate emissions that occur at low combustion efficiency. For cookstoves where the only improvement is an insulated combustion chamber, this change results in emission of more light-absorbing (black) particles. When a chimney is added, the stoves produce more black particles but also have reduced emission factors. Laboratory tests give different results than in-field tests, because they fail to reproduce a significant fraction of low-efficiency events, spikes in particulate matter (PM) emissions, and less-absorbing particles. These conditions should be isolated and replicated in future laboratory testing protocols to ensure that stove designs are relevant to in-use operation.

  16. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-02

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane.

  17. 40 CFR 1060.101 - What evaporative emission requirements apply under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD... diurnal emission standards, including portable marine fuel tanks: (i) All equipment must have a tethered... remain securely connected to prevent fuel leakage throughout the useful life of the equipment. (ii)...

  18. 40 CFR 1060.101 - What evaporative emission requirements apply under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD... diurnal emission standards, including portable marine fuel tanks: (i) All equipment must have a tethered... remain securely connected to prevent fuel leakage throughout the useful life of the equipment. (ii)...

  19. 40 CFR 1060.101 - What evaporative emission requirements apply under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD... diurnal emission standards, including portable marine fuel tanks: (i) All equipment must have a tethered... remain securely connected to prevent fuel leakage throughout the useful life of the equipment. (ii)...

  20. 40 CFR 1060.101 - What evaporative emission requirements apply under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EVAPORATIVE EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD... diurnal emission standards, including portable marine fuel tanks: (i) All equipment must have a tethered... remain securely connected to prevent fuel leakage throughout the useful life of the equipment. (ii)...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 72 - Methodology for Conversion of Emissions Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... site-specific heat rates and capacities to develop conversions for Btu per hour. Standard conversion... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Methodology for Conversion of... Conversion of Emissions Limits For the purposes of the Acid Rain Program, all emissions limits must...

  2. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: Part 4 - correlations between sensory and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study supplemented the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) by making comprehensive measurements, over a full calendar year, of odor emissions from five swine and four dairy rooms/buildings (subset of the total number of buildings monitored for the NAEMS project). The measurements ma...

  3. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: part 4-correlations between sensory and chemical measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study supplemented the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) with one year of comprehensive measurements of odor emission at five swine and four dairy buildings. The measurements included both standard human sensory measurements using dynamic forced-choice olfactometry and chemical an...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 51 - Minimum Emission Monitoring Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... in paragraph 2.1 of this appendix, shall be monitored for opacity, nitrogen oxides emissions, sulfur... nitrogen oxides emissions. 1.2 Exemptions. The States may include provisions within their regulations to... continuous monitoring system for the measurement of nitrogen oxides which meets the performance...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix P to Part 51 - Minimum Emission Monitoring Requirements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in paragraph 2.1 of this appendix, shall be monitored for opacity, nitrogen oxides emissions, sulfur... nitrogen oxides emissions. 1.2 Exemptions. The States may include provisions within their regulations to... continuous monitoring system for the measurement of nitrogen oxides which meets the performance...

  6. Inventory of aerosol and sulphur dioxide emissions from India. Part II—biomass combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Shekar; Venkataraman, Chandra

    A spatially resolved biomass burning data set, and related emissions of sulphur dioxide and aerosol chemical constituents was constructed for India, for 1996-1997 and extrapolated to the INDOEX period (1998-1999). Sources include biofuels (wood, crop waste and dung-cake) and forest fires (accidental, shifting cultivation and controlled burning). Particulate matter (PM) emission factors were compiled from studies of Indian cooking stoves and from literature for open burning. Black carbon (BC) and organic matter (OM) emissions were estimated from these, accounting for combustion temperatures in cooking stoves. Sulphur dioxide emission factors were based on fuel sulphur content and reported literature measurements. Biofuels accounted 93% of total biomass consumption (577 MT yr -1), with forest fires contributing only 7%. The national average biofuel mix was 56 : 21 : 23% of fuelwood, crop waste and dung-cake, respectively. Compared to fossil fuels, biomass combustion was a minor source of SO 2 (7% of total), with higher emissions from dung-cake because of its higher sulphur content. PM 2.5 emissions of 2.04 Tg yr -1 with an "inorganic fraction" of 0.86 Tg yr -1 were estimated. Biomass combustion was the major source of carbonaceous aerosols, accounting 0.25 Tg yr -1 of BC (72% of total) and 0.94 Tg yr -1 of OM (76% of total). Among biomass, fuelwood and crop waste were primary contributors to BC emissions, while dung-cake and forest fires were primary contributors to OM emissions. Northern and the east-coast India had high densities of biomass consumption and related emissions. Measurements of emission factors of SO 2, size resolved aerosols and their chemical constituents for Indian cooking stoves are needed to refine the present estimates.

  7. Molecular iodine emission rates and photosynthetic performance of different thallus parts of Laminaria digitata (Phaeophyceae) during emersion.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Udo; Ruth, Albert A; Dixneuf, Sophie; Stengel, Dagmar B

    2011-04-01

    The emission of molecular iodine (I(2)) from the stipe, the meristematic area and the distal blade of the brown macroalga Laminaria digitata (Hudson) Lamouroux (Phaeophyceae) was monitored under low light and dark conditions. Photosynthetic parameters were determined to investigate both the extent of stress experienced by different thallus parts and the effects of emersion on photosynthesis. Immediately after air exposure, intense I(2) emission was detectable from all thallus parts. I(2) emission declined continuously over a period of 180 min following the initial burst, but was not affected by the light regime. The total number of mole of I(2) emitted by stipes was approximately 10 times higher than those emitted from other thallus parts. Initial I(2) emission rates (measured within 30 min of exposure to air) were highest for stipes (median values: 2,999 and 5,222 pmol g(-1) dw min(-1) in low light and dark, respectively) and lower, by one order of magnitude, for meristematic regions and distal blades. After exposure to air for between 60 and 180 min, I(2) emission rates of all thallus parts were reduced by 70-80%. Air exposure resulted in a decrease of the maximum photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) by 3%, and in a 25-55% increase of the effective PSII quantum efficiency (F(v)/F'(m)); this was caused by a higher fraction of open reaction centres (q(P)), whereas the efficiency of the latter in capturing energy (F'(v)/F'(m)) remained constant. The results indicate the presence of an iodine pool which is easily volatilised and depleted due to air exposure, even under apparently low stress conditions.

  8. Size and composition distributions of particulate matter emissions: part 1--light-duty gasoline vehicles.

    PubMed

    Robert, Michael A; VanBergen, Saskia; Kleeman, Michael J; Jakober, Christopher A

    2007-12-01

    Size-resolved particulate matter (PM) emitted from light-duty gasoline vehicles (LDGVs) was characterized using filter-based samplers, cascade impactors, and scanning mobility particle size measurements in the summer 2002. Thirty LDGVs, with different engine and emissions control technologies (model years 1965-2003; odometer readings 1264-207,104 mi), were tested on a chassis dynamometer using the federal test procedure (FTP), the unified cycle (UC), and the correction cycle (CC). LDGV PM emissions were strongly correlated with vehicle age and emissions control technology. The oldest models had average ultrafine PM0.1 (0.056- to 0.1-microm aerodynamic diameter) and fine PM1.8 (< or =1.8-microm aerodynamic diameter) emission rates of 9.6 mg/km and 213 mg/km, respectively. The newest vehicles had PM0.1 and PM1.8 emissions of 51 microg/km and 371 microg/km, respectively. Light duty trucks and sport utility vehicles had PM0.1 and PM1.8 emissions nearly double the corresponding emission rates from passenger cars. Higher PM emissions were associated with cold starts and hard accelerations. The FTP driving cycle produced the lowest emissions, followed by the UC and the CC. PM mass distributions peaked between 0.1- and 0.18-microm particle diameter for all vehicles except those emitting visible smoke, which peaked between 0.18 and 0.32 microm. The majority of the PM was composed of carbonaceous material, with only trace amounts of water-soluble ions. Elemental carbon (EC) and organic matter (OM) had similar size distributions, but the EC/OM ratio in LDGV exhaust particles was a strong function of the adopted emissions control technology and of vehicle maintenance. Exhaust from LDGV classes with lower PM emissions generally had higher EC/OM ratios. LDGVs adopting newer technologies were characterized by the highest EC/OM ratios, whereas OM dominated PM emissions from older vehicles. Driving cycles with cold starts and hard accelerations produced higher EC/OM ratios in

  9. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  10. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Methods for Estimating Radionuclide Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Table 1. Table 1—Adjustment to Emission Factors for Effluent Controls Controls Types of radionuclides... applicable to gaseous radionuclides; periodic testing is prudent to ensure high removal efficiency....

  12. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 61 - Methods for Estimating Radionuclide Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Table 1. Table 1—Adjustment to Emission Factors for Effluent Controls Controls Types of radionuclides... applicable to gaseous radionuclides; periodic testing is prudent to ensure high removal efficiency....

  13. 40 CFR 1060.101 - What evaporative emission requirements apply under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... family emission limit, which serves as the standard for those components. (f) This paragraph (f... remain securely connected to prevent fuel leakage throughout the useful life of the equipment. (ii)...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1042 - Summary of Previous Emission Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS... standards apply to compression-ignition marine engines produced before the model years specified in §...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1042 - Summary of Previous Emission Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS... standards apply to compression-ignition marine engines produced before the model years specified in §...

  16. Guidance for Halon Emissions Reduction Rule (40 CFR Part 82, Subpart H)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Document provides guidance for technicians on compliance with EPA's halon emission reduction rule (40 CFR 82, Subpart H). Guidance covers technician training requirements and proper halon disposal and recycling.

  17. B Stars with and without emission lines, parts 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. (Editor); Doazan, V. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The spectra for B stars for which emission lines occur not on the main sequence, but only among the supergiants, and those B stars for which the presence of emission in H ahlpa is considered to be a significant factor in delineating atmospheric structure are examined. The development of models that are compatible with all known facts about a star and with the laws of physics is also discussed.

  18. Emission factors of air pollutants from CNG-gasoline bi-fuel vehicles: Part II. CO, HC and NOx.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yang; Xing, Zhenyu; Du, Ke

    2016-09-15

    The estimation of emission factors (EFs) is the basis of accurate emission inventory. However, the EFs of air pollutants for motor vehicles vary under different operating conditions, which will cause uncertainty in developing emission inventory. Natural gas (NG), considered as a "cleaner" fuel than gasoline, is increasingly being used to reduce combustion emissions. However, information is scarce about how much emission reduction can be achieved by motor vehicles burning NG (NGVs) under real road driving conditions, which is necessary for evaluating the environmental benefits for NGVs. Here, online, in situ measurements of the emissions from nine bi-fuel vehicles were conducted under different operating conditions on the real road. A comparative study was performed for the EFs of black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) for each operating condition when the vehicles using gasoline and compressed NG (CNG) as fuel. BC EFs were reported in part I. The part II in this paper series reports the influence of operating conditions and fuel types on the EFs of CO, HC and NOx. Fuel-based EFs of CO showed good correlations with speed when burning CNG and gasoline. The correlation between fuel-based HC EFs and speed was relatively weak whether burning CNG or gasoline. The fuel-based NOx EFs moderately correlated with speed when burning CNG, but weakly correlated with gasoline. As for HC, the mileage-based EFs of gasoline vehicles are 2.39-12.59 times higher than those of CNG vehicles. The mileage-based NOx EFs of CNG vehicles are slightly higher than those of gasoline vehicles. These results would facilitate a detailed analysis of the environmental benefits for replacing gasoline with CNG in light duty vehicles.

  19. Boiler briquette coal versus raw coal: Part I--Stack gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Ge, S; Bai, Z; Liu, W; Zhu, T; Wang, T; Qing, S; Zhang, J

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM10, 0.38 for PM2.5, 20.7 for SO2, and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM10, 0.30 for PM2.5, 7.5 for SO2, and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM10, 0.87 for PM2.5, 46.7 for SO2, and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM10, 0.79 for PM2.5, 19.9 for SO2, and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5, 6.4 for SO2, and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM10, 0.094 for PM2.5, 2.4 for SO2, and 1.7 for CO. PM10 and PM2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  20. Boiler Briquette Coal versus Raw Coal: Part I-Stack Gas Emissions.

    PubMed

    Ge, Su; Bai, Zhipeng; Liu, Weili; Zhu, Tan; Wang, Tongjian; Qing, Sheng; Zhang, Junfeng

    2001-04-01

    Stack gas emissions were characterized for a steam-generating boiler commonly used in China. The boiler was tested when fired with a newly formulated boiler briquette coal (BB-coal) and when fired with conventional raw coal (R-coal). The stack gas emissions were analyzed to determine emission rates and emission factors and to develop chemical source profiles. A dilution source sampling system was used to collect PM on both Teflon membrane filters and quartz fiber filters. The Teflon filters were analyzed gravimetrically for PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) for trace elements. The quartz fiber filters were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) using a thermal/optical reflectance technique. Sulfur dioxide was measured using the standard wet chemistry method. Carbon monoxide was measured using an Orsat combustion analyzer. The emission rates of the R-coal combustion (in kg/hr), determined using the measured stack gas concentrations and the stack gas emission rates, were 0.74 for PM10, 0.38 for PM25, 20.7 for SO2, and 6.8 for CO, while those of the BB-coal combustion were 0.95 for PM10, 0.30 for PM2 5, 7.5 for SO2, and 5.3 for CO. The fuel-mass-based emission factors (in g/kg) of the R-coal, determined using the emission rates and the fuel burn rates, were 1.68 for PM10, 0.87 for PM25, 46.7 for SO2, and 15 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 2.51 for PM10, 0.79 for PM2.5, 19.9 for SO2, and 14 for CO. The task-based emission factors (in g/ton steam generated) of the R-coal, determined using the fuel-mass-based emission factors and the coal/ steam conversion factors, were 0.23 for PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5, 6.4 for SO2, and 2.0 for CO, while those of the BB-coal were 0.30 for PM10, 0.094 for PM2.5, 2.4 for SO2, and 1.7 for CO. PM10 and PM2.5 elemental compositions are also presented for both types of coal tested in the study.

  1. Cylindrical Antenna Using Near Zero Index Metamaterial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-24

    device for enhancing the directivity and port isolation of a dual-frequency dual- polarization (DFDP) microstrip antenna by using metamaterial... Directivity Microstrip Patch Antenna Based on Zero-Index Metamaterial," IEEE Antennas and Wireless Prop. Letters, vol.8, no., pp.538-541, 2009. [0008...Invention [0003] The present invention is generally directed towards a cylindrical antenna and more specifically directed towards a cylindrical

  2. Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford site, Part 1: Dose assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W.E.; Barnett, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    On February 3, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office received a Compliance Order and Information Request from the Director of the Air and Toxics Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10. The Compliance Order requires RL to evaluate all radionuclide emission points at the Hanford Site to determine which are subject to continuous emission monitoring requirements in 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, and to continuously monitor radionuclide emissions in accordance with requirements in 40 CFR 61.93. The Information Request required RL to provide a written Compliance Plan to meet the requirements of the Compliance Order. A Compliance Plan was submitted to EPA, Region 10, on April 30, 1993. The Compliance Plan specified that a dose assessment would be performed for 84 Westinghouse Hanford Company stacks registered with the Washington State Department of Health on the Hanford Site. Stacks that have the potential emissions to cause an effective dose equivalent to a maximum exposed individual greater than 0.1 mrem/y must be monitored continuously for radionuclide emissions. Five methods were approved by EPA, Region 10 for performing the assessments: Release Fractions from Appendix D of 40 CFR 61, Back Calculations Using A HEPA Filtration Factor, Nondestructive Assay of HEPA Filters, A Spill Release Fraction, and Upstream of HEPA Filter Air Concentrations. The first two methods were extremely conservative for estimating releases. The third method, which used a state-of-the-art portable gamma spectrometer, yielded surprising results from the distribution of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. All five methods are described. Assessments using a HEPA Filtration Factor for back calculations identified 32 stacks that would have emissions that would cause an EDE to the MEI greater than 0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1}. The number was reduced to 15 stacks when the other methods were applied. The paper discusses reasons for the overestimates.

  3. Evaluation of the emissions from low-sulfur and biodiesel fuel used in a heavy-duty diesel truck during on-road operation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October of 2004, EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory investigated the emissions from diesel powered tractor-trailer operating along a highway at near-zero grade. In place of a dynamometer and standard dilution tunnel, the Diesel Emissions Aerosol Laboratory (DEA...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 92 - Guidelines for Determining Equivalency Between Emission Measurement Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be reasonable for the purpose of demonstrating equivalency between two test systems designed to measure the same emissions during FTP locomotive testing. These criteria are presented here only as...) General approach. (1) Multiple tests should be conducted in pairs on the same locomotive or engine...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 92 - Guidelines for Determining Equivalency Between Emission Measurement Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be reasonable for the purpose of demonstrating equivalency between two test systems designed to measure the same emissions during FTP locomotive testing. These criteria are presented here only as...) General approach. (1) Multiple tests should be conducted in pairs on the same locomotive or engine...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 92 - Guidelines for Determining Equivalency Between Emission Measurement Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be reasonable for the purpose of demonstrating equivalency between two test systems designed to measure the same emissions during FTP locomotive testing. These criteria are presented here only as...) General approach. (1) Multiple tests should be conducted in pairs on the same locomotive or engine...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix IV to Part 92 - Guidelines for Determining Equivalency Between Emission Measurement Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be reasonable for the purpose of demonstrating equivalency between two test systems designed to measure the same emissions during FTP locomotive testing. These criteria are presented here only as...) General approach. (1) Multiple tests should be conducted in pairs on the same locomotive or engine...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 1042 - Summary of Previous Emission Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS... standards apply to compression-ignition marine engines produced before the model years specified in § 1042.1... Standards for Commercial and Recreational Marine Engines at or Above 37 kW (g/kW-hr) Engine...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix D to Part 60 - Required Emission Inventory Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... one device operates in series. The method of control efficiency determination shall be indicated (e.g..., in percent, taking into account control equipment down time. This shall be a combined efficiency when more than one device operates in series. (4) An estimate of the designated pollutant emissions from...

  10. 350 nm Broadband Supercontinuum Generation Using Dispersion Engineered Near Zero Ultraflat Square-Lattice PCF around 1.55 μm and Fabrication Tolerance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Roy Chaudhuri, Partha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new design of ultraflat dispersion PCF based on square-lattice geometry with all uniform air holes towards broadband smooth SCG around the C-band of wavelength has been presented. The air hole of the inner ring was infiltrated with liquid of certain refractive indices. Numerical investigations establish a near zero ultraflattened dispersion of 0 ± 0.78 ps/nm/km in a wavelength range of 1496 nm to 2174 nm (678 nm bandwidth) covering most of the communications bands with the first zero dispersion wavelength around 1.54 μm. With the optimized ultraflattened fiber, we have achieved a broadband SC spectrum with FWHM of 350 nm with the central wavelength of 1550 nm with less than a meter long of the fiber by using a picosecond pulse laser. We have also analyzed the sensitivity of the optimized dispersion design by small variations from the optimum value of the geometrical structural parameters. Our investigations establish that for a negative change of PCF parameters, the profile retains the smooth and flat SCG spectra; however, for a positive change, the smooth and a flat spectrum is lost. The new design of the fiber will be capable of covering huge diverse field of DWDM sources, spectroscopy, meteorology, optical coherence tomography, and optical sensing. PMID:27355018

  11. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland - Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, C.; Flechard, C. R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2009-10-01

    Two commercial ammonia (NH3) analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland) by application of the aerodynamic gradient method (AGM). The semi-continuous measurements during 1.5 years covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during conditions of well established turbulence was 20% and the detection limit 10 ng NH3 m-2 s-1, hence sufficient for studying the background exchange of NH3. Quantifying emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during manure spreading in some parts of the experiments. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method (MBM) yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) varied between 4 and 19%, which is lower than typical values for broadspreading of liquid manure. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the rather thin slurry applied here and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 60 - Determination of Emission Rate Change

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Determination of Emission Rate Change C... occurred. Table 1 Degrees of freedom (n a=n b−2) t′ (95 percent confidence level) 2 2.920 3 2.353 4 2.132 5 2.015 6 1.943 7 1.895 8 1.860 For greater than 8 degrees of freedom, see any standard...

  13. [Positron emission tomography in neuroscience. An integrative part of clinical diagnostic methods and experimental research].

    PubMed

    Schaller, B

    2005-02-01

    The role of molecular neuroimaging techniques is increasing in the understanding of pathophysiological mechanism of diseases. To date, positron emission tomography is the most powerful tool for the non-invasive study of biochemical and molecular processes in humans and animals in vivo. With the development in radiochemistry and tracer technology, a variety of endogenously expressed and exogenously introduced genes can be analyzed by PET. This opens up the exciting and rapidly field of molecular imaging, aiming at the non-invasive localisation of a biological process of interest in normal and diseased cells in animal models and humans in vivo. Besides its usefulness for basic research positron emission tomography has been proven to be superior to conventional diagnostic methods in several clinical indications. This is illustrated by detection of biological or anatomic changes that cannot be demonstrated by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, as well as even before symptoms are expressed. The present review summarizes the clinical use of positron emission tomography in neuroscience that has helped elucidate the pathophysiology of a number of diseases and has suggested strategies in the treatment of these patients. Special reference is given to the neurovascular, neurodegenerative and neurooncological disease.

  14. Status of Geological Storage of CO2 as Part of Negative Emissions Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent analyses show that many GHG stabilization scenarios require technologies that permanently extract CO2 from the atmosphere -so-called "net negative emissions." Among the most promising negative emissions approaches is bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS). The most mature options for CO2 storage are in sedimentary rocks located in thick sedimentary basins. Within those basins, CO2 can be stored either in depleted or depleting hydrocarbon formations or in so-called saline aquifers. In addition to the economic costs of bioenergy with CO2 capture, key to the success of and scale at which BECCS can contribute to negative emissions is the ability to store quantities on the order of 1 Gt per year of CO2. Today, about 65 Mt of CO2 per year are injected underground for the purposes of enhancing oil recovery (CO2-EOR) or for CO2 storage, the vast majority being for CO2-EOR. Achieving 1 Gt per year of negative emissions will require a 15-fold scale up of the current injection operations. This paper will review the conditions necessary for storage at this scale, identify what has been learned from nearly 2 decades of experience with CO2 storage that provides insight into the feasibility of CO2 storage on this scale, and identify critical issues that remain to be resolved to meet these ambitious negative emissions targets. Critical technological issues include but are not limited to: the amount of CO2 storage capacity that is available and where it is located in relation to biomass energy resources; identification of sustainable injection rates and how this depends on the properties of the geological formation; the extent to which water extraction will be required to manage the magnitude of pressure buildup; identification of regions at high risk for induced seismicity that could damage structures and infrastructure; and selection of sites with a adequate seals to permanently contain CO2. Social, economic and political issues are also important: including the

  15. [Emission of microorganisms from sewage treatment plants depending upon construction differences of single structural parts].

    PubMed

    Eikmann, T; Schröder, S; Pieler, J; Bahr, H; Einbrodt, H J

    1986-04-01

    In order to examine the influence exerted by the differing design of individual water treatment plant units on the emission rate of micro-organisms and the associated degree of exposure to which plant personnel is subjected, measurements were taken at three different types of treatment plants. Measurements were made using "Biotest" RCS Air Samplers. The total count of colonies was determined by means of Agar Strips GK-A (tryptic soy agar). Enterobacteriaceae were quantitatively ascertained using Agar Strips C (MacConkey agar), particular attention being paid to the determination of the coliform bacteria as faeces indicators. Agar Strips S (mannitol salt agar) were used to measure the count of staphylococci using Agar Strips HS (rosa Bengal streptomycin agar). Before taking measurements, the prevailing climatic conditions were recorded. It could be ascertained that the enclosure of the inflow area (screw conveyor pump station and aerated grit removal tank) lead to a considerable increase in the concentration of microorganisms in the air within the housing. The values dropped however, when adequate ventilation was provided. Differing oxygen in the activated sludge tanks - finebubble aeration at the tank bottom or the blowing in of air via centrifugal blowers - lead to large variations in the emission rates. However, the less the waste water is agitated, the lower the emission rates. In the case of fine-bubble aeration, rates which are also normally to be found in the "non-burdened" outside air were even recorded close to the aeration tank. In cases of centrifugal blower, the aeration tank should be covered with a shield. With this type of aeration the waste water is emitted radially towards the walls of the tank. The use of a sprinkler unit on an aeration tank equipped with centrifugal blower - to avoid foam formation on the surface of the water - does not lead to an increase in the already high emission rate. An increase in air pollution through mould fungi from

  16. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill - Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions.

    PubMed

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika; Simmons, Donald L; Wels, Brian R; Spak, Scott N; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles; Stone, Elizabeth A

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies' findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg(-1)), particle number (3.5×10(16) kg(-1)), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg(-1)), EC (2.37 g kg(-1)), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg(-1)). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85-0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided.

  17. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill - Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Simmons, Donald L.; Wels, Brian R.; Spak, Scott N.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles O.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2015-03-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies' findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg-1), particle number (3.5 × 1016 kg-1), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg-1), EC (2.37 g kg-1), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg-1). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85 to 0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided.

  18. Thc continuous emission monitoring guidance for part 503 sewage sludge incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-30

    The Envrionmental Protection Agency's guidance document for monitoring of total hydrocarbons (THCs) at sewage sludge incinerators was finalized in response to comments received from Federal, State and local government agencies. The document contains recommendations for compliance with these requirements. It addresses installation, calibration, operation, and maintenance procedures for sewage sludge incinerators in the following areas: (1) THC continuous emissions monitoring (CEM); (2) oxygen CEM; (3) moisture CEM; (4) quality assurance; and (5) recordkeeping and reporting. The document will provide guidance for both the interim and long-term sludge permitting programs.

  19. Opacity and Mass Emission Relationship in Forging Areas of Large Caliber Metal Parts Facilities,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    was tested to he 0.0058 gr/dscf. The lubricating oil used at Flinchbaugh is designated as Hot Forging Agent 201 (HF 201), manufactured by E. F. Houghton...at the New Bedford forgi, shop are designated as MacForge 599 and MacForge-, 958. MacForge 958 is water, based, containing 1? percent oil and 24...determine mass emissions from optical density at another plant, the particulate characteristics and the ptrocess imu t be very siwilar to the plant

  20. Costs of Health Damage from Atmospheric Emissions of Toxic Metals: Part 1-Methods and Results.

    PubMed

    Nedellec, Vincent; Rabl, Ari

    2016-11-01

    Significant quantities of toxic metals are emitted to the air by the incineration of waste, as well as by the combustion of coal and oil. To optimize the regulations for their emissions one needs to know the cost of their damage. That requires an impact pathway analysis, with realistic dispersion models, exposure-response functions, and monetary values. In this article we explain the method and assumptions and present results for arsenic, cadmium, mercury, and lead, the most important toxic metals in terms of damage cost. We also estimate their contribution to the damage cost of waste incineration and electric power from coal for typical situations in Europe. The damage costs of As, Cd, and Pb are much higher than previous estimates because of a large number of new epidemiological studies, implying more and more serious health effects than what had been known before. New cost-benefit studies for the abatement of toxic metal emissions are advisable. The discussion of the epidemiological studies and the derivation of exposure-response functions are presented in two companion articles, one for As and Cd, the other for Hg and Pb.

  1. EPA`s plan for part 75 continuous emissions monitoring rule revisions

    SciTech Connect

    Macedonia, J.; Vollaro, R.; Culligan, K.; Sheppard, M.

    1997-12-31

    As a result of on-going internal and external assessment of the Acid Rain Program monitoring and reporting requirements, EPA, state environmental agencies, and utilities have identified areas of the Part 75 CEM regulations which would benefit from revision or clarification. Many of the suggested revisions will add increased flexibility to the utility industry in implementing and complying with the requirements of Part 75. Other revisions will clarify existing provisions in an effort to make the regulation more understandable. Still other revisions will provide increased quality assurance of the Acid Rain Program CEM data. The panel will present EPA`s current plans for a proposed rulemaking to incorporate the technical revisions to Part 75. The panel will briefly discuss EPA`s proposed revisions to some of the major issues and will respond to questions.

  2. 40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table W Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1A Table W-1A of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas...

  3. 40 CFR Table W - 1A of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas Production W Table W Protection of... REPORTING Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-1A Table W-1A of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Whole Gas Emission Factors for Onshore Petroleum and Natural Gas...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Determination of CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Wc = Carbon burned, lb/day, determined using fuel sampling and analysis and fuel feed rates. 2.1... reference under § 75.6 of this part). 2.1.3Use daily fuel feed rates from company records for all fuels and... sample, percent by weight. C% = Carbon content of ash, percent by weight. WCOAL = Feed rate of coal...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix G to Part 75 - Determination of CO2 Emissions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Wc = Carbon burned, lb/day, determined using fuel sampling and analysis and fuel feed rates. 2.1... reference under § 75.6 of this part). 2.1.3Use daily fuel feed rates from company records for all fuels and... sample, percent by weight. C% = Carbon content of ash, percent by weight. WCOAL = Feed rate of coal...

  6. The sum of the parts: can we really reduce carbon emissions through individual behaviour change?

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are increasingly being urged to 'do their bit' in the fight against climate change, with governments and pro-environmentalists insisting that the collective impact of small behaviour changes will result in a meaningful reduction in global carbon emissions. The following paper considers this debate, as well as offering personal contributions from two leading environmentalists: Dr Doug McKenzie-Mohr, environmental psychologist and author of Fostering Sustainable Behavior: Community-Based Social Marketing; and Dr Tom Crompton, change strategist for WWF and co-author of Meeting Environmental Challenges: The Role of Human Identity, who argues for the role of intrinsic value systems in achieving sustainable behaviour change. As well as considering the responsibility of the individual in mitigating climate change, the paper introduces the discipline of social marketing as an effective tool for facilitating individual behaviour change, drawing on evidence from the field to recommend the key characteristics of effective behaviour change programmes.

  7. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement—Part II: Effect of precipitation, wintertime road sanding, and street sweepers on inferred PM 10 emission potentials from paved and unpaved roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhns, H.; Etyemezian, V.; Green, M.; Hendrickson, Karin; McGown, Michael; Barton, Kevin; Pitchford, Marc

    Testing Re-Entrained Kinetic Emissions from Roads (TRAKER) is a new technique to infer paved and unpaved road dust PM 10 emission potentials based on particulate matter (PM) measurements made onboard a moving vehicle. Light scattering instruments mounted in front and behind the vehicle's tires measure the differential particle concentration of dust suspended by the vehicle's tire in contact with the road surface. Through empirical regressions relating the differential concentration (i.e. TRAKER signal) with the vehicle speed and the downwind flux of PM 10 particles from the road, an equation is derived to infer the speed independent road dust emission potential from the measured TRAKER signal. Measurements from TRAKER offer a new perspective on the processes that affect road dust emissions. The system was used to investigate temporal changes in emission potentials from paved roads in both the winter and summer in the Treasure Valley in Southwest Idaho. During the 3-week wintertime sampling period, the residential road dust PM 10 emission potential decreased by ˜50%. Summertime PM 10 emission potentials were similar to those observed at the end of the winter sampling and showed no upward or downward trends. Wintertime unpaved road emissions increased consistently with the number of days since the last rainfall. Measurement of road dust emission potentials after road sanding on dry roads indicated a 75% increase in PM 10 emissions after 2.5 h. This effect was short lived and emission potentials returned to their pre-sanding levels within 8 h of the sand application. Street sweeping with mechanical and vacuum sweepers was found to offer no measurable reduction in PM 10 emission potentials. On several roads, the PM 10 emission potentials actually increased immediately after vacuum sweeping. Long term effects of street sweeping on road dust emissions were not evaluated as part of this study and may offer some overall reduction in PM emissions from paved roads.

  8. C-Coupon Studies of SiC/SiC Composites. Part 1; Acoustic Emission Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Hurwitz, Frances I.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modal acoustic emission (AE) was used to monitor the acoustic activity during room temperature and elevated temperature c-coupon tests for a variety of SiC/SiC systems including composites containing Sylramic (trademark), ZMI (trademark), or Hi-Nicalon (trademark) fibers with melt-infiltrated or polymer-infiltrated SiC matrices. Modal AE proved excellent at monitoring matrix cracking in the curved portion of the C-coupon specimen with increasing load. This included the load at which the first AE event occurred and the location of AE events during the test that were, presumably, caused by the formation and growth of interlaminar cracks and, at higher loads, transverse cracks. Graphical techniques were employed to estimate the load for first AE. It was determined that for this test with these material systems, the first AE could be estimated within the load range bounded by the load at which initial deviation from linearity of the load-displacement curve occurs and the load where the 98% offset of the linear regression fit intercepted the load-displacement curve. The calculation of interlaminar tensile (ILT) stress from the load for first AE was determined for all the systems. Ultimate ILT strength usually corresponded to ILT stress determined from the ultimate load to failure of the C-coupon test, which was considerably higher than the first cracking stress.

  9. Air emission into a water shear layer through porous media. Part 2: Cavitation induced pressure attenuation

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, E.C.; Marboe, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Cavitation near the casing of a hydroturbine can lead to damage through both cavitation erosion and mechanical vibration of the casing and the associated piping. Cavitation erosion results from the collapse of cavitation bubbles on or near a surface such as the casing wall. Mechanical vibrations transmitted to the casing directly through the collapse of bubbles on the casing wall indirectly through a coupling of the acoustic pressure pulse due to a nearby collapse on the turbine blade. Air emission along the casing can reduce the intensity of the tip vortex and the gap cavitation through ventilation of the cavity. Reduction in the machinery vibration is obtained by reduction of the intensity of cavitation bubble collapse and attenuation and scattering of the radiated acoustic pressure. This requires a bubble layer which may be introduced in the vicinity of the turbine blade tips. This layer remains for some distance downstream of the blades and is effective for attenuation of tip vortex induced noise and blade surface cavitation noise. For the purpose of characterizing this bubble layer within a water pipe, the authors spanned a pipe with a two dimensional hydrofoil and emitted air through porous media (20 and 100 micron porosity sintered stainless steel) into the shear flow over the hydrofoil. This paper is limited to an investigation of the attenuation of acoustic pressure propagating to the casing rather than the reduction in acoustic source level due to collapse cushioning effects.

  10. Interpretation of the Definition of Fugitive Emissions in Parts 70 and 71

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  11. Interpretation of the Definition of Fugitive Emissions in Parts 70 and 71

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  12. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P<0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P<0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P<0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study enable

  13. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems — Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, T. A.; Zhao, Y.; Li, H.; Stinn, J. P.; Hayes, M. D.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P < 0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P < 0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P < 0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study

  14. 40 CFR Table I-5 to Subpart I - Table I-5 to Subpart I of Part 98-Table I-5 to Subpart I of Part 98-Default Emission Factors (1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Table I-5 to Subpart I of Part 98-Table I-5 to Subpart I of Part 98-Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for MEMS Manufacturing I Table I-5 to Subpart I Protection...

  15. 40 CFR Table I-7 to Subpart I - Table I-7 to Subpart I of Part 98-Table I-7 to Subpart I of Part 98-Default Emission Factors (1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Table I-7 to Subpart I of Part 98-Table I-7 to Subpart I of Part 98-Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for PV Manufacturing I Table I-7 to Subpart I Protection...

  16. 40 CFR Table I-6 to Subpart I - Table I-6 to Subpart I of Part 98-Table I-6 to Subpart I of Part 98-Default Emission Factors (1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Table I-6 to Subpart I of Part 98-Table I-6 to Subpart I of Part 98-Default Emission Factors (1-Uij) for Gas Utilization Rates (Uij) and By-Product Formation Rates (Bijk) for LCD Manufacturing I Table I-6 to Subpart I Protection...

  17. 40 CFR Table I-8 to Subpart I - Table I-8 to Subpart I of Part 98-Table I-8 to Subpart I of Part 98-Default Emission Factors (1...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Table I-8 to Subpart I of Part 98-Table I-8 to Subpart I of Part 98-Default Emission Factors (1-UN2O j) for N2O Utilization (UN2O j) I Table I-8 to Subpart I Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED)...

  18. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part II: Attribution of PM2.5 exposure to emissions species, time, location and sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedoussi, Irene C.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2014-12-01

    Combustion emissions constitute the largest source of anthropogenic emissions in the US, and lead to the degradation of air quality and human health. In Part I we computed the population fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure and number of early deaths caused by emissions from six major sectors: electric power generation, industry, commercial and residential activities, road transportation, marine transportation and rail transportation. In Part II we attribute exposure and early deaths to sectors, emissions species, time of emission, and location of emission. We apply a long-term adjoint sensitivity analysis and calculate the four dimensional sensitivities (time and space) of PM2.5 exposure with respect to each emissions species. Epidemiological evidence is used to relate increased population exposure to premature mortalities. This is the first regional application of the adjoint sensitivity analysis method to characterize long-term air pollution exposure. (A global scale application has been undertaken related to intercontinental pollution.) We find that for the electric power generation sector 75% of the attributable PM2.5 exposure is due to SO2 emissions, and 80% of the annual impacts are attributed to emissions from April to September. In the road transportation sector, 29% of PM2.5 exposure is due to NOx emissions and 33% is from ammonia (NH3), which is a result of emissions after-treatment technologies. We estimate that the benefit of reducing NH3 emissions from road transportation is ∼20 times that of NOx per unit mass. 75% of the road transportation ammonia impacts occur during the months October to March. We publicly release the sensitivity matrices computed, noting their potential use as a rapid air quality policy assessment tool.

  19. Developing a high-resolution vehicular emission inventory by integrating an emission model and a traffic model: Part 2--A case study in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haikun; Fu, Lixin; Chen, Jinchuan

    2010-12-01

    A grid-based, bottom-up method has been proposed by combining a vehicle emission model and a travel demand model to develop a high-resolution vehicular emission inventory for Chinese cities. Beijing is used as a case study in which the focus is on fuel consumption and emissions from hot-stabilized activities of light-duty gasoline vehicles (LGVs) in 2005. The total quantity of emissions, emission intensity, and spatial distribution of emissions at 1- by 1-km resolution are presented and compared with results from other inventory methods commonly used in China. The results show that the total daily fuel consumption and vehicular emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen from LGVs in the Beijing urban area in 2005 were 1.95 x 10(7) L, 4.28 x 10(4) t, 1.97 x 10(3) t, 0.28 x 10(3) t, and 0.14 x 10(3) t, respectively. Vehicular fuel consumption and emissions show spatial variations that are consistent with the traffic characteristics. The grid-based inventory developed in this study reflects the influence of traffic conditions on vehicle emissions at the microscale and may be applied to evaluate the effectiveness of traffic-related measures on emission control in China.

  20. Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part I: Elemental Carbon and Iron–Soot Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Birch, M. Eileen; Ku, Bon-Ki; Evans, Douglas E.; Ruda-Eberenz, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    Production of carbon nanofibers and nanotubes (CNFs/CNTs) and their composite products is increasing globally. High volume production may increase the exposure risks for workers who handle these materials. Though health effects data for CNFs/CNTs are limited, some studies raise serious health concerns. Given the uncertainty about their potential hazards, there is an immediate need for toxicity data and field studies to assess exposure to CNFs/CNTs. An extensive study was conducted at a facility that manufactures and processes CNFs. Filter, sorbent, cascade impactor, bulk, and microscopy samples, combined with direct-reading instruments, provided complementary information on air contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), with EC as a measure of CNFs. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy also was applied. Fine/ultrafine iron-rich soot, PAHs, and carbon monoxide were production byproducts. Direct-reading instrument results were reported previously [Evans DE et al. (Aerosol monitoring during carbon nanofiber production: mobile direct-reading sampling. Ann Occup Hyg 2010;54:514–31.)] Results for time-integrated samples are reported as companion papers in this Issue. OC and EC, metals, and microscopy results are reported here, in Part I, while results for PAHs are reported in Part II [Birch ME. (Exposure and Emissions Monitoring during Carbon Nanofiber Production—Part II: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Ann. Occup. Hyg 2011; 55: 1037–47.)]. Respirable EC area concentrations inside the facility were about 6–68 times higher than outdoors, while personal breathing zone samples were up to 170 times higher. PMID:21965464

  1. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix Xvi to Part 86 - Pollutant Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Low Emission Vehicle Program (October, 1996) shall apply. These procedures are incorporated by... Mass Emissions Calculation Procedure for Gaseous-Fueled Vehicles and for Vehicles Equipped With...-Fueled Vehicle Pollutant Mass Emission Calculation Procedure. (1) For all TLEVs, LEVs, and ULEVs,...

  5. Odor and odorous chemical emissions from animal buildings: part 1 - project overview, collection methods, and quality control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock facilities have historically generated public concerns due to their emissions of odorous air and various chemical pollutants. Odor emission factors and identification of principal odorous chemicals are needed to better understand the problem. Applications of odor emission factors include i...

  6. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is subject to emissions reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73, (20 NMAC 2.73), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The Laboratory has the potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), carbon monoxide (CO), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For 1997, combustion products from the industrial sources contributed the greatest amount of regulated air emissions from the Laboratory. Research and development activities contributed the greatest amount of VOCs. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20 NMAC 2.72, Construction Permits.

  7. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Margorie Stockton

    2003-04-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is subject to annual emissions-reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. For calendar year 2001, the Technical Area 3 steam plant was the primary source of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory, while research and development activities were the primary source of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20.2.72 NMAC. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from chemical use for research and development activities were also reported.

  8. Characterization of helium/argon working gas systems in a radiofrequency glow discharge atomic emission source. Part I: Optical emission, sputtering and electrical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christopher, Steven J.; Hartenstein, Matthew L.; Marcus, R. Kenneth; Belkin, Mikhail; Caruso, Joseph A.

    1998-08-01

    Studies are performed to determine the influence of discharge gas composition (helium/argon working gas mixtures) on the analyte emission signal intensities, sputtering rates, and DC-bias characteristics of an analytical radiofrequency glow discharge atomic emission spectroscopy (RF-GD-AES) source. As the partial pressure of He is increased from 0 to 15 torr, increased emission intensity is observed for a range of bulk and trace elements in NIST 1250 SRM (low alloy steel), regardless of the base pressure of Ar in the source (5 and 9 torr). In contrast to increases in analyte emission intensity of up to 300%, counterindicative decreases in the sputtering rates on the order of about 30-50% are observed. The magnitude of these effects depends on both the partial pressure of helium introduced to the source and the total pressure of the He and Ar gases. Use of relative emission yield (REY) to normalize changes in emission intensity to sputtering rates indicates that excitation efficiencies increase under these conditions. Increases in average electron energy and temperature appear to control this response. Decreases in both analyte emission intensities and sputter rates occur with increasing He partial pressure when the total pressure in the cell remains fixed (11 torr in these studies). Emission yields for the fixed pressure, mixed gas plasmas decrease as the partial pressure of He (He/Ar ratio) in the RF-GD source increases. In this case, decreases in electron number densities appear to dictate the lower REYs. Measurement of DC-bias values at the sample surface provide understanding with respect to the observed changes in sputtering rates as well as suggest the origins of changes in plasma electron energetics. Use of a diamond stylus profilometer provides both the quantitative sputter rate information as well as qualitative insights into the use of mixed gas plasmas for enhanced depth profiling capabilities. The analyte emission characteristics of these mixed gas

  9. Estimate of sulfur, arsenic, mercury, fluorine emissions due to spontaneous combustion of coal gangue: An important part of Chinese emission inventories.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli; Wang, Xing; Sun, Yuzhuang

    2016-02-01

    A rough estimate of the annual amount of sulfur, arsenic, mercury and fluoride emission from spontaneous combustion of coal gangue in China was determined. The weighted mean concentrations of S, As, Hg, and F in coal gangue are 1.01%, 7.98, 0.18, and 365.54 mg/kg, respectively. Amounts of S, As, Hg, and F emissions from coal gangue spontaneous combustion show approximately 1.13 Mt, and 246, 45, and 63,298 tons in 2013, respectively. The atmospheric release amount of sulfur from coal gangue is more than one tenth of this from coal combustion, and the amounts of As, Hg, and F are close to or even exceed those from coal combustion. China's coal gangue production growth from 1992 to 2013 show an obvious growth since 2002. It may indicate that Chinese coal gangue has become a potential source of air pollution, which should be included in emission inventories.

  10. Stabilization of atmospheric carbon dioxide via zero emissions—An alternative way to a stable global environment. Part 2: A practical zero-emissions scenario

    PubMed Central

    MATSUNO, Taroh; MARUYAMA, Koki; TSUTSUI, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    Following Part 1, a comparison of CO2-emissions pathways between “zero-emissions stabilization (Z-stabilization)” and traditional stabilization is made under more realistic conditions that take into account the radiative forcings of other greenhouse gases and aerosols with the constraint that the temperature rise must not exceed 2 ℃ above the preindustrial level. It is shown that the findings in Part 1 on the merits of Z-stabilization hold under the more realistic conditions. The results clarify the scientific basis of the policy claim of 50% reduction of the world CO2 emissions by 2050. Since the highest greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and temperature occur only temporarily in Z-stabilization pathways, we may slightly relax the upper limit of the temperature rise. We can then search for a scenario with larger emissions in the 21st century; such a scenario may have potential for practical application. It is suggested that in this Z-stabilization pathway, larger emissions in the near future may be important from a socioeconomic viewpoint. PMID:22850728

  11. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 266 - Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and Emissions Screening Limits for Metals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and...—Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and Emissions Screening Limits for Metals Table I-A—Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and Emissions Screening Limits for Noncarcinogenic Metals for Facilities in...

  12. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT-PART 2. TEST HOUSE STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission models developed using small chamber data were combined with an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) model to analyze the impact of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from latex paint on indoor environments. Test house experiments were conducted to verify the IAQ model's pred...

  13. Improving and Assessing Aircraft-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Rate Measurements at Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimburger, A. M. F.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Susdorf, C.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Copenhagen accord in 2009, several countries have affirmed their commitment to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The United States and Canada committed to reduce their emissions by 17% below 2005 levels, by 2020, Europe by 14% and China by ~40%. To achieve such targets, coherent and effective strategies in mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions must be implemented in the next decades. Whether such goals are actually achieved, they require that reductions are "measurable", "reportable", and "verifiable". Management of greenhouse gas emissions must focus on urban environments since ~74% of CO2 emissions worldwide will be from cities, while measurement approaches are highly uncertain (~50% to >100%). The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was established to develop, assess and improve top-down and bottom-up quantifications of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Based on an aircraft mass balance approach, we performed a series of experiments focused on the improvement of CO2, CH4 and CO emission rates quantification from Indianapolis, our final objective being to drastically improve the method overall uncertainty from the previous estimate of 50%. In November-December 2014, we conducted nine methodologically identical mass balance experiments in a short period of time (24 days, one downwind distance) for assumed constant total emission rate conditions, as a means to obtain an improved standard deviation of the mean determination. By averaging the individual emission rate determinations, we were able to obtain a method precision of 17% and 16% for CO2 and CO, respectively, at the 95%C.L. CH4 emission rates are highly variable day to day, leading to precision of 60%. Our results show that repetitive sampling can enable improvement in precision of the aircraft top-down methods through averaging.

  14. Developing a high-resolution vehicular emission inventory by integrating an emission model and a traffic model: Part 1--Modeling fuel consumption and emissions based on speed and vehicle-specific power.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haikun; Fu, Lixin

    2010-12-01

    To improve the accuracy and applicability of vehicular emission models, this study proposes a speed and vehicle-specific power (VSP) modeling method to estimate vehicular emissions and fuel consumption using data gathered by a portable emissions monitoring system (PEMS). The PEMS data were categorized into discrete speed-VSP bins on the basis of the characteristics of vehicle driving conditions and emissions in Chinese cities. Speed-VSP modal average rates of emissions (or fuel consumption) and the time spent in the corresponding speed-VSP bins were then used to calculate the total trip emissions (or fuel consumption) and emission factors (or fuel economy) under specific average link speeds. The model approach was validated by comparing it against measured data with prediction errors within 20% for trip emissions and link-speed-based emission factors. This analysis is based on the data of light-duty gasoline vehicles in China; however, this research approach could be generalized to other vehicle fleets in other countries. This modeling method could also be coupled with traffic demand models to establish high-resolution emissions inventories and evaluate the impacts of traffic-related emission control measures.

  15. Emissions Inventory Report Summary Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73) for Calendar Year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Air Quality Group, ESH-17

    1999-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (the Laboratory) is subject to emissions reporting requirements for regulated air contaminants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20 NMAC 2.73), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The Laboratory has the potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, and volatile organic compounds. For 1998, combustion products from the industrial sources contributed the greatest amount of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory. Research and development activities contributed the greatest amount of volatile organic compounds. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20 NMAC 2.72 Construction Permits.

  16. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions. Part 3: diesel and gasoline.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Within this review the genotoxicity of diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions is placed in an historical context. New technologies have changed the composition of transportation methods considerably, reducing emissions of many of the components of health concern. The similarity of modern diesel and gasoline fuels and emissions to other carbonaceous fuels and emissions is striking. Recently an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Working Group concluded that there was sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogenicity of diesel exhaust (Group 1). In addition, the Working Group found that diesel exhaust has "a positive association (limited evidence) with an increased risk of bladder cancer." Like most other carbonaceous fuel emissions, diesel and gasoline exhausts contain toxic levels of respirable particles (PM <2.5μm) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. However, the level of toxic components in exhausts from diesel and gasoline emissions has declined in certain regions over time because of changes in engine design, the development of better aftertreatment devices (e.g., catalysts), increased fuel economy, changes in the fuels and additives used, and greater regulation. Additional research and better exposure assessments are needed so that decision makers and the public can decide to what extent diesel and gasoline engines should be replaced.

  17. The annual ammonia budget of fertilised cut grassland - Part 1: Micrometeorological flux measurements and emissions after slurry application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirig, C.; Flechard, C. R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2010-02-01

    Two commercial ammonia (NH3) analysers were customised to allow continuous measurements of vertical concentration gradients. The gradients were used to derive ammonia exchange fluxes above a managed grassland site at Oensingen (Switzerland) by application of the aerodynamic gradient method. The measurements from July 2006 to October 2007 covered five complete growth-cut cycles and included six applications of liquid cattle slurry. The average accuracy of the flux measurements during unstable and near-neutral conditions was 20% and the detection limit was 10 ng NH3 m-2 s-1. Hence the flux measurements are considered sufficiently accurate for studying typical NH3 deposition rates over growing vegetation. Quantifying the overall emissions after slurry applications required the application of elaborate interpolations because of difficulties capturing the initial emissions during broadspreading of liquid manure. The emissions were also calculated with a mass balance method yielding similar fluxes. NH3 losses after slurry application expressed as percentage of emitted nitrogen versus applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) varied between 4 and 19%, which is roughly a factor of three lower than the values for broadspreading of liquid manure in emission inventories. The comparatively low emission factors appear to be a consequence of the low dry matter content of the applied slurry and soil properties favouring ammonium adsorption.

  18. N2O Emissions in Southeastern Amazonia: The Effect of Agricultural Intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, C.; Brando, P. M.; Cerri, C. E.; Coe, M. T.; Davidson, E. A.; Galford, G. L.; Macedo, M.; Neill, C.; Venterea, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The Amazon is not only an exceptionally biodiverse and carbon-rich tract of tropical forest, it is also a case study in land use change. Over the last 30 years, Amazonia has been home to extraordinary growth in agricultural production, in part from agricultural expansion, but also due to more intense management on Amazonia's existing croplands. We use a year-long campaign and approximately 500 field chamber measurements to estimate how cropland intensification in Mato Grosso, Brazil affects the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and soil N dynamics. In this system, soybean cropland intensification occurs when double cropping is introduced, in which maize is planted directly after soybean harvest and fertilized twice with inorganic N. We find that dry season N2O emissions in single-cropped (soybean only) fields, double-cropped (soybean/maize) fields and reference tropical forest are uniformly near zero, or ~0-0.5 ngN/cm^2/hr. Surprisingly, wet season emissions rates remain low as well, between 1-4 ngN/cm^2/hr, for both cropland types and reference forest. By contrast, isolated post-fertilization spikes in N2O emissions are large, with a maximum increase of ~800% and a mean increase of ~400%, though these flux increases resolve rapidly and rates return to their low baseline within days. Finally, we explore the role that soil moisture, soil N availability, and soil C availability play in regulating N2O fluxes in reference forest, soybean fields and intensified soybean-maize fields. Open questions surround how the Amazon's land resources can be leveraged to increase agricultural production at the least harm to the environment. Here, we quantify the consequences of land use change on N2O, a powerful greenhouse gas, in a critical ecosystem undergoing novel agricultural intensification. These results may inform both greenhouse gas accounting and our understanding of the effects of Amazonia's changing agricultural landscape on the nitrogen cycle.

  19. Compost spreading in Mediterranean shrubland indirectly increases biogenic emissions by promoting growth of VOC-emitting plant parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Romain; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Ormeño, Elena; Mouillot, Florent; Greff, Stéphane; Lecareux, Caroline; Staudt, Michael; Fernandez, Catherine

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effect of sewage sludge compost spreading on plant growth and leaf terpene emissions and content of Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis and Cistus albidus in a Mediterranean shrubland. Measurements were performed during 3 consecutive summers on 2 different plots treated in 2002 or 2007 with 50 or 100 tons of compost per hectare, corresponding to observations carried out 2 months to 7 years after spreading. A slight nutrient enrichment of soil and leaves ( R. officinalis and C. albidus) was observed, especially for phosphorous. Terpene emissions were not affected by compost spreading, although they tended to increase on treated plots after 6 and 7 years for R. officinalis and C. albidus respectively. Terpene content was not affected by any compost treatment. Leaf and stem growth were significantly enhanced by compost spreading after 2 and/or 7 years in all species with little difference between doses. Total leaf biomass on the last growth units was increased by more than 50% in C. albidus and more than 90% in Q. coccifera. The results suggest that compost spreading in Meditteranean shrublands has no or little direct effect on leaf terpene emissions, but indirectly leads to their increase through leaf biomass enhancement. Simulation of terpene emissions at stand level revealed an increase of terpene fluxes ranging between 6 and 13%, depending on the plant species. Overall, compost spreading was assessed to result in an emission rate of 1.1 kg ha -1 y -1 for a typical Q. coccifera shrubland, but can reach 2.6 kg ha -1 y -1 for a typical R. officinalis shrubland.

  20. Emissions from residential combustion considering end-uses and spatial constraints: Part I, methods and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winijkul, Ekbordin; Fierce, Laura; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes a framework to attribute national-level atmospheric emissions in the year 2010 from the residential sector, one of the largest energy-related sources of aerosol emissions. We place special emphasis on end-uses, dividing usage into cooking, heating, lighting, and others. This study covers regions where solid biomass fuel provides more than 50% of total residential energy: Latin America, Africa, and Asia (5.2 billion people in 2010). Using nightlight data and population density, we classify five land types: urban, electrified rural with forest access, electrified rural without forest access, non-electrified rural with forest access, and non-electrified rural without forest access. We then apportion national-level residential fuel consumption among all land-types and end-uses, and assign end-use technologies to each combination. The resulting calculation gives spatially-distributed emissions of particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen oxides, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Within this study region, about 13% of the energy is consumed in urban areas, and 45% in non-urban land near forests. About half the energy is consumed in land without access to electricity. Cooking accounts for 54% of the consumption, heating for 9%, and lighting only 2%, with unidentified uses making up the remainder. Because biofuel use is assumed to occur preferentially where wood is accessible and electricity is not, our method shifts emissions to land types without electrification, compared with previous methods. The framework developed here is an important first step in acknowledging the role of household needs and local constraints in choosing energy provision. Although data and relationships described here need further development, this structure offers a more physically-based understanding of residential energy choices and, ultimately, opportunities for emission reduction.

  1. Emissions Inventory Report Summary: Reporting Requirements for the New Mexico Administrative Code, Title 20, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC) for Calendar Year 2003

    SciTech Connect

    M. Stockton

    2005-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is subject to annual emissions-reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. For calendar year 2003, the Technical Area 3 steam plant and the air curtain destructors were the primary sources of criteria air pollutants from the Laboratory, while the air curtain destructors and chemical use associated with research and development activities were the primary sources of volatile organic compounds and hazardous air pollutants. Emissions of beryllium and aluminum were reported for activities permitted under 20.2.72 NMAC. Hazardous air pollutant emissions were reported from chemical use as well as from all combustion sources. In addition, estimates of particulate matter with diameter less than 2.5 micrometers and ammonia were provided as requested by the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau.

  2. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 2--morphological and mineralogical features.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W

    2015-01-01

    Volcanic emissions were studied at Mount Etna (Italy) by using moss-bags technique. Mosses were exposed around the volcano at different distances from the active vents to evaluate the impact of volcanic emissions in the atmosphere. Morphology and mineralogy of volcanic particulate intercepted by mosses were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Particles emitted during passive degassing activity from the two active vents, Bocca Nuova and North East Crater (BNC and NEC), were identified as silicates, sulfates and halide compounds. In addition to volcanic particles, we found evidences also of geogenic, anthropogenic and marine spray input. The study has shown the robustness of this active biomonitoring technique to collect particles, very useful in active volcanic areas characterized by continuous degassing and often not easily accessible to apply conventional sampling techniques.

  3. Characterizing ammonia emissions from swine farms in eastern North Carolina: part 2--potential environmentally superior technologies for waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Aneja, Viney P; Arya, S Pal; Rumsey, Ian C; Kim, D-S; Bajwa, K; Arkinson, H L; Semunegus, H; Dickey, D A; Stefanski, L A; Todd, L; Mottus, K; Robarge, W P; Williams, C M

    2008-09-01

    The need for developing environmentally superior and sustainable solutions for managing the animal waste at commercial swine farms in eastern North Carolina has been recognized in recent years. Program OPEN (Odor, Pathogens, and Emissions of Nitrogen), funded by the North Carolina State University Animal and Poultry Waste Management Center (APWMC), was initiated and charged with the evaluation of potential environmentally superior technologies (ESTs) that have been developed and implemented at selected swine farms or facilities. The OPEN program has demonstrated the effectiveness of a new paradigm for policy-relevant environmental research related to North Carolina's animal waste management programs. This new paradigm is based on a commitment to improve scientific understanding associated with a wide array of environmental issues (i.e., issues related to the movement of N from animal waste into air, water, and soil media; the transmission of odor and odorants; disease-transmitting vectors; and airborne pathogens). The primary focus of this paper is on emissions of ammonia (NH3) from some potential ESTs that were being evaluated at full-scale swine facilities. During 2-week-long periods in two different seasons (warm and cold), NH3 fluxes from water-holding structures and NH3 emissions from animal houses or barns were measured at six potential EST sites: (1) Barham farm--in-ground ambient temperature anaerobic digester/energy recovery/greenhouse vegetable production system; (2) BOC #93 farm--upflow biofiltration system--EKOKAN; (3) Carrolls farm--aerobic blanket system--ISSUES-ABS; (4) Corbett #1 farm--solids separation/ gasification for energy and ash recovery centralized system--BEST; (5) Corbett #2 farm--solid separation/ reciprocating water technology--ReCip; and (6) Vestal farm--Recycling of Nutrient, Energy and Water System--ISSUES-RENEW. The ESTs were compared with similar measurements made at two conventional lagoon and spray technology (LST) farms (Moore

  4. The history, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions: part 5. Summary, comparisons, and conclusions.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    As seen through the previous reviews, each carbonaceous source of energy is associated with genotoxic and carcinogenic health risks; however, energy use is central to human society and provides many health benefits. These reviews examined the genotoxicity of carbonaceous sources of energy, focusing on the impacts due to the combustion of fuels and biomass. In previous reviews, information and data were used to examine occupational, industrial, household, and general environmental pollution as well as laboratory research. In this final summation, the effort is not only to summarize the previous reviews but to provide additional information to support any final conclusions. Included in the final observations are: (1) emissions from combusted carbonaceous fuels are very likely to include genotoxicants and/or carcinogens, and, as such, they can considerably increase the risk of adverse health effects in exposed humans, (2) environmental transformation is likely to increase genotoxicity of emissions, and (3) the world's poor households have an increased health risk because they have limited access to clean fuels and electricity. Because carbonaceous fuel emissions are highly complex, risk assessments are difficult; however, decision makers have many toxicological approaches for evaluating emissions. Although energy efficiency brings many benefits, it also involves health risks, as do renewable energy systems, if not managed carefully. The reviews do not examine climate change or non-carbonaceous fuels (e.g., nuclear fuels). Because these are not papers about the risk assessment or regulation of pollutants from carbon-based fuels, the discussions of regulations were to place research, concerns, and actions into a historical reference for the reader.

  5. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  6. Indoor air quality in a middle school, Part II: Development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Scheff, P A; Paulius, V K; Curtis, L; Conroy, L M

    2000-11-01

    A middle school (grades 6 to 8) in a residential section of Springfield, Illinois, with no known air quality problems, was selected for a baseline indoor air quality survey. The study was designed to measure and evaluate air quality at the middle school with the objective of providing a benchmark for comparisons with measurements in schools with potential air quality problems. The focus of this article is on the development of emission factors for particulate matter and bioaerosols. The school was characterized as having no health complaints and good maintenance schedules. Four indoor locations including the cafeteria, a science classroom, an art classroom, the lobby outside the main office, and one outdoor location were sampled for various environmental comfort and pollutant parameters for one week in February 1997. Integrated samples (eight-hour sampling time) for respirable and total particulate matter, and short-term measurements (two-minute samples, three times per day) for bioaerosols were collected on three consecutive days at each of the sampling sites. Continuous measurements of carbon dioxide were logged at all locations for five days. Continuous measurements of respirable particulate matter were also collected in the lobby area. A linear relationship between occupancy and corresponding carbon dioxide and particle concentrations was seen. A completely mixed space, one compartment mass balance model with estimated CO2 generation rates and actual CO2 and particulate matter concentrations was used to model ventilation and pollutant emission rates. Emission factors for occupancy were represented by the slope of emission rate versus occupancy scatter plots. The following particle and bioaerosol emission factors were derived from the indoor measurements: total particles: 1.28 mg/hr/person-hr; respirable particles: 0.154 g/hr/person-hr; total fungi: 167 CFU/hr/person-min; thermophilic fungi: 35.8 CFU/hr/person-min; mesophilic fungi: 119 CFU/hr/person-min; total

  7. Environmental analysis of a construction and demolition waste recycling plant in Portugal--Part I: energy consumption and CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André; de Brito, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    This work is a part of a wider study involving the economic and environmental implications of managing construction and demolition waste (CDW), focused on the operation of a large scale CDW recycling plant. This plant, to be operated in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area (including the Setúbal peninsula), is analysed for a 60 year period, using primary energy consumption and CO2eq emission impact factors as environmental impact performance indicators. Simplified estimation methods are used to calculate industrial equipment incorporated, and the operation and transport related impacts. Material recycling--sorted materials sent to other industries, to act as input--is taken into account by discounting the impacts related to industrial processes no longer needed. This first part focuses on calculating the selected impact factors for a base case scenario (with a 350 tonnes/h installed capacity), while a sensitivity analysis is provided in part two. Overall, a 60 year global primary energy consumption of 71.4 thousand toe (tonne of oil equivalent) and a total CO2eq emission of 135.4 thousand tonnes are expected. Under this operating regime, around 563 thousand toe and 1465 thousand tonnes CO2eq could be prevented by replacing raw materials in several construction materials industries (e.g.: ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, paper and cardboard).

  8. Uncontrolled combustion of shredded tires in a landfill – Part 1: Characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions

    PubMed Central

    Downard, Jared; Singh, Ashish; Bullard, Robert; Jayarathne, Thilina; Rathnayake, Chathurika; Simmons, Donald L.; Wels, Brian R.; Spak, Scott N.; Peters, Thomas; Beardsley, Douglas; Stanier, Charles; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    In summer 2012, a landfill liner comprising an estimated 1.3 million shredded tires burned in Iowa City, Iowa. During the fire, continuous monitoring and laboratory measurements were used to characterize the gaseous and particulate emissions and to provide new insights into the qualitative nature of the smoke and the quantity of pollutants emitted. Significant enrichments in ambient concentrations of CO, CO2, SO2, particle number (PN), fine particulate (PM2.5) mass, elemental carbon (EC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were observed. For the first time, PM2.5 from tire combustion was shown to contain PAH with nitrogen heteroatoms (a.k.a. azaarenes) and picene, a compound previously suggested to be unique to coal-burning. Despite prior laboratory studies’ findings, metals used in manufacturing tires (i.e. Zn, Pb, Fe) were not detected in coarse particulate matter (PM10) at a distance of 4.2 km downwind. Ambient measurements were used to derive the first in situ fuel-based emission factors (EF) for the uncontrolled open burning of tires, revealing substantial emissions of SO2 (7.1 g kg−1), particle number (3.5×1016 kg−1), PM2.5 (5.3 g kg−1), EC (2.37 g kg−1), and 19 individual PAH (totaling 56 mg kg−1). A large degree of variability was observed in day-to-day EF, reflecting a range of flaming and smoldering conditions of the large-scale fire, for which the modified combustion efficiency ranged from 0.85-0.98. Recommendations for future research on this under-characterized source are also provided. PMID:25663800

  9. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect of supersonic and subsonic aircraft operation in the 2010 atmosphere on stratospheric ozone (O3). The results show that: (1) the calculated O3 response is smaller in the 2010 atmosphere compared to previous calculations performed in the 1980 atmosphere; (2) with the emissions provided, the calculated decrease in O3 column is less than 1 percent; and (3) the effect of model grid resolution on O3 response is small provided that the physics is not modified.

  10. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Mariecia D; Fleming, Hannah R; Moorby, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location.

  11. Traditional vs Modern: Role of Breed Type in Determining Enteric Methane Emissions from Cattle Grazing as Part of Contrasting Grassland-Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Fleming, Hannah R.; Moorby, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d−1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d−1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d−1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d−1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg−1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg−1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617

  12. Review of Cardiovascular Imaging in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology in 2016. Part 1 of 2: Positron Emission Tomography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance.

    PubMed

    AlJaroudi, Wael; Hage, Fadi G

    2017-02-13

    Several original articles and editorials have been published in the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology last year. It has become a tradition at the beginning of each year to summarize some of these key articles (AlJaroudi and Hage in J Nucl Cardiol 22:507-512, 2015, 23:122-130, 2016; Hage and AlJaroudi in J Nucl Cardiol 22:714-719, 2015; 23:493-498, 2016). In this part one, we will discuss some of the progress made in patients with infiltrative disease, cardiomyopathies (non-ischemic, ischemic, and diabetic), hybrid and molecular imaging, using advancement in positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

  13. Potential radionuclide emissions from stacks on the Hanford site, Part 2: Dose assessment methodology using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, J.M.

    1995-02-01

    In September 1992, the Westinghouse Hanford Company began developing an in situ measurement method to assess gamma radiation emanating from high-efficiency particulate air filters using portable low-resolution gamma spectroscopy. The purpose of the new method was to assess radioactive exhaust stack air emissions from empirical data rather than from theoretical models and to determine the potential unabated dose to an offsite theoretical maximally exposed individual. In accordance with Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 61, Subpart H, {open_quotes}National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants{close_quotes}, stacks that have the potential to emit {ge} 1 {mu}Sv y{sup {minus}1} (0.1 mrem y{sup {minus}1}) to the maximally exposed individual are considered {open_quotes}major{close_quotes} and must meet the continuous monitoring requirements. After the method was tested and verified, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, approved its use in June 1993. Of the 125 stacks operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company, 22 were targeted for evaluation by this method, and 15 were assessed. (The method could not be applied at seven stacks because of excessive background radiation or because no gamma emitting particles appear in the emission stream.) The most significant result from this study was the redesignation of the T Plant main stack. The stack was assessed as being {open_quotes}minor{close_quotes}, and it now only requires periodic confirmatory measurements and meets federally imposed sampling requirements.

  14. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 772 - National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION... as follows: PART 772—PROCEDURES FOR ABATEMENT OF HIGHWAY TRAFFIC NOISE AND CONSTRUCTION NOISE Sec. 772.1 Purpose. 772.3 Noise standards. 772.5 Definitions. 772.7 Applicability. 772.9 Traffic...

  15. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect on stratospheric ozone (O3) from operations of supersonic and subsonic aircraft. The study is based on six emission scenarios provided to AER. The study showed that: (1) the O3 response is dominated by the portion of the emitted nitrogen compounds that is entrained in the stratosphere; (2) the entrainment is a sensitive function of the altitude at which the material is injected; (3) the O3 removal efficiency of the emitted material depends on the concentrations of trace gases in the background atmosphere; and (4) evaluation of the impact of fleet operations in the future atmosphere must take into account the expected changes in trace gas concentrations from other activities. Areas for model improvements in future studies are also discussed.

  16. Salinity effects on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Oneill, Peggy E.

    1987-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  17. Effects of salinity on the microwave emission of soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Oneill, P. E.

    1986-01-01

    Controlled plot experiments were conducted to collect L and C band passive microwave data concurrent with ground observations of salinity and soil moisture. Two dielectric mixing models were used with an emission model to predict the emissivity from a bare smooth uniform profile. The models produce nearly identical results when near zero salinity is involved and reproduce the observed data at L band extremely well. Discrepancies at C band are attributed to sampling depth problems. Comparisons of predicted emissivities at various salinities with observed values indicate that the dynamic range of the emissivities can be explained using either of the dielectric mixing models. Evaluation of the entire data set, which included four salinity levels, indicates that for general application the effects of soil salinity can be ignored in interpreting microwave data for estimating soil moisture under most agricultural conditions.

  18. Responses of future air quality to emission controls over North Carolina, Part II: Analyses of future-year predictions and their policy implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Huan; Olsen, Kristen M.; Wang, Wen-Xing; Do, Bebhinn A.; Bridgers, George M.

    2010-07-01

    The MM5/CMAQ system evaluated in Part I paper is applied to study the impact of emission control on future air quality over North Carolina (NC). Simulations are conducted at a 4-km horizontal grid resolution for four one-month periods, i.e., January, June, July, and August 2009 and 2018. Simulated PM 2.5 in 2009 and 2018 show distribution patterns similar to those in 2002. PM 2.5 concentrations over the whole domain in January and July reduced by 5.8% and 23.3% in 2009 and 12.0% and 35.6% in 2018, respectively, indicating that the planned emission control strategy has noticeable effects on PM 2.5 reduction in this region, particularly in summer. More than 10% and 20% of 1-h and 8-h O 3 mixing ratios are reduced in July 2009 and 2018, respectively, demonstrating the effectiveness of emission control for O 3 reduction in summer. However, O 3 mixing ratios in January 2009 and 2018 increase by more than 5% because O 3 chemistry is VOC-limited in winter and the effect of NO x reduction dominates over that of VOC reduction under such a condition. The projected emission control simulated at 4-km will reduce the number of sites in non-attainment for max 8-h O 3 from 49 to 23 in 2009 and to 1 in 2018 and for 24-h average PM 2.5 from 1 to 0 in 2009 and 2018 based on the latest 2008 O 3 and 2006 PM 2.5 standards. The variability in model predictions at different grid resolutions contributes to 1-3.8 ppb and 1-7.9 μg m -3 differences in the projected future-year design values for max 8-h O 3 and 24-h average PM 2.5, respectively.

  19. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part II. Practical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are increasingly used to carry out analyses in organic/hydro-organic matrices. The introduction of such matrices into ICP sources is particularly challenging and can be the cause of numerous drawbacks. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP sources. Part I provided theoretical considerations associated with the physico-chemical properties of such matrices, in an attempt to understand the induced phenomena. Part II of this tutorial review is dedicated to more practical considerations on instrumentation, instrumental and operating parameters, as well as analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices. Two important issues are addressed in this part: the first concerns the instrumentation and optimization of instrumental and operating parameters, pointing out (i) the description, benefits and drawbacks of different kinds of nebulization and desolvation devices and the impact of more specific instrumental parameters such as the injector characteristics and the material used for the cone; and, (ii) the optimization of operating parameters, for both ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Even if it is at the margin of this tutorial review, Electrothermal Vaporization and Laser Ablation will also be shortly described. The second issue is devoted to the analytical strategies for elemental quantification in such matrices, with particular insight into the isotope dilution technique, particularly used in speciation analysis by ICP-coupled separation techniques.

  20. The history, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of carbon-based fuels and their emissions: part 4 - alternative fuels.

    PubMed

    Claxton, Larry D

    2015-01-01

    Much progress has been made in reducing the pollutants emitted from various combustors (including diesel engines and power plants) by the use of alternative fuels; however, much more progress is needed. Not only must researchers improve fuels and combustors, but also there is a need to improve the toxicology testing and analytical chemistry methods associated with these complex mixtures. Emissions from many alternative carbonaceous fuels are mutagenic and carcinogenic. Depending on their source and derivation, alternative carbonaceous fuels before combustion may or may not be genotoxic; however, in order to know their genotoxicity, appropriate chemical analysis and/or bioassay must be performed. Newly developed fuels and combustors must be tested to determine if they provide a public health advantage over existing technologies - including what tradeoffs can be expected (e.g., decreasing levels of PAHs versus increasing levels of NOx and possibly nitroarenes in ambient air). Another need is to improve exposure estimations which presently are a weak link in doing risk analyses.

  1. Response to Petition Regarding the Emissions Offset Exemption For Resource Recovery Facilities in Part 231of the New York SIP

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  2. Near Zero ev Subexcitation Energy Electrons Break DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Frederic; Cai, Zhongli; Cloutier, Pierre; Hunting, Darel; Sanche, Leon

    2004-03-01

    The passage of ionizing radiation through a living cell produces about 4 x 10^4 electrons/MeV, with more than 50% having energies well below the excitation threshold for water (7-8 eV) (M. Michaud et al, Physical Review, 44(9), 5623-5627, (1991)). We have previously shown that 5-20eV electrons cause DNA strand breaks via a resonant process with a maximum at 10eV (B. Boudaiffa et al, Science 287, 1658-1660, (2000)). The present results demonstrate that very low energy electrons in the range of 0 to 5eV cause single strand breaks (SSB) in DNA. Plasmid DNA is extracted from the host bacteria purified and resuspended in distilled and deionised water. It is deposited on a chemically clean tantalum, lyophilised and placed in an UHV chamber for 24 hours before irradiation. After irradiation, plasmid DNA is retrieved from the UHV chamber and the samples are dissolved in tris buffer. The different topological forms of DNA resulting from single strand break formation are separated by electrophoresis gel, stained by SYBR Green 1, scanned by laser and quantified with the imageQuant program. The quantification protocol has been optimized to maximize both sensitivity and linearity. Two resonant peaks are observed with maxima at 0,8 eV and 2,2 eV ( 10,5 and 7,5 ssb per 10^3 electrons, respectively).

  3. Rural Development Inc.-Wisdom Way: Near Zero Energy

    SciTech Connect

    2009-03-23

    This case study describes a community of efficient,affordable solar homes, featuring superior insulation, high performance windows, single,sealed-combustion, natural gas unit heaters, and photovoltaics.

  4. EFFECTIVE ACIDITY CONSTANT BEHAVIOR NEAR ZERO CHARGE CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surface site (>SOH group) acidity reactions require expressions of the form: Ka = [>SOHn-1(z-1)]aH+EXP(-DG/RT)/[>SOHnz] (where all variables have their usual meaning). One can rearrange this expression to generate an effective acidity constant historically defined as: Qa = Ka...

  5. Method of Bonding Optical Elements with Near-Zero Displacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David; McClelland, Ryan; Byron, Glenn; Evans, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    The International X-ray Project seeks to build an x-ray telescope using thousands of pieces of thin and flexible glass mirror segments. Each mirror segment must be bonded into a housing in nearly perfect optical alignment without distortion. Forces greater than 0.001 Newton, or displacements greater than 0.5 m of the glass, cause unacceptable optical distortion. All known epoxies shrink as they cure. Even the epoxies with the least amount of shrinkage (<0.01%) cause unacceptable optical distortion and misalignment by pulling the mirror segments towards the housing as it cures. A related problem is that the shrinkage is not consistent or predictable so that it cannot be accounted for in the setup (i.e., if all of the bonds shrunk an equal amount, there would be no problem). A method has been developed that allows two components to be joined with epoxy in such a way that reduces the displacement caused by epoxy shrinking as it cures to less than 200 nm. The method involves using ultraviolet-cured epoxy with a displacement sensor and a nanoactuator in a control loop. The epoxy is cured by short-duration exposures to UV light. In between each exposure, the nano-actuator zeroes out the displacement caused by epoxy shrinkage and thermal expansion. After a few exposures, the epoxy has cured sufficiently to prevent further displacement of the two components. Bonding of optical elements has been done for many years, but most optics are thick and rigid elements that resist micro-Newton-level forces without causing distortion. When bonding thin glass optics such as the 0.40-mm thick IXO X-ray mirrors, forces in the micro- and milli-Newton levels cause unacceptable optical figure error. This innovation can now repeatedly and reliably bond a thin glass mirror to a metal housing with less than 0.2 m of displacement (<200 nm). This is an enabling technology that allows the installation of virtually stress-free, undistorted thin optics onto structures. This innovation is applicable to the bonding of thin optical elements, or any thin/flexible structures, that must be attached in an undistorted, consistent, and aligned way.

  6. Near Zero Energy Housing at Ft. Campbell: Energy Modeling Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    Manager Dr. Charles Lechner, ODASA (ESOH) Government Technical Monitor Dr. Chris Rewerts, US Army CERL NDCEE Team Members Ms. Anne Kaltenhauser, CTC...Dr. Shannon Lloyd, CTC Mr. Pete Spinelli , CTC This work was funded through the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations and Environment) and conducted under contract W74V8H-04-D-0005, Task N.0440.

  7. The application of positron emission tomography (PET/CT) in diagnosis of breast cancer. Part II. Diagnosis after treatment initiation, future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jodłowska, Elżbieta; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Rewers, Amanda; Jarząbek, Grażyna; Kędzia, Witold; Ruchała, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Similarly to the applications described in the first part of this publication, positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT) is also gaining importance in monitoring a tumour's response to therapy and diagnosing breast cancer recurrences. This is additionally caused by the fact that many new techniques (dual-time point imaging, positron emission tomography with magnetic resonance PET/MR, PET/CT mammography) and radiotracers (16α-18F-fluoro-17β-estradiol, 18F-fluorothymidine) are under investigation. The highest sensitivity and specificity when monitoring response to treatment is achieved when the PET/CT scan is made after one or two chemotherapy courses. Response to anti-hormonal treatment can also be monitored, also when new radiotracers, such as FES, are used. When monitoring breast cancer recurrences during follow-up, PET/CT has higher sensitivity than conventional imaging modalities, making it possible to monitor the whole body simultaneously. New techniques and radiotracers enhance the sensitivity and specificity of PET and this is why, despite relatively high costs, it might become more widespread in monitoring response to treatment and breast cancer recurrences. PMID:27647983

  8. Scenario analysis of carbon emissions' anti-driving effect on Qingdao's energy structure adjustment with an optimization model, Part II: Energy system planning and management.

    PubMed

    Wu, C B; Huang, G H; Liu, Z P; Zhen, J L; Yin, J G

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an inexact multistage stochastic mixed-integer programming (IMSMP) method was developed for supporting regional-scale energy system planning (EPS) associated with multiple uncertainties presented as discrete intervals, probability distributions and their combinations. An IMSMP-based energy system planning (IMSMP-ESP) model was formulated for Qingdao to demonstrate its applicability. Solutions which can provide optimal patterns of energy resources generation, conversion, transmission, allocation and facility capacity expansion schemes have been obtained. The results can help local decision makers generate cost-effective energy system management schemes and gain a comprehensive tradeoff between economic objectives and environmental requirements. Moreover, taking the CO2 emissions scenarios mentioned in Part I into consideration, the anti-driving effect of carbon emissions on energy structure adjustment was studied based on the developed model and scenario analysis. Several suggestions can be concluded from the results: (a) to ensure the smooth realization of low-carbon and sustainable development, appropriate price control and fiscal subsidy on high-cost energy resources should be considered by the decision-makers; (b) compared with coal, natural gas utilization should be strongly encouraged in order to insure that Qingdao could reach the carbon discharges peak value in 2020; (c) to guarantee Qingdao's power supply security in the future, the construction of new power plants should be emphasised instead of enhancing the transmission capacity of grid infrastructure.

  9. 40 CFR Table W - 6 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment W Table W Protection of Environment...—Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment LNG import and export equipment Emission factor (scf/hour/component) Leaker Emission Factors—LNG Terminals Components, LNG Service Valve...

  10. 40 CFR Table W - 6 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment W Table W Protection of Environment...—Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment LNG import and export equipment Emission factor (scf/hour/component) Leaker Emission Factors—LNG Terminals Components, LNG Service Valve...

  11. Development of a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Boyu; Wu, Lin; Mao, Hongjun; Gong, Sunning; He, Jianjun; Zou, Chao; Song, Guohua; Li, Xiaoyu; Wu, Zhong

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near-real-time traffic data on road segments to develop a vehicle emission inventory with high temporal-spatial resolution (HTSVE) for the Beijing urban area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Based on the results of this study, improved air quality simulation and the contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient pollutant concentration in Beijing have been investigated in a companion paper (He et al., 2016).

  12. Development of a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory based on NRT traffic data and its impact on air pollution in Beijing - Part 1: Development and evaluation of vehicle emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, B. Y.; Wu, L.; Mao, H. J.; Gong, S. L.; He, J. J.; Zou, C.; Song, G. H.; Li, X. Y.; Wu, Z.

    2015-10-01

    As the ownership of vehicles and frequency of utilization increase, vehicle emissions have become an important source of air pollution in Chinese cities. An accurate emission inventory for on-road vehicles is necessary for numerical air quality simulation and the assessment of implementation strategies. This paper presents a bottom-up methodology based on the local emission factors, complemented with the widely used emission factors of Computer Programme to Calculate Emissions from Road Transport (COPERT) model and near real time (NRT) traffic data on road segments to develop a high temporal-spatial resolution vehicle emission inventory (HTSVE) for the urban Beijing area. To simulate real-world vehicle emissions accurately, the road has been divided into segments according to the driving cycle (traffic speed) on this road segment. The results show that the vehicle emissions of NOx, CO, HC and PM were 10.54 × 104, 42.51 × 104 and 2.13 × 104 and 0.41 × 104 Mg, respectively. The vehicle emissions and fuel consumption estimated by the model were compared with the China Vehicle Emission Control Annual Report and fuel sales thereafter. The grid-based emissions were also compared with the vehicular emission inventory developed by the macro-scale approach. This method indicates that the bottom-up approach better estimates the levels and spatial distribution of vehicle emissions than the macro-scale method, which relies on more information. Additionally, the on-road vehicle emission inventory model and control effect assessment system in Beijing, a vehicle emission inventory model, was established based on this study in a companion paper (He et al., 2015).

  13. Introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry: a tutorial review. Part I. Theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Amélie; Nonell, Anthony; Todolí Torró, José Luis; Bresson, Carole; Vio, Laurent; Vercouter, Thomas; Chartier, Frédéric

    2015-07-23

    Due to their outstanding analytical performances, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are widely used for multi-elemental measurements and also for isotopic characterization in the case of ICP-MS. While most studies are carried out in aqueous matrices, applications involving organic/hydro-organic matrices become increasingly widespread. This kind of matrices is introduced in ICP based instruments when classical "matrix removal" approaches such as acid digestion or extraction procedures cannot be implemented. Due to the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices and their associated effects on instrumentation and analytical performances, their introduction into ICP sources is particularly challenging and has become a full topic. In this framework, numerous theoretical and phenomenological studies of these effects have been performed in the past, mainly by ICP-OES, while recent literature is more focused on applications and associated instrumental developments. This tutorial review, divided in two parts, explores the rich literature related to the introduction of organic/hydro-organic matrices in ICP-OES and ICP-MS. The present Part I, provides theoretical considerations in connection with the physico-chemical properties of organic/hydro-organic matrices, in order to better understand the induced phenomena. This focal point is divided in four chapters highlighting: (i) the impact of organic/hydro-organic matrices from aerosol generation to atomization/excitation/ionization processes; (ii) the production of carbon molecular constituents and their spatial distribution in the plasma with respect to analytes repartition; (iii) the subsequent modifications of plasma fundamental properties; and (iv) the resulting spectroscopic and non spectroscopic interferences. This first part of this tutorial review is addressed either to beginners or to more experienced scientists who are interested in the

  14. Bacteria as part of bioluminescence emission at the deep ANTARES station (North-Western Mediterranean Sea) during a one-year survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, S.; Michotey, V.; Casalot, L.; Bonin, P.; Guasco, S.; Garel, M.; Tamburini, C.

    2016-10-01

    Bioluminescent bacteria have been studied during a one-year survey in 2011 at the deep ANTARES site (Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, 2000 m depth). The neutrino underwater telescope ANTARES, located at this station, has been used to record the bioluminescence at the same depth. Together with these data, environmental variables (potential temperature, salinity, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon and oxygen) have been characterized in water samples. The year 2011 was characterized by relatively stable conditions, as revealed by minor variability in the monitored oceanographic variables, by low bioluminescence and low current speed. This suggests weak eukaryote participation and mainly non-stimulated light emission. Hence, no processes of dense water have affected the ANTARES station during this survey. Abundance of bioluminescent bacteria belonging to Photobacterium genus, measured by qPCR of the luxF gene, ranged from 1.4×102 to 7.2×102 genes mL-1. Their effective activity was confirmed through mRNA luxF quantification. Our results reveal that bioluminescent bacteria appeared more active than the total counterpart of bacteria, suggesting an ecological benefit of this feature such as favoring interaction with macro-organisms. Moreover, these results show that part of the bioluminescence, recorded at 2000 m depth over one year, could be due to bioluminescent bacteria in stable hydrological conditions.

  15. Space-time dynamics of carbon and environmental parameters related to carbon dioxide emissions in the Buor-Khaya Bay and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiletov, I. P.; Shakhova, N. E.; Pipko, I. I.; Pugach, S. P.; Charkin, A. N.; Dudarev, O. V.; Kosmach, D. A.; Nishino, S.

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to improve understanding of carbon cycling in the Buor-Khaya Bay (BKB) and adjacent part of the Laptev Sea by studying the inter-annual, seasonal, and meso-scale variability of carbon and related hydrological and biogeochemical parameters in the water, as well as factors controlling carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Here we present data sets obtained on summer cruises and winter expeditions during 12 yr of investigation. Based on data analysis, we suggest that in the heterotrophic BKB area, input of terrestrially borne organic carbon (OC) varies seasonally and inter-annually and is largely determined by rates of coastal erosion and river discharge. Two different BKB sedimentation regimes were revealed: Type 1 (erosion accumulation) and Type 2 (accumulation). A Type 1 sedimentation regime occurs more often and is believed to be the quantitatively most important mechanism for suspended particular matter (SPM) and particulate organic carbon (POC) delivery to the BKB. The mean SPM concentration observed in the BKB under a Type 1 regime was one order of magnitude greater than the mean concentration of SPM (~ 20 mg L-1) observed along the Lena River stream in summer 2003. Loadings of the BKB water column with particulate material vary by more than a factor of two between the two regimes. Higher partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), higher concentrations of nutrients, and lower levels of oxygen saturation were observed in the bottom water near the eroded coasts, implying that coastal erosion and subsequent oxidation of eroded organic matter (OM) rather than the Lena River serves as the predominant source of nutrients to the BKB. Atmospheric CO2 fluxes from the sea surface in the BKB vary from 1 to 95 mmol m-2 day-1 and are determined by specific features of hydrology and wind conditions, which change spatially, seasonally, and inter-annually. Mean values of CO2 emission from the shallow Laptev Sea were similar in September 1999 and 2005 (7.2 and 7.8 mmol m-2 day-1

  16. The impact of the congestion charging scheme on air quality in London. Part 1. Emissions modeling and analysis of air pollution measurements.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Frank; Anderson, H Ross; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Derwent, Dick; Green, David; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-04-01

    On February 17, 2003, a congestion charging scheme (CCS*) was introduced in central London along with a program of traffic management measures. The scheme operated Monday through Friday, 7 AM to 6 PM. This program resulted in an 18% reduction in traffic volume and a 30% reduction in traffic congestion in the first year (2003). We developed methods to evaluate the possible effects of the scheme on air quality: We used a temporal-spatial design in which modeled and measured air quality data from roadside and background monitoring stations were used to compare time periods before (2001-2002) and after (2003-2004) the CCS was introduced and to compare the spatial area of the congestion charging zone (CCZ) with the rest of London. In the first part of this project, we modeled changes in concentrations of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and PM10 (particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm) across the CCZ and in Greater London under different traffic and emission scenarios for the periods before and after CCS introduction. Comparing model results within and outside the zone suggested that introducing the CCS would be associated with a net 0.8-microg/m3 decrease in the mean concentration of PM10 and a net 1.7-ppb decrease in the mean concentration of NOx within the CCZ. In contrast, a net 0.3-ppb increase in the mean concentration of NO2 was predicted within the zone; this was partly explained by an expected increase in primary NO2 emissions due to the introduction of particle traps on diesel buses (one part of the improvements in public transport associated with the CCS). In the second part of the project, we established a CCS Study Database from measurements obtained from the London Air Quality Network (LAQN) for air pollution monitors sited to measure roadside and urban background concentrations. Fully ratified (validated) 15-minute mean carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), NO2, NOx, PM10, and PM2.5 data from each chosen

  17. Radio emission from RS CVn binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Doiron, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The RS CVn binary stellar systems UX Ari, HR 1099, AR Lac, HR 5110, II Peg, lambda And, and SZ Psc were investigated by use of radio interferometry during the period from July 1982 through August 1983. Interferometry took two forms: Very Large Array (VLA) observations and Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI). The VLA observations determined the characteristic polarization and flux behavior of the centimeter wavelength radio emission. The observed spectral index was near zero during quiescent periods, rising to between 0.5 and 1.0 during active periods. No net linear polarization is observed to a limit of 1.7%. This is expected since the Faraday depth of thermal electrons deduced from x-ray observations is approx. 10/sup 5/. Circular polarization is observed to be less than 20% at all frequencies often with a helicity reversal between 1.6 GHz and 5 GHz. The VLBI observations have shown that the brightness temperatures are often T/sub B/ approx.> 10/sup 10/ /sup 0/K and size sources smaller than or comparable to the overall size of the binary system. These data are consistent with incoherent gyrosynchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons which are optically thick to their own radiation at 1.6 GHz and optically thin at 5 GHz and above. The spectral behavior suggests that the radio emission is due to a power-law distribution of electrons.

  18. Applicability Determination Letters for 40 C.F.R. Part 63 Subpart M, National Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This pages contains two letters on the applicability of the National Perchloroethylene Air Emission Standards for Dry Cleaning Facilities (40 CFR 63, Subpart M). Both letters clarify what constitutes instillation of a dry cleaning machine.

  19. New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - Part 2: Australian tropical savanna fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. E. L.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Meyer, C. P.; Cook, G. D.; Maier, S. W.; Russell-Smith, J.; Wooster, M. J.; Yates, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    Savanna fires contribute approximately 40-50% of total global annual biomass burning carbon emissions. Recent comparisons of emission factors from different savanna regions have highlighted the need for a regional approach to emission factor development, and better assessment of the drivers of the temporal and spatial variation in emission factors. This paper describes the results of open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopic field measurements at 21 fires occurring in the tropical savannas of the Northern~Territory, Australia, within different vegetation assemblages and at different stages of the dry season. Spectra of infrared light passing through a long (22-70 m) open-path through ground-level smoke released from these fires were collected using an infrared lamp and a field-portable FTIR system. The IR spectra were used to retrieve the mole fractions of 14 different gases present within the smoke, and these measurements used to calculate the emission ratios and emission factors of the various gases emitted by the burning. Only a handful of previous emission factor measures are available specifically for the tropical savannas of Australia and here we present the first reported emission factors for methanol, acetic acid, and formic acid for this biome. Given the relatively large sample size, it was possible to study the potential causes of the within-biome variation of the derived emission factors. We find that the emission factors vary substantially between different savanna vegetation assemblages; with a majority of this variation being mirrored by variations in the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of different vegetation classes. We conclude that a significant majority of the variation in the emission factor for trace gases can be explained by MCE, irrespective of vegetation class, as illustrated by variations in the calculated methane emission factor for different vegetation classes using data sub-set by different combustion efficiencies

  20. Part 4. Effects of subchronic diesel engine emissions exposure on plasma markers in rodents: report on 1- and 3-month exposures in the ACES bioassay.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Daniel J; Kong, Maiying

    2012-09-01

    Although epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that exposure to diesel exhaust (DE*) emissions causes adverse cardiovascular effects, neither the specific components of DE nor the mechanisms by which DE exposure could induce cardiovascular dysfunction and exacerbate cardiovascular disease (CVD) are known. Moreover, because the advance of new technologies has resulted in cleaner fuels and decreased engine emissions, there is even more uncertainty about the relationship between DE exposure and cardiovascular health effects. To address this ever-changing baseline of engine emissions, we tested for exposure-, sex- and duration-dependent alterations in plasma markers following subchronic exposure of mice and rats to DE emissions from a 2007-compliant diesel engine. Many plasma markers--several recognized as known human CVD risk factors--were measured in the plasma of rodents exposed to 1 or 3 months of air (the control) or DE emissions. Few changes in plasma markers resulted from exposure to DE, although significant exposure-level-dependent increases in total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were observed in male rats after 1 month of DE exposure, an effect that was neither sustained nor observed in any other group. These data indicate that DE emissions from a 2007-compliant diesel engine as tested in this study had little adverse effect on CVD markers in rodents.

  1. New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - Part 2: Australian tropical savanna fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. E. L.; Paton-Walsh, C.; Meyer, C. P.; Cook, G. D.; Maier, S. W.; Russell-Smith, J.; Wooster, M. J.; Yates, C. P.

    2014-03-01

    Savanna fires contribute approximately 40-50% of total global annual biomass burning carbon emissions. Recent comparisons of emission factors from different savanna regions have highlighted the need for a regional approach to emission factor development, and better assessment of the drivers of the temporal and spatial variation in emission factors. This paper describes the results of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopic field measurements at twenty-one fires occurring in the tropical savannas of the Northern Territory, Australia, within different vegetation assemblages and at different stages of the dry season. Spectra of infrared light passing through a long (22-70 m) open-path through ground-level smoke released from these fires were collected using an infrared lamp and a field-portable FTIR system. The IR spectra were used to retrieve the mole fractions of fourteen different gases present within the smoke, and these measurements used to calculate the emission ratios and emission factors of the various gases emitted by the burning. Only a handful of previous emission factor measures are available specifically for the tropical savannas of Australia and here we present the first reported emission factors for methanol, acetic acid, and formic acid for this biome. Given the relatively large sample size, it was possible to study the potential causes of the within-biome variation of the derived emission factors. We find that the emission factors vary substantially between different savanna vegetation assemblages; with a majority of this variation being mirrored by variations in the modified combustion efficiency (MCE) of different vegetation classes. We conclude that a significant majority of the variation in the emission factor for trace gases can be explained by MCE, irrespective of vegetation class, as illustrated by variations in the calculated methane emission factor for different vegetation classes using data subsetted by different

  2. Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: part 2 - gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems

    SciTech Connect

    England, G.C.; Watson, J.G.; Chow, J.C.; Zielinska, B.; Chang, M.C.O.; Loos, K.R.; Hidy. G.M.

    2007-01-15

    With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self- consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented, using dilution sampling as the reference. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO{sub 2}, nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH{sub 3} is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual- fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of {approximately}10{sup -4} lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with {approximately} 5 x 10{sup -3} lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of {approximately} 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much less extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas- fired combustor particles are low in concentration. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon is found on the particle collector and a backup filter. It is likely that measurement artifacts are positively biasing 'true' particulate carbon emissions results. 49 refs., 1 fig., 12 tabs.

  3. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport - Part 2: Steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Fiore, A. M.

    2009-08-01

    Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would avoid this disbenefit.

  4. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport - Part 2: steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, J. J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Fiore, A. M.

    2009-03-01

    Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would avoid this disbenefit.

  5. Spectrochemical investigations of fluorescence quenching agents. Part 5. Effect of surfactants on the ability of nitromethane to selectively quench fluorescence emission of alternant PAHs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Siddharth; Fletcher, Kristin A.; Powell, Joyce R.; McHale, Mary E. R.; Kauppila, Ann-Sofi M.; Acree, William E.; Fetzer, John C.; Dai, Wei; Harvey, Ronald G.

    1997-02-01

    Applicability of the nitromethane selective quenching rule for discriminating between alternant vs. nonalternant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is examined for 18 representative PAH solutes dissolved in micellar cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTACl), micellar dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), micellar Brij-35 and micellar sodium octanoate (SO) solvent media. Experimental results show that nitromethane quenched fluorescence emission of only the 10 alternant PAHs in the two cationic (CTAC1 and DTAB) and nonionic Brij-35 surfactant solvent media as expected. Emission intensities of nonalternant PAHs, except for the few exceptions noted previously, were unaffected by nitromethane addition. Unexpected quenching behavior was observed, however, in the case of nonalternant PAHs dissolved in micellar sodium octanoate solvent media. Nitromethane quenched fluorescence emission of all nonalternant PAHs studied in the SO solvent media, which is contrary to the selective quenching rule.

  6. New emission factors for Australian vegetation fires measured using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy - Part 1: Methods and Australian temperate forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paton-Walsh, C.; Smith, T. E. L.; Young, E. L.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Guérette, É.-A.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning releases trace gases and aerosol particles that significantly affect the composition and chemistry of the atmosphere. Australia contributes approximately 8% of gross global carbon emissions from biomass burning, yet there are few previous measurements of emissions from Australian forest fires available in the literature. This paper describes the results of field measurements of trace gases emitted during hazard reduction burns in Australian temperate forests using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In a companion paper, similar techniques are used to characterise the emissions from hazard reduction burns in the savanna regions of the Northern Territory. Details of the experimental methods are explained, including both the measurement set-up and the analysis techniques employed. The advantages and disadvantages of different ways to estimate whole-fire emission factors are discussed and a measurement uncertainty budget is developed. Emission factors for Australian temperate forest fires are measured locally for the first time for many trace gases. Where ecosystem-relevant data are required, we recommend the following emission factors for Australian temperate forest fires (in grams of gas emitted per kilogram of dry fuel burned) which are our mean measured values: 1620 ± 160 g kg-1 of carbon dioxide; 120 ± 20 g kg-1 of carbon monoxide; 3.6 ± 1.1 g kg-1 of methane; 1.3 ± 0.3 g kg-1 of ethylene; 1.7 ± 0.4 g kg-1 of formaldehyde; 2.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1 of methanol; 3.8 ± 1.3 g kg-1 of acetic acid; 0.4 ± 0.2 g kg-1 of formic acid; 1.6 ± 0.6 g kg-1 of ammonia; 0.15 ± 0.09 g kg-1 of nitrous oxide and 0.5 ± 0.2 g kg-1 of ethane.

  7. OBSERVABLE INDICATORS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF PM 2.5 NITRATE TO EMISSION REDUCTIONS, PART II: SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE OF THE CMAQ-PREDICTED NONLINEAR EFFECT OF SO 2 EMISSION REDUCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inorganic aerosol system of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium can respond nonlinearly to changes in precursor sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. The potential increase in nitrate, when sulfate is reduced and the associated ammonia is released, can negate the sulfate mass...

  8. Dynamic evaluation of CMAQ part I: Separating the effects of changing emissions and changing meteorology on ozone levels between 2002 and 2005 in the eastern US

    EPA Science Inventory

    A dynamic evaluation of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system version 5.0.1 was conducted to evaluate the model's ability to predict changes in ozone levels between 2002 and 2005, a time period characterized by emission reductions associated with the EPA's N...

  9. Mercury emission from terrestrial background surfaces in the eastern USA. Part I: Air/surface exchange of mercury within a southeastern deciduous forest (Tennessee) over one year

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Todd; Zhang, Hong; Gustin, Mae S.; Lindberg, Steven Eric

    2008-03-01

    This study focused on the development of a seasonal data set of the Hg air/surface exchange over soils associated with low Hg containing surfaces in a deciduous forest in the southern USA. Data were collected every month for 11 months in 2004 within Standing Stone State Forest in Tennessee using the dynamic flux chamber method. Mercury air/surface exchange associated with the litter covered forest floor was very low with the annual mean daytime flux being 0.4 0.5 ng m-2 h-1 (n = 301). The daytime Hg air/surface exchange over the year oscillated between emission (81% of samples with positive flux) and deposition (19% of samples with negative flux). A seasonal trend of lower emission in the spring and summer (closed canopy) relative to the fall and winter (open canopy) was observed. Correlations were found between the air/surface exchange and certain environmental factors on specific days sampled but not collectively over the entire year. The very low magnitude of Hg air/surface exchange as observed in this study suggests that an improved methodology for determining and reporting emission fluxes is needed when the values of fluxes and chamber blanks are both very low and comparable. This study raises questions and points to a need for more research regarding how to scale the Hg air/surface exchange for surfaces with very low emissions.

  10. Dilution-based emissions sampling from stationary sources: Part 2--Gas-fired combustors compared with other fuel-fired systems.

    PubMed

    England, Glenn C; Watson, John G; Chow, Judith C; Zielinska, Barbara; Chang, M C Oliver; Loos, Karl R; Hidy, George M

    2007-01-01

    With the recent focus on fine particle matter (PM2.5), new, self-consistent data are needed to characterize emissions from combustion sources. Such data are necessary for health assessment and air quality modeling. To address this need, emissions data for gas-fired combustors are presented here, using dilution sampling as the reference. The dilution method allows for collection of emitted particles under conditions simulating cooling and dilution during entry from the stack into the air. The sampling and analysis of the collected particles in the presence of precursor gases, SO2 nitrogen oxide, volatile organic compound, and NH3 is discussed; the results include data from eight gas fired units, including a dual-fuel institutional boiler and a diesel engine powered electricity generator. These data are compared with results in the literature for heavy-duty diesel vehicles and stationary sources using coal or wood as fuels. The results show that the gas-fired combustors have very low PM2.5 mass emission rates in the range of approximately 10(-4) lb/million Btu (MMBTU) compared with the diesel backup generator with particle filter, with approximately 5 x 10(-3) lb/MMBTU. Even higher mass emission rates are found in coal-fired systems, with rates of approximately 0.07 lb/MMBTU for a bag-filter-controlled pilot unit burning eastern bituminous coal. The characterization of PM2.5 chemical composition from the gas-fired units indicates that much of the measured primary particle mass in PM2.5 samples is organic or elemental carbon and, to a much less extent, sulfate. Metal emissions are quite low compared with the diesel engines and the coal- or wood-fueled combustors. The metals found in the gas-fired combustor particles are low in concentration, similar in concentration to ambient particles. The interpretation of the particulate carbon emissions is complicated by the fact that an approximately equal amount of particulate carbon (mainly organic carbon) is found on the

  11. Characterization of helium/argon working gas systems in a radiofrequency glow discharge atomic emission source. Part II: Langmuir probe and emission intensity studies for Al, Cu and Macor samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belkin, Mikhail; Caruso, Joseph A.; Christopher, Steven J.; Marcus, R. Kenneth

    1998-08-01

    The application of a tuned Langmuir probe is extended to the measurement of the charged particle characteristics (electron and ion number density, average electron energy and electron temperature) in an analytical radiofrequency glow discharge (RF-GD) in helium. The effects of discharge operating conditions, such as RF power and pressure, on the charged particle characteristics for conducting (aluminum) and nonconducting (Macor) samples are studied. The differences in plasma characteristics between argon and helium working gases are discussed. Langmuir probe measurements are also performed in an argon/helium mixture. Variations of the emission intensities of sputtered analytes (copper and aluminum) are investigated when helium is introduced into an argon RF glow discharge plasma. It is recognized that, although the number of sample atoms in the plasma gradually decreases due to reduced sputtering, the emission intensities of various Al(I) and Cu(I) lines increase with helium addition. Measured electron and ion number densities also decrease with helium addition, whereas the average electron energy and electron temperature increase, accounting for the enhancement of emission intensities.

  12. Synchrotron emission in the case of a partly random magnetic field, and the study of some general properties of radio shell-type supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandiera, Rino; Petruk, Oleh

    2016-06-01

    We present an extension of the classical synchrotron emission theory, for the combination of an ordered magnetic field plus a random component. Exact analytical formulae are obtained for a power-law distribution of radiating particles. We also discuss a treatment of the internal Faraday rotation. These results are then applied to discuss some general properties of the structure of the radio emission and polarization from shell-type supernova remnants. To this purpose we have used a thin-layer approximation to model the supernova remnant shell: this approximation does not guarantee the same level of accuracy of numerical simulations, but is adequate to show at least qualitatively how the observed maps are affected by the geometry of the source. Some further considerations are presented on the more general case in which the energy distribution of the emitting particles is not a pure power law.

  13. Manufacturing Methods and Technology (MANTECH) Program. Quality Control and Nondestructive Evaluation Techniques for Composites. Part VI. Acoustic Emission - A State-of-the-Art Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    characterization and testing of composite materials and struc- tures has been written. First, an extensive bibliography of over 300 references of the...024739-3 (3-volume set)]. 1-10 1~ I I ** 14. P. Bee, A. Chaari, P. Gaillard, and J. F. Qhretien. "Pattern Recognition Technique for Characterization ...Gardner. "The Characterization of Dawage Growth in Advanced Composites byIAcoustic Emission tonitoring." pp 180-181 in Paper Summaries: ASNT 36th

  14. Review of cardiovascular imaging in The Journal of Nuclear Cardiology in 2014: Part 1 of 2: Positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and neuronal imaging.

    PubMed

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2015-06-01

    The year 2014 has been an exciting year for the cardiovascular imaging community with significant advances in the realm of nuclear and multimodality cardiac imaging. In this new feature of the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology, we will summarize some of the breakthroughs that were published in the Journal in 2014 in 2 sister articles. This first article will concentrate on publications dealing with cardiac positron emission tomography (PET), computed tomography (CT), and neuronal imaging.

  15. Characterization of the Etna volcanic emissions through an active biomonitoring technique (moss-bags): part 1--major and trace element composition.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, S; D'Alessandro, W; Bellomo, S; Brusca, L; Martin, R S; Saiano, F; Parello, F

    2015-01-01

    Active biomonitoring using moss-bags was applied to an active volcanic environment for the first time. Bioaccumulation originating from atmospheric deposition was evaluated by exposing mixtures of washed and air-dried mosses (Sphagnum species) at 24 sites on Mt. Etna volcano (Italy). Concentrations of major and a large suite of trace elements were analysed by inductively coupled mass and optical spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES) after total acid digestion. Of the 49 elements analysed those which closely reflect summit volcanic emissions were S, Tl, Bi, Se, Cd, As, Cu, B, Na, Fe, Al. Enrichment factors and cluster analysis allowed clear distinction between volcanogenic, geogenic and anthropogenic inputs that affect the local atmospheric deposition. This study demonstrates that active biomonitoring with moss-bags is a suitable and robust technique for implementing inexpensive monitoring in scarcely accessible and harsh volcanic environments, giving time-averaged quantitative results of the local exposure to volcanic emissions. This task is especially important in the study area because the summit area of Mt. Etna is visited by nearly one hundred thousand tourists each year who are exposed to potentially harmful volcanic emissions.

  16. Energy and Emissions from U.S. Population Shifts and Implications for Regional GHG Mitigation Planning.

    PubMed

    Hoesly, Rachel; Matthews, H Scott; Hendrickson, Chris

    2015-11-03

    Living in different areas is associated with different impacts; the movement of people to and from those areas will affect energy use and emissions over the U.S. The emissions implications of state-to-state migration on household energy and GHG emissions are explored. Three million households move across state lines annually, and generally move from the North East to the South and West. Migrating households often move to states with different climates (thus different heating and cooling and needs), different fuel mixes, and different regional electricity grids, which leads them to experience changes in household emissions as a result of their move. Under current migration trends, the emissions increases of households moving from the Northeast to the South and Southwest are balanced by the emissions decreases of households moving to California and the Pacific Northwest. The net sum of emissions changes for migrating households is slightly positive but near zero; however, that net zero sum represents the balance of many emission changes. Planning for continued low carbon growth in low carbon regions or cities experiencing high growth rates driven by migration is essential in order to offset the moderate emissions increases experienced by households moving to high carbon regions.

  17. Implementation of Cloud Retrievals for Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Atmospheric Retrievals: Part 1. Description and Characterization of Errors on Trace Gas Retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulawik, Susan S.; Worden, John; Eldering, Annmarie; Bowman, Kevin; Gunson, Michael; Osterman, Gregory B.; Zhang, Lin; Clough, Shepard A.; Shephard, Mark W.; Beer, Reinhard

    2006-01-01

    We develop an approach to estimate and characterize trace gas retrievals in the presence of clouds in high spectral measurements of upwelling radiance in the infrared spectral region (650-2260/cm). The radiance contribution of clouds is parameterized in terms of a set of frequency-dependent nonscattering optical depths and a cloud height. These cloud parameters are retrieved jointly with surface temperature, emissivity, atmospheric temperature, and trace gases such as ozone from spectral data. We demonstrate the application of this approach using data from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) and test data simulated with a scattering radiative transfer model. We show the value of this approach in that it results in accurate estimates of errors for trace gas retrievals, and the retrieved values improve over the initial guess for a wide range of cloud conditions. Comparisons are made between TES retrievals of ozone, temperature, and water to model fields from the Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO), temperature retrievals from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), tropospheric ozone columns from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) GEOS-Chem, and ozone retrievals from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). In each of these cases, this cloud retrieval approach does not introduce observable biases into TES retrievals.

  18. ROANOKE WOODSTOVE EMISSION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project Roanoke study, that characterizes and quantifies emissions generated by burning authentic Roanoke cordwood. The burning occurred in a controlled laboratory setting using two woodstoves, each operated at two...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 75 - Optional NOX Emissions Estimation Protocol for Gas-Fired Peaking Units and Oil-Fired Peaking Units

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... condition in accordance with equations F-19 or F-20 in appendix F of this part and total heat input using equation E-1 of this appendix. Record the heat input rate at each heat input/load point. 2.1.4Emergency Fuel The designated representative of a unit that is restricted by its federal, State or local...

  20. Effects of climate change on volatile organic compound emissions from soil and litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, C. M.; Fierer, N.

    2012-12-01

    Our knowledge of the variability and magnitude of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from soil and litter is relatively limited compared to what we know about VOC emissions from terrestrial plants. With climate change expecting to alter plant community composition, nitrogen (N) deposition rates, mean annual temperatures, and precipitation patterns, it is unknown how production and consumption of VOCs from litter and soil will respond. We spent the last four years quantifying VOC emissions from soil and litter, comparing VOC emissions to CO2 emissions, and identifying the biotic and abiotic controls on emission rates with both lab and field experiments using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). In all studies, methanol was the dominant VOC flux. VOC emissions were not driven by abiotic processes, as microbial sources accounted for 78% to 99% of the total VOC emissions from decomposing litter. Litter chemistry was correlated with the types of VOCs emitted and the net emissions of carbon as VOCs was found to be up to 88% of that emitted as CO2 suggesting that VOCs likely represent an important component of the carbon cycle in many terrestrial systems. Nitrogen additions drastically reduced VOC emissions from litter to near zero, though it is still not understood whether this was due to an increase in consumption or a decrease in production. Finally, field and lab experiments show that temperature and moisture are both important controls of certain VOC emissions from soils, but that the effects of these factors on VOC emissions are not necessarily equivalent to their effects on CO2 emissions. Together, these series of studies are moving us toward a predictive understanding of VOC emissions from soil and litter with the ultimate goal of incorporating these VOC emissions into global models of terrestrial VOC dynamics.

  1. Electron emission from single-electron capture with simultaneous single-ionization reactions in 30-keV/u He{sup 2+}-on-argon collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Zhang, S. F.; Zhu, X. L.; Feng, W. T.; Li, B.; Liu, H. P.; Zhang, R. T.; Guo, D. L.; Yan, S. C.; Zhang, P. J.; Wang, Q.; Li, C. Y.; Wang, J. G.

    2011-05-15

    Electron emission from the single-electron capture with simultaneous single ionization in 30 keV/u He{sup 2+} on argon was investigated using a reaction microscope, providing the electron energy spectra and momentum distributions. Intensive peaks for electrons with near-zero kinetic energies have been observed. It is demonstrated that mechanisms contributing to the electron emission include direct transfer ionization (DTI), double-electron capture with autoionization (DECA), and single-electron capture with autoionization (SECA) of target. Comparison of resonance energies shows that Ar{sup +} ions in SECA decay mainly through the 3s3p{sup 5}3d states by emitting Auger electrons, and He** in DECA decay through the 2l2l' states. The dependence of electron emission on the transverse momentum exchange has been studied. In the transfer ionization channel studied here, the DTI process dominates the electron emission, and no saddle point electron mechanism has been found.

  2. Electron emission from single-electron capture with simultaneous single-ionization reactions in 30-keV/u He2+-on-argon collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Zhang, R. T.; Zhang, S. F.; Zhu, X. L.; Feng, W. T.; Guo, D. L.; Li, B.; Liu, H. P.; Li, C. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Yan, S. C.; Zhang, P. J.; Wang, Q.

    2011-05-01

    Electron emission from the single-electron capture with simultaneous single ionization in 30 keV/u He2+ on argon was investigated using a reaction microscope, providing the electron energy spectra and momentum distributions. Intensive peaks for electrons with near-zero kinetic energies have been observed. It is demonstrated that mechanisms contributing to the electron emission include direct transfer ionization (DTI), double-electron capture with autoionization (DECA), and single-electron capture with autoionization (SECA) of target. Comparison of resonance energies shows that Ar+ ions in SECA decay mainly through the 3s3p53d states by emitting Auger electrons, and He** in DECA decay through the 2l2l' states. The dependence of electron emission on the transverse momentum exchange has been studied. In the transfer ionization channel studied here, the DTI process dominates the electron emission, and no saddle point electron mechanism has been found.

  3. Significant effects of cross term of Poynting vector on an electromagnetic wave propagation through a slab with low real part of impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiangwei; Zhu, Lili; Yuan, Guoxuan; Tao, Zhikuo

    2017-02-01

    Energy conversion and conservation for an electromagnetic wave traveling through a slab are analyzed. It is demonstrated that a cross term of Poynting vector may occur due to interference between forward and backward waves in the slab, and may play the leading role if the slab owns low real part of impedance. Several novel electromagnetic phenomena are predicted. For example, both reflection and transmission can be enhanced significantly even if the slab is made of lossy material. This work indicates that materials with low real part of impedance, like left-handed materials and near-zero-refractive-index materials, may hold unique electromagnetic properties and merit further exploration.

  4. U.S. broiler housing ammonia emissions inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, R. S.; Casey, K. D.; Wheeler, E. F.; Xin, H.; Pescatore, A. J.

    Using recently published baseline ammonia emissions data for U.S. broiler chicken housing, we present a method of estimating their contribution to an annual ammonia budget that is different from that used by USEPA. Emission rate increases in a linear relationship with flock age from near zero at the start of the flock to a maximum at the end of the flock, 28-65 days later. Market weight of chickens raised for meat varies from "broilers" weighing about 2 kg to "roasters" weighing about 3 kg. Multiple flocks of birds are grown in a single house annually, with variable downtime to prepare the house between flocks. The method takes into account weight and number of chickens marketed. Uncertainty in baseline emissions estimates is used so that inventory estimates are provided with error estimates. The method also incorporates the condition of litter that birds are raised upon and the varying market weight of birds grown. Using 2003 USDA data on broiler production numbers, broiler housing is estimated to contribute 8.8-11.7 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, in Kentucky and 240-324 kT ammonia for new and built-up litter, respectively, nationally. Results suggest that a 10% uncertainty in annual emission rate is expected for the market weight categories of broilers, heavy broilers, and roasters. A 27-47% reduction in annual housing emission rate is predicted if new rather than built-up litter were used for every flock. The estimating method can be adapted to other meat bird building emissions and future ammonia emission strategies, with suitable insertion of an age-dependent emission factor or slope into a predictive model equation. The method can be readily applied and is an alternative to that used by USEPA.

  5. Emissions Inventory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the role of emission inventories in the air quality management process, a description of how emission inventories are developed, and where U.S. emission inventory information can be found.

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From Process Vents 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63... to Subpart FFFF of Part 63—Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP... following table that applies to your process vents that contain hydrogen halide and halogen HAP emissions...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From Process Vents 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63... to Subpart FFFF of Part 63—Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP... following table that applies to your process vents that contain hydrogen halide and halogen HAP emissions...

  8. A new model for the global biogeochemical cycle of carbonyl sulfide - Part 1: Assessment of direct marine emissions with an oceanic general circulation and biogeochemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Fichot, C. G.; Peylin, P.

    2015-03-01

    The global budget of tropospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is believed to be at equilibrium because background air concentrations have remained roughly stable over at least the last decade. Since the uptake of OCS by leaves (associated with photosynthesis) and soils have been revised significantly upwards recently, an equilibrated budget can only be obtained with a compensatory source of OCS. It has been assumed that the missing source of OCS comes from the low-latitude ocean, following the incident solar flux. The present work uses parameterizations of major production and removal processes of organic compounds in the NEMO-PISCES (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean, Pelagic Interaction Scheme for Carbon and Ecosystem Studies) ocean general circulation and biogeochemistry model to assess the marine source of OCS. In addition, the OCS photo-production rates computed with the NEMO-PISCES model~were evaluated independently using the UV absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (derived from satellite ocean color data) and apparent quantum yields available in the literature. Our simulations show global direct marine emissions of OCS in the range of 573-3997 GgS yr-1, depending mostly on the quantification of the absorption rate of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. The high estimates of that range are unlikely, as they correspond to a formulation that most likely overestimate photo-production process. Low and medium (813 GgS yr-1) estimates derived from the NEMO-PISCES model are however consistent spatially and temporally~with the suggested missing source of Berry et al. (2013), allowing us thus to close the global budget of OCS given the recent estimates of leaf and soil OCS uptake.

  9. A new model for the global biogeochemical cycle of carbonyl sulfide - Part 1: Assessment of direct marine emissions with an oceanic general circulation and biogeochemistry model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Launois, T.; Belviso, S.; Bopp, L.; Fichot, C. G.; Peylin, P.

    2014-08-01

    The global budget of tropospheric carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is believed to be at equilibrium because background air concentrations have remained roughly stable over at least the last decade. Since the uptakes of OCS by leaves (associated to photosynthesis) and soils have been revised significantly upwards recently, an equilibrated budget can only be obtained with a compensatory source of OCS. It has been assumed that the missing source of OCS comes from the low latitude ocean, following the incident solar flux. The present work uses parameterizations of major production and removal processes of organic compounds in the NEMO-PISCES Ocean General Circulation and Biogeochemistry Model to assess the marine source of OCS. In addition, the OCS photo-production rates computed with the NEMO-PISCES model were evaluated independently using UV absorption coefficient of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (derived from satellite ocean color) and apparent quantum yields available in the literature. Our simulations show global direct marine emissions of COS in the range of 573-3997 Gg S yr-1, depending mostly on the quantification of the absorption rate of chromophoric dissolved organic matter. The high estimates on that range are unlikely, as they correspond to a formulation that most likely overestimate photo-production process. Low and medium (813 Gg S yr-1) estimates derived from the NEMO-PISCES model are however consistent spatially and temporally with the suggested missing source of Berry et al. (2013), allowing thus to close the global budget of OCS given the recent estimates of leaf and soil OCS uptakes.

  10. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part I: study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set.

    PubMed

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Léonardis, Thierry; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    The global objective of this two part study was (1) to conduct VOC measurements in order to further understand VOC behaviour in an urban area influenced by industrial emissions and (2) to evaluate the role of these specific sources relative to urban sources. In this first paper a thorough descriptive and qualitative analysis is performed. A second article will be devoted to the quantitative analysis using Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modelling. In the Dunkerque (France) area most industrial sources are situated in the north and the west of the receptor site whereas urban and traffic sources are located in the south and the east. A data set constituted of nearly 330,000 VOC data has been developed from the hourly measurements of 53 VOCs for 1 year from September 2002 to August 2003. It also contains meteorological parameters such as temperature, wind direction and wind speed. Using different graphical methods, the influence of the different sources on the ambient VOC concentrations has been highlighted at different time scales. In this work, the analysis of daily time series for the 53 VOCs shows the influence of traffic exhaust emissions because of the increases at traffic rush hours. Besides, the seasonal evolution of the VOC/acetylene ratio points out the influence of evaporative sources on ambient VOC concentration. Concerning other point sources, the variations of measured VOC concentrations for different wind directions and scatter plots of VOC hourly concentrations highlight the influence of some industrial sources.

  11. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic determination of rare earth elements in geological samples after preconcentration by countercurrent chromatography—Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhovskaya, V. M.; Grebneva, O. N.; Maryutina, T. A.; Kuz'min, N. M.; Spivakov, B. Ya.

    1995-01-01

    This paper directly links up with Part I [ Spectrochim. Acta48B, 1365 (1993)] which treats the first application of countercurrent chromatography (CCC) for pre-separation of rare earth elements (REE) in rocks. The rapid and reliable separation and pre-concentration of "light" REE and Y can be achieved using a system of 0.5 mol/l di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid (D2EHPA) in n-decane-hydrochloric acid of different concentrations and a planetary centrifuge as a CCC device. However, Tm, Yb and Lu are partially retained in the stationary phase. Comparative data is presented on three other two-phase liquid systems containing trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO); D2EHPA and TOPO mixtures and diphenyl(dibutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine)oxide (Ph 2-Bu 2) as extractants in terms of their ability for whole REE group complete isolation from the rock constituents. The partial losses of "light" REE (La and Ce) occurred in the system of 0.1 mol/l solution of TOPO in isobutylmethylketone (IBMK) (stationary phase)-1 mol/l NH 4NO 3-6 mol/l HCl aqueous solutions (mobile phase). Complete isolution of the entire REE group can be reached in two systems: 0.3 mol/l D2EHPA + 0.02 ml/l TOPO in the solvents mixture (3:1) of n-decane + IBMK, respectively (stationary phase)-1 mol/l NH 4NO 3-6 mol/l HCl aqueous solution (mobile phase), and 1.0 mol/l Ph 2-Bu 2 solution in chloroform (stationary phase)-3 mol/l HNO 3 aqueous solution (mobile phase). The D2EHPA + TOPO mixture is recommended as more economic and accessible.

  12. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  13. Impact of future climate policy scenarios on air quality and aerosol-cloud interactions using an advanced version of CESM/CAM5: Part II. Future trend analysis and impacts of projected anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Following a comprehensive evaluation of the Community Earth System Model modified at the North Carolina State University (CESM-NCSU), Part II describes the projected changes in the future state of the atmosphere under the representative concentration partway scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5) by 2100 for the 2050 time frame and examine the impact of climate change on future air quality under both scenarios, and the impact of projected emission changes under the RCP4.5 scenario on future climate through aerosol direct and indirect effects. Both the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 simulations predict similar changes in air quality by the 2050 period due to declining emissions under both scenarios. The largest differences occur in O3, which decreases by global mean of 1.4 ppb under RCP4.5 but increases by global mean of 2.3 ppb under RCP8.5 due to differences in methane levels, and PM10, which decreases by global mean of 1.2 μg m-3 under RCP4.5 and increases by global mean of 0.2 μg m-3 under RCP8.5 due to differences in dust and sea-salt emissions under both scenarios. Enhancements in cloud formation in the Arctic and Southern Ocean and increases of aerosol optical depth (AOD) in central Africa and South Asia dominate the change in surface radiation in both scenarios, leading to global average dimming of 1.1 W m-2 and 2.0 W m-2 in the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios, respectively. Declines in AOD, cloud formation, and cloud optical thickness from reductions of emissions of primary aerosols and aerosol precursors under RCP4.5 result in near surface warming of 0.2 °C from a global average increase of 0.7 W m-2 in surface downwelling solar radiation. This warming leads to a weakening of the Walker Circulation in the tropics, leading to significant changes in cloud and precipitation that mirror a shift in climate towards the negative phase of the El Nino Southern Oscillation.

  14. Emission of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the aerobic decomposition of orange wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Xinming

    2015-07-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted from orange wastes during aerobic decomposition were investigated in a laboratory-controlled incubator for a period of two months. Emission of total OVOCs (TOVOCs) from orange wastes reached 1714 mg/dry kg (330 mg/wet kg). Ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, 2-butanone and acetaldehyde were the most abundant OVOC species with shares of 26.9%, 24.8%, 20.3%, 13.9%, 2.8% and 2.5%, respectively, in the TOVOCs released. The emission fluxes of the above top five OVOCs were quite trivial in the beginning but increased sharply to form one "peak emission window" with maximums at days 1-8 until leveling off after 10 days. This type of "peak emission window" was synchronized with the CO2 fluxes and incubation temperature of the orange wastes, indicating that released OVOCs were mainly derived from secondary metabolites of orange substrates through biotic processes rather than abiotic processes or primary volatilization of the inherent pool in oranges. Acetaldehyde instead had emission fluxes decreasing sharply from its initial maximum to nearly zero in about four days, suggesting that it was inherent rather than secondarily formed. For TOVOCs or all OVOC species except 2-butanone and acetone, over 80% of their emissions occurred during the first week, implying that organic wastes might give off a considerable amount of OVOCs during the early disposal period under aerobic conditions.

  15. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    PubMed

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  16. TREATMENT PERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM AND ITS GREENHOUSE GASES EMISSION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, K. Q.; Liu, C.; Ebie, Y.; Inamori, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) can be classified into three typical types: Vertical flow (VF), Free-water Surface (FWS) and Subsurface Flow (SF) CWs according to their structures and directions of water flow. A combined FWS-VF-SFS CW system was designed and built to promote its treatment performance for actual domestic wastewater and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The results from the pilot-scale combined system indicated that comparatively good performance for pollutant removal, which was 98.5%, 95.9%, 93.2% and 90.7% for BOD5, SS, NH4-N and TP under 6-day HRT, respectively. It was also found that the N2O emission was mainly from the VF unit of the system, which accounted for more than 80% of the total emission, whereas N2O emission from the FWS unit was nearly zero. On the other hand, the CH4 emission was not so high as N2O in the combined CW system, which mainly emitted from the FWS and SF units.

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From Process Vents 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63..., Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63—Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP Emissions... limit in the following table that applies to your process vents that contain hydrogen halide and...

  18. Emission properties of explosive field emission cathodes

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Amitava; Patel, Ankur; Menon, Rakhee; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D. P.; Patil, D. S.

    2011-10-15

    The research results of the explosive field emission cathode plasma expansion velocity and the initial emission area in the planar diode configuration with cathodes made of graphite, stainless steel, polymer velvet, carbon coated, and carbon fiber (needle type) cathodes are presented. The experiments have been performed at the electron accelerator LIA-200 (200 kV, 100 ns, and 4 kA). The diode voltage has been varied from 28-225 kV, whereas the current density has been varied from 86-928 A/cm{sup 2} with 100 ns pulse duration. The experimentally obtained electron beam diode perveance has been compared with the 1 dimensional Child-Langmuir- law. It was found that initially only a part of the cathode take part in the emission process. The plasma expands at 1.7-5.2 cm/{mu}s for 4 mm anode-cathode gap for various cathode materials. It was found that the plasma expansion velocity increases with the decrease in the cathode diameter. At the beginning of the accelerating pulse, the entire cathode area participates in the electron emission process only for the multiple needle type carbon fiber cathode.

  19. Feasibility of including fugitive PM-10 emissions estimates in the EPA emissions trends report

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, W.; Carlson, P.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes the results of Part 2 of a two part study. Part 2 was to evaluate the feasibility of developing regional emission trends for PM-10. Part 1 was to evaluate the feasibility of developing VOC emission trends, on a regional and temporal basis. These studies are part of the effort underway to improve the national emission trends. Part 1 is presented in a separate report. The categories evaluated for the feasibility of developing regional emissions estimates were: unpaved roads, paved roads, wind erosion, agricultural tilling, construction activities, feedlots, burning, landfills, mining and quarrying unpaved parking lots, unpaved airstrips and storage piles.

  20. Climate policy: Reforming emissions trading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2014-08-01

    Courageous steps are required to reform the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. To this end, an independent carbon authority has been proposed -- this is a move in the right direction, but should be part of a much broader discussion about reforming emissions trading.

  1. Influence of Jet Fuel Composition on Aircraft Engine Emissions: A Synthesis of Aerosol Emissions Data from the NASA APEX, AAFEX, and ACCESS Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Corr, C.; Herndon, S. C.; Knighton, W. B.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Yu, Z.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    We statistically analyze the impact of jet fuel properties on aerosols emitted by the NASA McDonnell Douglas DC-8 CFM56-2-C1 engines burning fifteen different aviation fuels. Data were collected for this single engine type during four different, comprehensive ground tests conducted over the past decade, which allow us to clearly link changes in aerosol emissions to fuel compositional changes. It is found that the volatile aerosol fraction dominates the number and volume emissions indices (EIs) over all engine powers, which are driven by changes in fuel aromatic and sulfur content. Meanwhile, the naphthalenic content of the fuel determines the magnitude of the non-volatile number and volume EI as well as the black carbon mass EI. Linear regression coefficients are reported for each aerosol EI in terms of these properties, engine fuel flow rate, and ambient temperature, and show that reducing both fuel sulfur content and napththalenes to near-zero levels would result in roughly a ten-fold decrease in aerosol number emitted per kg of fuel burn. This work informs future efforts to model aircraft emissions changes as the aviation fleet gradually begins to transition toward low-aromatic, low-sulfur alternative jet fuels from bio-based or Fischer-Tropsch production pathways.

  2. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions... § 75.19 Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units. (a... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or...

  3. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions... § 75.19 Optional SO2, NOX, and CO2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units. (a... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or...

  4. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon budgeting in a short-hydroperiod floodplain wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batson, Jackie; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Krauss, Ken W.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the controls on floodplain carbon (C) cycling is important for assessing greenhouse gas emissions and the potential for C sequestration in river-floodplain ecosystems. We hypothesized that greater hydrologic connectivity would increase C inputs to floodplains that would not only stimulate soil C gas emissions but also sequester more C in soils. In an urban Piedmont river (151 km2 watershed) with a floodplain that is dry most of the year, we quantified soil CO2, CH4, and N2O net emissions along gradients of floodplain hydrologic connectivity, identified controls on soil aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and developed a floodplain soil C budget. Sites were chosen along a longitudinal river gradient and across lateral floodplain geomorphic units (levee, backswamp, and toe slope). CO2 emissions decreased downstream in backswamps and toe slopes and were high on the levees. CH4 and N2O fluxes were near zero; however, CH4emissions were highest in the backswamp. Annual CO2 emissions correlated negatively with soil water-filled pore space and positively with variables related to drier, coarser soil. Conversely, annual CH4 emissions had the opposite pattern of CO2. Spatial variation in aerobic and anaerobic respiration was thus controlled by oxygen availability but was not related to C inputs from sedimentation or vegetation. The annual mean soil CO2 emission rate was 1091 g C m−2 yr−1, the net sedimentation rate was 111 g C m−2 yr−1, and the vegetation production rate was 240 g C m−2 yr−1, with a soil C balance (loss) of −338 g C m−2 yr−1. This floodplain is losing C likely due to long-term drying from watershed urbanization.

  5. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Andres, S.; Bachner, M.; Behnke, K.; Broch, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Rubach, F.; Springer, M.; Steitz, B.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Schnitzler, J.-P.; Wildt, J.

    2011-08-01

    Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from transgenic Grey poplar, modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm-3 s-1 were observed in our experiments. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m-2 s-1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT) and nearly zero (<0.5 nmol m-2 s-1) in isoprene emission-repressed lines (line RA22), respectively. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8) was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3 % of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  6. Isoprene in poplar emissions: effects on new particle formation and OH concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Andres, S.; Bachner, M.; Behnke, K.; Broch, S.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Holland, F.; Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Rubach, F.; Springer, M.; Steitz, B.; Tillmann, R.; Wahner, A.; Schnitzler, J.-P.; Wildt, J.

    2012-01-01

    Stress-induced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from transgenic Grey poplar modified in isoprene emission potential were used for the investigation of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In poplar, acute ozone stress induces the emission of a wide array of VOCs dominated by sesquiterpenes and aromatic VOCs. Constitutive light-dependent emission of isoprene ranged between 66 nmol m-2 s-1 in non-transgenic controls (wild type WT) and nearly zero (<0.5 nmol m-2 s-1) in isoprene emission-repressed plants (line RA22), respectively. Nucleation rates of up to 3600 cm-3 s-1 were observed in our experiments. In the presence of isoprene new particle formation was suppressed compared to non-isoprene containing VOC mixtures. Compared to isoprene/monoterpene systems emitted from other plants the suppression of nucleation by isoprene was less effective for the VOC mixture emitted from stressed poplar. This is explained by the observed high efficiency of new particle formation for emissions from stressed poplar. Direct measurements of OH in the reaction chamber revealed that the steady state concentration of OH is lower in the presence of isoprene than in the absence of isoprene, supporting the hypothesis that isoprenes' suppressing effect on nucleation is related to radical chemistry. In order to test whether isoprene contributes to SOA mass formation, fully deuterated isoprene (C5D8) was added to the stress-induced emission profile of an isoprene free poplar mutant. Mass spectral analysis showed that, despite the isoprene-induced suppression of particle formation, fractions of deuterated isoprene were incorporated into the SOA. A fractional mass yield of 2.3% of isoprene was observed. Future emission changes due to land use and climate change may therefore affect both gas phase oxidation capacity and new particle number formation.

  7. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon budgeting in a short-hydroperiod floodplain wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batson, Jackie; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Krauss, Ken W.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    the controls on floodplain carbon (C) cycling is important for assessing greenhouse gas emissions and the potential for C sequestration in river-floodplain ecosystems. We hypothesized that greater hydrologic connectivity would increase C inputs to floodplains that would not only stimulate soil C gas emissions but also sequester more C in soils. In an urban Piedmont river (151 km2 watershed) with a floodplain that is dry most of the year, we quantified soil CO2, CH4, and N2O net emissions along gradients of floodplain hydrologic connectivity, identified controls on soil aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and developed a floodplain soil C budget. Sites were chosen along a longitudinal river gradient and across lateral floodplain geomorphic units (levee, backswamp, and toe slope). CO2 emissions decreased downstream in backswamps and toe slopes and were high on the levees. CH4 and N2O fluxes were near zero; however, CH4 emissions were highest in the backswamp. Annual CO2 emissions correlated negatively with soil water-filled pore space and positively with variables related to drier, coarser soil. Conversely, annual CH4 emissions had the opposite pattern of CO2. Spatial variation in aerobic and anaerobic respiration was thus controlled by oxygen availability but was not related to C inputs from sedimentation or vegetation. The annual mean soil CO2 emission rate was 1091 g C m-2 yr-1, the net sedimentation rate was 111 g C m-2 yr-1, and the vegetation production rate was 240 g C m-2 yr-1, with a soil C balance (loss) of -338 g C m-2 yr-1. This floodplain is losing C likely due to long-term drying from watershed urbanization.

  8. OBSERVABLE INDICATORS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF PM2.5 NITRATE TO EMISSION REDUCTIONS PART I: DERIVATION OF THE ADJUSTED GAS RATIO AND APPLICABILITY AT REGULATORY-RELEVANT TIME SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical transport models have frequently been used to evaluate the impacts of emission reductions on inorganic PM2.5. However, such models are limited in their accuracy by uncertain estimates of the spatial and temporal characterization of emissions and meteorology. Site-speci...

  9. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: Near Zero Maine Home II - Vassalboro, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-11-01

    This case study describes a DOE Zero Energy Ready home in Vassalboro, Maine, that scored HERS 35 without PV and HERS 11 with PV. This 1,200 ft2 home has 10.5-inch-thick double-walls with 3 layers of mineral wool batt insulation, an R-20 insulated slab, R-70 cellulose in the attic, extensive air sealing, a mini-split heat pump, an heat recovery ventilator, solar water heating, LED lighting, 3.9 kWh PV, and triple-pane windows.

  10. Rayleigh-Bénard convection in binary mixtures with separation ratios near zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez-Lerma, Marco A.; Ahlers, Guenter; Cannell, David S.

    1995-12-01

    We present an experimental study of convection in binary mixtures with separation ratios Ψ close to zero. Measurements of the Hopf frequency for Ψ<0 were used to determine the relationship between Ψ and the mass concentration x with high precision. These results are consistent with but more precise than earlier measurements by conventional techniques. For Ψ>0, we found that the pattern close to onset consisted of squares. Our data give the threshold of convection rc≡Rc/Rc0 (Rc is the critical Rayleigh number of the mixture and Rc0 that of the pure fluid) from measurements of the refractive-index power of the pattern as revealed by a very sensitive quantitative shadowgraph method. Over the range Ψ<~0.011, corresponding to rc>~0.2, these results are in good agreement with linear stability analysis. The measured refractive-index power varies by six orders of magnitude as a function of r and for r>~0.55 is in reasonable agreement with predictions based on the ten-mode Lorenz-like Galerkin truncation of Müller and Lücke [H. W. Müller and M. Lücke, Phys. Rev. A 38, 2965 (1988)]. For smaller r, the model predicts a cancellation between contributions to the refractive index from concentration and temperature variations, which does not seem to occur in the physical system. Determinations of the wave numbers of the patterns near onset are consistent with the theoretically predicted small critical wave numbers at positive Ψ. As r approaches one, we find that q approaches the critical wave number qc0~=3 of the pure fluid. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society

  11. Graphene–Metal Composite Sensors with Near-Zero Temperature Coefficient of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the design of piezoresistive thin-film sensors based on single-layer graphene decorated with metallic nanoislands. The defining characteristic of these composite thin films is that they can be engineered to exhibit a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) that is close to zero. A mechanical sensor with this property is stable against temperature fluctuations of the type encountered during operations in the real world, for example, in a wearable sensor. The metallic nanoislands are grown on graphene through thermal deposition of metals (gold or palladium) at a low nominal thickness. Metallic films exhibit an increase in resistance with temperature (positive TCR), whereas graphene exhibits a decrease in resistance with temperature (negative TCR). By varying the amount of deposition, the morphology of the nanoislands can be tuned such that the TCRs of a metal and graphene cancel out. The quantitative analysis of scanning electron microscope images reveals the importance of the surface coverage of the metal (as opposed to the total mass of the metal deposited). The stability of the sensor to temperature fluctuations that might be encountered in the outdoors is demonstrated by subjecting a wearable pulse sensor to simulated solar irradiation. PMID:28261691

  12. Singularity-driven second- and third-harmonic generation at {epsilon}-near-zero crossing points

    SciTech Connect

    Vincenti, M. A.; Ceglia, D. de; Ciattoni, A.; Scalora, M.

    2011-12-15

    We show an alternative path to efficient second- and third-harmonic generation in proximity of the zero crossing points of the dielectric permittivity in conjunction with low absorption. Under these circumstances, any material, either natural or artificial, will show similar degrees of field enhancement followed by strong harmonic generation, without resorting to any resonant mechanism. The results presented in this paper provide a general demonstration of the potential that the zero-crossing-point condition holds for nonlinear optical phenomena. We investigate a generic Lorentz medium and demonstrate that a singularity-driven enhancement of the electric field may be achieved even in extremely thin layers of material. We also discuss the role of nonlinear surface sources in a realistic scenario where a 20-nm layer of CaF{sub 2} is excited at 21 {mu}m, where {epsilon}{approx} 0. Finally, we show similar behavior in an artificial composite material that includes absorbing dyes in the visible range, provide a general tool for the improvement of harmonic generation using the {epsilon}{approx} 0 condition, and illustrate that this singularity-driven enhancement of the field lowers the thresholds for a plethora of nonlinear optical phenomena.

  13. Membrane-based acoustic metamaterial with near-zero refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Feng; Lan, Jun; Yu, Hui-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Zhang, Jia-Shu

    2017-01-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61571222, 11104142, and 11474160), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. BK20161009), the Qing Lan Project of Jiangsu Province, China, and the Six Talent Peaks Project of Jiangsu Province, China.

  14. Asymmetric torsion stress giant magnetoimpedance in nearly zero magnetostrictive amorphous wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, J. M.; Zhukov, A.; Gonzalez, J.

    2000-05-01

    The effect of the torsion strain on the electrical impedance in (Co0.95Fe0.05)72.5Si12.5B15 amorphous wire has been investigated. The torsion stress impedance ratio, defined as (ΔZ/Z)ξ=[(Z(ξ)-Z(ξmax)]/Z(ξmax), has an asymmetric character with a broad maximum at around 20 rad/m. After Joule heating without torsion (ΔZ/Z)ξ has a tendency to achieve finally a sharp and nearly symmetric shape. Maximum changes of (ΔZ/Z)ξ, of 270% is obtained after optimal conditions of current annealing. Besides, GMI ratio, (ΔZ/Z)H=[(Z(H)-Z(Hmax)]/Z(Hmax) can be significantly improved too reaching 350% in the particular case of current annealing at 550 mA for 0.5 min. The asymmetry of the (ΔZ/Z)ξ in the as-cast state and after torsion annealing could be ascribed to the spontaneous or induced helical anisotropy.

  15. Wireless power transmission for biomedical implants: The role of near-zero threshold CMOS rectifiers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical implants require an electronic power conditioning circuitry to provide a stable electrical power supply. The efficiency of wireless power transmission is strongly dependent on the power conditioning circuitry specifically the rectifier. A cross-connected CMOS bridge rectifier is implemented to demonstrate the impact of thresholds of rectifiers on wireless power transfer. The performance of the proposed rectifier is experimentally compared with a conventional Schottky diode full wave rectifier over 9 cm distance of air and tissue medium between the transmitter and receiver. The output voltage generated by the CMOS rectifier across a 1 KΩ resistive load is around twice as much as the Schottky rectifier.

  16. Graphene-Metal Composite Sensors with Near-Zero Temperature Coefficient of Resistance.

    PubMed

    Marin, Brandon C; Root, Samuel E; Urbina, Armando D; Aklile, Eden; Miller, Rachel; Zaretski, Aliaksandr V; Lipomi, Darren J

    2017-02-28

    This article describes the design of piezoresistive thin-film sensors based on single-layer graphene decorated with metallic nanoislands. The defining characteristic of these composite thin films is that they can be engineered to exhibit a temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) that is close to zero. A mechanical sensor with this property is stable against temperature fluctuations of the type encountered during operations in the real world, for example, in a wearable sensor. The metallic nanoislands are grown on graphene through thermal deposition of metals (gold or palladium) at a low nominal thickness. Metallic films exhibit an increase in resistance with temperature (positive TCR), whereas graphene exhibits a decrease in resistance with temperature (negative TCR). By varying the amount of deposition, the morphology of the nanoislands can be tuned such that the TCRs of a metal and graphene cancel out. The quantitative analysis of scanning electron microscope images reveals the importance of the surface coverage of the metal (as opposed to the total mass of the metal deposited). The stability of the sensor to temperature fluctuations that might be encountered in the outdoors is demonstrated by subjecting a wearable pulse sensor to simulated solar irradiation.

  17. Nano-Zirconium Tungstate Reinforced Liquid Crystalline Thermosetting Composites with Near Zero Thermal Expansion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-25

    the self- organized liquid crystalline phase and are promising candidates for the polymer matrices in structural composites. Lightly crosslinked LCERs...the self- organized liquid crystalline phase and are promising candidates for the polymer matrices in structural composites. Lightly crosslinked...they are regarded as self- reinforcing materials and have shown great potential in applications as polymer matrices in high performance composites

  18. Near zero coefficient of thermal expansion of beta-eucryptite without microcracking

    DOEpatents

    Reimanis, Ivar; Ramalingam, Subramanian

    2015-06-16

    The present invention is drawn to a lithia alumina silica material that exhibits a low CTE over a broad temperature range and a method of making the same. The low CTE of the material allows for a decrease in microcracking within the material.

  19. Vortex dynamics in a turbulent shear flow over a cavity at near-zero Mach number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Shiyao; Ceccio, Steven; Driscoll, James

    2007-11-01

    A kilohertz frame-rate Cinematographic Particle Imaging Velocimetry system was used to acquire time series of whole-field velocity data for an incompressible, turbulent shear flow over a rectangular, shallow cavity with ReL = 2.87 x 10^5, where L is the cavity length. The cavity shear layer was divided into three regions that exhibited different vortex dynamics: formation, convection/evolution, and impingement. The second region is similar to a free shear layer, with vortex roll-up that is well predicted by linear, inviscid instability theory. The impinging shear layer produces a jet-like flow along the downstream wall, resulting in a large-scale recirculation zone in the cavity. This flow impinges on the shear layer in the formation region, increasing the shear layer growth rate. No self-sustained pressure or flow-field oscillations were observed for a variety of flow speeds. The dynamics of the shear layer in the impingement region was found to be correlated with the dynamic pressure on the downstream wall.

  20. Nonreciprocal μ -near-zero mode in PT -symmetric magnetic domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jin; Dong, Hui Yuan; Ling, Chi Wai; Chan, C. T.; Fung, Kin Hung

    2015-06-01

    We find that a new type of nonreciprocal modes exists at an interface between two parity-time- (PT -) symmetric magnetic domains (MDs) near the frequency of zero effective permeability. This mode is nonpropagating and purely magnetic when the two MDs are semi-infinite, while it becomes propagating in the finite case. In particular, two pronounced nonreciprocal responses could be observed via the excitation of this mode: one-way optical tunneling for oblique incidence and unidirectional beam shift at normal incidence. When the two MDs system becomes finite in size, it is found that perfect-transmission mode could be achieved if PT symmetry is maintained. The unique properties of such an unusual mode are investigated by analytical modal calculation as well as numerical simulations. The results suggest a different approach to the design of compact optical isolator.

  1. Ground-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-09-01

    The energy service needs of a net-zero-energy house (ZEH) include space heating and cooling, water heating, ventilation, dehumidification, and humidification, depending on the requirements of the specific location. These requirements differ in significant ways from those of current housing. For instance, the most recent DOE buildings energy data (DOE/BED 2007) indicate that on average {approx}43% of residential buildings primary energy use is for space heating and cooling, vs. {approx}12% for water heating (about a 3.6:1 ratio). In contrast, for the particular prototype ZEH structures used in the analyses in this report, that ratio ranges from about 0.3:1 to 1.6:1 depending on location. The high-performance envelope of a ZEH results in much lower space heating and cooling loads relative to current housing and also makes the house sufficiently air-tight to require mechanical ventilation for indoor air quality. These envelope characteristics mean that the space conditioning load will be closer in size to the water heating load, which depends on occupant behavior and thus is not expected to drop by any significant amount because of an improved envelope. In some locations such as the Gulf Coast area, additional dehumidification will almost certainly be required during the shoulder and cooling seasons. In locales with heavy space heating needs, supplemental humidification may be needed because of health concerns or may be desired for improved occupant comfort. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that achieving their ZEH goal will require energy service equipment that can meet these needs while using 50% less energy than current equipment. One promising approach to meeting this requirement is through an integrated heat pump (IHP) - a single system based on heat pumping technology. The energy benefits of an IHP stem from the ability to utilize otherwise wasted energy; for example, heat rejected by the space cooling operation can be used for water heating. With the greater energy savings the cost of the more energy efficient components required for the IHP can be recovered more quickly than if they were applied to individual pieces of equipment to meet each individual energy service need. An IHP can be designed to use either outdoor air or geothermal resources (e.g., ground, ground water, surface water) as the environmental energy source/sink. Based on a scoping study of a wide variety of possible approaches to meeting the energy service needs for a ZEH, DOE selected the IHP concept as the most promising and has supported research directed toward the development of both air- and ground-source versions. This report describes the ground-source IHP (GS-IHP) design and includes the lessons learned and best practices revealed by the research and development (R&D) effort throughout. Salient features of the GS-IHP include a variable-speed rotary compressor incorporating a brushless direct current permanent magnet motor which provides all refrigerant compression, a variable-speed fan for the indoor section, a multiple-speed ground coil circuit pump, and a single-speed pump for water heating operation. Laboratory IHP testing has thus far used R-22 because of the availability of the needed components that use this refrigerant. It is expected that HFC R-410A will be used for any products arising from the IHP concept. Data for a variable-speed compressor that uses R-410A has been incorporated into the DOE/ORNL Mark VI Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM). HPDM was then linked to TRNSYS, a time-series-dependent simulation model capable of determining the energy use of building cooling and heating equipment as applied to a defined house on a sub-hourly basis. This provided a highly flexible design analysis capability for advanced heat pump equipment; however, the program also took a relatively long time to run. This approach was used with the initial prototype design reported in Murphy et al. (2007a) and in the business case analysis of Baxter (2007).

  2. Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump for Near-Zero Energy Houses: Technology Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Richard W; Rice, C Keith; Baxter, Van D; Craddick, William G

    2007-07-01

    This report documents the development of an air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) through the third quarter of FY2007. It describes the design, analyses and testing of the AS-IHP, and provides performance specifications for a field test prototype and proposed control strategy. The results obtained so far continue to support the AS-IHP being a promising candidate to meet the energy service needs for DOE's development of a Zero Energy Home (ZEH) by the year 2020.

  3. Exhaust emissions survey of a turbofan engine for flame holder swirl type augmentors at simulated altitude flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, J. E., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Emissions of carbon dioxide, total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide from an F100 afterburning two spool turbofan engine at simulated flight conditions are reported. Tests were run at Mach 0.8 at altitudes of 10.97 and 13.71 km (36,000 and 45,000 ft), and at Mach 1.2 at 13.71 km (45,000 ft). Emission measurements were made from intermediate power (nonafterburning) through maximum afterburning, using a single point gas sample probe traversed across the horizontal diameter of the exhaust nozzle. The data show that emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the nozzle. Carbon monoxide emissions were low for intermediate and partial afterburning power. Unburned hydrocarbons were near zero for most of the simulated flight conditions. At maximum afterburning, there were regions of NOx deficiency in regions of high CO. The results suggest that the low NOx levels observed in the tests are a result of interaction with high CO in the thermal converter. CO2 emissions were proportional to local fuel air ratio for all test conditions.

  4. Oceanic Emissions and Atmospheric Depositions of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Blomquist, B.; Beale, R.; Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect the tropospheric oxidative capacity due to their ubiquitous abundance and relatively high reactivity towards the hydroxyal radical. Over the ocean and away from terrestrial emission sources, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) make up a large fraction of VOCs as airmasses age and become more oxidized. In addition to being produced or destroyed in the marine atmosphere, OVOCs can also be emitted from or deposited to the surface ocean. Here we first present direct air-sea flux measurements of three of the most abundant OVOCs - methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde, by the eddy covariance technique from two cruises in the Atlantic: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The OVOC mixing ratios were quantified by a high resolution proton-reaction-transfer mass spectrometer with isotopically labeled standards and their air-sea (net) fluxes were derived from the eddy covariance technique. Net methanol flux was consistently from the atmosphere to the surface ocean, while acetone varied from supersaturation (emission) in the subtropics to undersaturation (deposition) in the higher latitudes of the North Atlantic. The net air-sea flux of acetaldehyde is near zero through out the Atlantic despite the apparent supersaturation of this compound in the surface ocean. Knowing the dissolved concentrations and in situ production rates of these compounds in seawater, we then estimate their bulk atmospheric depositions and oceanic emissions. Lastly, we summarize the state of knowledge on the air-sea transport of a number of organic gasses, and postulate the magnitude and environmental impact of total organic carbon transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere.

  5. Greenhouse gas emission and microbial community dynamics during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification process.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiang; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Niu, Peng-Fei; Miao, Ming-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates greenhouse gas emission and the microbial community dynamics during simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) process. Based on CO2 equivalents, the SND reactor released 4.28g of greenhouse gases each cycle. 2.91% of the incoming nitrogen load was emitted as N2O. The CO2 and N2O emissions mainly occurred in the aerobic stage and CH4 emissions were consistently near zero. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) contents in activated sludge increased during start-up the SND process. High-throughput sequencing showed increases in bacterial species richness, leading to changes in EPS content and composition observed using 3D-EEM fluorescence spectra. For denitrifying bacteria, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas significantly increased during the SND process, while Paracoccus decreased significantly. For phosphorus-accumulating bacteria, the relative abundance of Rhodocyclaceae also significantly increased. The relative abundance of other functional microbes, such as Nitrosomonadaceae (ammonia oxidizer), Nitrospirales (nitrite oxidizer) and Planctomyces (anammox) decreased significantly during the SND process.

  6. Application of an Online-Coupled Regional Climate Model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for Examination of Ice Nucleation Schemes: Part II. Sensitivity to Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation Parameterizations and Dust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai-Yung

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O3, SO42-, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO2, and SO2 over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and

  7. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; Leung, Lai -Yung

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of ice supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on

  8. Application of an online-coupled regional climate model, WRF-CAM5, over East Asia for examination of ice nucleation schemes. Part II. Sensitivity to heterogeneous ice nucleation parameterizations and dust emissions

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Jiwen; ...

    2015-09-14

    Aerosol particles can affect cloud microphysical properties by serving as ice nuclei (IN). Large uncertainties exist in the ice nucleation parameterizations (INPs) used in current climate models. In this Part II paper, to examine the sensitivity of the model predictions to different heterogeneous INPs, WRF-CAM5 simulation using the INP of Niemand et al. (N12) [1] is conducted over East Asia for two full years, 2006 and 2011, and compared with simulation using the INP of Meyers et al. (M92) [2], which is the original INP used in CAM5. M92 calculates the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of icemore » supersaturation, while N12 represents the nucleated ice particle concentration as a function of temperature and the number concentrations and surface areas of dust particles. Compared to M92, the WRF-CAM5 simulation with N12 produces significantly higher nucleated ice crystal number concentrations (ICNCs) in the northern domain where dust sources are located, leading to significantly higher cloud ice number and mass concentrations and ice water path, but the opposite is true in the southern domain where temperatures and moistures play a more important role in ice formation. Overall, the simulation with N12 gives lower downward shortwave radiation but higher downward longwave radiation, cloud liquid water path, cloud droplet number concentrations, and cloud optical depth. The increase in cloud optical depth and the decrease in downward solar flux result in a stronger shortwave and longwave cloud forcing, and decreases temperature at 2-m and precipitation. Changes in temperature and radiation lower surface concentrations of OH, O₃, SO₄²⁻, and PM2.5, but increase surface concentrations of CO, NO₂, and SO₂ over most of the domain. By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and IN, dust particles have different impacts on cloud water and ice number concentrations, radiation, and temperature at 2-m and precipitation depending on whether the

  9. 40 CFR 1065.650 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) General. Calculate brake-specific emissions over each applicable duty cycle or test interval. For test...-specific emissions. For duty cycles with multiple test intervals, refer to the standard-setting part for... of individual test intervals in a duty cycle. If the standard-setting part does not include...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.650 - Emission calculations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) General. Calculate brake-specific emissions over each applicable duty cycle or test interval. For test...-specific emissions. For duty cycles with multiple test intervals, refer to the standard-setting part for... of individual test intervals in a duty cycle. If the standard-setting part does not include...

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From Process Vents 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFFF of Part.... FFFF, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63—Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP... limit in the following table that applies to your process vents that contain hydrogen halide and...

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ffff of... - Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Halogen HAP Emissions or HAP Metals Emissions From Process Vents 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFFF of Part.... FFFF, Table 3 Table 3 to Subpart FFFF of Part 63—Emission Limits for Hydrogen Halide and Halogen HAP... limit in the following table that applies to your process vents that contain hydrogen halide and...

  13. A Community Emissions Data System (CEDS) for Historical Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Zhou, Yuyu; Kyle, G. Page; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-04-21

    Historical emission estimates for anthropogenic aerosol and precursor compounds are key data needed for Earth system models, climate models, and atmospheric chemistry and transport models; both for general analysis and assessment and also for model validation through comparisons with observations. Current global emission data sets have a number of shortcomings, including timeliness and transparency. Satellite and other earth-system data are increasingly available in near real-time, but global emission estimates lag by 5-10 years. The CEDS project will construct a data-driven, open source framework to produce annually updated emission estimates. The basic methodologies to be used for this system have been used for SO2 (Smith et al. 2011, Klimont, Smith and Cofala 2013), and are designed to complement existing inventory efforts. The goal of this system is to consistently extend current emission estimates both forward in time to recent years and also back over the entire industrial era. The project will produce improved datasets for global and (potentially) regional model, allow analysis of trends across time, countries, and sectors of emissions and emission factors, and facilitate improved scientific analysis in general. Consistent estimation of uncertainty will be an integral part of this system. This effort will facilitate community evaluation of emissions and further emission-related research more generally.

  14. Emission modulation and other applications of nonlocal plasmonic nanowire metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Brian Michael

    Nanowire metamaterials are a class of composite photonic media formed by arrays of aligned plasmonic nanowires incorporated in dielectric substrates. Numerous applications in modern optics can be realized through the study and understanding of light's interaction with nanowire metamaterials. Depending on exact composition, geometry, and excitation wavelength, nanowire structures are known to exhibit elliptical, hyperbolic, or epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) responses. It was shown, however that the optical properties of these composites deviate from the predictions of effective-medium theories (EMTs). The reason for this deviation is a longitudinal electromagnetic wave that only exists in nonlocal systems. It has been previously shown that this wave originates from the coupling of cylindrical surface plasmon modes propagating along the nanowires. An analytical technique has been developed that provides an adequate description of the optical response of wire-based metamaterials. In this dissertation a simplified analytical approach is developed that can be used to approximate the dispersion of the longitudinal wave in the wire-based metamaterials, avoiding numerical solutions to an eigenvalue problem. Using this developed formalism, it is demonstrated that the incorporation of nonlocal nanowire metamaterials into Salisbury screens allows for a substantial reduction of the dependence of incident angle on the absorption maximum. It is also illustrated that the enhancement of electric field in a non-magnetic, anisotropic, transition metamaterial with a hyperbolic transition layer is largely overestimated by local effective medium calculations. Nonlocal effects must be taken into account to appropriately describe the enhancement. Finally, light emission in plasmonic nanowire metamaterials is analyzed analytically and computationally. The emission lifetime is demonstrated to be a complex function of geometrical and material parameters of the system that can not be reduced to the

  15. Emissions Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohde, John

    2001-01-01

    The Emissions Reduction Project is working in close partnership with the U.S. aircraft engine manufacturers and academia to develop technologies to reduce NO, emissions by 70 percent over the LTO cycle from 1996 ICAO standards with no increase in other emission constituents (carbon monoxide, smoke, and unburned hydrocarbons) and with comparable NO, reduction during cruise operations. These technologies cannot impact the overall combustor and fuel delivery system operability, affordability or maintainability. These new combustion concepts and technologies will include lean burning combustors with higher operating gas temperatures and pressures, fuel staging, ceramic matrix composite material liners with reduced cooling air and possibly advanced controls. Improved physics-based analysis tool will be developed and validated and some longer term technologies that are more revolutionary will be assessed. These improved computational codes will provide improved design tools to increase design confidence and cut the development time to achieve major reductions in NO, emissions. Longer term, revolutionary technologies like active combustion controls, combustion from a large array of micro-injectors, electrostatic fuel injectors, fuel additives and others will be investigated and assessed through proof-of-concept testing.

  16. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Yyyy of... - Emission Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limitations 1 Table 1 to... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission... 1 to Subpart YYYY of Part 63—Emission Limitations As stated in § 63.6100, you must comply with...

  17. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Yyyy of... - Emission Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Emission Limitations 1 Table 1 to... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission... 1 to Subpart YYYY of Part 63—Emission Limitations As stated in § 63.6100, you must comply with...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Eeee of... - Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission..., Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63—Emission Limits As stated in § 63.2346, you must comply...

  19. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Eeee of... - Emission Limits

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart... (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission..., Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart EEEE of Part 63—Emission Limits As stated in § 63.2346, you must comply...

  20. Mixing of Multiple Jets with a Confined Subsonic Crossflow: Part III--The Effects of Air Preheat and Number of Orifices on Flow and Emissions in an RQL Mixing Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdemann, James D.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2008-01-01

    This study was motivated by a goal to understand the mixing and emissions in the Rich-burn/Quick-mix/Lean-burn (RQL) combustor scheme that has been proposed to minimize the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in gas turbine combustors. The study reported herein was a reacting jet-in-crossflow experiment at atmospheric pressure. The jets were injected from the perimeter of a cylindrical duct through round-hole orifices into a fuel-rich mainstream flow. The number of orifices investigated in this study gave over- to optimum to underpenetrating jets at a jet-to-mainstream momentum-flux ratio of J = 57. The size of individual orifices was decreased as the number of orifices increased to maintain a constant total area; the jet-to-mainstream mass-flow ratio was constant at MR = 2.5. The experiments focused on the effects of the number of orifices and inlet air preheat and were conducted in a facility that provided the capability for independent variation of jet and main inlet air preheat temperature. The number of orifices was found to have a significant effect on mixing and the distributions of species, but very little effect on overall NOx emissions, suggesting that an aerodynamically optimum mixer might not minimize NOx emissions. Air preheat was found to have very little effect on mixing and the distributions of major species, but preheating both main and jet air did increase NOx emissions significantly. Although the air jets injected in the quick-mix section of an RQL combustor may comprise over 70 percent of the total air flow, the overall NOx emission levels were found to be more sensitive to main stream air preheat than to jet stream air preheat.

  1. Modeling dry and wet deposition of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium ions in Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve, China using a source-oriented CMAQ model: Part II. Emission sector and source region contributions.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Tang, Ya; Kota, Sri Harsha; Li, Jingyi; Wu, Li; Hu, Jianlin; Zhang, Hongliang; Ying, Qi

    2015-11-01

    A source-oriented Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model driven by the meteorological fields generated by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model was used to study the dry and wet deposition of nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)), and ammonium (NH4(+)) ions in the Jiuzhaigou National Nature Reserve (JNNR), China from June to August 2010 and to identify the contributions of different emission sectors and source regions that were responsible for the deposition fluxes. Contributions from power plants, industry, transportation, domestic, biogenic, windblown dust, open burning, fertilizer, and manure management sources to deposition fluxes in JNNR watershed and four EANET sites are determined. In JNNR, 96%, 82%, and 87% of the SO4(2-), NO3(-) and NH4(+) deposition fluxes are in the form of wet deposition of the corresponding aerosol species. Industry and power plants are the two major sources of SO4(2-) deposition flux, accounting for 86% of the total wet deposition of SO4(2-), and industry has a higher contribution (56%) than that of power plants (30%). Power plants and industry are also the top sources that are responsible for NO3(-) wet deposition, and contributions from power plants (30%) are generally higher than those from industries (21%). The major sources of NH4(+) wet deposition flux in JNNR are fertilizer (48%) and manure management (39%). Source-region apportionment confirms that SO2 and NOx emissions from local and two nearest counties do not have a significant impact on predicted wet deposition fluxes in JNNR, with contributions less than 10%. While local NH3 emissions account for a higher fraction of the NH4(+) deposition, approximately 70% of NH4(+) wet deposition in JNNR originated from other source regions. This study demonstrates that S and N deposition in JNNR is mostly from long-range transport rather than from local emissions, and to protect JNNR, regional emission reduction controls are needed.

  2. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... part 63, subpart N (National Emission Standards for Chromium Emissions from Hard and Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks). (2) Research and development process units,...

  3. 40 CFR 63.11505 - What parts of my plant does this subpart cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... part 63, subpart N (National Emission Standards for Chromium Emissions from Hard and Decorative Chromium Electroplating and Chromium Anodizing Tanks). (2) Research and development process units,...

  4. Narrow-band light emission from a single carbon nanotube p-n diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Megumi; Mueller, Thomas; Steiner, Mathias; Perebeinos, Vasili; Bol, Ageeth; Farmer, Damon; Avouris, Phaedon

    2010-03-01

    We present the first observation of electroluminescence from electrostatically-generated carbon nanotube (CNT) p-n junctions[1]. While CNT optoelectronics has made much progress in recent years, observations of emission from electrically excited CNT devices have been limited to the high-bias regime and with low efficiency. Furthermore, the resulting broad linewidths are broad, making it difficult to investigate electronic levels and carrier dynamics. We find that p-n junctions allow for better carrier control at lower power inputs, resulting in emission with near-zero threshold, low self-heating and efficiency two to three orders of magnitude greater compared to previous device configurations. This yields higher signal-to-noise ratio and narrower linewidths (down to ˜35 meV) that allows us to identify localized excitonic transitions that have previously been observed only in photoluminescent studies. [1] T. Mueller, M. Kinoshita, M. Steiner, V. Perebeinos, A. Bol, D. Farmer, and Ph. Avouris, Nature Nanotech., web publication, November 15 2009.

  5. Synthesis and development of processes for the recovery of sulfur from acid gases. Part 1, Development of a high-temperature process for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas using limestone -- thermodynamic and kinetic considerations; Part 2, Development of a zero-emissions process for recovery of sulfur from acid gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Towler, G.P.; Lynn, S.

    1993-05-01

    Limestone can be used more effectively as a sorbent for H{sub 2}S in high-temperature gas-cleaning applications if it is prevented from undergoing calcination. Sorption of H{sub 2}S by limestone is impeded by sintering of the product CaS layer. Sintering of CaS is catalyzed by CO{sub 2}, but is not affected by N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The kinetics of CaS sintering was determined for the temperature range 750--900{degrees}C. When hydrogen sulfide is heated above 600{degrees}C in the presence of carbon dioxide elemental sulfur is formed. The rate-limiting step of elemental sulfur formation is thermal decomposition of H{sub 2}S. Part of the hydrogen thereby produced reacts with CO{sub 2}, forming CO via the water-gas-shift reaction. The equilibrium of H{sub 2}S decomposition is therefore shifted to favor the formation of elemental sulfur. The main byproduct is COS, formed by a reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S that is analogous to the water-gas-shift reaction. Smaller amounts of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} also form. Molybdenum disulfide is a strong catalyst for H{sub 2}S decomposition in the presence of CO{sub 2}. A process for recovery of sulfur from H{sub 2}S using this chemistry is as follows: Hydrogen sulfide is heated in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of CO{sub 2} and a suitable catalyst. The primary products of the overall reaction are S{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture to roughly 600{degrees}C prevents loss Of S{sub 2} during cooling. Carbonyl sulfide is removed from the product gas by hydrolysis back to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Unreacted CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H{sub 2} and CO, which recovers the hydrogen value from the H{sub 2}S. This process is economically favorable compared to the existing sulfur-recovery technology and allows emissions of sulfur-containing gases to be controlled to very low levels.

  6. Gunn effect in field-emission phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovchenko, V.; Evtukh, A.; Yilmazoglu, O.; Mutamba, K.; Hartnagel, H. L.; Pavlidis, D.

    2005-02-01

    The peculiarities of electron field emission from nanostructured GaN surface have been investigated. The current-voltage characteristics of emission current in Fowler-Nordheim plot show two parts with different slopes. There are emission current oscillations in the changing slope region. As an explanation for the experimental results a model based on the electron-emission analysis from lower (Γ) valley, upper (U) valley, and electron transition between valleys due to heating in electric field has been proposed. The electron affinities for the emission from Γ and U valleys have been determined. The decreased affinities from there valleys have been estimated for quantization in nanostructured GaN.

  7. Characterization of bound parts of the b30u+(53P1), c 31 u(5 3P2) and X10g+ states of Cd 2 revisited: Bound-bound excitation and dispersed emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M.; | M., Strojecki; | P., Krośnicki; | J., Zgoda; Koperski

    2010-04-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence excitation and dispersed emission spectra of Cd 2 recorded using the c31(53P2)←X10g+ and b30u+(53P1)→X10g+ transitions, respectively are reported. In the excitation to the c 31 u state, red-shaded vibrational components of several υ' ← υ″ = 0, 1, 2, 3 progressions and Δ υ = 0,1 sequences were identified. In the emission from the b30u+ state, well resolved υ' = 0,1,2,3,4 → υ″ transitions were recorded using a spectrograph with CCD camera. Analyses of the spectra provided an improved characterization of the b30u+, c 31 u and X10g+ states involved in the transitions. The results were compared with our ab initio calculations and those obtained experimentally in earlier studies.

  8. Parts Specialist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, Lou; Fuqua, Debbie

    Designed to address the skills that an auto parts specialist must master in order to be effective in the market place, this manual consists of 13 units of instruction. Covered in the units are orientation; human relations; communications; safety; parts and systems identification; stocking, shipping, and receiving; inventory control; cataloging and…

  9. 40 CFR 91.1203 - Emission warranty, warranty period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Warranty and Maintenance... owner's choosing, such items as spark plugs, points, condensers, and any other part, item, or...

  10. 40 CFR 91.1203 - Emission warranty, warranty period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Warranty and Maintenance... owner's choosing, such items as spark plugs, points, condensers, and any other part, item, or...

  11. 40 CFR 90.1103 - Emission warranty, warranty period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission... the owner's choosing, such items as spark plugs, points, condensers, and any other part, item,...

  12. 40 CFR 90.1103 - Emission warranty, warranty period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AT OR BELOW 19 KILOWATTS Emission... the owner's choosing, such items as spark plugs, points, condensers, and any other part, item,...

  13. 40 CFR 89.610 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... emission-related parts furnished by the Original Engine Manufacturer (OEM). (5) The information required in... ICI and, to the maximum extent possible, the emission-related components installed by the OEM;...

  14. 40 CFR 89.610 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... emission-related parts furnished by the Original Engine Manufacturer (OEM). (5) The information required in... ICI and, to the maximum extent possible, the emission-related components installed by the OEM;...

  15. 40 CFR 89.610 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... emission-related parts furnished by the Original Engine Manufacturer (OEM). (5) The information required in... ICI and, to the maximum extent possible, the emission-related components installed by the OEM;...

  16. 40 CFR 89.610 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... emission-related parts furnished by the Original Engine Manufacturer (OEM). (5) The information required in... ICI and, to the maximum extent possible, the emission-related components installed by the OEM;...

  17. 40 CFR 89.610 - Maintenance instructions, warranties, emission labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission-related parts furnished by the Original Engine Manufacturer (OEM). (5) The information required in... ICI and, to the maximum extent possible, the emission-related components installed by the OEM;...

  18. Methane Emission by Camelids

    PubMed Central

    Dittmann, Marie T.; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A.; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg−1 d−1) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg−1 d−1). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg−1 in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg−1 in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  19. Negative Emissions Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Danny

    2006-04-01

    Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

  20. Methane emission by camelids.

    PubMed

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels.

  1. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from wild and anthropogenic fires return the carbon absorbed by plants to the atmosphere, and decrease the sequestration of carbon by land ecosystems. Future climate warming will likely increase the frequency of fire-triggering drought; so that the future terrestrial carbon uptake will depend on how fires respond to altered climate variation. In this study, we modelled the role of fires in the global terrestrial carbon balance for 1901-2012, using the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE equipped with the SPITFIRE model. We conducted two simulations with and without the fire module being activated, with a static land cover. The simulated global fire carbon emissions for 1997-2009 are 2.1 Pg C yr-1, which is close to the 2.0 Pg C yr-1 as given by the GFED3.1 data. The simulated land carbon uptake after accounting for emissions for 2003-2012 is 3.1Pg C yr-1, within the uncertainty of the residual carbon sink estimation (2.8 ± 0.8 Pg C yr-1). Fires are found to reduce the terrestrial carbon uptake by 0.32 Pg C yr-1 over 1901-2012, that is 20% of the total carbon sink in a world without fire. The fire-induced land sink reduction (SRfire) is significantly correlated with climate variability, with larger sink reduction occurring in warm and dry years, in particular during El Niño events. Our results suggest a symmetrical "respiration equivalence" by fires. During the ten lowest SRfire years (SRfire = 0.17 Pg C yr-1), fires mainly compensate the heterotrophic respiration that would happen if no fires had occurred. By contrast, during the ten highest SRfire fire years (SRfire = 0.49 Pg C yr-1), fire emissions exceed their "respiration equivalence" and create a substantial reduction in terrestrial carbon uptake. Our finding has important implication for the future role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance, because the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to sequester carbon will be diminished by future climate change characterized by increased

  2. Modelling the role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance by incorporating SPITFIRE into the global vegetation model ORCHIDEE - Part 2: Carbon emissions and the role of fires in the global carbon balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Cadule, P.; Thonicke, K.; van Leeuwen, T. T.

    2015-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions from wild and anthropogenic fires return the carbon absorbed by plants to the atmosphere, and decrease the sequestration of carbon by land ecosystems. Future climate warming will likely increase the frequency of fire-triggering drought, so that the future terrestrial carbon uptake will depend on how fires respond to altered climate variation. In this study, we modelled the role of fires in the global terrestrial carbon balance for 1901-2012, using the ORCHIDEE global vegetation model equipped with the SPITFIRE model. We conducted two simulations with and without the fire module being activated, using a static land cover. The simulated global fire carbon emissions for 1997-2009 are 2.1 Pg C yr-1, which is close to the 2.0 Pg C yr-1 as estimated by GFED3.1. The simulated land carbon uptake after accounting for emissions for 2003-2012 is 3.1 Pg C yr-1, which is within the uncertainty of the residual carbon sink estimation (2.8 ± 0.8 Pg C yr-1). Fires are found to reduce the terrestrial carbon uptake by 0.32 Pg C yr-1 over 1901-2012, or 20% of the total carbon sink in a world without fire. The fire-induced land sink reduction (SRfire) is significantly correlated with climate variability, with larger sink reduction occurring in warm and dry years, in particular during El Niño events. Our results suggest a "fire respiration partial compensation". During the 10 lowest SRfire years (SRfire = 0.17 Pg C yr-1), fires mainly compensate for the heterotrophic respiration that would occur in a world without fire. By contrast, during the 10 highest SRfire fire years (SRfire = 0.49 Pg C yr-1), fire emissions far exceed their respiration partial compensation and create a larger reduction in terrestrial carbon uptake. Our findings have important implications for the future role of fires in the terrestrial carbon balance, because the capacity of terrestrial ecosystems to sequester carbon will be diminished by future climate change characterized by increased

  3. Summary of EPA Emission Test Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides the publication date and rule status for the air emission test methods, performance specifications and quality assurance procedures. It is updated by the Measurement Technology Group, part of the Air Quality Assessment Div., OAQPS.

  4. Air Pollution Control, Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Werner, Ed.

    Authoritative reviews in seven areas of current importance in air pollution control are supplied in this volume, the first of a two-part set. Titles contained in this book are: "Dispersion of Pollutants Emitted into the Atmosphere,""The Formation and Control of Oxides of Nitrogen in Air Pollution,""The Control of Sulfur Emissions from Combustion…

  5. Kalman filter physical retrieval of surface emissivity and temperature from SEVIRI infrared channels: a validation and inter-comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Venafra, S.; Liuzzi, G.; Göttsche, F.; Trigo, I. F.; Watts, P.

    2015-04-01

    A Kalman filter based approach for the physical retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) infrared observations has been developed and validated against in situ and satellite observations. Validation for land has been provided based on in situ observations from the two permanent stations Evora and Gobabeb operated by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) within the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA-SAF). Sea surface retrievals have been intercompared on a broad spatial scale with equivalent satellite products (MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer and AVHRR or Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts) analyses. Results show that for surface temperature the algorithm yields an accuracy of ≈ ± 1.5 °C in case of land and ≈ ± 1.0 °C in case of sea surface. Comparisons with polar satellite instruments over the sea surface show nearly zero temperature bias. Over the land surface the retrieved emissivity follows the seasonal vegetation cycle and allows to identify desert sand regions because of strong reststrahlen bands of Quartz in the SEVIRI channel at 8.7 μm. Considering the two validation stations, we have that emissivity retrieved in SEVIRI channel 10.8 μm over the gravel plains of the Namib desert is in excellent agreement with in situ observations. Over Evora, the seasonal variation of emissivity with vegetation is successfully retrieved and yields emissivity values for green and dry vegetation that are in good agreement with spectral library data. The algorithm has been applied to the SEVIRI full disk and emissivity maps on that global scale have been physically retrieved for the first time.

  6. Kalman filter physical retrieval of surface emissivity and temperature from SEVIRI infrared channels: a validation and intercomparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Venafra, S.; Liuzzi, G.; Göttsche, F.; Trigo, I. F.; Watts, P.

    2015-07-01

    A Kalman filter-based approach for the physical retrieval of surface temperature and emissivity from SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) infrared observations has been developed and validated against in situ and satellite observations. Validation for land has been provided based on in situ observations from the two permanent stations at Evora and Gobabeb operated by Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) within the framework of EUMETSAT's Satellite Application Facility on Land Surface Analysis (LSA SAF). Sea surface retrievals have been intercompared on a broad spatial scale with equivalent satellite products (MODIS, Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and AVHRR, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) and ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) analyses. For surface temperature, the Kalman filter yields a root mean square accuracy of ≍ ±1.5 °C for the two land sites considered and ≍ ±1.0 °C for the sea. Comparisons with polar satellite instruments over the sea surface show nearly zero temperature bias. Over the land surface the retrieved emissivity follows the seasonal vegetation cycle and permits identification of desert sand regions using the SEVIRI channel at 8.7 μm due to the strong quartz reststrahlen bands around 8-9 μm. Considering the two validation stations, we have found that emissivity retrieved in SEVIRI channel 10.8 μm over the gravel plains of the Namibian desert is in excellent agreement with in situ observations. Over Evora, the seasonal variation of emissivity with vegetation is successfully retrieved and yields emissivity values for green and dry vegetation that are in good agreement with spectral library data. The algorithm has been applied to the SEVIRI full disk, and emissivity maps on that global scale have been physically retrieved for the first time.

  7. Emission sources sensitivity study for ground-level ozone and PM2.5 due to oil sands development using air quality modeling system: Part I- model evaluation for current year base case simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sunny; McEachern, Preston; Morris, Ralph; Shah, Tejas; Johnson, Jeremiah; Nopmongcol, Uarporn

    2012-08-01

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) and the Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) modeling systems were used to simulate emissions and air quality in North Eastern Alberta where a rapid rise in oil sands development has caused air quality concerns over the last decade. The models were run on a 36/12/4 km domain for the four month period of May through August 2002. A model performance evaluation was conducted by comparing the CMAQ model estimates against ambient air quality measurements. In the Alberta oil sands region, the model tended to achieve or nearly achieve ozone model performance goals, albeit with an underestimation bias. The magnitudes of the observed PM2.5 concentrations were matched by the modeling system, except when the observed PM2.5 concentrations were influenced by emissions from forest fires in which case the model underestimated the observed PM2.5 concentrations. The CMAQ-estimated 4th highest daily maximum 8-hour ozone concentrations in the oil sands region were below the 65 ppb Canada Wide Standard (CWS) as well as the 58 ppb Alberta Management Plan Trigger Level. The highest estimated ozone concentrations occurred near the oil sands development area just north of Fort McMurray with values approaching, but below, the 58 ppb Management Plan Trigger Level; estimated ozone concentrations are much lower in the farther northern portions of the oil sands region. The acute (i.e., maximum 3-day value) SUM60 vegetative ozone exposure metric was mostly less than 100 ppb h, which is below the threshold of concern for crops. However, just north of Fort McMurray there were small areas where the acute SUM60 metric exceeded the 500-700 ppb h threshold of concern for crops with maximum values in plumes from sources in the oil sands mine area of ˜900 ppb h. The maximum chronic (three-month average) SUM60 ozone exposure metric was below the thresholds of concern. The CMAQ-estimated maximum 98th percentile 24-hour average PM2.5 concentration

  8. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part II. The effects of temperature and humidity on free formaldehyde, extractable formaldehyde, formaldehyde emission, and physical characteristics of the foam

    SciTech Connect

    Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.

    1981-02-01

    Results of testing with two products of urea-formaldehyde based foams are described. Results of three products have previously been reported. Methods for detection and quantitative determination of formaldehyde, design of the experimental chambers, and the procedures are described. Samples of Product D were monitored for about 29 days and samples of Product E were monitored for 60 days in chambers and results are tabulated for formaldehyde emission. Additional tests performed on the two products are: extractable formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); free formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); comparison of free formaldehyde concentration; density (high and low temperature conditions); shrinkage (high and low temperature conditions). Control panels were constructed to simulate a wall in a home and observations were made and compared with results of the experimental products.

  9. Plant betterment for an anthracite-burning utility in Ukraine: Coal preparation as part of a SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emission control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.A.; Freeman, M.C.; Gollakota, S.V.

    1997-12-31

    Workers at the Energy Departments of the US and Ukraine have cooperatively devised a strategy for upgrading performance of a 200 MWe wet bottom pulverized coal boiler in eastern Ukraine at the Lugansk GRES power station. The plant currently burns poor quality anthracite (30% ash versus 18% ash design coal, as-received basis) and is in need of maintenance. Oil or gas support fuel in the amount of 30% (calorific basis) is required to stabilize the flame and supplement the calorific value of the coal feed. No NO{sub x} or SO{sub 2} controls are used at present, and unburned carbon content in the fly ash is high. An experimental program was carried out at the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to estimate the improvement in plant performance that could be expected if the unit is supplied with design coal and is refurbished. High ash Ukrainian anthracite was cleaned to design specifications. Raw and cleaned coal were fed to a 490 MJ/h coal feed combustion unit at a number of conditions of support fuel use and ingress air leakage designed to simulate current and improved operations at the power plant. The results indicate the improvement in performance and reductions in SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions that can be expected as a result of the planned upgrade and conversion to use of cleaned coal. A detailed engineering and financial analysis indicates that plant rehabilitation combined with the use of cleaned schtib reduces not only pollutant emissions but also cost of electricity (COE). Additional benefits include increased plant life and capacity, and reduced supplementary fuel consumption.

  10. Evaluation of formaldehyde emission from test panels of urea-formaldehyde foam insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, A.R.; Gammage, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    One important potential source of formaldehyde in the home is urea-formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI). Measurements of the formaldehyde emission from test panels simulating a section of a house wall were made approximately 16 months after initial foaming. The test panels are approximately 16'' wide and 8' tall with a latex-painted gypsum board interior wall and an exterior wall consisting of cellulose sheathing with aluminum or cedar siding. Nine different commercially available foams were tested. Three types of measurements were conducted. The first type was designed to simulate the conditions in a corner room of a house with an air exchange rate of approximately 0.7 h/sup -1/. Clean air was flowed over the face of the interior wall and the emitted concentration of formaldehyde measured. Based on these measurements, projected room concentrations for the nine UFFI panels ranged from 0.03 to 0.4 ppM with an average of 0.13 +- 0.11 ppM. A second type of measurement was taken of air from within the foamed cavity. Formaldehyde concentrations of several ppM were observed. The final type of experiment simulated a near-zero air exchange rate. The test chambers were sealed and the formaldehyde concentration was allowed to equilibrate. The formaldehyde concentration measured ranged from 2.2 to 6.6 ppM. These concentrations could build up in poorly ventilated air volumes such as inside closets next to walls with UFFI.

  11. 76 FR 72049 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Shipbuilding and Ship...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... November 21, 2011 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 63 National Emission Standards for... Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 224 / Monday, November 21, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part...

  12. National emissions report, 1985: National Emissions Data Systems (NEDS) of the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    The National Emissions Report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended 1977, and EPA regulations, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the Nation as a whole, for individual States, and for Air Quality Control Regions and for individual interstate portions thereof. The data compilations result from the operations of the National Emissions Data System (NED), which functions as a component of the comprehensive EPA air information system--the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). AEROS is managed by the National Air Data Branch, Emissions Standard Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

  13. National emissions report, 1981: national emissions data system of the aerometric and emissions reporting system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1977, and of EPA Regulations, Title 40. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the nation as a whole, for individual states, for intrastate and individual interstate portions of Air Quality Control Regions, and for total interstate Air Quality Control Regions.

  14. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Eeee of... - Emission Limitations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission Limitations 1 Table 1 to... Subpart EEEE of Part 60—Emission Limitations As stated in § 60.2915, you must comply with the following..., see § 60.17(h)) in lieu of Method 6 only. a All emission limitations (except for opacity) are...

  15. 47 CFR 5.103 - Types of emission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Types of emission. 5.103 Section 5.103...) Technical Standards and Operating Requirements § 5.103 Types of emission. Stations in the Experimental Radio Service may be authorized to use any of the classifications of emissions covered in part 2 of this chapter....

  16. 47 CFR 5.103 - Types of emission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Types of emission. 5.103 Section 5.103... Operating Requirements § 5.103 Types of emission. Stations in the Experimental Radio Service may be authorized to use any of the classifications of emissions covered in part 2 of this chapter....

  17. 47 CFR 90.207 - Types of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types of emissions. 90.207 Section 90.207... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.207 Types of emissions. Unless specified elsewhere in this part, stations will be authorized emissions as provided for in paragraphs (b) through (n)...

  18. 47 CFR 90.207 - Types of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Types of emissions. 90.207 Section 90.207... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.207 Types of emissions. Unless specified elsewhere in this part, stations will be authorized emissions as provided for in paragraphs (b) through (n)...

  19. 47 CFR 90.207 - Types of emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Types of emissions. 90.207 Section 90.207... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES General Technical Standards § 90.207 Types of emissions. Unless specified elsewhere in this part, stations will be authorized emissions as provided for in paragraphs (b) through (n)...

  20. 47 CFR 5.103 - Types of emission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Types of emission. 5.103 Section 5.103... Operating Requirements § 5.103 Types of emission. Stations in the Experimental Radio Service may be authorized to use any of the classifications of emissions covered in part 2 of this chapter....

  1. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 210 - Summary of Noise Standards, 40 CFR Part 201

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Summary of Noise Standards, 40 CFR Part 201 A... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD NOISE EMISSION COMPLIANCE REGULATIONS Pt. 210, App. A Appendix A to Part 210—Summary of Noise Standards, 40 CFR Part 201 Paragraph and...

  2. Body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayiter, Elif

    2010-01-01

    In this project, the artist wishes to examine corporeality in the virtual realm, through the usage of the (non)-physical body of the avatar. An art installation created in the virtual world of Second Life, which is meant to be accessed with site specific avatars, will provide the creative platform whereby this investigation is undertaken. Thus, "body parts" seeks to challenge the residents of virtual environments into connecting with the virtual manifestations, i.e., avatars of others in an emotionally expressive/intimate manner.

  3. 40 CFR 93.119 - Criteria and procedures: Interim emissions in areas without motor vehicle emissions budgets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DETERMINING CONFORMITY OF FEDERAL ACTIONS... Transit Laws § 93.119 Criteria and procedures: Interim emissions in areas without motor vehicle emissions... most recent year for which EPA's Air Emissions Reporting Requirements (40 CFR Part 51, Subpart...

  4. New double soft emission theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachazo, Freddy; He, Song; Yuan, Ellis Ye

    2015-09-01

    We study the behavior of the tree-level S-matrix of a variety of theories as two particles become soft. By analogy with the recently found subleading soft theorems for gravitons and gluons, we explore subleading terms in double soft emissions. We first consider double soft scalar emissions and find subleading terms that are controlled by the angular momentum operator acting on hard particles. The order of the subleading theorems depends on the presence or not of color structures. Next we obtain a compact formula for the leading term in a double soft photon emission. The theories studied are a special Galileon, Dirac-Born-Infeld, Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar, nonlinear sigma model and Yang-Mills-Scalar. We use the recently found Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of these theories in order to give a simple proof of the leading order part of all these theorems.

  5. Enhanced SOA formation from mixed anthropogenic and biogenic emissions during the CARES campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Shilling, John E.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Fast, Jerome D.; Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Alexander, M. L.; Canagaratna, Manjula R.; Fortner, Edward; Hubbe, John M.; Jayne, John T.; Sedlacek, Art; Setyan, Ari; Springston, S.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Zhang, Qi

    2013-02-21

    The CARES campaign was conducted during June, 2010 in the vicinity of Sacramento, California to study aerosol formation and aging in a region where anthropogenic and biogenic emissions regularly mix. Here, we describe measurements from an Aerodyne High Resolution Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS), an Ionicon Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS), and trace gas detectors (CO, NO, NOx) deployed on the G-1 research aircraft to investigate ambient gas- and particle-phase chemical composition. AMS measurements showed that the particle phase is dominated by organic aerosol (OA) (85% on average) with smaller concentrations of sulfate (5%), nitrate (6%) and ammonium (3%) observed. PTR-MS data showed that isoprene dominated the biogenic volatile organic compound concentrations (BVOCs), with monoterpene concentrations generally below the detection limit. Using two different metrics, median OA concentrations and the slope of plots of OA vs. CO concentrations (i.e., ΔOA/ΔCO), we contrast organic aerosol evolution on flight days with different prevailing meteorological conditions to elucidate the role of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions on OA formation. Airmasses influenced predominantly by biogenic emissions had median OA concentrations of 2.9 μg/m3 and near zero ΔOA/ΔCO. Those influenced predominantly by anthropogenic emissions had median OA concentrations of 4.7 μg/m3 and ΔOA/ΔCO ratios of 35 - 44 μg/m3ppmv. When biogenic and anthropogenic emissions mix, OA levels are dramatically enhanced with median OA concentrations of 11.4 μg/m3 and ΔOA/ΔCO ratios of 77 - 157 μg/m3ppmv. Taken together, our observations show that production of OA is enhanced when anthropogenic emissions from Sacramento mix with isoprene-rich air from the foothills. A strong, non-linear dependence of SOA yield from isoprene is the mechanistic explanation for this enhancement most consistent with both the gas- and particle-phase data. If these observations are found to be robust

  6. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO 2, NO X, and CO 2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or operator... methodology must be used to estimate SO2, NOX, and CO2 mass emissions, NOX emission rate, and unit heat input... and less than 100 tons of NOX annually, for Acid Rain Program affected units. If the unit is...

  7. 40 CFR 75.19 - Optional SO 2, NO X, and CO 2 emissions calculation for low mass emissions (LME) units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... input, NOX, SO2, and CO2 mass emissions, and NOX emission rate under this part. If the owner or operator... methodology must be used to estimate SO2, NOX, and CO2 mass emissions, NOX emission rate, and unit heat input... and less than 100 tons of NOX annually, for Acid Rain Program affected units. If the unit is...

  8. Emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Lin, Che-Jen; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin

    2013-11-01

    The emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Laogang landfill in Shanghai, China, the largest active landfill in Asia, has been investigated during two intensive field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. The mercury (Hg) content in municipal solid waste (MSW) varied widely from 0.19 to 1.68 mg kg-1. Over the closed cell in the landfill, the mean ambient air GEM concentration was virtually indistinguishable from the hemispherical background level (1.5-2.0 ng m-3) while the concentration downwind of ongoing landfill operation (e.g. dumping, burying and compacting of MSW) was clearly elevated. GEM emission through landfill gas (LFG) was identified as a significant source. GEM concentrations in LFGs collected from venting pipes installed in different landfill cells varied widely from 3.0 to 1127.8 ng m-3. The GEM concentrations were found negatively correlated to the age of LFG cells, suggesting GEM released through LFG declined readily with time. The GEM emission from this source alone was estimated to be 1.23-1.73 mg h-1. GEM emission from cover soil surfaces was considerably lower and at a scale comparable to that of background soil surfaces. This is in contrast to earlier reports showing enhanced GEM emissions from landfill surfaces in Southern China, probably due to the difference in soil Hg content and gas permeability characteristics of soils at different sites. Vertical concentration profiles of GEM in the interstitial gas of buried MSW were sampled, perhaps for the first time, which exhibited a wide spatial variability (4.9-713.1 ng m-3) in the 3-year-old landfill cell investigated. GEM emission from landfill operation was estimated to be 290-525 mg h-1 using a box model. This suggests that GEM degassing from Laogang landfill is quantitatively largely dominated by emissions from daily landfilling operations with a much smaller contribution from LFG venting and insignificant (bi-directional fluxes near zero) contribution

  9. Contributions to motor vehicle emissions analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokharel, Sajal Sharma

    While motor vehicles are a major source of atmospheric pollutants, their in-use emissions remain inadequately characterized. Remote sensing devices (RSD) have been shown to be efficient tools for measuring CO, HC and NO in on-road vehicle exhaust. This work utilizes RSD data to illuminate new phenomena related to automobile emissions. Model year averaged RSD data are shown to correlate extremely well with IM240 measurements. IM240 is a loaded-mode dynamometer test used by several states as part of their emissions reduction strategy. The high degree of correlation helps to validate remote sensing as an instrument for IM240 evaluation. Such evaluations of programs in Chicago and Denver indicate an Inspection and Maintenance benefit of less than 10%. Fleet average on-road emissions have continually decreased over several years of measurement at the same locations in four U.S. cities: Chicago, Denver, Los Angeles and Phoenix. Together with the decrease in overall emissions, the distribution has become even more skewed. Fewer automobiles are responsible for a larger fraction of the decreasing total pollutant emissions. Analysis of the newest model year vehicles year after year at the four locations indicates that successive model years have become lower emitting. It is believed that more stringent government mandated emission standards and continuous improvement in the ability of automobile manufacturers to meet these standards is responsible for the emissions reductions. Comparison of emissions among the four cities, adjusted for load and model year, indicates that older vehicles in the Los Angeles area have higher CO and lower NO emissions. The fact that California had more stringent NO emission standards and more lenient CO ones compared to the rest of the states suggests, once again, the significant benefits of emission standards and new vehicle emission control technology.

  10. GHG emissions and mitigation potential in organic egg production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetter, Sylvia; Malin, Daniella; Smith, Pete; Hillier, Jon

    2016-04-01

    Models and tools are used to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture from management processes when measurements are not available. The Cool Farm Tool is widely used by farmers for this purpose. This study focus on the livestock part of the tool. The GHG emissions from livestock include enteric methane emissions from ruminants, nitrous oxide emissions from manure management, land use and land-use change, feed production, processing and transport. A case study is presented of organic egg producers in the USA, who used the tool over three years to calculate their emissions with the Cool Farm Tool. The highest GHG emissions were produced through feed, followed by transport and manure management. The farmers became more aware about the emissions in egg production and started to take action to reduce emissions. The results showed that the averaged GHG emissions decreased over the three years of the study.

  11. National Emissions Report (1978): National Emissions Data Systems (NEDS) of the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The National Emissions Report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended 1977, and EPA Regulations, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for Air Quality Control Regions and individual interstate portions thereof. The data compilations result from the operations of the National Emissions Data System (NEDS), which functions as a component of the comprehensive EPA air information system--the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). AEROS is managed by the National Air Data Branch, Monitoring and Data Analysis Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

  12. National emissions report (1979): National Emissions Data Systems (NEDS) of the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The National Emissions Report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended 1977, and EPA Regulations, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the nation as a whole, for individual states, and for Air Quality Control Regions and individual interstate portions thereof. The data compilations result from the operations of the National Emissions Data System (NEDS), which functions as a component of the comprehensive EPA air information system--the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). AEROS is managed by the National Air Data Branch, Monitoring and Data Analysis Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

  13. National Emissions Report, 1983: national emissions data systems (neds) of the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-12-01

    The National Emissions Report summarizes annual cumulative estimates of source emissions of five criteria pollutants: particulates, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, and carbon monoxide. Source emissions data are reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under provisions of Section 110 of the Clean Air Act, as amended 1977, and EPA Regulations, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 51.321. Summary data are presented for the Nation as a whole, for individual States, and for Air Quality Control Regions and for individual interstate portions thereof. The data compilations result from the operations of the National Emissions Data System (NEDS), which functions as a component of the comprehensive EPA air information system--the Aerometric and Emissions Reporting System (AEROS). AEROS is managed by the National Air Data Branch, Monitoring and Data Analysis Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency at Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27711.

  14. Isoprene emission from tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Padhy, P K; Varshney, C K

    2005-05-01

    Foliar emission of isoprene was measured in nine commonly growing tree species of Delhi, India. Dynamic flow enclosure technique was used and gas samples were collected onto Tenax-GC/Carboseive cartridges, which were then attached to the sample injection system in the gas chromatograph (GC). Eluting compounds were analysed using a flame ionisation detector (FID). Out of the nine tree species, isoprene emission was found in six species (Eucalyptus sp., Ficus benghalensis, Ficus religiosa, Mangifera indica, Melia azedarach, and Syzygium jambolanum), whereas, in the remaining three tree species (Alstonia scholaris, Azadirachta indica, and Cassia fistula) no isoprene emission was detected or the levels of emission were negligible or below the detection limit (BDL). Among six tree species, the highest hourly emission (10.2 +/- 6.8 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons) was observed in Ficus religiosa, while minimum emission was from Melia azedarach (2.2 +/- 4.9 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight, average of five seasons). Isoprene emission (average of six species), over five seasons, was found to vary between 3.9 and 8.5 microg g(-1) leaf dry weight during the rainy season. In addition, significant diurnal variation in isoprene emission was observed in each species. The preliminary estimate made in this study on the annual biogenic VOC emission from India may probably be the first of its kind from this part of the world.

  15. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil-shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above-ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume III. Emission-source identification and source-specific pollution-control applications. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-18

    This volume is the third major deliverable of the title study. The document accomplishes two objectives: (1) It identifies all major emission sources within an integrated flow-sheet of oil shale operations encompassing mining, preparation, retorting, and upgrading; and (2) It delineates the logic process for selecting and instigating source-specific pollution controls, selected among all currently commercially available options. Volume III is divided into two separate parts. Part II covers mercury; trace metals; carbon monoxide; NO/sub x/; and hydrocarbons. Mercury waste water control technologies discussed include ion exchange, starch complexing, ferrite coprecipitation, evaporation ponds, sulfide precipitation, activated carbon, and specific control processes. Trace metal control processes in waste water discussed include reverse osmosis, starch complexing, sodium borohydride, hydroxide precipitation, ferrite coprecipitation, ion exchange, activated carbon, sulfide precipitation, evaporation ponds, and combined physical-chemical metal removal. Offgas system removal of beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and selenium are also covered. Carbon monoxide control technologies in utility and industrial boilers and in petroleum refineries are covered. Flue gas denitrification processes discussed included noncatalytic and catalytic reduction, adsorption, oxidation, alkalized alumina, electron beam radiation, activated carbon process for NO/sub x/ removal. Hydrocarbon control technologies in waste water and gases are described. (DMC)

  16. Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian C; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Leiwen; Pachauri, Shonali; Zigova, Katarina

    2010-10-12

    Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy-economic growth model that accounts for a range of demographic dynamics, we show that slowing population growth could provide 16-29% of the emissions reductions suggested to be necessary by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change. We also find that aging and urbanization can substantially influence emissions in particular world regions.

  17. Global demographic trends and future carbon emissions

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina; Jiang, Leiwen; Pachauri, Shonali; Zigova, Katarina

    2010-01-01

    Substantial changes in population size, age structure, and urbanization are expected in many parts of the world this century. Although such changes can affect energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, emissions scenario analyses have either left them out or treated them in a fragmentary or overly simplified manner. We carry out a comprehensive assessment of the implications of demographic change for global emissions of carbon dioxide. Using an energy–economic growth model that accounts for a range of demographic dynamics, we show that slowing population growth could provide 16–29% of the emissions reductions suggested to be necessary by 2050 to avoid dangerous climate change. We also find that aging and urbanization can substantially influence emissions in particular world regions. PMID:20937861

  18. Demographic change and carbon dioxide emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Brian C; Liddle, Brant; Jiang, Leiwen; Smith, Kirk R; Pachauri, Shonali; Dalton, Michael; Fuchs, Regina

    2012-07-14

    Relations between demographic change and emissions of the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO(2)) have been studied from different perspectives, but most projections of future emissions only partly take demographic influences into account. We review two types of evidence for how CO(2) emissions from the use of fossil fuels are affected by demographic factors such as population growth or decline, ageing, urbanisation, and changes in household size. First, empirical analyses of historical trends tend to show that CO(2) emissions from energy use respond almost proportionately to changes in population size and that ageing and urbanisation have less than proportional but statistically significant effects. Second, scenario analyses show that alternative population growth paths could have substantial effects on global emissions of CO(2) several decades from now, and that ageing and urbanisation can have important effects in particular world regions. These results imply that policies that slow population growth would probably also have climate-related benefits.

  19. Evaluating Bay Area Methane Emission Inventory

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc; Jeong, Seongeun

    2016-03-01

    As a regulatory agency, evaluating and improving estimates of methane (CH4) emissions from the San Francisco Bay Area is an area of interest to the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD). Currently, regional, state, and federal agencies generally estimate methane emissions using bottom-up inventory methods that rely on a combination of activity data, emission factors, biogeochemical models and other information. Recent atmospheric top-down measurement estimates of methane emissions for the US as a whole (e.g., Miller et al., 2013) and in California (e.g., Jeong et al., 2013; Peischl et al., 2013) have shown inventories underestimate total methane emissions by ~ 50% in many areas of California, including the SF Bay Area (Fairley and Fischer, 2015). The goal of this research is to provide information to help improve methane emission estimates for the San Francisco Bay Area. The research effort builds upon our previous work that produced methane emission maps for each of the major source sectors as part of the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project (http://calgem.lbl.gov/prior_emission.html; Jeong et al., 2012; Jeong et al., 2013; Jeong et al., 2014). Working with BAAQMD, we evaluate the existing inventory in light of recently published literature and revise the CALGEM CH4 emission maps to provide better specificity for BAAQMD. We also suggest further research that will improve emission estimates. To accomplish the goals, we reviewed the current BAAQMD inventory, and compared its method with those from the state inventory from the California Air Resources Board (CARB), the CALGEM inventory, and recent published literature. We also updated activity data (e.g., livestock statistics) to reflect recent changes and to better represent spatial information. Then, we produced spatially explicit CH4 emission estimates on the 1-km modeling grid used by BAAQMD. We present the detailed activity data, methods and derived emission maps by sector

  20. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  1. Atmospheric Ammonia Emissions from a Dairy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumburg, B. P.; Filipy, J. M.; Bays, J.; Mount, G. H.; Yonge, D.; Lamb, B. K.; Johnson, K.; Kincaid, R.

    2002-12-01

    Gaseous ammonia (NH3) emissions at high concentrations can damage human and animal respiratory systems. NH3 environmental impacts include aerosol formation, altering atmospheric chemistry, terrestrial and aquatic eutrophication, soil acidification and global warming. Preindustrial NH3 emissions are estimated to be 21 Tg yr-1 while current emissions are estimated to be 47 Tg yr-1 with most of the increase coming from domestic animals (Galloway et al., 1995). There is a lack of detailed emission data from the United States and there are many problems with applying emissions estimates from Europe due to the difference in farming practices between the two regions. Feed and manure management practices can have a large impact on emissions. We are studying NH3 emissions at the WSU dairy located near Pullman, WA to provide a detailed emission inventory of the various sources at the dairy. The dairy has approximately 170 milking cows housed in open air barns and the waste from the milking cows is stored in liquid slurry lagoons until it is applied to grass fields in the late summer. NH3 is measured using a short-path spectroscopic absorption near 200 nm with a sensitivity of a few ppbv and a time resolution of a few seconds. The open air short-path method is advantageous because it is self calibrating and avoids inlet wall adherence which is a major problem for most NH3 measurement techniques. As part of the detailed emission inventory, NH3 fluxes were determined from the milking stalls, main slurry lagoon and the application of slurry to the fields with a large sprinkler using a SF6 tracer technique and a dense point Gaussian plume model. NH3 emission fluxes from various parts of the dairy will be presented.

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Nnnnn of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for each emission stream that is part of an affected source. For each . . . You must meet the following emission limit and work practice standard 1. Emission stream from an HCl process vent at an... concentration of 100 ppm by volume or less. 2. Emission stream from an HCl storge tank at an existing...

  3. 40 CFR 1054.120 - What emission-related warranty requirements apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND... new engine, including all parts of its emission control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is... you develop to control emissions. The emission-related warranty covers these components even...

  4. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  5. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.2941 Section 60.2941 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  6. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.2941 Section 60.2941 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  7. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  8. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  9. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  10. 40 CFR 60.3040 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.3040 Section 60.3040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... continuous emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  11. 40 CFR 60.2941 - What is my schedule for evaluating continuous emission monitoring systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... continuous emission monitoring systems? 60.2941 Section 60.2941 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... emission monitoring systems? (a) Conduct annual evaluations of your continuous emission monitoring systems... emission monitoring systems daily and quarterly as specified in appendix F of this part....

  12. 40 CFR 1054.120 - What emission-related warranty requirements apply to me?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, SMALL NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES AND... new engine, including all parts of its emission control system, meets two conditions: (1) It is... you develop to control emissions. The emission-related warranty covers these components even...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaa of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment...—Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) For the following continuous emission monitoring systems Use the following methods in appendix A of this part to validate pollutant...

  14. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaa of... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAA of Part 60 Protection of Environment...—Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) For the following continuous emission monitoring systems Use the following methods in appendix A of this part to validate pollutant...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.935 - Emission test sequence for field testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... air flow. (2) If the standard-setting part requires hot-start emission measurements, shut down the...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Field Testing and Portable Emission Measurement... follows: (1) If the standard-setting part requires only hot-stabilized emission measurements, operate...

  16. 40 CFR Table 3 of Subpart Aaaa to... - Requirements for Validating Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following methods in appendix A of this part to measure oxygen (or carbon dioxide) 1. Nitrogen Oxides (Class... Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) 3 Table 3 of Subpart AAAA to Part 60 Protection of Environment... Continuous Emission Monitoring Systems (CEMS) For the following continuous emission monitoring systems...

  17. Development of near-zero water consumption cement materials via the geopolymerization of tektites and its implication for lunar construction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai-tuo; Tang, Qing; Cui, Xue-min; He, Yan; Liu, Le-ping

    2016-01-01

    The environment on the lunar surface poses some difficult challenges to building long-term lunar bases; therefore, scientists and engineers have proposed the creation of habitats using lunar building materials. These materials must meet the following conditions: be resistant to severe lunar temperature cycles, be stable in a vacuum environment, have minimal water requirements, and be sourced from local Moon materials. Therefore, the preparation of lunar building materials that use lunar resources is preferred. Here, we present a potential lunar cement material that was fabricated using tektite powder and a sodium hydroxide activator and is based on geopolymer technology. Geopolymer materials have the following properties: approximately zero water consumption, resistance to high- and low-temperature cycling, vacuum stability and good mechanical properties. Although the tektite powder is not equivalent to lunar soil, we speculate that the alkali activated activity of lunar soil will be higher than that of tektite because of its low Si/Al composition ratio. This assumption is based on the tektite geopolymerization research and associated references. In summary, this study provides a feasible approach for developing lunar cement materials using a possible water recycling system based on geopolymer technology. PMID:27406467

  18. Self-Organized Near-Zero-Lag Synchronization Induced by Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity in Cortical Populations

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Fernanda S.; Carelli, Pedro V.; Mirasso, Claudio R.; Copelli, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Several cognitive tasks related to learning and memory exhibit synchronization of macroscopic cortical areas together with synaptic plasticity at neuronal level. Therefore, there is a growing effort among computational neuroscientists to understand the underlying mechanisms relating synchrony and plasticity in the brain. Here we numerically study the interplay between spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) and anticipated synchronization (AS). AS emerges when a dominant flux of information from one area to another is accompanied by a negative time lag (or phase). This means that the receiver region pulses before the sender does. In this paper we study the interplay between different synchronization regimes and STDP at the level of three-neuron microcircuits as well as cortical populations. We show that STDP can promote auto-organized zero-lag synchronization in unidirectionally coupled neuronal populations. We also find synchronization regimes with negative phase difference (AS) that are stable against plasticity. Finally, we show that the interplay between negative phase difference and STDP provides limited synaptic weight distribution without the need of imposing artificial boundaries. PMID:26474165

  19. Development of a lightweight near-zero CTE optical bench for the Wide-Field Camera 3 instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holz, Jill M.; Kunt, Cengiz; Lashley, Chris; McGuffey, Douglas B.

    2003-02-01

    The design and development of an optical bench (OB) for Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), a next generation science instrument for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has proven a challenging task. WFC3 will replace Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WF/PC 2) during the next servicing mission of the HST in 2004. The WFC3 program is re-using much of the hardware from WF/PC 1, returned from the First Servicing Mission, which has added complexity to the program. This posed some significant packaging challenges, further complicated by WFC3 utilizing two, separate optical channels. The WF/PC 1 optical bench could not house the additional optical components, so a new bench was developed. The new bench had to be designed to accommodate the sometimes-conflicting requirements of the two channels, which operate over a wavelength range of 200nm to 1800nm, from Near Ultraviolet to Near Infrared. In addition, the bench had to interface to the reused WF/PC 1 hardware, which was not optimized for this mission. To aid in the design of the bench, the team used software tools to merge structural, thermal and optical models to obtain performance (STOP) of the optical systems in operation. Several iterations of this performance analysis were needed during the design process to verify the bench would meet requirements. The fabrication effort included a rigorous material characterization program and significant tooling. After assembly, the optical bench underwent an extensive qualification program to prove the design and manufacturing processes. This paper provides the details of the design and development process of this highly optimized optical bench.

  20. Quantification of Bone Growth Rate Variability in Rats Exposed to Micro- (near zero G) and Macrogravity (2G)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromage, Timothy G.; Doty, Stephen B.; Smolyar, Igor; Holton, Emily

    1996-01-01

    Our stated primary objective is to quantify the growth rate variability of rat lamellar bone exposed to micro and macrogravity (2G). The primary significance of the proposed work is that an elegant method will be established that unequivocally characterizes the morphological consequences of gravitational factors on developing bone. The integrity of this objective depends upon our successful preparation of thin sections suitable for imaging individual bone lamellae, and our imaging and quantitation of growth rate variability in populations of lamellae from individual bone samples.