Science.gov

Sample records for necessidades percepcionadas face

  1. Recognizing faces.

    PubMed

    Ellis, H D

    1975-11-01

    Following a review of the stimulus and subject factors which have been found to affect recognition faces, the question of whether this process can be considered a special one is dealt with. Evidence from studies involving the development of face recognition, the recognition of inverted faces, and the clinical condition prosopagnosia is considered, and in each case found to be inadequate for the unequivocal conclusion that the processes underlying face recognition are qualitatively different from those employed in recognizing other pictorial material.

  2. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  3. Face Painting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diana

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of face painting as a technique for making the endangered species issue tangible for children while addressing the complexity of the issue. Children are "given" an animal of their own and are educated about the animal while having their faces painted to resemble the animal. (LZ)

  4. Face pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gets worse when you bend forward) Tic douloureux Temporomandibular joint dysfunction syndrome Sometimes the reason for the face pain ... is persistent, unexplained, or accompanied by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider. What to Expect at ...

  5. Funny Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Yvonne

    2000-01-01

    Presents a torn-paper and gadget-print activity for younger students, specifically pre-kindergarten to first grade, that can be done any time over the school year or at Halloween. Discusses how the students create their funny faces and lists the materials needed. (CMK)

  6. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  7. Learning Faces from Photographs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longmore, Christopher A.; Liu, Chang Hong; Young, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies examining face learning have mostly used only a single exposure to 1 image of each of the faces to be learned. However, in daily life, faces are usually learned from multiple encounters. These 6 experiments examined the effects on face learning of repeated exposures to single or multiple images of a face. All experiments…

  8. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  9. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  10. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yoshi-Taka; Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee's facial-recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity. PMID:27602275

  11. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako

    2016-01-01

    Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1) familiar faces, (2) novel faces and (3) intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.

  12. Programmed versus Face-to-Face Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William M.; Ewing, Thomas N.

    1971-01-01

    A comparison was made of the effectiveness of a programmed Self-Counseling Manual and a normal precollege counseling interview by experienced counselors. Findings supported the use of programmed counseling as an adjunct to or substitute for face-to-face counseling. (Author)

  13. Insulated face brick

    SciTech Connect

    Cromrich, J.; Cromrich, L.B.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a method for forming insulated brick intended solely for use in building walls and having superior insulation qualities and lighter weight consonant with the load bearing capabilities of building bricks and the appearance of facing brick. It comprises dry mixing two parts of vermiculite and one part of brick clay, thereby forming a dry mixture having a vermiculite to clay ratio of approximately two-to-one by volume; adding water to the dry mixture and mixing, so that a substantially dry admixture having expanded vermiculite and brick clay is formed; forming a facing layer solely from brick clay; molding and compressing the substantially dry admixture, so as to form a generally rectangular main body layer having parallel top and bottom faces, a pair of parallel side faces and a pair of parallel end faces, respectively, the top and bottom faces being substantially larger in area than the respective side faces, and the side faces being substantially larger in area than the respective end faces, the body layer further having at least one bore formed therein, the bore running from the top face to the bottom face perpendicularly thereto and substantially parallel to the side surfaces thereof, the bore being substantially centrally disposed and wherein the facing layer is disposed on one of the side surfaces of the body portion; curing the molded admixture having the facing layer disposed thereon; whereby a cured brick is formed; and firing the cured brick and the facing layer disposed thereon, whereby an integral brick is formed having top and bottom faces of the brick which are entirely devoid of facing layers, wherein the brick has the desired load bearing capability substantially between its top and bottom faces, whereby the outer facing layer only provides the desired appearance and weather resistance, and further whereby the weight of the brick is substantially reduced.

  14. Face Validity Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Baruch

    1985-01-01

    A literature review and a proposed means of measuring face validity, a test's appearance of being valid, are presented. Empirical evidence from examinees' perceptions of a college entrance examination support the reliability of measuring face validity. (GDC)

  15. Face to Face Communications in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Davon, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported that human face-to-face communications in space are compromised by facial edema, variations in the orientations of speakers and listeners, and background noises that are encountered in the shuttle and in space stations. To date, nearly all reports have been anecdotal or subjective, in the form of post-flight interviews or questionnaires; objective and quantitative data are generally lacking. Although it is acknowledged that efficient face-to-face communications are essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, specific ways in which the space environment interferes with non-linguistic communication cues are poorly documented. Because we have only a partial understanding of how non-linguistic communication cues may change with mission duration, it is critically important to obtain objective data, and to evaluate these cues under well-controlled experimental conditions.

  16. Energy efficient face seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sehnal, J.; Sedy, J.; Etsion, I.; Zobens, A.

    1982-01-01

    Torque, face temperature, leakage, and wear of a flat face seal were compared with three coned face seals at pressures up to 2758 kPa and speeds up to 8000 rpm. Axial movement of the mating seal parts was recorded by a digital data acquisition system. The coning of the tungsten carbide primary ring ranged from .51 micro-m to 5.6 micro-m. The torque of the coned face seal balanced to 76.3% was an average 42% lower, the leakage eleven times higher, than that of the standard flat face seal. The reduction of the balance of the coned face seal to 51.3% resulted by decreasing the torque by an additional 44% and increasing leakage 12 to 230 times, depending on the seal shaft speed. No measurable wear was observed on the face of the coned seals.

  17. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    PubMed

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  18. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    PubMed

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences. PMID:20483821

  19. Social judgments from faces.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  20. Stable face representations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Rob; Burton, A. Mike

    2011-01-01

    Photographs are often used to establish the identity of an individual or to verify that they are who they claim to be. Yet, recent research shows that it is surprisingly difficult to match a photo to a face. Neither humans nor machines can perform this task reliably. Although human perceivers are good at matching familiar faces, performance with unfamiliar faces is strikingly poor. The situation is no better for automatic face recognition systems. In practical settings, automatic systems have been consistently disappointing. In this review, we suggest that failure to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar face processing has led to unrealistic expectations about face identification in applied settings. We also argue that a photograph is not necessarily a reliable indicator of facial appearance, and develop our proposal that summary statistics can provide more stable face representations. In particular, we show that image averaging stabilizes facial appearance by diluting aspects of the image that vary between snapshots of the same person. We review evidence that the resulting images can outperform photographs in both behavioural experiments and computer simulations, and outline promising directions for future research. PMID:21536553

  1. Dynamic Face Seal Arrangement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A radial face seal arrangement is disclosed comprising a stationary seal ring that is spring loaded against a seal seat affixed to a rotating shaft. The radial face seal arrangement further comprises an arrangement that not only allows for preloading of the stationary seal ring relative to the seal seat, but also provides for dampening yielding a dynamic seating response for the radial face seal arrangement. The overall seal system, especially regarding the selection of the material for the stationary seal ring, is designed to operate over a wide temperature range from below ambient up to 900 C.

  2. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process. PMID:25165505

  3. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  4. Protective Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mask to protect the physically impaired from injuries to the face and head has been developed by Langley Research Center. It is made of composite materials, usually graphite or boron fibers woven into a matrix. Weighs less than three ounces.

  5. Mechanization of face ends

    SciTech Connect

    Singhal, R.K.

    1984-10-01

    The author reviews developments in face-end machinery in the UK, West Germany and US. Automatic control systems such as MIDAS and MINOS are considered, as well as water-jet assisted cutting and machine health monitoring.

  6. Toward hyperspectral face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robila, Stefan A.

    2008-02-01

    Face recognition continues to meet significant challenges in reaching accurate results and still remains one of the activities where humans outperform technology. An attractive approach in improving face identification is provided by the fusion of multiple imaging sources such as visible and infrared images. Hyperspectral data, i.e. images collected over hundreds of narrow contiguous light spectrum intervals constitute a natural choice for expanding face recognition image fusion, especially since it may provide information beyond the normal visible range, thus exceeding the normal human sensing. In this paper we investigate the efficiency of hyperspectral face recognition through an in house experiment that collected data in over 120 bands within the visible and near infrared range. The imagery was produced using an off the shelf sensor in both indoors and outdoors with the subjects being photographed from various angles. Further processing included spectra collection and feature extraction. Human matching performance based on spectral properties is discussed.

  7. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  8. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    PubMed Central

    Crookes, Kate; Ewing, Louise; Gildenhuys, Ju-dith; Kloth, Nadine; Hayward, William G.; Oxner, Matt; Pond, Stephen; Rhodes, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    The use of computer-generated (CG) stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE)–the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces. PMID:26535910

  9. Face distortion aftereffects in personally familiar, famous, and unfamiliar faces.

    PubMed

    Walton, Billy Ronald Peter; Hills, Peter James

    2012-01-01

    The internal face prototype is thought to be a construction of the average of every previously viewed face (Schwaninger et al., 2003). However, the influence of the most frequently encountered faces (i.e., personally familiar faces) has been generally understated. The current research explored the face distortion aftereffect in unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar (each subject's parent) faces. Forty-eight adult participants reported whether faces were distorted or not (distorted by shifting the eyes in the vertical axis) of a series of images that included unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar faces. The number of faces perceived to be "odd" was measured pre- and post-adaptation to the most extreme distortion. Participants were adapted to either an unfamiliar, famous, or personally familiar face. The results indicate that adaptation transferred from unfamiliar faces to personally familiar faces more so than the converse and aftereffects did not transfer from famous faces to unfamiliar faces. These results are indicative of representation differences between unfamiliar, famous, and personally familiar faces, whereby personally familiar faces share representations of both unfamiliar and famous faces.

  10. Stimulus factors affecting the categorisation of faces and scrambled faces.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, N; Humphreys, G W; Sawyer, J

    1994-05-01

    Three experiments are reported which investigate the categorisation of faces and scrambled faces in a face/scrambled face decision task. Three kinds of stimuli were presented in upright and inverted orientations; faces, highly scrambled faces (all features out of position) and moderately scrambled faces (two features out of position). Experiment 1 demonstrated that faces and highly scrambled faces are categorised equally quickly and both types of stimulus were categorised faster than moderately scrambled faces. These results held for both upright and inverted presentations. It is argued that for both upright and inverted presentations, faces are categorised by being matched in parallel to a stored mental representation of a face. In contrast scrambled faces are categorised following a serial search of facial features which is probably self-terminating. Experiment 2 demonstrates that the results of Experiment 1 hold when facial features are replaced by other objects which retain the same global shape as facial features and suggest that faces are categorised using a coarsely coded visual description. Experiment 3 demonstrates the importance of stimulus outline on the categorisation of both moderately and highly scrambled faces but not real faces. The results are discussed in terms of the stimulus information used, and the effect of inversion, on face categorisation.

  11. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce C. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device for mounting between two surfaces to provide an airtight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  12. An equine pain face

    PubMed Central

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  13. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  14. Holistic processing of faces: learning effects with Mooney faces.

    PubMed

    Latinus, Marianne; Taylor, Margot J

    2005-08-01

    The specialness of faces is seen in the face inversion effect, which disrupts the configural, but not the analytic, processing of faces. Mooney faces, which are processed holistically, allowed us to determine the contribution of holistic processing to the face inversion effect. As inverted Mooney faces are difficult to recognize as faces, we also included an intermediary training period for Mooney face recognition for half of the subjects. Early face-sensitive ERPs (N170 and P1) and P2 were measured. Behavioral data showed an increase in correct responses to inverted and upright Mooney faces after the learning phase for the experimental group. No effects were seen on P1. N170 latency did not vary with stimulus type before the intermediary phase, however, N170 amplitude was consistently larger for upright than inverted Mooney faces. After the intermediary exercise, N170 was delayed for inverted compared to upright Mooney faces. In contrast, for both groups of subjects P2 amplitude was larger for nonface stimuli, and P2 amplitude decreased after the intermediate task only for the subjects trained to recognize Mooney faces. As the usual inversion effect seen with photographic faces (delayed and larger N170) was not seen with Mooney faces, these data suggest that this effect on N170 is due to the recruitment of analytic processing. P2 reflected learning and a deeper processing of the stimuli that were not identifiable as faces.

  15. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  16. Two Faces of Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  17. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  18. Lightweight Face Mask

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cason, W. E. I.; Baucom, R. M.; Evans, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Lightweight face mask originally developed to protect epileptic patients during seizures could have many other medical and nonmedical applications such as muscular distrophy patients, football linesmen and riot-control police. Masks are extremely lightweight, the lightest of the configurations weighing only 136 grams.

  19. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  20. Facing the Not Knowing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about how to face the not knowing and offers a strategy to fill the gap of not knowing. In coping with constant change, he describes a strategy for library staff that might help in the absence of certainty. This includes: (a) guarding the data with one's life; (b) build not for longevity, but obsolescence; (c)…

  1. A Wall of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Lori

    2008-01-01

    Visitors to the campus of Orland High School (OHS) will never question that they have stepped into a world of the masses: kids, activity, personalities, busyness, and playfulness--a veritable cloud of mild bedlam. The wall of ceramic faces that greets a visitor in the school office is another reminder of the organized chaos that the teachers…

  2. Face aftereffects predict individual differences in face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark; Susilo, Tirta

    2012-01-01

    Face aftereffects are widely studied on the assumption that they provide a useful tool for investigating face-space coding of identity. However, a long-standing issue concerns the extent to which face aftereffects originate in face-level processes as opposed to earlier stages of visual processing. For example, some recent studies failed to find atypical face aftereffects in individuals with clinically poor face recognition. We show that in individuals within the normal range of face recognition abilities, there is an association between face memory ability and a figural face aftereffect that is argued to reflect the steepness of broadband-opponent neural response functions in underlying face-space. We further show that this correlation arises from face-level processing, by reporting results of tests of nonface memory and nonface aftereffects. We conclude that face aftereffects can tap high-level face-space, and that face-space coding differs in quality between individuals and contributes to face recognition ability.

  3. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    PubMed

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests.

  4. Finding Faces Among Faces: Human Faces are Located More Quickly and Accurately than Other Primate and Mammal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Buchin, Zachary; Werner, Katie; Worrell, Rey; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the specificity of human face search efficiency by examining whether there is a broad window of detection for various face-like stimuli—human and animal faces—or whether own-species faces receive greater attentional allocation. We assessed the strength of the own-species face detection bias by testing whether human faces are located more efficiently than other animal faces, when presented among various other species’ faces, in heterogeneous 16-, 36-, and 64-item arrays. Across all array sizes, we found that, controlling for distractor type, human faces were located faster and more accurately than primate and mammal faces, and that, controlling for target type, searches were faster when distractors were human faces compared to animal faces, revealing more efficient processing of human faces regardless of their role as targets or distractors (Experiment 1). Critically, these effects remained when searches were for specific species’ faces (human, chimpanzee, otter), ruling out a category-level explanation (Experiment 2). Together, these results suggest that human faces may be processed more efficiently than animal faces, both when task-relevant (targets), and when task-irrelevant (distractors), even when in direct competition with other faces. These results suggest that there is not a broad window of detection for all face-like patterns, but that human adults process own-species’ faces more efficiently than other species’ faces. Such own-species search efficiencies may arise through experience with own-species faces throughout development, or may be privileged early in development, due to the evolutionary importance of conspecifics’ faces. PMID:25113852

  5. Human Faces Are Slower than Chimpanzee Faces

    PubMed Central

    Burrows, Anne M.; Parr, Lisa A.; Durham, Emily L.; Matthews, Lea C.; Smith, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Background While humans (like other primates) communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles). The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips) and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce “visemes” (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds). Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? Methodology/Prinicipal Findings Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. Conclusions/significance These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial

  6. Nursing student experiences with face-to-face learning.

    PubMed

    Gruendemann, Barbara J

    2011-12-01

    Face-to-face learning has been the mainstay of nursing student learning. Despite moves to online learning, face-to-face learning persists. This study focuses on how nursing students experience face-to-face learning and why it not only survives, but thrives. This study was anchored in a hermeneutic phenomenological approach, with Gadamerian concepts and van Manen's lifeworlds as frameworks to understand students' experiences of face-to-face learning. Patterns and themes were extracted from audiore-corded face-to-face interviews. Participants confirmed that face-to-face learning continues to be valued as a strong methodology in nursing education. Their experiences focused on humanism, the importance of "presence," physical proximity, classroom as "the real thing," immediacy of feedback, and learning and knowing by human connections and interaction. The study findings were a rich source for understanding how nursing students process learning experiences. Increased understanding of the meaning and essence of face-to-face learning is essential as we decide how nursing content will be taught. PMID:21956259

  7. Multiview face recognition: from TensorFace to V-TensorFace and K-TensorFace.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chunna; Fan, Guoliang; Gao, Xinbo; Tian, Qi

    2012-04-01

    Face images under uncontrolled environments suffer from the changes of multiple factors such as camera view, illumination, expression, etc. Tensor analysis provides a way of analyzing the influence of different factors on facial variation. However, the TensorFace model creates a difficulty in representing the nonlinearity of view subspace. In this paper, to break this limitation, we present a view-manifold-based TensorFace (V-TensorFace), in which the latent view manifold preserves the local distances in the multiview face space. Moreover, a kernelized TensorFace (K-TensorFace) for multiview face recognition is proposed to preserve the structure of the latent manifold in the image space. Both methods provide a generative model that involves a continuous view manifold for unseen view representation. Most importantly, we propose a unified framework to generalize TensorFace, V-TensorFace, and K-TensorFace. Finally, an expectation-maximization like algorithm is developed to estimate the identity and view parameters iteratively for a face image of an unknown/unseen view. The experiment on the PIE database shows the effectiveness of the manifold construction method. Extensive comparison experiments on Weizmann and Oriental Face databases for multiview face recognition demonstrate the superiority of the proposed V- and K-TensorFace methods over the view-based principal component analysis and other state-of-the-art approaches for such purpose. PMID:22318490

  8. CRYSTAL/FACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Kok, Greg; Anderson, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Droplet Measurement Technologies (DMT), under funding from NASA, participated in the CRYSTAL/FACE field campaign in July, 2002 with measurements of cirrus cloud hydrometeors in the size range from 0.5 to 1600 microns. The measurements were made with the DMT Cloud, Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) that was flown on NASA's WB57F. With the exception of the first research flight when the data system failed two hours into the mission, the measurement system performed almost flawlessly during the thirteen flights. The measurements from the CAPS have been essential for interpretation of cirrus cloud properties and their impact on climate. The CAPS data set has been used extensively by the CRYSTAL/FACE investigators and as of the date of this report, have been included in five published research articles, 10 conference presentations and six other journal articles currently in preparation.

  9. Producing desired ice faces

    PubMed Central

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J.; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih––a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface––due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid. PMID:26512102

  10. Producing desired ice faces.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Brumberg, Alexandra; Bisson, Patrick J; Shultz, Ryan

    2015-11-10

    The ability to prepare single-crystal faces has become central to developing and testing models for chemistry at interfaces, spectacularly demonstrated by heterogeneous catalysis and nanoscience. This ability has been hampered for hexagonal ice, Ih--a fundamental hydrogen-bonded surface--due to two characteristics of ice: ice does not readily cleave along a crystal lattice plane and properties of ice grown on a substrate can differ significantly from those of neat ice. This work describes laboratory-based methods both to determine the Ih crystal lattice orientation relative to a surface and to use that orientation to prepare any desired face. The work builds on previous results attaining nearly 100% yield of high-quality, single-crystal boules. With these methods, researchers can prepare authentic, single-crystal ice surfaces for numerous studies including uptake measurements, surface reactivity, and catalytic activity of this ubiquitous, fundamental solid.

  11. Double face sealing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weddendorf, Bruce (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A double face sealing device is disclosed for mounting between two surfaces to provide an air-tight and fluid-tight seal between a closure member bearing one of the surfaces and a structure or housing bearing the other surface which extends around the opening or hatchway to be closed. The double face sealing device includes a plurality of sections or segments mounted to one of the surfaces, each having a main body portion, a pair of outwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, and a pair of inwardly extending and diverging, cantilever, spring arms, an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free, ends of the outwardly extending and diverging spring arms, and an elastomeric cover on the distal, free ends of the inwardly extending and diverging spring arms. The double face sealing device has application or use in all environments requiring a seal, but is particularly useful to seal openings or hatchways between compartments of spacecraft or aircraft.

  12. Beyond Faces and Expertise

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  13. Foil Face Seal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munson, John

    2009-01-01

    In the seal literature you can find many attempts by various researchers to adapt film riding seals to the gas turbine engine. None have been successful, potential distortion of the sealing faces is the primary reason. There is a film riding device that does accommodate distortion and is in service in aircraft applications, namely the foil bearing. More specifically a foil thrust bearing. These are not intended to be seals, and they do not accommodate large axial movement between shaft & static structure. By combining the 2 a unique type of face seal has been created. It functions like a normal face seal. The foil thrust bearing replaces the normal primary sealing surface. The compliance of the foil bearing allows the foils to track distortion of the mating seal ring. The foil seal has several perceived advantages over existing hydrodynamic designs, enumerated in the chart. Materials and design methodology needed for this application already exist. Also the load capacity requirements for the foil bearing are low since it only needs to support itself and overcome friction forces at the antirotation keys.

  14. Hyperfamiliarity for faces

    PubMed Central

    Devinsky, O.; Davachi, L.; Santchi, C.; Quinn, B. T.; Staresina, B. P.; Thesen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To report 4 cases of hyperfamiliarity for faces (HFF) and review 5 previously reported cases. Methods: We identified cases of HFF from PubMed search and references in prior reports. Results: Three of our 4 cases had pathologic findings that were most extensive in the left temporal lobe. HFF occurred after a tonic-clonic seizure (cases 1 and 3), during simple partial seizures (case 2), and in the setting of an increase in simple partial seizure frequency but not during seizures (case 4). All 9 cases were adults with 1 or more seizures; symptoms first occurred after seizures in 5 cases and during seizures in 1 case. Ictal symptoms lasted from seconds to minutes and from 2 days to more than 7 years in the other 6 cases. The duration of HFF was not associated with the presence or extent of a structural lesion. While in several cases HFF appears to result from a postictal Todd paralysis, the mechanism underlying persistent cases is uncertain. Conclusions: This modality (visual)–specific and stimulus (face)–specific syndrome is associated with diverse structural, functional imaging, and neurophysiologic findings. Lesions are more often left-sided and involve the temporal lobe. Epilepsy and seizures were present in all 9 cases, suggesting a pathophysiologic relationship, which likely varies among cases. Although only reported in 9 patients, HFF is probably much more common than it is diagnosed. GLOSSARY HFF = hyperfamiliarity for faces. PMID:20308681

  15. Synthesis and characterization of "face-to-face" porphyrins.

    PubMed Central

    Collman, J P; Elliott, C M; Halbert, T R; Tovrog, B S

    1977-01-01

    The syntheses of four binary porphyrins, two of which are constrained to a "face-to-face" conformation, and their Co2+ and Cu2+ derivatives are described. Electron spin resonance indicates that the intermetallic separation in the binuclear "face-to-face" porphyrins is about 6.5-6.8 A. Electronic spectra and proton magnetic resonance spectra support the postulated "face-to-face" conformations. A hypothesis that related compounds may serve as multielectron redox catalysts for O2 and N2 is presented. PMID:189304

  16. Visual Search of Mooney Faces.

    PubMed

    Goold, Jessica E; Meng, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Faces spontaneously capture attention. However, which special attributes of a face underlie this effect is unclear. To address this question, we investigate how gist information, specific visual properties and differing amounts of experience with faces affect the time required to detect a face. Three visual search experiments were conducted investigating the rapidness of human observers to detect Mooney face images. Mooney images are two-toned, ambiguous images. They were used in order to have stimuli that maintain gist information but limit low-level image properties. Results from the experiments show: (1) Although upright Mooney faces were searched inefficiently, they were detected more rapidly than inverted Mooney face targets, demonstrating the important role of gist information in guiding attention toward a face. (2) Several specific Mooney face identities were searched efficiently while others were not, suggesting the involvement of specific visual properties in face detection. (3) By providing participants with unambiguous gray-scale versions of the Mooney face targets prior to the visual search task, the targets were detected significantly more efficiently, suggesting that prior experience with Mooney faces improves the ability to extract gist information for rapid face detection. However, a week of training with Mooney face categorization did not lead to even more efficient visual search of Mooney face targets. In summary, these results reveal that specific local image properties cannot account for how faces capture attention. On the other hand, gist information alone cannot account for how faces capture attention either. Prior experience facilitates the effect of gist on visual search of faces; making faces a special object category for guiding attention.

  17. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  18. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature. PMID:24116236

  19. Bayesian face recognition and perceptual narrowing in face-space.

    PubMed

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-07-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to 'perceptual narrowing', the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in developing humans and primates. Though the phenomenon is highly robust and replicable, there have been few efforts to model the emergence of perceptual narrowing as a function of the accumulation of experience with faces during infancy. The goal of the current study is to examine how perceptual narrowing might manifest as statistical estimation in 'face-space', a geometric framework for describing face recognition that has been successfully applied to adult face perception. Here, I use a computer vision algorithm for Bayesian face recognition to study how the acquisition of experience in face-space and the presence of race categories affect performance for own and other-race faces. Perceptual narrowing follows from the establishment of distinct race categories, suggesting that the acquisition of category boundaries for race is a key computational mechanism in developing face expertise.

  20. Development of Face Processing: The Effect of Face Inversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2000-01-01

    Examined degree to which analytic and holistic modes of processing play a role in children's and adults' categorization of faces. Found a developmental trend from analytic to holistic processing and an effect of face inversion with increasing age. Seven-year-olds processed faces comparably to nonfacial visual stimuli, whereas a growing proportion…

  1. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  2. Challenges facing production grids

    SciTech Connect

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  3. Face the Fats Quiz 2

    MedlinePlus

    Face the Fats Quiz II Do you know your fats by heart? Ready to make informed choices about the foods you ... to fried chicken, test your knowledge about the fats in some familiar foods. Welcome to Face the ...

  4. IntraFace

    PubMed Central

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/. PMID:27346987

  5. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  6. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  7. Disrupting perceptual grouping of face parts impairs holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Goldstein, Rebecca R; Blacker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Face perception is widely believed to involve integration of facial features into a holistic perceptual unit, but the mechanisms underlying this integration are relatively unknown. We examined whether perceptual grouping cues influence a classic marker of holistic face perception, the "composite-face effect." Participants made same-different judgments about a cued part of sequentially presented chimeric faces, and holistic processing was indexed as the degree to which the task-irrelevant face halves impacted performance. Grouping was encouraged or discouraged by adjusting the backgrounds behind the face halves: Although the face halves were always aligned, their respective backgrounds could be misaligned and of different colors. Holistic processing of face, but not of nonface, stimuli was significantly reduced when the backgrounds were misaligned and of different colors, cues that discouraged grouping of the face halves into a cohesive unit (Exp. 1). This effect was sensitive to stimulus orientation at short (200 ms) but not at long (2,500 ms) encoding durations, consistent with the previously documented temporal properties of the holistic processing of upright and inverted faces (Exps. 2 and 3). These results suggest that grouping mechanisms, typically involved in the perception of objecthood more generally, might contribute in important ways to the holistic perception of faces.

  8. Face Processing: Models For Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turk, Matthew A.; Pentland, Alexander P.

    1990-03-01

    The human ability to process faces is remarkable. We can identify perhaps thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and read facial expression to understand such subtle qualities as emotion. These skills are quite robust, despite sometimes large changes in the visual stimulus due to expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle or facial hair. Computers which model and recognize faces will be useful in a variety of applications, including criminal identification, human-computer interface, and animation. We discuss models for representing faces and their applicability to the task of recognition, and present techniques for identifying faces and detecting eye blinks.

  9. Face lift postoperative recovery.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe what I have studied and experienced, mainly regarding the control and prediction of the postoperative edema; how to achieve an agreeable recovery and give positive support to the patient, who in turn will receive pleasant sensations that neutralize the negative consequences of the surgery.After the skin is lifted, the drainage flow to the flaps is reversed abruptly toward the medial part of the face, where the flap bases are located. The thickness and extension of the flap determines the magnitude of the post-op edema, which is also augmented by medial surgeries (blepharo, rhino) whose trauma obstruct their natural drainage, increasing the congestion and edema. To study the lymphatic drainage, the day before an extended face lift (FL) a woman was infiltrated in the cheek skin with lynfofast (solution of tecmesio) and the absorption was observed by gamma camera. Seven days after the FL she underwent the same study; we observed no absorption by the lymphatic, concluding that a week after surgery, the lymphatic network was still damaged. To study the venous return during surgery, a fine catheter was introduced into the external jugular vein up to the mandibular border to measure the peripheral pressure. Following platysma plication the pressure rose, and again after a simple bandage, but with an elastic bandage it increased even further, diminishing considerably when it was released. Hence, platysma plication and the elastic bandage on the neck augment the venous congestion of the face. There are diseases that produce and can prolong the surgical edema: cardiac, hepatic, and renal insufficiencies, hypothyroidism, malnutrition, etc. According to these factors, the post-op edema can be predicted, the surgeon can choose between a wide dissection or a medial surgery, depending on the social or employment compromises the patient has, or the patient must accept a prolonged recovery if a complex surgery is necessary. Operative

  10. Energy conservation using face detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-10-01

    Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

  11. Face recognition performance with superresolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuowen; Maschal, Robert; Young, S Susan; Hong, Tsai Hong; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2012-06-20

    With the prevalence of surveillance systems, face recognition is crucial to aiding the law enforcement community and homeland security in identifying suspects and suspicious individuals on watch lists. However, face recognition performance is severely affected by the low face resolution of individuals in typical surveillance footage, oftentimes due to the distance of individuals from the cameras as well as the small pixel count of low-cost surveillance systems. Superresolution image reconstruction has the potential to improve face recognition performance by using a sequence of low-resolution images of an individual's face in the same pose to reconstruct a more detailed high-resolution facial image. This work conducts an extensive performance evaluation of superresolution for a face recognition algorithm using a methodology and experimental setup consistent with real world settings at multiple subject-to-camera distances. Results show that superresolution image reconstruction improves face recognition performance considerably at the examined midrange and close range. PMID:22722306

  12. Face recognition based tensor structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, De-qiang; Ye, Zhi-xia; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Li-mei

    2012-01-01

    Face recognition has broad applications, and it is a difficult problem since face image can change with photographic conditions, such as different illumination conditions, pose changes and camera angles. How to obtain some invariable features for a face image is the key issue for a face recognition algorithm. In this paper, a novel tensor structure of face image is proposed to represent image features with eight directions for a pixel value. The invariable feature of the face image is then obtained from gradient decomposition to make up the tensor structure. Then the singular value decomposition (SVD) and principal component analysis (PCA) of this tensor structure are used for face recognition. The experimental results from this study show that many difficultly recognized samples can correctly be recognized, and the recognition rate is increased by 9%-11% in comparison with same type of algorithms.

  13. Face recognition performance with superresolution.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuowen; Maschal, Robert; Young, S Susan; Hong, Tsai Hong; Phillips, P Jonathon

    2012-06-20

    With the prevalence of surveillance systems, face recognition is crucial to aiding the law enforcement community and homeland security in identifying suspects and suspicious individuals on watch lists. However, face recognition performance is severely affected by the low face resolution of individuals in typical surveillance footage, oftentimes due to the distance of individuals from the cameras as well as the small pixel count of low-cost surveillance systems. Superresolution image reconstruction has the potential to improve face recognition performance by using a sequence of low-resolution images of an individual's face in the same pose to reconstruct a more detailed high-resolution facial image. This work conducts an extensive performance evaluation of superresolution for a face recognition algorithm using a methodology and experimental setup consistent with real world settings at multiple subject-to-camera distances. Results show that superresolution image reconstruction improves face recognition performance considerably at the examined midrange and close range.

  14. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  15. [A review of face illusions].

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-07-01

    A variety of "face illusions," including the gaze illusion, face inversion effects, geometrical illusions, reversible figures, and other interesting phenomena related to face perception, are reviewed in the present report, with many sample images. The "gaze illusion" or the illusion of eye direction includes the Wollaston illusion, the luminance-induced gaze shift, the Bogart illusion, the eye-shadow-dependent gaze illusion, the Mona Lisa effect, etc. "Face inversion effects" refer to the Thatcher illusion, the fat face-thin illusion, underestimation of the upright face, the nose-shortening illusion of the inverted face, etc. "Geometrical illusions" include the Lee-Freire illusion, Yang's iris illusion, overestimation of the farther eye, the eye-shadow-dependent eye-size illusion, etc. "Reversible figures" contain the whole-part reversible figure, Rubin's vase-face illusion, or hybrid images. "Other interesting phenomena" include the flashed face distortion effect, the presidential illusion, predominance of the mouth or eyebrows over eye expression, the eye direction aftereffect, etc. It is suggested that some of these phenomena are highly specific to face perception.

  16. Holistic crowding of Mooney faces.

    PubMed

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M; Whitney, David

    2009-06-29

    An object or feature is generally more difficult to identify when other objects are presented nearby, an effect referred to as crowding. Here, we used Mooney faces to examine whether crowding can also occur within and between holistic face representations (C. M. Mooney, 1957). Mooney faces are ideal stimuli for this test because no cues exist to distinguish facial features in a Mooney face; to find any facial feature, such as an eye or a nose, one must first holistically perceive the image as a face. Through a series of six experiments we tested the effect of crowding on Mooney face recognition. Our results demonstrate crowding between and within Mooney faces and fulfill the diagnostic criteria for crowding, including eccentricity dependence and lack of crowding in the fovea, critical flanker spacing consistent with less than half the eccentricity of the target, and inner-outer flanker asymmetry. Further, our results show that recognition of an upright Mooney face is more strongly impaired by upright Mooney face flankers than inverted ones. Taken together, these results suggest crowding can occur selectively between high-level representations of faces and that crowding must occur at multiple levels in the visual system.

  17. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  18. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Floyd, R Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically.

  19. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training (‘better’ trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics’ everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits. PMID:24691394

  20. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  1. The stereographic analysis of facing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Robert E.

    Facing directions represent an accurate means by which tectonic structure and sedimentary way-up may be related. A simple method is presented for determining facing directions accurately, using a stereonet. Once determined, larger amounts of facing data can be quickly collated and analysed using similar techniques to those employed for other lineations. An example is given for some sheath fold structures in the Moine rocks of Sutherland, N. Scotland.

  2. Holistic processing predicts face recognition.

    PubMed

    Richler, Jennifer J; Cheung, Olivia S; Gauthier, Isabel

    2011-04-01

    The concept of holistic processing is a cornerstone of face-recognition research. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that holistic processing predicts face-recognition abilities on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and on a perceptual face-identification task. Our findings validate a large body of work that relies on the assumption that holistic processing is related to face recognition. These findings also reconcile the study of face recognition with the perceptual-expertise work it inspired; such work links holistic processing of objects with people's ability to individuate them. Our results differ from those of a recent study showing no link between holistic processing and face recognition. This discrepancy can be attributed to the use in prior research of a popular but flawed measure of holistic processing. Our findings salvage the central role of holistic processing in face recognition and cast doubt on a subset of the face-perception literature that relies on a problematic measure of holistic processing.

  3. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  4. Teaching On-Line versus Face-to-Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Ferguson, David; Caris, Mieke

    2002-01-01

    Investigates and describes the current instructor experience of teaching college courses over the Web versus in face-to-face formats in terms of teaching strategies, social issues, and media effects. Discusses communication styles, relationship between students and instructors, instructor workload, and discussion patterns, and proposes a model…

  5. Effects of aging on face identification and holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Konar, Yaroslav; Bennett, Patrick J; Sekuler, Allison B

    2013-08-01

    Several studies have shown that face identification accuracy is lower in older than younger adults. This effect of aging might be due to age differences in holistic processing, which is thought to be an important component of human face processing. Currently, however, there is conflicting evidence as to whether holistic face processing is impaired in older adults. The current study therefore re-examined this issue by measuring response accuracy in a 1-of-4 face identification task and the composite face effect (CFE), a common index of holistic processing, in older adults. Consistent with previous reports, we found that face identification accuracy was lower in older adults than in younger adults tested in the same task. We also found a significant CFE in older adults that was similar in magnitude to the CFE measured in younger subjects with the same task. Finally, we found that there was a significant positive correlation between the CFE and face identification accuracy. This last result differs from the results obtained in a previous study that used the same tasks and which found no evidence of an association between the CFE and face identification accuracy in younger adults. Furthermore, the age difference was found with subtraction-, regression-, and ratio-based estimates of the CFE. The current findings are consistent with previous claims that older adults rely more heavily on holistic processing to identify objects in conditions of limited processing resources.

  6. Blended Outreach: Face-to-Face and Remote Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poeppelmeyer, Diana

    2011-01-01

    The Texas School for the Deaf (TSD) has two missions. One is to provide educational services to deaf and hard of hearing students and their families on the Austin campus--this is the traditional, face-to-face, center-based service model. The other is to serve as a resource center for the state, providing information, referral, programs, and…

  7. Comparative Analysis of Online vs. Face-to-Face Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott D.; Aragon, Steven R.; Shaik, Najmuddin; Palma-Rivas, Nilda

    This empirical study compared a graduate online course with an equivalent course taught in a traditional face-to-face format. Comparisons included student ratings of instructor and course quality; assessment of course interaction, structure, and support; and learning outcomes such as course grades and student self-assessment of ability to perform…

  8. View of Face A and Face B Arrays, looking northeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Face A and Face B Arrays, looking northeast - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  9. Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northwest, Face B Array to left, Face C (rear) center, Power Plant (Building 5761), to right - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  10. Face to face with emotion: holistic face processing is modulated by emotional state.

    PubMed

    Curby, Kim M; Johnson, Kareem J; Tyson, Alyssa

    2012-01-01

    Negative emotions are linked with a local, rather than global, visual processing style, which may preferentially facilitate feature-based, relative to holistic, processing mechanisms. Because faces are typically processed holistically, and because social contexts are prime elicitors of emotions, we examined whether negative emotions decrease holistic processing of faces. We induced positive, negative, or neutral emotions via film clips and measured holistic processing before and after the induction: participants made judgements about cued parts of chimeric faces, and holistic processing was indexed by the interference caused by task-irrelevant face parts. Emotional state significantly modulated face-processing style, with the negative emotion induction leading to decreased holistic processing. Furthermore, self-reported change in emotional state correlated with changes in holistic processing. These results contrast with general assumptions that holistic processing of faces is automatic and immune to outside influences, and they illustrate emotion's power to modulate socially relevant aspects of visual perception.

  11. Configural Processing and Face Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor

    2008-01-01

    Configural/holistic processing, a key property of face recognition, has previously been examined only for front views of faces. Here, 6 experiments tested front (0 degree), three-quarter (45 degree), and profile views (90 degree), using composite and peripheral inversion tasks. Results showed an overall disadvantage in identifying profiles. This…

  12. Newborns' Mooney-Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leo, Irene; Simion, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether newborns detect a face on the basis of a Gestalt representation based on first-order relational information (i.e., the basic arrangement of face features) by using Mooney stimuli. The incomplete 2-tone Mooney stimuli were used because they preclude focusing both on the local features (i.e., the fine…

  13. Inversion and Configuration of Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, James C.; Searcy, Jean

    1993-01-01

    The Thatcher illusion, in which the inverted mouth and eyes of a face appear grotesque when upright, but not when the whole configuration is inverted, was studied in 3 experiments involving 89 undergraduates. Results suggest that the illusion represents a disruption of encoding of holistic information when faces are inverted. (SLD)

  14. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  15. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime. PMID:25765156

  16. Priming with threatening faces modulates the self-face advantage by enhancing the other-face processing rather than suppressing the self-face processing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lili; Qi, Mingming; Li, Haijiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Yang, Juan; Liu, Yijun

    2015-05-22

    Social emotional information influences self-processing in everyday activities, but few researchers have investigated this process. The current ERP study adopted a prime paradigm to investigate how socially threatening faces impact on the self-face processing advantage. After being primed with emotional faces (happy, angry or neutral), participants judged whether the target face (self, friend, and stranger) was familiar or unfamiliar. Results showed an interaction effect between the prime face and the target face at posterior P3, suggesting that after priming with happy and neutral faces, self-faces elicited larger P3 amplitudes than friend-faces and stranger-faces; however, after priming with angry faces, the P3 amplitudes were not significantly different between self-face and friend-face. Moreover, the P3 amplitudes of self-faces did not differ between priming with angry and neutral faces; however, the P3 amplitude of both friend-faces and stranger-faces showed enhanced responses after priming with angry faces compared to priming with neutral faces. We suggest that the self-face processing advantage (self vs. friend) could be weakened by priming with threatening faces, through enhancement of the other-faces processing rather than suppression of self-faces processing in angry vs. neutral face prime.

  17. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  18. Lateralized processes in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, G

    1985-05-01

    In this paper a model is presented in which face recognition is analysed into several stages, each of which may be independently lateralized. Evidence is reviewed which suggests that lateralization is important at all stages of processing a face. Early visuospatial processing, and the creation and comparison of facial representations, appear to be carried out more efficiently by the right hemisphere. Comparisons based on discrete, namable features of faces may yield a left hemisphere advantage. It is also proposed that faces may activate semantic information, including names, more efficiently in the left hemisphere. The model is useful in resolving inconsistencies in the degree and direction of asymmetries found in face-recognition tasks. Suggestions are also made for future research.

  19. Emotion-independent face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Esther, Kho G. P.

    2000-12-01

    Current face recognition techniques tend to work well when recognizing faces under small variations in lighting, facial expression and pose, but deteriorate under more extreme conditions. In this paper, a face recognition system to recognize faces of known individuals, despite variations in facial expression due to different emotions, is developed. The eigenface approach is used for feature extraction. Classification methods include Euclidean distance, back propagation neural network and generalized regression neural network. These methods yield 100% recognition accuracy when the training database is representative, containing one image representing the peak expression for each emotion of each person apart from the neutral expression. The feature vectors used for comparison in the Euclidean distance method and for training the neural network must be all the feature vectors of the training set. These results are obtained for a face database consisting of only four persons.

  20. Face features and face configurations both contribute to visual crowding.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hsin-Mei; Balas, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Crowding refers to the inability to recognize an object in peripheral vision when other objects are presented nearby (Whitney & Levi Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15, 160-168, 2011). A popular explanation of crowding is that features of the target and flankers are combined inappropriately when they are located within an integration field, thus impairing target recognition (Pelli, Palomares, & Majaj Journal of Vision, 4(12), 12:1136-1169, 2004). However, it remains unclear which features of the target and flankers are combined inappropriately to cause crowding (Levi Vision Research, 48, 635-654, 2008). For example, in a complex stimulus (e.g., a face), to what extent does crowding result from the integration of features at a part-based level or at the level of global processing of the configural appearance? In this study, we used a face categorization task and different types of flankers to examine how much the magnitude of visual crowding depends on the similarity of face parts or of global configurations. We created flankers with face-like features (e.g., the eyes, nose, and mouth) in typical and scrambled configurations to examine the impacts of part appearance and global configuration on the visual crowding of faces. Additionally, we used "electrical socket" flankers that mimicked first-order face configuration but had only schematic features, to examine the extent to which global face geometry impacted crowding. Our results indicated that both face parts and configurations contribute to visual crowding, suggesting that face similarity as realized under crowded conditions includes both aspects of facial appearance.

  1. Modeling Human Dynamics of Face-to-Face Interaction Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-04-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of interconversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here we present a simple model that reproduces quantitatively most of the relevant features of empirical face-to-face interaction networks. The model describes agents that perform a random walk in a two-dimensional space and are characterized by an attractiveness whose effect is to slow down the motion of people around them. The proposed framework sheds light on the dynamics of human interactions and can improve the modeling of dynamical processes taking place on the ensuing dynamical social networks.

  2. The face, beauty, and symmetry: perceiving asymmetry in beautiful faces.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, D W; Cohen, J A

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between bilateral facial symmetry and beauty remains to be clarified. Here, straight head-on photographs of "beautiful" faces from the collections of professional modeling agencies were selected. First, beauty ratings were obtained for these faces. Then, the authors created symmetrical left-left and right-right composites of the beautiful faces and asked a new group of subjects to choose the most attractive pair member. "Same" responses were allowed. No difference between the left-left and right-right composites was revealed but significant differences were obtained between "same" and the left-left or right-right. These results show that subjects detected asymmetry in beauty and suggest that very beautiful faces can be functionally asymmetrical.

  3. Accuracy enhanced thermal face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Fu; Lin, Sheng-Fuu

    2013-11-01

    Human face recognition has been generally researched for the last three decades. Face recognition with thermal image has begun to attract significant attention gradually since illumination of environment would not affect the recognition performance. However, the recognition performance of traditional thermal face recognizer is still insufficient in practical application. This study presents a novel thermal face recognizer employing not only thermal features but also critical facial geometric features which would not be influenced by hair style to improve the recognition performance. A three-layer back-propagation feed-forward neural network is applied as the classifier. Traditional thermal face recognizers only use the indirect information of the topography of blood vessels like thermogram as features. To overcome this limitation, the proposed thermal face recognizer can use not only the indirect information but also the direct information of the topography of blood vessels which is unique for every human. Moreover, the recognition performance of the proposed thermal features would not decrease even if the hair of frontal bone varies, the eye blinks or the nose breathes. Experimental results show that the proposed features are significantly more effective than traditional thermal features and the recognition performance of thermal face recognizer is improved.

  4. SNL3dFace

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial featuresmore » of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.« less

  5. SNL3dFace

    SciTech Connect

    Russ, Trina; Koch, Mark; Koudelka, Melissa; Peters, Ralph; Little, Charles; Boehnen, Chris; Peters, Tanya

    2007-07-20

    This software distribution contains MATLAB and C++ code to enable identity verification using 3D images that may or may not contain a texture component. The code is organized to support system performance testing and system capability demonstration through the proper configuration of the available user interface. Using specific algorithm parameters the face recognition system has been demonstrated to achieve a 96.6% verification rate (Pd) at 0.001 false alarm rate. The system computes robust facial features of a 3D normalized face using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA). A 3D normalized face is obtained by alighning each face, represented by a set of XYZ coordinated, to a scaled reference face using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. The scaled reference face is then deformed to the input face using an iterative framework with parameters that control the deformed surface regulation an rate of deformation. A variety of options are available to control the information that is encoded by the PCA. Such options include the XYZ coordinates, the difference of each XYZ coordinates from the reference, the Z coordinate, the intensity/texture values, etc. In addition to PCA/FLDA feature projection this software supports feature matching to obtain similarity matrices for performance analysis. In addition, this software supports visualization of the STL, MRD, 2D normalized, and PCA synthetic representations in a 3D environment.

  6. Can Faces Prime a Language?

    PubMed

    Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. PMID:26209531

  7. Visual adaptation and face perception

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; MacLeod, Donald I. A.

    2011-01-01

    The appearance of faces can be strongly affected by the characteristics of faces viewed previously. These perceptual after-effects reflect processes of sensory adaptation that are found throughout the visual system, but which have been considered only relatively recently in the context of higher level perceptual judgements. In this review, we explore the consequences of adaptation for human face perception, and the implications of adaptation for understanding the neural-coding schemes underlying the visual representation of faces. The properties of face after-effects suggest that they, in part, reflect response changes at high and possibly face-specific levels of visual processing. Yet, the form of the after-effects and the norm-based codes that they point to show many parallels with the adaptations and functional organization that are thought to underlie the encoding of perceptual attributes like colour. The nature and basis for human colour vision have been studied extensively, and we draw on ideas and principles that have been developed to account for norms and normalization in colour vision to consider potential similarities and differences in the representation and adaptation of faces. PMID:21536555

  8. SPACE: Vision and Reality: Face to Face. Proceedings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the 11th National Space Symposium entitled 'Vision and Reality: Face to Face' is presented. Technological areas discussed include the following sections: Vision for the future; Positioning for the future; Remote sensing, the emerging era; space opportunities, Competitive vision with acquisition reality; National security requirements in space; The world is into space; and The outlook for space. An appendice is also attached.

  9. Faces in the mist: illusory face and letter detection

    PubMed Central

    Rieth, Cory A.; Lee, Kang; Lui, Jiangang; Tian, Jie; Huber, David E.

    2011-01-01

    We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480) during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2) occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus. PMID:23145238

  10. Adaptation improves discrimination of face identity.

    PubMed

    Oruç, Ipek; Barton, Jason J S

    2011-09-01

    Whether face adaptation confers any advantages to perceptual processing remains an open question. We investigated whether face adaptation can enhance the ability to make fine discriminations in the vicinity of the adapted face. We compared face discrimination thresholds in three adapting conditions: (i) same-face: where adapting and test faces were the same, (ii) different-face: where adapting and test faces differed, and (iii) baseline: where the adapting stimulus was a blank. Discrimination thresholds for morphed identity changes involving the adapted face (same-face) improved compared with those from both the baseline (no-adaptation) and different-face conditions. Since adapting to a face did not alter discrimination performance for other faces, this effect is selective for the facial identity that is adapted. These results indicate a form of gain control to heighten perceptual sensitivity in the vicinity of a currently viewed face, analogous to forms of adaptive gain control at lower levels of the visual system.

  11. Matching Faces Against the Clock

    PubMed Central

    Fysh, Matthew; Cross, Katie; Watts, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effect of time pressure on face-matching accuracy. Across two experiments, observers decided whether pairs of faces depict one person or different people. Time pressure was exerted via two additional displays, which were constantly updated to inform observers on whether they were on track to meet or miss a time target. In this paradigm, faces were matched under increasing or decreasing (Experiment 1) and constant time pressure (Experiment 2), which varied from 10 to 2 seconds. In both experiments, time pressure reduced accuracy, but the point at which this declined varied from 8 to 2 seconds. A separate match response bias was found, which developed over the course of the experiments. These results indicate that both time pressure and the repetitive nature of face matching are detrimental to performance. PMID:27757219

  12. Erysipelas on the face (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Erysipelas produces a rash that is red, slightly swollen, very defined (well demarcated), warm, and tender to ... face, however, bilateral (both side) involvement is infrequent. Erysipelas may produce symptoms that affect the entire body ( ...

  13. Aging changes in the face

    MedlinePlus

    ... spots on the face increase as well. These pigment changes are largely due to sun exposure. Missing ... The colored portion of the eye (iris) loses pigment, making most very elderly people appear to have ...

  14. Carbon-Type Analysis and Comparison of Original and Reblended FACE Diesel Fuels (FACE 2, FACE 4, and FACE 7)

    SciTech Connect

    Bays, J. Timothy; King, David L.; O'Hagan, Molly J.

    2012-10-01

    This report summarizes the carbon-type analysis from 1H and 13C{1H} nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) of Fuels for Advanced Combustion Engines (FACE) diesel blends, FD-2B, FD 4B, and FD-7B, and makes comparison of the new blends with the original FACE diesel blends, FD 2A, FD 4A, and FD-7A, respectively. Generally, FD-2A and FD-2B are more similar than the A and B blends of FD-4 and FD-7. The aromatic carbon content is roughly equivalent, although the new FACE blends have decreased monoaromatic content and increased di- and tri-cycloaromatic content, as well as a higher overall aromatic content, than the original FACE blends. The aromatic components of the new FACE blends generally have a higher alkyl substitution with longer alkyl substituents. The naphthenic and paraffinic contents remained relatively consistent. Based on aliphatic methyl and methylene carbon ratios, cetane numbers for FD-2A and -2B, and FD-7A and -7B are predicted to be consistent, while the cetane number for FD-4B is predicted to be higher than FD-4A. Overall, the new FACE fuel blends are fairly consistent with the original FACE fuel blends, but there are observable differences. In addition to providing important comparative compositional information on reformulated FACE diesel blends, this report also provides important information about the capabilities of the team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the use of NMR spectroscopy for the detailed characterization and comparison of fuels and fuel blends.

  15. Face verification with balanced thresholds.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuicheng; Xu, Dong; Tang, Xiaoou

    2007-01-01

    The process of face verification is guided by a pre-learned global threshold, which, however, is often inconsistent with class-specific optimal thresholds. It is, hence, beneficial to pursue a balance of the class-specific thresholds in the model-learning stage. In this paper, we present a new dimensionality reduction algorithm tailored to the verification task that ensures threshold balance. This is achieved by the following aspects. First, feasibility is guaranteed by employing an affine transformation matrix, instead of the conventional projection matrix, for dimensionality reduction, and, hence, we call the proposed algorithm threshold balanced transformation (TBT). Then, the affine transformation matrix, constrained as the product of an orthogonal matrix and a diagonal matrix, is optimized to improve the threshold balance and classification capability in an iterative manner. Unlike most algorithms for face verification which are directly transplanted from face identification literature, TBT is specifically designed for face verification and clarifies the intrinsic distinction between these two tasks. Experiments on three benchmark face databases demonstrate that TBT significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art subspace techniques for face verification.

  16. [Faces affect recognition in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Prochwicz, Katarzyna; Rózycka, Jagoda

    2012-01-01

    Clinical observations and the results of many experimental researches indicate that individuals suffering from schizophrenia reveal difficulties in the recognition of emotional states experienced by other people; however the causes and the range of these problems have not been clearly described. Despite early research results confirming that difficulties in emotion recognition are related only to negative emotions, the results of the researches conducted over the lat 30 years indicate that emotion recognition problems are a manifestation of a general cognitive deficit, and they do not concern specific emotions. The article contains a review of the research on face affect recognition in schizophrenia. It discusses the causes of these difficulties, the differences in the accuracy of the recognition of specific emotions, the relationship between the symptoms of schizophrenia and the severity of problems with face perception, and the types of cognitive processes which influence the disturbances in face affect recognition. Particular attention was paid to the methodology of the research on face affect recognition, including the methods used in control tasks relying on the identification of neutral faces designed to assess the range of deficit underlying the face affect recognition problems. The analysis of methods used in particular researches revealed some weaknesses. The article also deals with the question of the possibilities of improving the ability to recognise the emotions, and briefly discusses the efficiency of emotion recognition training programs designed for patients suffering from schizophrenia.

  17. Real-time face tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Yufeng; Wilder, Joseph

    1998-10-01

    A real-time face tracker is presented in this paper. The system has achieved 15 frames/second tracking using a Pentium 200 PC with a Datacube MaxPCI image processing board and a Panasonic RGB color camera. It tracks human faces in the camera's field of view while people move freely. A stochastic model to characterize the skin color distribution of human skin is used to segment the face and other skin areas from the background. Median filtering is then used to clean up the background noise. Geometric constraints are applied to the segmented image to extract the face from the background. To reduce computation and achieve real-time tracking, 1D projections (horizontal and vertical) of the image are analyzed instead of the 2D image. Run-length- encoding and frequency domain analysis algorithms are used to separate faces from other skin-like blobs. The system is robust to illumination intensity variations and different skin colors. It can be applied to many human-computer interaction applications such as sound locating, lip- reading, gaze tracking and face recognition.

  18. Semantic Learning Modifies Perceptual Face Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heisz, Jennifer J.; Shedden, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Face processing changes when a face is learned with personally relevant information. In a five-day learning paradigm, faces were presented with rich semantic stories that conveyed personal information about the faces. Event-related potentials were recorded before and after learning during a passive viewing task. When faces were novel, we observed…

  19. Eye tracking unconscious face-to-face confrontations: dominance motives prolong gaze to masked angry faces.

    PubMed

    Terburg, David; Hooiveld, Nicole; Aarts, Henk; Kenemans, J Leon; van Honk, Jack

    2011-03-01

    In primates, dominance/submission relationships are generally automatically and nonaggressively established in face-to-face confrontations. Researchers have argued that this process involves an explicit psychological stress-manipulation mechanism: Striding with a threatening expression, while keeping direct eye contact, outstresses rivals so that they submissively avert their gaze. In contrast, researchers have proposed a reflexive and implicit modulation of face-to-face confrontation in humans, on the basis of evidence that dominant and submissive individuals exhibit vigilant and avoidant responses, respectively, to facial anger in masked emotional Stroop tasks. However, these tasks do not provide an ecologically valid index of gaze behavior. Therefore, we directly measured gaze responses to masked angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions with a saccade-latency paradigm and found that increased dominance traits predict a more prolonged gaze to (or reluctance to avert gaze from) masked anger. Furthermore, greater non-dominance-related reward sensitivity predicts more persistent gaze to masked happiness. These results strongly suggest that implicit and reflexive mechanisms underlie dominant and submissive gaze behavior in face-to-face confrontations. PMID:21303993

  20. Atypical face gaze in autism.

    PubMed

    Trepagnier, Cheryl; Sebrechts, Marc M; Peterson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    An eye-tracking study of face and object recognition was conducted to clarify the character of face gaze in autistic spectrum disorders. Experimental participants were a group of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's disorder or high-functioning autistic disorder according to their medical records and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Controls were selected on the basis of age, gender, and educational level to be comparable to the experimental group. In order to maintain attentional focus, stereoscopic images were presented in a virtual reality (VR) headset in which the eye-tracking system was installed. Preliminary analyses show impairment in face recognition, in contrast with equivalent and even superior performance in object recognition among participants with autism-related diagnoses, relative to controls. Experimental participants displayed less fixation on the central face than did control-group participants. The findings, within the limitations of the small number of subjects and technical difficulties encountered in utilizing the helmet-mounted display, suggest an impairment in face processing on the part of the individuals in the experimental group. This is consistent with the hypothesis of disruption in the first months of life, a period that may be critical to typical social and cognitive development, and has important implications for selection of appropriate targets of intervention.

  1. Atypical face gaze in autism.

    PubMed

    Trepagnier, Cheryl; Sebrechts, Marc M; Peterson, Rebecca

    2002-06-01

    An eye-tracking study of face and object recognition was conducted to clarify the character of face gaze in autistic spectrum disorders. Experimental participants were a group of individuals diagnosed with Asperger's disorder or high-functioning autistic disorder according to their medical records and confirmed by the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). Controls were selected on the basis of age, gender, and educational level to be comparable to the experimental group. In order to maintain attentional focus, stereoscopic images were presented in a virtual reality (VR) headset in which the eye-tracking system was installed. Preliminary analyses show impairment in face recognition, in contrast with equivalent and even superior performance in object recognition among participants with autism-related diagnoses, relative to controls. Experimental participants displayed less fixation on the central face than did control-group participants. The findings, within the limitations of the small number of subjects and technical difficulties encountered in utilizing the helmet-mounted display, suggest an impairment in face processing on the part of the individuals in the experimental group. This is consistent with the hypothesis of disruption in the first months of life, a period that may be critical to typical social and cognitive development, and has important implications for selection of appropriate targets of intervention. PMID:12123243

  2. Face recognition for uncontrolled environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podilchuk, Christine; Hulbert, William; Flachsbart, Ralph; Barinov, Lev

    2010-04-01

    A new face recognition algorithm has been proposed which is robust to variations in pose, expression, illumination and occlusions such as sunglasses. The algorithm is motivated by the Edit Distance used to determine the similarity between strings of one dimensional data such as DNA and text. The key to this approach is how to extend the concept of an Edit Distance on one-dimensional data to two-dimensional image data. The algorithm is based on mapping one image into another and using the characteristics of the mapping to determine a two-dimensional Pictorial-Edit Distance or P-Edit Distance. We show how the properties of the mapping are similar to insertion, deletion and substitution errors defined in an Edit Distance. This algorithm is particularly well suited for face recognition in uncontrolled environments such as stand-off and other surveillance applications. We will describe an entire system designed for face recognition at a distance including face detection, pose estimation, multi-sample fusion of video frames and identification. Here we describe how the algorithm is used for face recognition at a distance, present some initial results and describe future research directions.(

  3. Empirical temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, A.; Cattuto, C.; Colizza, V.; Gesualdo, F.; Isella, L.; Pandolfi, E.; Pinton, J.-F.; Ravà, L.; Rizzo, C.; Romano, M.; Stehlé, J.; Tozzi, A. E.; Van den Broeck, W.

    2013-09-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented level of details and scale. Wearable sensors, in particular, open up a new window on human mobility and proximity in a variety of indoor environments. Here we review stylized facts on the structural and dynamical properties of empirical networks of human face-to-face proximity, measured in three different real-world contexts: an academic conference, a hospital ward, and a museum exhibition. First, we discuss the structure of the aggregated contact networks, that project out the detailed ordering of contact events while preserving temporal heterogeneities in their weights. We show that the structural properties of aggregated networks highlight important differences and unexpected similarities across contexts, and discuss the additional complexity that arises from attributes that are typically associated with nodes in real-world interaction networks, such as role classes in hospitals. We then consider the empirical data at the finest level of detail, i.e., we consider time-dependent networks of face-to-face proximity between individuals. To gain insights on the effects that causal constraints have on spreading processes, we simulate the dynamics of a simple susceptible-infected model over the empirical time-resolved contact data. We show that the spreading pathways for the epidemic process are strongly affected by the temporal structure of the network data, and that the mere knowledge of static aggregated networks leads to erroneous conclusions about the transmission paths on the corresponding dynamical networks.

  4. Incorporating Online Discussion in Face to Face Classroom Learning: A New Blended Learning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative blended learning strategy which incorporates online discussion in both in-class face to face, and off-classroom settings. Online discussion in a face to face class is compared with its two counterparts, off-class online discussion as well as in-class, face to face oral discussion, to examine the advantages and…

  5. A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Approaches to Teaching Introduction to American Government

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolsen, Toby; Evans, Michael; Fleming, Anna McCaghren

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a large study comparing four different approaches to teaching Introduction to American Government: (1) traditional, a paper textbook with 100% face-to-face lecture-style teaching; (2) breakout, a paper textbook with 50% face-to-face lecture-style teaching and 50% face-to-face small-group breakout discussion…

  6. Biological Sex Determines Whether Faces Look Real

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Judging whether a face is real or artificial can be done relatively rapidly and accurately, even when visual information is substantially impoverished. The perception of animacy in the face also has several interesting properties that may reflect both the underlying “tuning” of face space to preferentially represent real face appearance and the diagnosticity of individual features for categorizing faces as animate or inanimate. In the current study, we examined how sex categories interact with animacy perception by separately characterizing animacy judgments as a function of stimulus sex. We find that stimulus sex affects subjective ratings of animacy and sex categorization of real and artificial faces. Specifically, female faces look more artificial and artificial faces look more female. We discuss our results in terms of the ecology of real and artificial faces and the possible role of visual experience with artificial female faces, and the objectification of female faces. PMID:24244103

  7. Artificial faces are harder to remember

    PubMed Central

    Balas, Benjamin; Pacella, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Observers interact with artificial faces in a range of different settings and in many cases must remember and identify computer-generated faces. In general, however, most adults have heavily biased experience favoring real faces over synthetic faces. It is well known that face recognition abilities are affected by experience such that faces belonging to “out-groups” defined by race or age are more poorly remembered and harder to discriminate from one another than faces belonging to the “in-group.” Here, we examine the extent to which artificial faces form an “out-group” in this sense when other perceptual categories are matched. We rendered synthetic faces using photographs of real human faces and compared performance in a memory task and a discrimination task across real and artificial versions of the same faces. We found that real faces were easier to remember, but only slightly more discriminable than artificial faces. Artificial faces were also equally susceptible to the well-known face inversion effect, suggesting that while these patterns are still processed by the human visual system in a face-like manner, artificial appearance does compromise the efficiency of face processing. PMID:26195852

  8. The Ontogeny of Face Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Elliott M.; Camp, Carole Ann

    2004-01-01

    A paradigm was designed to study how infants identify live faces. Eight- to 21-week-old infants were seated comfortably and were presented an adult female, dressed in a white laboratory coat and a white turtle neck sweater, until habituation ensued. The adult then left the room. One minute later either she or an identically garbed confederate…

  9. The Two Faces of Micropolitics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyle, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Demystifies the two "faces" of micropolitics. "Policy micropolitics" distinguishes between micropolitics and management and focuses on the relationship between school micropolitics and the wider macropolitical context. "Management micropolitics" makes no clear micropolitics/management distinction and focuses on educators' strategies to pursue…

  10. Families Facing the Nuclear Taboo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Judith Bula

    1988-01-01

    Discusses attitudes of 12 families participating in group which was formed to focus on issues related to the possibility of a nuclear disaster. Why and how these families are facing the nuclear taboo plus various outcomes of doing so are discussed as well as the role of the professional in encouraging such openness about these difficult issues.…

  11. Putting a Face to Faith

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    U.S. schools are becoming increasingly religiously diverse, but students rarely learn about different religious beliefs and how those beliefs--or nonbelief--might shape people's responses to important issues. Face to Faith is a free program that uses videoconferencing to connect students with peers from around the world to discuss issues related…

  12. Mechanical Coal-Face Fracturer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Radial points on proposed drill bit take advantage of natural fracture planes of coal. Radial fracture points retracted during drilling and impacted by piston to fracture coal once drilling halts. Group of bits attached to array of pneumatic drivers to fracture large areas of coal face.

  13. Face liveness detection using defocus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooyeon; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR) technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures). To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH), are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER) at a given depth of field (DoF) and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones. PMID:25594594

  14. Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sooyeon; Ban, Yuseok; Lee, Sangyoun

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR) technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures). To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH), are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER) at a given depth of field (DoF) and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones. PMID:25594594

  15. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  16. The Many Faces of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werdmann, Anne M.

    In a sixth-grade unit, students learned about people's facial expressions through careful observation, recording, reporting, and generalizing. The students studied the faces of people of various ages; explored "masks" that people wear in different situations; learned about the use of ritual masks; made case studies of individuals to show facial…

  17. Put On a Happy Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratina, Tuiren A.

    1996-01-01

    This article on mathematics in the curriculum describes how students learn the characteristics of conic section equations by entering them into graphing calculators to make happy faces in a high school or college algebra class. A sample worksheet page is included. (Author/LRW)

  18. Face to Face : The Perception of Automotive Designs.

    PubMed

    Windhager, Sonja; Slice, Dennis E; Schaefer, Katrin; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Thorstensen, Truls; Grammer, Karl

    2008-12-01

    Over evolutionary time, humans have developed a selective sensitivity to features in the human face that convey information on sex, age, emotions, and intentions. This ability might not only be applied to our conspecifics nowadays, but also to other living objects (i.e., animals) and even to artificial structures, such as cars. To investigate this possibility, we asked people to report the characteristics, emotions, personality traits, and attitudes they attribute to car fronts, and we used geometric morphometrics (GM) and multivariate statistical methods to determine and visualize the corresponding shape information. Automotive features and proportions are found to covary with trait perception in a manner similar to that found with human faces. Emerging analogies are discussed. This study should have implications for both our understanding of our prehistoric psyche and its interrelation with the modern world.

  19. Race Categorization Modulates Holistic Face Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Caroline; Corneille, Olivier; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that same-race (SR) faces are processed more holistically than other-race (OR) faces, a difference that may underlie the greater difficulty at recognizing OR than SR faces (the "other-race effect"). This article provides original evidence suggesting that the holistic processing of faces may be sensitive to the observers'…

  20. Neandertal faces were not long; modern human faces are short

    PubMed Central

    Trinkaus, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Neandertal faces have been described as being derived with respect to their overall length or degree of anterior projection. A comparison of cranial and mandibular indicators of lower facial projection across archaic and modern Homo indicates that Neandertal facial lengths on average are similar to those of preceding archaic Homo and principally contrast with those of recent humans. Neandertal facial length is not derived. The shortness of recent human facial skeletons is the evolutionarily derived condition. PMID:12815095

  1. The Face-to-Face Light Detection Paradigm: A New Methodology for Investigating Visuospatial Attention Across Different Face Regions in Live Face-to-Face Communication Settings

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Laura A.; Malloy, Daniel M.; Cone, John M.; Hendrickson, David L.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker’s face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods. PMID:21113354

  2. Neural correlates of personally familiar faces: parents, partner and own faces.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Margot J; Arsalidou, Marie; Bayless, Sarah J; Morris, Drew; Evans, Jennifer W; Barbeau, Emmanuel J

    2009-07-01

    Investigations of the neural correlates of face recognition have typically used old/new paradigms where subjects learn to recognize new faces or identify famous faces. Familiar faces, however, include one's own face, partner's and parents' faces. Using event-related fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of these personally familiar faces. Ten participants were presented with photographs of own, partner, parents, famous and unfamiliar faces and responded to a distinct target. Whole brain, two regions of interest (fusiform gyrus and cingulate gyrus), and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Compared with baseline, all familiar faces activated the fusiform gyrus; own faces also activated occipital regions and the precuneus; partner faces activated similar areas, but in addition, the parahippocampal gyrus, middle superior temporal gyri and middle frontal gyrus. Compared with unfamiliar faces, only personally familiar faces activated the cingulate gyrus and the extent of activation varied with face category. Partner faces also activated the insula, amygdala and thalamus. Regions of interest analyses and laterality indices showed anatomical distinctions of processing the personally familiar faces within the fusiform and cingulate gyri. Famous faces were right lateralized whereas personally familiar faces, particularly partner and own faces, elicited bilateral activations. Regression analyses show experiential predictors modulated with neural activity related to own and partner faces. Thus, personally familiar faces activated the core visual areas and extended frontal regions, related to semantic and person knowledge and the extent and areas of activation varied with face type.

  3. Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ramon, Meike; Vizioli, Luca; Liu-Shuang, Joan; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Despite a wealth of information provided by neuroimaging research, the neural basis of familiar face recognition in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated the discriminative neural responses to unfamiliar and familiar faces by slowly increasing visual information (i.e., high-spatial frequencies) to progressively reveal faces of unfamiliar or personally familiar individuals. Activation in ventral occipitotemporal face-preferential regions increased with visual information, independently of long-term face familiarity. In contrast, medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and anterior inferior temporal cortex responded abruptly when sufficient information for familiar face recognition was accumulated. These observations suggest that following detailed analysis of individual faces in core posterior areas of the face-processing network, familiar face recognition emerges categorically in medial temporal and anterior regions of the extended cortical face network. PMID:26283361

  4. Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike; Vizioli, Luca; Liu-Shuang, Joan; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Despite a wealth of information provided by neuroimaging research, the neural basis of familiar face recognition in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated the discriminative neural responses to unfamiliar and familiar faces by slowly increasing visual information (i.e., high-spatial frequencies) to progressively reveal faces of unfamiliar or personally familiar individuals. Activation in ventral occipitotemporal face-preferential regions increased with visual information, independently of long-term face familiarity. In contrast, medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and anterior inferior temporal cortex responded abruptly when sufficient information for familiar face recognition was accumulated. These observations suggest that following detailed analysis of individual faces in core posterior areas of the face-processing network, familiar face recognition emerges categorically in medial temporal and anterior regions of the extended cortical face network. PMID:26283361

  5. Neural microgenesis of personally familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Meike; Vizioli, Luca; Liu-Shuang, Joan; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Despite a wealth of information provided by neuroimaging research, the neural basis of familiar face recognition in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we isolated the discriminative neural responses to unfamiliar and familiar faces by slowly increasing visual information (i.e., high-spatial frequencies) to progressively reveal faces of unfamiliar or personally familiar individuals. Activation in ventral occipitotemporal face-preferential regions increased with visual information, independently of long-term face familiarity. In contrast, medial temporal lobe structures (perirhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus) and anterior inferior temporal cortex responded abruptly when sufficient information for familiar face recognition was accumulated. These observations suggest that following detailed analysis of individual faces in core posterior areas of the face-processing network, familiar face recognition emerges categorically in medial temporal and anterior regions of the extended cortical face network.

  6. Lost in Translation: Adapting a Face-to-Face Course Into an Online Learning Experience.

    PubMed

    Kenzig, Melissa J

    2015-09-01

    Online education has grown dramatically over the past decade. Instructors who teach face-to-face courses are being called on to adapt their courses to the online environment. Many instructors do not have sufficient training to be able to effectively move courses to an online format. This commentary discusses the growth of online learning, common challenges faced by instructors adapting courses from face-to-face to online, and best practices for translating face-to-face courses into online learning opportunities.

  7. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  8. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  9. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N.; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing. PMID:27531986

  10. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing.

  11. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing. PMID:27531986

  12. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  13. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  14. Using color for face verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, Mariusz

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents research on importance of color information in face verification system. Four most popular color spaces where used: RGB, YIQ, YCbCr, luminance and compared using four types of discriminant classifiers. Experiments conducted on facial databases with complex background, different poses and light condition show that color information can improve the verification accuracy compared to the traditionally used luminance information. To achieve the best performance we recommend to use multi frames verification encoded to YIQ color space.

  15. The Philadelphia Face Perception Battery

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Amy; Lawler, Kathy; Olson, Ingrid R; Aguirre, Geoffrey K

    2008-01-01

    The Philadelphia Face Perception Battery (PFPB) tests four aspects of face perception: discrimination of facial similarity, attractiveness, gender, and age. Calibration with 116 neurologically intact subjects yielded average performance of ~90%. Across subjects, there was a low correlation (<0.22) in performance between the tests (with the exception of the attractiveness and age discrimination tests) suggesting that the tests measure independent aspects of face perception. There were modest effects of subject demographic factors upon performance, and test-retest reliability scores (between 0.37 and 0.75) were comparable to other neuropsychological batteries. Modification of the stimuli to obscure internal facial features lowered performance on the age, gender, and attractiveness discrimination tests between 2 and 4 standard deviations. The clinical sensitivity of the battery was demonstrated by testing a patient with acquired prosopagnosia. She showed performance impairments of between 2 and 4 standard deviations on all sub-tests. The PFPB is freely available for non-commercial use. PMID:18082362

  16. Crossing the “Uncanny Valley”: adaptation to cartoon faces can influence perception of human faces

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation can shift what individuals identify to be a prototypical or attractive face. Past work suggests that low-level shape adaptation can affect high-level face processing but is position dependent. Adaptation to distorted images of faces can also affect face processing but only within sub-categories of faces, such as gender, age, and race/ethnicity. This study assesses whether there is a representation of face that is specific to faces (as opposed to all shapes) but general to all kinds of faces (as opposed to subcategories) by testing whether adaptation to one type of face can affect perception of another. Participants were shown cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. Using animated videos allowed us to simulate naturalistic exposure and avoid positional shape adaptation. Results suggest that adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes shifts preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, supporting the existence of general face representations. PMID:20465173

  17. Online or Face to Face? A Comparison of Two Methods of Training Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Kristin; Dworkin, Jodi; Gengler, Colleen; Olson, Kathleen

    2008-01-01

    Online courses offer benefits over face-to-face courses such as accessibility, affordability, and flexibility. Literature assessing the effectiveness of face-to-face and online courses is growing, but findings remain inconclusive. This study compared evaluations completed by professionals who had taken a research update short course either face to…

  18. Familiar Face Recognition in Children with Autism: The Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Parts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Rebecca; Pascalis, Olivier; Blades, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have a deficit in recognising familiar faces. Children with ASD were given a forced choice familiar face recognition task with three conditions: full faces, inner face parts and outer face parts. Control groups were children with developmental delay (DD) and typically…

  19. Face feature processor on mobile service robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Ho Seok; Park, Myoung Soo; Na, Jin Hee; Choi, Jin Young

    2005-12-01

    In recent years, many mobile service robots have been developed. These robots are different from industrial robots. Service robots were confronted to unexpected changes in the human environment. So many capabilities were needed to service mobile robot, for example, the capability to recognize people's face and voice, the capability to understand people's conversation, and the capability to express the robot's thinking etc. This research considered face detection, face tracking and face recognition from continuous camera image. For face detection module, it used CBCH algorithm using openCV library from Intel Corporation. For face tracking module, it used the fuzzy controller to control the pan-tilt camera movement smoothly with face detection result. A PCA-FX, which adds class information to PCA, was used for face recognition module. These three procedures were called face feature processor, which were implemented on mobile service robot OMR to verify.

  20. Maternal face processing in Mosuo preschool children.

    PubMed

    Dai, Junqiang; Zhai, Hongchang; Wu, Haiyan; Yang, Suyong; Cacioppo, John T; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Luo, Yue-jia

    2014-05-01

    Instinctively responding to maternal face is an evolutionary function of enhancing survival and development. However, because of the confounding nature of familiarity, little is known concerning the neural mechanism involved in maternal face recognition. We had a rare opportunity to examine Mosuo preschool children who were raised in a matrilineal society in which mothers and aunts represent equally familiar faces to the children. The participants were exposed to photographs of their mother's face, aunt's face, and an unfamiliar female's faces during electroencephalography (EEG) recording. The EEG results showed that the mother's face elicited a more negative N1 component, a larger left N170 component, and a larger P300 component; both the mother's and aunt's faces elicited a larger right N170 component. These results suggest that the emotional attachment between mother and child has neural ramifications across three successive face processing stages that are distinguished from the neural effects of facial familiarity. PMID:24631724

  1. Efficient human face detection in infancy.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Umstead, Lindsey; Simpson, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Adults detect conspecific faces more efficiently than heterospecific faces; however, the development of this own-species bias (OSB) remains unexplored. We tested whether 6- and 11-month-olds exhibit OSB in their attention to human and animal faces in complex visual displays with high perceptual load (25 images competing for attention). Infants (n = 48) and adults (n = 43) passively viewed arrays containing a face among 24 non-face distractors while we measured their gaze with remote eye tracking. While OSB is typically not observed until about 9 months, we found that, already by 6 months, human faces were more likely to be detected, were detected more quickly (attention capture), and received longer looks (attention holding) than animal faces. These data suggest that 6-month-olds already exhibit OSB in face detection efficiency, consistent with perceptual attunement. This specialization may reflect the biological importance of detecting conspecific faces, a foundational ability for early social interactions.

  2. An example-based face relighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Hyunjung; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new face relighting algorithm powered by a large database of face images captured under various known lighting conditions (a Multi-PIE database). Key insight of our algorithm is that a face can be represented by an assemble of patches from many other faces. The algorithm finds the most similar face patches in the database in terms of the lighting and the appearance. By assembling the matched patches, we can visualize the input face under various lighting conditions. Unlike existing face relighting algorithms, we neither use any kinds of face model nor make a physical assumption. Instead, our algorithm is a data-driven approach, synthesizing the appearance of the image patch using the appearance of the example patch. Using a data-driven approach, we can account for various intrinsic facial features including the non-Lambertian skin properties as well as the hair. Also, our algorithm is insensitive to the face misalignment. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm by face relighting and face recognition experiments. Especially, the synthesized results show that the proposed algorithm can successfully handle various intrinsic features of an input face. Also, from the face recognition experiment, we show that our method is comparable to the most recent face relighting work.

  3. Familiar Face Detection in 180 ms.

    PubMed

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Gobbini, M Ida

    2015-01-01

    The visual system is tuned for rapid detection of faces, with the fastest choice saccade to a face at 100 ms. Familiar faces have a more robust representation than do unfamiliar faces, and are detected faster in the absence of awareness and with reduced attentional resources. Faces of family and close friends become familiar over a protracted period involving learning the unique visual appearance, including a view-invariant representation, as well as person knowledge. We investigated the effect of personal familiarity on the earliest stages of face processing by using a saccadic-choice task to measure how fast familiar face detection can happen. Subjects made correct and reliable saccades to familiar faces when unfamiliar faces were distractors at 180 ms--very rapid saccades that are 30 to 70 ms earlier than the earliest evoked potential modulated by familiarity. By contrast, accuracy of saccades to unfamiliar faces with familiar faces as distractors did not exceed chance. Saccades to faces with object distractors were even faster (110 to 120 ms) and equivalent for familiar and unfamiliar faces, indicating that familiarity does not affect ultra-rapid saccades. We propose that detectors of diagnostic facial features for familiar faces develop in visual cortices through learning and allow rapid detection that precedes explicit recognition of identity. PMID:26305788

  4. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  5. Face-to-face or not-to-face: A technology preference for communication.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-11-01

    This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication.

  6. Face-to-Face or Not-to-Face: A Technology Preference for Communication

    PubMed Central

    Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication. PMID:25405782

  7. Advanced Face Gear Surface Durability Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Heath, Gregory F.

    2016-01-01

    The surface durability life of helical face gears and isotropic super-finished (ISF) face gears was investigated. Experimental fatigue tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Endurance tests were performed on 10 sets of helical face gears in mesh with tapered involute helical pinions, and 10 sets of ISF-enhanced straight face gears in mesh with tapered involute spur pinions. The results were compared to previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly less than that of previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly greater than that of the helical configuration.

  8. Partial face recognition: alignment-free approach.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shengcai; Jain, Anil K; Li, Stan Z

    2013-05-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for holistic face recognition with impressive performance. However, few studies have tackled how to recognize an arbitrary patch of a face image. Partial faces frequently appear in unconstrained scenarios, with images captured by surveillance cameras or handheld devices (e.g., mobile phones) in particular. In this paper, we propose a general partial face recognition approach that does not require face alignment by eye coordinates or any other fiducial points. We develop an alignment-free face representation method based on Multi-Keypoint Descriptors (MKD), where the descriptor size of a face is determined by the actual content of the image. In this way, any probe face image, holistic or partial, can be sparsely represented by a large dictionary of gallery descriptors. A new keypoint descriptor called Gabor Ternary Pattern (GTP) is also developed for robust and discriminative face recognition. Experimental results are reported on four public domain face databases (FRGCv2.0, AR, LFW, and PubFig) under both the open-set identification and verification scenarios. Comparisons with two leading commercial face recognition SDKs (PittPatt and FaceVACS) and two baseline algorithms (PCA+LDA and LBP) show that the proposed method, overall, is superior in recognizing both holistic and partial faces without requiring alignment.

  9. Still another confounded face in the crowd.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Dean G; Stewart, Alan L

    2010-11-01

    Experiments using schematic faces developed by Öhman (Öhman, Lundqvist, & Esteves, 2001) seem to document an anger-superiority effect, although we have come to question these experiments. Our work shows that the low-level features of these schematic faces interact with the face's surround to produce effects that have been attributed to facial affect. Using relatively neutral faces that preserved the feature and surround spatial relationships of angry and happy schematic faces, we produced reaction times (RTs) that were indistinguishable from those found with angry and happy faces. We also found that the target face's position within the crowd determined the magnitude of the advantage for angry faces as well as for relatively affect-neutral faces. Removing the facial surround reduces the advantage for angry faces, largely by improving performance on happy faces. There was an apparent small advantage for angry features without a surround. Öhman faces avoid the problems associated with modified grayscale faces only to introduce an equally troubling confound.

  10. Partial face recognition: alignment-free approach.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shengcai; Jain, Anil K; Li, Stan Z

    2013-05-01

    Numerous methods have been developed for holistic face recognition with impressive performance. However, few studies have tackled how to recognize an arbitrary patch of a face image. Partial faces frequently appear in unconstrained scenarios, with images captured by surveillance cameras or handheld devices (e.g., mobile phones) in particular. In this paper, we propose a general partial face recognition approach that does not require face alignment by eye coordinates or any other fiducial points. We develop an alignment-free face representation method based on Multi-Keypoint Descriptors (MKD), where the descriptor size of a face is determined by the actual content of the image. In this way, any probe face image, holistic or partial, can be sparsely represented by a large dictionary of gallery descriptors. A new keypoint descriptor called Gabor Ternary Pattern (GTP) is also developed for robust and discriminative face recognition. Experimental results are reported on four public domain face databases (FRGCv2.0, AR, LFW, and PubFig) under both the open-set identification and verification scenarios. Comparisons with two leading commercial face recognition SDKs (PittPatt and FaceVACS) and two baseline algorithms (PCA+LDA and LBP) show that the proposed method, overall, is superior in recognizing both holistic and partial faces without requiring alignment. PMID:23520259

  11. Faciotopy-A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-11-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for "faciotopy", a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  12. Emotional expression and heart rate in high-risk infants during the face-to-face/still-face.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Whitney I; Ekas, Naomi V; Lambert, Brittany; Tronick, Ed; Lester, Barry M; Messinger, Daniel S

    2013-12-01

    In infants, eye constriction-the Duchenne marker-and mouth opening appear to index the intensity of both positive and negative facial expressions. We combined eye constriction and mouth opening that co-occurred with smiles and cry-faces (respectively, the prototypic expressions of infant joy and distress) to measure emotional expression intensity. Expression intensity and heart rate were measured throughout the face-to-face/still-face (FFSF) in a sample of infants with prenatal cocaine exposure who were at risk for developmental difficulties. Smiles declined and cry-faces increased in the still-face episode, but the distribution of eye constriction and mouth opening in smiles and cry-faces did not differ across episodes of the FFSF. As time elapsed in the still face episode potential indices of intensity increased, cry-faces were more likely to be accompanied by eye constriction and mouth opening. During cry-faces there were also moderately stable individual differences in the quantity of eye constriction and mouth opening. Infant heart rate was higher during cry-faces and lower during smiles, but did not vary with intensity of expression or by episode. In sum, infants express more intense negative affect as the still-face progresses, but do not show clear differences in expressive intensity between episodes of the FFSF.

  13. JAMES RIVER FACE WILDERNESS, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C. Ervin; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey concluded that the James River Face Wilderness, Virginia, had little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Two major rock units in the area do contain large nonmetallic mineral resources of quartzite and shale that have been mined for silica products and for brick and expanded aggregate, respectively. Because large deposits of the same material are more easily available in nearby areas, demand for the deposits within the wilderness is highly unlikely. No energy resources were identified in the course of this study.

  14. Face recognition based on fringe pattern analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong; Huang, Peisen

    2010-03-01

    Two-dimensional face-recognition techniques suffer from facial texture and illumination variations. Although 3-D techniques can overcome these limitations, the reconstruction and storage expenses of 3-D information are extremely high. We present a novel face-recognition method that directly utilizes 3-D information encoded in face fringe patterns without having to reconstruct 3-D geometry. In the proposed method, a digital video projector is employed to sequentially project three phase-shifted sinusoidal fringe patterns onto the subject's face. Meanwhile, a camera is used to capture the distorted fringe patterns from an offset angle. Afterward, the face fringe images are analyzed by the phase-shifting method and the Fourier transform method to obtain a spectral representation of the 3-D face. Finally, the eigenface algorithm is applied to the face-spectrum images to perform face recognition. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieved satisfactory recognition rates with reduced computational complexity and storage expenses.

  15. Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know Past Issues / Fall ... your loved ones. Photos: AP The Faces of Diabetes Diabetes strikes millions of Americans, young and old, ...

  16. Hospital design and face-to-face interaction among clinicians: a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mahbub

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of literature suggests that face-to-face interaction among clinicians in hospitals affects patient outcomes. How can face-to-face interaction among clinicians be influenced positively to improve patient outcomes in hospitals? So far, most strategies for improving face-to-face interaction in hospitals have focused on changing organizational culture. In contrast, this paper proposes a theoretical model that shows how spatial program and structure can help face-to-face interaction fulfill its purposes in hospitals by controlling the interfaces among different communities of clinicians. PMID:21165842

  17. Misaligned and Polarity-Reversed Faces Determine Face-specific Capacity Limits

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Volker; Ward, Neil; de Fockert, Jan W.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research using flanker paradigms suggests that peripheral distracter faces are automatically processed when participants have to classify a single central familiar target face. These distracter interference effects disappear when the central task contains additional anonymous (non-target) faces that load the search for the face target, but not when the central task contains additional non-face stimuli, suggesting there are face-specific capacity limits in visual processing. Here we tested whether manipulating the format of non-target faces in the search task affected face-specific capacity limits. Experiment 1 replicated earlier findings that a distracter face is processed even in high load conditions when participants looked for a target name of a famous person among additional names (non-targets) in a central search array. Two further experiments show that when targets and non-targets were faces (instead of names), however, distracter interference was eliminated under high load—adding non-target faces to the search array exhausted processing capacity for peripheral faces. The novel finding was that replacing non-target faces with images that consisted of two horizontally misaligned face-parts reduced distracter processing. Similar results were found when the polarity of a non-target face image was reversed. These results indicate that face-specific capacity limits are not determined by the configural properties of face processing, but by face parts. PMID:27729889

  18. Face Recognition Incorporating Ancillary Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang-Ki; Toh, Kar-Ann; Lee, Sangyoun

    2007-12-01

    Due to vast variations of extrinsic and intrinsic imaging conditions, face recognition remained to be a challenging computer vision problem even today. This is particularly true when the passive imaging approach is considered for robust applications. To advance existing recognition systems for face, numerous techniques and methods have been proposed to overcome the almost inevitable performance degradation due to external factors such as pose, expression, occlusion, and illumination. In particular, the recent part-based method has provided noticeable room for verification performance improvement based on the localized features which have good tolerance to variation of external conditions. The part-based method, however, does not really stretch the performance without incorporation of global information from the holistic method. In view of the need to fuse the local information and the global information in an adaptive manner for reliable recognition, in this paper we investigate whether such external factors can be explicitly estimated and be used to boost the verification performance during fusion of the holistic and part-based methods. Our empirical evaluations show noticeable performance improvement adopting the proposed method.

  19. A decade of letrozole: FACE.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Third-generation nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs), letrozole and anastrozole, are superior to tamoxifen as initial therapy for early breast cancer but have not been directly compared in a head-to-head adjuvant trial. Cumulative evidence suggests that AIs are not equivalent in terms of potency of estrogen suppression and that there may be differences in clinical efficacy. Thus, with no data from head-to-head comparisons of the AIs as adjuvant therapy yet available, the question of whether there are efficacy differences between the AIs remains. To help answer this question, the Femara versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation (FACE) is a phase IIIb open-label, randomized, multicenter trial designed to test whether letrozole or anastrozole has superior efficacy as adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with hormone receptor (HR)- and lymph node-positive breast cancer. Eligible patients (target accrual, N=4,000) are randomized to receive either letrozole 2.5 mg or anastrozole 1 mg daily for up to 5 years. The primary objective is to compare disease-free survival at 5 years. Secondary end points include safety, overall survival, time to distant metastases, and time to contralateral breast cancer. The FACE trial will determine whether or not letrozole offers a greater clinical benefit to postmenopausal women with HR+ early breast cancer at increased risk of early recurrence compared with anastrozole. PMID:17912637

  20. Recognition of Unfamiliar Talking Faces at Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulon, Marion; Guellai, Bahia; Streri, Arlette

    2011-01-01

    Sai (2005) investigated the role of speech in newborns' recognition of their mothers' faces. Her results revealed that, when presented with both their mother's face and that of a stranger, newborns preferred looking at their mother only if she had previously talked to them. The present study attempted to extend these findings to any other faces.…

  1. [Neural Mechanisms Underlying the Face Inversion Effect].

    PubMed

    Sugase-Miyamoto, Yasuko; Matsumoto, Narihisa; Kawano, Kenji

    2015-10-01

    The ability to recognize faces is reduced with a picture-plane inversion of the faces, known as the face inversion effect. It has been reported that the configuration of facial features, for example, the distance between the eyes and mouth, becomes less perceptible when the face is inverted. In macaque monkeys, designated cortical areas, i.e., face patches, where face images are processed, have been found in the temporal visual cortex along the ventral visual pathway. Neurons in the anterior face patch (anterior part of the inferior temporal cortex) are known to encode view-invariant identity information. Thus, the anterior face patch is believed to be the final processing stage in the face patch system. A recent study showed that the face-inversion decreases the amount of the information about facial identity and facial expression conveyed by neurons, though it did not affect the information about the global category of the stimulus images (monkey versus human versus shape). The anterior face patch may, therefore, serve as the neural basis underlying the face inversion effect. PMID:26450075

  2. Perception and recognition of faces in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrmann, D.; Knoll, L. J.; Sakhardande, A. L.; Speekenbrink, M.; Kadosh, K. C.; Blakemore, S. -J.

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the development of face cognition abilities have focussed on childhood, with early maturation accounts contending that face cognition abilities are mature by 3–5 years. Late maturation accounts, in contrast, propose that some aspects of face cognition are not mature until at least 10 years. Here, we measured face memory and face perception, two core face cognition abilities, in 661 participants (397 females) in four age groups (younger adolescents (11.27–13.38 years); mid-adolescents (13.39–15.89 years); older adolescents (15.90–18.00 years); and adults (18.01–33.15 years)) while controlling for differences in general cognitive ability. We showed that both face cognition abilities mature relatively late, at around 16 years, with a female advantage in face memory, but not in face perception, both in adolescence and adulthood. Late maturation in the face perception task was driven mainly by protracted development in identity perception, while gaze perception abilities were already comparatively mature in early adolescence. These improvements in the ability to memorize, recognize and perceive faces during adolescence may be related to increasing exploratory behaviour and exposure to novel faces during this period of life. PMID:27647477

  3. Stimulus Selectivity of Figural Aftereffects for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamashita, Jill A.; Hardy, Joseph L.; De Valois, Karen K.; Webster, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Viewing a distorted face induces large aftereffects in the appearance of an undistorted face. The authors examined the processes underlying this adaptation by comparing how selective the aftereffects are for different dimensions of the images including size, spatial frequency content, contrast, and color. Face aftereffects had weaker selectivity…

  4. Infants Experience Perceptual Narrowing for Nonprimate Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Varga, Krisztina; Frick, Janet E.; Fragaszy, Dorothy

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing--a phenomenon in which perception is broad from birth, but narrows as a function of experience--has previously been tested with primate faces. In the first 6 months of life, infants can discriminate among individual human and monkey faces. Though the ability to discriminate monkey faces is lost after about 9 months, infants…

  5. Psychophysical Thresholds of Face Visibility during Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelskov, Sofie V.; Kouider, Sid

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect and focus on faces is a fundamental prerequisite for developing social skills. But how well can infants detect faces? Here, we address this question by studying the minimum duration at which faces must appear to trigger a behavioral response in infants. We used a preferential looking method in conjunction with masking and…

  6. Perception and recognition of faces in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, D; Knoll, L J; Sakhardande, A L; Speekenbrink, M; Kadosh, K C; Blakemore, S-J

    2016-01-01

    Most studies on the development of face cognition abilities have focussed on childhood, with early maturation accounts contending that face cognition abilities are mature by 3-5 years. Late maturation accounts, in contrast, propose that some aspects of face cognition are not mature until at least 10 years. Here, we measured face memory and face perception, two core face cognition abilities, in 661 participants (397 females) in four age groups (younger adolescents (11.27-13.38 years); mid-adolescents (13.39-15.89 years); older adolescents (15.90-18.00 years); and adults (18.01-33.15 years)) while controlling for differences in general cognitive ability. We showed that both face cognition abilities mature relatively late, at around 16 years, with a female advantage in face memory, but not in face perception, both in adolescence and adulthood. Late maturation in the face perception task was driven mainly by protracted development in identity perception, while gaze perception abilities were already comparatively mature in early adolescence. These improvements in the ability to memorize, recognize and perceive faces during adolescence may be related to increasing exploratory behaviour and exposure to novel faces during this period of life. PMID:27647477

  7. Visual Search for Faces with Emotional Expressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischen, Alexandra; Eastwood, John D.; Smilek, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this review is to critically examine contradictory findings in the study of visual search for emotionally expressive faces. Several key issues are addressed: Can emotional faces be processed preattentively and guide attention? What properties of these faces influence search efficiency? Is search moderated by the emotional state of the…

  8. Visual search efficiency is greater for human faces compared to animal faces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Husband, Haley L; Yee, Krysten; Fullerton, Alison; Jakobsen, Krisztina V

    2014-01-01

    The Animate Monitoring Hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similar searches, or whether human faces are privileged. In the first three experiments, participants located a target (human, primate, or mammal face) among distractors (non-face objects). We found fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than fixations on primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity. A final experiment revealed that, even when task-irrelevant, human faces slowed searches for non-faces, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage.

  9. From Parts to Identity: Invariance and Sensitivity of Face Representations to Different Face Halves.

    PubMed

    Anzellotti, Stefano; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Recognizing the identity of a face is computationally challenging, because it requires distinguishing between similar images depicting different people, while recognizing even very different images depicting a same person. Previous human fMRI studies investigated representations of face identity in the presence of changes in viewpoint and in expression. Despite the importance of holistic processing for face recognition, an investigation of representations of face identity across different face parts is missing. To fill this gap, we investigated representations of face identity and their invariance across different face halves. Information about face identity with invariance across changes in the face half was individuated in the right anterior temporal lobe, indicating this region as the most plausible candidate brain area for the representation of face identity. In a complementary analysis, information distinguishing between different face halves was found to decline along the posterior to anterior axis in the ventral stream. PMID:25628344

  10. Not just another face in the crowd: detecting emotional schematic faces during continuous flash suppression.

    PubMed

    Stein, Timo; Sterzer, Philipp

    2012-10-01

    To test whether threatening visual information receives prioritized processing, many studies have examined visual search for emotional schematic faces. Still, it has remained unclear whether negative or positive schematic faces are processed more efficiently. We used continuous flash suppression, a variant of binocular rivalry, to render single emotional schematic faces invisible and measured whether negative or positive faces have an advantage in accessing awareness. Across three experiments, positive faces were detected more quickly than negative faces. A fourth experiment indicated that this positive face advantage was unrelated to the valence of the face stimuli but due to the relative orientation of the mouth curvature and the face contour. These findings demonstrate the impact of configural stimulus properties on perceptual suppression during binocular rivalry and point to a perceptual confound present in emotional schematic faces that might account for some ambiguous results obtained with schematic face stimuli in previous studies.

  11. Visual Search Efficiency is Greater for Human Faces Compared to Animal Faces

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Mertins, Haley L.; Yee, Krysten; Fullerton, Alison; Jakobsen, Krisztina V.

    2015-01-01

    The Animate Monitoring Hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similarly efficient searches, or whether human faces are privileged. In the first three experiments, participants located a target (human, primate, or mammal face) among distractors (non-face objects). We found fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity. A final experiment revealed that, even when task-irrelevant, human faces slowed searches for non-faces, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage. PMID:24962122

  12. From Parts to Identity: Invariance and Sensitivity of Face Representations to Different Face Halves.

    PubMed

    Anzellotti, Stefano; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2016-05-01

    Recognizing the identity of a face is computationally challenging, because it requires distinguishing between similar images depicting different people, while recognizing even very different images depicting a same person. Previous human fMRI studies investigated representations of face identity in the presence of changes in viewpoint and in expression. Despite the importance of holistic processing for face recognition, an investigation of representations of face identity across different face parts is missing. To fill this gap, we investigated representations of face identity and their invariance across different face halves. Information about face identity with invariance across changes in the face half was individuated in the right anterior temporal lobe, indicating this region as the most plausible candidate brain area for the representation of face identity. In a complementary analysis, information distinguishing between different face halves was found to decline along the posterior to anterior axis in the ventral stream.

  13. Visual search efficiency is greater for human faces compared to animal faces.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Husband, Haley L; Yee, Krysten; Fullerton, Alison; Jakobsen, Krisztina V

    2014-01-01

    The Animate Monitoring Hypothesis proposes that humans and animals were the most important categories of visual stimuli for ancestral humans to monitor, as they presented important challenges and opportunities for survival and reproduction; however, it remains unknown whether animal faces are located as efficiently as human faces. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether human, primate, and mammal faces elicit similar searches, or whether human faces are privileged. In the first three experiments, participants located a target (human, primate, or mammal face) among distractors (non-face objects). We found fixations on human faces were faster and more accurate than fixations on primate faces, even when controlling for search category specificity. A final experiment revealed that, even when task-irrelevant, human faces slowed searches for non-faces, suggesting some bottom-up processing may be responsible for the human face search efficiency advantage. PMID:24962122

  14. The shape of the face template: geometric distortions of faces and their detection in natural scenes.

    PubMed

    Pongakkasira, Kaewmart; Bindemann, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Human face detection might be driven by skin-coloured face-shaped templates. To explore this idea, this study compared the detection of faces for which the natural height-to-width ratios were preserved with distorted faces that were stretched vertically or horizontally. The impact of stretching on detection performance was not obvious when faces were equated to their unstretched counterparts in terms of their height or width dimension (Experiment 1). However, stretching impaired detection when the original and distorted faces were matched for their surface area (Experiment 2), and this was found with both vertically and horizontally stretched faces (Experiment 3). This effect was evident in accuracy, response times, and also observers' eye movements to faces. These findings demonstrate that height-to-width ratios are an important component of the cognitive template for face detection. The results also highlight important differences between face detection and face recognition.

  15. What’s in a Face? How Face Gender and Current Affect Influence Perceived Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Daniel A.; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Ciaramitaro, Vivian M.

    2016-01-01

    Faces drive our social interactions. A vast literature suggests an interaction between gender and emotional face perception, with studies using different methodologies demonstrating that the gender of a face can affect how emotions are processed. However, how different is our perception of affective male and female faces? Furthermore, how does our current affective state when viewing faces influence our perceptual biases? We presented participants with a series of faces morphed along an emotional continuum from happy to angry. Participants judged each face morph as either happy or angry. We determined each participant’s unique emotional ‘neutral’ point, defined as the face morph judged to be perceived equally happy and angry, separately for male and female faces. We also assessed how current state affect influenced these perceptual neutral points. Our results indicate that, for both male and female participants, the emotional neutral point for male faces is perceptually biased to be happier than for female faces. This bias suggests that more happiness is required to perceive a male face as emotionally neutral, i.e., we are biased to perceive a male face as more negative. Interestingly, we also find that perceptual biases in perceiving female faces are correlated with current mood, such that positive state affect correlates with perceiving female faces as happier, while we find no significant correlation between negative state affect and the perception of facial emotion. Furthermore, we find reaction time biases, with slower responses for angry male faces compared to angry female faces. PMID:27733839

  16. Symmetry, probability, and recognition in face space.

    PubMed

    Sirovich, Lawrence; Meytlis, Marsha

    2009-04-28

    The essential midline symmetry of human faces is shown to play a key role in facial coding and recognition. This also has deep and important connections with recent explorations of the organization of primate cortex, as well as human psychophysical experiments. Evidence is presented that the dimension of face recognition space for human faces is dramatically lower than previous estimates. One result of the present development is the construction of a probability distribution in face space that produces an interesting and realistic range of (synthetic) faces. Another is a recognition algorithm that by reasonable criteria is nearly 100% accurate.

  17. Very low resolution face recognition problem.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wilman W W; Yuen, Pong C

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the very low resolution (VLR) problem in face recognition in which the resolution of the face image to be recognized is lower than 16 × 16. With the increasing demand of surveillance camera-based applications, the VLR problem happens in many face application systems. Existing face recognition algorithms are not able to give satisfactory performance on the VLR face image. While face super-resolution (SR) methods can be employed to enhance the resolution of the images, the existing learning-based face SR methods do not perform well on such a VLR face image. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a novel approach to learn the relationship between the high-resolution image space and the VLR image space for face SR. Based on this new approach, two constraints, namely, new data and discriminative constraints, are designed for good visuality and face recognition applications under the VLR problem, respectively. Experimental results show that the proposed SR algorithm based on relationship learning outperforms the existing algorithms in public face databases. PMID:21775262

  18. The hierarchical brain network for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia

    2013-01-01

    Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.

  19. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Sean G.; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.

    2008-01-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response—as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic—strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension. PMID:19015102

  20. Evaluating face trustworthiness: a model based approach.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Baron, Sean G; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N

    2008-06-01

    Judgments of trustworthiness from faces determine basic approach/avoidance responses and approximate the valence evaluation of faces that runs across multiple person judgments. Here, based on trustworthiness judgments and using a computer model for face representation, we built a model for representing face trustworthiness (study 1). Using this model, we generated novel faces with an increased range of trustworthiness and used these faces as stimuli in a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study (study 2). Although participants did not engage in explicit evaluation of the faces, the amygdala response changed as a function of face trustworthiness. An area in the right amygdala showed a negative linear response-as the untrustworthiness of faces increased so did the amygdala response. Areas in the left and right putamen, the latter area extended into the anterior insula, showed a similar negative linear response. The response in the left amygdala was quadratic--strongest for faces on both extremes of the trustworthiness dimension. The medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus also showed a quadratic response, but their response was strongest to faces in the middle range of the trustworthiness dimension. PMID:19015102

  1. Extraversion predicts individual differences in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingguang; Tian, Moqian; Fang, Huizhen; Xu, Miao; Li, He; Liu, Jia

    2010-07-01

    In daily life, one of the most common social tasks we perform is to recognize faces. However, the relation between face recognition ability and social activities is largely unknown. Here we ask whether individuals with better social skills are also better at recognizing faces. We found that extraverts who have better social skills correctly recognized more faces than introverts. However, this advantage was absent when extraverts were asked to recognize non-social stimuli (e.g., flowers). In particular, the underlying facet that makes extraverts better face recognizers is the gregariousness facet that measures the degree of inter-personal interaction. In addition, the link between extraversion and face recognition ability was independent of general cognitive abilities. These findings provide the first evidence that links face recognition ability to our daily activity in social communication, supporting the hypothesis that extraverts are better at decoding social information than introverts.

  2. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms.

  3. The activation of visual face memory and explicit face recognition are delayed in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Parketny, Joanna; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with developmental prosopagnosia (DP) are strongly impaired in recognizing faces, but the causes of this deficit are not well understood. We employed event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to study the time-course of neural processes involved in the recognition of previously unfamiliar faces in DPs and in age-matched control participants with normal face recognition abilities. Faces of different individuals were presented sequentially in one of three possible views, and participants had to detect a specific Target Face ("Joe"). EEG was recorded during task performance to Target Faces, Nontarget Faces, or the participants' Own Face (which had to be ignored). The N250 component was measured as a marker of the match between a seen face and a stored representation in visual face memory. The subsequent P600f was measured as an index of attentional processes associated with the conscious awareness and recognition of a particular face. Target Faces elicited reliable N250 and P600f in the DP group, but both of these components emerged later in DPs than in control participants. This shows that the activation of visual face memory for previously unknown learned faces and the subsequent attentional processing and conscious recognition of these faces are delayed in DP. N250 and P600f components to Own Faces did not differ between the two groups, indicating that the processing of long-term familiar faces is less affected in DP. However, P600f components to Own Faces were absent in two participants with DP who failed to recognize their Own Face during the experiment. These results provide new evidence that face recognition deficits in DP may be linked to a delayed activation of visual face memory and explicit identity recognition mechanisms. PMID:26169316

  4. Divided by a Common Degree Program? Profiling Online and Face-to-Face Information Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study examines profiles of online and face-to-face students in a single information science school: the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee School of Information Studies. A questionnaire was administered to 76 students enrolled in online course sections and 72 students enrolled in face-to-face course sections. The questionnaire examined student…

  5. The Impact of Face-to-Face Orientation on Online Retention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Radwan; Leeds, Elke M.

    2009-01-01

    Student retention in online education is a concern for students, faculty and administration. Retention rates are 20% lower in online courses than in traditional face-to-face courses. As part of an integration and engagement strategy, a face-to-face orientation was added to an online undergraduate business information systems course to examine its…

  6. Faces forming traces: neurophysiological correlates of learning naturally distinctive and caricatured faces.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Claudia; Kaufmann, Jürgen M; Kurt, Alexander; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2012-10-15

    Distinctive faces are easier to learn and recognise than typical faces. We investigated effects of natural vs. artificial distinctiveness on performance and neural correlates of face learning. Spatial caricatures of initially non-distinctive faces were created such that their rated distinctiveness matched a set of naturally distinctive faces. During learning, we presented naturally distinctive, caricatured, and non-distinctive faces for later recognition among novel faces, using different images of the same identities at learning and test. For learned faces, an advantage in performance was observed for naturally distinctive and caricatured over non-distinctive faces, with larger benefits for naturally distinctive faces. Distinctive and caricatured faces elicited more negative occipitotemporal ERPs (P200, N250) and larger centroparietal positivity (LPC) during learning. At test, earliest distinctiveness effects were again seen in the P200. In line with recent research, N250 and LPC were larger for learned than for novel faces overall. Importantly, whereas left hemispheric N250 was increased for learned naturally distinctive faces, right hemispheric N250 responded particularly to caricatured novel faces. We conclude that natural distinctiveness induces benefits to face recognition beyond those induced by exaggeration of a face's idiosyncratic shape, and that the left hemisphere in particular may mediate recognition across different images.

  7. Faces Are "Spatial"--Holistic Face Perception Is Supported by Low Spatial Frequencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goffaux, Valerie; Rossion, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Faces are perceived holistically, a phenomenon best illustrated when the processing of a face feature is affected by the other features. Here, the authors tested the hypothesis that the holistic perception of a face mainly relies on its low spatial frequencies. Holistic face perception was tested in two classical paradigms: the whole-part…

  8. Highlights from a Literature Review Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2009 and March 2011, Talk To Your Baby has been engaged in a research project, under the title of Face to Face, to identify key messages for parents and carers in relation to communicating with babies and young children, and has examined the most effective ways to promote these messages to parents and carers. The Face to Face project…

  9. Can Face-to-Face Mobilization Boost Student Voter Turnout? Results of a Campus Field Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, David; Lachelier, Paul

    2014-01-01

    American colleges and universities have an expanding role to play in nurturing political engagement as more youth attend college. Given low voter turnout among college students yet growing experimental evidence that face-to-face mobilization can boost turnout, the experiment reported in this article examined the impact of a face-to-face college…

  10. Teacher and Student Behaviors in Face-to-Face and Online Courses: Dealing with Complex Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cragg, C. E.; Dunning, Jean; Ellis, Jaqueline

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the quality and quantity of teacher and student interaction in an on-line versus face-to-face learning environment. A Master's level course on nursing theories was taught by the same professor by both methods. Transcripts of the face-to-face class and on-line postings were analyzed to identify…

  11. Why Use the Online Environment with Face-to-Face Students? Insights from Early Adopters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunker, Alison; Vardi, Iris

    This study illustrates the convergence of two teaching and learning media, face-to-face and online, as reflective lecturers seek to address the limitations of a single medium. Innovative university lecturers at a large Western Australia university were interviewed about their use of online environments with face-to-face students. The interview…

  12. The complex duration perception of emotional faces: effects of face direction

    PubMed Central

    Kliegl, Katrin M.; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Dürr, Lea; Traue, Harald C.; Huckauf, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009) reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented toward the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry, and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance, and an evolutionary context. PMID:25852589

  13. The Challenges of Interfacing between Face-To-Face and Online Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabbagh, Nada H.

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the development and use of Web-based instruction in higher education focuses on issues of course content; technological assumptions; logistical and implementation challenges; interfacing between face-to-face and online learning environments; and the use of a Web-based course management tool to support face-to-face instruction. (LRW)

  14. Moodle: A Way for Blending VLE and Face-to-Face Instruction in the ELT Context?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilin, Gulden

    2013-01-01

    This classroom research explores the probable consequences of a blended Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYLs) course comprised of Moodle applications and face to face instruction in the English Language Teaching (ELT) context. Contrary to previous face to face only procedure, the course was divided into two segments: traditional classroom…

  15. On the facilitative effects of face motion on face recognition and its development

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Naiqi G.; Perrotta, Steve; Quinn, Paul C.; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Yu-Hao P.; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    For the past century, researchers have extensively studied human face processing and its development. These studies have advanced our understanding of not only face processing, but also visual processing in general. However, most of what we know about face processing was investigated using static face images as stimuli. Therefore, an important question arises: to what extent does our understanding of static face processing generalize to face processing in real-life contexts in which faces are mostly moving? The present article addresses this question by examining recent studies on moving face processing to uncover the influence of facial movements on face processing and its development. First, we describe evidence on the facilitative effects of facial movements on face recognition and two related theoretical hypotheses: the supplementary information hypothesis and the representation enhancement hypothesis. We then highlight several recent studies suggesting that facial movements optimize face processing by activating specific face processing strategies that accommodate to task requirements. Lastly, we review the influence of facial movements on the development of face processing in the first year of life. We focus on infants' sensitivity to facial movements and explore the facilitative effects of facial movements on infants' face recognition performance. We conclude by outlining several future directions to investigate moving face processing and emphasize the importance of including dynamic aspects of facial information to further understand face processing in real-life contexts. PMID:25009517

  16. Web-Based vs. Face-to-Face MBA Classes: A Comparative Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Barry; Brownstein, Deborah; Gerlowski, Daniel A.

    2008-01-01

    The challenges of online learning include ensuring that the learning outcomes are at least as robust as in the face-to-face sections of the same course. At the University of Baltimore, both online sections and face-to-face sections of core MBA courses are offered. Once admitted to the MBA, students are free to enroll in any combination of…

  17. One Professor's Face-to-Face Teaching Strategies while Becoming an Online Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugar, William; Martindale, Trey; Crawley, Frank E.

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing number of online courses within many higher education institutions, experienced instructors are facing the possibility of teaching online. These faculty members may face the task of converting their well-established face-to-face teaching strategies into an online environment. To better understand this transition, we analyzed…

  18. Face Aftereffects Indicate Dissociable, but Not Distinct, Coding of Male and Female Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaquet, Emma; Rhodes, Gillian

    2008-01-01

    It has been claimed that exposure to distorted faces of one sex induces perceptual aftereffects for test faces that are of the same sex, but not for test faces of the other sex (A. C. Little, L. M. DeBruine, & B. C. Jones, 2005). This result suggests that male and female faces have separate neural coding. Given the high degree of visual similarity…

  19. Comparing the Roles of Representations in Face-to-Face and Online Computer Supported Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suthers, Daniel D.; Hundhausen, Christopher D.; Girardeau, Laura E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical study comparing the role of discourse and knowledge representations (graphical evidence mapping) in face-to-face versus synchronous online collaborative learning. Prior work in face-to-face collaborative learning situations has shown that the features of representational notations can influence the focus of…

  20. On the facilitative effects of face motion on face recognition and its development.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Naiqi G; Perrotta, Steve; Quinn, Paul C; Wang, Zhe; Sun, Yu-Hao P; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    For the past century, researchers have extensively studied human face processing and its development. These studies have advanced our understanding of not only face processing, but also visual processing in general. However, most of what we know about face processing was investigated using static face images as stimuli. Therefore, an important question arises: to what extent does our understanding of static face processing generalize to face processing in real-life contexts in which faces are mostly moving? The present article addresses this question by examining recent studies on moving face processing to uncover the influence of facial movements on face processing and its development. First, we describe evidence on the facilitative effects of facial movements on face recognition and two related theoretical hypotheses: the supplementary information hypothesis and the representation enhancement hypothesis. We then highlight several recent studies suggesting that facial movements optimize face processing by activating specific face processing strategies that accommodate to task requirements. Lastly, we review the influence of facial movements on the development of face processing in the first year of life. We focus on infants' sensitivity to facial movements and explore the facilitative effects of facial movements on infants' face recognition performance. We conclude by outlining several future directions to investigate moving face processing and emphasize the importance of including dynamic aspects of facial information to further understand face processing in real-life contexts. PMID:25009517

  1. Trial-level information for individual faces in the fusiform face area depends on subsequent memory.

    PubMed

    Hasinski, Adam E; Sederberg, Per B

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that face-sensitive brain regions, such as the fusiform face area (FFA) and anterior inferior temporal lobe (aIT), not only respond selectively to face stimuli, but also respond uniquely to individual faces. A common factor in the existing literature is that face stimuli in these experiments are highly familiar to participants, usually by design. We set out to investigate to what extent familiarity correlates with the emergence of face-specific information in face-sensitive regions by testing novel faces with only a single repetition. Our results, consistent with a familiarity hypothesis, demonstrate that the FFA and aIT show face-specific information only when participants demonstrate subsequent memory for those faces. Functionally-defined regions that are not believed to process faces holistically showed no face-specific information, regardless of subsequent memory. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of face-specific information in face-sensitive regions for stimuli that were not highly familiar. These results contribute to our understanding of how individuating information comes to be represented in face-sensitive regions and suggest that this process can take place even after a single repetition of a particular face.

  2. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  3. Facebook and MySpace: complement or substitute for face-to-face interaction?

    PubMed

    Kujath, Carlyne L

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have claimed that social-networking sites are used as a substitute for face-to-face interaction, resulting in deteriorating relationship quality and decreased intimacy among its users. The present study hypothesized that this type of communication is not a substitute for face-to-face interaction; rather, that it is an extension of communication with face-to-face partners. A survey was administered to examine the use of Facebook and MySpace in this regard among 183 college students. The study confirmed that Facebook and MySpace do act as an extension of face-to-face interaction, but that some users do tend to rely on Facebook and MySpace for interpersonal communication more than face-to-face interaction. PMID:21329446

  4. Early (N170) activation of face-specific cortex by face-like objects

    PubMed Central

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P.

    2009-01-01

    The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of ‘real’ faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at about 170ms after stimulus onset; but what happens when non-face objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar to that evoked by faces, whereas common objects did not evoke such activation. An earlier peak at 130 ms was also seen for images of real faces only. Our findings suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a relatively early process, and not a late re-interpretation cognitive phenomenon. PMID:19218867

  5. Dynamic Functional Brain Connectivity for Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuan; Qiu, Yihong; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    Face perception is mediated by a distributed brain network comprised of the core system at occipito-temporal areas and the extended system at other relevant brain areas involving bilateral hemispheres. In this study we explored how the brain connectivity changes over the time for face-sensitive processing. We investigated the dynamic functional connectivity in face perception by analyzing time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in four different frequency bands: theta (4–7 Hz), alpha (8–14 Hz), beta (15–24 Hz), and gamma (25–45 Hz) bands in the early stages of face processing from 30 to 300 ms. High-density EEG were recorded from subjects who were passively viewing faces, buildings, and chairs. The dynamic connectivity within the core system and between the extended system were investigated. Significant differences between faces and non-faces mainly appear in theta band connectivity: (1) at the time segment of 90–120 ms between parietal area and occipito-temporal area in the right hemisphere, and (2) at the time segment of 150–180 ms between bilateral occipito-temporal areas. These results indicate (1) the importance of theta-band connectivity in the face-sensitive processing, and (2) that different parts of network are involved for the initial stage of face categorization and the stage of face structural encoding. PMID:26696870

  6. Does face inversion qualitatively change face processing: an eye movement study using a face change detection task.

    PubMed

    Xu, Buyun; Tanaka, James W

    2013-02-18

    Understanding the Face Inversion Effect is important for the study of face processing. Some researchers believe that the processing of inverted faces is qualitatively different from the processing of upright faces because inversion leads to a disproportionate performance decrement on the processing of different kinds of face information. Other researchers believe that the difference is quantitative because the processing of all kinds of facial information is less efficient due to the change in orientation and thus, the performance decrement is not disproportionate. To address the Qualitative and Quantitative debate, the current study employed a response-contingent, change detection paradigm to study eye movement during the processing of upright and inverted faces. In this study, configural and featural information were parametrically and independently manipulated in the eye and mouth region of the face. The manipulations for configural information involved changing the interocular distance between the eyes or the distance between the mouth and the nose. The manipulations for featural information involved changing the size of the eyes or the size of the mouth. The main results showed that change detection was more difficult in inverted than upright faces. Specifically, performance declined when the manipulated change occurred in the mouth region, despite the greater efforts allocated to the mouth region. Moreover, compared to upright faces where fixations were concentrated on the eyes and nose regions, inversion produced a higher concentration of fixations on the nose and mouth regions. Finally, change detection performance was better when the last fixation prior to response was located on the region of change, and the relationship between last fixation location and accuracy was stronger for inverted than upright faces. These findings reinforce the connection between eye movements and face processing strategies, and suggest that face inversion produces a qualitative

  7. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276

  8. Faciotopy—A face-feature map with face-like topology in the human occipital face area

    PubMed Central

    Henriksson, Linda; Mur, Marieke; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus

    2015-01-01

    The occipital face area (OFA) and fusiform face area (FFA) are brain regions thought to be specialized for face perception. However, their intrinsic functional organization and status as cortical areas with well-defined boundaries remains unclear. Here we test these regions for “faciotopy”, a particular hypothesis about their intrinsic functional organisation. A faciotopic area would contain a face-feature map on the cortical surface, where cortical patches represent face features and neighbouring patches represent features that are physically neighbouring in a face. The faciotopy hypothesis is motivated by the idea that face regions might develop from a retinotopic protomap and acquire their selectivity for face features through natural visual experience. Faces have a prototypical configuration of features, are usually perceived in a canonical upright orientation, and are frequently fixated in particular locations. To test the faciotopy hypothesis, we presented images of isolated face features at fixation to subjects during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The responses in V1 were best explained by low-level image properties of the stimuli. OFA, and to a lesser degree FFA, showed evidence for faciotopic organization. When a single patch of cortex was estimated for each face feature, the cortical distances between the feature patches reflected the physical distance between the features in a face. Faciotopy would be the first example, to our knowledge, of a cortical map reflecting the topology, not of a part of the organism itself (its retina in retinotopy, its body in somatotopy), but of an external object of particular perceptual significance. PMID:26235800

  9. Face-to-face or face-to-screen? Undergraduates' opinions and test performance in classroom vs. online learning.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276

  10. Dissociation between face perception and face memory in adults, but not children, with developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Dalrymple, Kirsten A; Garrido, Lúcia; Duchaine, Brad

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive models propose that face recognition is accomplished through a series of discrete stages, including perceptual representation of facial structure, and encoding and retrieval of facial information. This implies that impaired face recognition can result from failures of face perception, face memory, or both. Studies of acquired prosopagnosia, autism spectrum disorders, and the development of normal face recognition support the idea that face perception and face memory are distinct processes, yet this distinction has received little attention in developmental prosopagnosia (DP). To address this issue, we tested the face perception and face memory of children and adults with DP. By definition, face memory is impaired in DP, so memory deficits were present in all participants. However, we found that all children, but only half of the adults had impaired face perception. Thus, results from adults indicate that face perception and face memory are dissociable, while the results from children provide no evidence for this division. Importantly, our findings raise the possibility that DP is qualitatively different in childhood versus adulthood. We discuss theoretical explanations for this developmental pattern and conclude that longitudinal studies are necessary to better understand the developmental trajectory of face perception and face memory deficits in DP.

  11. Face format at encoding affects the other-race effect in face memory.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mintao; Hayward, William G; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2014-08-07

    Memory of own-race faces is generally better than memory of other-races faces. This other-race effect (ORE) in face memory has been attributed to differences in contact, holistic processing, and motivation to individuate faces. Since most studies demonstrate the ORE with participants learning and recognizing static, single-view faces, it remains unclear whether the ORE can be generalized to different face learning conditions. Using an old/new recognition task, we tested whether face format at encoding modulates the ORE. The results showed a significant ORE when participants learned static, single-view faces (Experiment 1). In contrast, the ORE disappeared when participants learned rigidly moving faces (Experiment 2). Moreover, learning faces displayed from four discrete views produced the same results as learning rigidly moving faces (Experiment 3). Contact with other-race faces was correlated with the magnitude of the ORE. Nonetheless, the absence of the ORE in Experiments 2 and 3 cannot be readily explained by either more frequent contact with other-race faces or stronger motivation to individuate them. These results demonstrate that the ORE is sensitive to face format at encoding, supporting the hypothesis that relative involvement of holistic and featural processing at encoding mediates the ORE observed in face memory.

  12. Looking at faces from different angles: Europeans fixate different features in Asian and Caucasian faces.

    PubMed

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Armann, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Race categorization of faces is a fast and automatic process and is known to affect further face processing profoundly and at earliest stages. Whether processing of own- and other-race faces might rely on different facial cues, as indicated by diverging viewing behavior, is much under debate. We therefore aimed to investigate two open questions in our study: (1) Do observers consider information from distinct facial features informative for race categorization or do they prefer to gain global face information by fixating the geometrical center of the face? (2) Does the fixation pattern, or, if facial features are considered relevant, do these features differ between own- and other-race faces? We used eye tracking to test where European observers look when viewing Asian and Caucasian faces in a race categorization task. Importantly, in order to disentangle centrally located fixations from those towards individual facial features, we presented faces in frontal, half-profile and profile views. We found that observers showed no general bias towards looking at the geometrical center of faces, but rather directed their first fixations towards distinct facial features, regardless of face race. However, participants looked at the eyes more often in Caucasian faces than in Asian faces, and there were significantly more fixations to the nose for Asian compared to Caucasian faces. Thus, observers rely on information from distinct facial features rather than facial information gained by centrally fixating the face. To what extent specific features are looked at is determined by the face's race. PMID:24796509

  13. Self-face recognition in social context.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-06-01

    The concept of "social self" is often described as a representation of the self-reflected in the eyes or minds of others. Although the appearance of one's own face has substantial social significance for humans, neuroimaging studies have failed to link self-face recognition and the likely neural substrate of the social self, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We assumed that the social self is recruited during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for comparison of social values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the modulation of neural responses to the faces of the self and of a close friend in a social context. We identified an enhanced response in the ventral MPFC and right occipitoparietal sulcus in the social context specifically for the self-face. Neural response in the right lateral parietal and inferior temporal cortices, previously claimed as self-face-specific, was unaffected for the self-face but unexpectedly enhanced for the friend's face in the social context. Self-face-specific activation in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and self-face-specific reduction of activation in the left middle temporal gyrus and the right supramarginal gyrus, replicating a previous finding, were not subject to such modulation. Our results thus demonstrated the recruitment of a social self during self-face recognition in the social context. At least three brain networks for self-face-specific activation may be dissociated by different patterns of response-modulation in the social context, suggesting multiple dynamic self-other representations in the human brain.

  14. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  15. Sponge systematics facing new challenges.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, P; Pérez, T; Boury-Esnault, N

    2012-01-01

    Systematics is nowadays facing new challenges with the introduction of new concepts and new techniques. Compared to most other phyla, phylogenetic relationships among sponges are still largely unresolved. In the past 10 years, the classical taxonomy has been completely overturned and a review of the state of the art appears necessary. The field of taxonomy remains a prominent discipline of sponge research and studies related to sponge systematics were in greater number in the Eighth World Sponge Conference (Girona, Spain, September 2010) than in any previous world sponge conferences. To understand the state of this rapidly growing field, this chapter proposes to review studies, mainly from the past decade, in sponge taxonomy, nomenclature and phylogeny. In a first part, we analyse the reasons of the current success of this field. In a second part, we establish the current sponge systematics theoretical framework, with the use of (1) cladistics, (2) different codes of nomenclature (PhyloCode vs. Linnaean system) and (3) integrative taxonomy. Sponges are infamous for their lack of characters. However, by listing and discussing in a third part all characters available to taxonomists, we show how diverse characters are and that new ones are being used and tested, while old ones should be revisited. We then review the systematics of the four main classes of sponges (Hexactinellida, Calcispongiae, Homoscleromorpha and Demospongiae), each time focusing on current issues and case studies. We present a review of the taxonomic changes since the publication of the Systema Porifera (2002), and point to problems a sponge taxonomist is still faced with nowadays. To conclude, we make a series of proposals for the future of sponge systematics. In the light of recent studies, we establish a series of taxonomic changes that the sponge community may be ready to accept. We also propose a series of sponge new names and definitions following the PhyloCode. The issue of phantom species

  16. Digital 'faces' of synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Kathrin

    2013-06-01

    In silicio design plays a fundamental role in the endeavour to synthesise biological systems. In particular, computer-aided design software enables users to manage the complexity of biological entities that is connected to their construction and reconfiguration. The software's graphical user interface bridges the gap between the machine-readable data on the algorithmic subface of the computer and its human-amenable surface represented by standardised diagrammatic elements. Notations like the Systems Biology Graphical Notation (SBGN), together with interactive operations such as drag & drop, allow the user to visually design and simulate synthetic systems as 'bio-algorithmic signs'. Finally, the digital programming process should be extended to the wet lab to manufacture the designed synthetic biological systems. By exploring the different 'faces' of synthetic biology, I argue that in particular computer-aided design (CAD) is pushing the idea to automatically produce de novo objects. Multifaceted software processes serve mutually aesthetic, epistemic and performative purposes by simultaneously black-boxing and bridging different data sources, experimental operations and community-wide standards. So far, synthetic biology is mainly a product of digital media technologies that structurally mimic the epistemological challenge to take both qualitative as well as quantitative aspects of biological systems into account in order to understand and produce new and functional entities.

  17. Facing rim cavities fluctuation modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalino, Damiano; Ribeiro, André F. P.; Fares, Ehab

    2014-06-01

    Cavity modes taking place in the rims of two opposite wheels are investigated through Lattice-Boltzmann CFD simulations. Based on previous observations carried out by the authors during the BANC-II/LAGOON landing gear aeroacoustic study, a resonance mode can take place in the volume between the wheels of a two-wheel landing gear, involving a coupling between shear-layer vortical fluctuations and acoustic modes resulting from the combination of round cavity modes and wheel-to-wheel transversal acoustic modes. As a result, side force fluctuations and tonal noise side radiation take place. A parametric study of the cavity mode properties is carried out in the present work by varying the distance between the wheels. Moreover, the effects due to the presence of the axle are investigated by removing the axle from the two-wheel assembly. The azimuthal properties of the modes are scrutinized by filtering the unsteady flow in narrow bands around the tonal frequencies and investigating the azimuthal structure of the filtered fluctuation modes. Estimation of the tone frequencies with an ad hoc proposed analytical formula confirms the observed modal properties of the filtered unsteady flow solutions. The present study constitutes a primary step in the description of facing rim cavity modes as a possible source of landing gear tonal noise.

  18. Functional outcomes of face transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, S; Kueckelhaus, M; Pauzenberger, R; Bueno, E M; Pomahac, B

    2015-01-01

    In this study we provide a compilation of functional impairments before and improvements after face transplantation (FT) of five FT recipients of our institution and all FTs reported in current literature. Functional outcome included the ability to smell, breath, eat, speak, grimace and facial sensation. Before FT, all our patients revealed compromised ability to breath, eat, speak, grimace and experience facial sensation. The ability to smell was compromised in two of our five patients. Two patients were dependent on tracheostomy and one on gastrostomy tubes. After FT, all abilities were significantly improved and all patients were independent from artificial air airways and feeding tubes. Including data given in current literature about the other 24 FT recipients in the world, the abilities to smell, eat and feel were enhanced in 100% of cases, while the abilities of breathing, speaking and facial expressions were ameliorated in 93%, 71% and 76% of cases, respectively. All patients that required gastrostomy and 91% of patients depending on tracheostomy were decannulated after FT. Unfortunately, outcomes remain unreported in all other cases and therefore we are unable to comment on improvements.

  19. Some problems women are facing.

    PubMed

    Tokle, M

    1994-02-01

    Women in India after the earthquake are afraid. They are paralyzed by insecurity about another earthquake occurring and are unable to work or rebuild. The sowing was delayed, and a crop failure is possible. Nurses and gynecologists are unavailable to treat those with health problems made worse by the tension. Bathrooms and latrines are absent in most of the camps. A full bath is permitted only once every 15 days. Tankers supply water to some, but not all, villages. Those last in line go without water and children bathe in puddles. Destitute women and widows have no emotional or economic support; the help they do receive is taken by neighbors or relatives. Without money or food in the present situation, women are skeptical about the future of their children, particularly their education. Fearing that they will become beggars or be killed in another earthquake if they remain, the mothers are sending their children to the cities to attend school. Skilled and unskilled workers face unemployment in the village. Since their temporary shelters have no doors, they are unable to leave them to seek employment outside. There is a belief among many of the women that the earthquake is the first of a series that will be sent in punishment for their sins in this life or previous lives, ending in total destruction of the villages. Uncertainty, instability, and illiteracy are the roots of this belief.

  20. Cyberbullying: the new face of workplace bullying?

    PubMed

    Privitera, Carmel; Campbell, Marilyn Anne

    2009-08-01

    While the subject of cyberbullying of children and adolescents has begun to be addressed, less attention and research have focused on cyberbullying in the workplace. Male-dominated workplaces such as manufacturing settings are found to have an increased risk of workplace bullying, but the prevalence of cyberbullying in this sector is not known. This exploratory study investigated the prevalence and methods of face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying of males at work. One hundred three surveys (a modified version of the revised Negative Acts Questionnaire [NAQ-R]) were returned from randomly selected members of the Australian Manufacturing Workers' Union (AMWU). The results showed that 34% of respondents were bullied face-to-face, and 10.7% were cyberbullied. All victims of cyberbullying also experienced face-to-face bullying. The implications for organizations' "duty of care" in regard to this new form of bullying are indicated.

  1. Real-time, face recognition technology

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, S.

    1995-11-01

    The Institute for Scientific Computing Research (ISCR) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory recently developed the real-time, face recognition technology KEN. KEN uses novel imaging devices such as silicon retinas developed at Caltech or off-the-shelf CCD cameras to acquire images of a face and to compare them to a database of known faces in a robust fashion. The KEN-Online project makes that recognition technology accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), an internet service that has recently seen explosive growth. A WWW client can submit face images, add them to the database of known faces and submit other pictures that the system tries to recognize. KEN-Online serves to evaluate the recognition technology and grow a large face database. KEN-Online includes the use of public domain tools such as mSQL for its name-database and perl scripts to assist the uploading of images.

  2. [The influence of face on person perception].

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, C

    1993-10-01

    The purpose is to examine the influence of three factors on person perception, (a) the degree of facial attractiveness, (b) the order of presentation of the faces and the verbal information of the same stimulus person and (c) the sex of the perceivers. Seventy-one male undergraduates and 89 female undergraduates were asked to rate the personalities of the two positive and two negative stimulus persons of the opposite sex, who were selected by each subject in preliminary experiment, and asked to choose what kind of relation they would have with them. Positive or negative face was presented either before or after verbal information. The main results were as follows. (a) Generally, positive faces exerted greater influence than negative faces. (b) Faces presented after verbal information were more influential than those presented before it (recency effect). (c) The influence of face on male subjects was greater than that on female subjects. PMID:8301890

  3. Face identity matching is influenced by emotions conveyed by face and body.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Faces provide information about multiple characteristics like personal identity and emotion. Classical models of face perception postulate separate sub-systems for identity and expression recognition but recent studies have documented emotional contextual influences on recognition of faces. The present study reports three experiments where participants were presented realistic face-body compounds in a 2 category (face and body) × 2 emotion (neutral and fearful) factorial design. The task always consisted of two-alternative forced choice facial identity matching. The results show that during simultaneous face identity matching, the task irrelevant bodily expressions influence processing of facial identity, under conditions of unlimited viewing (Experiment 1) as well as during brief (750 ms) presentation (Experiment 2). In addition, delayed (5000 ms) face identity matching of rapidly (150 ms) presented face-body compounds, was also influenced by the body expression (Experiment 3). The results indicate that face identity perception mechanisms interact with processing of bodily and facial expressions. PMID:24574994

  4. Early (M170) activation of face-specific cortex by face-like objects.

    PubMed

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P

    2009-03-01

    The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of 'real' faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at approximately 170 ms after stimulus onset, but what happens when nonface objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography, we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165 ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar to that evoked by faces, whereas common objects did not evoke such activation. An earlier peak at 130 ms was also seen for images of real faces only. Our findings suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a relatively early process, and not a late reinterpretation cognitive phenomenon.

  5. Repetition probability effects for inverted faces.

    PubMed

    Grotheer, Mareike; Hermann, Petra; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán; Kovács, Gyula

    2014-11-15

    It has been shown, that the repetition related reduction of the blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal is modulated by the probability of repetitions (P(rep)) for faces (Summerfield et al., 2008), providing support for the predictive coding (PC) model of visual perception (Rao and Ballard, 1999). However, the stage of face processing where repetition suppression (RS) is modulated by P(rep) is still unclear. Face inversion is known to interrupt higher level configural/holistic face processing steps and if modulation of RS by P(rep) takes place at these stages of face processing, P(rep) effects are expected to be reduced for inverted when compared to upright faces. Therefore, here we aimed at investigating whether P(rep) effects on RS observed for face stimuli originate at the higher-level configural/holistic stages of face processing by comparing these effects for upright and inverted faces. Similarly to previous studies, we manipulated P(rep) for pairs of stimuli in individual blocks of fMRI recordings. This manipulation significantly influenced repetition suppression in the posterior FFA, the OFA and the LO, independently of stimulus orientation. Our results thus reveal that RS in the ventral visual stream is modulated by P(rep) even in the case of face inversion and hence strongly compromised configural/holistic face processing. An additional whole-brain analysis could not identify any areas where the modulatory effect of probability was orientation specific either. These findings imply that P(rep) effects on RS might originate from the earlier stages of face processing.

  6. Contextual Modulation of Biases in Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Felisberti, Fatima Maria; Pavey, Louisa

    2010-01-01

    Background The ability to recognize the faces of potential cooperators and cheaters is fundamental to social exchanges, given that cooperation for mutual benefit is expected. Studies addressing biases in face recognition have so far proved inconclusive, with reports of biases towards faces of cheaters, biases towards faces of cooperators, or no biases at all. This study attempts to uncover possible causes underlying such discrepancies. Methodology and Findings Four experiments were designed to investigate biases in face recognition during social exchanges when behavioral descriptors (prosocial, antisocial or neutral) embedded in different scenarios were tagged to faces during memorization. Face recognition, measured as accuracy and response latency, was tested with modified yes-no, forced-choice and recall tasks (N = 174). An enhanced recognition of faces tagged with prosocial descriptors was observed when the encoding scenario involved financial transactions and the rules of the social contract were not explicit (experiments 1 and 2). Such bias was eliminated or attenuated by making participants explicitly aware of “cooperative”, “cheating” and “neutral/indifferent” behaviors via a pre-test questionnaire and then adding such tags to behavioral descriptors (experiment 3). Further, in a social judgment scenario with descriptors of salient moral behaviors, recognition of antisocial and prosocial faces was similar, but significantly better than neutral faces (experiment 4). Conclusion The results highlight the relevance of descriptors and scenarios of social exchange in face recognition, when the frequency of prosocial and antisocial individuals in a group is similar. Recognition biases towards prosocial faces emerged when descriptors did not state the rules of a social contract or the moral status of a behavior, and they point to the existence of broad and flexible cognitive abilities finely tuned to minor changes in social context. PMID:20886086

  7. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder scan own-race faces differently from other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Yi, Li; Quinn, Paul C; Fan, Yuebo; Huang, Dan; Feng, Cong; Joseph, Lisa; Li, Jiao; Lee, Kang

    2016-01-01

    It has been well documented that people recognize and scan other-race faces differently from faces of their own race. The current study examined whether this cross-racial difference in face processing found in the typical population also exists in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 5- to 10-year-old children with ASD (n=29), typically developing (TD) children matched on chronological age (n=29), and TD children matched on nonverbal IQ (n=29). Children completed a face recognition task in which they were asked to memorize and recognize both own- and other-race faces while their eye movements were tracked. We found no recognition advantage for own-race faces relative to other-race faces in any of the three groups. However, eye-tracking results indicated that, similar to TD children, children with ASD exhibited a cross-racial face-scanning pattern: they looked at the eyes of other-race faces longer than at those of own-race faces, whereas they looked at the mouth of own-race faces longer than at that of other-race faces. The findings suggest that although children with ASD have difficulty with processing some aspects of faces, their ability to process face race information is relatively spared.

  8. Face engagement during infancy predicts later face recognition ability in younger siblings of children with autism.

    PubMed

    de Klerk, Carina C J M; Gliga, Teodora; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2014-07-01

    Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. However, a recent study by our lab demonstrated that infants at increased familial risk for ASD, irrespective of their diagnostic status at 3 years, exhibit a clear orienting response to faces. The present study was conducted as a follow-up on the same cohort to investigate how measures of early engagement with faces relate to face-processing abilities later in life. We also investigated whether face recognition difficulties are specifically related to an ASD diagnosis, or whether they are present at a higher rate in all those at familial risk. At 3 years we found a reduced ability to recognize unfamiliar faces in the high-risk group that was not specific to those children who received an ASD diagnosis, consistent with face recognition difficulties being an endophenotype of the disorder. Furthermore, we found that longer looking at faces at 7 months was associated with poorer performance on the face recognition task at 3 years in the high-risk group. These findings suggest that longer looking at faces in infants at risk for ASD might reflect early face-processing difficulties and predicts difficulties with recognizing faces later in life.

  9. Neural Correlate of the Thatcher Face Illusion in a Monkey Face-Selective Patch.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Jessica; Van Belle, Goedele; Vanduffel, Wim; Rossion, Bruno; Vogels, Rufin

    2015-07-01

    Compelling evidence that our sensitivity to facial structure is conserved across the primate order comes from studies of the "Thatcher face illusion": humans and monkeys notice changes in the orientation of facial features (e.g., the eyes) only when faces are upright, not when faces are upside down. Although it is presumed that face perception in primates depends on face-selective neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex, it is not known whether these neurons respond differentially to upright faces with inverted features. Using microelectrodes guided by functional MRI mapping, we recorded cell responses in three regions of monkey IT cortex. We report an interaction in the middle lateral face patch (ML) between the global orientation of a face and the local orientation of its eyes, a response profile consistent with the perception of the Thatcher illusion. This increased sensitivity to eye orientation in upright faces resisted changes in screen location and was not found among face-selective neurons in other areas of IT cortex, including neurons in another face-selective region, the anterior lateral face patch. We conclude that the Thatcher face illusion is correlated with a pattern of activity in the ML that encodes faces according to a flexible holistic template. PMID:26156988

  10. Neural Correlate of the Thatcher Face Illusion in a Monkey Face-Selective Patch.

    PubMed

    Taubert, Jessica; Van Belle, Goedele; Vanduffel, Wim; Rossion, Bruno; Vogels, Rufin

    2015-07-01

    Compelling evidence that our sensitivity to facial structure is conserved across the primate order comes from studies of the "Thatcher face illusion": humans and monkeys notice changes in the orientation of facial features (e.g., the eyes) only when faces are upright, not when faces are upside down. Although it is presumed that face perception in primates depends on face-selective neurons in the inferior temporal (IT) cortex, it is not known whether these neurons respond differentially to upright faces with inverted features. Using microelectrodes guided by functional MRI mapping, we recorded cell responses in three regions of monkey IT cortex. We report an interaction in the middle lateral face patch (ML) between the global orientation of a face and the local orientation of its eyes, a response profile consistent with the perception of the Thatcher illusion. This increased sensitivity to eye orientation in upright faces resisted changes in screen location and was not found among face-selective neurons in other areas of IT cortex, including neurons in another face-selective region, the anterior lateral face patch. We conclude that the Thatcher face illusion is correlated with a pattern of activity in the ML that encodes faces according to a flexible holistic template.

  11. Nation, Face, and Identity: An Initial Investigation of National Face in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hwang, Kwang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates a key concept in East Asia, face, and represents the first attempt to empirically examine the concept of face at the national level. Controlling for the level of national identification, Study 1 employed the scenario experiment method among samples of native Chinese and Taiwanese populations and revealed that national face exhibits patterns reverse of personal face. Using the experimental method, Study 2 replicated the findings of Study 1 and provided support for the different mechanisms underneath national face and personal face. Study 3 replicated the findings of Study 2 and additionally showed that national face exerts a significant inhibitory effect on face process. Findings are discussed in terms of possible implications for intergroup and international relations. Expanding on extant scholarship on face and across three studies with different experimental paradigms, this research turns our attention from face at the personal level to face at the national level by introducing the construct of national face and examining its manifestations in East Asia. The results advance our understanding of the psychological mechanism driving face concern in East Asia. They make a strong and unique case for the psychological existence of national face as an empirically distinct construct and an important psychological resource for East Asians. PMID:27774081

  12. TMS to the "occipital face area" affects recognition but not categorization of faces.

    PubMed

    Solomon-Harris, Lily M; Mullin, Caitlin R; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2013-12-01

    The human cortical system for face perception is comprised of a network of connected regions including the middle fusiform gyrus ("fusiform face area" or FFA), the inferior occipital cortex ("occipital face area" or OFA), and the superior temporal sulcus. The traditional hierarchical feedforward model of visual processing suggests information flows from early visual cortex to the OFA for initial face feature analysis to higher order regions including the FFA for identity recognition. However, patient data suggest an alternative model. Patients with acquired prosopagnosia, an inability to visually recognize faces, have been documented with lesions to the OFA but who nevertheless show face-selective activation in the FFA. Moreover, their ability to categorize faces remains intact. This suggests that the FFA is not solely responsible for face recognition and the network is not strictly hierarchical, but may be organized in a reverse hierarchical fashion. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to temporarily disrupt processing in the OFA in neurologically-intact individuals and found participants' ability to categorize intact versus scrambled faces was unaffected, however face identity discrimination was significantly impaired. This suggests that face categorization but not recognition can occur without the "earlier" OFA being online and indicates that "lower level" face category processing may be assumed by other intact face network regions such as the FFA. These results are consistent with the patient data and support a non-hierarchical, global-to-local model with re-entrant connections between the OFA and other face processing areas.

  13. Technology survey on video face tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins

    2014-03-01

    With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.

  14. Females excel at basic face perception.

    PubMed

    McBain, Ryan; Norton, Dan; Chen, Yue

    2009-02-01

    Females are generally better than males at recognizing facial emotions. However, it is not entirely clear whether and in what way females may also excel at non-affective face recognition. Here, we tested males and females on two perceptual face recognition tasks that involved only neutral expressions: detection and identity discrimination. On face detection (Experiment 1), females were significantly more accurate than males in detecting upright faces. This gender difference was reduced during inverted face detection, and not present during tree detection, suggesting that the magnitude of the gender difference for performance co-varies with the extent to which face processing mechanisms are involved. On facial identity discrimination (Experiment 2), females again outperformed males, particularly when face images were masked by visual noise, or the delay between comparison face images was extended from 0.5 to 3s. These results reveal a female advantage in processing face-specific information and underscore the role of perceptual factors in socially relevant gender differences.

  15. A Comparative View of Face Perception

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, David A.; Rhodes, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    Face perception serves as the basis for much of human social exchange. Diverse information can be extracted about an individual from a single glance at their face, including their identity, emotional state, and direction of attention. Neuropsychological and fMRI experiments reveal a complex network of specialized areas in the human brain supporting these face-reading skills. Here we consider the evolutionary roots of human face perception by exploring the manner in which different animal species view and respond to faces. We focus on behavioral experiments collected from both primates and non-primates, assessing the types of information that animals are able to extract from the faces of their conspecifics, human experimenters, and natural predators. These experiments reveal that faces are an important category of visual stimuli for animals in all major vertebrate taxa, possibly reflecting the early emergence of neural specialization for faces in vertebrate evolution. At the same time, some aspects of facial perception are only evident in primates and a few other social mammals, and may therefore have evolved to suit the needs of complex social communication. Since the human brain likely utilizes both primitive and recently evolved neural specializations for the processing of faces, comparative studies may hold the key to understanding how these parallel circuits emerged during human evolution. PMID:20695655

  16. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  17. The functional basis of face evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Oosterhof, Nikolaas N.; Todorov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    People automatically evaluate faces on multiple trait dimensions, and these evaluations predict important social outcomes, ranging from electoral success to sentencing decisions. Based on behavioral studies and computer modeling, we develop a 2D model of face evaluation. First, using a principal components analysis of trait judgments of emotionally neutral faces, we identify two orthogonal dimensions, valence and dominance, that are sufficient to describe face evaluation and show that these dimensions can be approximated by judgments of trustworthiness and dominance. Second, using a data-driven statistical model for face representation, we build and validate models for representing face trustworthiness and face dominance. Third, using these models, we show that, whereas valence evaluation is more sensitive to features resembling expressions signaling whether the person should be avoided or approached, dominance evaluation is more sensitive to features signaling physical strength/weakness. Fourth, we show that important social judgments, such as threat, can be reproduced as a function of the two orthogonal dimensions of valence and dominance. The findings suggest that face evaluation involves an overgeneralization of adaptive mechanisms for inferring harmful intentions and the ability to cause harm and can account for rapid, yet not necessarily accurate, judgments from faces. PMID:18685089

  18. Efficient human face detection in infancy.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Umstead, Lindsey; Simpson, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Adults detect conspecific faces more efficiently than heterospecific faces; however, the development of this own-species bias (OSB) remains unexplored. We tested whether 6- and 11-month-olds exhibit OSB in their attention to human and animal faces in complex visual displays with high perceptual load (25 images competing for attention). Infants (n = 48) and adults (n = 43) passively viewed arrays containing a face among 24 non-face distractors while we measured their gaze with remote eye tracking. While OSB is typically not observed until about 9 months, we found that, already by 6 months, human faces were more likely to be detected, were detected more quickly (attention capture), and received longer looks (attention holding) than animal faces. These data suggest that 6-month-olds already exhibit OSB in face detection efficiency, consistent with perceptual attunement. This specialization may reflect the biological importance of detecting conspecific faces, a foundational ability for early social interactions. PMID:26248583

  19. Repetition effects in human ERPs to faces.

    PubMed

    Schweinberger, Stefan R; Neumann, Markus F

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we review research conducted over the past 25 years addressing the effects of repeating various kinds of information in faces (e.g., pictorial, spatial configural, identity, semantic) on different components in human event-related brain potentials (ERPs). This body of evidence suggests that several ERP components are systematically linked to different functional components of face identity processing. Specifically, we argue (1) that repetition of the category of faces (categorical adaptation) strongly affects the occipitotemporal N170 amplitude, which is systematically suppressed when a face is preceded by another face, irrespective of its identity, whereas (2) the prototypicality of a face's second order spatial configuration has a prominent effect on the subsequent occipitotemporal P200. Longer-latency repetition effects are related to the processing of individual facial identities. These include (3) an ERP correlate of the transient activation of individual representations of repeated faces in the form of an enhanced occipitotemporal N250r as seen in repetition priming experiments, and (4) a correlate of the acquisition of individual face identity representations during learning as seen in a topographically similar long-lasting N250 effect. Finally, (5) the repetition of semantic information in familiar person recognition elicits a central-parietal N400 ERP effect. We hope that this overview will encourage researchers to further exploit the potential of ERPs to provide a continuous time window to neuronal correlates of multiple processes in face perception under comparatively natural viewing conditions. PMID:26672902

  20. The intrinsic memorability of face photographs.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Wilma A; Isola, Phillip; Oliva, Aude

    2013-11-01

    The faces we encounter throughout our lives make different impressions on us: Some are remembered at first glance, while others are forgotten. Previous work has found that the distinctiveness of a face influences its memorability--the degree to which face images are remembered or forgotten. Here, we generalize the concept of face memorability in a large-scale memory study. First, we find that memorability is an intrinsic feature of a face photograph--across observers some faces are consistently more remembered or forgotten than others--indicating that memorability can be used for measuring, predicting, and manipulating subsequent memories. Second, we determine the role that 20 personality, social, and memory-related traits play in face memorability. Whereas we find that certain traits (such as kindness, atypicality, and trustworthiness) contribute to face memorability, they do not suffice to explain the variance in memorability scores, even when accounting for noise and differences in subjective experience. This suggests that memorability itself is a consistent, singular measure of a face that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of personality and social facial attributes. We outline modern neuroscience questions that can be explored through the lens of memorability.

  1. Original and Mirror Face Images and Minimum Squared Error Classification for Visible Light Face Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong

    2015-01-01

    In real-world applications, the image of faces varies with illumination, facial expression, and poses. It seems that more training samples are able to reveal possible images of the faces. Though minimum squared error classification (MSEC) is a widely used method, its applications on face recognition usually suffer from the problem of a limited number of training samples. In this paper, we improve MSEC by using the mirror faces as virtual training samples. We obtained the mirror faces generated from original training samples and put these two kinds of samples into a new set. The face recognition experiments show that our method does obtain high accuracy performance in classification. PMID:26576452

  2. Acquired prosopagnosia abolishes the face inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Busigny, Thomas; Rossion, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Individual faces are notoriously difficult to recognize when they are presented upside-down. Since acquired prosopagnosia (AP) has been associated with an impairment of expert face processes, a reduced or abolished face inversion effect (FIE) is expected in AP. However, previous studies have incongruently reported apparent normal effects of inversion, a decreased or abolished FIE, but also a surprisingly better performance for inverted faces for some patients. While these discrepant observations may be due to the variability of high-level processes impaired, a careful look at the literature rather suggests that the pattern of FIE in prosopagnosia has been obscured by a selection of patients with associated low-level defects and general visual recognition impairments, as well as trade-offs between accuracy and correct RT measures. Here we conducted an extensive investigation of upright and inverted face processing in a well-characterized case of face-selective AP, PS (Rossion et al., 2003). In 4 individual face discrimination experiments, PS did not present any inversion effect at all, taking into account all dependent measures of performance. However, she showed a small inversion cost for individualizing members of a category of non-face objects (cars), just like normal observers. A fifth experiment with personally familiar faces to recognize confirmed the lack of inversion effect for PS. Following the present report and a survey of the literature, we conclude that the FIE is generally absent, or at least clearly reduced following AP. We also suggest that the paradoxical superior performance for inverted faces observed in rare cases may be due to additional upper visual field defects rather than to high-level competing visual processes. These observations are entirely compatible with the view that AP is associated with a disruption of a process that is also abolished following inversion: the holistic representation of individual exemplars of the face class.

  3. Faces in places: humans and machines make similar face detection errors.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Bernard Marius; Abresch, Tilman Gerrit Jakob; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm) achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces"), false positives ("illusory faces") and correctly rejected locations ("non faces"). Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system.

  4. Faces in places: humans and machines make similar face detection errors.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Bernard Marius; Abresch, Tilman Gerrit Jakob; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications ("Viola-Jones" algorithm) achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections ("real faces"), false positives ("illusory faces") and correctly rejected locations ("non faces"). Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system. PMID:21998653

  5. Reverse engineering the face space: Discovering the critical features for face identification.

    PubMed

    Abudarham, Naphtali; Yovel, Galit

    2016-01-01

    How do we identify people? What are the critical facial features that define an identity and determine whether two faces belong to the same person or different people? To answer these questions, we applied the face space framework, according to which faces are represented as points in a multidimensional feature space, such that face space distances are correlated with perceptual similarities between faces. In particular, we developed a novel method that allowed us to reveal the critical dimensions (i.e., critical features) of the face space. To that end, we constructed a concrete face space, which included 20 facial features of natural face images, and asked human observers to evaluate feature values (e.g., how thick are the lips). Next, we systematically and quantitatively changed facial features, and measured the perceptual effects of these manipulations. We found that critical features were those for which participants have high perceptual sensitivity (PS) for detecting differences across identities (e.g., which of two faces has thicker lips). Furthermore, these high PS features vary minimally across different views of the same identity, suggesting high PS features support face recognition across different images of the same face. The methods described here set an infrastructure for discovering the critical features of other face categories not studied here (e.g., Asians, familiar) as well as other aspects of face processing, such as attractiveness or trait inferences. PMID:26928056

  6. The two Faces of Equipartition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.; Perton, M.; Rodriguez-Castellanos, A.; Campillo, M.; Weaver, R. L.; Rodriguez, M.; Prieto, G.; Luzon, F.; McGarr, A.

    2008-12-01

    relationship of average autocorrelations with the imaginary part of Green function at the source. Preliminary results are displayed in data sets from Chilpancingo, Mexico, and the Tautona Gold Mine, South Africa, that strongly suggest that equipartition, that guarantees the diffuse nature of seismic fields, has more than one face. Acknowledgements. Partial supports from DGAPA-UNAM, Project IN114706, Mexico; from Proyect MCyT CGL2005-05500-C02/BTE, Spain; from project DyETI of INSU-CNRS, France, and from the Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo are greatly appreciated.

  7. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  8. Emotionality of Encoding Activity in Face Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, John H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the effects of emotionality of study tasks on face and word recognition in four studies. Results showed face recognition performance was best after an emotional nonself study task. Concluded that self-images are less effective mnemonic aids than the propositional self-concept. (WAS)

  9. Environmental Inversion Effects in Face Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Flusberg, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual processing is highly sensitive to stimulus orientation; for example, face perception is drastically worse when faces are oriented inverted vs. upright. However, stimulus orientation must be established in relation to a particular reference frame, and in most studies, several reference frames are conflated. Which reference frame(s) matter in…

  10. Attention to Faces in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riby, Deborah M.; Jones, Nicola; Brown, Philippa H.; Robinson, Lucy J.; Langton, Stephen R. H.; Bruce, Vicki; Riby, Leigh M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is associated with distinct social behaviours. One component of the WS social phenotype is atypically prolonged face fixation. This behaviour co-exists with attention difficulties. Attention is multi-faceted and may impact on gaze behaviour in several ways. Four experiments assessed (i) attention capture by faces, (ii)…

  11. Newborns' Face Recognition over Changes in Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turati, Chiara; Bulf, Hermann; Simion, Francesca

    2008-01-01

    The study investigated the origins of the ability to recognize faces despite rotations in depth. Four experiments are reported that tested, using the habituation technique, whether 1-to-3-day-old infants are able to recognize the invariant aspects of a face over changes in viewpoint. Newborns failed to recognize facial perceptual invariances…

  12. Human wagering behavior depends on opponents' faces.

    PubMed

    Schlicht, Erik J; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Camerer, Colin F; Battaglia, Peter; Nakayama, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent. PMID:20657772

  13. A novel orientation code for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2011-06-01

    A novel orientation code is proposed for face recognition applications in this paper. Gabor wavelet transform is a common tool for orientation analysis in a 2D image; whereas Hamming distance is an efficient distance measurement for multiple classifications such as face identification. Specifically, at each frequency band, an index number representing the strongest orientational response is selected, and then encoded in binary format to favor the Hamming distance calculation. Multiple-band orientation codes are then organized into a face pattern byte (FPB) by using order statistics. With the FPB, Hamming distances are calculated and compared to achieve face identification. The FPB has the dimensionality of 8 bits per pixel and its performance will be compared to that of FPW (face pattern word, 32 bits per pixel). The dimensionality of FPB can be further reduced down to 4 bits per pixel, called face pattern nibble (FPN). Experimental results with visible and thermal face databases show that the proposed orientation code for face recognition is very promising in contrast with classical methods such as PCA.

  14. Unconscious Evaluation of Faces on Social Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Lorna H.; Ajina, Sara; Getov, Spas; Bahrami, Bahador; Todorov, Alexander; Rees, Geraint

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that two major axes, dominance and trustworthiness, characterize the social dimensions of face evaluation. Whether evaluation of faces on these social dimensions is restricted to conscious appraisal or happens at a preconscious level is unknown. Here we provide behavioral evidence that such preconscious evaluations exist and…

  15. Hybrid Deep Learning for Face Verification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid convolutional network (ConvNet)-Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) model for face verification. A key contribution of this work is to learn high-level relational visual features with rich identity similarity information. The deep ConvNets in our model start by extracting local relational visual features from two face images in comparison, which are further processed through multiple layers to extract high-level and global relational features. To keep enough discriminative information, we use the last hidden layer neuron activations of the ConvNet as features for face verification instead of those of the output layer. To characterize face similarities from different aspects, we concatenate the features extracted from different face region pairs by different deep ConvNets. The resulting high-dimensional relational features are classified by an RBM for face verification. After pre-training each ConvNet and the RBM separately, the entire hybrid network is jointly optimized to further improve the accuracy. Various aspects of the ConvNet structures, relational features, and face verification classifiers are investigated. Our model achieves the state-of-the-art face verification performance on the challenging LFW dataset under both the unrestricted protocol and the setting when outside data is allowed to be used for training. PMID:26660699

  16. Holistic processing of face configurations and components.

    PubMed

    Hayward, William G; Crookes, Kate; Chu, Ming Hon; Favelle, Simone K; Rhodes, Gillian

    2016-10-01

    Although many researchers agree that faces are processed holistically, we know relatively little about what information holistic processing captures from a face. Most studies that assess the nature of holistic processing do so with changes to the face affecting many different aspects of face information (e.g., different identities). Does holistic processing affect every aspect of a face? We used the composite task, a common means of examining the strength of holistic processing, with participants making same-different judgments about configuration changes or component changes to 1 portion of a face. Configuration changes involved changes in spatial position of the eyes, whereas component changes involved lightening or darkening the eyebrows. Composites were either aligned or misaligned, and were presented either upright or inverted. Both configuration judgments and component judgments showed evidence of holistic processing, and in both cases it was strongest for upright face composites. These results suggest that holistic processing captures a broad range of information about the face, including both configuration-based and component-based information. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  18. Changing the Face of American Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    If the mission of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) is clear--"to change the face of medicine to reflect the face of America" said Dr. Charles Terrell, the group's vice president for diversity policy and programs, at the opening of AAMC's recent conference on career development for minority faculty--then another fact is equally…

  19. Connect the Book. I Face the Wind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This month's feature is Vicki Cobb's "I Face the Wind" (Illus. by Julia Gorton. HarperCollins, 2003) which introduces the wind's characteristics and actions through experiments and observations complemented with Gorton's creative illustrations. "I Face the Wind" was a 2004 Sibert Honor Book. The Sibert Award and Honor books are awarded annually to…

  20. Are face representations depth cue invariant?

    PubMed

    Dehmoobadsharifabadi, Armita; Farivar, Reza

    2016-06-01

    The visual system can process three-dimensional depth cues defining surfaces of objects, but it is unclear whether such information contributes to complex object recognition, including face recognition. The processing of different depth cues involves both dorsal and ventral visual pathways. We investigated whether facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues resulted in meaningful face representations-representations that maintain the relationship between the population of faces as defined in a multidimensional face space. We measured face identity aftereffects for facial surfaces defined by individual depth cues (Experiments 1 and 2) and tested whether the aftereffect transfers across depth cues (Experiments 3 and 4). Facial surfaces and their morphs to the average face were defined purely by one of shading, texture, motion, or binocular disparity. We obtained identification thresholds for matched (matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), non-matched (non-matched identity between adapting and test stimuli), and no-adaptation (showing only the test stimuli) conditions for each cue and across different depth cues. We found robust face identity aftereffect in both experiments. Our results suggest that depth cues do contribute to forming meaningful face representations that are depth cue invariant. Depth cue invariance would require integration of information across different areas and different pathways for object recognition, and this in turn has important implications for cortical models of visual object recognition. PMID:27271993

  1. Video face recognition against a watch list

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Jehanzeb; Dagli, Charlie K.; Huang, Thomas S.

    2007-10-01

    Due to a large increase in the video surveillance data recently in an effort to maintain high security at public places, we need more robust systems to analyze this data and make tasks like face recognition a realistic possibility in challenging environments. In this paper we explore a watch-list scenario where we use an appearance based model to classify query faces from low resolution videos into either a watch-list or a non-watch-list face. We then use our simple yet a powerful face recognition system to recognize the faces classified as watch-list faces. Where the watch-list includes those people that we are interested in recognizing. Our system uses simple feature machine algorithms from our previous work to match video faces against still images. To test our approach, we match video faces against a large database of still images obtained from a previous work in the field from Yahoo News over a period of time. We do this matching in an efficient manner to come up with a faster and nearly real-time system. This system can be incorporated into a larger surveillance system equipped with advanced algorithms involving anomalous event detection and activity recognition. This is a step towards more secure and robust surveillance systems and efficient video data analysis.

  2. Levinas, Ethics, Pedagogy, and the Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriere, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    Emmanuel Levinas is one of those thinkers whose ideas about ethics and morality have something to say about teaching. Concerned with ethics in a world that seemed devoid of morality, Levinas posited the ultimate responsibility of the I for the Face. The Face, or the Other, the not-me according to Levinas, requires and demands this responsibility…

  3. Hybrid Deep Learning for Face Verification.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yi; Wang, Xiaogang; Tang, Xiaoou

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a hybrid convolutional network (ConvNet)-Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) model for face verification. A key contribution of this work is to learn high-level relational visual features with rich identity similarity information. The deep ConvNets in our model start by extracting local relational visual features from two face images in comparison, which are further processed through multiple layers to extract high-level and global relational features. To keep enough discriminative information, we use the last hidden layer neuron activations of the ConvNet as features for face verification instead of those of the output layer. To characterize face similarities from different aspects, we concatenate the features extracted from different face region pairs by different deep ConvNets. The resulting high-dimensional relational features are classified by an RBM for face verification. After pre-training each ConvNet and the RBM separately, the entire hybrid network is jointly optimized to further improve the accuracy. Various aspects of the ConvNet structures, relational features, and face verification classifiers are investigated. Our model achieves the state-of-the-art face verification performance on the challenging LFW dataset under both the unrestricted protocol and the setting when outside data is allowed to be used for training.

  4. Autism and the development of face processing

    PubMed Central

    Golarai, Golijeh; Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Reiss, Allan L.

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a pervasive developmental condition, characterized by impairments in non-verbal communication, social relationships and stereotypical patterns of behavior. A large body of evidence suggests that several aspects of face processing are impaired in autism, including anomalies in gaze processing, memory for facial identity and recognition of facial expressions of emotion. In search of neural markers of anomalous face processing in autism, much interest has focused on a network of brain regions that are implicated in social cognition and face processing. In this review, we will focus on three such regions, namely the STS for its role in processing gaze and facial movements, the FFA in face detection and identification and the amygdala in processing facial expressions of emotion. Much evidence suggests that a better understanding of the normal development of these specialized regions is essential for discovering the neural bases of face processing anomalies in autism. Thus, we will also examine the available literature on the normal development of face processing. Key unknowns in this research area are the neuro-developmental processes, the role of experience and the interactions among components of the face processing system in shaping each of the specialized regions for processing faces during normal development and in autism. PMID:18176635

  5. Familiarity Enhances Visual Working Memory for Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Margaret C.; Raymond, Jane E.

    2008-01-01

    Although it is intuitive that familiarity with complex visual objects should aid their preservation in visual working memory (WM), empirical evidence for this is lacking. This study used a conventional change-detection procedure to assess visual WM for unfamiliar and famous faces in healthy adults. Across experiments, faces were upright or…

  6. Perception of faces with and without spectacles.

    PubMed

    McKelvie, S J

    1997-04-01

    For 20 faces, 85 subjects selected either a distinctive feature or a distinctive trait. For faces with spectacles, the eyes were judged to be most prominent, and the people were judged to be dull and intelligent. Results are discussed in terms of the physical attractiveness stereotype.

  7. Faces in Context: Does Face Perception Depend on the Orientation of the Visual Scene?

    PubMed

    Taubert, Jessica; van Golde, Celine; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms held responsible for familiar face recognition are thought to be orientation dependent; inverted faces are more difficult to recognize than their upright counterparts. Although this effect of inversion has been investigated extensively, researchers have typically sliced faces from photographs and presented them in isolation. As such, it is not known whether the perceived orientation of a face is inherited from the visual scene in which it appears. Here, we address this question by measuring performance in a simultaneous same-different task while manipulating both the orientation of the faces and the scene. We found that the face inversion effect survived scene inversion. Nonetheless, an improvement in performance when the scene was upside down suggests that sensitivity to identity increased when the faces were more easily segmented from the scene. Thus, while these data identify congruency with the visual environment as a contributing factor in recognition performance, they imply different mechanisms operate on upright and inverted faces.

  8. Social presence and the composite face effect.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marques, Teresa; Fernandes, Alexandre; Fonseca, Ricardo; Prada, Marilia

    2015-06-01

    A robust finding in social psychology research is that performance is modulated by the social nature of a given context, promoting social inhibition or facilitation effects. In the present experiment, we examined if and how social presence impacts holistic face perception processes by asking participants, in the presence of others and alone, to perform the composite face task. Results suggest that completing the task in the presence of others (i.e., mere co-action) is associated with better performance in face recognition (less bias and higher discrimination between presented and non-presented targets) and with a reduction in the composite face effect. These results make clear that social presence impact on the composite face effect does not occur because presence increases reliance on holistic processing as a "dominant" well-learned response, but instead, because it increases monitoring of the interference produced by automatic response. PMID:25939138

  9. Hyperspectral face recognition under variable outdoor illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhihong; Healey, Glenn E.; Prasad, Manish; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2004-08-01

    We examine the performance of illumination-invariant face recognition in outdoor hyperspectral images using a database of 200 subjects. The hyperspectral camera acquires 31 bands over the 700-1000nm spectral range. Faces are represented by local spectral information for several tissue types. Illumination variation is modeled by low-dimensional spectral radiance subspaces. Invariant subspace projection over multiple tissue types is used for recognition. The experiments consider various face orientations and expressions. The analysis includes experiments for images synthesized using face reflectance images of 200 subjects and a database of over 7,000 outdoor illumination spectra. We also consider experiments that use a set of face images that were acquired under outdoor illumination conditions.

  10. Face recognition with L1-norm subspaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritato, Federica; Liu, Ying; Colonnese, Stefania; Pados, Dimitris A.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the problem of representing individual faces by maximum L1-norm projection subspaces calculated from available face-image ensembles. In contrast to conventional L2-norm subspaces, L1-norm subspaces are seen to offer significant robustness to image variations, disturbances, and rank selection. Face recognition becomes then the problem of associating a new unknown face image to the "closest," in some sense, L1 subspace in the database. In this work, we also introduce the concept of adaptively allocating the available number of principal components to different face image classes, subject to a given total number/budget of principal components. Experimental studies included in this paper illustrate and support the theoretical developments.

  11. In your face: transcendence in embodied interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    In cognitive psychology, studies concerning the face tend to focus on questions about face recognition, theory of mind (ToM) and empathy. Questions about the face, however, also fit into a very different set of issues that are central to ethics. Based especially on the work of Levinas, philosophers have come to see that reference to the face of another person can anchor conceptions of moral responsibility and ethical demand. Levinas points to a certain irreducibility and transcendence implicit in the face of the other. In this paper I argue that the notion of transcendence involved in this kind of analysis can be given a naturalistic interpretation by drawing on recent interactive approaches to social cognition found in developmental psychology, phenomenology, and the study of autism. PMID:25071523

  12. Not All Faces Are Processed Equally: Evidence for Featural Rather than Holistic Processing of One's Own Face in a Face-Imaging Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Seth N.; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2009-01-01

    The present work considers the mental imaging of faces, with a focus in own-face imaging. Experiments 1 and 3 demonstrated an own-face disadvantage, with slower generation of mental images of one's own face than of other familiar faces. In contrast, Experiment 2 demonstrated that mental images of facial parts are generated more quickly for one's…

  13. Face to Face or E-Learning in Turkish EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solak, Ekrem; Cakir, Recep

    2014-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to understand e-learners and face to face learners' views towards learning English through e-learning in vocational higher school context and to determine the role of academic achievement and gender in e-learning and face to face learning. This study was conducted at a state-run university in 2012-2013 academic…

  14. Do Young Infants Prefer an Infant-Directed Face or a Happy Face?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hojin I.; Johnson, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    Infants' visual preference for infant-directed (ID) faces over adult-directed (AD) faces was examined in two experiments that introduced controls for emotion. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of side-by-side dynamic faces. When emotion was held constant, 6-month-old infants showed no preference for ID faces…

  15. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance.

  16. Developmental Changes in Face Recognition during Childhood: Evidence from Upright and Inverted Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heering, Adelaide; Rossion, Bruno; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults are experts at recognizing faces but there is controversy about how this ability develops with age. We assessed 6- to 12-year-olds and adults using a digitized version of the Benton Face Recognition Test, a sensitive tool for assessing face perception abilities. Children's response times for correct responses did not decrease between ages 6…

  17. Face Engagement during Infancy Predicts Later Face Recognition Ability in Younger Siblings of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Klerk, Carina C. J. M.; Gliga, Teodora; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. However, a recent study…

  18. Isolating the Special Component of Face Recognition: Peripheral Identification and a Mooney Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor

    2004-01-01

    A previous finding argues that, for faces, configural (holistic) processing can operate even in the complete absence of part-based contributions to recognition. Here, this result is confirmed using 2 methods. In both, recognition of inverted faces (parts only) was removed altogether (chance identification of faces in the periphery; no perception…

  19. Academic Help-Seeking in Online and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahasneh, Randa A.; Sowan, Azizeh K.; Nassar, Yahya H.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares actual help-seeking frequencies across online and face-to-face learning environments. It also examines strategies enacted by nursing students when they faced academic difficulties, reasons for help-seeking avoidance, and the relationship between the frequency of asking questions and achievement. Participants were nursing…

  20. Outlining face processing skills of portrait artists: Perceptual experience with faces predicts performance.

    PubMed

    Devue, Christel; Barsics, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Most humans seem to demonstrate astonishingly high levels of skill in face processing if one considers the sophisticated level of fine-tuned discrimination that face recognition requires. However, numerous studies now indicate that the ability to process faces is not as fundamental as once thought and that performance can range from despairingly poor to extraordinarily high across people. Here we studied people who are super specialists of faces, namely portrait artists, to examine how their specific visual experience with faces relates to a range of face processing skills (perceptual discrimination, short- and longer term recognition). Artists show better perceptual discrimination and, to some extent, recognition of newly learned faces than controls. They are also more accurate on other perceptual tasks (i.e., involving non-face stimuli or mental rotation). By contrast, artists do not display an advantage compared to controls on longer term face recognition (i.e., famous faces) nor on person recognition from other sensorial modalities (i.e., voices). Finally, the face inversion effect exists in artists and controls and is not modulated by artistic practice. Advantages in face processing for artists thus seem to closely mirror perceptual and visual short term memory skills involved in portraiture.

  1. Facing Facts: Can the Face-Name Mnemonic Strategy Accommodate Additional Factual Information?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Russell N.; Levin, Joel R.

    2012-01-01

    In 3 experiments, undergraduates used their own best method (control) or an "imposed" face-name mnemonic strategy to associate 18 caricatured faces, names, and additional facts. On all immediate tests (prompted by the faces), and on the delayed tests of Experiments 2a and 2b combined, mnemonic students statistically outperformed control students…

  2. Outlining face processing skills of portrait artists: Perceptual experience with faces predicts performance.

    PubMed

    Devue, Christel; Barsics, Catherine

    2016-10-01

    Most humans seem to demonstrate astonishingly high levels of skill in face processing if one considers the sophisticated level of fine-tuned discrimination that face recognition requires. However, numerous studies now indicate that the ability to process faces is not as fundamental as once thought and that performance can range from despairingly poor to extraordinarily high across people. Here we studied people who are super specialists of faces, namely portrait artists, to examine how their specific visual experience with faces relates to a range of face processing skills (perceptual discrimination, short- and longer term recognition). Artists show better perceptual discrimination and, to some extent, recognition of newly learned faces than controls. They are also more accurate on other perceptual tasks (i.e., involving non-face stimuli or mental rotation). By contrast, artists do not display an advantage compared to controls on longer term face recognition (i.e., famous faces) nor on person recognition from other sensorial modalities (i.e., voices). Finally, the face inversion effect exists in artists and controls and is not modulated by artistic practice. Advantages in face processing for artists thus seem to closely mirror perceptual and visual short term memory skills involved in portraiture. PMID:27507580

  3. Development of Face Scanning for Own- and Other-Race Faces in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Wen S.; Xiao, Naiqi G.; Quinn, Paul C.; Anzures, Gizelle; Lee, Kang

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated whether infants visually scan own- and other-race faces differently as well as how these differences in face scanning develop with age. A multi-method approach was used to analyze the eye-tracking data of 6- and 9-month-old Caucasian infants scanning dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that…

  4. Tobacco cessation education for pharmacists: Face-to-face presentations versus live webinars.

    PubMed

    Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Hoch, Matthew A; Vitale, Frank M; Wahl, Kimberly R; Corelli, Robin L; de Moor, Carl

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the perceived effectiveness of tobacco cessation continuing education for pharmacists in face-to-face presentation versus live webinar modalities. METHODS A continuing pharmacy education (CPE) activity, Do Ask, Do Tell: A Practical Approach to Smoking Cessation, was offered in face-to-face and live webinar modalities. Following the activity, participants completed a brief questionnaire that assessed the anticipated impact of the activity on their smoking cessation counseling practices. RESULTS Of the 1,088 CPE participants, 819 (75%) attended a face-to-face presentation and 269 (25%) participated in a live webinar. Posttraining self-rated ability to address tobacco use was similar between groups ( P = 0.38), and both the face-to-face and live webinar groups reported a significant difference between pre- and posttraining abilities ( P < 0.05 for both groups). Attendees of the face-to-face presentation reported higher likelihoods of providing each of the individual tasks required to provide an effective, brief tobacco cessation intervention ( P < 0.05 for each task). CONCLUSION These data suggest that more value exists in face-to-face education than live webinars when personal and interactive skills are the focus of the activity.

  5. Face age and sex modulate the other-race effect in face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Jennifer; Lipp, Ottmar V; Vanman, Eric J

    2012-11-01

    Faces convey a variety of socially relevant cues that have been shown to affect recognition, such as age, sex, and race, but few studies have examined the interactive effect of these cues. White participants of two distinct age groups were presented with faces that differed in race, age, and sex in a face recognition paradigm. Replicating the other-race effect, young participants recognized young own-race faces better than young other-race faces. However, recognition performance did not differ across old faces of different races (Experiments 1, 2A). In addition, participants showed an other-age effect, recognizing White young faces better than White old faces. Sex affected recognition performance only when age was not varied (Experiment 2B). Overall, older participants showed a similar recognition pattern (Experiment 3) as young participants, displaying an other-race effect for young, but not old, faces. However, they recognized young and old White faces on a similar level. These findings indicate that face cues interact to affect recognition performance such that age and sex information reliably modulate the effect of race cues. These results extend accounts of face recognition that explain recognition biases (such as the other-race effect) as a function of dichotomous ingroup/outgroup categorization, in that outgroup characteristics are not simply additive but interactively determine recognition performance. PMID:22933042

  6. The Many Faces of the Still-Face Paradigm: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2009-01-01

    The Still-Face Paradigm (SFP) designed by Tronick, Als, Adamson, Wise, and Brazelton (Tronick, E., Als, H., Adamson, L., Wise, S., & Brazelton, T. B. (1978). Infants response to entrapment between contradictory messages in face-to-face interaction. "Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 17", 1-13) has been used for…

  7. Categorical and Coordinate Relations in Faces, or Fechner's Law and Face Space Instead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKone, Elinor; Aitkin, Alex; Edwards, Mark

    2005-01-01

    E. E. Cooper and T. J. Wojan (2000) applied the categorical-coordinate relations distinction to faces on the basis of a finding that two-eyes-up versus one-eye-up distortions had opposite effects in between-class (face normality) and within-class (face identity) tasks. However, Cooper and Wojan failed to match amount of metric change between their…

  8. Learning, Interactional, and Motivational Outcomes in One-to-One Synchronous Computer-Mediated versus Face-to-Face Tutoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siler, Stephanie Ann; VanLehn, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Face-to-face (FTF) human-human tutoring has ranked among the most effective forms of instruction. However, because computer-mediated (CM) tutoring is becoming increasingly common, it is instructive to evaluate its effectiveness relative to face-to-face tutoring. Does the lack of spoken, face-to-face interaction affect learning gains and…

  9. 77 FR 30591 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face ] Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted...) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will...

  10. 77 FR 21157 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... Internal Revenue Service Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project... meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee will be conducted.... (1988) that a meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee...

  11. 77 FR 61053 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

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  13. 77 FR 47166 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

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  14. 76 FR 78342 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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  15. 77 FR 8328 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

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  16. 77 FR 40411 - Open Meeting of the Taxpayer Advocacy Panel Face-to-Face Service Methods Project Committee

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  17. Individual differences in cortical face selectivity predict behavioral performance in face recognition

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lijie; Song, Yiying; Li, Jingguang; Zhen, Zonglei; Yang, Zetian; Liu, Jia

    2014-01-01

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, object selectivity is defined as a higher neural response to an object category than other object categories. Importantly, object selectivity is widely considered as a neural signature of a functionally-specialized area in processing its preferred object category in the human brain. However, the behavioral significance of the object selectivity remains unclear. In the present study, we used the individual differences approach to correlate participants' face selectivity in the face-selective regions with their behavioral performance in face recognition measured outside the scanner in a large sample of healthy adults. Face selectivity was defined as the z score of activation with the contrast of faces vs. non-face objects, and the face recognition ability was indexed as the normalized residual of the accuracy in recognizing previously-learned faces after regressing out that for non-face objects in an old/new memory task. We found that the participants with higher face selectivity in the fusiform face area (FFA) and the occipital face area (OFA), but not in the posterior part of the superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), possessed higher face recognition ability. Importantly, the association of face selectivity in the FFA and face recognition ability cannot be accounted for by FFA response to objects or behavioral performance in object recognition, suggesting that the association is domain-specific. Finally, the association is reliable, confirmed by the replication from another independent participant group. In sum, our finding provides empirical evidence on the validity of using object selectivity as a neural signature in defining object-selective regions in the human brain. PMID:25071513

  18. Valence modulates source memory for faces.

    PubMed

    Bell, Raoul; Buchner, Axel

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in which the effects of emotional valence on old-new discrimination and source memory have been examined have yielded highly inconsistent results. Here, we present two experiments showing that old-new face discrimination was not affected by whether a face was associated with disgusting, pleasant, or neutral behavior. In contrast, source memory for faces associated with disgusting behavior (i.e., memory for the disgusting context in which the face was encountered) was consistently better than source memory for other types of faces. This data pattern replicates the findings of studies in which descriptions of cheating, neutral, and trustworthy behavior were used, which findings were previously ascribed to a highly specific cheater detection module. The present results suggest that the enhanced source memory for faces of cheaters is due to a more general source memory advantage for faces associated with negative or threatening contexts that may be instrumental in avoiding the negative consequences of encounters with persons associated with negative or threatening behaviors.

  19. Effect of face familiarity on age decision.

    PubMed

    Bruyer, Raymond; Mejias, Sandrine; Doublet, Sophie

    2007-02-01

    The present experiment was planned to check whether the extraction of apparent age is affected by face identity (familiarity) or not. According to the traditional view, age estimation should be carried out independently of face identity, because it is one of the visually derived semantic codes (like gender and ethnicity). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, some recent studies have cast doubt on the parallel thesis regarding facial expression, facial speech, ethnicity, and gender. Given the promising results of a pilot experiment (n=24), 16 Caucasian participants were enrolled in an "age decision" task on morphed faces derived from one old and one young source-face, in the proportion 70:30. The respondents had previously been familiarised with half the source faces by a learning procedure (associating the face, surname, occupation and city of residence of the person displayed), while the remaining half were unfamiliar. The results showed that age decision was affected by face familiarity, at least when the task was perceptually difficult enough. This adds support to the thesis that the identification of identity and the extraction of visually derived semantic codes are not made independently from each other. The status of age, within the visually derived semantic codes, is also discussed. PMID:16643811

  20. Perceptual adaptation helps us identify faces.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Watson, Tamara L; Jeffery, Linda; Clifford, Colin W G

    2010-05-12

    Adaptation is a fundamental property of perceptual processing. In low-level vision, it can calibrate perception to current inputs, increasing coding efficiency and enhancing discrimination around the adapted level. Adaptation also occurs in high-level vision, as illustrated by face aftereffects. However, the functional consequences of face adaptation remain uncertain. Here we investigated whether adaptation can enhance identification performance for faces from an adapted, relative to an unadapted, population. Five minutes of adaptation to an average Asian or Caucasian face reduced identification thresholds for faces from the adapted relative to the unadapted race. We replicated this interaction in two studies, using different participants, faces and adapting procedures. These results suggest that adaptation has a functional role in high-level, as well as low-level, visual processing. We suggest that adaptation to the average of a population may reduce responses to common properties shared by all members of the population, effectively orthogonalizing identity vectors in a multi-dimensional face space and freeing neural resources to code distinctive properties, which are useful for identification.

  1. Human Wagering Behavior Depends on Opponents' Faces

    PubMed Central

    Schlicht, Erik J.; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Camerer, Colin F.; Battaglia, Peter; Nakayama, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best “poker face” for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent. PMID:20657772

  2. A memory advantage for untrustworthy faces.

    PubMed

    Rule, Nicholas O; Slepian, Michael L; Ambady, Nalini

    2012-11-01

    Inferences of others' social traits from their faces can influence how we think and behave towards them, but little is known about how perceptions of people's traits may affect downstream cognitions, such as memory. Here we explored the relationship between targets' perceived social traits and how well they were remembered following a single brief perception, focusing primarily on inferences of trustworthiness. In Study 1, participants encoded high-consensus trustworthy and untrustworthy faces, showing significantly better memory for the latter group. Study 2 compared memory for faces rated high and low on a series of traits (dominance, facial maturity, likeability, and trustworthiness), and found that untrustworthy and unlikeable faces were remembered best, with no differences for the other traits. Finally, Study 3 compared information about trustworthiness from facial appearance and from behavioral descriptions. Untrustworthy targets were remembered better than trustworthy targets both from behavior and faces, though the effects were significantly stronger for the latter. Faces perceived as untrustworthy therefore appear to be remembered better than faces perceived as trustworthy. Consistent with ecological theories of perception, cues to trustworthiness from facial appearance may thus guide who is remembered and who is forgotten at first impression. PMID:22874071

  3. Cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuyang; Xin, J H; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2012-12-18

    This article reports on the fabrication of cotton fabrics with single-faced superhydrophobicity using a simple foam finishing process. Unlike most commonly reported superhydrophobic fabrics, the fabrics developed in this study exhibit asymmetric wettability on their two faces: one face showing superhydrophobic behavior (highly nonwetting or water-repellent characteristics) and the other face retaining the inherent hydrophilic nature of cotton. The superhydrophobic face exhibits a low contact angle hysteresis of θ(a)/θ(r) = 151°/144° (θ(a), advancing contact angle; θ(r), receding contact angle), which enables water drops to roll off the surface easily so as to endow the surface with well-known self-cleaning properties. The untreated hydrophilic face preserves its water-absorbing capability, resulting in 44% of the water-absorbing capacity compared to that of the original cotton samples with both sides untreated (hydrophilic). The single-faced superhydrophobic fabrics also retain moisture transmissibility that is as good as that of the original untreated cotton fabrics. They also show robust washing fastness with the chemical cross-linking process of hydrophobic fluoropolymer to fabric fibers. Fabric materials with such asymmetric or gradient wettability will be of great use in many applications such as unidirectional liquid transporting, moisture management, microfluidic systems, desalination of seawater, flow management in fuel cells, and water/oil separation.

  4. Face recognition using ensemble string matching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiping; Gao, Yongsheng

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a syntactic string matching approach to solve the frontal face recognition problem. String matching is a powerful partial matching technique, but is not suitable for frontal face recognition due to its requirement of globally sequential representation and the complex nature of human faces, containing discontinuous and non-sequential features. Here, we build a compact syntactic Stringface representation, which is an ensemble of strings. A novel ensemble string matching approach that can perform non-sequential string matching between two Stringfaces is proposed. It is invariant to the sequential order of strings and the direction of each string. The embedded partial matching mechanism enables our method to automatically use every piece of non-occluded region, regardless of shape, in the recognition process. The encouraging results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of using syntactic methods for face recognition from a single exemplar image per person, breaking the barrier that prevents string matching techniques from being used for addressing complex image recognition problems. The proposed method not only achieved significantly better performance in recognizing partially occluded faces, but also showed its ability to perform direct matching between sketch faces and photo faces.

  5. Robust kernel collaborative representation for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaohui; Ma, Yanbo; Jiang, Yuzheng; Zhu, Yinghui; Jin, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    One of the greatest challenges of representation-based face recognition is that the training samples are usually insufficient. In other words, the training set usually does not include enough samples to show varieties of high-dimensional face images caused by illuminations, facial expressions, and postures. When the test sample is significantly different from the training samples of the same subject, the recognition performance will be sharply reduced. We propose a robust kernel collaborative representation based on virtual samples for face recognition. We think that the virtual training set conveys some reasonable and possible variations of the original training samples. Hence, we design a new object function to more closely match the representation coefficients generated from the original and virtual training sets. In order to further improve the robustness, we implement the corresponding representation-based face recognition in kernel space. It is noteworthy that any kind of virtual training samples can be used in our method. We use noised face images to obtain virtual face samples. The noise can be approximately viewed as a reflection of the varieties of illuminations, facial expressions, and postures. Our work is a simple and feasible way to obtain virtual face samples to impose Gaussian noise (and other types of noise) specifically to the original training samples to obtain possible variations of the original samples. Experimental results on the FERET, Georgia Tech, and ORL face databases show that the proposed method is more robust than two state-of-the-art face recognition methods, such as CRC and Kernel CRC.

  6. Configuration perception and face memory, and face context effects in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Huis in 't Veld, Elisabeth; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses two central and controversial issues in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), configuration- versus feature-based face processing and the influence of affective information from either facial or bodily expressions on face recognition. A sample of 10 DPs and 10 controls were tested with a previously developed face and object recognition and memory battery (Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test, FEAST), a task measuring the influence of emotional faces and bodies on face identity matching (Face-Body Compound task), and an emotionally expressive face memory task (Emotional Face Memory task, FaMe-E). We show that DPs were impaired in upright, but not inverted, face matching but they performed at the level of controls on part-to-whole matching. Second, DPs showed impaired memory for both neutral and emotional faces and scored within the normal range on the Face-Body Compound task. Third, configural perception but not feature-based processing was significantly associated with memory performance. Taken together the results indicate that DPs have a deficit in configural processing at the perception stage that may underlie the memory impairment.

  7. Wavelet-based multispectral face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dian-Ting; Zhou, Xiao-Dan; Wang, Cheng-Wen

    2008-09-01

    This paper proposes a novel wavelet-based face recognition method using thermal infrared (IR) and visible-light face images. The method applies the combination of Gabor and the Fisherfaces method to the reconstructed IR and visible images derived from wavelet frequency subbands. Our objective is to search for the subbands that are insensitive to the variation in expression and in illumination. The classification performance is improved by combining the multispectal information coming from the subbands that attain individually low equal error rate. Experimental results on Notre Dame face database show that the proposed wavelet-based algorithm outperforms previous multispectral images fusion method as well as monospectral method.

  8. Coal face measurement system for underground use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A measurement system was developed for the Eickhoff longwall shearer to determine the contour of the coal face as it mines coal. Contour data are obtained by an indirect measurement technique based on evaluating the motion of the shearer during mining. Starting from a known location, points along the coal face are established through a knowledge of the machines' positions and yaw movements as it moves past the coal face. The hardware and system operation procedures are described. The tests of system performance and their results are reported.

  9. Brain and face: communicating signals of health in the left and right sides of the face.

    PubMed

    Reis, V A; Zaidel, D W

    2001-01-01

    In human communication and mate selection the appearance of health sends signals regarding biological fitness. We compared the appearance of health in the sides of the face to previous results on left-right facial asymmetry in the appearance of beauty (1). The stimuli were created by aligning the left and right sides of the face each with its own mirror image. Here, participants viewed 38 pairs of left-left and right-right faces and judged which member of the pair looked healthier. No significant interaction emerged between decision (health vs attractiveness) and face side. Rather, in women's faces right-right was significantly more healthy and attractive than left-left, while in men's faces there was no significant left-right difference. In biology and evolution, health and beauty are closely linked and the findings here confirm this relationship in human faces.

  10. Equivalent activation of the hippocampus by face-face and face-laugh paired associate learning and recognition.

    PubMed

    Holdstock, J S; Crane, J; Bachorowski, J-A; Milner, B

    2010-11-01

    The human hippocampus is known to play an important role in relational memory. Both patient lesion studies and functional-imaging studies have shown that it is involved in the encoding and retrieval from memory of arbitrary associations. Two recent patient lesion studies, however, have found dissociations between spared and impaired memory within the domain of relational memory. Recognition of associations between information of the same kind (e.g., two faces) was spared, whereas recognition of associations between information of different kinds (e.g., face-name or face-voice associations) was impaired by hippocampal lesions. Thus, recognition of associations between information of the same kind may not be mediated by the hippocampus. Few imaging studies have directly compared activation at encoding and recognition of associations between same and different types of information. Those that have have shown mixed findings and been open to alternative interpretation. We used fMRI to compare hippocampal activation while participants studied and later recognized face-face and face-laugh paired associates. We found no differences in hippocampal activation between our two types of stimulus materials during either study or recognition. Study of both types of paired associate activated the hippocampus bilaterally, but the hippocampus was not activated by either condition during recognition. Our findings suggest that the human hippocampus is normally engaged to a similar extent by study and recognition of associations between information of the same kind and associations between information of different kinds.

  11. Temporal frequency tuning of cortical face-sensitive areas for individual face perception.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Francesco; Rossion, Bruno

    2014-04-15

    In a highly dynamic visual environment the human brain needs to rapidly differentiate complex visual patterns, such as faces. Here, we defined the temporal frequency tuning of cortical face-sensitive areas for face discrimination. Six observers were tested with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) when the same or different faces were presented in blocks at 11 frequency rates (ranging from 1 to 12 Hz). We observed a larger fMRI response for different than same faces - the repetition suppression/adaptation effect - across all stimulation frequency rates. Most importantly, the magnitude of the repetition suppression effect showed a typical Gaussian-shaped tuning function, peaking on average at 6 Hz for all face-sensitive areas of the ventral occipito-temporal cortex, including the fusiform and occipital "face areas" (FFA and OFA), as well as the superior temporal sulcus. This effect was due both to a maximal response to different faces in a range of 3 to 6 Hz and to a sharp drop of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal from 6 Hz onward when the same face was repeated during a block. These observations complement recent scalp EEG observations (Alonso-Prieto et al., 2013), indicating that the cortical face network can discriminate each individual face when these successive faces are presented every 160-170 ms. They also suggest that a relatively fast 6 Hz rate may be needed to isolate the contribution of high-level face perception processes during behavioral discrimination tasks. Finally, these findings carry important practical implications, allowing investigators to optimize the stimulation frequency rates for observing the largest repetition suppression effects to faces and other visual forms in the occipito-temporal cortex.

  12. Cross-modal face recognition using multi-matcher face scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yufeng; Blasch, Erik

    2015-05-01

    The performance of face recognition can be improved using information fusion of multimodal images and/or multiple algorithms. When multimodal face images are available, cross-modal recognition is meaningful for security and surveillance applications. For example, a probe face is a thermal image (especially at nighttime), while only visible face images are available in the gallery database. Matching a thermal probe face onto the visible gallery faces requires crossmodal matching approaches. A few such studies were implemented in facial feature space with medium recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a cross-modal recognition approach, where multimodal faces are cross-matched in feature space and the recognition performance is enhanced with stereo fusion at image, feature and/or score level. In the proposed scenario, there are two cameras for stereo imaging, two face imagers (visible and thermal images) in each camera, and three recognition algorithms (circular Gaussian filter, face pattern byte, linear discriminant analysis). A score vector is formed with three cross-matched face scores from the aforementioned three algorithms. A classifier (e.g., k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine, binomial logical regression [BLR]) is trained then tested with the score vectors by using 10-fold cross validations. The proposed approach was validated with a multispectral stereo face dataset from 105 subjects. Our experiments show very promising results: ACR (accuracy rate) = 97.84%, FAR (false accept rate) = 0.84% when cross-matching the fused thermal faces onto the fused visible faces by using three face scores and the BLR classifier.

  13. Faces in Places: Humans and Machines Make Similar Face Detection Errors

    PubMed Central

    't Hart, Bernard Marius; Abresch, Tilman Gerrit Jakob; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    The human visual system seems to be particularly efficient at detecting faces. This efficiency sometimes comes at the cost of wrongfully seeing faces in arbitrary patterns, including famous examples such as a rock configuration on Mars or a toast's roast patterns. In machine vision, face detection has made considerable progress and has become a standard feature of many digital cameras. The arguably most wide-spread algorithm for such applications (“Viola-Jones” algorithm) achieves high detection rates at high computational efficiency. To what extent do the patterns that the algorithm mistakenly classifies as faces also fool humans? We selected three kinds of stimuli from real-life, first-person perspective movies based on the algorithm's output: correct detections (“real faces”), false positives (“illusory faces”) and correctly rejected locations (“non faces”). Observers were shown pairs of these for 20 ms and had to direct their gaze to the location of the face. We found that illusory faces were mistaken for faces more frequently than non faces. In addition, rotation of the real face yielded more errors, while rotation of the illusory face yielded fewer errors. Using colored stimuli increases overall performance, but does not change the pattern of results. When replacing the eye movement by a manual response, however, the preference for illusory faces over non faces disappeared. Taken together, our data show that humans make similar face-detection errors as the Viola-Jones algorithm, when directing their gaze to briefly presented stimuli. In particular, the relative spatial arrangement of oriented filters seems of relevance. This suggests that efficient face detection in humans is likely to be pre-attentive and based on rather simple features as those encoded in the early visual system. PMID:21998653

  14. Gender-Specific Health Challenges Facing Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Specific Health Challenges Facing Women Questions and Answers Science Advances Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Volunteer for Clinical Studies Help improve ...

  15. Hallucinating face in the DCT domain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Cham, Wai-Kuen

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel learning-based face hallucination framework built in the DCT domain, which can produce a high-resolution face image from a single low-resolution one. The problem is formulated as inferring the DCT coefficients in frequency domain instead of estimating pixel intensities in spatial domain. Our study shows that DC coefficients can be estimated fairly accurately by simple interpolation-based methods. AC coefficients, which contain the information of local features of face image, cannot be estimated well using interpolation. A simple but effective learning-based inference model is proposed to infer the ac coefficients. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in producing high quality hallucinated face images.

  16. Acne, cystic on the face (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The face is the most common location of acne. Here, there are 4 to 6 millimeter red ( ... scars and fistulous tract formation (connecting passages). Severe acne may have a profound psychological impact and may ...

  17. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart ... 30, 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men are significantly more likely to have their heart ...

  18. Red in the Face: Understanding Rosacea

    MedlinePlus

    ... exit disclaimer . Subscribe Red in the Face Understanding Rosacea Some people think of a rosy complexion as ... more troubling—a long-lasting skin disorder called rosacea. Rosacea (pronounced ro-ZAY-she-ah) may start ...

  19. Decision-dependent aftereffects for faces.

    PubMed

    Walther, Christian; Schweinberger, Stefan R; Kovács, Gyula

    2014-07-01

    Adaptation-related aftereffects (AEs) have been found in the perception of face identity, in that perception of an ambiguous face is typically biased away from the identity of a preceding unambiguous adaptor face. In previous studies, we could show that both perceptual ambiguity and physical similarity play a role in determining perceived face identity AEs, Cortex 49 (2013) 1963-1977, Plos One 8 (2013) e70525. Here, we tested further the role of ambiguity by manipulating participants' task such that the very same target stimuli were either ambiguous or unambiguous regarding stimulus classification. We created two partially overlapping continua spanning three unfamiliar face identities each, by morphing identity A via B to C, and B via C to D. In a first session, participants were familiarised with faces A and C and asked to classify faces of the A-B-C continuum as either identity A or C in an AE paradigm. Following adaptation to A or C, we observed contrastive AEs for the ambiguous identity B, but not for the unambiguous identities A or C. In a second session, the same participants were familiarised with faces B and D, followed by tests of AEs for the B-C-D continuum now involving a B-D classification task. We again observed contrastive AEs but only for target identity C (ambiguous for the decision) and not for B or D (unambiguous). Our results suggest that perceptual ambiguity, as given by the task-context, determines whether or not AEs are induced. PMID:24768800

  20. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOEpatents

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  1. [Testing the reliability of face bow registration].

    PubMed

    Angyal, J; Keszthelyi, G

    1993-09-01

    The reliability of the Quick ear face-bow to transfer an arbitrary hinge axis to a Quick articulator was clinically compared with a Dentatus face-bow. 40 measurements were carried out on 8 patients with both instruments and were compared. The statistical analysis of the data indicated no difference between these facebow recordings. Furthermore both showed good reproducibility. This suggests that the same clinical results can be reached by these instruments.

  2. Independent component representations for face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart Bartlett, Marian; Lades, Martin H.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    1998-07-01

    In a task such as face recognition, much of the important information may be contained in the high-order relationships among the image pixels. A number of face recognition algorithms employ principal component analysis (PCA), which is based on the second-order statistics of the image set, and does not address high-order statistical dependencies such as the relationships among three or more pixels. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a generalization of PCA which separates the high-order moments of the input in addition to the second-order moments. ICA was performed on a set of face images by an unsupervised learning algorithm derived from the principle of optimal information transfer through sigmoidal neurons. The algorithm maximizes the mutual information between the input and the output, which produces statistically independent outputs under certain conditions. ICA was performed on the face images under two different architectures. The first architecture provided a statistically independent basis set for the face images that can be viewed as a set of independent facial features. The second architecture provided a factorial code, in which the probability of any combination of features can be obtained from the product of their individual probabilities. Both ICA representations were superior to representations based on principal components analysis for recognizing faces across sessions and changes in expression.

  3. Visual speech information for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Lawrence D; Yakel, Deborah A; Baseer, Naser; Panchal, Anjani; Nodarse, Brynn C; Niehus, Ryan P

    2002-02-01

    Two experiments test whether isolated visible speech movements can be used for face matching. Visible speech information was isolated with a point-light methodology. Participants were asked to match articulating point-light faces to a fully illuminated articulating face in an XAB task. The first experiment tested single-frame static face stimuli as a control. The results revealed that the participants were significantly better at matching the dynamic face stimuli than the static ones. Experiment 2 tested whether the observed dynamic advantage was based on the movement itself or on the fact that the dynamic stimuli consisted of many more static and ordered frames. For this purpose, frame rate was reduced, and the frames were shown in a random order, a correct order with incorrect relative timing, or a correct order with correct relative timing. The results revealed better matching performance with the correctly ordered and timed frame stimuli, suggesting that matches were based on the actual movement itself. These findings suggest that speaker-specific visible articulatory style can provide information for face matching.

  4. The orientation selectivity of face identification

    PubMed Central

    Goffaux, Valerie; Greenwood, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent work demonstrates that human face identification is most efficient when based on horizontal, rather than vertical, image structure. Because it is unclear how this specialization for upright (compared to inverted) face processing emerges in the visual system, the present study aimed to systematically characterize the orientation sensitivity profile for face identification. With upright faces, identification performance in a delayed match-to-sample task was highest for horizontally filtered images and declined sharply with oblique and vertically filtered images. Performance was well described by a Gaussian function with a bandwidth around 25°. Face inversion reshaped this sensitivity profile dramatically, with a downward shift of the entire tuning curve as well as a reduction in the amplitude of the horizontal peak and a doubling in bandwidth. The use of naturalistic outer contours (vs. a common outline mask) was also found to reshape this sensitivity profile by increasing sensitivity to oblique information in the near-horizontal range. Altogether, although face identification is sharply tuned to horizontal angles, both inversion and outline masking can profoundly reshape this orientation sensitivity profile. This combination of image- and observer-driven effects provides an insight into the functional relationship between orientation-selective processes within primary and high-level stages of the human brain. PMID:27677359

  5. Human Face Classification Using Ultrasonic Sonar Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Zhenwei; Ji, Wei; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jun

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, human face classification using ultrasonic sonar imaging is investigated. On the basis of Freedman's “image pulse” model, the scattering centers model is employed to simplify the complex geometry of the human face into a series of scattering centers. A chirp signal is utilized to detect the human face for its high range resolution and large signal-to-noise ratio. Ultrasonic sonar images, also named high-resolution range profiles, are obtained by demodulating the echoes with a reference chirp signal. Features directly related to the geometry of the human face are extracted from ultrasonic sonar images and verified in the experiments designed with different configurations of transmitter-receiver (TR) pairs. Experimental results indicate that the improved feature extraction method can achieve a high recognition rate of over 99% in the case of ultrasonic transmitters angled at 45° above and orthogonal to the face, and this method improves the performance of ultrasonic face recognition compared with our previous result.

  6. Scoring recognizability of faces for security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Simone; Ciocca, Gianluigi; Guarnera, Giuseppe Claudio; Scaggiante, Andrea; Schettini, Raimondo

    2014-03-01

    In security applications the human face plays a fundamental role, however we have to assume non-collaborative subjects. A face can be partially visible or occluded due to common-use accessories such as sunglasses, hats, scarves and so on. Also the posture of the head influence the face recognizability. Given a video sequence in input, the proposed system is able to establish if a face is depicted in a frame, and to determine its degree of recognizability in terms of clearly visible facial features. The system implements features filtering scheme combined with a skin-based face detection to improve its the robustness to false positives and cartoon-like faces. Moreover the system takes into account the recognizability trend over a customizable sliding time window to allow a high level analysis of the subject behaviour. The recognizability criteria can be tuned for each specific application. We evaluate our system both in qualitative and quantitative terms, using a data set of manually annotated videos. Experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  7. A Qualitative Impairment in Face Perception in Alzheimer's Disease: Evidence from a Reduced Face Inversion Effect.

    PubMed

    Lavallée, Marie Maxime; Gandini, Delphine; Rouleau, Isabelle; Vallet, Guillaume T; Joannette, Maude; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Busigny, Thomas; Rossion, Bruno; Joubert, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Prevalent face recognition difficulties in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have typically been attributed to the underlying episodic and semantic memory impairment. The aim of the current study was to determine if AD patients are also impaired at the perceptual level for faces, more specifically at extracting a visual representation of an individual face. To address this question, we investigated the matching of simultaneously presented individual faces and of other nonface familiar shapes (cars), at both upright and inverted orientation, in a group of mild AD patients and in a group of healthy older controls matched for age and education. AD patients showed a reduced inversion effect (i.e., larger performance for upright than inverted stimuli) for faces, but not for cars, both in terms of error rates and response times. While healthy participants showed a much larger decrease in performance for faces than for cars with inversion, the inversion effect did not differ significantly for faces and cars in AD. This abnormal inversion effect for faces was observed in a large subset of individual patients with AD. These results suggest that AD patients have deficits in higher-level visual processes, more specifically at perceiving individual faces, a function that relies on holistic representations specific to upright face stimuli. These deficits, combined with their memory impairment, may contribute to the difficulties in recognizing familiar people that are often reported in patients suffering from the disease and by their caregivers. PMID:26967217

  8. Creation of North-East Indian face database for human face identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Kankan; Saha, Priya; Bhowmik, Mrinal K.; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Nasipuri, Mita

    2013-02-01

    Due to the various factors like illumination, expression, and pose variation etc., human face seem different in multiple occasions. To determine the efficiency of the different face recognition algorithms, it requires benchmark face images. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the available 2D face databases and also introduces the creation of a visual face database, North-East Indian (NEI) Face Database, which is under development in the Biometrics Laboratory of Tripura University, India. It contains high quality face images of 292 individuals of different tribe and non-tribe people of Mongolian origin collected from the North-Eastern states of India. The database contains four different types of illumination variations, eight different expressions, faces wearing glasses and each of these variations are being clicked concurrently from five different angles to provide pose variation using five CMOS sensor cameras, in a controlled indoor environment. Three different resolutions are being used for capturing the database images. Some baseline face recognition algorithms have also been tested using the Support Vector Machines (SVM) classifier on the NEI face database, which may be used as the control algorithm performance score by other researchers.

  9. Facial resemblance increases the attractiveness of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces.

    PubMed Central

    DeBruine, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Our reactions to facial self-resemblance could reflect either specialized responses to cues of kinship or by-products of the general perceptual mechanisms of face encoding and mere exposure. The adaptive hypothesis predicts differences in reactions to self-resemblance in mating and prosocial contexts, while the by-product hypothesis does not. Using face images that were digitally transformed to resemble participants, I showed that the effects of resemblance on attractiveness judgements depended on both the sex of the judge and the sex of the face being judged: facial resemblance increased attractiveness judgements of same-sex faces more than other-sex faces, despite the use of identical procedures to manipulate resemblance. A control experiment indicated these effects were caused neither by lower resemblance of other-sex faces than same-sex faces, nor by an increased perception of averageness or familiarity of same-sex faces due to prototyping or mere exposure affecting only same-sex faces. The differential impact of self-resemblance on our perception of same-sex and other-sex faces supports the hypothesis that humans use facial resemblance as a cue of kinship. PMID:15451700

  10. Face recognition in simulated prosthetic vision: face detection-based image processing strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Xiaobei; Lu, Yanyu; Wu, Hao; Kan, Han; Chai, Xinyu

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Given the limited visual percepts elicited by current prosthetic devices, it is essential to optimize image content in order to assist implant wearers to achieve better performance of visual tasks. This study focuses on recognition of familiar faces using simulated prosthetic vision. Approach. Combined with region-of-interest (ROI) magnification, three face extraction strategies based on a face detection technique were used: the Viola-Jones face region, the statistical face region (SFR) and the matting face region. Main results. These strategies significantly enhanced recognition performance compared to directly lowering resolution (DLR) with Gaussian dots. The inclusion of certain external features, such as hairstyle, was beneficial for face recognition. Given the high recognition accuracy achieved and applicable processing speed, SFR-ROI was the preferred strategy. DLR processing resulted in significant face gender recognition differences (i.e. females were more easily recognized than males), but these differences were not apparent with other strategies. Significance. Face detection-based image processing strategies improved visual perception by highlighting useful information. Their use is advisable for face recognition when using low-resolution prosthetic vision. These results provide information for the continued design of image processing modules for use in visual prosthetics, thus maximizing the benefits for future prosthesis wearers.

  11. Best face forward: crystal-face competition at the ice-water interface.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Mary Jane; Bisson, Patrick J; Brumberg, Alexandra

    2014-07-17

    The ice-water interface plays an important role in determining the outcome of both biological and environmental processes. Under ambient pressure, the most stable form of ice is hexagonal ice (Ih). Experimentally probing the surface free energy between each of the major faces of Ih ice and the liquid is both experimentally and theoretically challenging. The basis for the challenge is the near-equality of the surface free energy for the major faces along with the tendency of water to supercool. As a result, morphology from crystallization initiated below 0 °C is kinetically controlled. The reported work circumvents supercooling consequences by providing a polycrystalline seed, followed by isothermal, equilibrium growth. Natural selection among seeded faces results in a single crystal. A record of the growth front is preserved in the frozen boule. Crystal orientation at the front is revealed by examining the boule cross section with two techniques: (1) viewing between crossed polarizers to locate the optical axis and (2) etching to distinguish the primary-prism face from the secondary-prism face. Results suggest that the most stable ice-water interface at 0 °C is the secondary-prism face, followed by the primary-prism face. The basal face that imparts the characteristic hexagonal shape to snowflakes is a distant third. The results contrast with those from freezing the vapor where the basal and primary-prism faces have comparable free energy followed by the secondary-prism face. PMID:24784996

  12. Age-related face processing bias in infancy: evidence of perceptual narrowing for adult faces.

    PubMed

    Macchi Cassia, Viola; Bulf, Hermann; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Proietti, Valentina

    2014-02-01

    Recent data demonstrate a perceptual processing advantage for adult faces in both adults and young children, suggesting that face representation is shaped by visual experience accumulated with different face-age groups. As for species and race, this age bias may emerge during the first year of life as part of the general process of perceptual narrowing, given the extensive amount of social and perceptual experience accumulated with caregivers and/or other adult individuals. Using infant-controlled habituation and visual-paired comparison at test, two experiments were carried out to examine 3- and 9-month-olds' ability to discriminate within adult and infant faces. Results showed that, when they are provided with adequate time to visually compare the stimuli during test trials (Experiment 2), 3-month-olds exhibit above-chance discrimination of adult and infant faces. Instead, 9-month-olds discriminate adult faces but not infant faces (Experiments 1 and 2). Results provide the first evidence of age-related face processing biases in infancy, and show that by 9 months face representations tune to adult human faces. PMID:24374735

  13. Explaining the face-inversion effect: the face-scheme incompatibility (FSI) model.

    PubMed

    Rakover, Sam S

    2013-08-01

    The face-inversion effect (FIE) can be viewed as being based on two kinds of findings. According to the face(UI) effect, perception and recognition are better for faces presented upright (U) than for faces presented inverted (I). According to the face/object(UI) effect, inversion impairs the processing of faces more than the processing of nonfacial objects (e.g., buildings or cars). Part I of this article focuses on the face(UI) effect and the configural-processing hypothesis, which is considered the most popular explanatory hypothesis of the FIE. In this hypothesis, it is proposed that inversion impairs the processing of configural information (the spatial relations between features) but hardly (if at all) impairs the processing of featural information (e.g., eyes, nose, and mouth). Part II of the article starts from the conclusion reached in part I, that the configural-processing hypothesis has not succeeded in explaining a substantial number of the findings and in resolving certain theoretical problems. The part then goes on to outline a new alternative model, the face-scheme incompatibility (FSI) model, which contends with these theoretical problems, accounts for the configural-processing hypothesis, succeeds in explaining a considerable portion of the empirical findings related to the face(UI) effect, and proposes a relatively new research program on the concept of the face scheme. The basic assumption of the FSI model is that schemes and prototypes are involved in processing a visual stimulus of a face and in transforming it to a "meaning-bearing" face, and that different schemes are involved if the face is presented upright or inverted. PMID:23381811

  14. Gender-Based Prototype Formation in Face Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Brochard, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    The role of gender categories in prototype formation during face recognition was investigated in 2 experiments. The participants were asked to learn individual faces and then to recognize them. During recognition, individual faces were mixed with faces, which were blended faces of same or different genders. The results of the 2 experiments showed…

  15. Holistic Processing of Faces: Perceptual and Decisional Components

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Gauthier, Isabel; Wenger, Michael J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have used several composite face paradigms to assess holistic processing of faces. In the selective attention paradigm, participants decide whether one face part (e.g., top) is the same as a previously seen face part. Their judgment is affected by whether the irrelevant part of the test face is the same as or different than the…

  16. Peak Shift but Not Range Effects in Recognition of Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spetch, Marcia L.; Cheng, Ken; Clifford, Colin W. G.

    2004-01-01

    University students were trained to discriminate between two gray-scale images of faces that varied along a continuum from a unique face to an average face created by morphing. Following training, participants were tested without feedback for their ability to recognize the positive face (S+) within a range of faces along the continuum. In…

  17. Photogrammetric Network for Evaluation of Human Faces for Face Reconstruction Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrott, P.; Detrekői, Á.; Fekete, K.

    2012-08-01

    Facial reconstruction is the process of reconstructing the geometry of faces of persons from skeletal remains. A research group (BME Cooperation Research Center for Biomechanics) was formed representing several organisations to combine knowledgebases of different disciplines like anthropology, medical, mechanical, archaeological sciences etc. to computerize the face reconstruction process based on a large dataset of 3D face and skull models gathered from living persons: cranial data from CT scans and face models from photogrammetric evaluations. The BUTE Dept. of Photogrammetry and Geoinformatics works on the method and technology of the 3D data acquisition for the face models. In this paper we will present the research and results of the photogrammetric network design, the modelling to deal with visibility constraints, and the investigation of the developed basic photogrammetric configuration to specify the result characteristics to be expected using the device built for the photogrammetric face measurements.

  18. Wheelchair Seating Assessment and Intervention: A Comparison Between Telerehabilitation and Face-to-Face Service

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, Ingrid G; Liu, Lili; Sekulic, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This study compared outcomes of wheelchair seating and positioning interventions provided by telerehabilitation (n=10) and face-to-face (n=20; 10 in each of two comparison groups, one urban and one rural). Comparison clients were matched to the telerehabilitation clients in age, diagnosis, and type of seating components received. Clients and referring therapists rated their satisfaction and identified if seating intervention goals were met. Clients recorded travel expenses incurred or saved, and all therapists recorded time spent providing service. Wait times and completion times were tracked. Clients seen by telerehabilitation had similar satisfaction ratings and were as likely to have their goals met as clients seen face-to-face; telerehabilitation clients saved travel costs. Rural referring therapists who used telerehabilitation spent more time in preparation and follow-up than the other groups. Clients assessed by telerehabilitation had shorter wait times for assessment than rural face-to-face clients, but their interventions took as long to complete. PMID:25945159

  19. Faces in the dark: interactive effects of darkness and anxiety on the memory for threatening faces.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Satoshi F; Morimoto, Yuko; Takano, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Sakiko; Hugenberg, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    In the current research, we extend past work on the effects of ambient darkness and threat to the domain of memory for expressive faces. In one study, we examined the effects of ambient darkness and individual differences in state anxiety on memory of unfamiliar expressive faces. Here, participants were seated in either a dark or light room and encoded a set of unfamiliar faces with angry, happy, and neutral facial expressions. A subsequent recognition task revealed an interactive effect of ambient darkness, anxiety, and target expression. Highly anxious participants in ambient darkness had worse memory for angry faces than did low-anxiety participants. On the other hand, the recognition performance for happy faces was affected neither by the darkness nor state anxiety. The results suggest not only that ambient darkness has its strongest effect on anxious perceivers, but also that person × situation effects should be considered in face recognition research.

  20. Using online learning in a traditional face-to-face environment.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Dawn

    2002-01-01

    A model for designing online learning was developed and implemented in a Registered Nurse-to-Bachelor of Science in Nursing course using online and face-to-face methodologies. The combination of online and face-to-face learning modalities may help the student who is a novice Internet explorer or seasoned Web navigator by offering technological support as well as providing constant in-person feedback regarding course requirements. The face-to-face component facilitates a sense of community and peer support that sometimes is lacking in an entirely online course. During the 2 semesters this model was used, students expressed satisfaction with having the course facilitator/professor physically available for consultation and advisement. Evaluation of this online/on-site course is ongoing and uses computer-administered qualitative questionnaires, a facilitator-moderated focus group, and Likert-type course evaluations.

  1. Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts with public activity and individual reachability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Qing; Cui, Jing; Zhang, Shu-Min; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiang

    2016-02-01

    Modelling temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts is vital both for understanding the spread of airborne pathogens and word-of-mouth spreading of information. Although many efforts have been devoted to model these temporal networks, there are still two important social features, public activity and individual reachability, have been ignored in these models. Here we present a simple model that captures these two features and other typical properties of empirical face-to-face contact networks. The model describes agents which are characterized by an attractiveness to slow down the motion of nearby people, have event-triggered active probability and perform an activity-dependent biased random walk in a square box with periodic boundary. The model quantitatively reproduces two empirical temporal networks of human face-to-face contacts which are testified by their network properties and the epidemic spread dynamics on them.

  2. Neuronal integration in visual cortex elevates face category tuning to conscious face perception.

    PubMed

    Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Snijders, Tineke M; Heinen, Klaartje; van Gaal, Simon; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2012-12-26

    The human brain has the extraordinary capability to transform cluttered sensory input into distinct object representations. For example, it is able to rapidly and seemingly without effort detect object categories in complex natural scenes. Surprisingly, category tuning is not sufficient to achieve conscious recognition of objects. What neural process beyond category extraction might elevate neural representations to the level where objects are consciously perceived? Here we show that visible and invisible faces produce similar category-selective responses in the ventral visual cortex. The pattern of neural activity evoked by visible faces could be used to decode the presence of invisible faces and vice versa. However, only visible faces caused extensive response enhancements and changes in neural oscillatory synchronization, as well as increased functional connectivity between higher and lower visual areas. We conclude that conscious face perception is more tightly linked to neural processes of sustained information integration and binding than to processes accommodating face category tuning. PMID:23236162

  3. Experimental Comparison of Face-Milled and Face-Hobbed Spiral Bevel Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Nanlawala, Michael; Hawkins, John M.; Mahan, Danny

    2001-01-01

    An experimental comparison of face-milled and face-hobbed spiral bevel gears was accomplished. The two differently manufactured spiral bevel gear types were tested in a closed-loop facility at NASA Glenn Research Center. Strain, vibration, and noise testing were completed at various levels of rotational speed and load. Tests were conducted from static (slow-roll) to 12600 rpm and up to 269 N-m (2380 in.-lb) pinion speed and load conditions. The tests indicated that the maximum stress recorded at the root locations had nearly the same values, however the stress distribution was different from the toe to the heel. Also, the alternating stress measured was higher for the face-milled pinion than that attained for the face-hobbed pinion (larger minimum stress). The noise and vibration results indicated that the levels measured for the face-hobbed components were less than those attained for the face-milled gears tested.

  4. A Benchmark and Comparative Study of Video-Based Face Recognition on COX Face Database.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiwu; Shan, Shiguang; Wang, Ruiping; Zhang, Haihong; Lao, Shihong; Kuerban, Alifu; Chen, Xilin

    2015-12-01

    Face recognition with still face images has been widely studied, while the research on video-based face recognition is inadequate relatively, especially in terms of benchmark datasets and comparisons. Real-world video-based face recognition applications require techniques for three distinct scenarios: 1) Videoto-Still (V2S); 2) Still-to-Video (S2V); and 3) Video-to-Video (V2V), respectively, taking video or still image as query or target. To the best of our knowledge, few datasets and evaluation protocols have benchmarked for all the three scenarios. In order to facilitate the study of this specific topic, this paper contributes a benchmarking and comparative study based on a newly collected still/video face database, named COX(1) Face DB. Specifically, we make three contributions. First, we collect and release a largescale still/video face database to simulate video surveillance with three different video-based face recognition scenarios (i.e., V2S, S2V, and V2V). Second, for benchmarking the three scenarios designed on our database, we review and experimentally compare a number of existing set-based methods. Third, we further propose a novel Point-to-Set Correlation Learning (PSCL) method, and experimentally show that it can be used as a promising baseline method for V2S/S2V face recognition on COX Face DB. Extensive experimental results clearly demonstrate that video-based face recognition needs more efforts, and our COX Face DB is a good benchmark database for evaluation.

  5. Informal Face-to-Face Interaction Improves Mood State Reflected in Prefrontal Cortex Activity

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Jun-ichiro; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress with wearable sensors has enabled researchers to capture face-to-face interactions quantitatively and given great insight into human dynamics. One attractive field for applying such sensors is the workplace, where the relationship between the face-to-face behaviors of employees and the productivity of the organization has been investigated. One interesting result of previous studies showed that informal face-to-face interaction among employees, captured by wearable sensors that the employees wore, significantly affects their performance. However, the mechanism behind this relationship has not yet been adequately explained, though experiences at the job scene might qualitatively support the finding. We hypothesized that informal face-to-face interaction improves mood state, which in turn affects the task performance. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the change of mood state before and after break time for two groups of participants, one that spent their breaks alone and one that spent them with other participants, by administering questionnaires and taking brain activity measurements. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested a significant relationship between mood state and brain activity. Here, we show that face-to-face interaction during breaks significantly improved mood state, which was measured by Profiles of Mood States (POMS). We also observed that the verbal working memory (WM) task performance of participants who did not have face-to-face interaction during breaks decreased significantly. In this paper, we discuss how the change of mood state was evidenced in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity accompanied by WM tasks measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). PMID:27199715

  6. Efficient live face detection to counter spoof attack in face recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Bikram Kumar; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2015-03-01

    Face recognition is a critical tool used in almost all major biometrics based security systems. But recognition, authentication and liveness detection of the face of an actual user is a major challenge because an imposter or a non-live face of the actual user can be used to spoof the security system. In this research, a robust technique is proposed which detects liveness of faces in order to counter spoof attacks. The proposed technique uses a three-dimensional (3D) fast Fourier transform to compare spectral energies of a live face and a fake face in a mathematically selective manner. The mathematical model involves evaluation of energies of selective high frequency bands of average power spectra of both live and non-live faces. It also carries out proper recognition and authentication of the face of the actual user using the fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation technique, which has been found to yield the highest correlation output for a match. Experimental tests show that the proposed technique yields excellent results for identifying live faces.

  7. The face-in-the-crowd effect: when angry faces are just cross(es).

    PubMed

    Coelho, Carlos M; Cloete, Steven; Wallis, Guy

    2010-01-13

    A common theme running through much of the visual recognition literature is that faces are special. Many studies now describe evidence for the idea that faces are processed in a dedicated center in cortex. Studies have also argued for the presence of evolutionarily expedient pathways dedicated to the processing of certain facial expressions. Evidence for this proposal comes largely from visual search tasks which have established that threatening expressions are more rapidly detected than other expressions: the 'face-in-the-crowd effect'. One open criticism of this effect is that it may be due to low-level visual artifacts, rather than biological preparedness. One attempt at controlling low-level differences has been to use schematic line-drawing versions of faces. This study aimed to discover if there might be alternative issues with schematic stimuli. The first study replicated the face-in-the-crowd threat advantage for schematic faces, but also measured a comparable effect using stimuli comprised of obliquely oriented lines. Similar results were achieved with these stimuli rotated, which had the effect of removing any residual resemblance to a face. The results suggest that low-level features probably underlie the face-in-the-crowd effect described for schematic face images, thereby undermining evidence for a search advantage for specific facial expressions.

  8. Does My Face FIT?: A Face Image Task Reveals Structure and Distortions of Facial Feature Representation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Christina T.; Runa, Catarina; Blanco, Xenxo Alvarez; Orvalho, Verónica; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Despite extensive research on face perception, few studies have investigated individuals’ knowledge about the physical features of their own face. In this study, 50 participants indicated the location of key features of their own face, relative to an anchor point corresponding to the tip of the nose, and the results were compared to the true location of the same individual’s features from a standardised photograph. Horizontal and vertical errors were analysed separately. An overall bias to underestimate vertical distances revealed a distorted face representation, with reduced face height. Factor analyses were used to identify separable subconfigurations of facial features with correlated localisation errors. Independent representations of upper and lower facial features emerged from the data pattern. The major source of variation across individuals was in representation of face shape, with a spectrum from tall/thin to short/wide representation. Visual identification of one’s own face is excellent, and facial features are routinely used for establishing personal identity. However, our results show that spatial knowledge of one’s own face is remarkably poor, suggesting that face representation may not contribute strongly to self-awareness. PMID:24130790

  9. Three faces of self-face recognition: potential for a multi-dimensional diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of self-face is a unique and complex phenomenon in many aspects, including its associated perceptual integration process, its emergence during development, and its socio-motivational effect. This may explain the failure of classical attempts to identify the cortical areas specifically responsive to self-face and designate them as a unique system related to 'self'. Neuroimaging findings regarding self-face recognition seem to be explained comprehensively by a recent forward-model account of the three categories of self: the physical, interpersonal, and social selves. Self-face-specific activation in the sensory and motor association cortices may reflect cognitive scrutiny due to prediction error or task-induced top-down attention in the physical internal schema related to the self-face. Self-face-specific deactivation in some amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices may reflect adaptive suppression of the default recruitment of the social-response system during face recognition. Self-face-specific activation under a social context in the ventral aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex may reflect cognitive scrutiny of the internal schema related to the social value of the self. The multi-facet nature of self-face-specific activation may hold potential as the basis for a multi-dimensional diagnostic tool for the cognitive system. PMID:25450313

  10. Comparison of Face-to-Face and Web Surveys on the Topic of Homosexual Rights.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingnan; Wang, Yichen

    2016-06-01

    Although academic research on homosexuality relies heavily on survey data, there has been limited study of the survey method of asking relevant questions. This study examines the effect of survey mode on responses to questions about homosexual rights. We find significant mode effects among heterosexual respondents, who are more likely to support equal access to employment, military service, adoption, and marriage for homosexual people in face-to-face surveys than in Web surveys. They are also more likely to choose to not respond when face-to-face than online. Homosexual respondents do not show mode effects for either substantive responses or item nonresponse rate. PMID:26566766

  11. Adaptive WildNet Face network for detecting face in the wild

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Dinh-Luan; Nguyen, Vinh-Tiep; Tran, Minh-Triet; Yoshitaka, Atsuo

    2015-12-01

    Combining Convolutional Neural Network and Deformable Part Models is a new trend in object detection area. Following this trend, we propose Adaptive WildNet Face network using Deformable Part Models structure to exploit advantages of two methods in face detection area. We evaluate the merit of our method on Face Detection Data Set and Benchmark. Experimental results show that our method achieves up to 86.22% true positive images in 1000 false positive images in FDDB. Our method becomes one of state-of-the-art methods in FDDB dataset and it opens a new way to detect faces of images in the wild.

  12. Cortical Thickness in Fusiform Face Area Predicts Face and Object Recognition Performance

    PubMed Central

    McGugin, Rankin W.; Van Gulick, Ana E.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The fusiform face area (FFA) is defined by its selectivity for faces. Several studies have shown that the response of FFA to non-face objects can predict behavioral performance for these objects. However, one possible account is that experts pay more attention to objects in their domain of expertise, driving signals up. Here we show an effect of expertise with non-face objects in FFA that cannot be explained by differential attention to objects of expertise. We explore the relationship between cortical thickness of FFA and face and object recognition using the Cambridge Face Memory Test and Vanderbilt Expertise Test, respectively. We measured cortical thickness in functionally-defined regions in a group of men who evidenced functional expertise effects for cars in FFA. Performance with faces and objects together accounted for approximately 40% of the variance in cortical thickness of several FFA patches. While subjects with a thicker FFA cortex performed better with vehicles, those with a thinner FFA cortex performed better with faces and living objects. The results point to a domain-general role of FFA in object perception and reveal an interesting double dissociation that does not contrast faces and objects, but rather living and non-living objects. PMID:26439272

  13. Orienting to face expression during encoding improves men's recognition of own gender faces.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Erika K; Bulluck, Megan; Hertzog, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear why women have superior episodic memory of faces, but the benefit may be partially the result of women engaging in superior processing of facial expressions. Therefore, we hypothesized that orienting instructions to attend to facial expression at encoding would significantly improve men's memory of faces and possibly reduce gender differences. We directed 203 college students (122 women) to study 120 faces under instructions to orient to either the person's gender or their emotional expression. They later took a recognition test of these faces by either judging whether they had previously studied the same person or that person with the exact same expression; the latter test evaluated recollection of specific facial details. Orienting to facial expressions during encoding significantly improved men's recognition of own-gender faces and eliminated the advantage that women had for male faces under gender orienting instructions. Although gender differences in spontaneous strategy use when orienting to faces cannot fully account for gender differences in face recognition, orienting men to facial expression during encoding is one way to significantly improve their episodic memory for male faces.

  14. Comparison of Face-to-Face and Web Surveys on the Topic of Homosexual Rights.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingnan; Wang, Yichen

    2016-06-01

    Although academic research on homosexuality relies heavily on survey data, there has been limited study of the survey method of asking relevant questions. This study examines the effect of survey mode on responses to questions about homosexual rights. We find significant mode effects among heterosexual respondents, who are more likely to support equal access to employment, military service, adoption, and marriage for homosexual people in face-to-face surveys than in Web surveys. They are also more likely to choose to not respond when face-to-face than online. Homosexual respondents do not show mode effects for either substantive responses or item nonresponse rate.

  15. Facial Diversity and Infant Preferences for Attractive Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Judith H.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three studies examined infant preferences for attractive faces of White males, White females, Black females, and infants. Infants viewed pairs of faces rated for attractiveness by adults. Preferences for attractive faces were found for all facial types. (BC)

  16. 46 CFR 56.25-10 - Flange facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) When bolting class 150 standard steel flanges to flat face... Pipe Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, Gaskets, and Bolting § 56.25-10 Flange facings. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 56.25-10 - Flange facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56.01-2). (b) When bolting class 150 standard steel flanges to flat face... Pipe Flanges, Blanks, Flange Facings, Gaskets, and Bolting § 56.25-10 Flange facings. (a)...

  18. Variability in photos of the same face.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rob; White, David; Van Montfort, Xandra; Mike Burton, A

    2011-12-01

    Psychological studies of face recognition have typically ignored within-person variation in appearance, instead emphasising differences between individuals. Studies typically assume that a photograph adequately captures a person's appearance, and for that reason most studies use just one, or a small number of photos per person. Here we show that photographs are not consistent indicators of facial appearance because they are blind to within-person variability. Crucially, this within-person variability is often very large compared to the differences between people. To investigate variability in photos of the same face, we collected images from the internet to sample a realistic range for each individual. In Experiments 1 and 2, unfamiliar viewers perceived images of the same person as being different individuals, while familiar viewers perfectly identified the same photos. In Experiment 3, multiple photographs of any individual formed a continuum of good to bad likeness, which was highly sensitive to familiarity. Finally, in Experiment 4, we found that within-person variability exceeded between-person variability in attractiveness. These observations are critical to our understanding of face processing, because they suggest that a key component of face processing has been ignored. As well as its theoretical significance, this scale of variability has important practical implications. For example, our findings suggest that face photographs are unsuitable as proof of identity.

  19. GUCLF: a new light field face database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavendra, R.; Raja, Kiran B.; Yang, Bian; Busch, Christoph

    2013-11-01

    The advancement in face recognition algorithm has a strong relationship with the availability of face databases that exhibit varying factors reflecting real life scenarios. The GUCLF face database is the first of its kind that can strongly influence the advancement in face recognition technology. In this paper, we introduce and describe our new face samples database collected using Lytro light field camera. The database consists of 200 reference samples and 303 probe samples collected from 25 subjects. The reference samples are collected in the controlled conditions using Canon EOS 550D DSLR camera. While probe samples are captured using both conventional digital camera (Sony DSC-S750) and Lytro light field camera. The probe samples are captured in three different scenarios: indoor, corridor and outdoor to include all possible real life conditions. In addition to the database description, this paper also elaborates on possible uses of the collected database and proposes a testing protocol. Further, we also present the quantitative results from the baseline experiments using the Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA).

  20. Supreme Court rejects challenge to FACE.

    PubMed

    1996-10-25

    On October 7, the US Supreme Court declined to hear Skott vs. US, a case challenging the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE). The 1994 law makes it a federal crime to use or attempt to use force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to injure, intimidate, or interfere with reproductive health care providers and their patients. The case came to the High Court after the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit overturned an earlier district court ruling and upheld the constitutionality of the federal statute in December 1995. Six Wisconsin anti-choice protestors, who had been arrested in September 1994 after participating in a blockade of a Milwaukee women's health facility, had successfully petitioned the US District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin to dismiss criminal charges based on FACE. While the district court held that Congress had no authority under the Commerce Clause or under the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution to enact FACE, the appellate panel found that the lower court had not given sufficient consideration to congressional findings that the activities restricted by FACE substantially affect interstate commerce and are subject to the regulatory power of Congress. FACE has been upheld by the US Courts of Appeal for the Fourth, Eighth, and Eleventh Circuits and eleven federal district courts. Two district courts have found the law invalid. This marks the third time the High Court has refused to hear a challenge to the law.

  1. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Rowley, Lauren E; Amoaku, Unity T; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling.

  2. Influence of motion on face recognition.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Natale S; Manfredi, Valentina; Pessa, Eliano

    2012-02-01

    The influence of motion information and temporal associations on recognition of non-familiar faces was investigated using two groups which performed a face recognition task. One group was presented with regular temporal sequences of face views designed to produce the impression of motion of the face rotating in depth, the other group with random sequences of the same views. In one condition, participants viewed the sequences of the views in rapid succession with a negligible interstimulus interval (ISI). This condition was characterized by three different presentation times. In another condition, participants were presented a sequence with a 1-sec. ISI among the views. That regular sequences of views with a negligible ISI and a shorter presentation time were hypothesized to give rise to better recognition, related to a stronger impression of face rotation. Analysis of data from 45 participants showed a shorter presentation time was associated with significantly better accuracy on the recognition task; however, differences between performances associated with regular and random sequences were not significant.

  3. [Face recognition in patients with schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2012-07-01

    It is well known that patients with schizophrenia show severe deficiencies in social communication skills. These deficiencies are believed to be partly derived from abnormalities in face recognition. However, the exact nature of these abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenic patients with respect to face recognition has yet to be clarified. In the present paper, we review the main findings on face recognition deficiencies in patients with schizophrenia, particularly focusing on abnormalities in the recognition of facial expression and gaze direction, which are the primary sources of information of others' mental states. The existing studies reveal that the abnormal recognition of facial expression and gaze direction in schizophrenic patients is attributable to impairments in both perceptual processing of visual stimuli, and cognitive-emotional responses to social information. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients show malfunctions in distributed neural regions, ranging from the fusiform gyrus recruited in the structural encoding of facial stimuli, to the amygdala which plays a primary role in the detection of the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings were obtained from research in patient groups with heterogeneous characteristics. Because previous studies have indicated that impairments in face recognition in schizophrenic patients might vary according to the types of symptoms, it is of primary importance to compare the nature of face recognition deficiencies and the impairments of underlying neural functions across sub-groups of patients.

  4. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Clare A. M.; Rowley, Lauren E.; Amoaku, Unity T.; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A.; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W.

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying “ambient image” face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling. PMID:26579008

  5. Robust Face Clustering Via Tensor Decomposition.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochun; Wei, Xingxing; Han, Yahong; Lin, Dongdai

    2015-11-01

    Face clustering is a key component either in image managements or video analysis. Wild human faces vary with the poses, expressions, and illumination changes. All kinds of noises, like block occlusions, random pixel corruptions, and various disguises may also destroy the consistency of faces referring to the same person. This motivates us to develop a robust face clustering algorithm that is less sensitive to these noises. To retain the underlying structured information within facial images, we use tensors to represent faces, and then accomplish the clustering task based on the tensor data. The proposed algorithm is called robust tensor clustering (RTC), which firstly finds a lower-rank approximation of the original tensor data using a L1 norm optimization function. Because L1 norm does not exaggerate the effect of noises compared with L2 norm, the minimization of the L1 norm approximation function makes RTC robust. Then, we compute high-order singular value decomposition of this approximate tensor to obtain the final clustering results. Different from traditional algorithms solving the approximation function with a greedy strategy, we utilize a nongreedy strategy to obtain a better solution. Experiments conducted on the benchmark facial datasets and gait sequences demonstrate that RTC has better performance than the state-of-the-art clustering algorithms and is more robust to noises. PMID:25546869

  6. Face Allotransplantation and Burns: a Review

    PubMed Central

    A, Arno; JP, Barret; RA, Harrison; MG, Jeschke

    2012-01-01

    Burns may represent one of the main indications for face allotransplantation. Severely disfigured faces featuring a devastating appearance and great functional impairments are not only seen as burn sequelae, but also occur as a result of other traumatic injuries, oncological surgical resections, benign tumors (e.g., neurofibromatosis), and major congenital malformations. To date, sixteen human face composite tissue allotransplantations have been performed with success. Despite the initial scepticism about its applicability, due mainly to ethical and technical reasons, the previous worldwide cases and their associated positive outcomes –including acceptable immunosuppressive regimens, excellent aesthetic and functional results, and good psychological acceptance by the recipient- , enable the conclusion that face composite tissue allotransplantation has become another therapeutic strategy in the reconstructive surgical armamentarium, which bears special consideration when dealing with severely disfigured burned patients. The aim of this review is to describe the basics of face composite tissue allotransplantation and give an overview of some of the cases performed until now, with special attention paid to debating the pros and cons of its applicability in burn patients. PMID:22274632

  7. The morphometrics of "masculinity" in human faces.

    PubMed

    Mitteroecker, Philipp; Windhager, Sonja; Müller, Gerd B; Schaefer, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    In studies of social inference and human mate preference, a wide but inconsistent array of tools for computing facial masculinity has been devised. Several of these approaches implicitly assumed that the individual expression of sexually dimorphic shape features, which we refer to as maleness, resembles facial shape features perceived as masculine. We outline a morphometric strategy for estimating separately the face shape patterns that underlie perceived masculinity and maleness, and for computing individual scores for these shape patterns. We further show how faces with different degrees of masculinity or maleness can be constructed in a geometric morphometric framework. In an application of these methods to a set of human facial photographs, we found that shape features typically perceived as masculine are wide faces with a wide inter-orbital distance, a wide nose, thin lips, and a large and massive lower face. The individual expressions of this combination of shape features--the masculinity shape scores--were the best predictor of rated masculinity among the compared methods (r = 0.5). The shape features perceived as masculine only partly resembled the average face shape difference between males and females (sexual dimorphism). Discriminant functions and Procrustes distances to the female mean shape were poor predictors of perceived masculinity.

  8. Supreme Court rejects challenge to FACE.

    PubMed

    1996-10-25

    On October 7, the US Supreme Court declined to hear Skott vs. US, a case challenging the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE). The 1994 law makes it a federal crime to use or attempt to use force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to injure, intimidate, or interfere with reproductive health care providers and their patients. The case came to the High Court after the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit overturned an earlier district court ruling and upheld the constitutionality of the federal statute in December 1995. Six Wisconsin anti-choice protestors, who had been arrested in September 1994 after participating in a blockade of a Milwaukee women's health facility, had successfully petitioned the US District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin to dismiss criminal charges based on FACE. While the district court held that Congress had no authority under the Commerce Clause or under the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution to enact FACE, the appellate panel found that the lower court had not given sufficient consideration to congressional findings that the activities restricted by FACE substantially affect interstate commerce and are subject to the regulatory power of Congress. FACE has been upheld by the US Courts of Appeal for the Fourth, Eighth, and Eleventh Circuits and eleven federal district courts. Two district courts have found the law invalid. This marks the third time the High Court has refused to hear a challenge to the law. PMID:12320456

  9. Recognizing Disguised Faces: Human and Machine Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dhamecha, Tejas Indulal; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Kumar, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Face verification, though an easy task for humans, is a long-standing open research area. This is largely due to the challenging covariates, such as disguise and aging, which make it very hard to accurately verify the identity of a person. This paper investigates human and machine performance for recognizing/verifying disguised faces. Performance is also evaluated under familiarity and match/mismatch with the ethnicity of observers. The findings of this study are used to develop an automated algorithm to verify the faces presented under disguise variations. We use automatically localized feature descriptors which can identify disguised face patches and account for this information to achieve improved matching accuracy. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated on the IIIT-Delhi Disguise database that contains images pertaining to 75 subjects with different kinds of disguise variations. The experiments suggest that the proposed algorithm can outperform a popular commercial system and evaluates them against humans in matching disguised face images. PMID:25029188

  10. Constrained Multi-View Video Face Clustering.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochun; Zhang, Changqing; Zhou, Chengju; Fu, Huazhu; Foroosh, Hassan

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we focus on face clustering in videos. To promote the performance of video clustering by multiple intrinsic cues, i.e., pairwise constraints and multiple views, we propose a constrained multi-view video face clustering method under a unified graph-based model. First, unlike most existing video face clustering methods which only employ these constraints in the clustering step, we strengthen the pairwise constraints through the whole video face clustering framework, both in sparse subspace representation and spectral clustering. In the constrained sparse subspace representation, the sparse representation is forced to explore unknown relationships. In the constrained spectral clustering, the constraints are used to guide for learning more reasonable new representations. Second, our method considers both the video face pairwise constraints as well as the multi-view consistence simultaneously. In particular, the graph regularization enforces the pairwise constraints to be respected and the co-regularization penalizes the disagreement among different graphs of multiple views. Experiments on three real-world video benchmark data sets demonstrate the significant improvements of our method over the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26259245

  11. Social transmission of face preferences among humans.

    PubMed

    Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Little, Anthony C; Burriss, Robert P; Feinberg, David R

    2007-03-22

    Previous studies demonstrating mate choice copying effects among females in non-human species have led many researchers to propose that social transmission of mate preferences may influence sexual selection for male traits. Although it has been suggested that social transmission may also influence mate preferences in humans, there is little empirical support for such effects. Here, we show that observing other women with smiling (i.e. positive) expressions looking at male faces increased women's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women with neutral (i.e. relatively negative) expressions looking at male faces. By contrast, the reverse was true for male participants (i.e. observing women with neutral expressions looking at male faces increased male participant's preferences for those men to a greater extent than did observing women smiling at male faces). This latter finding suggests that within-sex competition promotes negative attitudes among men towards other men who are the target of positive social interest from women. Our findings demonstrate that social transmission of face preferences influences judgments of men's attractiveness, potentially demonstrating a mechanism for social transmission of mate preferences. PMID:17251104

  12. Personality judgments from everyday images of faces.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Rowley, Lauren E; Amoaku, Unity T; Daguzan, Ella; Kidd-Rossiter, Kate A; Maceviciute, Ugne; Young, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    People readily make personality attributions to images of strangers' faces. Here we investigated the basis of these personality attributions as made to everyday, naturalistic face images. In a first study, we used 1000 highly varying "ambient image" face photographs to test the correspondence between personality judgments of the Big Five and dimensions known to underlie a range of facial first impressions: approachability, dominance, and youthful-attractiveness. Interestingly, the facial Big Five judgments were found to separate to some extent: judgments of openness, extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness were mainly linked to facial first impressions of approachability, whereas conscientiousness judgments involved a combination of approachability and dominance. In a second study we used average face images to investigate which main cues are used by perceivers to make impressions of the Big Five, by extracting consistent cues to impressions from the large variation in the original images. When forming impressions of strangers from highly varying, naturalistic face photographs, perceivers mainly seem to rely on broad facial cues to approachability, such as smiling. PMID:26579008

  13. Tensor discriminant color space for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-Jing; Yang, Jian; Zhang, Na; Zhou, Chun-Guang

    2011-09-01

    Recent research efforts reveal that color may provide useful information for face recognition. For different visual tasks, the choice of a color space is generally different. How can a color space be sought for the specific face recognition problem? To address this problem, this paper represents a color image as a third-order tensor and presents the tensor discriminant color space (TDCS) model. The model can keep the underlying spatial structure of color images. With the definition of n-mode between-class scatter matrices and within-class scatter matrices, TDCS constructs an iterative procedure to obtain one color space transformation matrix and two discriminant projection matrices by maximizing the ratio of these two scatter matrices. The experiments are conducted on two color face databases, AR and Georgia Tech face databases, and the results show that both the performance and the efficiency of the proposed method are better than those of the state-of-the-art color image discriminant model, which involve one color space transformation matrix and one discriminant projection matrix, specifically in a complicated face database with various pose variations.

  14. Fiber coupler end face wavefront surface metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compertore, David C.; Ignatovich, Filipp V.; Marcus, Michael A.

    2015-09-01

    Despite significant technological advances in the field of fiber optic communications, one area remains surprisingly `low-tech': fiber termination. In many instances it involves manual labor and subjective visual inspection. At the same time, high quality fiber connections are one of the most critical parameters in constructing an efficient communication link. The shape and finish of the fiber end faces determines the efficiency of a connection comprised of coupled fiber end faces. The importance of fiber end face quality becomes even more critical for fiber connection arrays and for in the field applications. In this article we propose and demonstrate a quantitative inspection method for the fiber connectors using reflected wavefront technology. The manufactured and polished fiber tip is illuminated by a collimated light from a microscope objective. The reflected light is collected by the objective and is directed to a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. A set of lenses is used to create the image of the fiber tip on the surface of the sensor. The wavefront is analyzed by the sensor, and the measured parameters are used to obtain surface properties of the fiber tip, and estimate connection loss. For example, defocus components in the reflected light indicate the presence of bow in the fiber end face. This inspection method provides a contact-free approach for quantitative inspection of fiber end faces and for estimating the connection loss, and can potentially be integrated into a feedback system for automated inspection and polishing of fiber tips and fiber tip arrays.

  15. Not on the face alone: perception of contextualized face expressions in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Aviezer, Hillel; Bentin, Shlomo; Hassin, Ran R; Meschino, Wendy S; Kennedy, Jeanne; Grewal, Sonya; Esmail, Sherali; Cohen, Sharon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2009-06-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Huntington's disease mutation-carriers have deficient explicit recognition of isolated facial expressions. There are no studies, however, which have investigated the recognition of facial expressions embedded within an emotional body and scene context. Real life facial expressions are typically embedded in contexts which may dramatically change the emotion recognized in the face. Moreover, a recent study showed that the magnitude of the contextual bias is modulated by the similarity between the actual expression of the presented face and the facial expression that would typically fit the context, e.g. disgust faces are more similar to anger than to sadness faces and, consequently, are more strongly influenced by contexts expressing anger than by contexts expressing sadness. Since context effects on facial expression perception are not explicitly controlled, their pattern serves as an implicit measure of the processing of facial expressions. In this study we took advantage of the face-in-context design to compare explicit recognition of face-expressions by Huntington's disease mutation-carriers, with evidence for processing the expressions deriving from implicit measures. In an initial experiment we presented a group of 21 Huntington's disease mutation-carriers with standard tests of face-expression recognition. Relative to controls, they displayed deficits in recognizing disgust and anger faces despite intact recognition of these emotions from non-facial images. In a subsequent experiment, we embedded the disgust faces on images of people conveying sadness and anger as expressed by body language and additional paraphernalia. In addition, sadness and anger faces were embedded on context images conveying disgust. In both cases participants were instructed to categorize the facial expressions, ignoring the context. Despite the deficient explicit recognition of isolated disgust and anger faces, the perception of the emotions

  16. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Data from the Duke Forest FACE Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOEÆs Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. The Duke University FACE website actually presents information on several FACE experiments. The Forest-Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS-I) facility is located in the Blackwood Division of the Duke Forest. It consists of four free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) plots that provide elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and four plots that provide ambient CO2 control. The system has been in operation since June, 1994 in the prototype plot, and since August, 1996 in the three additional plots. The prototype plot and its reference were halved with a barrier inserted in the soil in 1998 to conduct, together with five additional plot pairs, CO2 X soil nutrient enrichment experiments. The rest of the plots were partitioned in early 2005 and incorporated into the CO2 X nutrient experiment. To increase statistical power, four additional ambient plots were established in January, 2005, halved, and one half of each fertilized. [copied from http://face.env.duke.edu/description.cfm] The Duke FACE home page makes information available from both completed and ongoing projects, provides a searchable database of publications and presentations, and data, images, and links to related websites.

  17. Matching pursuit filters applied to face identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jonathan

    1994-10-01

    An algorithm has been developed for the automatic identification of human faces. Because the algorithm uses facial features restricted to the nose and eye regions of the face, it is robust to variations in facial expression, hair style and the surrounding environment. The algorithm uses coarse to fine processing to estimate the location of a small set of key facial features. Based on the hypothesized locations of the facial features, the identification module searches the database for the identity of the unknown face. The identification is made by matching pursuit filters. Matching pursuit filters have the advantage that they can be designed to find the differences between facial features needed to identify unknown individuals. The algorithm is demonstrated on a database of 172 individuals.

  18. ANIMAL ANALOGIES IN FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF FACES.

    PubMed

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A; Wadlinger, Heather A; Luevano, Victor X; White, Benjamin M; Xing, Cai; Zhang, Yi

    2011-08-01

    Analogies between humans and animals based on facial resemblance have a long history. We report evidence for reverse anthropomorphism and the extension of facial stereotypes to lions, foxes, and dogs. In the stereotype extension, more positive traits were attributed to animals judged more attractive than con-specifics; more childlike traits were attributed to those judged more babyfaced. In the reverse anthropomorphism, human faces with more resemblance to lions, ascertained by connectionist modeling of facial metrics, were judged more dominant, cold, and shrewd, controlling attractiveness, babyfaceness, and sex. Faces with more resemblance to Labradors were judged warmer and less shrewd. Resemblance to foxes did not predict impressions. Results for lions and dogs were consistent with trait impressions of these animals and support the species overgeneralization hypothesis that evolutionarily adaptive reactions to particular animals are overgeneralized, with people perceived to have traits associated with animals their faces resemble. Other possible explanations are discussed.

  19. ANIMAL ANALOGIES IN FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF FACES

    PubMed Central

    Zebrowitz, Leslie A.; Wadlinger, Heather A.; Luevano, Victor X.; White, Benjamin M.; Xing, Cai; Zhang, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Analogies between humans and animals based on facial resemblance have a long history. We report evidence for reverse anthropomorphism and the extension of facial stereotypes to lions, foxes, and dogs. In the stereotype extension, more positive traits were attributed to animals judged more attractive than con-specifics; more childlike traits were attributed to those judged more babyfaced. In the reverse anthropomorphism, human faces with more resemblance to lions, ascertained by connectionist modeling of facial metrics, were judged more dominant, cold, and shrewd, controlling attractiveness, babyfaceness, and sex. Faces with more resemblance to Labradors were judged warmer and less shrewd. Resemblance to foxes did not predict impressions. Results for lions and dogs were consistent with trait impressions of these animals and support the species overgeneralization hypothesis that evolutionarily adaptive reactions to particular animals are overgeneralized, with people perceived to have traits associated with animals their faces resemble. Other possible explanations are discussed. PMID:25339791

  20. Why do most faces look thinner upside down?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Peter; Wilson, Jennie

    2012-01-01

    Faces are found generally to be perceived as thinner when viewed upside down. When a face is viewed upright, the internal features are thought to influence the perception of face shape. However, when inverted, it has been proposed that disruption to holistic processing means that these factors can no longer be used to judge the shape of a face. We show that it is not the case that an inverted face reverts to some average shape whereby fat faces appear thinner upside down whereas thin faces appear fatter. The fact that the illusion appears to occur for most face shapes is discussed with regard to the horizontal–vertical illusion. PMID:23483779

  1. The neural speed of familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Barragan-Jason, G; Cauchoix, M; Barbeau, E J

    2015-08-01

    Rapidly recognizing familiar people from their faces appears critical for social interactions (e.g., to differentiate friend from foe). However, the actual speed at which the human brain can distinguish familiar from unknown faces still remains debated. In particular, it is not clear whether familiarity can be extracted from rapid face individualization or if it requires additional time consuming processing. We recorded scalp EEG activity in 28 subjects performing a go/no-go, famous/non-famous, unrepeated, face recognition task. Speed constraints were used to encourage subjects to use the earliest familiarity information available. Event related potential (ERP) analyses show that both the N170 and the N250 components were modulated by familiarity. The N170 modulation was related to behaviour: subjects presenting the strongest N170 modulation were also faster but less accurate than those who only showed weak N170 modulation. A complementary Multi-Variate Pattern Analysis (MVPA) confirmed ERP results and provided some more insights into the dynamics of face recognition as the N170 differential effect appeared to be related to a first transitory phase (transitory bump of decoding power) starting at around 140 ms, which returned to baseline afterwards. This bump of activity was henceforth followed by an increase of decoding power starting around 200 ms after stimulus onset. Overall, our results suggest that rather than a simple single-process, familiarity for faces may rely on a cascade of neural processes, including a coarse and fast stage starting at 140 ms and a more refined but slower stage occurring after 200 ms.

  2. Ventilatory drive during face immersion in man.

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, M R; Patrick, J M

    1986-01-01

    Four series of experiments have been performed in normal subjects to determine whether face immersion gives rise to a reduction in ventilatory drive. Such a response might be advantageous, like the cardiovascular components of the 'diving response', in prolonging breath-hold diving. In the first series, ventilatory drive was measured indirectly as the maximal voluntary breath-holding time, starting each breath-hold at the same alveolar partial pressures and at the same lung volume. When the face was immersed in cold water, breath-holding times were increased by 14%. The breaking point occurred at a higher alveolar PCO2 and the rate of rise of PCO2 was not affected. Control immersions in warm water had no effect. In the second and third series, subjects lay prone and breathed either air or 5% CO2 through a valve in the bottom of a bowl. Minute ventilation was measured before, during and after 5 min of face immersion in cold water. Transient hypoventilations of 13% and 10% respectively were seen, accompanied by small rises in alveolar PCO2. In control experiments, immersion of the forearm in cold water produced the opposite responses. In the fourth series, a cold wet pack was applied to the face during moderate steady-state exercise. A small irregular hypoventilation was seen, but not in control experiments when a warm pack was applied. Face temperatures fell by about 10 degrees C in these experiments. No material changes were found in the temperatures of the inspired air or of the aural canal. It is concluded that face immersion in cold water causes a modest reduction in ventilatory drive in man. This appears to be a component of the 'diving response'. PMID:3083097

  3. The neural speed of familiar face recognition.

    PubMed

    Barragan-Jason, G; Cauchoix, M; Barbeau, E J

    2015-08-01

    Rapidly recognizing familiar people from their faces appears critical for social interactions (e.g., to differentiate friend from foe). However, the actual speed at which the human brain can distinguish familiar from unknown faces still remains debated. In particular, it is not clear whether familiarity can be extracted from rapid face individualization or if it requires additional time consuming processing. We recorded scalp EEG activity in 28 subjects performing a go/no-go, famous/non-famous, unrepeated, face recognition task. Speed constraints were used to encourage subjects to use the earliest familiarity information available. Event related potential (ERP) analyses show that both the N170 and the N250 components were modulated by familiarity. The N170 modulation was related to behaviour: subjects presenting the strongest N170 modulation were also faster but less accurate than those who only showed weak N170 modulation. A complementary Multi-Variate Pattern Analysis (MVPA) confirmed ERP results and provided some more insights into the dynamics of face recognition as the N170 differential effect appeared to be related to a first transitory phase (transitory bump of decoding power) starting at around 140 ms, which returned to baseline afterwards. This bump of activity was henceforth followed by an increase of decoding power starting around 200 ms after stimulus onset. Overall, our results suggest that rather than a simple single-process, familiarity for faces may rely on a cascade of neural processes, including a coarse and fast stage starting at 140 ms and a more refined but slower stage occurring after 200 ms. PMID:26100560

  4. En-face optical coherence tomography revival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradu, Adrian; Kapinchev, Konstantin; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2016-03-01

    Quite recently, we introduced a novel Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) method, termed as Master Slave OCT (MS-OCT), especially to deliver en-face images. MS-OCT operates like a time domain OCT, selecting signal from a selected depth only while scanning the laser beam across the sample. Time domain OCT allows real time production of an en-face image, although relatively slowly. As a major advance, the Master Slave method allows collection of signals from any number of depths, as required by the user. MS-OCT is an OCT method that does not require resampling of data and can be used to deliver en-face images from several depths simultaneously. However, as the MS-OCT method requires important computational resources, the number of multiple depth en-face images produced in real-time is limited. Here, we demonstrate that taking advantage of the parallel processing feature of the MS-OCT technology by harnessing the capabilities of graphics processing units (GPU)s, information from 384 depth positions is acquired in one raster with real time display of 40 en-face OCT images. These exhibit comparable resolution and sensitivity to the images produced using the traditional Fourier domain based method. The GPU facilitates versatile real time selection of parameters, such as the depth positions of the 40 images out of a set of 384 depth locations, as well as their axial resolution. Here, we present in parallel with the 40 en-face OCT images of a human tooth, a confocal microscopy lookalike image, together with two B-scan OCT images along rectangular directions.

  5. Early Maturity of Face Recognition: No Childhood Development of Holistic Processing, Novel Face Encoding, or Face-Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crookes, Kate; McKone, Elinor

    2009-01-01

    Historically, it was believed the perceptual mechanisms involved in individuating faces developed only very slowly over the course of childhood, and that adult levels of expertise were not reached until well into adolescence. Over the last 10 years, there has been some erosion of this view by demonstrations that all adult-like behavioural…

  6. Faces of root polytopes in all dimensions.

    PubMed

    Szajewska, Marzena

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the root polytopes of all finite reflection groups W with a connected Coxeter-Dynkin diagram in {\\bb R}^n are identified, their faces of dimensions 0 ≤ d ≤ n - 1 are counted, and the construction of representatives of the appropriate W-conjugacy class is described. The method consists of recursive decoration of the appropriate Coxeter-Dynkin diagram [Champagne et al. (1995). Can. J. Phys. 73, 566-584]. Each recursion step provides the essentials of faces of a specific dimension and specific symmetry. The results can be applied to crystals of any dimension and any symmetry. PMID:27357848

  7. Eccrine cylindroma of the face and scalp.

    PubMed

    Manicketh, Indu; Singh, Rekha; Ghosh, Prasit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Cylindroma is a benign skin adnexal tumor of eccrine differentiation. Clinically, they are disfiguring lesions that can mimic a malignancy. Cylindromas can be single or multiple and commonly involve the scalp (turban tumor) and face. Multiple cylindromas can have a syndromic association as seen in Brooke-Spiegler syndrome and familial cylindromatosis. We present a case of non familial cylindroma of the face that clinically mimicked a basal cell carcinoma. The histopathology was confirmatory. Herein we also highlight the utility of a simple and inexpensive histochemical stain Periodic Acid Schiff in supporting the diagnosis. PMID:27294061

  8. [Anesthetic maintenance during circular face lifting].

    PubMed

    Parshin, V I; Pastukhova, N K

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with the specific features of anesthetic maintenance (ketamine, diprivan, dormicum, perfalgan, promedol) during circular face lifting without artificial ventilation. All intravenous anesthesia procedures have yielded good results. Narcotic analgesics may be removed from the anesthetic maintenance scheme, ruling out the necessity of their licensing, storing, and recording. The use of perfalgan causes no hallucinogenic reactions and offers the optimum level of anesthesia. During face lifting, 2.3 +/- 0.6-hour anesthesia with spontaneous breathing is possible, safe, and warranted. PMID:20524331

  9. Spatial attention does not modulate holistic face processing, even when multiple faces are present.

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Tokarev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The perception of faces is often considered to be unique in comparison with that of other objects in the world. The fact that faces are processed not by their constituent components but by the spatial configuration between those components (holistic face processing--HFP) is often used to support this. Despite two decades of research, however, there is no consensus as to whether or not HFP is a process that is subject to attentional modulation. Here, in two experiments, we used a method to direct spatial attention not previously used in studies of HFP--an exogenous spatial cue--as it offers a robust, rapid, and involuntary method of directing attention. In one experiment we demonstrate that the degree of HFP afforded to a face is not reduced when attention is directed away from that face. In a second experiment we replicate this finding even when the face is simultaneously flanked by other faces--a condition under which a face-specific processing module would, hypothetically, be more sensitive to attentional guidance. These results add to the argument that HFP is carried out independently of attention.

  10. Public Speaking Anxiety: Comparing Face-to-Face and Web-Based Speeches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Scott; Larson, James

    2013-01-01

    This study is to determine whether or not students have a different level of anxiety between giving a speech to a group of people in a traditional face-to-face classroom setting to a speech given to an audience (visible on a projected screen) into a camera using distance or web-based technology. The study included approximately 70 students.…

  11. Extensive Reading in the EFL Classroom: Benefits of a Face-to-Face Collaboration Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchhoff, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is an approach to language education that has shown great promise for foreign language learners to acquire language; however, implementation reveals difficulty in maintaining student motivation to read over long periods of time. This study investigates students' experience of face-to-face talk about books in an extensive reading…

  12. Online and Face-to-Face Activities of Non-Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, Carmen Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine non-native English speaking students' activity in face-to-face versus online learning environments. The amount of foreign students in the United States increased by 3% in the academic year 2009-2010 (Open Doors, 2010). Adding close to $20 billion to the USA economy, "higher education is among the…

  13. Discourse Markers in Italian as L2 in Face to Face vs. Computer Mediated Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Marco, Anna; Leone, Paola

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study aims to highlight a) differences in pragmatic function and distribution of discourse markers (DMs) in computer mediated and face to face (FtF) settings and b) any correlation of DM uses and language competence. The data have been collected by video-recording and analysing three speakers of Italian L2 (language level competence:…

  14. Faculty Best Practices Using Blended Learning in E-Learning and Face-to-Face Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortera-Gutierrez, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Presenting a higher education case study from Mexico: "Instituto Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey" (ITESM-CCM) College, Mexico city campus, describing faculty best and worst practices using a blended learning approach in e-learning and face-to-face instruction. The article comments on conceptual definitions of blended learning,…

  15. Finding Support in Moodle: A Face-to-Face Chemistry Course for Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vega, Carolina Armijo; McAnally-Salas, Lewis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to know the students' perceptions of using online support in a chemistry course. To achieve this objective, a qualitative research was conducted over a chemistry course that was imparted in a face-to-face modality using a LMS (learning management system) for on-line support. The supports available in the LMS were forums,…

  16. Technology Confidence, Competence and Problem Solving Strategies: Differences within Online and Face-to-Face Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon L.; Palmer, Louann Bierlein

    2011-01-01

    This study identified the problem solving strategies used by students within a university course designed to teach pre-service teachers educational technology, and whether those strategies were influenced by the format of the course (i.e., face-to-face computer lab vs. online). It also examined to what extent the type of problem solving strategies…

  17. Faces with Light Makeup Are Better Recognized than Faces with Heavy Makeup.

    PubMed

    Tagai, Keiko; Ohtaka, Hitomi; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Many women wear facial makeup to accentuate their appeal and attractiveness. Makeup may vary from natural (light) to glamorous (heavy), depending of the context of interpersonal situations, an emphasis on femininity, and current societal makeup trends. This study examined how light makeup and heavy makeup influenced attractiveness ratings and facial recognition. In a rating task, 38 Japanese women assigned attractiveness ratings to 36 Japanese female faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup (12 each). In a subsequent recognition task, the participants were presented with 36 old and 36 new faces. Results indicated that attractiveness was rated highest for the light makeup faces and lowest for the no makeup faces. In contrast, recognition performance was higher for the no makeup and light make up faces than for the heavy makeup faces. Faces with heavy makeup produced a higher rate of false recognition than did other faces, possibly because heavy makeup creates an impression of the style of makeup itself, rather than the individual wearing the makeup. The present study suggests that light makeup is preferable to heavy makeup in that light makeup does not interfere with individual recognition and gives beholders positive impressions.

  18. Attitudes of Middle School Students: Learning Online Compared to Face to Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Clayton; Rule, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Education in an online setting is an increasingly popular method of instruction. Previous studies comparing college or high school student performance in online and face-to-face courses found, in most cases, similar achievement between conditions. However, research is lacking regarding middle school students' academic performance and attitudes…

  19. The Body That Speaks: Recombining Bodies and Speech Sources in Unscripted Face-to-Face Communication

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Corti, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body's role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self's perspective on the body, other's perspective on the body, and self's perspective of other's perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication. PMID:27660616

  20. Face-to-Face vs. Real-Time Clinical Education: No Significant Difference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Y. Q.; Waddington, G.; Donnan, P.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot research project was to determine whether the use of an internet broadband link to stream physiotherapy clinical education workshop proceedings in "real-time" is of equivalent educational value to the traditional face-to-face experience. This project looked at the benefits of using the above technology as…

  1. Undergraduate Essay Writing: Online and Face-to-Face Peer Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chong, Mike R.; Goff, Lori; Dej, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    We implemented two different approaches of using peer review to support undergraduate essay assignments for students taking large second-year courses in life sciences and biology: a web-based online peer review (OPR) approach and a more traditional face-to-face peer review (FPR) approach that was conducted in tutorial settings. The essays…

  2. An Experiment Comparing HBSE Graduate Social Work Classes: Face-to-Face and at a Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehle, Ralph; Quinn, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a quasi-experimental comparison of two master's level social work classes delivering content on human behavior in the social environment. One class, delivered face-to-face, was largely synchronous. The other class, delivered using distance technologies, was more asynchronous than the first. The authors hypothesized that…

  3. Face gender and stereotypicality influence facial trait evaluation: Counter-stereotypical female faces are negatively evaluated.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Clare A M; Young, Andrew W; Mootz, Carmen A; Oldmeadow, Julian A

    2015-05-01

    The facial first impressions literature has focused on trait dimensions, with less research on how social categories (like gender) may influence first impressions of faces. Yet, social psychological studies have shown the importance of categories like gender in the evaluation of behaviour. We investigated whether face gender affects the positive or negative evaluation of faces in terms of first impressions. In Study 1, we manipulated facial gender stereotypicality, and in Study 2, facial trustworthiness or dominance, and examined the valence of resulting spontaneous descriptions of male and female faces. For both male and female participants, counter-stereotypical (masculine or dominant looking), female faces were perceived more negatively than facially stereotypical male or female faces. In Study 3, we examined how facial dominance and trustworthiness affected rated valence across 1,000 male and female ambient face images, and replicated the finding that dominance is more negatively evaluated for female faces. In Study 4, the same effect was found with short stimulus presentations. These findings integrate the facial first impressions literature with evaluative differences based on social categories.

  4. The Body That Speaks: Recombining Bodies and Speech Sources in Unscripted Face-to-Face Communication.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Alex; Corti, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body's role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self's perspective on the body, other's perspective on the body, and self's perspective of other's perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication.

  5. Face-to-Face and Online Interactions--Is a Task a Task?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duensing, Annette; Stickler, Ursula; Batstone, Carolyn; Heins, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This study contrasts two different ways of analysing interaction and participation in language learning tutorials: Social network analysis of frequency and QSR analysis of type of interaction. One task from three German beginners' language tutorials (one delivered face-to-face, the other two online) is analysed. A description of the background and…

  6. Identity-Specific Face Adaptation Effects: Evidence for Abstractive Face Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hole, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The effects of selective adaptation on familiar face perception were examined. After prolonged exposure to photographs of a celebrity, participants saw a series of ambiguous morphs that were varying mixtures between the face of that person and a different celebrity. Participants judged fewer of the morphs to resemble the celebrity to which they…

  7. Generating virtual training samples for sparse representation of face images and face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Yong; Wang, Yu

    2016-03-01

    There are many challenges in face recognition. In real-world scenes, images of the same face vary with changing illuminations, different expressions and poses, multiform ornaments, or even altered mental status. Limited available training samples cannot convey these possible changes in the training phase sufficiently, and this has become one of the restrictions to improve the face recognition accuracy. In this article, we view the multiplication of two images of the face as a virtual face image to expand the training set and devise a representation-based method to perform face recognition. The generated virtual samples really reflect some possible appearance and pose variations of the face. By multiplying a training sample with another sample from the same subject, we can strengthen the facial contour feature and greatly suppress the noise. Thus, more human essential information is retained. Also, uncertainty of the training data is simultaneously reduced with the increase of the training samples, which is beneficial for the training phase. The devised representation-based classifier uses both the original and new generated samples to perform the classification. In the classification phase, we first determine K nearest training samples for the current test sample by calculating the Euclidean distances between the test sample and training samples. Then, a linear combination of these selected training samples is used to represent the test sample, and the representation result is used to classify the test sample. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms some state-of-the-art face recognition methods.

  8. Can Massive but Passive Exposure to Faces Contribute to Face Recognition Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yovel, Galit; Halsband, Keren; Pelleg, Michel; Farkash, Naomi; Gal, Bracha; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that individuation of other-race faces is more crucial for enhancing recognition performance than exposure that involves categorization of these faces to an identity-irrelevant criterion. These findings were primarily based on laboratory training protocols that dissociated exposure and individuation by using…

  9. Can massive but passive exposure to faces contribute to face recognition abilities?

    PubMed

    Yovel, Galit; Halsband, Keren; Pelleg, Michel; Farkash, Naomi; Gal, Bracha; Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have suggested that individuation of other-race faces is more crucial for enhancing recognition performance than exposure that involves categorization of these faces to an identity-irrelevant criterion. These findings were primarily based on laboratory training protocols that dissociated exposure and individuation by using categorization tasks. However, the absence of enhanced recognition following categorization may not simulate key aspects of real-life massive exposure without individuation to other-race faces. Real-life exposure spans years of seeing a multitude of faces, under variant conditions, including expression, view, lighting and gaze, albeit with no subcategory individuation. However, in most real-life settings, massive exposure operates in concert with individuation. An exception to that are neonatology nurses, a unique population that is exposed to--but do not individuate--massive numbers of newborn faces. Our findings show that recognition of newborn faces by nurses does not differ from adults who are rarely exposed to newborn faces. A control study showed that the absence of enhanced recognition cannot be attributed to the relatively short exposure to each newborn face in the neonatology unit or to newborns' apparent homogeneous appearance. It is therefore the quality--not the quantity--of exposure that determines recognition abilities.

  10. Face recognition performance of individuals with Asperger syndrome on the Cambridge Face Memory Test.

    PubMed

    Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn

    2011-12-01

    Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance.

  11. Stereotype Priming in Face Recognition: Interactions between Semantic and Visual Information in Face Encoding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Peter J.; Lewis, Michael B.; Honey, R. C.

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy with which previously unfamiliar faces are recognised is increased by the presentation of a stereotype-congruent occupation label [Klatzky, R. L., Martin, G. L., & Kane, R. A. (1982a). "Semantic interpretation effects on memory for faces." "Memory & Cognition," 10, 195-206; Klatzky, R. L., Martin, G. L., & Kane, R. A. (1982b).…

  12. Distance and Face-to-Face Learning Culture and Values: A Conceptual Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejeda-Delgado, Carmen; Millan, Brett J.; Slate, John R.

    2011-01-01

    With distance learning increasing in popularity across the country and the world, a review of the extant literature as it relates to distance learning and face-to-face learning is warranted. In particular, this paper examined distance learning, including a historical overview, prevailing themes in past research, and studies relating the importance…

  13. A Systems View of Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice; Messinger, Daniel; Bahrick, Lorraine E.; Margolis, Amy; Buck, Karen A.; Chen, Henian

    2016-01-01

    Principles of a dynamic, dyadic systems view of mother-infant face-to-face communication, which considers self- and interactive processes in relation to one another, were tested. The process of interaction across time in a large low-risk community sample at infant age 4 months was examined. Split-screen videotape was coded on a 1-s time base for…

  14. Using Online Video Lectures to Enrich Traditional Face-to-Face Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarem, Suzanne C.

    2015-01-01

    University educators need to meet changing needs of the digital generation by integrating technology through online content delivery. Despite the many advantages of online education, a large number of university professors are reluctant to make the transition from traditional-face-to-face lectures to online delivery, mainly due to the time, cost,…

  15. A Comparison of Student Evaluations of Teaching between Online and Face-to-Face Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Henry F.; Ponton, Michael K.; Rovai, Alfred P.

    2007-01-01

    The literature contains indications of a bias in student evaluations of teaching (SET) against online instruction compared to face-to-face instruction. The present case study consists of content analysis of anonymous student responses to open-ended SET questions submitted by 534 students enrolled in 82 class sections taught by 41 instructors, one…

  16. In Pursuit of Ethical Research: Studying Hybrid Communities Using Online and Face-to-Face Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busher, Hugh; James, Nalita

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid communities using online and face-to-face communications to construct their practices are increasingly part of everyday life amongst people who have easy access to the internet. Researching these communities raises a number of challenges for researchers in the pursuit of ethical research. The paper begins by exploring what is understood by…

  17. Faces with Light Makeup Are Better Recognized than Faces with Heavy Makeup

    PubMed Central

    Tagai, Keiko; Ohtaka, Hitomi; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Many women wear facial makeup to accentuate their appeal and attractiveness. Makeup may vary from natural (light) to glamorous (heavy), depending of the context of interpersonal situations, an emphasis on femininity, and current societal makeup trends. This study examined how light makeup and heavy makeup influenced attractiveness ratings and facial recognition. In a rating task, 38 Japanese women assigned attractiveness ratings to 36 Japanese female faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup (12 each). In a subsequent recognition task, the participants were presented with 36 old and 36 new faces. Results indicated that attractiveness was rated highest for the light makeup faces and lowest for the no makeup faces. In contrast, recognition performance was higher for the no makeup and light make up faces than for the heavy makeup faces. Faces with heavy makeup produced a higher rate of false recognition than did other faces, possibly because heavy makeup creates an impression of the style of makeup itself, rather than the individual wearing the makeup. The present study suggests that light makeup is preferable to heavy makeup in that light makeup does not interfere with individual recognition and gives beholders positive impressions. PMID:26973553

  18. On-Line vs. Face-to-Face Delivery of Information Technology Courses: Students' Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Said, Hazem; Kirgis, Lauren; Verkamp, Brian; Johnson, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates students' assessment of on-line vs face-to-face delivery of lecture-based information technology courses. The study used end-of-course surveys to examine students' ratings of five course quality indicators: Course Organization, Assessment and Grading Procedures, Instructor Performance, Positive Learning Experience, and…

  19. Comparison of Web-Based and Face-to-Face Standard Setting Using the Angoff Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Irvin R.; Tannenbaum, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Web-based standard setting holds promise for reducing the travel and logistical inconveniences of traditional, face-to-face standard setting meetings. However, because there are few published reports of setting standards via remote meeting technology, little is known about the practical potential of the approach, including technical feasibility of…

  20. Constructivist Education and Epistemological Development in Online and Face-to-Face Higher Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Rebecca J.

    2011-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study. This study examined two sections of a course in child development, one online and one face-to-face, to determine similarities and differences between the two related to constructivist education and constructivist processes. Course documents, instructor reflections, online discussion forum text, student-instructor…

  1. Friends with Faces: How Social Networks Can Enhance Face Recognition and Vice Versa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavridis, Nikolaos; Kazmi, Wajahat; Toulis, Panos

    The "friendship" relation, a social relation among individuals, is one of the primary relations modeled in some of the world's largest online social networking sites, such as "FaceBook." On the other hand, the "co-occurrence" relation, as a relation among faces appearing in pictures, is one that is easily detectable using modern face detection techniques. These two relations, though appearing in different realms (social vs. visual sensory), have a strong correlation: faces that co-occur in photos often belong to individuals who are friends. Using real-world data gathered from "Facebook," which were gathered as part of the "FaceBots" project, the world's first physical face-recognizing and conversing robot that can utilize and publish information on "Facebook" was established. We present here methods as well as results for utilizing this correlation in both directions. Both algorithms for utilizing knowledge of the social context for faster and better face recognition are given, as well as algorithms for estimating the friendship network of a number of individuals given photos containing their faces. The results are quite encouraging. In the primary example, doubling of the recognition accuracy as well as a sixfold improvement in speed is demonstrated. Various improvements, interesting statistics, as well as an empirical investigation leading to predictions of scalability to much bigger data sets are discussed.

  2. The Body That Speaks: Recombining Bodies and Speech Sources in Unscripted Face-to-Face Communication.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Alex; Corti, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body's role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self's perspective on the body, other's perspective on the body, and self's perspective of other's perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication. PMID:27660616

  3. The Body That Speaks: Recombining Bodies and Speech Sources in Unscripted Face-to-Face Communication

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Corti, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body's role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self's perspective on the body, other's perspective on the body, and self's perspective of other's perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication.

  4. Two Peas in a Pod? A Comparison of Face-to-Face and Web Based Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzer, Gale; Cryan, JohnRobert; Teclehaimanot, Berhane

    2007-01-01

    This study compared student learning outcomes and student perceptions of and satisfaction with the learning process between two sections of the same class--a web-based section and a traditional face-to-face (f2f) section. Using a quasi-experimental design, students were randomly assigned to the two course sections. Group equivalency was…

  5. Student Learning and Instructor Investment in Online and Face-to-Face Natural Resources Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wuellner, Melissa R.

    2013-01-01

    Substantial growth in online education in the United States has prompted questions on the levels of student learning and satisfaction achieved and the amount of instructor time investment required in the online environment compared to the face-to-face (F2F) environment. To date, very few have studied these measurements in science courses, and none…

  6. The University Student Experience of Face-to-Face and Online Discussions: Coherence, Reflection and Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert A.; Goodyear, Peter; O'Hara, Agi; Prosser, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into learning through discussions by undergraduate social work students. Second-year students studying psychology for social work experienced discussions began with face-to-face tutorials, and then continued for some time after online. This study used closed-ended questionnaires to investigate what students…

  7. Laterality Biases to Chimeric Faces in Asperger Syndrome: What Is Right about Face-Processing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashwin, Chris; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    People show a left visual field (LVF) bias for faces, i.e., involving the right hemisphere of the brain. Lesion and neuroimaging studies confirm the importance of the right-hemisphere and suggest separable neural pathways for processing facial identity vs. emotions. We investigated the hemispheric processing of faces in adults with and without…

  8. Effects of Synchronicity and Belongingness on Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Constructive Controversy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltarelli, Andy J.; Roseth, Cary J.

    2014-01-01

    Adapting face-to-face (FTF) pedagogies to online settings raises boundary questions about the contextual conditions in which the same instructional method stimulates different outcomes. We address this issue by examining FTF and computer-mediated communication (CMC) versions of constructive controversy, a cooperative learning procedure involving…

  9. Increasing Students' Perceived Sociopolitical Empowerment through Online and Face-to-Face Community Psychology Seminars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francescato, Donata; Solimeno, Andrea; Mebane, Minou Ella; Tomai, Manuela

    2009-01-01

    Community psychology theorists underline the importance of promoting sociopolitical empowerment, but few studies have been conducted on the evaluation of the efficacy of empowering programs among university students. The authors report two studies: the first, with 216 psychology majors, compared the efficacy of face-to-face and online community…

  10. Learners' Willingness to Communicate in Face-to-Face versus Oral Computer-Mediated Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanguas, Íñigo; Flores, Alayne

    2014-01-01

    The present study had two main goals: to explore performance differences in a task-based environment between face-to-face (FTF) and oral computer-mediated communication (OCMC) groups, and to investigate the relationship between trait-like willingness to communicate (WTC) and performance in the FTF and OCMC groups. Students from two intact…

  11. Construction of Shared Knowledge in Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Frank; Mandl, Heinz

    This study examined how learners constructed and used shared knowledge in computer-mediated and face-to-face cooperative learning, investigating how to facilitate the construction and use of shared knowledge through dynamic visualization. Forty-eight college students were separated into dyads and assigned to one of four experimental conditions…

  12. A Comparison of Student Views on Web-Based and Face-to-Face Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Suleyman Nihat; Goktas, Ozlem; Bayrak, Ilhami

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to describe and compare the perceptions of web-based distance education students and campus-based face-to-face students about the quality of education provided in their programs with regard to variables including gender, marital status, and employment status. A baseline descriptive survey design and complementary "ex post…

  13. Online or Face-to-Face? Experimenting with Different Techniques in Teacher Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Manuela; Persico, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper illustrates a 5-year case study (from 2001 to 2005) regarding a course in educational technology that involved from 100 to 150 student teachers per year for a total of more than 500 trainees. Since the first version of the course, which was entirely based on a face-to-face approach, computer mediated collaborative learning techniques…

  14. Harmonizing the Online and Face-to-Face Components in a Blended Course on Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Manuela; Manca, Stefania; Persico, Donatella

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the relationship between the face-to-face and the online components of a blended course in Educational Technology, run by the Institute for Educational Technology for the local Postgraduate School for Secondary Teaching. The course designers developed criteria for harmonising and integrating the two educational modalities,…

  15. A Comparison of Organizational Structure and Pedagogical Approach: Online versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarlane, Donovan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines online versus face-to-face organizational structure and pedagogy in terms of education and the teaching and learning process. The author distinguishes several important terms related to distance/online/e-learning, virtual learning and brick-and-mortar learning interactions and concepts such as asynchronous and synchronous…

  16. Assessing Student Performance and Perceptions in Lecture Capture vs. Face-to-Face Course Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euzent, Patricia; Martin, Thomas; Moskal, Patrick; Moskal, Patsy

    2011-01-01

    Public universities are currently facing a challenge in determining how to deliver quality instruction in the face of severe fiscal constraints. With recent technological advances, courses streamed over the Internet (i.e., lecture capture) are now becoming common. However, little research has been published that specifically examines student…

  17. Relative faces: encoding of family resemblance relative to gender means in face space.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Harry John; McOwan, Peter William; Johnston, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Neurophysiological (W. A. Freiwald, D. Y. Tsao, & M. S. Livingstone, 2009; D. A. Leopold, I. V. Bondar, & M. A. Giese, 2006) and psychophysical (D. A. Leopold, A. J. O'Toole, T. Vetter, & V. Blanz, 2001; G. Rhodes & L. Jeffery, 2006; R. Robbins, E. McKone, & M. Edwards, 2007) evidence suggests that faces are encoded as differences from a mean or prototypical face, consistent with the conceptual framework of a mean-centered face space (T. Valentine, 1991). However, it remains unclear how we encode facial similarity across classes such as gender, age, or race. We synthesized Caucasian male and female cross-gender "siblings" and "anti-siblings" by projecting vectors representing deviations of faces from one gender mean into another gender. Subjects perceived male and female pairings with similar vector deviations from their gender means as more similar, and those with opposite vector deviations as less similar, than randomly selected cross-gender pairings. Agreement in relative direction in a space describing how facial images differ from a mean can therefore provide a basis for perceived facial similarity. We further demonstrate that relative coding for male and female faces is based on the activation of a shared neural population by the transfer of an identity aftereffect between a face and its cross-gender sibling. These results imply whereas structural similarity may be reflected in the Euclidean distance between points in face space configural similarity may be coded by direction in face space.

  18. Analysis of the Questions Asked through Digital and Face-to-Face Reference Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsuji, Keita; Arai, Shunsuke; Suga, Reina; Ikeuchi, Atsushi; Yoshikane, Fuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, only a few public libraries provide e-mail reference services. To help public libraries start e-mail reference services, the authors investigated reference questions received by libraries via e-mail and traditional face-to-face services. The authors found that research questions are more frequently observed among e-mail questions and…

  19. Computer Self-Efficacy, Anxiety, and Learning in Online versus Face to Face Medium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Richard; Paul, Ravi; Bradley, John

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationships between changes to computer self-efficacy (CSE) and computer anxiety and the impact on performance on computer-related tasks in both online and face-to-face mediums. While many studies have looked at these factors individually, relatively few have included multiple measures of these…

  20. Post-Adoption Face-to-Face Contact with Birth Parents: Prospective Adopters' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkington, Selina; Taylor, Brian J.

    2009-01-01

    The trend in adoption since the 1960s has been away from secrecy and towards greater openness; contact through an intermediary, and direct contact by letter, is now widely accepted. More controversial is the challenge of face-to-face contact with birth parents, and social workers involved in the decision-making process find themselves having to…

  1. Faculty Perceptions of Moving a Face-to-Face Course to Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiasson, Kari; Terras, Katherine; Smart, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 faculty members who developed and taught an online course that they had previously taught in a face-to-face classroom. The categories from the data analysis included planning, implementation, and reflection. Within the categories, eight themes emerged from the data. The themes addressed…

  2. Learner-Centered Teaching Style: Comparing Face-to-Face and Online Adult Educators' Commitment Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Shanda E.

    2013-01-01

    For at least 50 years, prominent adult learning theorists have recommended that adult educators commit to a learner-centered teaching approach. Extensive teaching styles research has been conducted on face-to-face and online adult educators, albeit separately, to examine their commitment levels to the learner-centered style. In addition, there has…

  3. The Role of Face Familiarity in Eye Tracking of Faces by Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Lindsey; Dawson, Geraldine; Webb, Sara; Murias, Michael; Munson, Jeffrey; Panagiotides, Heracles; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) demonstrate normal activation in the fusiform gyrus when viewing familiar, but not unfamiliar faces. The current study utilized eye tracking to investigate patterns of attention underlying familiar versus unfamiliar face processing in ASD. Eye movements of 18 typically…

  4. Presentation Anxiety Analysis: Comparing Face-to-Face Presentations and Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This study is an exploration in the changing landscape of how people deliver presentations in an attempt to determine the advantages and disadvantages of both forms. The study focused on key differences of student expectations and experiences delivering a presentation to an audience in the same location (face-to-face) compared to a presentation…

  5. Learning Gains in Introductory Astronomy: Online Can Be as Good as Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margoniner, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Universities and even high schools are moving more and more to online instruction as a cost-effective way to reach more students with fewer resources. This naturally raises the question: Can online learning be effective? (The question is not "Is online learning effective?" because just like face-to-face instruction, online instruction…

  6. Grade Performance of Face-to-Face versus Online Agricultural Economics Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenway, Gina A.; Makus, Larry D.

    2014-01-01

    Online course offerings have been growing at a rapid pace in post-secondary education. An ordered probit model is estimated to analyze the effects of online vs. face-to-face course format in achieving specific letter grades. An upper-division agricultural economics course taught over 9 years using both formats is used for the analysis. For a…

  7. Comparing Role-Playing Activities in Second Life and Face-to-Face Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Fei; Noh, Jeongmin J.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    This study compared student performances in role-playing activities in both a face-to-face (FTF) environment and a virtual 3D environment, Second Life (SL). We found that students produced a similar amount of communication in the two environments, but the communication styles were different. In SL role-playing activities, students took more…

  8. Co-Constructing Mother-Infant Distress in Face-to-Face Interactions: Contributions of Microanalysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Beatrice

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the use of microanalysis of videotapes to look at nonverbal elements (such as smiles, facial expressions, eye gaze, touch, and head and body movements toward and away from the other) to determine the caregiver-infant interactive (regulatory) experience. Video microanalysis of face-to-face play by infants and parents…

  9. Developing Face-to-Face Argumentation Skills: Does Arguing on the Computer Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iordanou, Kalypso

    2013-01-01

    Arguing on the computer was used as a method to promote development of face-to-face argumentation skills in middle schoolers. In the study presented, sixth graders engaged in electronic dialogues with peers on a controversial topic and in some reflective activities based on transcriptions of the dialogues. Although participants initially exhibited…

  10. Spoken Interaction in Online and Face-to-Face Language Tutorials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Barbara; Duensing, Annette; Stickler, Ursula; Batstone, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    While interaction in online language learning in the area of written computer-mediated communication is well researched, studies focusing on interaction in synchronous online audio environments remain scarce. For this reason, this paper seeks to map the nature and level of interpersonal interaction in both online and the face-to-face language…

  11. Face-to-Face versus Online Coursework: A Comparison of Costs and Learning Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Terry; Banister, Savilla

    2007-01-01

    This study documents the transformation of a graduate-level course for teachers that had traditionally been taught in a face-to-face (f2f) model, in multiple sections, at a large university. By designing the course for online delivery and developing various interactive multimedia modules, the university was able to offer the course at a…

  12. Face recognition system using multiple face model of hybrid Fourier feature under uncontrolled illumination variation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wonjun; Wang, Haitao; Kim, Hyunwoo; Kee, Seok-Cheol; Kim, Junmo

    2011-04-01

    The authors present a robust face recognition system for large-scale data sets taken under uncontrolled illumination variations. The proposed face recognition system consists of a novel illumination-insensitive preprocessing method, a hybrid Fourier-based facial feature extraction, and a score fusion scheme. First, in the preprocessing stage, a face image is transformed into an illumination-insensitive image, called an "integral normalized gradient image," by normalizing and integrating the smoothed gradients of a facial image. Then, for feature extraction of complementary classifiers, multiple face models based upon hybrid Fourier features are applied. The hybrid Fourier features are extracted from different Fourier domains in different frequency bandwidths, and then each feature is individually classified by linear discriminant analysis. In addition, multiple face models are generated by plural normalized face images that have different eye distances. Finally, to combine scores from multiple complementary classifiers, a log likelihood ratio-based score fusion scheme is applied. The proposed system using the face recognition grand challenge (FRGC) experimental protocols is evaluated; FRGC is a large available data set. Experimental results on the FRGC version 2.0 data sets have shown that the proposed method shows an average of 81.49% verification rate on 2-D face images under various environmental variations such as illumination changes, expression changes, and time elapses. PMID:20923738

  13. Faces with Light Makeup Are Better Recognized than Faces with Heavy Makeup.

    PubMed

    Tagai, Keiko; Ohtaka, Hitomi; Nittono, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Many women wear facial makeup to accentuate their appeal and attractiveness. Makeup may vary from natural (light) to glamorous (heavy), depending of the context of interpersonal situations, an emphasis on femininity, and current societal makeup trends. This study examined how light makeup and heavy makeup influenced attractiveness ratings and facial recognition. In a rating task, 38 Japanese women assigned attractiveness ratings to 36 Japanese female faces with no makeup, light makeup, and heavy makeup (12 each). In a subsequent recognition task, the participants were presented with 36 old and 36 new faces. Results indicated that attractiveness was rated highest for the light makeup faces and lowest for the no makeup faces. In contrast, recognition performance was higher for the no makeup and light make up faces than for the heavy makeup faces. Faces with heavy makeup produced a higher rate of false recognition than did other faces, possibly because heavy makeup creates an impression of the style of makeup itself, rather than the individual wearing the makeup. The present study suggests that light makeup is preferable to heavy makeup in that light makeup does not interfere with individual recognition and gives beholders positive impressions. PMID:26973553

  14. Combining Face-to-Face Learning with Online Learning in Virtual Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berns, Anke; Gonzalez-Pardo, Antonio; Camacho, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of videogame-like applications in a 3D virtual environment as a complement to the face-to-face teaching and learning. With the changing role of teaching and learning and the increasing use of "blended learning," instructors are increasingly expected to explore new ways to attend to the needs of their students.…

  15. Internet Communication versus Face-to-Face Interaction in Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Paul S. N.; Leung, Louis; Lo, Venhwei; Xiong, Chengyu; Wu, Tingjun

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the role of the Internet in quality of life (QoL). Specifically, it examines the question of whether Internet communication serves, like face-to-face interactions, to enhance quality of life. It is hypothesized that the use of the Internet for interpersonal communication can improve quality of life among Internet…

  16. Face-to-Face Play: Its Temporal Structure as Predictor of Socioaffective Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Daniel N.

    2001-01-01

    Examines three issues from study by Jaffe et al.: predictive nature of face-to-face play, the psychological present moment for infants, and the representation of the pragmatics of dialogue. Emphasizes value of the study for future work in social interaction. (DLH)

  17. Animal, but Not Human, Faces Engage the Distributed Face Network in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Elisabeth M.; Behrmann, Marlene; Minshew, Nancy J.; Garcia, Natalie V.; Scherf, K. Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Multiple hypotheses have been offered to explain the impaired face-processing behavior and the accompanying underlying disruptions in neural circuitry among individuals with autism. We explored the specificity of atypical face-processing activation and potential alterations to fusiform gyrus (FG) morphology as potential underlying mechanisms.…

  18. Predicting Outcome of Face-to-Face and Telephone Counselling for Occupational Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karatzias, Thanos; Chouliara, Zoe; Power, Kevin; Kilfedder, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors of outcome of counselling, using mean change scores of three outcome measures, at treatment completion and at 4-months follow-up, in a randomised trial of face-to-face (n = 30) versus telephone counselling (n = 30) for occupational stress. Factors associated with treatment outcome were…

  19. Comparing Student Performance in Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to compare student performance in an online or face-to-face (F2F) required Psychology course on three distinct sets of variables (i.e., pre-course, course, and post-course variables). Analyses revealed mixed significant and nonsignificant results. Students did not differ in terms of such variables as hours…

  20. A Comparative Study of an Online and a Face-to-Face Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulacar, Ozcan; Damkaci, Fehmi; Bowman, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    While online and face-to-face (F2F) courses have been compared in numerous studies, there has been a lack of focus on online chemistry courses. This study was conducted to compare the success of students instructed in an online or F2F general chemistry course for non-majors. One hundred forty six exam questions were categorized according to…

  1. Type of Instructional Delivery and Second Language Teacher Candidate Performance: Online versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted over the past decade has consistently reported no significant differences in learning outcomes for students of fully online or face-to-face (F2F) instruction. Only a small number of these studies, however, have focused on courses in second language (L2) teacher preparation programs. Even fewer studies have compared the impact of…

  2. Learning Opportunities in Synchronous Computer-Mediated Communication and Face-to-Face Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hye Yeong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how synchronous computer-mediated communication (SCMC) and face-to-face (F2F) oral interaction influence the way in which learners collaborate in language learning and how they solve their communicative problems. The findings suggest that output modality may affect how learners produce language, attend to linguistic forms,…

  3. Overcoming Student Resistance to Group Work: Online Versus Face-to-Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Glenn Gordon; Sorensen, Chris; Gump, Andrew; Heindel, Allen J.; Caris, Mieke; Martinez, Christopher D.

    2011-01-01

    This study compared student group work experiences in online (OL) versus face-to-face (f2f) sections of the same graduate course, over three years, to determine what factors influence student group work experiences and how do these factors play out in f2f versus OL environments. Surveys and student journals suggest that communication issues,…

  4. Effects of Online/Face-to-Face Professional Development on College Faculty Perceptions of Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buss, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of participating in a professional development model that include a face-to-face and online module components. To measure the participants' self-reported knowledge and attitude before and after the professional development would provide information about possible effects of the professional…

  5. Perception of facial features and face-to-face communications in space.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M M

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines how human face-to-face communications may be compromised by exposure to the microgravity environment of space. Although efficient face-to-face communications are acknowledged to be essential for astronauts to work safely and effectively, the space environment causes facial edema, and allows speakers and listeners to confront one another in multiple orientations that can potentially interfere with many important non-linguistic communication cues. In addition, high background noises in space shuttles and stations can mask auditory messages. Currently, the effects of spaceflight on the ability to identify facial features, to read lips, to integrate visual and auditory sensory information, and to interpret spoken messages in noisy environments while the speakers are at various orientations with respect to the listeners, are virtually unknown. Ground-based experiments conducted in our laboratory with computer-displayed facial images presented at various orientations have suggested how non-linguistic cues may be degraded by changes in the retinal orientations of facial images. The results of our ground-based studies illustrating impaired recognition of facial features in non-erect images are described, their implications for effective face-to-face communications among astronauts in space are discussed, and two experiments that can quantify the effects of microgravity on face-to-face communications in space are outlined.

  6. Parent Education for Dialogic Reading: Online and Face-to-Face Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of a parent education program and the contextual factors that influenced the experiences of families in the program. Seventeen parents completed a 9-week, face-to-face program and 15 parents completed a similar online program. This study was designed as a multiple case study and utilized multimethods for data…

  7. The Goals and Structure of Face-to-Face Interaction Between Infants and Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yogman, Michael W.

    This study investigates similarities and differences in the interactions of infants with mothers and fathers, and examines the structural characteristics of social interaction between infants and fathers. Data are based on analyses of videotapes showing face-to-face interaction of five healthy first born infants with their mothers and fathers. The…

  8. Not on the face alone: perception of contextualized face expressions in Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bentin, Shlomo; Hassin, Ran R.; Meschino, Wendy S.; Kennedy, Jeanne; Grewal, Sonya; Esmail, Sherali; Cohen, Sharon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that Huntington's disease mutation-carriers have deficient explicit recognition of isolated facial expressions. There are no studies, however, which have investigated the recognition of facial expressions embedded within an emotional body and scene context. Real life facial expressions are typically embedded in contexts which may dramatically change the emotion recognized in the face. Moreover, a recent study showed that the magnitude of the contextual bias is modulated by the similarity between the actual expression of the presented face and the facial expression that would typically fit the context, e.g. disgust faces are more similar to anger than to sadness faces and, consequently, are more strongly influenced by contexts expressing anger than by contexts expressing sadness. Since context effects on facial expression perception are not explicitly controlled, their pattern serves as an implicit measure of the processing of facial expressions. In this study we took advantage of the face-in-context design to compare explicit recognition of face-expressions by Huntington's disease mutation-carriers, with evidence for processing the expressions deriving from implicit measures. In an initial experiment we presented a group of 21 Huntington's disease mutation-carriers with standard tests of face-expression recognition. Relative to controls, they displayed deficits in recognizing disgust and anger faces despite intact recognition of these emotions from non-facial images. In a subsequent experiment, we embedded the disgust faces on images of people conveying sadness and anger as expressed by body language and additional paraphernalia. In addition, sadness and anger faces were embedded on context images conveying disgust. In both cases participants were instructed to categorize the facial expressions, ignoring the context. Despite the deficient explicit recognition of isolated disgust and anger faces, the perception of the emotions

  9. When the face fits: recognition of celebrities from matching and mismatching faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Hamlin, Iain

    2014-01-01

    The results of two experiments are presented in which participants engaged in a face-recognition or a voice-recognition task. The stimuli were face-voice pairs in which the face and voice were co-presented and were either "matched" (same person), "related" (two highly associated people), or "mismatched" (two unrelated people). Analysis in both experiments confirmed that accuracy and confidence in face recognition was consistently high regardless of the identity of the accompanying voice. However accuracy of voice recognition was increasingly affected as the relationship between voice and accompanying face declined. Moreover, when considering self-reported confidence in voice recognition, confidence remained high for correct responses despite the proportion of these responses declining across conditions. These results converged with existing evidence indicating the vulnerability of voice recognition as a relatively weak signaller of identity, and results are discussed in the context of a person-recognition framework.

  10. The effect of face inversion on the detection of emotional faces in visual search.

    PubMed

    Savage, Ruth A; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2015-01-01

    Past literature has indicated that face inversion either attenuates emotion detection advantages in visual search, implying that detection of emotional expressions requires holistic face processing, or has no effect, implying that expression detection is feature based. Across six experiments that utilised different task designs, ranging from simple (single poser, single set size) to complex (multiple posers, multiple set sizes), and stimuli drawn from different databases, significant emotion detection advantages were found for both upright and inverted faces. Consistent with past research, the nature of the expression detection advantage, anger superiority (Experiments 1, 2 and 6) or happiness superiority (Experiments 3, 4 and 5), differed across stimulus sets. However both patterns were evident for upright and inverted faces. These results indicate that face inversion does not interfere with visual search for emotional expressions, and suggest that expression detection in visual search may rely on feature-based mechanisms.

  11. When the face fits: recognition of celebrities from matching and mismatching faces and voices.

    PubMed

    Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Hamlin, Iain

    2014-01-01

    The results of two experiments are presented in which participants engaged in a face-recognition or a voice-recognition task. The stimuli were face-voice pairs in which the face and voice were co-presented and were either "matched" (same person), "related" (two highly associated people), or "mismatched" (two unrelated people). Analysis in both experiments confirmed that accuracy and confidence in face recognition was consistently high regardless of the identity of the accompanying voice. However accuracy of voice recognition was increasingly affected as the relationship between voice and accompanying face declined. Moreover, when considering self-reported confidence in voice recognition, confidence remained high for correct responses despite the proportion of these responses declining across conditions. These results converged with existing evidence indicating the vulnerability of voice recognition as a relatively weak signaller of identity, and results are discussed in the context of a person-recognition framework. PMID:23531227

  12. The hows and whys of face memory: level of construal influences the recognition of human faces

    PubMed Central

    Wyer, Natalie A.; Hollins, Timothy J.; Pahl, Sabine; Roper, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the influence of level of construal (i.e., the interpretation of actions in terms of their meaning or their details) on different stages of face memory. We employed a standard multiple-face recognition paradigm, with half of the faces inverted at test. Construal level was manipulated prior to recognition (Experiment 1), during study (Experiment 2) or both (Experiment 3). The results support a general advantage for high-level construal over low-level construal at both study and at test, and suggest that matching processing style between study and recognition has no advantage. These experiments provide additional evidence in support of a link between semantic processing (i.e., construal) and visual (i.e., face) processing. We conclude with a discussion of implications for current theories relating to both construal and face processing. PMID:26500586

  13. Individual differences in holistic processing predict face recognition ability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruosi; Li, Jingguang; Fang, Huizhen; Tian, Moqian; Liu, Jia

    2012-02-01

    Why do some people recognize faces easily and others frequently make mistakes in recognizing faces? Classic behavioral work has shown that faces are processed in a distinctive holistic manner that is unlike the processing of objects. In the study reported here, we investigated whether individual differences in holistic face processing have a significant influence on face recognition. We found that the magnitude of face-specific recognition accuracy correlated with the extent to which participants processed faces holistically, as indexed by the composite-face effect and the whole-part effect. This association is due to face-specific processing in particular, not to a more general aspect of cognitive processing, such as general intelligence or global attention. This finding provides constraints on computational models of face recognition and may elucidate mechanisms underlying cognitive disorders, such as prosopagnosia and autism, that are associated with deficits in face recognition.

  14. Comparing face patch systems in macaques and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Doris Y.; Moeller, Sebastian; Freiwald, Winrich A.

    2008-01-01

    Face recognition is of central importance for primate social behavior. In both humans and macaques, the visual analysis of faces is supported by a set of specialized face areas. The precise organization of these areas and the correspondence between individual macaque and human face-selective areas are debated. Here, we examined the organization of face-selective regions across the temporal lobe in a large number of macaque and human subjects. Macaques showed 6 regions of face-selective cortex arranged in a stereotypical pattern along the temporal lobe. Human subjects showed, in addition to 3 reported face areas (the occipital, fusiform, and superior temporal sulcus face areas), a face-selective area located anterior to the fusiform face area, in the anterior collateral sulcus. These results suggest a closer anatomical correspondence between macaque and human face-processing systems than previously realized. PMID:19033466

  15. Teleconference versus Face-to-Face Scientific Peer Review of Grant Application: Effects on Review Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Stephen A.; Carpenter, Afton S.; Glisson, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Teleconferencing as a setting for scientific peer review is an attractive option for funding agencies, given the substantial environmental and cost savings. Despite this, there is a paucity of published data validating teleconference-based peer review compared to the face-to-face process. Our aim was to conduct a retrospective analysis of scientific peer review data to investigate whether review setting has an effect on review process and outcome measures. We analyzed reviewer scoring data from a research program that had recently modified the review setting from face-to-face to a teleconference format with minimal changes to the overall review procedures. This analysis included approximately 1600 applications over a 4-year period: two years of face-to-face panel meetings compared to two years of teleconference meetings. The average overall scientific merit scores, score distribution, standard deviations and reviewer inter-rater reliability statistics were measured, as well as reviewer demographics and length of time discussing applications. The data indicate that few differences are evident between face-to-face and teleconference settings with regard to average overall scientific merit score, scoring distribution, standard deviation, reviewer demographics or inter-rater reliability. However, some difference was found in the discussion time. These findings suggest that most review outcome measures are unaffected by review setting, which would support the trend of using teleconference reviews rather than face-to-face meetings. However, further studies are needed to assess any correlations among discussion time, application funding and the productivity of funded research projects. PMID:23951223

  16. Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) Research Data from the Aspen FACE Experiment (FACTS II)

    DOE Data Explorer

    DOE has conducted trace gas enrichment experiments since the mid 1990s. The FACE Data Management System is a central repository and archive for Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) data, as well as for the related open-top chamber (OTC) experiments. FACE Data Management System is located at DOE’s Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC). While the data from the various FACE sites, each one a unique user facility, are centralized at CDIAC, each of the FACE sites presents its own view of its activities and information. For that reason, DOE Data Explorer users are advised to see both the central repository at http://public.ornl.gov/face/index.shtml and the individual home pages of each site. FACTS II, the Aspen FACE Experiment is a multidisciplinary study to assess the effects of increasing tropospheric ozone and carbon dioxide levels on the structure and function of northern forest ecosystems. The Aspen FACE facility is located at the Harshaw Experimental Forest near Rhinelander, Wisconsin. It consists of twelve 30m rings in which the concentrations of carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone can be controlled. The design provides the ability to assess the effects of these gasses alone, and in combination, on many ecosystem attributes, including growth, leaf development, root characteristics, and soil carbon. Each ring consists of a series of vertical ventpipes which disperse carbon dioxide, ozone or normal air into the center of the ring. This computer controlled system uses signal feedback technology to adjust gas release each second in order to maintain a stable, elevated concentration of carbon dioxide and/or ozone throughout the experimental plot. Because there is no confinement, there is no significant change in the natural, ambient environment other than elevating these trace gas concentrations. [copied from http://aspenface.mtu.edu/index.html] Ring maps, lists of publications, data from the experiments, newsletters, protocol and performance

  17. Comparing online and face-to-face dissonance-based eating disorder prevention.

    PubMed

    Serdar, Kasey; Kelly, Nichole R; Palmberg, Allison A; Lydecker, Janet A; Thornton, Laura; Tully, Carrie E; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2014-01-01

    Disordered eating behavior is common in college women. Thus, it is important to develop programs to reduce eating disorder (ED) risk. Studies suggest that dissonance-based (DB) prevention programs successfully reduce ED risk factors; however, face-to-face DB groups lack anonymity and convenience. One way to address these barriers is to adapt DB programs for online use. Few studies have examined the feasibility of this delivery mode. This study compared the efficacy of an online DB program with a face-to-face DB program and an assessment-only condition. Undergraduate women (N = 333) recruited from a participant pool at a public university in the mid-Atlantic United States participated (n = 107 face-to-face DB, n = 112 online DB, n = 114 assessment-only). It was hypothesized that: (a) participants in the face-to-face and online DB conditions would report greater decreases in thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, and ED symptoms at post-testing relative to participants in the assessment-only control group, and (b) online and face-to-face programs would yield comparable results. Modified intent-to-treat analyses indicated that participants in both conditions manifested less body dissatisfaction at post-test compared with assessment-only participants; there were no significant differences in outcomes between the two modes of program delivery. These findings indicate that DB ED prevention programs can be successfully adapted for online use. Future studies should continue to refine online adaptations of such programs and examine their effects with samples that include older and younger women, and men.

  18. The significance of hair for face recognition.

    PubMed

    Toseeb, Umar; Keeble, David R T; Bryant, Eleanor J

    2012-01-01

    Hair is a feature of the head that frequently changes in different situations. For this reason much research in the area of face perception has employed stimuli without hair. To investigate the effect of the presence of hair we used faces with and without hair in a recognition task. Participants took part in trials in which the state of the hair either remained consistent (Same) or switched between learning and test (Switch). It was found that in the Same trials performance did not differ for stimuli presented with and without hair. This implies that there is sufficient information in the internal features of the face for optimal performance in this task. It was also found that performance in the Switch trials was substantially lower than in the Same trials. This drop in accuracy when the stimuli were switched suggests that faces are represented in a holistic manner and that manipulation of the hair causes disruption to this, with implications for the interpretation of some previous studies.

  19. Two owners face new facts of life.

    PubMed

    Russell, J S

    1993-11-01

    Two diverse non-profit clients see big changes in the world in which they operate. Can the Philadelphia Zoo maintain its status as one of America's best zoos in the face of leadership changes and a prolonged economic slump within its community? And how will Kaiser Permanente, a health-care giant, meet the challenges of universal "managed" care? PMID:10130462

  20. Flies in the face of adversity.

    PubMed

    Fellowes, M

    2001-04-01

    All organisms face attack from many natural enemies and all in turn have some means of defence. Can resistance evolve, and if it can, why doesn't it? Recent work on fruit flies and their parasitic wasps has shed light on these questions.