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  1. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  2. Head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-03-29

    Essential facts Head and neck cancers include those of the mouth and throat, and rarer forms affecting the sinuses, salivary glands, nose or middle ear. The Oracle Cancer Trust says head and neck cancer is the UKs sixth most common type, with 31 people diagnosed each day.

  3. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular head and ...

  4. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  5. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional support, and other therapies. You may ... help treat head and neck cancer. Immunotherapy. An active area of immunotherapy research centers around drugs that ...

  6. Identifying early dehydration risk with home-based sensors during radiation treatment: a feasibility study on patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Susan K; Shinn, Eileen H; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Prokhorov, Alexander V; Baru, Chaitanya; Krueger, Ingolf H; Farcas, Emilia; Rios, Philip; Garden, Adam S; Beadle, Beth M; Lin, Kai; Yan, Yan; Martch, Stephanie L; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-12-01

    Systems that enable remote monitoring of patients' symptoms and other health-related outcomes may optimize cancer care outside of the clinic setting. CYCORE (CYberinfrastructure for COmparative effectiveness REsearch) is a software-based prototype for a user-friendly cyberinfrastructure supporting the comprehensive collection and analyses of data from multiple domains using a suite of home-based and mobile sensors. This study evaluated the feasibility of using CYCORE to address early at-home identification of dehydration risk in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Head and neck cancer patients used home-based sensors to capture weight, blood pressure, pulse, and patient-reported outcomes for two 5-day periods during radiation therapy. Data were sent to the radiation oncologist of each head and neck cancer patient, who viewed them online via a Web-based interface. Feasibility outcomes included study completion rate, acceptability and perceived usefulness of the intervention, and adherence to the monitoring protocol. We also evaluated whether sensor data could identify dehydration-related events. Fifty patients consented to participate, and 48 (96%) completed the study. More than 90% of patients rated their ease, self-efficacy, and satisfaction regarding use of the sensor suite as extremely favorable, with minimal concerns expressed regarding data privacy issues. Patients highly valued the ability to have immediate access to objective, self-monitoring data related to personal risk for dehydration. Clinician assessments indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the ease of using the CYCORE system and the resulting ability to monitor their patients remotely. Implementing CYCORE in a clinical oncology care setting is feasible and highly acceptable to both patients and providers.

  7. Identifying Early Dehydration Risk With Home-Based Sensors During Radiation Treatment: A Feasibility Study on Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Systems that enable remote monitoring of patients’ symptoms and other health-related outcomes may optimize cancer care outside of the clinic setting. CYCORE (CYberinfrastructure for COmparative effectiveness REsearch) is a software-based prototype for a user-friendly cyberinfrastructure supporting the comprehensive collection and analyses of data from multiple domains using a suite of home-based and mobile sensors. This study evaluated the feasibility of using CYCORE to address early at-home identification of dehydration risk in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy. Methods Head and neck cancer patients used home-based sensors to capture weight, blood pressure, pulse, and patient-reported outcomes for two 5-day periods during radiation therapy. Data were sent to the radiation oncologist of each head and neck cancer patient, who viewed them online via a Web-based interface. Feasibility outcomes included study completion rate, acceptability and perceived usefulness of the intervention, and adherence to the monitoring protocol. We also evaluated whether sensor data could identify dehydration-related events. Results Fifty patients consented to participate, and 48 (96%) completed the study. More than 90% of patients rated their ease, self-efficacy, and satisfaction regarding use of the sensor suite as extremely favorable, with minimal concerns expressed regarding data privacy issues. Patients highly valued the ability to have immediate access to objective, self-monitoring data related to personal risk for dehydration. Clinician assessments indicated a high degree of satisfaction with the ease of using the CYCORE system and the resulting ability to monitor their patients remotely. Conclusion Implementing CYCORE in a clinical oncology care setting is feasible and highly acceptable to both patients and providers. PMID:24395986

  8. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cancer and the stage (extent) of the disease. In general, patients with early-stage head and neck cancers (particularly those limited to the site of origin) are treated with one modality—either radiation therapy ...

  9. Head and Neck Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  10. Trial of Postoperative Radiation, Cisplatin, and Panitumumab in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-28

    Cancer of Head; Cancer of Head and Neck; Cancer of Neck; Cancer of the Head; Cancer of the Head and Neck; Cancer of the Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Head Cancer; Head Neoplasms; Head, Neck Neoplasms; Neck Cancer; Neck Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Head; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Neoplasms, Neck; Neoplasms, Upper Aerodigestive Tract; UADT Neoplasms; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Neoplasms

  11. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  12. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-23

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  13. Genetics Home Reference: prostate cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions prostate cancer prostate cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Prostate cancer is a common disease that affects men, usually ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: lung cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions lung cancer lung cancer Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Lung cancer is a disease in which certain cells ...

  15. Integrative Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Matovina, Chloe; Birkeland, Andrew C; Zick, Suzanna; Shuman, Andrew G

    2017-02-01

    Objective Complementary and alternative medicine, or integrative medicine, has become increasingly popular among patients with head and neck cancer. Despite its increasing prevalence, many patients feel uncomfortable discussing such therapies with their physicians, and many physicians are unaware and underequipped to evaluate or discuss their use with patients. The aim of this article is to use recent data to outline the decision making inherent to integrative medicine utilization among patients with head and neck cancer, to discuss the ethical implications inherent to balancing integrative and conventional approaches to treatment, and to highlight available resources to enhance head and neck cancer providers' understanding of integrative medicine. Data Sources Randomized controlled trials involving integrative medicine or complementary and alternative medicine treatment for cancer patients. Review Methods Trials were drawn from a systematic PubMed database search categorized into cancer prevention, treatment, and symptom management. Conclusions Integrative medicine is gaining popularity for the management of cancer and is most commonly used for symptom management. A number of randomized controlled trials provide data to support integrative therapies, yet physicians who treat head and neck cancer may be faced with ethical dilemmas and practical barriers surrounding incorporation of integrative medicine. Implications for Practice In the management of head and neck cancer, there is an increasing demand for awareness of, dialogue about, and research evaluating integrative medicine therapies. It is important for otolaryngologists to become aware of integrative therapy options, their risks and benefits, and resources for further information to effectively counsel their patients.

  16. Spinal metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of head and neck cancer is relatively low in developed countries and highest in South East Asia. Notwithstanding advances in surgery and radiotherapy over the past several decades, the 5-year survival rate for head and neck cancer has stagnated and remains at 50–55%. This is due, in large part, to both regional and distant disease spread, including spinal metastasis. Spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer is rare, has a poor prognosis and can significantly impede end-stage quality of life; normally only palliative care is given. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of the evidence available on management of spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer and to use such evidence to draw up guiding principles in the management of the distant spread. Methods Systematic review of the electronic literature was conducted regarding the management of spinal metastasis of head and neck malignancies. Results Due to the exceptional rarity of head and neck cancers metastasizing to the spine, there is a paucity of good randomized controlled trials into the management of spinal metastasis. This review produced only 12 case studies/reports and 2 small retrospective cohort studies that lacked appropriate controls. Conclusion Management should aim to improve end-stage quality of life and maintain neurological function. This review has found that radiotherapy +/− medical adjuvant is considered the principle treatment of spinal metastasis of head and neck cancers. There is an absence of a definitive treatment protocol for head and neck cancer spinal metastasis. Our failure to find and cite high-quality scientific evidence only serves to stress the need for good quality research in this area. PMID:22716187

  17. Rehabilitation of the head and neck cancer patient: Psychosocial aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Blitzer, A.; Baredes, S.; Kutscher, A.; Seeland, I.B.; Barrett, V.W.; Mossman, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 42 chapters divided among six sections. Some of the chapter titles are: The Challenge of Cancer; Communicaton Needs of Head and Neck Cancer Patients; Normal Tissue Effects of the Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer; Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer; and Thyroid Cancer.

  18. Head and neck cancer in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Robert; Sharma, Saurabh; Mahan, Meredith; Al-Khudari, Samer; Hall, Francis; Yoshida, Atsushi; Schweitzer, Vanessa

    2012-07-01

    The development of malignancy in organ transplant patients is a well-known complication of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. We sought to characterize our institution's 20-year experience with head and neck cancer after solid organ transplantation. Retrospective review. Patients who underwent a solid organ transplant with subsequent development of a head and neck malignancy, including cutaneous and noncutaneous (upper aerodigestive tract and salivary gland) cancers, from January 1990 through December 2011 were identified. Patients were stratified according to cancer type, location, stage, and survival and compared to a nontransplant cohort in our institution's tumor registry. Of 95 patients identified, 17 had noncutaneous and 78 had cutaneous head and neck malignancies post-transplant. Among the noncutaneous group, no statistically significant differences occurred in age, gender, stage, or 5-year survival status when compared to the nontransplant tumor registry cohort. However, significantly fewer transplant patients were alive at 1 year. Among the cutaneous group, >50% had multiple malignancies. The total incidence of head and neck cancer following organ transplantation was 2.6%. Although the development of head and neck cancer is a rare side effect of immunosuppression, it still warrants attention. These patients have been found to be less likely to survive >1 year when compared to their nontransplant counterparts. Patients who develop head and neck malignancies following organ transplantation require aggressive screening, treatment, and follow-up, as this diagnosis may portend a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: parathyroid cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... fifties and occurs in one of the four parathyroid glands . The parathyroid glands are located in the neck and secrete parathyroid ... cancer is described as hormonally functional because the parathyroid glands are producing excess hormone. Many individuals with hormonally ...

  20. Predictors of direct home discharge following fractured neck of femur.

    PubMed

    Salar, O; Baker, P N; Forward, D P; Ollivere, B J; Weerasuriya, N; Moppett, I K; Moran, C G

    2017-07-01

    INTRODUCTION Direct home discharge (DHD) following hip fracture surgery represents a challenging proposition. The aim of this study was to identify factors influencing the discharge destination (home vs alternative location) for patients admitted from their own home with a fractured neck of femur. METHODS A retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected major trauma centre data was performed, identifying 10,044 consecutive hip fracture admissions between 2000 and 2012. RESULTS Two-thirds of the patients (n=6,742, 67%) were admitted from their own home. Half of these (n=3,509, 52%) returned directly to their own home while two-fifths (n=2,640, 39%) were discharged to an alternative location; 593 (9%) died. The following were identified as independent variables associated with a higher likelihood of DHD: younger patients, female sex, an abbreviated mental test score of 10, absence of certain co-morbidities, cohabiting, walking independently outdoors, no use of walking aids, no assistance required with basic activities of daily living and intracapsular fracture. CONCLUSIONS Identifying those at risk of being discharged to an alternative location following admission from home on the basis of identified preoperative indices could assist in streamlining the postoperative care phase. Pre-emptive action may help increase the numbers of patients discharged directly home and reduce the number requiring additional rehabilitation prior to discharge home with its associated socioeconomic effect.

  1. Oral and head and neck cancer. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-03

    The Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Diagnostic and prognostic studies of oral and head and neck cancers; Treatment of oral and head and neck cancers; Rehabilitation and other support following treatment of oral and head and neck cancers; Etiology, epidemiology, and follow-up studies of patients with oral and head and neck cancers; Training programs for dental professions; Broad clinical programs for treatment of head and neck cancers; Salivary gland pathology.

  2. Prophylactic exercises among head and neck cancer patients during and after swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiation: adherence and exercise performance levels of a 12-week guided home-based program.

    PubMed

    Cnossen, Ingrid C; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F; Witte, Birgit I; Aalders, Yke J; de Goede, Cees J T; de Bree, Remco; Doornaert, Patricia; Rietveld, Derek H F; Buter, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2017-02-01

    The background and purpose of this paper is to investigate adherence, exercise performance levels and associated factors in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients participating in a guided home-based prophylactic exercise program during and after treatment [swallowing sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (SW-IMRT)]. Fifty patients were included in the study. Adherence was defined as the percentage of patients who kept up exercising; exercise performance level was categorized as low: ≤1, moderate: 1-2, and high: ≥2 time(s) per day, on average. Associations between 6- and 12-week exercise performance levels and age, gender, tumour site and stage, treatment, intervention format (online or booklet), number of coaching sessions, and baseline HNC symptoms (EORTC-QLQ-H&N35) were investigated. Adherence rate at 6 weeks was 70% and decreased to 38% at 12 weeks. In addition, exercise performance levels decreased over time (during 6 weeks: 34% moderate and 26% high; during 12 weeks: 28% moderate and 18% high). The addition of chemotherapy to SW-IMRT [(C)SW-IMRT] significantly deteriorated exercise performance level. Adherence to a guided home-based prophylactic exercise program was high during (C)SW-IMRT, but dropped afterwards. Exercise performance level was negatively affected by chemotherapy in combination with SW-IMRT.

  3. Head and neck cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Stepnick, David; Gilpin, David

    2010-05-01

    Ablative surgery for malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract is the most common reason why the reconstructive surgeon is called upon to reconstruct adult head and neck defects. An understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of head and neck malignancy is vital to the reconstructive surgeon so that restoration of both form and function can be achieved. It is important to understand the behavior of cancers of each head and neck subsite, as staging and ultimately the treatment of tumors from each subsite is different. Historically, the standard treatment of head and neck cancer was surgery and/or primary radiation therapy with surgical salvage for failure. Beginning in the 1980s, advances in chemotherapy and concurrent delivery with radiation offered new options to standard surgical therapy. Over the past two decades, the concept of organ preservation using chemotherapy together with radiation therapy has been definitively established. Yet, even with the strides made over these two decades with chemoradiation, surgical treatment of head and neck cancer and reconstruction thereof will be an important treatment option for the foreseeable future. Therefore, the relationship between the extirpative and reconstructive surgeon is vital, and a clear understanding of the biology and behavior of head and neck malignancy is crucial to successful patient outcomes.

  4. Epigenetics in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Syeda Marriam; Ali, Amjad; Barh, Debmalya

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics refers to the study of heritable changes in gene expression that occur without a change in DNA sequence. Research has shown that epigenetic mechanisms provide an "extra" layer of transcriptional control that regulates how genes are expressed. These mechanisms are critical components in the normal development and growth of cells. Epigenetic abnormalities have been found to be causative factors in cancer, genetic disorders, and pediatric syndromes. Head and neck cancers are a group of malignancies with diverse biological behaviors and a strong, well-established association with environmental effects. Although the hunt for genetic alterations in head and neck cancer has continued in the past two decades, with unequivocal proof of a genetic role in multistage head and neck carcinogenesis, epigenetic alteration in association with promoter CpG islands hypermethylation has emerged in the past few years as one of the most active areas of cancer research. Silencing of the genes by hypermethylation or induction of oncogenes by promoter hypomethylation is a frequent mechanism in head and neck cancer and achieves increasing diagnostic and therapeutic importance. In this context it is important for clinicians to understand the principles of epigenetic mechanisms and how these principles relate to human health and disease. It is important to address the use of epigenetic pathways in new approaches to molecular diagnosis and novel targeted treatments across the clinical spectrum.

  5. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Jens; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Godballe, Christian; Grau Eriksen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. Study population The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma) of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01–C.11, C.30–C.32, C.73, and C.80). Main variables The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms; etiological factors; pretreatment and diagnostic evaluation, including tumor–node–metastasis classification, imaging, histopathology, and laboratory tests; primary treatment with semidetailed information of radiotherapy, surgery, and medical treatment; follow-up registration of tumor status and side effects; registration of relapse and treatment thereof; and registration of death and cause of death. Main results Data from >33,000 patients have been recorded during a period of >45 years. In this period, the outcome of treatment improved substantially, partly due to better treatment as a result of a series of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time, changed epidemiology, and influence of comorbidity and socioeconomic parameters. Conclusion Half a century of registration of head and neck cancer treatment and outcome has created the basis for understanding and has substantially contributed to improve the treatment of head and neck cancer at both

  6. Management of the neck in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R

    1998-10-01

    The incidence of nodal metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer ranges between 40% to 75%. Elective neck dissection is generally not advised in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer; however, if clinically apparent nodal disease is noted in the tracheoesophageal groove during surgery, central compartment clearance is advised. If clinically apparent nodal disease is present in the lateral compartment of the neck, modified neck dissection preserving the sternomastoid, accessory nerve, and jugular vein is advised. The "berry picking procedure" is generally not recommended because of the higher incidence of regional recurrence. Due consideration should be given for parathyroidal transplantation if the blood supply to the parathyroids is damaged during central compartment clearance. The incidence of lymph node metastasis is highest in young patients, however, lymph node metastasis has no bearing on long-term survival. There seems to be a higher incidence of regional recurrence in elderly individuals. If patients present with bulky nodal disease, consideration may be given for postoperative radioactive iodine dosimetry and ablation if necessary. Differentiated thyroid cancer represents a unique disease in the human body, where lymph node metastasis has no prognostic implication. Aggressive surgical clearance is advised in patients with medullary thyroid cancer in the central compartment and the jugular chain lymph nodes.

  7. Gene therapy in head and neck cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, E; Bapat, U; Chisholm, C; Alusi, G; Vassaux, G

    2007-01-01

    Gene therapy for cancer is a rapidly evolving field with head and neck squamous cell cancer being one of the more frequently targeted cancer types. The number of clinical trials in the UK is growing and there is already a commercially available agent in China. Various gene therapy strategies along with delivery mechanisms for targeting head and neck cancer are reviewed. PMID:18057169

  8. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health Conditions head and neck squamous cell carcinoma head and neck squamous cell carcinoma Printable PDF Open All Close ... body cavities such as the airways and intestines. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) develops in the mucous ...

  10. SBRT for recurrent head and neck cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, M.; Kabarriti, R.; Baliga, S.; Guha, C.; Tome, W.; Kalnicki, S.

    2017-01-01

    The management of patients with recurrent head and neck cancers is complex. Concerns over toxicity with re-irradiation have limited its use in the clinical setting. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a highly conformal and precise type of radiotherapy and has the advantage of sparing normal tissue. Although SBRT is an attractive treatment modality, its use in the clinic is limited, given the technically challenging nature of the procedure. In this review, we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of re-irradiation in patients with recurrent head and neck cancers, with particular attention to the advent of SBRT and its use with systemic therapies such as cetuximab.

  11. ASCO highlights podcast: head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Merlano, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A critical review of the head and neck cancer research highlights of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting 2016, held in June 2016 in Chicago, is presented in this podcast. Considering the most interesting and practice-changing trials reported at the meeting, the key trial comparing gemcitabine plus cisplatin against 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) plus cisplatin in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is highlighted. The GORTEC2007-02 trial comparing induction docetaxel/platinum/5-FU followed by cetuximab-radiotherapy against concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for N2b/c-N3 non operated stage III-IV squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is also discussed. An overview of the research reported using immunotherapy in head and neck cancer is also given, considering maturing data and particularly in relapsing patients, where response rates, though low, are better than with current therapies, and the responses are long lasting. Future developments are also considered, again with a focus on immunotherapy, but also considering combination with radiotherapy and chemoradiation. PMID:27843642

  12. ASCO highlights podcast: head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Merlano, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A critical review of the head and neck cancer research highlights of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting 2016, held in June 2016 in Chicago, is presented in this podcast. Considering the most interesting and practice-changing trials reported at the meeting, the key trial comparing gemcitabine plus cisplatin against 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) plus cisplatin in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma is highlighted. The GORTEC2007-02 trial comparing induction docetaxel/platinum/5-FU followed by cetuximab-radiotherapy against concurrent chemo-radiotherapy for N2b/c-N3 non operated stage III-IV squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is also discussed. An overview of the research reported using immunotherapy in head and neck cancer is also given, considering maturing data and particularly in relapsing patients, where response rates, though low, are better than with current therapies, and the responses are long lasting. Future developments are also considered, again with a focus on immunotherapy, but also considering combination with radiotherapy and chemoradiation.

  13. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Results Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. Conclusions The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy. PMID:22313843

  14. Home Cervical Traction to Reduce Neck Pain in Fighter Pilots.

    PubMed

    Chumbley, Eric M; O'Hair, Nicole; Stolfi, Adrienne; Lienesch, Christopher; McEachen, James C; Wright, Bruce A

    2016-12-01

    Most fighter pilots report cervical pain during their careers. Recommendations for remediation lack evidence. We sought to determine whether regular use of a home cervical traction device could decrease reported cervical pain in F-15C pilots. An institutional review board-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant, controlled crossover study was undertaken with 21 male F-15C fighter pilots between February and June 2015. Of the 21 subjects, 12 completed 6 wk each of traction and control, while logging morning, postflying, and post-traction pain. Pain was compared with paired t-tests between the periods, from initial pain scores to postflying, and postflying to post-traction. In the traction phase, initial pain levels increased postflight, from 1.2 (0.7) to 1.6 (1.0) Subsequent post-traction pain levels decreased to 1.3 (0.9), with a corresponding linear decrease in pain relative to pain reported postflight. The difference in pain levels after traction compared to initial levels was not significant, indicating that cervical traction was effective in alleviating flying-related pain. Control pain increased postflight from 1.4 (0.9) to 1.9 (1.3). Daily traction phase pain was lower than the control, but insignificant. To our knowledge, this is the first study of home cervical traction to address fighter pilots' cervical pain. We found a small but meaningful improvement in daily pain rating when using cervical traction after flying. These results help inform countermeasure development for pilots flying high-performance aircraft. Further study should clarify the optimal traction dose and timing in relation to flying.Chumbley EM, O'Hair N, Stolfi A, Lienesch C, McEachen JC, Wright BA. Home cervical traction to reduce neck pain in fighter pilots. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(12):1010-1015.

  15. Checkpoint immunotherapy in head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Zolkind, Paul; Uppaluri, Ravindra

    2017-08-23

    Checkpoint inhibitors have recently gained FDA approval for the treatment of cisplatin-resistant recurrent and metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by outperforming standard of care chemotherapy and inducing durable responses in a subset of patients. These monoclonal antibodies unleash the patient's own immune system to target cancer cells. HNSCC is a good target for these agents as there is ample evidence of active immunosurveillance in the head and neck and a number of immune evasion mechanisms by which HNSCCs form progressive disease including via the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. As HNSCCs typically possess a moderately high mutation burden, they should express numerous mutation-derived antigen targets for immune detection. However, with response rates less than 20% in clinical trials, there is a need for biomarkers to screen patients as well as clinical trials evaluating novel combinations to improve outcomes. The aim of this review is to provide historical and mechanistic context for the use of checkpoint inhibitors in head and neck cancer and provide a perspective on the role of novel checkpoints, biomarkers, and combination therapies that are evolving in the near term for patients with HNSCC.

  16. Distant metastases in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Duprez, Fréderic; Berwouts, Dieter; De Neve, Wilfried; Bonte, Katrien; Boterberg, Tom; Deron, Philippe; Huvenne, Wouter; Rottey, Sylvie; Mareel, Marc

    2017-09-01

    Most trials in head and neck cancer emphasize locoregional control, as this is the main pattern of therapy failure. However, up to 15% of patients develop distant metastases. The purpose of this study was to present the investigated factors associated with distant metastasis in a single-center patient cohort. A retrospective analysis of a single-center patient cohort over an 18-year period has been performed. We report on prevalence and incidence of distant metastasis, timing in relation to locoregional failure, Kaplan-Meier analysis for actuarial distant control rates, and univariate analysis taking into account histological, etiologic, surgical, site-dependent, stage-dependent characteristics, modality of primary therapy, and locoregional control. Of 1022 patients, 141 (13.8%) were diagnosed with distant metastases involving 283 sites. Actuarial rates of distant control were 88%, 84%, 80%, and 79% at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Factors associated with distant metastasis are stage grouping and regional node positivity, extranodal extension, locoregional residual disease, and human papillomavirus (HPV) negative status in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Distant metastases in head and neck cancer led to dismal prognosis. Factors associated with distant metastasis are related to characteristics of the primary tumor. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1733-1743, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Psychosocial aspects of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Breitbart, W; Holland, J

    1988-02-01

    The major psychosocial issues in managing the patient with a head and neck tumor are dealing with the emotional reactions to structural and functional deficits, recognizing and treating preexisting personality problems, especially those related to alcohol and tobacco abuse, which frequently complicate their treatment course. These factors influence the rehabilitation process which should begin in the preoperative period with careful attention to psychologic and social assessment and psychiatric evaluation; if an alcoholic history is elicited. Important continuity in rehabilitation can be accomplished by contact with the rehabilitative team members before surgery, preoperative chemotherapy or radiation. Attention to appropriate adaptation to facial prostheses and dealing early with communication disorders requires a specialized staff and a rehabilitative team which can call on a range of skills including a psychiatric consultant. While the ordeal of the head and neck cancer patient is psychologically difficult and challenging, most patients are able, with the proper help, to resume full and productive lives.

  18. Quantifying fibrosis in head and neck cancer treatment: An overview.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Emma C; Brunner, Markus; Alexander, Ashlin J; Clark, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Fibrosis is a common late complication of radiotherapy and/or surgical treatment for head and neck cancers. Fibrosis is difficult to quantify and formal methods of measure are not well recognized. The purpose of this review was to summarize the methods available to quantify neck fibrosis. A PubMed search of articles was carried out using key words "neck" and "fibrosis." Many methods have been used to assess fibrosis, however, there is no preferred methodology. Specific to neck fibrosis, most studies have relied upon hand palpation rating scales. Indentation and suction techniques have been used to mechanically quantify neck fibrosis. There is scope to develop applications of ultrasound, dielectric, bioimpedance, and MRI techniques for use in the neck region. Quantitative assessment of neck fibrosis is sought after in order to compare treatment regimens and improve quality of life outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Neck dissection with cervical sensory preservation in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shuai; Wang, Peisong; Chen, Guang

    2013-11-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Recently, controversy has focused on the management of lymph node metastases, which represent approximately 90% of disease recurrences and may require considerable time, effort, and resources to diagnose and treat. Neck dissections play an essential role in the management of head and neck cancer. A modified radical neck dissection (MND) refers to resection of the lymph nodes in levels II through V and often including the central nodes in level VI. When performing modified neck dissection, we recommend to protect more reserved cervical plexus. The purpose is to better protect patient's neck skin feeling.

  20. Cancer of the head and neck.

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, J. S.

    1994-01-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract, collectively known as head and neck cancers, arise from a multiplicity of sites. In the West, excess tobacco and alcohol consumption are the most important of the known predisposing factors; elsewhere in the world, notably in India and China, the aetiology, pattern of primary sites, and clinical behaviour are different. Clinically these tumours pose exceptional problems in management, and skilled multidisciplinary teams are necessary in order to achieve the highest level of service and research. Historically, surgery and radiotherapy have been the most important treatment modalities; chemotherapy is now increasingly employed but not yet fully established. Successful rehabilitation of patients with head and neck cancers requires access to high quality speech therapists and other support staff with training in functional pharyngeal disorders. Current research efforts are largely directed towards defining the proper role of chemotherapy and assessing the possible advantage of unconventional radiation approaches. In recent years the roles of primary, reconstructive, and salvage surgery have also become better defined. Many patients are suitable for randomisation into ongoing prospective clinical trials which have been specifically designed to address these issues. Images FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 PMID:8173406

  1. Imaging for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Jesty

    2015-07-01

    Imaging is an essential tool in the management of head and neck cancer. Oral, oropharyngeal, laryngeal, and hypopharyngeal lesions are initially imaged with computed tomography (CT) because it allows rapid image acquisition and reduces artifacts related to respiration and swallowing, which can degrade image quality and limit evaluation. Sinonasal, nasopharyngeal, and salivary gland tumors are better approached with MRI because it allows for better delineation of tumor extent. PET/CT is usually reserved for advanced disease to evaluate for distant metastatic disease and posttreatment residual and recurrent disease. Imaging is best used in combination with expert clinical and physical examination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ezra E W; LaMonte, Samuel J; Erb, Nicole L; Beckman, Kerry L; Sadeghi, Nader; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Stubblefield, Michael D; Abbott, Dennis M; Fisher, Penelope S; Stein, Kevin D; Lyman, Gary H; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L

    2016-05-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline was developed to assist primary care clinicians and other health practitioners with the care of head and neck cancer survivors, including monitoring for recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, and care coordination. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015, and a multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, dentistry, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, clinical psychology, speech-language pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, the patient perspective, and nursing was assembled. While the guideline is based on a systematic review of the current literature, most evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong recommendation. Therefore, recommendations should be viewed as consensus-based management strategies for assisting patients with physical and psychosocial effects of head and neck cancer and its treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:203-239. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. [Proton therapy for head and neck cancers].

    PubMed

    Blanchard, P; Frank, S J

    2017-10-01

    The absence of exit dose and the sharp lateral penumbra are key assets for proton therapy, which are responsible for its dosimetric superiority over advanced photon radiotherapy. Dosimetric comparisons have consistently shown a reduction of the integral dose and the dose to organs at risk favouring intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) over intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The structures that benefit the most of these dosimetric improvements in head and neck cancers are the anterior oral cavity, the posterior fossa, the visual apparatus and swallowing structures. A number of publications have concluded that these dosimetric differences actually translate into reduced toxicities with IMPT, for example with regards to reduced weight loss or need for feeding tube. Patient survival is usually similar to IMRT series, except in base of skull or sinonasal malignancies, where a survival advantage of IMPT could exist. The goals of the present review is to describe the major characteristics of proton therapy, to analyse the clinical data with regards to head and neck cancer patients, and to highlight the issue of patient selection and physical and biological uncertainties. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  4. Medical malpractice and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, Daniel D

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate medical malpractice involving patients with head and neck cancer. In the United States, problems associated with the medical malpractice environment are reaching proportions that threaten the delivery of health care. Several methods to learn more about the trends and ramifications of litigation have been developed. Although patients with cancer of the head and neck bring suits rarely, when they do several themes seem prevalent. Delays in diagnosis are common allegations. Plaintiffs are frequently much younger than expected, and the oncologic outcome is frequently poor. Defendant physicians occasionally unwittingly add to the delay by not expecting the younger patient. The poor oncologic outcome may be related to the delay or to a biologically more aggressive disease. Relationships between these factors are explored. Consent issues are also relatively common. Physicians must strive to know as much as possible about tort reform, and to contribute to the process. Litigation analysis and other tools to expand our understanding can be used to educate ourselves and the legal community. Scientific standards must be developed along with clinical pathways to guide ourselves to prevent litigation. They may also guide the legal community to establish more rational standards of care based on a consensus of expert opinions.

  5. Targeted Therapy of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rieke, Damian T; Klinghammer, Konrad; Keilholz, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common solid cancers worldwide. It is mainly caused by exposure to tobacco smoke and alcohol as well as infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV). The prognosis is poor, especially once it recurs or metastasizes. Current therapeutic options include surgery, radio- and chemotherapy. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors are so far the only targeted agents that have been approved in head and neck cancer. Primary or secondary resistance is frequent or will eventually develop. Several driver mutations and other genomic aberrations have been described in HNSCC including EGFR overexpression and amplification. Yet, no predictive biomarkers for the application of EGFR inhibitors have been identified. Further targeted agents are in development for HNSCC, of which inhibitors of the PI3K pathway are the closest to clinical application. In recent years, the incidence of HPV-driven HNSCC has risen in Western countries. HPV-positive and -negative HNSCC are distinct molecular tumor entities, and consequences for targeted therapies have been discussed. This review looks at approved and investigational targeted treatment strategies as well as potential predictive biomarkers such as the HPV status to guide treatment. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions hereditary diffuse gastric cancer hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder ...

  7. Variation of neck position with image-guided radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Ove, Roger; Cavalieri, Ronaldo; Noble, Darin; Russo, Suzanne M

    2012-02-01

    An understanding of the setup variation of the low neck in relation to the upper neck is necessary to define appropriate planning margins, while treating the full neck with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) technique. The setup of 20 sequential head and neck cancer patients was studied. Daily position verification was performed with a computed tomography (CT) on rails. An upper neck point was defined as the anterior-most portion of the cervical spine on the lowest CT cut on which both styloid processes are visible. A low neck point was defined as the anterior-most portion of the cervical spine on the lowest CT cut on which the thyroid gland was visible bilaterally. This procedure was carried out on the planning CT and on each daily treatment CT. The variation of the low neck was analyzed, assuming perfect alignment of the upper neck anatomy. Daily treatment CT of upper neck anterior cervical spine points were normalized to the planning CT. Relative to this coordinate system, the low neck cervical spine point was displaced an average of 3.08 mm anteriorly, ±0.17 mm. There was no systematic lateral or craniocaudal displacement. Random setup errors resulted in low neck standard deviations of 3.9 mm (anteroposterior), 3.3 mm (lateral), and 2.6 mm (craniocaudal). Position variation in the low neck varied in excess of the planning margins. There was a systematic anterior displacement. Random setup error was greater than expected. The results suggest that the neck volumes located distant from the region of fusion should be drawn with larger planning margins.

  8. Free Flap Procedures for Reconstruction After Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kini, Erin

    2015-12-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer are seeking improved surgical procedures to avoid severe defects that result from head and neck cancer resection. Free flap reconstruction provides vascularized tissue that has been transferred from a distant donor site on a patient's body to a recipient site, markedly improving wound closure and protecting structures of the head and neck. This article discusses free flap procedures for reconstruction after head and neck cancer resection, including the following procedure phases: airway protection and neck dissections, tumor resection, flap harvest, microvascular anastomosis of the flap, and reconstruction and closure. The article also explains specific risk factors for patients undergoing free flap procedures that have been identified in the literature and include procedure length, hypothermia, and pressure injuries. Each of these factors is discussed regarding its specific effect on this patient population, and the nursing interventions to reduce these risks are identified.

  9. Targeted therapy in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Licitra, Lisa; Bergamini, Cristiana; Mirabile, Aurora; Granata, Roberta

    2011-04-01

    Results of clinical studies on targeted cancer therapies are rapidly accumulating. This is also true in the field of head and neck cancer (HNC). Due to the unique multidisciplinary needs of the disease, it is of paramount importance that physicians who treat HNC are aware of the evolving changes that research is offering. Many targeted agents directed at inhibiting epithelial growth factor receptors (EGFRs) are under investigation in both curable loco-regional advanced disease in combination with standard treatments and in the recurrent metastatic setting. Human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive tumors present a distinct biological profile. Consequently, the role of targeted agents in this specific setting still needs to be refined. Herein we will briefly review the results of the most recent studies on targeted agents. Cetuximab and other monoclonal antibodies (panitumumab, zalotumumab and nimotumumab) have been already investigated in phase III studies; and some results are now available. Small molecules inhibiting EGFR have still to prove their efficacy. Other agents such as vascular endothelial cell growth factor receptor, vascular endoinsulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, MET, PI3KA and mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor are in development. At present treatment options in HNC are changing and include targeted agents with demonstrated efficacy. A better selection based on biological factors of patients who are potentially responsive to such targeted agents is being actively pursued.

  10. Alcohol and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Daisuke; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2017-08-16

    In this article, we reviewed the association between alcohol drinking and head and neck cancer (HNC) and its subsites, using the available literature. Alcohol drinking is an established risk factor for HNC, and this association may be stronger among cancers of the oropharynx and hypopharynx than the oral cavity or larynx. In addition, higher alcohol consumption over a shorter period was more harmful than fewer alcohol consumption over a longer period, and the most frequently consumed alcoholic beverages in a population is likely to be associated with the highest risk of HNC in that population. The risk of HNC after ≥ 20 years of alcohol cessation appear to be similar to the risk among never drinkers. The interaction between genetic polymorphisms related to alcohol metabolism and alcohol drinking on the risk of HNC has been noted, and the prevalence of these genetic polymorphisms in each population should be of concern. Finally, the association between alcohol drinking and the survival of individuals with HNC remains unclear, and mortality due to competing causes should be considered in future research to evaluate this association.

  11. Hypothyroidism after radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Hideyuki; Mizutari, Kunio; Takata, Yasunori; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    We report on 2 cases of hypothyroidism presenting clinical symptoms that occurred after radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck and on the results of estimating thyroid function in patients with head and neck cancer who received radiotherapy. The first patient underwent total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer without sacrificing the thyroid gland and partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Radiotherapy of the neck was carried out postoperatively. Two years later, the patient developed chest pain; pericardial effusion was detected, leading to a diagnosis of myxedema caused by hypothyroidism. The second patient received radiotherapy alone for laryngeal cancer. Two months later, low serum sodium concentration and anemia were detected in this patient. The cause of these changes was subsequently found to be hypothyroidism. Based on our experience with these 2 cases, we measured thyroid function in 35 patients who had undergone neck radiation for head and neck cancer at our hospital over the past 10 years. Hypothyroidism was observed in 13 of the 35 patients (37%). The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 46% (6/13) for patients treated with both radiation and surgery, as compared with 32% (7/22) for those who received radiation alone. The risk factors responsible for hypothyroidism were not evident from the statistical analysis of these cases. We believe that thyroid function should be evaluated periodically in patients who have undergone neck radiation because it is often difficult to diagnose hypothyroidism only from clinical symptoms.

  12. Pattern of neck recurrence after lateral neck dissection for cervical metastases in papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, William F.; Wang, Laura Y.; Palmer, Frank L.; Nixon, Iain J.; Shah, Jatin P.; Patel, Snehal G.; Ganly, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to determine the rate and pattern of nodal recurrence in patients who underwent a therapeutic, lateral neck dissection (LND) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with clinically evident cervical metastases and to determine if there was any correlation between the extent of initial dissection and the rate and pattern of neck recurrence. Methods A total of 3,664 patients with PTC treated between 1986 and 2010 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were identified from our institutional database. Tumor factors, patient demographics, extent of initial LND, and adjuvant therapy were recorded. Patterns of recurrent lateral neck metastases by level involvement were recorded and outcomes calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results A total of 484 patients had an LND for cervical metastases; 364 (75%) had a comprehensive LND (CLND) and 120 (25%) had a selective neck dissection (SND). The median duration of follow-up was 63.5 months. As expected, patients with CLND had a greater number of nodes removed as well as a greater number of positive nodes (P < .001). There was no difference in overall lateral neck recurrence-free status (CLND 94.4% vs SND 89.4%, P = .158), but in the dissected neck, the ipsilateral lateral neck recurrence-free status was superior in the CLND patients (97.7% vs 89.4%, P < .001). Conclusion Patients with clinically evident neck metastases from PTC managed by CLND have lesser rates of recurrence in the dissected neck compared with patients managed by SND. SND should only be done in highly selected cases with small volume disease. PMID:26994486

  13. Pattern of neck recurrence after lateral neck dissection for cervical metastases in papillary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    McNamara, William F; Wang, Laura Y; Palmer, Frank L; Nixon, Iain J; Shah, Jatin P; Patel, Snehal G; Ganly, Ian

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the rate and pattern of nodal recurrence in patients who underwent a therapeutic, lateral neck dissection (LND) for papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) with clinically evident cervical metastases and to determine if there was any correlation between the extent of initial dissection and the rate and pattern of neck recurrence. A total of 3,664 patients with PTC treated between 1986 and 2010 at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center were identified from our institutional database. Tumor factors, patient demographics, extent of initial LND, and adjuvant therapy were recorded. Patterns of recurrent lateral neck metastases by level involvement were recorded and outcomes calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 484 patients had an LND for cervical metastases; 364 (75%) had a comprehensive LND (CLND) and 120 (25%) had a selective neck dissection (SND). The median duration of follow-up was 63.5 months. As expected, patients with CLND had a greater number of nodes removed as well as a greater number of positive nodes (P < .001). There was no difference in overall lateral neck recurrence-free status (CLND 94.4% vs SND 89.4%, P = .158), but in the dissected neck, the ipsilateral lateral neck recurrence-free status was superior in the CLND patients (97.7% vs 89.4%, P < .001). Patients with clinically evident neck metastases from PTC managed by CLND have lesser rates of recurrence in the dissected neck compared with patients managed by SND. SND should only be done in highly selected cases with small volume disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Implementing the National Institute of Clinical Excellence improving outcome guidelines for head and neck cancer: developing a business plan with reorganisation of head and neck cancer services.

    PubMed

    Jeannon, J-P; Abbs, I; Calman, F; Gleeson, M; Lyons, A; Hussain, K; McGurk, M; O'Connell, M; Probert, D; Ng, R; Simo, R

    2008-04-01

    The implementation of the National Institute of Clinical Excellence improving outcome guidelines (NICE-IOG) manual for head and neck cancer may have a huge potential cost implication. Head and neck cancer is a rare disease which utilises large quantities of resources which can only be provided in a tertiary centre. Head and neck cancer services should be centralised into a single site for each cancer network. A new higher tariff rate for complex head and neck cancer cases is needed which recognises the true cost of this work. Each network should set its own tariff to make head and neck cancer care financially viable.

  15. Lhermitte's Sign Developing after IMRT for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong C.; Gagnon, Patrick J.; Meranvil, Sophia; Kaurin, Darryl; Lipp, Linda; Holland, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Lhermitte's sign (LS) is a benign form of myelopathy with neck flexion producing an unpleasant electric-shock sensation radiating down the extremities. Although rare, it can occur after head and neck radiotherapy. Results. We report a case of Lhermitte's developing after curative intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for a patient with locoregionally advanced oropharyngeal cancer. IMRT delivers a conformal dose of radiation in head and neck cancer resulting in a gradient of radiation dose throughout the spinal cord. Using IMRT, more dose is delivered to the anterior spinal cord than the posterior cord. Conclusions. Lhermitte's sign can develop after IMRT for head and neck cancer. We propose an anterior spinal cord structure, the spinothalamic tract to be the target of IMRT-caused LS. PMID:20628529

  16. Immunotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Davidson, H Carter; Leibowitz, Michael S; Lopez-Albaitero, Andres; Ferris, Robert L

    2009-09-01

    Overall survival for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) has not improved appreciably over the past few decades. Novel therapeutic approaches, such as immunotherapy, are under clinical investigation since the standard treatments are toxic and have not successfully controlled this disease with sufficiently high success rates. Cancer immunotherapy describes various techniques to expand and activate the immune system to control tumor growth in vivo, and clinical evaluation has so far demonstrated low toxicity. Immunotherapy appears to have the most applicability in settings of minimal residual disease and to reduce distant metastases after other therapeutic interventions, and its potential clinical value is now receiving intensive evaluation. Emerging forms of SCCHN immunotherapy involve both the use of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) that target growth factor receptors where immune activation appears to contribute to tumor cell lysis, as well as various forms of active vaccination strategies which activate and direct the patient's cellular immunity against the tumor. This article reviews immunotherapeutic strategies currently in clinical trials or under development for patients with SCCHN.

  17. HPV Associated Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Tara; Bruce, Jeff; Yip, Kenneth W.; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNCs) are a highly heterogeneous group of tumours that are associated with diverse clinical outcomes. Recent evidence has demonstrated that human papillomavirus (HPV) is involved in up to 25% of HNCs; particularly in the oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) subtype where it can account for up to 60% of such cases. HPVs are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect epithelial cells; numerous HPV subtypes, including 16, 18, 31, 33, and 35, drive epithelial cell transformation and tumourigenesis. HPV positive (HPV+) HNC represents a distinct molecular and clinical entity from HPV negative (HPV−) disease; the biological basis for which remains to be fully elucidated. HPV positivity is strongly correlated with a significantly superior outcome; indicating that such tumours should have a distinct management approach. This review focuses on the recent scientific and clinical investigation of HPV+ HNC. In particular, we discuss the importance of molecular and clinical evidence for defining the role of HPV in HNC, and the clinical impact of HPV status as a biomarker for HNC. PMID:27527216

  18. Stages of Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a team of doctors with expertise in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Cancer Home Page Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer ...

  19. Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer (Treatment Options by Stage)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a team of doctors with expertise in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Cancer Home Page Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a team of doctors with expertise in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Cancer Home Page Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer ...

  1. General Information about Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a team of doctors with expertise in treating head and neck cancer. Treatment will be overseen by a medical ... Cancer Home Page Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer ...

  2. [Genetic basis of head and neck cancers and gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Özel, Halil Erdem; Özkırış, Mahmut; Gencer, Zeliha Kapusuz; Saydam, Levent

    2013-01-01

    Surgery and combinations of traditional treatments are not successful enough particularly for advanced stage head and neck cancer. The major disadvantages of chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the lack of specificity for the target tissue and toxicity to the patient. As a result, gene therapy may offer a more specific approach. The aim of gene therapy is to present therapeutic genes into cancer cells which selectively eliminate malignant cells with no systemic toxicity to the patient. This article reviews the genetic basis of head and neck cancers and important concepts in cancer gene therapy: (i) inhibition of oncogenes; (ii) tumor suppressor gene replacement; (iii) regulation of immune response against malignant cells; (iv) genetic prodrug activation; and (v) antiangiogenic gene therapy. Currently, gene therapy is not sufficient to replace the traditional treatments of head and neck cancers, however there is no doubt that it will have an important role in the near future.

  3. Cervicopectoral flap in head and neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Copcu, Eray; Metin, Kubilay; Aktas, Alper; Sivrioglu, Nazan S; Öztan, Yücel

    2003-01-01

    Background Reconstruction of the head and neck after adequate resection of primary tumor and neck dissection is a challenge. It should be performed at one sitting in advanced tumors. Defects caused by the resection should be closed with flaps which match in color, texture and hair bearing characteristics with the face. Cervicopectoral flap is a one such flap from chest and neck skin mainly used to cover the cheek defects. Methods This study included twelve patients presenting with cancer of the head and neck to Izmir Ataturk Training Hospital and Adnan Menderes University Hospital. Tumor resection and neck dissection was performed in one session by the same surgeon. A single incision was made and a medially based cervicopectoral fascio-cutaneous flap was used for surgical exposure in neck dissection and for closure of defects after tumor resection. Results There was no major complication. Two flaps had partial superficial epidermolysis at the suture line. Good aesthetic and functional results were achieved. Conclusion The cervicopectoral flap is an excellent alternative for the reconstruction of head and neck. Harvesting and application of the flap is rapid and safe. Only a single incision is sufficient for dissection and flap elevation. This flap achieves perfect surgical exposure, makes neck dissection easy and allows one to perform both tumor resection and neck dissection in one session. PMID:14690542

  4. Dental caries and head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Tezal, Mine; Scannapieco, Frank A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Meurman, Jukka H; Marshall, James R; Rojas, Isolde Gina; Stoler, Daniel L; Genco, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Dental caries is the demineralization of tooth structures by lactic acid from fermentation of carbohydrates by commensal gram-positive bacteria. Cariogenic bacteria have been shown to elicit a potent Th1 cytokine polarization and a cell-mediated immune response. To test the association between dental caries and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Case-control study in a comprehensive cancer center including all patients with newly diagnosed primary HNSCC between 1999 and 2007 as cases and all patients without a cancer diagnosis as controls. Those with a history of cancer, dysplasia, or immunodeficiency or who were younger than 21 years were excluded. Dental caries, fillings, crowns, and endodontic treatments, measured by the number of affected teeth; missing teeth. We also computed an index variable: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). Incident HNSCC. We included 620 participants (399 cases and 221 controls). Cases had a significantly lower mean (SD) number of teeth with caries (1.58 [2.52] vs 2.04 [2.15]; P = .03), crowns (1.27 [2.65] vs 2.10 [3.57]; P = .01), endodontic treatments (0.56 [1.24] vs 1.01 [2.04]; P = .01), and fillings (5.39 [4.31] vs 6.17 [4.51]; P = .04) but more missing teeth (13.71 [10.27] vs 8.50 [8.32]; P < .001) than controls. There was no significant difference in mean DMFT. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, marital status, smoking status, and alcohol use, those in the upper tertiles of caries (odds ratio [OR], 0.32 [95% CI, 0.19-0.55]; P for trend = .001), crowns (OR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.26-0.84]; P for trend = .03), and endodontic treatments (OR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.30-1.01]; P for trend = .15) were less likely to have HNSCC than those in the lower tertiles. Missing teeth was no longer associated with HNSCC after adjustment for confounding. There is an inverse association between HNSCC and dental caries. This study provides insights for future studies to assess potential beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria and the

  5. Head and Neck Cancer: An Evolving Treatment Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Cognetti, David M.; Weber, Randal S.; Lai, Stephen Y.

    2009-01-01

    Since the inception of this journal in 1948, the understanding of etiologic factors that contribute to and the treatment of head and neck cancer has evolved dramatically. Advances in surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy have improved locoregional control, survival, and quality of life. The outcomes of these treatment modalities have shifted the focus of curative efforts from radical ablation to preservation and restoration of function. This evolution has been documented in the pages of Cancer for the past 6 decades. This review focuses on the evolution of treatment approaches for head and neck cancer and future directions while recognizing the historic contributions recorded within this journal. PMID:18798532

  6. Current clinical immunotherapeutic approaches for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soto Chervin, Carolina; Brockstein, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    It was estimated that 59,340 new cases of head and neck cancer would be diagnosed in the US alone in 2015 and that 12,290 deaths would be attributed to the disease. Local and regional recurrences may be treated with chemotherapy and radiation; however, metastatic head and neck cancer is fatal and is treated with chemotherapy for palliation. Recent successful treatment of a variety of solid and hematological malignancies by immunotherapeutic approaches (i.e. harnessing the body’s own immune system to combat disease) has added a fourth therapeutic option for the treatment of cancer. This commentary will review the status of immunotherapies in clinical development for the specific treatment of head and neck cancer. PMID:27239282

  7. Effects of Swallowing Exercises on Patients Undergoing Radiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-25

    Head and Neck Cancer; Stage I Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage I Laryngeal Cancer; Stage I Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage II Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage II Laryngeal Cancer; Stage II Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage III Laryngeal Cancer; Stage III Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage IV Laryngeal Cancer; Stage IV Oropharyngeal Cancer

  8. Therapeutic robot-assisted neck dissection via a retroauricular or modified facelift approach in head and neck cancer: a comparative study with conventional transcervical neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Shik; Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Park, Young Min; Ha, Jong Gyun; Kim, Eun Sung; Koh, Yoon Woo; Choi, Eun Chang

    2015-02-01

    In a previous study of robot-assisted neck dissection (RAND), we limited the indication for neck dissection in clinical N0 head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was for us to present the comparison of the results of therapeutic RAND via a retroauricular or modified facelift approach with outcomes from conventional neck dissection in clinical node-positive head and neck cancer. This study involved a total of 53 patients who underwent neck dissection for head and neck cancer. Operative and pathologic parameters were assessed. The RAND and the conventional neck dissection group consisted of 20 and 33 patients, respectively. The mean operative time for the RAND group was significantly longer than that of the conventional neck dissection group. The mean number of retrieved lymph nodes in the RAND group was not significantly different from the conventional neck dissection group. Therapeutic RAND via a retroauricular or modified facelift approach was successful with satisfactory esthetic results in patients with node-positive head and neck cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Managment of head and neck cancers during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Kiciński, Krzysztof; Skorek, Andrzej; Stankiewicz, Czesław

    2011-01-01

    The coincidence of malignant disease during pregnancy is uncommon. The incidence of cancer in pregnancy has increased, due to the tendency to postpone childbirth to an older age. Cancer complicates approximately 0.1% of all pregnancies. Managing head and neck cancers during pregnancy requires additional pregnancy-related understanding of the aetiological effect of pregnancy on cancer, knowledge of the direct and indirect effects of cancer on pregnancy, and the effect of diagnostic and treatment modalities on pregnancy. The timing of treatment is an important determinant on foetal wellbeing. A multidisciplinary approach should be adopted to enable parents and clinicians to make the best clinical decision. Clinicians must be cognizant with the ethical dilemmas of treatment. In head and neck cancers, pregnancy has no effect on maternal prognosis when compared to non-pregnant patients matched by age, cancer stage and treatment. Copyright © 2011 Polish Otolaryngology Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner (Poland). All rights reserved.

  10. Central compartment neck dissection for thyroid cancer. Technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sara I; Tufano, Ralph P

    2008-01-01

    The central compartment of the neck is a common site of local metastasis for thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, knowledge of the surgical techniques employed during a central compartment neck dissection is important to master for any surgeon who manages thyroid cancer patients. We review the anatomical boundaries of the central compartment of the neck as well as discuss the lymphatic drainage patterns of the thyroid gland. We advocate standardization of the surgical approach to the central compartment in order to minimize morbidity and ensure comprehensive removal of all lymph nodes when indicated, which can reduce the need for reoperative dissections. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Head and neck cancer patients' perceptions of swallowing following chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joanne M; McColl, Elaine; Wilson, Janet; Carding, Paul; Rapley, Tim

    2015-12-01

    The study aims to describe patients' experiences of swallowing difficulties following (chemo)radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and to explore any changes over time. A purposive sample of patients with swallowing difficulties was selected at a range of time points, from 3 to 18 months following treatment. Ethnographic observations of 12 patients were conducted in their own homes, over a mealtime situation. Nine new patients were interviewed about changes to their eating and drinking from pre- to post-treatment. Thematic analysis was used to code and analyse the data. Patients' reports of swallowing function were divided into four time zones: pre-treatment, during radiotherapy, early (0-3 months) and late (6-18 months) time points following treatment. The majority reported minimal problems at diagnosis, but marked impairment during and after radiotherapy, without a return to pre-treatment functioning. The focus was on severe physical side effects and changes to food preparation during radiotherapy and in the early phase of recovery. By 6 months, side effects began to subside, but swallowing was still difficult, leading to major changes to family life, socialisation and lifestyle. Swallowing problems after (chemo)radiotherapy are multi-faceted and highly individualised and restrict lives in the long term. Swallowing ability may improve in time, but does not appear to return to pre-treatment function. Further work is required to find ways of being able to best support patients living with this long-term condition.

  12. Targeting metabolic pathways for head and neck cancers therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Nakagawa, Takashi

    2017-08-17

    Cancer cells have distinctive energy metabolism pathways that support their rapid cell division. The preference for anaerobic glycolysis under the normal oxygen condition is known as the Warburg effect and has been observed in head and neck cancers. These metabolic changes are controlled by cancer-related transcription factors, such as tumor suppressor gene and hypoxia inducible factor 1α. In addition, various metabolic enzymes also actively regulate cancer-specific metabolism including the switch between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis. For a long time, these metabolic changes in cancer cells have been considered a consequence of transformation required to maintain the high rate of tumor cell replication. However, recent studies indicate that alteration of metabolism is sufficient to initiate tumor transformation. Indeed, oncogenic mutations in the metabolic enzymes, isocitrate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase, have been increasingly found in various cancers, including head and neck cancers. In the present review, we introduce recent findings regarding the cancer metabolism, including the molecular mechanisms of how they affect cancer pathogenesis and maintenance. We also discuss the current and future perspectives on therapeutics that target metabolic pathways, with an emphasis on head and neck cancer.

  13. Modern Radiology in the Management of Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Burkill, G J C; Evans, R M; Raman, V V; Connor, S E J

    2016-07-01

    The accurate staging of head and neck cancer is vital to direct appropriate management strategies and to deliver the best radiation therapy and surgery. Initial challenges in head and neck cancer imaging include determination of T- and N-stage, stage migration with detection of metastatic disease and identification of primary disease in the patient presenting with nodal metastases. In follow-up, imaging has an important role in assessing patients who may require salvage surgery after radiotherapy and assessing clinical change that may represent either residual/recurrent disease or radiation effects. This overview gathers recent evidence on the optimal use of currently readily available imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography-computed tomography) in the context of head and neck squamous cell cancers. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Head and neck cancer in renal transplant patients in Finland.

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, Antti A; Lundberg, Marie; Salmela, Kaija; Kyllönen, Lauri; Pukkala, Eero

    2008-11-01

    This study found a 0.8% incidence of non-cutaneous head and neck cancer during a mean follow-up of 10 years. The benefits of successful renal transplantation clearly outweigh the observed risk of malignancy. Increased cancer incidence after organ transplantation is well documented but few studies have reported on the rate of head and neck malignancies among these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence and specific sites of head and neck cancer in a nationwide series of renal transplant patients in Finland. Data from the National Kidney Transplant Registry and the Finnish Cancer Registry were used. A total of 2884 kidney transplant patients from the period 1964 to 1997 were followed for cancer incidence during the period from 1967 to 2003. There were 113 non-lymphomatous head and neck malignancies. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR), as compared with the general population, was 13.6, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 11.2-16.2. The SIR was significantly elevated for cancers of the skin (47.3, 95% CI 36.3-60.7), lip (31.8, 95% CI 20.8-46.6), oral cavity (6.5, 95% CI 2.4-14.0) and thyroid (5.8, 95% CI 3.0-10.2).

  15. Epidemiologic survey of head and neck cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Moon; Kim, Young Mo; Shim, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chang, Hyuck Soon; Choi, Jong Ouck; Rho, Young Soo; Kim, Min-Sik; Choi, Eun Chang; Choi, Geon; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Sang-Yun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Baek, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Im, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, Sang-Hak; Kim, Jae-Hee

    2003-02-01

    Head and neck cancers have never been systematically studied for clinical purposes yet in Korea. This epidemiological survey on head and neck cancer patients was undertaken from January to December 2001 in 79 otorhinolaryngology resident-training hospitals nationwide. The number of head and neck cancer patients was 1,063 cases in the year. The largest proportion of cases arose in the larynx, as many as 488 cases, which accounted for 45.9%. It was followed by, in order of frequency, oral cavity (16.5%), oropharynx (10.0%), and hypopharynx (9.5%). The male:female ratio was 5:1, and the mean age was 60.3 yr. Surgery was the predominant treatment modality in head and neck cancers: 204 (21.5%) cases were treated with only surgery, 198 (20.8%) cases were treated with surgery and radiotherapy, 207 cases (21.8%) were treated with combined therapy of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Larynx and hypopharynx cancers had a stronger relationship with smoking and alcohol drinking than other primary site cancers. Of them, 21 cases were found to be metastasized at the time of diagnosis into the lung, gastrointestinal tract, bone, or brain. Coexisting second primary malignancies were found in 23 cases. At the time of diagnosis, a total of 354 cases had cervical lymph node metastasis accounting for 42.0%.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: breast cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers . A small percentage of all breast cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary ... will develop breast cancer . Some breast cancers that cluster in families are associated with inherited mutations in ...

  17. Homing of cancer cells to the bone.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Anjali; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Pienta, Kenneth J; Taichman, Russell S

    2011-12-01

    A variety of tumor cells preferentially home to the bone. The homing of cancer cells to the bone represents a multi-step process that involves malignant progression of the tumor, invasion of the tumor through the extracellular matrix and the blood vessels and settling of the tumor cells in the bone. Gaining a greater understanding as to the mechanisms used by cancer cells in these processes will facilitate the design of drugs which could specifically target the homing process. In this review we will discuss the properties of tumor cells and the bone microenvironment which promote homing of a cancer cell to the bone. We will highlight the different steps and the molecular pathways involved when a cancer cell metastasize to the bone. Since bone is the major home for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), we will also highlight the similarities between the homing of cancer and HSC to the bone. Finally we will conclude with therapeutic and early detection strategies which can prevent homing of a cancer cell to the bone.

  18. Head and neck cancer in two American presidents: Case reports.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Mea A; Wang, Beverly

    2011-01-01

    Two former U.S. presidents, Ulysses S. Grant and Grover Cleveland, were diagnosed with head and neck cancer in 1884 and 1893, respectively. A historical review of the risk factors, diagnoses, and treatments is examined and compared with modern-day interpretations. A comparison was made using the original diagnoses with today's equivalent diagnosis. Different treatment outcomes at the time of the original diagnoses relative to today's treatment are reviewed. Clinicians must be familiar with risk factors, signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of head and neck cancer.

  19. Molecular Imaging and Precision Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mena, Esther; Thippsandra, Shwetha; Yanamadala, Anusha; Redy, Siddaling; Pattanayak, Puskar; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-01-01

    The concept of using tumor genomic profiling information has revolutionized personalized cancer treatment. Head and neck (HN) cancer management is being influenced by recent discoveries of activating mutations in epidermal growth factor receptor and related targeted therapies with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, targeted therapies for Kristen Rat Sarcoma, and MET proto-oncogenes. Molecular imaging using PET plays an important role in assessing the biologic behavior of HN cancer with the goal of delivering individualized cancer treatment. This review summarizes recent genomic discoveries in HN cancer and their implications for functional PET imaging in assessing response to targeted therapies, and drug resistance mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Home Care Nursing Improves Cancer Symptom Management

    Cancer.gov

    Home care nursing (HCN) improves the management of symptoms in breast and colorectal cancer patients who take the oral chemotherapy drug capecitabine, according to a study published online November 16 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Feasibility of robot-assisted neck dissections via a transaxillary and retroauricular ("TARA") approach in head and neck cancer: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Shik; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Kang, Sung Mi; Hong, Hyun Jun; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Hye Yeon; Choi, Hong-Shik; Choi, Eun Chang

    2012-03-01

    Recently, robot-assisted neck dissection in thyroid cancer patients with lateral neck node metastasis has been demonstrated to be feasible. We realized the necessity of technical modification in order to apply robotic system to comprehensive neck dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study examined the feasibility and safety of transaxillary and retroauricular ("TARA") approach for robotic neck dissection in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer. Four human cadaveric dissections were followed by robotic neck dissections in seven patients with oral cavity or laryngopharyngeal cancer through TARA incision. In all cases, vital structures including major vessels and nerves were preserved. The numbers of retrieved lymph nodes in robotic neck dissections were comparable with those in conventional neck dissections. Robotic neck dissection via TARA approach is a feasible and useful method with excellent cosmetic results for treating nodal metastasis in selected cases of head and neck squamous cell cancer.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: ovarian cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body are called metastatic cancers. Some ovarian cancers cluster in families. These cancers are described as hereditary ... during a person's lifetime, and they do not cluster in families. A predisposition to cancer caused by ...

  3. Recent advances in surgery for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    de Bree, Remco; Leemans, Charles René

    2010-05-01

    This paper reviews the advances in surgery in head and neck cancer patients. Sentinel node biopsy is a promising diagnostic technique to detect occult lymph node metastases, especially in oral carcinomas. Fludeoxyglucose-PET seems to be useful in detecting recurrent (laryngeal) carcinoma after radiotherapy. The role of fludeoxyglucose-PET to detect residual disease in the neck after radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy is not yet clear. The armamentarium of reconstructive surgery is still expanding. Endonasal endoscopic, robotic surgery and image-guided surgery are used as minimal invasive surgery in selected patients. Other advances include photodynamic therapy, ultrasonic surgery and mechanical sutures. New diagnostic techniques are used to avoid futile extensive surgery. Technical improvements have been made to treat head and neck cancer patients with minimal invasive surgery. Large prospective trials are needed to determine the indications for each technique.

  4. Palliative Hypo-fractionated Radiotherapy in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer with Fixed Neck Nodes.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Rajan; Kumar-Patidar, Arvind; Walke, Rahul; Hirapara, Pushpendra; Jain, Sandeep; Raj-Bardia, Megh

    2012-01-01

    The locally advanced head and neck cancer with fixed nodes are incurable and has a short survival. This study aims to evaluate the symptom relief, disease response and acute toxicity after palliative hypo-fractionated radiotherapy. Between December 2010 to June 2011, previously untreated 50 patients who had histopathologically proved of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with fixed node of stage IV, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 2-3 were offered palliative radiotherapy (20 Gy/5Fr/5 Days). Patients were evaluated at 15th and 30th day after completion of treatment for disease response (WHO), palliation of symptoms using symptomatic response grading and acute toxicities (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, RTOG). The most common presenting complaint was pain followed by dysphagia. Majority of patients (60-70%) had appreciable relief in their presenting symptom. In our study, we observed Partial Response (PR) in majority of patients (92 %); no patient had progressive or stable disease. None of the patients experienced radiation toxicities that required hospital admission. Almost all patients showed grade one and two acute skin and mucosal toxicities one month after completion of treatment. Advanced head and neck cancer with fixed neck node should be identified for suitable palliative hypo-fractionated radiotherapy to achieve acceptable symptom relief in great proportion of patients.

  5. Predictors of pain among patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Shuman, Andrew G; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A; Duffy, Sonia A

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. DESIGN Prospective, multisite cohort study. SETTING Three academically affiliated medical centers. PATIENTS The study population comprised 374 previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Participants were surveyed before treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the 36-Item Short-Form Instrument (SF-36) bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. RESULTS The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared with 61 at the time of diagnosis (P = .004), and 75, the population norm (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pretreatment pain score (P < .001), less education (P = .02), neck dissection (P = .001), feeding tube (P = .05), xerostomia (P < .001), depressive symptoms (P < .001), taking more pain medication (P < .001), less physical activity (P = .02), and poor sleep quality (P = .006). The association between head and neck cancer pain and current smoking and problem drinking did not reach significance (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Aggressive pain management may be indicated for patients with head and neck cancer who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco use, and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among patients with head and neck cancer.

  6. Cancer stem cells in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Allegra, Eugenia; Trapasso, Serena

    2012-01-01

    differentiate, thus making them easier to remove. For all these reasons, we have collected existing literature on head and neck cancer stem cells that correlate the biological characteristics of this subpopulation of cancer cells with the clinical behavior of tumors. PMID:23189032

  7. The nutritional assessment of head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Magnano, Mauro; Mola, Patrizia; Machetta, Giacomo; Maffeis, Paola; Forestiero, Ilenia; Cavagna, Roberta; Artino, Elena; Boffano, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Patients affected by head and neck cancer are particularly at risk for nutritional depletion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients affected by head and neck cancer at diagnosis. All adult patients with head and neck cancer between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. The following data were recorded: demographics, tobacco and/or alcohol consumption, weight, height, the reference weight 6 months before the diagnosis, tumor site, tumor stage, and laboratory data. Then, Body mass index (BMI), and Buzby nutrition risk index (NRI) were calculated. Statistical analysis was used to search for associations among multiple variables. 122 men and 22 women were enrolled. As for reference BMI, 77 patients were overweight, whereas just 7 subjects were underweight. At diagnosis, 72 subjects were overweight according to BMI, whereas 52 patients were underweight. Instead, according to NRI, 96 patients were severely malnourished, 42 patients were moderately malnourished, whereas just 6 patients had a normal value of NRI. The assessment of nutrition by BMI excluded from a thorough consideration all overweight and obese patients with head and neck cancer. Instead, NRI correctly identified both undernourished and overweight/obese patients as "malnourished" subjects.

  8. Metabolic Imaging of Head and Neck Cancer Organoids

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Amy T.; Heaster, Tiffany M.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2017-01-01

    Head and neck cancer patients suffer from toxicities, morbidities, and mortalities, and these ailments could be minimized through improved therapies. Drug discovery is a long, expensive, and complex process, so optimized assays can improve the success rate of drug candidates. This study applies optical imaging of cell metabolism to three-dimensional in vitro cultures of head and neck cancer grown from primary tumor tissue (organoids). This technique is advantageous because it measures cell metabolism using intrinsic fluorescence from NAD(P)H and FAD on a single cell level for a three-dimensional in vitro model. Head and neck cancer organoids are characterized alone and after treatment with standard therapies, including an antibody therapy, a chemotherapy, and combination therapy. Additionally, organoid cellular heterogeneity is analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. Gold standard measures of treatment response, including cell proliferation, cell death, and in vivo tumor volume, validate therapeutic efficacy for each treatment group in a parallel study. Results indicate that optical metabolic imaging is sensitive to therapeutic response in organoids after 1 day of treatment (p<0.05) and resolves cell subpopulations with distinct metabolic phenotypes. Ultimately, this platform could provide a sensitive high-throughput assay to streamline the drug discovery process for head and neck cancer. PMID:28099487

  9. Experience with thallium-201 imaging in head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    el-Gazzar, A.H.; Sahweil, A.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Kubasik, H.; Halker, R.; Hassan, I.M.; Jamil, M.; Rageb, A.; Abdul-Rahim, S.M.; Mahmoud, A.

    1988-04-01

    TI-201 chloride was used for tumor imaging in patients with head and neck cancer. It is of value in detecting the extent of tumor involvement, the presence of residual tumor after radical courses of treatment, and the presence of local recurrence and distant metastases.

  10. [Psychological care of patients with head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Moya, Mélanie

    2015-09-01

    Treatments for head and neck cancers are generally complex and debilitating. Surgery, often mutilating, profoundly affects the relationship between oneself and others and causes verbal communication, breathing and swallowing difficulties. The functional and aesthetic sequelae are a constant reminder to the patient of the disease and make them conscious of their appearance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation Therapy and MK-3475 for Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer, Renal Cell Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  12. Access to dental services for head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Mark; Aleid, Wesam; McKechnie, Alasdair

    2013-07-01

    Dental assessment is important for patients with cancer of the head and neck who are to have radiotherapy, as many of these patients have poor dental health before they start treatment. This, compounded by the fact that radiotherapy to the head and neck has a detrimental effect on oral health, has led the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) to issue guidance that the dental health of these patients should be assessed before treatment. Unfortunately some multidisciplinary teams, such as the one at United Lincolnshire Hospitals, do not have access to a restorative dentist or a dental hygienist. In a retrospective survey we investigated access to general dental services by patients with head and neck cancer who were to have radiotherapy at our hospital and found that 37/71 (52%) had not been reviewed by a dentist within the past 12 months. A secondary national survey that investigated the availability of restorative dental and dental hygienic services showed that of the 56 multidisciplinary teams that deal with head and neck cancer in England, 19 (34%) do not have access to a restorative dentist and 23 (41%) do not have access to a dental hygienist, suggesting that this problem may be countrywide. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Amit M; Wong, David T

    2008-05-01

    Despite advances in understanding the underlying genetics, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) remains a major health risk and one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. Current standards of treatment have significantly improved long-term survival rates of patients, but second tumors and metastases still remain the most frequent cause of high mortality in SCCHN patients. A better understanding of the underlying genetic mechanisms of SCCHN tumorigenesis will help in developing better diagnostics and, hence, better cures. In this article we will briefly outline the current state of diagnostics and treatment and our understanding of the molecular causes of SCCHN.

  14. Moving Toward Bioadjuvant Approaches to Head and Neck Cancer Prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Saba, Nabil F.; Hammond, Anthea; Shin, Dong M.; Khuri, Fadlo R.

    2007-10-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma affects >45,000 Americans annually. Patients who are successfully treated for their primary tumor are at high risk of developing a second primary tumor, making effective preventive strategies highly desirable for this disease. Although a landmark study in 1990 suggested some benefit of high-dose retinoids in head and neck cancer prevention, subsequent trials using more tolerable doses have shown limited clinical success. Newer preventive strategies have included bioadjuvant therapy combining retinoids with interferon and {alpha}-tocopherol, combinations of molecularly targeted agents, and oncolytic viruses. Furthermore, considerable evidence has supported a cancer protective role for several nutrients, including green tea and curcumin analogs. Natural compounds such as these with favorable long-term safety profiles might be particularly suited to the cancer prevention setting, in which patients will usually tolerate only moderate risk and toxicity.

  15. Metabolic microscopy of head and neck cancer organoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Amy T.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2016-03-01

    Studies for head and neck cancer have primarily relied on cell lines or in vivo animal studies. However, a technique that combines the benefits of high-throughput in vitro studies with a complex, physiologically relevant microenvironment would be advantageous for understanding drug effects. Organoids provide a unique platform that fulfills these goals. Organoids are generated from excised and digested tumor tissue and are grown in culture. Fluorescence microscopy provides high-resolution images on a similar spatial scale as organoids. In particular, autofluorescence imaging of the metabolic cofactors NAD(P)H and FAD can provide insight into response to anti-cancer treatment. The optical redox ratio reflects relative amounts of NAD(P)H and FAD, and the fluorescence lifetime reflects enzyme activity of NAD(P)H and FAD. This study optimizes and characterizes the generation and culture of organoids grown from head and neck cancer tissue. Additionally, organoids were treated for 24 hours with a standard chemotherapy, and metabolic response in the organoids was measured using optical metabolic imaging. Ultimately, combining head and neck cancer organoids with optical metabolic imaging could be applied to test drug sensitivity for drug development studies as well as treatment planning for cancer patients.

  16. Home | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Our Research The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into cancer. |

  17. Psychosocial interventions for patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Semple, Cherith; Parahoo, Kader; Norman, Alyson; McCaughan, Eilis; Humphris, Gerry; Mills, Moyra

    2013-07-16

    A diagnosis of head and neck cancer, like many other cancers, can lead to significant psychosocial distress. Patients with head and neck cancer can have very specific needs, due to both the location of their disease and the impact of treatment, which can interfere with basic day-to-day activities such as eating, speaking and breathing. There is a lack of clarity on the effectiveness of the interventions developed to address the psychosocial distress experienced by patients living with head and neck cancer. To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life and psychosocial well-being for patients with head and neck cancer. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 17 December 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions for adults with head and neck cancer. For trials to be included the psychosocial intervention had to involve a supportive relationship between a trained helper and individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer. Outcomes had to be assessed using a validated quality of life or psychological distress measure, or both. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias, with mediation from a third author where required. Where possible, we extracted outcome measures for combining in meta-analyses. We compared continuous outcomes using either mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with a random-effects model. We conducted meta-analyses for the primary outcome measure of quality of life and secondary outcome measures of psychological distress, including anxiety

  18. Multimodality therapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Klein, Mary K

    2003-05-01

    The refinement of radiation therapy techniques should result in a decrease in morbidity in canine and feline nasal carcinoma patients and should further allow for the addition of adjuvant therapies. Patients with large oral tumors that are incompletely excised should have radiation therapy added to their treatment regimen. Tumors with significant metastatic potential, such as melanoma, should be considered for addition of chemotherapy. Carboplatin has activity in melanomas and is being added at several institutions, but trial results are not yet available. Chemoradiation has become the treatment of choice for human head and neck squamous cell carcinomas but remains largely unexplored in veterinary medicine. Hopefully, development of chemoradiation will benefit feline squamous cell carcinoma patients, because current treatment regimens are largely ineffective. Immunotherapy agents and targeted biologic therapeutics seem to hold promise for the future.

  19. Current relevance of hypoxia in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bredell, Marius G.; Ernst, Jutta; El-Kochairi, Ilhem; Dahlem, Yuliya; Ikenberg, Kristian; Schumann, Desiree M.

    2016-01-01

    Head and Neck cancer (HNC) is a complex mix of cancers and one of the more common cancers with a relatively poor prognosis. One of the factors that may assist us in predicting survival and allow us to adjust our treatment strategies is the presence of tumor hypoxia. In this overview we aim to evaluate the current evidence and potential clinical relevance of tumor hypoxia in head and neck cancer according to an extensive search of current literature. An abundance of evidence and often contradictory evidence is found in the literature. Even the contradictory evidence and comparisons are difficult to judge as criteria and methodologies differ greatly, furthermore few prospective observational studies exist for verification of the pre-clinical studies. Despite these discrepancies there is clear evidence of associations between prognosis and poor tumor oxygenation biomarkers such as HIF-1α, GLUT-1 and lactate, though these associations are not exclusive. The use of genetic markers is expanding and will probably lead to significantly more and complex evidence. The lack of oxygenation in head and neck tumors is of paramount importance for the prediction of treatment outcomes and prognosis. Despite the wide array of conflicting evidence, the drive towards non-invasive prediction of tumor hypoxia should continue. PMID:27434126

  20. Genetic variations and head and neck cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Masood, Nosheen; Yasmin, Azra; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Variations in CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 in head and neck cancer have been frequently found in literature. But these studies give an overview of these genetic variations in different populations. The current mini review focus on the analysis of these genetic variations at DNA, mRNA and protein levels in the same study group. Eight publications were reviewed on the same study samples yielding results at DNA, mRNA and protein levels. At DNA level, CYP1A1 showed significantly higher mutations in head and neck cancer patients compared to controls at g.2842A>C and g.2842_2843insT. GSTM1 and GSTT1 showed deletion polymorphisms and heterozygous deletion confers protection against cancer. Mutations were also found in GSTP1 at g.2848A>T, g.2849G>A, g.1074delC and g.1466delC. mRNA and protein expressional analysis revealed underexpression of CYP1A1, loss or underexpression of GSTM1 and GSTT1 and overexpression of GSTP1. In addition an unusual intronic variant of GSTP1 mRNA was also found, retaining the intronic portion between exons. The current review gives a complete study overview regarding CYP1A1, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 variations at DNA, mRNA and protein levels in head and neck cancer. The review is helpful in designing a new experiment or gene therapy for head and neck cancer patients.

  1. Home | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  2. Dementia Risk in Irradiated Patients With Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Hua; Yen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Kuan-Chou; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Chang, Chia-Lun; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer are treated through surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy (CT). Carotid artery damage and neurotoxicity were previously observed in these patients. This study estimated the dementia risk associated with different treatment modalities in a head and neck cancer population with long-term follow-up. Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database and a cancer registry database from the Collaboration Center of Health Information Application were linked for the present analysis. Patients with head and neck cancer, treated from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2010, were included in the study. The follow-up duration was the period from the index date to December 31, 2012. Inclusion criteria were head and neck cancer; an age >20 years; and having undergone surgery, CT, concurrent CT, or surgery with adjuvant treatment. Exclusion criteria were another cancer diagnosed before the head and neck cancer, death or being diagnosed with dementia within 2 years after the treatment of the head and neck cancer, stroke before the index date, distant metastasis, in situ carcinoma, sarcoma, head and neck cancer recurrence, an unknown sex, and an age <20 years. In total, 20,135 patients were included. In patient groups that underwent surgery alone, surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and chemoradiotherapy alone, the dementia incidence per 1000 person-years was 1.44, 1.04, and 1.98, respectively. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of dementia was 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-2.81) in the RT with or without CT group. After adjustment for age, sex, clinical stage, and comorbidity, the HR was 1.92 (95% CI 1.14-3.24). Examining the dementia risk in patients who received different treatment modalities according to the Cox proportional-hazard model revealed that an age >65 years and having undergone RT with or without CT were risk factors (P < 0.001 and P = 0.015; and HRs of 16.5 and 1.92, respectively). The dementia risk in patients

  3. Evaluating synchronous esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients using Lugol dye chromoendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Laohawiriyakamol, Supparerk; Sunpaweravong, Somkiat; Leelamanit, Vitoon; Pruegsanusak, Kowit; Sinkijcharoenchai, Wattana

    2014-11-01

    Routine screening for esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients in Thailand is controversial, because of concerns regarding the screening methods and cost effectiveness. Since Lugol dye chromoendoscopy is an effective technique for early detection of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, the objectives of the present study are to evaluate the synchronous esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients and the effectiveness of Lugol dye chromoendoscopy for routine screening. All diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer between September 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011 were enrolled into the study. Both conventional esophagoscopy and Lugol dye chromoendoscopy were done. The incidence of esophageal cancer was calculated. A diagnostic statistical analysis was done to compare the diagnostic properties between conventional esophagoscopy and Lugol dye chromoendoscopy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to find significant factors associated with esophageal cancer in this study. Eighty-nine head and neck cancer patients were enrolled in this study. The incidence of esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients was 12.4% (11/89). Conventional esophagoscopy found a highly suspicious malignant lesion in only six patients, while the Lugol dye chromoendoscopy detected all 11 esophageal cancers. The sensitivity and specificity for conventional esophagoscopy were 54.5% and 100%, respectively, andfor Lugol dye chromoendoscopy were 100% and 70.5%, respectively. The three significant factors that increased the likelihood of synchronous esophageal cancer from univariate analysis were age less than 50 years, presence of dysphagia, and an unstained Lugol dye area ≥10 mm. Howeve, these factors were not statistically significant by multivariate analysis. Lugol dye chromoendoscopy is a promising tool to enhance the diagnosis of esophageal cancer among head and neck cancer patients.

  4. Unusual Cancers of the Head and Neck

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer ) cells form in the tissues of the larynx . The larynx is also called the voice box . It's the ... following: Laryngoscopy : A procedure to look at the larynx (voice box) for abnormal areas. A mirror or ...

  5. Human Papillomavirus in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garbuglia, Anna Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is currently considered to be a major etiologic factor, in addition to tobacco and alcohol, for oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) development. HPV positive OPCs are epidemiologically distinct from HPV negative ones, and are characterized by younger age at onset, male predominance, and strong association with sexual behaviors. HPV16 is the most prevalent types in oral cavity cancer (OCC), moreover the prevalence of beta, and gamma HPV types is higher than that of alpha HPV in oral cavity. PMID:25256828

  6. [Phoniatrics in the rehabilitation for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Mészáros, Krisztina; Remenár, Eva; Kásler, Miklós

    2008-09-01

    The aim of treating head and neck cancer is to eliminate the tumor and save functions as much as possible. Despite all efforts the vital (swallowing) and communicative (phonation, articulation) functions can be injured. The treatment of dysphagia is the most important in the rehabilitation, because it can lead to fatal complications: aspiration pneumonia (for example aspiration of saliva), dehydration, malnutrition. According to the localization of the lesion we distinguish oropharyngeal and esophageal dysphagia. The aspiration may be pre-, intra- and post-deglutition. The aspiration without coughing is called silent aspiration which is mainly seen in neurogenic dysphagia, but can also happen in head and neck cancer patients. There are different possibilities to compensate the failing functions in the phoniatric rehabilitation. The swallowing therapy includes causal, compensatory and dietary strategies. In addition to the swallowing therapy the treatment of communicative dysfunctions with articulation exercises will also improve the quality of life of the patients.

  7. Surgical correction of bladder neck contracture following prostate cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Bugeja, Simon; Andrich, Daniela E; Mundy, Anthony R

    2014-01-01

    The surgical and non-surgical treatment of localised prostate cancer may be complicated by bladder neck contractures, prostatic urethral stenoses and bulbomembranous urethral strictures. In general, such complications following radical prostatectomy are less extensive, easier to treat and associated with a better outcome and more rapid recovery than the same complications following radiotherapy, high-intensity focussed ultrasound and cryotherapy. Treatment options range from minimally invasive endoscopic procedures to more complex and specialised open surgical reconstruction.In this chapter the surgical management of bladder neck contractures following the treatment of prostate cancer is described together with the management of prostatic urethral stenoses and bulbomembranous urethral strictures, given the difficulty in distinguishing them from one another clinically.

  8. Rehabilitation versus Nursing Home Nurses' Low Back and Neck-Shoulder Complaints.

    PubMed

    Alperovitch-Najenson, Deborah; Sheffer, Dvora; Treger, Iuly; Finkels, Tova; Kalichman, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of those complaints in nurses working in rehabilitation departments and nursing homes, and to evaluate factors associated with them. A cross-sectional study in rehabilitation and in nursing home departments. Data were obtained from questionnaires relating to basic demographics, prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints, potentially harmful positions and actions and job satisfaction. Multivariate analyses demonstrated higher work-related musculoskeletal complaints for nurses in rehabilitation than nursing home nurses (p=.012 for low back pain; p<.001 for neck-shoulder pain). Trunk bending, static posture, repetitive tasks, and recognition of superiors were associated with low back pain. Freedom to choose work techniques and degree of diversity at work were associated with neck-shoulder pain. Differences between the nurse groups as to work tasks might be a reason for differences in musculoskeletal complaints. Further comparisons between nurses working in different fields might reveal more accurate potential risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal complaints. Instruction for static/awkward posture avoidance, by using mechanical aids and designing a friendlier environment, should be part of a nursing staff injury prevention strategy. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  9. Potential biomarkers for radiosensitivity in head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Reoyo, Sherly; Roig-Lopez, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a mainstay of treatment for head and neck cancer. However, the morbidity of treatment remains a clinical challenge. Molecular profiling has provided further insight into tumor biology and tumor sensitivity to radiation, and this information could be used to personalize treatment. In this review, we discuss published signatures of radiosensitivity and discuss the pathways that may be important in dictating radiation sensitivity. Applications of these signatures could result in less morbidity if dose de-escalation efforts are successful. PMID:28149885

  10. Chemotherapy of squamous cell cancer of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Gill, P G; Hains, J D; Iyer, P; Rozenbilds, J G; Ahmad, A; Abbott, R L; David, D J; Ward, G G; Brown, M W; Harvey, N D

    1983-05-14

    Forty patients with advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck were treated with methotrexate, cisplatin, and bleomycin. Major regression of disease occurred in 69%; 30% of patients achieved complete remission. Fifteen patients received chemotherapy as the initial treatment, followed by either radiotherapy or surgery or both. Subsequent therapy was not prejudiced by this approach. The results demonstrate the marked sensitivity of these tumors to these three agents, and the need for further assessment of their use in optimal patient care.

  11. A Phase I Study of LJM716 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, or HER2+ Breast Cancer or Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    HER2 + Breast Cancer, HER2 + Gastric Cancer, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck, Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2 + Breast Cancer; HER2 + Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Head and Neck; Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  12. [Reirradiation of head and neck cancers].

    PubMed

    Doyen, J; Lam Cham Kee, D; Krebs, L; Guigay, J; Dassonville, O; Peyrade, F; Poissonnet, G; Saâda-Bouzid, E; Sudaka, A; Bozec, A; Bénézery, K

    2017-10-01

    Locoregional relapse in previously irradiated region for head and neck tumours is associated with a bad locoregional and distant prognosis. Reirradiation might be exclusive, or feasible in addition with surgery and/or chemotherapy, according to histopronostic factors. Data show that reirradiation is feasible with some severe toxicity due to the bad prognosis of this situation. Hyperfractionnated regimen with split course or normofractionnated regimen without split course are possible with similar efficacy. If tumour size is small, stereotactic ablative radiotherapy may be considered, and if the treatment centre has proton therapy, it could be proposed because of better organs at risk sparing. There is no standard regarding reirradiation schedules and several trials have to be done in order to determine the best technique. Nevertheless, it is agreed that a total dose of 60Gy (2Gy per fraction) is needed. Other trials testing the association with new systemic agents have to be performed, among them agents targeting the PD1/PD-L1 axis. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kyrgias, George; Hajiioannou, Jiannis; Tolia, Maria; Kouloulias, Vassilios; Lachanas, Vasileios; Skoulakis, Charalambos; Skarlatos, Ioannis; Rapidis, Alexandros; Bizakis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Multimodality therapy constitutes the standard treatment of advanced and recurrent head and neck cancer. Since locoregional recurrence comprises a major obstacle in attaining cure, the role of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) as an add-on in improving survival and local control of the disease has been investigated. IORT allows delivery of a single tumoricidal dose of radiation to areas of potential residual microscopic disease while minimizing doses to normal tissues. Advantages of IORT include the conformal delivery of a large dose of radiation in an exposed and precisely defined tumor bed, minimizing the risk of a geographic miss creating the potential for subsequent dose reduction of external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). This strategy allows for shortening overall treatment time and dose escalation. The aim of this review is to summarize recent published work on the use of IORT as an adjuvant modality to treat common head and neck cancer in the primary or recurrent setting. Methods: We searched the Medline, Scopus, Ovid, Cochrane, Embase, and ISI Web of Science databases for articles published from 1980 up to March 2016. Results: Based on relevant publications it appears that including IORT in the multimodal treatment may contribute to improved local control. However, the benefit in overall survival is not so clear. Conclusion: IORT seems to be a safe, promising adjunct in the management of head and neck cancer and yet further well organized clinical trials are required to determine its role more precisely. PMID:27977569

  14. [Heavy alcohol intake, malnutrition and head and neck cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Martín Villares, C; Domínguez Calvo, J; San Román Carbajo, J; Fernández Pello, M E; Pomar Blanco, P; Tapia Risueño, M

    2004-01-01

    Head and neck cancer patients are frecuently heavy alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of alcohol intake on nutritional status and the impact in prognoses. Fifty patients with oral and pharyngolaryngeal carcinomas were prospective studied in a control-case study. We studied nutritional status and tumoral recurrence in alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients. We also studied alcohol intake after oncologic treatment in these patients. 51% of these patients had excesive alcohol intake before oncologic, treatment. The impact of malnutrition was 70% in alcoholic patients vs 30% in non-alcoholic (p < 0.01). Tumoral recurrence was 30% in alcoholic patients vs 13% in non-alcoholic patients (p < 0.05 ). Only 48% of alcoholic patient stopped alcohol intake after treatment. Excesive alcohol intake in head and neck cancer patients is a predictive malnutrition factor and it is related to poor prognoses. Alcoholic patients with head and neck cancer and malnutrition need an agresive nutritional, medical and psycosocial support after oncologic treatment, in order to reach a better and longer survival.

  15. Alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation into neck-related muscles after neck dissection for patients with oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Shinji; Koga, Hirofumi; Kodama, Masaaki; Habu, Manabu; Kokuryo, Shinya; Oda, Masafumi; Matsuo, Kou; Nishino, Takanobu; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Uehara, Masataka; Yoshiga, Daigo; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Nishimura, Shun; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Izumi; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) accumulations are commonly seen in the neck-related muscles of the surgical and non-surgical sides after surgery with neck dissection (ND) for oral cancers, which leads to radiologists having difficulty in diagnosing the lesions. To examine the alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation in neck-related muscles of patients after ND for oral cancer. Material and Methods 18F-FDG accumulations on positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) in neck-related muscles were retrospectively analyzed after surgical dissection of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancers. Results According to the extent of ND of cervical lymph nodes, the rate of patients with 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas increased in the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and posterior neck muscles of the surgical and/or non-surgical sides. In addition, SUVmax of 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas in the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles were increased according to the extent of the ND. Conclusions In evaluating 18F-FDG accumulations after ND for oral cancers, we should pay attention to the 18F-FDG distributions in neck-related muscles including the non-surgical side as false-positive findings. Key words:18F-FDG, PET-CT, oral cancers, muscles. PMID:27031062

  16. Central neck dissection in differentiated thyroid cancer: technical notes.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, G; Proh, M; Gibelli, B; Grosso, E; Tagliabue, M; De Fiori, E; Maffini, F; Chiesa, F; Ansarin, M

    2014-02-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers may be associated with regional lymph node metastases in 20-50% of cases. The central compartment (VIupper VII levels) is considered to be the first echelon of nodal metastases in all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The indication for central neck dissection is still debated especially in patients with cN0 disease. For some authors, central neck dissection is recommended for lymph nodes that are suspect preoperatively (either clinically or with ultrasound) and/or for lymph node metastases detected intra-operatively with a positive frozen section. In need of a better definition, we divided the dissection in four different areas to map localization of metastases. In this study, we present the rationale for central neck dissection in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, providing some anatomical reflections on surgical technique, oncological considerations and analysis of complications. Central neck dissection may be limited to the compartments that describe a predictable territory of regional recurrences in order to reduce associated morbidities.

  17. Head and Neck Cancers, Version 1.2015

    PubMed Central

    Pfster, David G.; Spencer, Sharon; Brizel, David M.; Burtness, Barbara; Busse, Paul M.; Caudell, Jimmy J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Colevas, A. Dimitrios; Dunphy, Frank; Eisele, David W.; Foote, Robert L.; Gilbert, Jill; Gillison, Maura L.; Haddad, Robert I.; Haughey, Bruce H.; Hicks, Wesley L.; Hitchcock, Ying J.; Jimeno, Antonio; Kies, Merrill S.; Lydiatt, William M.; Maghami, Ellie; McCaffrey, Thomas; Mell, Loren K.; Mittal, Bharat B.; Pinto, Harlan A.; Ridge, John A.; Rodriguez, Cristina P.; Samant, Sandeep; Shah, Jatin P.; Weber, Randal S.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Worden, Frank; Yom, Sue S.; McMillian, Nicole; Hughes, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to the 2015 NCCN Guidelines for Head and Neck (H&N) Cancers. These Insights describe the different types of particle therapy that may be used to treat H&N cancers, in contrast to traditional radiation therapy (RT) with photons (x-ray). Research is ongoing regarding the different types of particle therapy, including protons and carbon ions, with the goals of reducing the long-term side effects from RT and improving the therapeutic index. For the 2015 update, the NCCN H&N Cancers Panel agreed to delete recommendations for neutron therapy for salivary gland cancers, because of its limited availability, which has decreased over the past 2 decades; the small number of patients in the United States who currently receive this treatment; and concerns that the toxicity of neutron therapy may offset potential disease control advantages. PMID:26150579

  18. Genetics Home Reference: bladder cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kozlowski JM. The p53 tumor suppressor gene and nuclear protein: basic science review and relevance in the ... Zwarthoff EC, Radvanyi F. Novel fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations in bladder cancer previously identified ...

  19. Trismus following treatment of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeremic, Goran; Venkatesan, Varagur; Hallock, Abhirami; Scott, Danielle; Hammond, Alexander; Read, Nancy; Franklin, Jason; Yoo, John; Fung, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the prevalence of trismus in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy and surgery. Patients with malignant lesions in the head and neck treated with curative intent were comprehensively evaluated for trismus using subjective and objective measures. A large proportion of the 70 patients recruited demonstrated moderate to severe subjective trismus (45.7%). Similarly, the vast majority of patients showed slight to severe trismus (91.4%) according to objective secondary outcome measures. Of these patients, 21 (65.6%) were also treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. When the radiation field involved the pterygoid muscles, 30 (93.8%) patients reported subjective trismus. Similarly, bilateral pterygoid muscle inclusion resulted in 28 (87.5%) patients with trismus. Trismus is a significantly prevalent consequence of treatment for head and neck cancer. Predictive factors include treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and bilateral inclusion of the structures of mastication in the high-dose radiotherapy volume.

  20. Decreased cancer-independent life expectancy in the head and neck cancer population.

    PubMed

    Massa, Sean T; Cass, Lauren M; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba; Christopher, Kara M; Walker, Ronald J; Varvares, Mark A

    2017-09-01

    Aside from cancer mortality, patients with head and neck cancer have increased mortality risk. Identifying patients with the greatest loss of cancer-independent life expectancy can guide comprehensive survivorship programs. Age-based survival data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database for patients with head and neck cancer were censored for mortality from the index cancer. Life expectancy and years of life lost (YLL) referenced to the general population were calculated. Cox proportional regression models produced hazard ratios (HRs). Cancer-independent life expectancy for patients with head and neck cancer is 6.5 years shorter than expected. The greatest hazard and impact of other-cause mortality was associated with black race (HR 1.23; YLL 8.55), stage IV (HR 1.60; YLL 7.92), Medicaid (HR 1.55; YLL 12.9), and previous marriage (HR 1.49; YLL 11.4). Patients with head and neck cancer lives are foreshortened independent of their cancer diagnosis necessitating management of noncancer mortality to maximize overall survival. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Knowledge and screening of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers.

  2. Knowledge and Screening of Head and Neck Cancer Among American Indians in South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Deschler, Daniel; Sargent, Michele; Emerick, Kevin; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Petereit, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We established the level of awareness of risk factors and early symptoms of head and neck cancer among American Indians in South Dakota and determined whether head and neck cancer screening detected clinical findings in this population. Methods. We used the European About Face survey. We added questions about human papillomavirus, a risk factor for head and neck cancer, and demographics. Surveys were administered at 2 public events in 2011. Participants could partake in a head and neck cancer screening at the time of survey administration. Results. Of the 205 American Indians who completed the survey, 114 participated in the screening. Mean head and neck cancer knowledge scores were 26 out of 44. Level of education was the only factor that predicted higher head and neck cancer knowledge (b = 0.90; P = .01). Nine (8%) people had positive head and neck cancer screening examination results. All abnormal clinical findings were in current or past smokers (P = .06). Conclusions. There are gaps in American Indian knowledge of head and neck cancer risk factors and symptoms. Community-based head and neck cancer screening in this population is feasible and may be a way to identify early abnormal clinical findings in smokers. PMID:25320895

  3. Chemotherapy in Children with Head and Neck Cancers: Perspectives and Review of Current Therapies.

    PubMed

    Choi, Daniel K; Schmidt, Mary Lou

    2016-02-01

    Cancers of the head and neck in children represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies requiring a variety of treatment modalities. In many instances of childhood head and neck cancers, chemotherapy will be required for treatment, often in conjunction with surgery and/or radiation therapy. Chemotherapy in children with head and neck cancers poses unique challenges in terms of immediate as well as long-term toxicities. This article focuses on the common chemotherapeutic agents, with a particular focus on early and late effects, used in the treatment of children with head and neck cancers.

  4. Molecular Aspects of Head and Neck Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Puram, Sidharth V.; Rocco, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis In spite of a rapidly expanding understanding of head and neck tumor biology as well as optimization of radiation, chemotherapy, and surgical treatment modalities, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains a major cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality. Although our biologic understanding of these tumors had largely been limited to pathways driving proliferation, survival, and differentiation, the identification of HPV as a major driver of HNSCC, specifically oropharyngeal SCC, as well as recent genomic sequencing analyses of HNSCC has dramatically influenced our understanding of the underlying biology behind carcinogenesis, and in part, our approach to therapy. In particular, we are at a major molecular and clinical crossroads with an explosion of promising diagnostic and therapeutic agents that hold great promise. Here, we summarize our current understanding of HNSCC biology, including a review of recent sequencing analyses, and identify promising areas for potential diagnostic and therapeutic agents. PMID:26568543

  5. Selective antitumor activity of roscovitine in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Gary, Cyril; Hajek, Michael; Biktasova, Asel; Bellinger, Gary; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Issaeva, Natalia

    2016-06-21

    Radiation and chemotherapy that are commonly used to treat human cancers damage cellular DNA. DNA damage appears to be more toxic to cancer cells than normal cells, most likely due to deregulated checkpoint activation and/or deficiency in DNA repair pathways that are characteristics of many tumors. However, unwanted side effects arise as a result of DNA damage to normal cells during the treatment.Here, we show that roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that inhibits CDK-1, CDK-2, CDK-5, CDK-7, and CDK-9 due to competitive binding to the ATP site on the kinases, causes significant DNA damage followed by p53-dependent cell death in human papilloma virus (HPV)-positive, but not in HPV-negative, head and neck cancer cells. Since HPV positivity was a molecular marker for increased sensitivity of cells to roscovitine, we reasoned that systemic roscovitine administration would not be toxic to healthy HPV-negative tissue. Indeed, low roscovitine doses significantly inhibited the growth of HPV-associated xenografted tumors in mice without causing any detectable side effects.Given that inhibition of CDKs has been shown to inhibit replication of several viruses, we suggest that roscovitine treatment may represent a selective and safe targeted therapeutic option against HPV-positive head and neck cancer.

  6. High-risk HPV types and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Dominique S; Langevin, Scott M; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Pawlita, Michael; McClean, Michael D; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-10-01

    Although HPV16 has been strongly implicated in oropharyngeal carcinogenesis, the role of other high-risk HPV types in the etiology of head and neck cancer remains unclear. To date, few data exist addressing the nature of the association between antibodies to oncogenic proteins of non-HPV16 HPVs in relation to head and neck cancer. We examined the relationship between multiple HPV types (HPV6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 45, 52, 58) and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in a large population-based case-control study (1069 cases and 1107 controls). Serological measures for HPV types included antibodies to L1, E6 and/or E7. In a secondary analysis, we excluded HPV16 seropositive subjects to examine independent associations with other high-risk HPVs. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, sex, education, smoking and alcohol consumption. Statistically significant associations were observed for HPV16, 18, 33 and 52 and risk of HNSCC after mutually adjusting for HPV types. Among HPV16 seronegative subjects, elevated risks of HNSCC were observed for HPV18 E6 (OR = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.26-14.0), HPV33 E6 (OR = 7.96, 95% CI = 1.56-40.5) and HPV52 E7 (OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.16-9.99). When examined by tumor type, associations with HPV18 and HPV33 remained statistically significant for oropharyngeal cancer, and HPV52 was associated with oral cancer. In addition, magnitude of associations for HNSCC increased markedly with increasing number of seropositive high-risk HPV infections. High-risk HPV types, other than HPV16, are likely to be involved in the etiology of HNSCC. © 2014 UICC.

  7. Dysphagia after nonsurgical head and neck cancer treatment: patients' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Janet A; Carding, Paul N; Patterson, Joanne M

    2011-11-01

    Assess patients' perspectives on the severity, time course, and relative importance of swallowing deficit before and after (chemo)radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Before-and-after cohort study. Head and neck cancer UK multidisciplinary clinic. A total of 167 patients with a primary cancer, mostly laryngopharyngeal, completed the MD Anderson Dysphagia Index (MDADI) and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UWQOL) before treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Pretreatment swallowing, age, gender, and tumor site and stage were assessed. Statistical methods used were Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance, and logistic regression. There was a sharp deterioration in swallowing on average by 18%, from before treatment to 3 months post treatment (mean difference in MDADI score = 14.5; P < .001). Treatment schedule, pretreatment score, and age accounted for 37% of the variance in 3-month posttreatment MDADI scores. There was then little improvement from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with only 50-Gy radiotherapy reported significantly less dysphagia at 1 year than patients receiving higher doses or combined chemoradiation (P < .001). Swallowing was the most commonly prioritized of the 12 UWQOL domains both before and after therapy. The MDADI and UWQOL scores were strongly correlated: ρ > 0.69. Swallowing is a top priority before and after treatment for the vast majority of patients with head and neck cancer. Swallowing deteriorates significantly posttreatment (P < .001). Treatment intensity, younger age, and lower pretreatment scores predict long-term dysphagia. After chemoradiation, there is little improvement from 3 to 12 months.

  8. Adjuvant Intraoperative Photodynamic Therapy in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rigual, Nestor R.; Shafirstein, Gal; Frustino, Jennifer; Seshadri, Mukund; Cooper, Michele; Wilding, Gregory; Sullivan, Maureen A.; Henderson, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE There is an immediate need to develop local intraoperative adjuvant treatment strategies to improve outcomes in patients with cancer who undergo head and neck surgery. OBJECTIVES To determine the safety of photodynamic therapy with 2-(1-hexyloxyethyl)-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH) in combination with surgery in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Nonrandomized, single-arm, single-site, phase 1 study at a comprehensive cancer center among 16 adult patients (median age, 65 years) with biopsy-proved primary or recurrent resectable head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. INTERVENTIONS Intravenous injection of HPPH (4.0 mg/m2), followed by activation with 665-nm laser light in the surgical bed immediately after tumor resection. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Adverse events and highest laser light dose. RESULTS Fifteen patients received the full course of treatment, and 1 patient received HPPH without intraoperative laser light because of an unrelated myocardial infarction. Disease sites included larynx (7 patients), oral cavity (6 patients), skin (1 patient), ear canal (1 patient), and oropharynx (1 patient, who received HPPH only). The most frequent adverse events related to photodynamic therapy were mild to moderate edema (9 patients) and pain (3 patients). One patient developed a grade 3 fistula after salvage laryngectomy, and another patient developed a grade 3 wound infection and mandibular fracture. Phototoxicity reactions included 1 moderate photophobia and 2 mild to moderate skin burns (2 due to operating room spotlights and 1 due to the pulse oximeter). The highest laser light dose was 75 J/cm2. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The adjuvant use of HPPH-photodynamic therapy and surgery for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma seems safe and deserves further study. PMID:23868427

  9. The potential for tumor suppressor gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Birkeland, Andrew C; Ludwig, Megan L; Spector, Matthew E; Brenner, J Chad

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Importantly, genomic sequencing of head and neck cancers has identified frequent mutations in tumor suppressor genes. While targeted therapeutics increasingly are being investigated in head and neck cancer, the majority of these agents are against overactive/overexpressed oncogenes. Therapy to restore lost tumor suppressor gene function remains a key and under-addressed niche in trials for head and neck cancer. Recent advances in gene editing have captured the interest of both the scientific community and the public. As our technology for gene editing and gene expression modulation improves, addressing lost tumor suppressor gene function in head and neck cancers is becoming a reality. This review will summarize new techniques, challenges to implementation, future directions, and ethical ramifications of gene therapy in head and neck cancer.

  10. The Potential for Tumor Suppressor Gene Therapy in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Andrew C.; Ludwig, Megan L.; Spector, Matthew E.; Brenner, J. Chad

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Importantly, genomic sequencing of head and neck cancers has identified frequent mutations in tumor suppressor genes. While targeted therapeutics increasingly are being investigated in head and neck cancer, the majority of these agents are against overactive/overexpressed oncogenes. Therapy to restore lost tumor suppressor gene function remains a key and under-addressed niche in trials for head and neck cancer. Recent advances in gene editing have captured the interest of both the scientific community and the public. As our technology for gene editing and gene expression modulation improves, addressing lost tumor suppressor gene function in head and neck cancers is becoming a reality. This review will summarize new techniques, challenges to implementation, future directions, and ethical ramifications of gene therapy in head and neck cancer. PMID:26896601

  11. Carotenoid intake and head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Leoncini, Emanuele; Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Cadoni, Gabriella; Ferraroni, Monica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Decarli, Adriano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boccia, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Food and nutrition play an important role in head and neck cancer (HNC) etiology; however, the role of carotenoids remains largely undefined. We explored the relation of HNC risk with the intake of carotenoids within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We pooled individual-level data from 10 case-control studies conducted in Europe, North America, and Japan. The analysis included 18,207 subjects (4414 with oral and pharyngeal cancer, 1545 with laryngeal cancer, and 12,248 controls), categorized by quintiles of carotenoid intake from natural sources. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile, the risk reduction associated with total carotenoid intake was 39 % (95 % CI 29-47 %) for oral/pharyngeal cancer and 39 % (95 % CI 24-50 %) for laryngeal cancer. Intakes of β-carotene equivalents, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were associated with at least 18 % reduction in the rate of oral and pharyngeal cancer (95 % CI 6-29 %) and 17 % reduction in the rate of laryngeal cancer (95 % CI 0-32 %). The overall protective effect of carotenoids on HNC was stronger for subjects reporting greater alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). The odds ratio for the combined effect of low carotenoid intake and high alcohol or tobacco consumption versus high carotenoid intake and low alcohol or tobacco consumption ranged from 7 (95 % CI 5-9) to 33 (95 % CI 23-49). A diet rich in carotenoids may protect against HNC. Persons with both low carotenoid intake and high tobacco or alcohol are at substantially higher risk of HNC.

  12. Resection of recurrent neck cancer with carotid artery replacement.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Schneider, Fabrice; Minni, Antonio; Calio, Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Ricco, Jean-Baptiste

    2016-05-01

    The management of patients with recurrent neck cancer invading the carotid artery is controversial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate overall survival rate, primary patency of vascular reconstructions, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) after en bloc resection of the carotid artery and tumor with in-line polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) carotid grafting, followed by radiotherapy. From 2000 to 2014, 31 consecutive patients with recurrent neck cancer invading the carotid artery underwent en bloc resection and simultaneous carotid artery reconstruction with a PTFE graft, which was associated in 18 cases with a myocutaneous flap. The primary tumor was a squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx in 17 patients and of the hypopharynx in 7, an undifferentiated carcinoma of unknown origin in 4, and an anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid in 3. All of the patients underwent postoperative radiotherapy (50-70 Gy), and 10 of them also underwent chemotherapy (doxorubicin and cisplatin). None of the patients died or sustained a stroke during the first 30 days after the index procedure. Postoperative morbidity consisted of 6 transitory dysphagias, 3 vocal cord palsies, 2 wound dehiscences, 1 transitory mandibular claudication, and 1 partial myocutaneous flap necrosis. No graft infection occurred during follow-up. Fifteen patients (48%) died from metastatic cancer during a mean follow-up of 45.4 months (range, 8-175 months). None of the patients showed evidence of local recurrence, stroke, or thrombosis of the carotid reconstruction. The 5-year survival rate was 49 ± 10%. The overall number of QALYs was 3.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.87-4.37) with a significant difference between patients without metastasis at the time of redo surgery (n = 26; QALYs, 3.74) and those with metastasis (n = 5; QALYs, 0.56; P = .005). QALYs were also significantly improved in patients with cancer of the larynx (n = 17; QALYs, 4.69) compared to patients presenting with other types of

  13. Overexpression of EMMPRIN isoform 2 is associated with head and neck cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhiquan; Tan, Ning; Guo, Weijie; Wang, Lili; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Tianyu; Liu, Xiaojia; Xu, Qin; Li, Jinsong; Guo, Zhongmin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), a plasma membrane protein of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily, has been reported to promote cancer cell invasion and metastasis in several human malignancies. However, the roles of the different EMMPRIN isoforms and their associated mechanisms in head and neck cancer progression remain unknown. Using quantitative real-time PCR, we found that EMMPRIN isoform 2 (EMMPRIN-2) was the only isoform that was overexpressed in both head and neck cancer tissues and cell lines and that it was associated with head and neck cancer metastasis. To determine the effects of EMMPRIN-2 on head and neck cancer progression, we transfected head and neck cancer cells with an EMMPRIN-2 expression vector and EMMPRIN-2 siRNA to exogenously modulate EMMPRIN-2 expression and examined the functional importance of EMMPRIN-2 in head and neck cancer invasion and metastasis. We found that EMMPRIN-2 promoted head and neck cancer cell invasion, migration, and adhesion in vitro and increased lung metastasis in vivo. Mechanistic studies revealed that EMMPRIN-2 overexpression promoted the secretion of extracellular signaling molecules, including matrix metalloproteinases-2(MMP-2), urokinase-type plasminogen activator(uPA) and Cathepsin B, in head and neck cancer cells. While MMP-2 and uPA have been demonstrated to be important mediators of EMMPRIN signaling, the role of Cathepsin B in EMMPRIN-mediated molecular cascades and tumorigenesis has not been established. We found that EMMPRIN-2 overexpression and Cathepsin B down-regulation significantly inhibited the invasion, migration and adhesion of Tca8133 cells, suggesting that Cathepsin B is required for EMMPRIN-2 enhanced cell migration and invasion in head and neck cancer. The results of our study demonstrate the important role of EMMPRIN-2 in head and neck cancer progression for the first time and reveal that increased extracellular secretion of Cathepsin B may be a novel mechanism

  14. Robotic thyroidectomy and cervical neck dissection for thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paek, Se Hyun

    2016-01-01

    A robotic approach for thyroid surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of endoscopic thyroidectomy and provide many technical advantages. This approach facilitates the surgeon’s control through a magnified three-dimensional view, decreased tremor, and freedom of motion with articulated instruments. Robotic thyroidectomy is safe and technically feasible in patients with well-differentiated, low-risk thyroid cancer. Furthermore, robotic thyroidectomy may become a good surgical alternative option for patients with more advanced thyroid cancer. Our modified bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) for central and lateral cervical neck lymph node (LN) dissection has yielded excellent surgical outcomes as an open procedure. The incorporation of robotics in thyroid cancer surgery will continue to evolve, and the surgical indications for robotic thyroidectomy will continue to expand. Further analyses that include long-term outcomes and randomized comparative trials remain important. PMID:27294043

  15. Robotic thyroidectomy and cervical neck dissection for thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Paek, Se Hyun; Kang, Kyung Ho

    2016-06-01

    A robotic approach for thyroid surgery was developed to overcome the limitations of endoscopic thyroidectomy and provide many technical advantages. This approach facilitates the surgeon's control through a magnified three-dimensional view, decreased tremor, and freedom of motion with articulated instruments. Robotic thyroidectomy is safe and technically feasible in patients with well-differentiated, low-risk thyroid cancer. Furthermore, robotic thyroidectomy may become a good surgical alternative option for patients with more advanced thyroid cancer. Our modified bilateral axillo-breast approach (BABA) for central and lateral cervical neck lymph node (LN) dissection has yielded excellent surgical outcomes as an open procedure. The incorporation of robotics in thyroid cancer surgery will continue to evolve, and the surgical indications for robotic thyroidectomy will continue to expand. Further analyses that include long-term outcomes and randomized comparative trials remain important.

  16. Homogeneous irradiation of the ''short-necked'' laryngeal cancer patient

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, J.W.; Eapen, L.; Kulkarni, N.S.

    1984-04-01

    A technique for homogeneous irradiation of the ''short-necked'' laryngeal cancer patient is presented. The method is similar to a previously described technique in that inferiorly angled opposed lateral beams are used with tissue compensators and beam wedges. The advantages of the technique presented here are that the patient is treated supine rather than sitting and therapy simulation is more easily carried out. Experimental verification of the calculated radiation distributions was carried out in a water phantom having the same shape as the patient. These results show the extent of dose homogeneity and in addition show that neglecting tissue inhomogeneity, the measured and calculated dose distribuion agree within 2%.

  17. [Follow-up ultrasound of head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Künzel, J; Bozzato, A; Strieth, S

    2017-09-13

    In Germany high-resolution sonography using the color duplex mode in addition to computed tomography (CT) is a well-established and proven method in the context of restaging after primary therapy of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). There are no international evidence-based restaging guidelines. Decisions concerning neck dissection (ND) after primary radiochemotherapy (RCT) are often individually derived in the respective tumor conferences and are therefore subject to variance. Compared to the UK or USA, in Germany there is a high level of expertise in the use of ultrasound in combination with CT for the routine restaging of HNSCC after RCT. Using high-resolution sonography (B-mode and color duplex) morphological changes in neck lymph nodes can be clearly detected. Another important aspect in the field of sonographic follow-up is the accurate and standardized documentation of findings and control of dynamic changes during follow-up. In summary, clinical presentation and sonography enable therapeutic decisions and treatment from one source.

  18. Longitudinal Perioperative Pain Assessment in Head and Neck Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Buchakjian, Marisa R; Davis, Andrew B; Sciegienka, Sebastian J; Pagedar, Nitin A; Sperry, Steven M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate perioperative pain in patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery and identify associations between preoperative and postoperative pain characteristics. Patients undergoing head and neck surgery with regional/free tissue transfer were enrolled. Preoperative pain and validated screens for symptoms (neuropathic pain, anxiety, depression, fibromyalgia) were assessed. Postoperatively, patients completed a pain diary for 4 weeks. Twenty-seven patients were enrolled. Seventy-eight percent had pain prior to surgery, and for 38%, the pain had neuropathic characteristics. Thirteen patients (48%) completed at least 2 weeks of the postoperative pain diary. Patients with moderate/severe preoperative pain report significantly greater pain scores postoperatively, though daily pain decreased at a similar linear rate for all patients. Patients with more severe preoperative pain consumed greater amounts of opioids postoperatively, and this correlated with daily postoperative pain scores. Patients who screened positive for neuropathic pain also reported worse postoperative pain. Longitudinal perioperative pain assessment in head and neck patients undergoing surgery suggests that patients with worse preoperative pain continue to endorse worse pain postoperatively and require more narcotics. Patients with preoperative neuropathic pain also report poor pain control postoperatively, suggesting an opportunity to identify these patients and intervene with empiric neuropathic pain treatment.

  19. Second primary tumours in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Herranz González-Botas, Jesús; Varela Vázquez, Patricia; Vázquez Barro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancer patients have a higher risk of second primary tumours than the general population. The most frequent locations are head and neck, lung and oesophagus, decreasing long-term survival. The aim of this work was to analyse the incidence, location according to index tumour and stage, chronology, patient age, and survival after diagnosis. Retrospective study on 579 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, treated with curative intent, with a minimum 24-month follow-up. Early stages (I/II) were 42.4%, and 57.6% were stages III and IV. Second primary tumour incidence was 15% (87/579), with 9.2% (8/97) developing a third tumour. The most frequent locations of the second tumours were head and neck, 37.9% (33/87); lung, 36.8% (32/87); oesophagus, 5.7% (5/87); and colon, 5.7% (5/87). Five- and 10-year survival in patients without a second tumour was 65.1% and 52.7% respectively, versus 58.7% and 40.2% in those who developed one. The incidence of second primary tumours increased in the last decade, having a negative effect on survival. Since no specific early diagnosis tool is available, alcohol and tobacco avoidance along with scheduled follow-up are suggested procedures to reduce its incidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  20. Using spiral intensity profile to quantify head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Koon Y.; Shanna, Yachna; Raza, S. Hussain; Chen, Zhuo (Georgia); Muller, Susan; Wang, May D.

    2016-01-01

    During the analysis of microscopy images, researchers locate regions of interest (ROI) and extract relevant information within it. Identifying the ROI is mostly done manually and subjectively by pathologists. Computer algorithms could help in reducing their workload and improve reproducibility. In particular, we want to assess the validity of the folic acid receptor as a biomarker for head and neck cancer. We are only interested in folic acid receptors appearing in cancerous tissue. Therefore, the first step is to segment images into cancerous and noncancerous regions. We propose to use a spiral intensity profile for segmentation of light microscopy images. Many algorithms identify objects in an image by considering pixel intensity and spatial information separately. Our algorithm integrates intensity and spatial information by considering the change, or profile, of pixel intensity in a spiral fashion. Using a spiral intensity profile can also perform segmentation at different scales from cancer regions to nuclei cluster to individual nuclei. We compared our algorithm with manually segmented image and obtained a specificity of 83.7% and sensitivity of 61.1%. Spiral intensity profiles can be used as a feature to improve other segmentation algorithms. Segmentation of cancerous images at different scales allows effective quantification of folic acid receptor inside cancerous regions, nuclei clusters, or individual cells.

  1. Strategies to Overcome Late Complications from Radiotherapy for Childhood Head and Neck Cancers.

    PubMed

    Spiotto, Michael T; Connell, Philip P

    2016-02-01

    Most pediatric head and neck cancers are treated with radiotherapy, but the morbidity associated with radiotherapy has become a prominent issue. This article discusses the common long-term complications associated with head and neck radiotherapy for childhood cancers. It reviews approaches to minimize toxicity and details the toxicities that head and neck radiation inflicts on relevant functional measures. In addition, it discusses the risk of radiation-induced secondary cancers in childhood cancer survivors, as well as strategies to reduce them. Thus, this article addresses approaches to minimize long-term radiation toxicities in order to improve the quality of life for childhood cancer survivors.

  2. Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary occurs when squamous cell cancer spreads to lymph nodes in the neck from an undetectable primary tumor. Treatment includes surgery and radiation therapy. Learn about the diagnosis, survival, staging, and treatment of these tumors.

  3. RhoC Expression and Head and Neck Cancer Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mozaffarul; Lin, Giant; Brenner, John C.; Pan, Quintin; Merajver, Sofia D.; Hou, Yanjun; Kumar, Pawan; Teknos, Theodoros N.

    2010-01-01

    RhoC protein, a known marker of metastases in aggressive breast cancers and melanoma, has also been found to be over-expressed in certain head and neck cancers, thus we investigated the correlation between RhoC expression and the metastatic behavior of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Selective inhibition of RhoC expression was achieved using lentiviral small hairpin RNA (shRNA) transduced and tracked with green fluorescent protein (GFP) to achieve 70-80% RhoC inhibition. Fluorescence microscopy of the RhoC knockdown stable clones showed strong green fluorescence in the majority of cells, signifying a high efficiency of transduction. Importantly, qRT-PCR showed no significant decrease in the mRNA expression levels of other members of the Ras superfamily. Cell motility and invasion were markedly diminished in RhoC depleted cell lines as compared to control transduced lines. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of lung tissue obtained from SCID mice which had been implanted with RhoC knockdown cells showed marked decrease in lung metastasis and inflammation of the blood vessels. The cultured lung tissue showed a significant decrease in cell growth in mice implanted with RhoC depleted cell lines as compared to shRNA scrambled sequence control lines. Microscopic studies of CD31 expression revealed substantial quantitative and qualitative differences in the primary tumor microvessel density as compared to parental and shRNA-scrambled controls. This study is the first of its kind to establish the involvement of RhoC specifically in head and neck metastasis. These findings suggest that RhoC warrants further investigation to delineate its robustness as a novel potentially therapeutic target. PMID:19861405

  4. Sequencing the head and neck cancer genome: implications for therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenyue; Califano, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a disease with significant morbidity and mortality. The advancement of next-generation sequencing technologies now enables the landscape of genetic alterations in HNSCCs to be deciphered. In this review, we describe the mutation spectrum discovered in HNSCCs, especially human papilloma virus (HPV)- and/or tobacco smoke exposure–associated HNSCCs. We also describe related research from two independent investigators and from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Emphasis is placed on the therapeutic implications of genes frequently altered in HNSCCs (i.e., TP53, PIK3CA, and NOTCH1) and their corresponding pathways, with a particular focus on recent findings of NOTCH pathway activation in HNSCC. We also discuss the application of integrated genomic pathway–based analysis for precision cancer therapy in HNSCC. PMID:25440877

  5. Immune Suppression in Head and Neck Cancers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Duray, Anaëlle; Demoulin, Stéphanie; Hubert, Pascale; Delvenne, Philippe; Saussez, Sven

    2010-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are the sixth most common cancer in the world. Despite significant advances in the treatment modalities involving surgery, radiotherapy, and concomitant chemoradiotherapy, the 5-year survival rate remained below 50% for the past 30 years. The worse prognosis of these cancers must certainly be link to the fact that HNSCCs strongly influence the host immune system. We present a critical review of our understanding of the HNSCC escape to the antitumor immune response such as a downregulation of HLA class I and/or components of APM. Antitumor responses of HNSCC patients are compromised in the presence of functional defects or apoptosis of T-cells, both circulating and tumor-infiltrating. Langerhans cells are increased in the first steps of the carcinogenesis but decreased in invasive carcinomas. The accumulation of macrophages in the peritumoral areas seems to play a protumoral role by secreting VEGF and stimulating the neoangiogenesis. PMID:21437225

  6. The molecular biology of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Leemans, C René; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Brakenhoff, Ruud H

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) are caused by tobacco and alcohol consumption and by infection with high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV). Tumours often develop within preneoplastic fields of genetically altered cells. The persistence of these fields after treatment presents a major challenge, because it might lead to local recurrences and second primary tumours that are responsible for a large proportion of deaths. Aberrant signalling pathways have been identified in HNSCCs and inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has proved a successful therapeutic strategy. In this Review, we discuss the recent literature on tumour heterogeneity, field cancerization, molecular pathogenesis and the underlying causative cancer genes that can be exploited for novel and personalized treatments of patients with HNSCC.

  7. Preservation of organ function in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tschiesner, Uta

    2012-01-01

    Preservation of function is a crucial aspect for the evaluation of therapies applied in the field of head and neck cancer. However, preservation of anatomic structures cannot automatically be equated with preservation of function. Functional outcome becomes increasingly important particularly for the evaluation of alternative treatment options with equivalent oncological outcomes. As a result, present studies take into account three topic areas with varying emphasis: (1) the effects of cancer therapy on essential physiological functions, (2) additional therapy-induced side-effects and complications, and (3) health-related quality of life. The present article summarizes vital aspects of clinical research from recent years. Functional outcomes after surgical and non-surgical treatment approaches are presented according to tumor localization and staging criteria. Additional methodological aspects relating to data gathering and documentation as well as challenges in implementing the results in clinical practice are also discussed. PMID:23320059

  8. Tumor DNA: an emerging biomarker in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Bellairs, Joseph A; Hasina, Rifat; Agrawal, Nishant

    2017-08-12

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) includes a diverse range of malignancies arising commonly from mucosal epithelia of the upper aerodigestive tract. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), the most common form of HNC, develops in the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx and is associated with tobacco exposure, alcohol abuse, and infection with oncogenic viruses. Despite global advances in cancer care, HNSCC often presents with advanced disease and is associated with poor 5-year survival of ~50%. Genotyping tumor tissue to guide clinical decision-making is becoming commonplace in modern oncology, but in the management of HNSCC, tissue biopsies with cytopathology or histopathology remain the mainstay for diagnosis. Furthermore, conventional biopsies are temporally and spatially limited, often providing a brief snapshot of a single region of a heterogeneous tumor. In the absence of a useful biomarker, both primary and recurrent HNSCCs are diagnosed with conventional imaging and clinical examination. As a result, many patients are diagnosed with advanced disease. Tumor DNA is an emerging biomarker in HNSCC. DNA fragments are constantly being shed from tumors and metastatic lesions, and can therefore be detected in blood and other bodily fluids. Utilizing next-generation sequencing techniques, these tumor DNA can be characterized and quantified. This can serve as a minimally invasive liquid biopsy allowing for specific tumor profiling, dynamic tumor burden monitoring, and active surveillance for disease recurrences. In HNSCC, analysis of tumor DNA has the potential to enhance tumor profiling, aid in determining patient prognosis, and guide treatment decisions.

  9. Occupational asphalt is not associated with head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fogleman, E. V.; Eliot, M.; Michaud, D. S.; Nelson, H. H.; McClean, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies that evaluate the relationship between occupational asphalt exposure and head and neck cancer have had a limited ability to control for known risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). Aims To better elucidate this relationship by including known risk factors in a large case–control study of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from the greater Boston area. Methods We analysed the relationship between occupational asphalt exposure and HNSCC among men in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Analyses were conducted using unconditional multivariable logistic regression, performed with adjustments for age, race, education, smoking, alcohol consumption and HPV serology. Results There were 753 cases and 913 controls. No associations between HNSCC and occupational asphalt exposure (neither among ever-exposed nor by occupational duration) were observed for exposures in any occupation or those restricted to the construction industry. We also observed no associations in subgroup analyses of never-smokers and ever-smokers. Adjusting for known risk factors further reduced the estimated effect of asphalt exposure on HNSCC risk. Conclusions We found no evidence for an association between occupational asphalt exposure and HNSCC. The null findings from this well-controlled analysis could suggest that the risk estimates stemming from occupational cohort studies may be overestimated due to uncontrolled confounding and enhance the literature available for weighing cancer risk from occupational exposure to bitumen. PMID:26272381

  10. Life style management in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Taneja, M K

    2013-12-01

    Head and neck (HN) cancers involve highly visible body parts, structurally complex, and crucial to survival. A diagnosis of HN cancer, like any cancer diagnosis, is often accompanied by much fear and uncertainty. In addition, patients treated for HN cancer face difficulties in eating, chewing, drinking, breathing, speaking, as well as changes in appearance. Simultaneously, the burden of HN cancer is often manifested in psychosocial dysfunction, which can have a negative impact on quality of life (QL). Psychosocial interventions such as education along with cognitive-behavioral therapy generally provide an overall positive effect. With the growing impetus to investigate factors associated with these dysfunctions and disfigurement caused by the treatment, and considerable advancement in the development and validation of many global and disease-specific measures, there is an opportunity for further research to develop an appropriate clinical intervention program for such patients so that these patients can live a near normal life. Life style changes including dietary habits make gross changes in QL.

  11. Evaluation of shoulder disability questionnaires used for the assessment of shoulder disability after neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David P; Ringash, Jolie; Bissada, Eric; Jaquet, Yves; Irish, Jonathan; Chepeha, Douglas; Davis, Aileen M

    2014-10-01

    Several questionnaires have been used to evaluate shoulder disability after neck dissection. The purpose of this study was to review these measures and highlight their strengths and weaknesses. A literature review was performed to identify measures of shoulder disability after head and neck cancer surgery. These measures were evaluated in terms of their methods of development and assessment of their psychometric properties. Seven questionnaires were identified. Several of the other questionnaires have been well developed but have not had their psychometric properties assessed in the head and neck cancer population. Each questionnaire has its strengths and weaknesses. The strengths and weaknesses of the shoulder disability questionnaires should be considered when deciding which questionnaire to use. Efforts should be focused on using well-designed questionnaires that have been assessed in this patient population rather than developing or using other questionnaires. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Mouthwash use and cancer of the head and neck: a pooled analysis from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Boffetta, Paolo; Hayes, Richard B; Sartori, Samantha; Lee, Yuan-Chin A; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew; Winn, Deborah M; Castellsagué, Xavier; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Purdue, Mark; Koifman, Sergio; Curado, Maria P; Vilensky, Marta; Gillison, Maura; Fernandez, Leticia; Menezes, Ana; Daudt, Alexander W; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guopei; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Haddad, Robert I; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hashibe, Mia

    2016-07-01

    Most mouthwashes contain alcohol, a known cause of head and neck cancer (oral cavity, pharynx, larynx), likely through the carcinogenic activity of acetaldehyde, formed in the oral cavity from alcohol. We carried out a pooled analysis of 8981 cases of head and neck cancer and 10 090 controls from 12 case-control studies with comparable information on mouthwash use in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of mouthwash use with cancers of the oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, adjusting for study, age, sex, pack-years of tobacco smoking, number of alcoholic drinks/day, and education. Compared with never users of mouthwash, the odds ratio (OR) of all head and neck cancers was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94-1.08] for ever users, based on 12 studies. The corresponding ORs of cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx were 1.11 (95% CI: 1.00-1.23) and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.06-1.56), respectively. OR for all head and neck cancer was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.01-1.30) for use for more than 35 years, based on seven studies (P for linear trend=0.01), and OR 1.31 (95% CI: 1.09-1.58) for use more than one per day, based on five studies (P for linear trend <0.001). Although limited by the retrospective nature of the study and the limited ability to assess risks of mouthwash use in nonusers of tobacco and alcohol, this large investigation shows potential risks for head and neck cancer subsites and in long-term and frequent users of mouthwash. This pooled analysis provides the most precise estimate of the association between mouthwash use and head and neck cancer.

  13. Use of dental X rays on postirradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.A.; Purdy, R.B.; Stoker, H.W.; Palmer RW 4

    1988-10-01

    As cancer therapy becomes more successful and cancer survival rates increase, the dentist will be treating more patients who have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Occasionally, patients and health professionals have indicated a belief that patients who have received irradiation to the head and neck regions should not be subjected to additional radiation through dental diagnostic X-ray exposures. A literature search failed to find any references that specifically addressed this question. This study reflects the opinions of 278 radiation oncologists (400 surveyed) who responded to questions about contraindications of dental X rays for the patient with head and neck cancer.

  14. Deep convolutional neural networks for classifying head and neck cancer using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halicek, Martin; Lu, Guolan; Little, James V.; Wang, Xu; Patel, Mihir; Griffith, Christopher C.; El-Deiry, Mark W.; Chen, Amy Y.; Fei, Baowei

    2017-06-01

    Surgical cancer resection requires an accurate and timely diagnosis of the cancer margins in order to achieve successful patient remission. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has emerged as a useful, noncontact technique for acquiring spectral and optical properties of tissue. A convolutional neural network (CNN) classifier is developed to classify excised, squamous-cell carcinoma, thyroid cancer, and normal head and neck tissue samples using HSI. The CNN classification was validated by the manual annotation of a pathologist specialized in head and neck cancer. The preliminary results of 50 patients indicate the potential of HSI and deep learning for automatic tissue-labeling of surgical specimens of head and neck patients.

  15. The role of oral hygiene in head and neck cancer: results from International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium.

    PubMed

    Hashim, D; Sartori, S; Brennan, P; Curado, M P; Wünsch-Filho, V; Divaris, K; Olshan, A F; Zevallos, J P; Winn, D M; Franceschi, S; Castellsagué, X; Lissowska, J; Rudnai, P; Matsuo, K; Morgenstern, H; Chen, C; Vaughan, T L; Hofmann, J N; D'Souza, G; Haddad, R I; Wu, H; Lee, Y-C; Hashibe, M; Vecchia, C La; Boffetta, P

    2016-08-01

    Poor oral hygiene has been proposed to contribute to head and neck cancer (HNC) risk, although causality and independency of some indicators are uncertain. This study investigates the relationship of five oral hygiene indicators with incident HNCs. In a pooled analysis of 8925 HNC cases and 12 527 controls from 13 studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, comparable data on good oral hygiene indicators were harmonized. These included: no denture wear, no gum disease (or bleeding), <5 missing teeth, tooth brushing at least daily, and visiting a dentist ≥once a year. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of each oral hygiene indicator and cumulative score on HNC risk, adjusting for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Inverse associations with any HNC, in the hypothesized direction, were observed for <5 missing teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74, 0.82], annual dentist visit (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.78, 0.87), daily tooth brushing (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.79, 0.88), and no gum disease (OR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.89, 0.99), and no association was observed for wearing dentures. These associations were relatively consistent across specific cancer sites, especially for tooth brushing and dentist visits. The population attributable fraction for ≤ 2 out of 5 good oral hygiene indicators was 8.9% (95% CI 3.3%, 14%) for oral cavity cancer. Good oral hygiene, as characterized by few missing teeth, annual dentist visits, and daily tooth brushing, may modestly reduce the risk of HNC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The role of oral hygiene in head and neck cancer: results from International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium

    PubMed Central

    Hashim, D.; Sartori, S.; Brennan, P.; Curado, M. P.; Wünsch-Filho, V.; Divaris, K.; Olshan, A. F.; Zevallos, J. P.; Winn, D. M.; Franceschi, S.; Castellsagué, X.; Lissowska, J.; Rudnai, P.; Matsuo, K.; Morgenstern, H.; Chen, C.; Vaughan, T. L.; Hofmann, J. N.; D'Souza, G.; Haddad, R. I.; Wu, H.; Lee, Y.-C.; Hashibe, M.; Vecchia, C. La; Boffetta, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor oral hygiene has been proposed to contribute to head and neck cancer (HNC) risk, although causality and independency of some indicators are uncertain. This study investigates the relationship of five oral hygiene indicators with incident HNCs. Methods In a pooled analysis of 8925 HNC cases and 12 527 controls from 13 studies participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, comparable data on good oral hygiene indicators were harmonized. These included: no denture wear, no gum disease (or bleeding), <5 missing teeth, tooth brushing at least daily, and visiting a dentist ≥once a year. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of each oral hygiene indicator and cumulative score on HNC risk, adjusting for tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Results Inverse associations with any HNC, in the hypothesized direction, were observed for <5 missing teeth [odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74, 0.82], annual dentist visit (OR = 0.82; 95% CI 0.78, 0.87), daily tooth brushing (OR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.79, 0.88), and no gum disease (OR = 0.94; 95% CI 0.89, 0.99), and no association was observed for wearing dentures. These associations were relatively consistent across specific cancer sites, especially for tooth brushing and dentist visits. The population attributable fraction for ≤ 2 out of 5 good oral hygiene indicators was 8.9% (95% CI 3.3%, 14%) for oral cavity cancer. Conclusion Good oral hygiene, as characterized by few missing teeth, annual dentist visits, and daily tooth brushing, may modestly reduce the risk of HNC. PMID:27234641

  17. Tobacco-related carcinogenesis in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Jethwa, Ashok R; Khariwala, Samir S

    2017-08-12

    Head and neck cancer (head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC)) is a devastating disease. Patients require intensive treatment that is often disfiguring and debilitating. Those who survive are often left with poor speech articulation, difficulties in chewing and swallowing, and cosmetic disfigurement, as well as loss of taste. Furthermore, given that HNSCC survivors are frequently disabled and unable to return to work, the economic and societal costs associated with HNSCC are massive. HNSCC is one of many cancers that are strongly associated with tobacco use. The risk for HNSCC in smokers is approximately ten times higher than that of never smokers, and 70-80% of new HNSCC diagnoses are associated with tobacco and alcohol use. Tobacco products have been used for centuries; however, it is just within the last 60-70 years that we have developed an understanding of their damaging effects. This relatively recent understanding has created a pathway towards educational and regulatory efforts aimed at reducing tobacco use. Understanding the carcinogenic components of tobacco products and how they lead to HNSCC is critical to regulatory and harm reduction measures. To date, nitrosamines and other carcinogenic agents present in tobacco products have been associated with cancer development. The disruption of DNA structure through DNA adduct formation is felt to be a common mutagenic pathway of many carcinogens. Intense work pertaining to tobacco product constituents, tobacco use, and tobacco regulation has resulted in decreased use in some parts of the world. Still, much work remains as tobacco continues to impart significant harm and contribute to HNSCC development worldwide.

  18. Diagnosis of head-and-neck cancer from exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Hakim, M; Billan, S; Tisch, U; Peng, G; Dvrokind, I; Marom, O; Abdah-Bortnyak, R; Kuten, A; Haick, H

    2011-05-10

    Head-and-neck cancer (HNC) is the eighth most common malignancy worldwide. It is often diagnosed late due to a lack of screening methods and overall cure is achieved in <50% of patients. Head-and-neck cancer sufferers often develop a second primary tumour that can affect the entire aero-digestive tract, mostly HNC or lung cancer (LC), making lifelong follow-up necessary. Alveolar breath was collected from 87 volunteers (HNC and LC patients and healthy controls) in a cross-sectional clinical trial. The discriminative power of a tailor-made Nanoscale Artificial Nose (NA-NOSE) based on an array of five gold nanoparticle sensors was tested, using 62 breath samples. The NA-NOSE signals were analysed to detect statistically significant differences between the sub-populations using (i) principal component analysis with ANOVA and Student's t-test and (ii) support vector machines and cross-validation. The identification of NA-NOSE patterns was supported by comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the breath through gas chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using 40 breath samples. The NA-NOSE could clearly distinguish between (i) HNC patients and healthy controls, (ii) LC patients and healthy controls, and (iii) HNC and LC patients. The GC-MS analysis showed statistically significant differences in the chemical composition of the breath of the three groups. The presented results could lead to the development of a cost-effective, fast, and reliable method for the differential diagnosis of HNC that is based on breath testing with an NA-NOSE, with a future potential as screening tool.

  19. Pancreatic neck cancer has specific and oncologic characteristics regarding portal vein invasion and lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hirono, Seiko; Kawai, Manabu; Okada, Ken-ichi; Miyazawa, Motoki; Shimizu, Atsushi; Kitahata, Yuji; Ueno, Masaki; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer originating in the neck of the gland occurs in the small region surrounded by the common hepatic artery (CHA), gastroduodenal artery (GDA), and portal vein (PV). The specific clinicopathologic characteristics of pancreatic neck cancer remain unclear. Our aim was to identify specific biologic behaviors of pancreatic neck cancer for the improvement of treatment outcomes. This study was a retrospective cohort study with a comparative outcomes design. In 63 of 325 consecutive patients (19.4%) with pancreatic cancer who underwent operation, the tumor was located in the pancreatic neck. Clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors specific to pancreatic neck cancer were analyzed by comparison with those of pancreatic head or body/tail cancers. The rates of radiographic and pathologic PV and/or superior mesenteric vein (PV/SMV) invasion were greater in patients with pancreatic neck cancer (radiographic, 84%; pathologic, 37%) than those with pancreatic head and body/tail cancers (radiographic: 67% head, 25% body/tail; pathologic: 26% head, 6% body/tail). The most frequent lymph node (LN) metastases were found in the region along the CHA in pancreatic neck cancer, and the areas most likely to show a positive surgical margin were the dissected surface of the PV and the root of the GDA and/or CHA. For pancreatic neck cancer patients, 5 independent poor prognostic factors were found: pathologic PV/SMV invasion (P = .005), moderately or poorly differentiated tumors (P = .001), positive LN ratio of ≥0.1 (P < .001), distance from surgical margin of ≤1 mm (P = .018), and inability to complete the planned postoperative adjuvant therapy (P < .001). Pancreatic neck cancer showed specific clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors after resection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Telltale Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) in Oral, Head & Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Xie, Yuying; Tan, Yee Sun; Prince, Mark E.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Nör, Jacques; Wolf, Gregory T.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence gleaned from recent studies on the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) suggests that cancer is not only a genetic disease but also an immunologic disease. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) has been a significant model to study cancer cell-immune cell interactions. First, immune cell infiltration is an important feature of these tumors. Second, HNSCC frequently develops resistance to immunogenic cytotoxicity, which provides a window to decipher how tumors engage the immune system to establish immune tolerance. Finally, chemoradiation therapy, as a central modality for HNSCC treatment, has been shown to elicit immune activation. The presence of effector immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is often associated with superior clinical response to adjuvant therapy. On the other hand, an activated immune system, in addition to limiting tumor initiation and progression, could also exert selective pressure to promote the growth of less immunogenic tumors, as a pivotal immunoediting process. But it remains unclear how cancer cell signaling regulates tumor immunogenicity and how to mitigate HNSCC-potentiated TIL suppression. In this review, we will revisit the prognostic role of TILs in HNSCC, and collectively discuss how cancer cell machinery impacts upon the plasticity of TILs. PMID:27553942

  1. Genome Stability Pathways in Head and Neck Cancers

    PubMed Central

    O'Byrne, Kenneth J.; Panizza, Benedict; Richard, Derek J.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic instability underlies the transformation of host cells toward malignancy, promotes development of invasion and metastasis and shapes the response of established cancer to treatment. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of genomic stability in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC), with an emphasis on DNA repair pathways. HNSCC is characterized by distinct profiles in genome stability between similarly staged cancers that are reflected in risk, treatment response and outcomes. Defective DNA repair generates chromosomal derangement that can cause subsequent alterations in gene expression, and is a hallmark of progression toward carcinoma. Variable functionality of an increasing spectrum of repair gene polymorphisms is associated with increased cancer risk, while aetiological factors such as human papillomavirus, tobacco and alcohol induce significantly different behaviour in induced malignancy, underpinned by differences in genomic stability. Targeted inhibition of signalling receptors has proven to be a clinically-validated therapy, and protein expression of other DNA repair and signalling molecules associated with cancer behaviour could potentially provide a more refined clinical model for prognosis and treatment prediction. Development and expansion of current genomic stability models is furthering our understanding of HNSCC pathophysiology and uncovering new, promising treatment strategies. PMID:24364026

  2. Head and Neck cancers-major changes in the American Joint Committee on cancer eighth edition cancer staging manual.

    PubMed

    Lydiatt, William M; Patel, Snehal G; O'Sullivan, Brian; Brandwein, Margaret S; Ridge, John A; Migliacci, Jocelyn C; Loomis, Ashley M; Shah, Jatin P

    2017-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The recently released eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging Manual, Head and Neck Section, introduces significant modifications from the prior seventh edition. This article details several of the most significant modifications, and the rationale for the revisions, to alert the reader to evolution of the field. The most significant update creates a separate staging algorithm for high-risk human papillomavirus-associated cancer of the oropharynx, distinguishing it from oropharyngeal cancer with other causes. Other modifications include: the reorganizing of skin cancer (other than melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma) from a general chapter for the entire body to a head and neck-specific cutaneous malignancies chapter; division of cancer of the pharynx into 3 separate chapters; changes to the tumor (T) categories for oral cavity, skin, and nasopharynx; and the addition of extranodal cancer extension to lymph node category (N) in all but the viral-related cancers and mucosal melanoma. The Head and Neck Task Force worked with colleagues around the world to derive a staging system that reflects ongoing changes in head and neck oncology; it remains user friendly and consistent with the traditional tumor, lymph node, metastasis (TNM) staging paradigm. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:122-137. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Considerations for antibiotic prophylaxis in head and neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Veve, Michael P; Davis, Susan L; Williams, Amy M; McKinnon, John E; Ghanem, Tamer A

    2017-09-21

    Peri/post-operative antibiotic prophylaxis (POABP) has become standard practice for preventing surgical site infections (SSI) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction, but few data exist on optimal POABP regimens. Current surgical prophylaxis guideline recommendations fail to account for the complexity of microvascular reconstruction relative to other head and neck procedures, specifically regarding wound classification and antibiotic duration. Selection of POABP spectrum is also controversial, and must balance the choice between too narrow, risking subsequent infection, or too broad, and possible unwanted effects (e.g. antibiotic resistance, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea). POABP regimens should retain activity against bacteria expected to colonize the upper respiratory/salivary tracts, which include Gram-positive organisms and facultative anaerobes. However, Gram-negative bacilli also contribute to SSI in this setting. POABP doses should be optimized in order to achieve therapeutic tissue concentrations at the surgical site. Antibiotics targeted towards methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa are not warranted for all patients. Prolonged POABP durations have shown no differences in SSI when compared to short POABP durations, but prolonged durations provide unnecessarily antibiotic exposure and risk for adverse effects. Given the lack of standardization behind antibiotic POABP in this setting and the potential for poor patient outcomes, this practice necessitates an additional focus of surgeons and antimicrobial stewardship programs. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of POABP evidence and discuss pertinent clinical implications of appropriate use. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Transoral robotic surgery in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hans, S; Delas, B; Gorphe, P; Ménard, M; Brasnu, D

    2012-02-01

    Robots have invaded industry and, more recently, the field of medicine. Following the development of various prototypes, Intuitive Surgical® has developed the Da Vinci surgical robot. This robot, designed for abdominal surgery, has been widely used in urology since 2000. The many advantages of this transoral robotic surgery (TORS) are described in this article. Its disadvantages are essentially its high cost and the absence of tactile feedback. The first feasibility studies in head and neck cancer, conducted in animals, dummies and cadavers, were performed in 2005, followed by the first publications in patients in 2006. The first series including more than 20 patients treated by TORS demonstrated the feasibility for the following sites: oropharynx, supraglottic larynx and hypopharynx. However, these studies did not validate the oncological results of the TORS technique. TORS decreases the number of tracheotomies, and allows more rapid swallowing rehabilitation and a shorter length of hospital stay. Technical improvements are expected. Smaller, more ergonomic, new generation robots, therefore more adapted to the head and neck, will probably be available in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Postoperative nutrition in patients with head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Martín Villares, C; Fernández Pello, M E; San Román Carbajo, J; Tapia Risueño, M; Domínguez Calvo, J

    2003-01-01

    Patients who underwent surgery for head and neck malignant neoplasms are problematic because dysphagia, pain and postoperative secuelaes. Nutritional support is necessary in more than 90% of all patients with head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine nutritional support in these patients and problems related to nutrition. Fifty-four patients with oral and pharyngolaryngeal carcinomas underwent surgery were studied prospectively. We studied nutritional support (oral nutrition, enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition) and problems related to nutrition: aspiration neumoniae and pharyngostoma. The 7% of the patients underwent oral feeding after surgery, 87% enteral nutrition with nasogastric tube and 6% parenteral nutrition. We identified neumoniae in 6% of patients and faringocutaneous fistula in 19%. When patients leaved the hospital, 98% of the patients underwent oral feeding and one patient had nasopharyngeal tube for enteral nutrition. 1. Artificial nutrition was necessary in 93% patients with oropharyngolaryngealcancer; 2. Enteral nutrition was the most useful modality of alimentation (87%); 3.25% of patients had postoperative complications: (18% pharyngostoma, 6% neumoniae); 4. Oral feeding was possible in 98% of patients out of hospital.

  6. Head and Neck Cancer and Sexuality: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Rhoten, Bethany Andrews

    2016-01-01

    Individuals treated for head and neck cancer are at risk of sexual problems, particularly given the probability for disfigurement, body image disturbance, depressive symptoms, and functional difficulties that result from treatment. Because oncology nurses are an important source of information and support for patients, it is important that they be familiar with the current literature as well as opportunities for research. The aim of this study was to present a review of the literature on head and neck cancer and sexuality. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Ovid databases were searched using the terms "head and neck cancer" and "sexuality." Publications had to be peer-reviewed, empirical studies, written in English, and published within the last 10 years. Selected publications were compared based on study aims, leading investigator, study location, conceptual framework, study design, sample, instruments, and study findings. Nine publications were analyzed in this review. Incidence of individuals reporting a negative effect of head and neck cancer on sexuality varied from 24% to 100% depending on the study. There is a paucity of data regarding sexuality among patients with head and neck cancer. Existing studies indicate that sexuality is of considerable significance, particularly after treatment for head and neck cancer. Holistic care includes information about sexuality during and after treatment for head and neck cancer. Oncology nurses should be aware that this topic is of importance to many patients, and they should familiarize themselves with available resources. It is also important that nurse scientists facilitate research in the area of sexuality.

  7. Prostaglandin inhibitor and radiotherapy in advanced head and neck cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Pillsbury, H.C. III; Webster, W.P.; Rosenman, J.

    1986-05-01

    Radiotherapy is the usual mode of treatment for unresectable head and neck cancer. To improve cure rates, extend survival, and reduce morbidity, we use accelerated hyperfractionation radiotherapy and an adjuvant drug to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. In this study, 19 patients received 300 rad/day of radiotherapy in two equally divided doses to a total dose averaging 6,200 rad. Either indomethacin, 25 mg, or placebo was given four times a day in a double-blind fashion during therapy. Radiation mucositis was graded as 0 to 4+; pain, nutritional status, and tumor status were monitored daily and recorded biweekly. Evaluation of the data showed delayed mucositis in the experimental group for grades 1 to 3, with a significant difference at grade 3 compared with controls. The significance of a long-term comparison of cure rates would be doubtful considering the heterogeneity of the primary sites and regional disease in this group coupled with the small size of our study.

  8. Dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Platteaux, Nele; Dirix, Piet; Dejaeger, Eddy; Nuyts, Sandra

    2010-06-01

    Dysphagia is a very common complaint of head and neck cancer patients and can exist before, during, and after chemoradiotherapy. It leads to nutritional deficiency, weight loss, and prolonged unnatural feeding and also has a major potential risk for aspiration. This has a significant negative impact on the patient's entire quality of life. Because treatment of dysphagia in this setting is rarely effective, prevention is paramount. Several strategies have been developed to reduce dysphagia. These include swallowing exercises, treatment modification techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, selective delineation of elective nodes, reducing xerostomia by parotid-sparing radiotherapy, and adding of radioprotectors. However, more research is needed to further decrease the incidence of dysphagia and improve quality of life.

  9. IMRT for head and neck cancer: reducing xerostomia and dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoShen; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia and xerostomia are the main sequellae of chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and the main factors in reducing long-term patient quality of life. IMRT uses advanced technology to focus the high radiation doses on the targets and avoid irradiation of non-involved tissues. The decisions about sparing organs and tissues whose damage causes xerostomia and dysphagia depends on the evidence for dose–response relationships for the organs causing these sequellae. This paper discusses the evidence for the contribution of radiotherapy to xerostomia via damage of the major salivary glands (parotid and submandibular) and minor salivary glands within the oral cavity, and the contribution of radiotherapy-related effect on important swallowing structures causing dysphagia. Recommendations for dose limits to these organs, based on measurements of xerostomia and dysphagia following radiotherapy, are provided here. PMID:27538846

  10. Poor oral health affects survival in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Farquhar, Douglas R; Divaris, Kimon; Mazul, Angela L; Weissler, Mark C; Zevallos, Jose P; Olshan, Andrew F

    2017-10-01

    Poor oral health has emerged as a risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) but its impact on survival has not been examined. We sought to estimate the impact of oral health indicators on survival in a population-based HNSCC cohort. Cases (n=1381) and age-, sex- and race-matched controls (n=1396) were participants in the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiologic Study (CHANCE). Vital status was determined via linkage with the National Death Index. Survival was considered at 5years post-diagnosis or study-enrollment for controls. Oral health was assessed using self-reported indicators including frequency of routine dental exams and tooth brushing. We used Kaplan-Meyer analyses and Cox regression to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Routine dental visits during the preceding 10years were associated with decreased mortality risk (>10 visits: HR=0.6, 95% CI=0.4-0.8) after adjusting for confounders. This effect was most pronounced for oral cavity cancer-(e.g., >10 visits: HR=0.4, 95% CI=0.2-0.9). Dental visits were also positively associated with survival among controls. No other routine health screening (e.g., eye exams) was associated with survival. We found significant associations between markers of oral health and survival among both HNSCC cases and controls. This association was most pronounced for sites closer to the dentition. Oral health may have a direct effect on tumor biology due to the associated immune or inflammatory response. It may also represent a proxy for wellness or unmeasured social determinants of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational asphalt is not associated with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Fogleman, E V; Eliot, M; Michaud, D S; Nelson, H H; McClean, M D; Langevin, S M; Kelsey, K T

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluate the relationship between occupational asphalt exposure and head and neck cancer have had a limited ability to control for known risk factors such as smoking, alcohol and human papillomavirus (HPV). To better elucidate this relationship by including known risk factors in a large case-control study of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) from the greater Boston area. We analysed the relationship between occupational asphalt exposure and HNSCC among men in the Greater Boston area of Massachusetts. Analyses were conducted using unconditional multivariable logistic regression, performed with adjustments for age, race, education, smoking, alcohol consumption and HPV serology. There were 753 cases and 913 controls. No associations between HNSCC and occupational asphalt exposure (neither among ever-exposed nor by occupational duration) were observed for exposures in any occupation or those restricted to the construction industry. We also observed no associations in subgroup analyses of never-smokers and ever-smokers. Adjusting for known risk factors further reduced the estimated effect of asphalt exposure on HNSCC risk. We found no evidence for an association between occupational asphalt exposure and HNSCC. The null findings from this well-controlled analysis could suggest that the risk estimates stemming from occupational cohort studies may be overestimated due to uncontrolled confounding and enhance the literature available for weighing cancer risk from occupational exposure to bitumen. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Salvage Re-Irradiation for Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Nancy . E-mail: Leen2@mskcc.org; Chan, Kelvin; Bekelman, Justin E.; Zhung, Joanne; Mechalakos, James; Narayana, Ashwatha; Wolden, Suzanne; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Pfister, David; Kraus, Dennis; Shah, Jatin; Zelefsky, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    Purpose: To present a retrospective review of treatment outcomes for recurrent head and neck (HN) cancer patients treated with re-irradiation (re-RT) at a single medical center. Methods and Materials: From July 1996-September 2005, 105 patients with recurrent HN cancer underwent re-RT at our institution. Sites included were: the neck (n = 21), nasopharynx (n 21), paranasal sinus (n = 18), oropharynx (n = 16), oral cavity (n = 9), larynx (n = 10), parotid (n = 6), and hypopharynx (n = 4). The median prior RT dose was 62 Gy. Seventy-five patients received chemotherapy with their re-RT (platinum-based in the majority of cases). The median re-RT dose was 59.4 Gy. In 74 (70%), re-RT utilized intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Results: With a median follow-up of 35 months, 18 patients were alive with no evidence of disease. The 2-year loco-regional progression-free survival (LRPFS) and overall survival rates were 42% and 37%, respectively. Patients who underwent IMRT, compared to those who did not, had a better 2-year LRPF (52% vs. 20%, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, non-nasopharynx and non-IMRT were associated with an increased risk of loco-regional (LR) failure. Patients with LR progression-free disease had better 2-year overall survival vs. those with LR failure (56% vs. 21%, p < 0.001). Acute and late Grade 3-4 toxicities were reported in 23% and 15% of patients. Severe Grade 3-4 late complications were observed in 12 patients, with a median time to development of 6 months after re-RT. Conclusions: Based on our data, achieving LR control is crucial for improved overall survival in this patient population. The use of IMRT predicted better LR tumor control. Future aggressive efforts in maximizing tumor control in the recurrent setting, including dose escalation with IMRT and improved chemotherapy, are warranted.

  13. Metabolomics of Head and Neck Cancer: A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jae M.; Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Fenno, J. Christopher; Rickard, Alexander H.; Kapila, Yvonne L.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolomics is used in systems biology to enhance the understanding of complex disease processes, such as cancer. Head and neck cancer (HNC) is an epithelial malignancy that arises in the upper aerodigestive tract and affects more than half a million people worldwide each year. Recently, significant effort has focused on integrating multiple “omics” technologies for oncological research. In particular, research has been focused on identifying tumor-specific metabolite profiles using different sample types (biological fluids, cells and tissues) and a variety of metabolomic platforms and technologies. With our current understanding of molecular abnormalities of HNC, the addition of metabolomic studies will enhance our knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease and potentially aid in the development of novel strategies to prevent and treat HNC. In this review, we summarize the proposed hypotheses and conclusions from publications that reported findings on the metabolomics of HNC. In addition, we address the potential influence of host-microbe metabolomics in cancer. From a systems biology perspective, the integrative use of genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics will be extremely important for future translational metabolomic-based research discoveries. PMID:27877135

  14. Predictors of competing mortality in advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Mell, Loren K; Dignam, James J; Salama, Joseph K; Cohen, Ezra E W; Polite, Blase N; Dandekar, Virag; Bhate, Amit D; Witt, Mary Ellyn; Haraf, Daniel J; Mittal, Bharat B; Vokes, Everett E; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE Death from noncancer causes (competing mortality) is an important event in head and neck cancer, but studies identifying predictors of this event are lacking. We sought to identify predictors of competing mortality and develop a risk stratification model for competing events. PATIENTS AND METHODS Cohort study of 479 patients with stage III to IV carcinoma of the head and neck diagnosed between August 1993 and November 2004. Patients were treated on consecutive prospective clinical trials involving organ-preserving chemoradiotherapy and surgery. We used multivariable competing risks regression models to analyze factors associated with the cumulative incidence of competing mortality, locoregional and distant failure, and second malignancies as first events. Results Median follow-up was 52 months median for survivors. The 5-year cumulative incidence of competing mortality was 19.6% (95% CI, 15.8 to 23.4). On multivariable analysis, competing mortality was associated with female sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.63), increasing age (HR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.62), increasing Charlson Comorbidity Index (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.47), decreasing body mass index (HR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.84), and decreasing distance traveled to the treating center (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.98). Patients with zero, one, two, and > or = three risk factors had 5-year competing mortality of 8.9% (95% CI, 3.0% to 14.8%), 12.4% (95% CI, 7.0% to 17.8%), 22.1% (95% CI, 14.5% to 29.7%), and 39.3% (95% CI, 28.6% to 50.1%), respectively. CONCLUSION Competing mortality in advanced head and neck cancer is associated with several demographic and health status characteristics. Analyses of risk factors for competing mortality may be useful in outcomes reporting and designing clinical trials.

  15. Advances in understanding of toxicities of treatment for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Logan, Richard M

    2009-10-01

    Toxicities associated with head and neck cancer treatment are common events. Despite the fact that many side effects of cancer treatment are now well controlled, some, such as mucositis and salivary gland hypofunction, continue to be almost inevitable outcomes of cancer treatment. Furthermore, improvements in cancer treatment itself as well as new modalities, such as targeted treatments, may be associated with different toxicities. In this review, common toxicities associated with head and neck cancer treatment will be discussed including those reported to occur with targeted therapies. This review also considers the concept of toxicity clusters, risk factors for toxicity (for example genetics) and individualisation of cancer treatment.

  16. Incidental nodal metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in neck dissection specimens from head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, R; Marchetti, M; Muscatello, L

    2017-04-01

    Occult differentiated thyroid carcinomas are not uncommon. The initial presentation of a thyroid carcinoma is often detection of a metastatic cervical lymph node. A retrospective review was performed of the medical records of 304 patients who underwent neck dissection between 1996 and 2008 for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Ten patients (3.3 per cent) had nodal metastasis originating from papillary thyroid cancer. All of these patients underwent thyroidectomy and post-operative 131iodine radiometabolic therapy. No patient developed a thyroid tumour after surgery. Despite its metastatic spread, thyroid cancer does not affect the overall prognosis of patients who are already being treated for a more aggressive malignancy. However, in otherwise healthy patients, it is worth treating this second malignancy to avoid potential complications related to local disease or metastatic thyroid cancer.

  17. Head and neck management of the cancer patient

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.; Elias, E.G.; Sonis, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 26 chapters. Some of the titles are: Principles of radiation therapy; Radiotherapeutic management of head and neck neoplasia; Diagnostic radiology for head and neck neoplasms with emphasis on computerized tomography; and Oral complications of radiation therapy.

  18. PET-CT–Guided Surveillance of Head and Neck Cancers

    Cancer.gov

    Patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who underwent PET-CT–guided surveillance had fewer operations but similar overall survival rates to those of patients who underwent planned neck dissection.

  19. Cancer of the head and neck region in solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rabinovics, Naomi; Mizrachi, Aviram; Hadar, Tuvia; Ad-El, Dean; Feinmesser, Raphael; Guttman, Dan; Shpitzer, Thomas; Bachar, Gideon

    2014-02-01

    Solid organ recipients are at an increased risk of developing various malignancies. We investigated the incidence, clinical features, and outcome of patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer after organ transplantation. A retrospective analysis was undertaken of patients who underwent solid organ transplantation (kidney, liver, lung, heart) treated at our institution from 1992 to 2010. Of 2817 organ recipients, 175 patients (6.1%) developed 391 head and neck malignancies. Cutaneous malignancies were the most common (93%): squamous cell carcinoma (SCC; 51%) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC; 42%). The average interval from transplantation to diagnosis of head and neck malignancy was 7.3 years, with liver recipients diagnosed earlier. Eighteen percent of patients presented with an aggressive pattern of head and neck cancer, including 24% of patients with cutaneous SCC. Organ transplantation recipients are at a higher risk to develop head and neck cancer with an aggressive behavior characterized by multiple recurrences and decreased survival. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Incidental thyroid lesions identified by ultrasound in patients with non-thyroidal head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Cheol; Yoon, Dae Young; Seo, Young Lan; Namkung, Sook; Hong, Myung Sun; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Chung, Eun-Jae; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Rho, Young-Soo

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the common head and neck malignancies and may be found incidentally with other head and neck cancers. To evaluate the prevalence and risk of malignancy in incidental thyroid lesions identified by ultrasound (US) in patients with head and neck cancer. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients with head and neck cancer other than of thyroid origin between January 2004 and December 2011. A total of 690 patients (537 men and 153 women; mean age, 58.9 ± 12.9 years) underwent US of the neck for the evaluation of cervical lymph node status (including thyroid gland). We evaluated the prevalence of patients with incidental thyroid lesions identified by US and the risk of malignancy in these patients. Of the 690 patients with head and neck cancer, 234 (33.9%) had incidental thyroid lesions on US. Based on US findings, 61 patients underwent fine-needle aspiration, with 39 eventually undergoing thyroidectomy. Among these thyroid lesions, 24 incidental thyroid lesions of 22 patients were histologically proven to be malignant (23 papillary and 1 follicular carcinomas). The risk of malignancy was 9.4% on a patient-by-patient basis. Screening of the thyroid gland should be included in the preoperative US examination for cervical lymph node metastases in patients with non-thyroidal head and neck cancer.

  1. Molecular Detection of Minimal Residual Cancer in Surgical Margins of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Graveland, A. Peggy; de Maaker, Michiel; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J. M.; de Bree, Remco; Eerenstein, Simone E. J.; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Leemans, C. René; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.

    2009-01-01

    A great disappointment in head and neck cancer surgery is that 10–30% of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients develop local recurrences despite histopathologically tumor-free surgical margins. These recurrences result from either minimal residual cancer (MRC) or preneoplastic lesions that remain behind after tumor resection. Distinguishing MRC from preneoplasic lesions is important to tailor postoperative radiotherapy more adequately. Here we investigated the suitability of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using human Ly-6D (hLy-6D) transcripts as molecular marker to detect MRC in surgical margins. Submucosal samples of deep surgical margins were collected from 18 non-cancer control patients and 67 HNSCC patients of whom eight had tumor-positive surgical margins. The samples were analyzed with hLy-6D qRT-PCR, and the data were analyzed in relation to the clinicohistological parameters. A significant difference was shown between the group of patients with histopathological tumor-positive surgical margins and the non-cancer control group (p < 0.001), and the group of patients with histopathological tumor-free surgical margins (p = 0.001). This study shows a novel approach for molecular analysis of deep surgical margins in head and neck cancer surgery. The preliminary data of this approach for detection of MRC in deep margins of HNSCC patients are promising. PMID:19633367

  2. HIGHER INCIDENCE OF HEAD AND NECK CANCERS AMONG VIETNAMESE AMERICAN MEN IN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Filion, Edith J.; McClure, Laura A.; Huang, Derek; Seng, Kosal; Kaplan, Michael J.; Colevas, Alexander Dimitrios; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Chang, Ellen T.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2015-01-01

    Background Our aim was to determine the incidence rates of head and neck cancer in Vietnamese Californians compared with other Asian and non-Asian Californians. Methods Age-adjusted incidence rates of head and neck cancer between 1988 and 2004 were computed for Vietnamese Californians compared with other racial/ethnic groups by time period, ethnicity, neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES), and sex using data from the population-based California Cancer Registry (CCR). Data by smoking and alcohol status were tabulated from the California Health Interview Survey. Results Vietnamese men had a higher incidence rate of head and neck cancer than other Asian men. Specifically, the laryngeal cancer rate was significantly higher for Vietnamese men (6.5/100,000; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.0–8.2) than all other Asian men (range, 2.6–3.8/100,000), except Korean men (5.1/100,000; 95% CI, 3.9–6.4). Both Vietnamese and Korean men had the highest percentage of current smokers. Neighborhood SES was inversely related to head and neck cancer rates among Vietnamese men and women. Conclusion The higher incidence rate of head and neck cancer in Vietnamese men may correspond to the higher smoking prevalence in this group. Individual-level data are needed to establish the link of tobacco, alcohol, and other risk factors with head and neck cancer in these patients. PMID:20091688

  3. Body mass index and risk of head and neck cancer by race: the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Study.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jessica L; Gaudet, Mia M; Weissler, Mark C; Funkhouser, William K; Olshan, Andrew F

    2014-02-01

    Most studies, primarily conducted in populations of European ancestry, reported increased risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) associated with leanness (body mass index [BMI] <18.5 kg/m(2)) and decreased for overweight or obesity (25.0 to <30.0 and >30 kg/m(2), respectively), compared with normal weight (18.5 to <25.0 kg/m(2)). The Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Study is a population-based, racially diverse case-control study of 1289 incident HNC cases (330 African Americans) and 1361 controls (261 African Americans). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for associations between BMI 1 year prediagnosis and HNC risk stratified by race and adjusted for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, and education. Multiplicative interaction between BMI and race was evident (Pint = .00007). Compared with normal weight, ORs for leanness were increased for African Americans (OR, 3.91; 95% CI, 0.72-21.17) and whites (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 0.60-3.65). For overweight and obesity, ORs were decreased in African Americans (OR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.32-0.83 and OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28-0.79, respectively) but in not whites. The increased risk associated with leanness was greater for smokers than nonsmokers (Pint = .02). These data, which require replication, suggest that leanness is associated with increased HNC risk among African Americans to a greater extent than whites and overweight and obesity is associated with decreased HNC risk only among African Americans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Home range characteristics and overwintering ecology of the stripe-necked musk turtle (Sternotherus minor peltifer) in middle Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Scott, A. Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the movement behavior of the stripe-necked musk turtle, Sternotherus minor peltifer. Using radiotelemetry, we calculated mean (± SD) home range length, which was 341.4 ± 90.3 m, with home range length not differing between the sexes (males, 335 ± 194 m; females, 346 ± 79.5 m). Sternotherus m. peltifer were active in every month of the year but decreased their movement distance and frequency between December and March; during nonwinter and winter periods, individuals used limestone bluffs most often.

  5. Human papillomavirus induced transformation in cervical and head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Adams, Allie K; Wise-Draper, Trisha M; Wells, Susanne I

    2014-09-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed.

  6. Human Papillomavirus Induced Transformation in Cervical and Head and Neck Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Allie K.; Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most widely publicized and researched pathogenic DNA viruses. For decades, HPV research has focused on transforming viral activities in cervical cancer. During the past 15 years, however, HPV has also emerged as a major etiological agent in cancers of the head and neck, in particular squamous cell carcinoma. Even with significant strides achieved towards the screening and treatment of cervical cancer, and preventive vaccines, cervical cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-associated deaths for women in developing countries. Furthermore, routine screens are not available for those at risk of head and neck cancer. The current expectation is that HPV vaccination will prevent not only cervical, but also head and neck cancers. In order to determine if previous cervical cancer models for HPV infection and transformation are directly applicable to head and neck cancer, clinical and molecular disease aspects must be carefully compared. In this review, we briefly discuss the cervical and head and neck cancer literature to highlight clinical and genomic commonalities. Differences in prognosis, staging and treatment, as well as comparisons of mutational profiles, viral integration patterns, and alterations in gene expression will be addressed. PMID:25226287

  7. Nutritional consequences of the radiotherapy of head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chencharick, J.D.; Mossman, K.L.

    1983-03-01

    Nutrition-related complications of radiotherapy were evaluated in 74 head and neck cancer patients. Subjective changes of mouth dryness, taste, dysphagia, appetite, and food preferences were determined by questionnaire before and at weekly intervals during curative radiotherapy. Changes in body weight during therapy were also recorded. In addition, 24-hour dietary histories were taken from eight patients at the beginning and end of treatment. Results of the study indicate that patients were subjectively aware of nutritional problems prior to therapy and that therapy exacerbated these problems. As many as 25% of the patients experienced oral complications such as taste loss and/or dry mouth prior to initiation of radiotherapy. By the end of radiotherapy, over 80% of the patients were aware of oral and nutritional problems. Patients had an average weight loss of 5 kg prior to therapy; this loss of weight did not change during therapy. Diet histories of eight patients indicate significant caloric deficiencies early and late in radiotherapy. The oral and nutritional problems experienced by patients, even prior to therapy, support the idea that nutritional evaluation and maintenance are important not only during therapy, but prior to radiotherapy as well. Nutritional evaluation should be made a routine, integral part of therapy for every cancer patient.

  8. Analysis of 473 US Head and Neck Cancer Trials (1996-2014): Trends, Gaps, and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Anand; Murchison, Charles

    2016-02-01

    To report on types of investigations being conducted in US clinical trials, the types of therapeutic investigations that predominate, and the publication rates. Retrospective analysis. US head and neck cancer clinical trials. We used the information available on ClinicalTrials.gov to identify trends in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma clinical trials to characterize the types of trials and treatments being investigated. The publication rate for these trials was also examined with PubMed.gov. Of the 473 trials analyzed, similar drug regimens have been used repeatedly in head and neck cancer clinical trials. Drug studies are highly represented, composing 62% of all trials. The most common drugs studied were cisplatin, cetuximab, and docetaxel. Among all head and neck cancer clinical trials, 33% included radiation therapy in their treatment, while 10% included a surgical component. Forty-nine percent of trials had their results published in a medical journal, and 70% of the publications reported positive results. Head and neck cancer trials are heavily weighted toward drug trials and demonstrate redundancy. Other therapies are underrepresented, especially surgery. There is a gap between the trials conducted and the rate of reporting, with an emphasis on positive results. Better balance in studying treatment modalities, less redundancy in clinical trials, and reporting all results have potential benefits for head and neck cancer and the public good. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  9. Metal concentrations in hair of patients with various head and neck cancers as a diagnostic aid.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Anna; Napierala, Marta; Golasik, Magdalena; Herman, Małgorzata; Walas, Stanisław; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Szyfter, Witold; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Golusinski, Wojciech; Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Florek, Ewa

    2016-02-01

    Head and neck cancers are one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. This paper attempts to evaluate disturbances of homeostasis of the necessary elements (calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese) and changes in the levels of toxic metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium VI) in hair of patients with head and neck cancers, as well as people without a diagnosed neoplastic disease. In order to quantify the necessary elements and toxic metals, a method using ICP-MS and ICP-OES techniques had been developed and validated. The studies have shown that patients with head and neck cancer used to drink alcohol and smoked much more frequently than healthy individuals, both in the past and presently. Statistically significant differences in concentrations of average metal content in the group of patients with head and neck cancers compared to the control group were confirmed. Significant differences in metal content between the group of patients with head and neck cancers and healthy individuals were found which enabled distinguishing between the study groups. To this end, a more advanced statistical tool, i.e. chemometrics, was used. The conducted research analyses and the use of advanced statistical techniques confirm the benefits of using alternative material to distinguish the patients with head and neck cancers from the healthy individuals.

  10. Breast cancer metastases to the head and neck: Case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Jeremiah C; Mildenhall, Nicholas R; Wein, Richard O; O'Leary, Miriam A

    2017-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Despite the relatively high prevalence of this disease, breast cancer manifestations in the head and neck are relatively rare. Supraclavicular lymphadenopathy and bony metastases to the mandible and maxilla are the most common manifestation of breast cancer in the head and neck. Head and neck metastases are the first presentation of distant disease in approximately one-third of cases. The prognosis of breast cancer with distant metastases to the head and neck is generally poor, and the management of these lesions is controversial. Overall extent of disease and individual patient prognosis must guide treatment decisions. Atypical cases including maxillary sinus mass, jugular foramen mass, and dermal metastases are presented. Metastatic breast cancer is a rare diagnosis in the head and neck, yet metastatic disease from an infraclavicular primary deserves inclusion on any comprehensive differential diagnosis list. In women, breast carcinoma is the most common infraclavicular primary to metastasize to the head and neck.

  11. Is elective neck dissection in T1-2, N0 patients with lower lip cancer necessary?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sarper; Ercocen, Ali Riza

    2009-04-01

    The significance of elective neck dissection in the early stages of lower lip cancer is generally underestimated. In the classic textbooks of plastic surgery it has been generally accepted that lymphatic spread to neck is negligible and therefore it is not imperative to perform any kind of neck dissection. However, in some recent studies high rates of clinically positive neck that were initially negative began to appear in the literature especially in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck journals. Our clinical series consisted of 21 lower lip cancer cases with T1-2, N0 tumors; the rate of lymphatic spread to neck was found to be 19%. Because of this high rate, we conclude that it is not sound to discard the importance of neck dissection even in the early stages of lower lip cancers. At least, a suprahyoid neck dissection should be performed in all patients with lower lip cancer.

  12. Multidisciplinary management of head and neck cancer: First expert consensus using Delphi methodology from the Spanish Society for Head and Neck Cancer (part 2).

    PubMed

    Rueda, A; Giralt, J; Mañós, M; Lozano, A; Sistiaga, A; García-Miragall, E; Cacicedo, J; Esteban, F; Scola, B; Contreras, J; Ruiz, A; Carral, A; Sanchez-Aniceto, G; Pastor, M; Herranz, J J; Bernal, M; Mesía, R

    2017-07-01

    Head and neck cancer is one of the most frequent malignances worldwide. Despite the site-specific multimodality therapy, up to half of the patients will develop recurrence. Treatment selection based on a multidisciplinary tumor board represents the cornerstone of head and neck cancer, as it is essential for achieving the best results, not only in terms of outcome, but also in terms of organ-function preservation and quality of life. Evidence-based international and national clinical practice guidelines for head and neck cancer not always provide answers in terms of decision-making that specialists have to deal with in their daily practice. This is the first Expert Consensus on the Multidisciplinary Approach for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) elaborated by the Spanish Society for Head and Neck Cancer and based on a Delphi methodology. It offers a number of specific recommendations based on the available evidence and the expertise of our specialists to facilitate decision-making of all health-care specialists involved. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Multidisciplinary management of head and neck cancer: First expert consensus using Delphi methodology from the Spanish Society for Head and Neck Cancer (part 1).

    PubMed

    Mañós, M; Giralt, J; Rueda, A; Cabrera, J; Martinez-Trufero, J; Marruecos, J; Lopez-Pousa, A; Rodrigo, J P; Castelo, B; Martínez-Galán, J; Arias, F; Chaves, M; Herranz, J J; Arrazubi, V; Baste, N; Castro, A; Mesía, R

    2017-07-01

    Head and neck cancer is one of the most frequent malignances worldwide. Despite the site-specific multimodality therapy, up to half of the patients will develop recurrence. Treatment selection based on a multidisciplinary tumor board represents the cornerstone of head and neck cancer, as it is essential for achieving the best results, not only in terms of outcome, but also in terms of organ-function preservation and quality of life. Evidence-based international and national clinical practice guidelines for head and neck cancer not always provide answers in terms of decision-making that specialists must deal with in their daily practice. This is the first Expert Consensus on the Multidisciplinary Approach for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) elaborated by the Spanish Society for Head and Neck Cancer and based on a Delphi methodology. It offers several specific recommendations based on the available evidence and the expertise of our specialists to facilitate decision-making of all health-care specialists involved. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Nodal recurrence of sinonasal cancer: does the risk of cervical relapse justify a prophylactic neck treatment?

    PubMed

    Mirghani, Haïtham; Hartl, Dana; Mortuaire, Geoffrey; Armas, Gian Luca; Aupérin, Anne; Chevalier, Dominique; Lefebvre, Jean Louis

    2013-04-01

    Sinonasal cancers are rare and no high-level evidence exists to determine their optimal management. Prophylactic neck treatment issue remains controversial. The aim of this study was to analyze the pattern of neck failure and to identify any prognostic factors that may influence neck control. A retrospective review of 155 consecutive patients treated for sinonasal malignancy, without prophylactic neck treatment, between 1995 and 2005 at tertiary cancer center was performed. Demographic, clinical, morphological and pathological parameters were correlated with oncologic outcomes. Eight out of 155 patients (5%) presented initially with neck node metastasis. Complete remission was obtained for 133 patients after treatment completion. During follow up, 16 out of 133 patients (12%) were affected with regional recurrence. Neck failure occurred in 8 out of 51 patients with local failure and in 8 out of 82 patients locally controlled. Isolated nodal failure was observed in 5 patients initially cN0 out of 133 (3.8%) representing 7.3% of all recurrences and 3 of them underwent successful salvage therapy. None of the tested factors were significantly associated with neck control (p>0.05). Lymph node at diagnosis time was significantly and independently associated with poor survival (p=0.0012). Isolated neck relapse, when local control is achieved, is rare and salvage treatment is effective. Routine prophylactic neck treatment has little interest. However, this approach could be profitable to few selected patients, who remain to be defined. Further investigations are needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Informational Needs of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Papadakos, Janet; McQuestion, Maurene; Gokhale, Anandita; Damji, Ali; Trang, Aileen; Abdelmutti, Nazek; Ringash, Jolie

    2017-02-02

    The patient journey with head and neck cancer (HNC) is particularly challenging given the physical and functional impact of the cancer and treatment. The ability to perform activities of daily living can be severely compromised and have a profound impact on psychosocial well-being. These complex and long-lasting effects can affect patient quality of life for months to years and the literature shows that information for HNC patients is often insufficient. This observational cross-sectional study utilized survey methodology to investigate the informational needs of HNC patients and the preferred modalities for delivery. This was done to inform the development of resources for HNC patients. Four hundred fifty surveys were analyzed. The median age was 61 years and 58% of the cohort was born in Canada. Most were Caucasian (72%), Chinese being the next largest ethnicity (12%). A third had less than high school education and most had cancer of the oral cavity (28%) and were in long-term follow-up (41%). Comparison of the percentage of items to which a patient responded "very important" across the six domains shows variation of importance by domain (overall mixed effects regression model p < 0.0001). Additionally, each domain was compared to the medical domain and all had significantly lower mean scores (all p < 0.0001) with the medical domain scoring highest (mean score 64.6). The top preferred education modalities were teaching with a healthcare professional and pamphlets. This study highlights the type of information that HNC patients want and the format they wish to receive it in. The design provides a comprehensive way to consult with patients toward building education that responds to their specific needs.

  16. Race and competing mortality in advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Zakeri, Kaveh; MacEwan, Iain; Vazirnia, Aria; Cohen, Ezra E W; Spiotto, Michael T; Haraf, Daniel J; Vokes, Everett E; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Mell, Loren K

    2014-01-01

    Black patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have poorer survival and disease control compared to non-black patients, but disparities in death from non-cancer causes (i.e., competing mortality) are less well-studied. We conducted an analysis of 538 patients (169 black, 369 non-black) with stage III-IV HNC treated on one of six multi-institutional protocols between 1993 and 2004 involving multi-agent chemoradiotherapy with or without surgery. Competing mortality was defined as death due to intercurrent comorbid disease, treatment-related morbidity, or unknown cause in the absence of disease recurrence, progression, or second malignancy. Cox proportional hazards and competing risks regression were used to estimate the effect of black race on competing mortality. Black race was associated with increased rates of comorbidity, smoking, heavy alcohol use, advanced tumor stage, and poorer performance status (p<.001 for all). Compared to non-black patients, black HNC patients had a higher 5 year cumulative incidence of disease progression (31.4%; 95% CI, 24.4-38.5% vs 23.4%; 95% CI, 19.1-28.1%) and competing mortality (28.1%; 95% CI, 21.2-35.3% vs 14.5%; 95% CI, 11.0-18.5%). When adjusting for age, male sex, body mass index, distance traveled, smoking and alcohol use, performance status, comorbidity, and tumor stage, the black race was associated with death from comorbid disease (Cox hazard ratio 2.13; 95% CI, 1.06-4.28, p=0.033). Black patients with advanced HNC are at increased risk of both disease progression and death from competing non-cancer mortality, particularly death from comorbid disease. Improved strategies to manage comorbid disease may increase the benefit of treatment intensification in black patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Histone modifications: Targeting head and neck cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Le, John M; Squarize, Cristiane H; Castilho, Rogerio M

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and is responsible for a quarter of a million deaths annually. The survival rate for HNSCC patients is poor, showing only minor improvement in the last three decades. Despite new surgical techniques and chemotherapy protocols, tumor resistance to chemotherapy remains a significant challenge for HNSCC patients. Numerous mechanisms underlie chemoresistance, including genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer cells that may be acquired during treatment and activation of mitogenic signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer-of activated B cell, that cause reduced apoptosis. In addition to dysfunctional molecular signaling, emerging evidence reveals involvement of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in tumor development and in tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. These observations have sparked interest in understanding the mechanisms involved in the control of CSC function and fate. Post-translational modifications of histones dynamically influence gene expression independent of alterations to the DNA sequence. Recent findings from our group have shown that pharmacological induction of post-translational modifications of tumor histones dynamically modulates CSC plasticity. These findings suggest that a better understanding of the biology of CSCs in response to epigenetic switches and pharmacological inhibitors of histone function may directly translate to the development of a mechanism-based strategy to disrupt CSCs. In this review, we present and discuss current knowledge on epigenetic modifications of HNSCC and CSC response to DNA methylation and histone modifications. In addition, we discuss chromatin modifications and their role in tumor resistance to therapy. PMID:25426249

  18. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in head and neck cancers in European populations: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abogunrin, Seye; Di Tanna, Gian Luca; Keeping, Sam; Carroll, Stuart; Iheanacho, Ike

    2014-12-17

    Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary for the development of cervical carcinoma. By contrast, the role of HPV in the pathogenesis of other malignancies, such as head and neck cancers, is less well characterised. This study aimed to address key information gaps by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of HPV infection in head and neck cancers, focusing on data for European populations. MEDLINE, Embase and grey literature sources were systematically searched for primary studies that were published in English between July 2002 and July 2012, and which reported on the prevalence of HPV infection in head and neck cancers in European populations. Studies on non-European populations, those not published in English, and those assessing patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus were excluded. Eligible studies were combined in a meta-analysis. In addition, the potential statistical association between the head and neck cancers and certain HPV types was investigated. Thirty-nine publications met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of HPV of any type in 3,649 patients with head and neck cancers was 40.0% (95% confidence interval, 34.6% to 45.5%), and was highest in tonsillar cancer (66.4%) and lowest in pharyngeal (15.3%) and tongue (25.7%) cancers. There were no statistically significant associations between the HPV types analysed and the geographical setting, type of sample analysed or type of primer used to analyse samples in head and neck cancers. The prevalence of HPV infection in European patients with head and neck cancers is high but varies between the different anatomical sites of these malignancies. There appears to be no association between HPV type and geographical setting, type of samples analysed or type of primer used to analyse samples in such cancers.

  19. Efficacy of Thickened Liquids for Eliminating Aspiration in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barbon, Carly E.A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To appraise the current videofluoroscopic evidence on the reduction of aspiration using thickened liquids in the head and neck cancer population. Data Sources Search terms relating to deglutition or dysphagia or swallow and neoplasms and oncology or head and neck cancer and viscosity or texture and apira or residu* were combined with honey or nectar, xerostomia, respiratory aspiration using Boolean operators. Review Methods A multi-engine literature search identified 337 non-duplicate articles of which 6 were judged to be relevant. These underwent detailed review for study quality and qualitative synthesis. Results The articles reviewed in detail predominantly described heterogeneous study samples with small sample sizes, making for difficult interpretation and generalization of results. Rates of aspiration were typically not reported by bolus consistency, despite the fact that a variety of stimulus consistencies was used during VFSS. Studies confirmed that aspiration is a major concern in the head and neck cancer population and reported a trend towards more frequent aspiration post-(chemo)radiotherapy. Conclusion Overall, the literature on thickened liquids as an intervention to eliminate aspiration in the head and neck cancer population is limited. Because aspiration is known to be prevalent in the head and neck cancer population and thickened liquids are known to eliminate aspiration in other populations, it is important to determine the effectiveness of thickened liquids for reducing aspiration in the head and neck cancer population. PMID:25358345

  20. Increased incidence of head and neck cancer in liver transplant recipients: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Yan, Lifeng; Xu, Cheng; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng; Jiang, Zhao-Yan

    2014-10-22

    It is unclear whether liver transplantation is associated with an increased incidence of post-transplant head and neck cancer. This comprehensive meta-analysis evaluated the association between liver transplantation and the risk of head and neck cancer using data from all available studies. PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched to identify all relevant publications up to March 2014. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of head and neck cancer in liver transplant recipients were calculated. Tests for heterogeneity, sensitivity, and publishing bias were also performed. Of the 964 identified articles, 10 were deemed eligible. These studies included data on 56,507 patients with a total follow-up of 129,448.9 patient-years. SIR for head and neck cancer was 3.836-fold higher (95% CI 2.754-4.918, P = 0.000) in liver transplant recipients than in the general population. No heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. Sensitivity analysis indicated that omission of any of the studies resulted in an SIR for head and neck cancer between 3.488 (95% CI: 2.379-4.598) and 4.306 (95% CI: 3.020-5.592). Liver transplant recipients are at higher risk of developing head and neck cancer than the general population.

  1. Impact of oral hygiene on head and neck cancer risk in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Daisuke; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Li, Qian; Chen, Yuji; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Lou, Pei-Jen; Zhu, Cairong; Pan, Jian; Shen, Hongbing; Ma, Hongxia; Cai, Lin; He, Baochang; Wang, Yu; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Ji, Qinghai; Zhou, Baosen; Wu, Wei; Ma, Jie; Boffetta, Paolo; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Dai, Min; Hashibe, Mia

    2017-09-27

    Although the impact of oral hygiene on head and neck cancer risk has been investigated, few studies have been conducted among the Asian population. We conducted a multicenter case-control study to investigate this potential association. We performed unconditional multiple logistic regression models adjusted by potential confounders. We observed an inverse association of frequency of dental visits with head and neck cancer risk, with an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.70 (95% CI 2.51-5.45) for never dental visits compared with ≥1 time/year (Ptrend < .001). We also observed a positive association between the number of missing teeth and head and neck cancer risk, with an adjusted OR for ≥5 missing teeth compared with <5 missing teeth of 1.49 (95% CI 1.08-2.04). Combining multiple oral hygiene indicators, poor oral hygiene scores increased head and neck cancer risk. Poor oral hygiene may increase head and neck cancer risk in the Chinese population. Therefore, improving oral hygiene may contribute to reducing the head and neck cancer risk in the Chinese population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Tip of the Iceberg: Clinical Implications of Genomic Sequencing Projects in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Birkeland, Andrew C.; Ludwig, Megan L.; Meraj, Taha S.; Brenner, J. Chad; Prince, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent genomic sequencing studies have provided valuable insight into genetic aberrations in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite these great advances, certain hurdles exist in translating genomic findings to clinical care. Further correlation of genetic findings to clinical outcomes, additional analyses of subgroups of head and neck cancers and follow-up investigation into genetic heterogeneity are needed. While the development of targeted therapy trials is of key importance, numerous challenges exist in establishing and optimizing such programs. This review discusses potential upcoming steps for further genetic evaluation of head and neck cancers and implementation of genetic findings into precision medicine trials. PMID:26506389

  3. Lymphoedema following treatment for head and neck cancer: impact on patients, and beliefs of health professionals.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, A C; Osmotherly, P G; Hoffman, G R; Chiarelli, P E

    2014-05-01

    Cervicofacial lymphoedema is a recognised side-effect that may result following treatment for head and neck cancer. This study aimed to investigate the perspectives of affected patients and the beliefs that treating health professionals hold about head and neck lymphoedema. Ten patients with head and neck lymphoedema and 10 health professionals experienced in the treatment of head and neck cancer patients agreed to participate in semi-structured face to face interviews. Interviews were recorded, audio files were transcribed and coded and then analysed for themes. Themes of experiences of patients with head and neck lymphoedema and the beliefs of health professionals largely overlapped. Given its visible deformity, the main effect of lymphoedema in head and neck cancer patients was on appearance. In some cases this lead to negative psychosocial sequelae such as reduced self-esteem, and poor socialisation. Clinicians need to be aware of those patients more likely to experience lymphoedema following treatment for head and neck cancer, and how they are affected. Understanding how patients with facial lymphoedema are affected psychologically and physically, and the importance of prompt referral for lymphoedema treatment, might ultimately improve outcomes and ensure optimal management.

  4. Enteral feeding in head and neck cancer patients at a UK cancer centre.

    PubMed

    Sheth, C H; Sharp, S; Walters, E R

    2013-10-01

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer have an increased risk of malnutrition, and may require enteral feeding via nasogastric or gastrostomy tube. The aim of this audit was to examine current enteral feeding practice, mortality, morbidity and 6-month outcome data of head and neck cancer patients receiving radical (chemo)radiotherapy at a regional cancer centre and to compare the results with a regional head and neck cancer gastrostomy audit. A 2-year audit was conducted (2006-2008). Inclusion criteria were all adult patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, receiving radical radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy treatment. The first-year data were collected retrospectively, and the second-year data were collected prospectively. Data were collected on all patients requiring enteral feeding with 6-month outcome data relating to route of nutrition. Approximately 14% (n = 32/223) of patients were admitted for nasogastric feeding as a result of inadequate oral alimentation. On admission, 94% were at risk of refeeding syndrome, taking a mean (SD) of 11 (4.9) days to reach full nutritional requirements. Mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 13 (5.1) days. No major complications from nasogastric tube insertion were found. The mean (SD) length of nasogastric feeding was 72 (20.1) days with 89.6% managing full nutritional requirements orally at 6 months. Patients requiring enteral feeding during treatment were fed via a nasogastric tube, rather than via a prophylactic gastrostomy tube. Compared with the regional gastrostomy audit results, our patients had a lower clinical risk/complication rate, with a greater proportion tolerating full oral intake at 6 months. Therefore, nasogastric feeding, rather than prophylactic gastrostomy tube feeding, could be a more appropriate method of enteral feeding in this patient group. © 2013 University Hospital Southampton Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics

  5. Cancer-related trauma, stigma and growth: the 'lived' experience of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Threader, J; McCormack, L

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is associated with multiple layers of distress including stigma. Stigma attraction or devalued social identity is twofold: (1) it is a cancer associated with lifestyle risk factors and (2) treatment often results in confronting facial disfigurement. Subjective interpretations from nine head and neck cancer patients were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. An overarching superordinate theme--Distress, Stigma and Psychological Growth--encompassed four subordinate themes. Two themes captured the expressed trauma and terror as a result of diagnosis and treatment, and two the redefining of self despite stigma through meaning making. Distress was interpreted as a catalyst for awakening new life interpretations and combined with social support to facilitate two distinct pathways of growth: (1) psychological growth without support; (2) psychological and relational growth with support. Previously unfelt empathetic understanding and altruism for others with cancer emerged from the impact of stigma on 'self'. Acceptance allowed a new sense of identity that recognised cancer-related traumatic distress as integral to growth for these participants. The present study offers a unique insight into cancer-related trauma and stigma and the potential to redefine a more accepting, empathic and altruistic 'self' for psychological growth. Implications are discussed.

  6. Optimizing Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination in Patients With Oropharyngeal Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Garand, Kendrea L. (Focht); McFarland, David

    2017-01-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) represents the highest functional morbidity in oropharyngeal (OP) head and neck (HNC) treated either with surgical approaches followed by radiation or with more recent organ preservation protocols, including combined chemotherapy and radiation. Despite the promising overall increasing survival rates, swallowing impairments remain chronic, are often resistant to traditional swallowing therapy, and have devastating consequences on health and well-being. The respiratory-swallow cross-system approach presented here extends beyond traditional swallowing interventions that commonly targets muscles and structures alone, and is instead, directed toward the re-establishment of optimal respiratory-swallowing coordination. Results from our work investigating a respiratory-swallow treatment (RST) paradigm is presented, including results from an RST clinical trial in HNC patients, primarily with OP cancers, with chronic and with intractable dysphagia post-cancer and post-traditional swallowing treatment. Future work will investigate the impact of RST on the degree and durability of clinical outcomes, including oral intake and quality of life, while also examining the potential added benefits of a home practice program that uses a commercially available and easy to use recording and analysis hardware and software. PMID:28884146

  7. Optimizing Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination in Patients With Oropharyngeal Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Garand, Kendrea L Focht; McFarland, David

    2017-07-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) represents the highest functional morbidity in oropharyngeal (OP) head and neck (HNC) treated either with surgical approaches followed by radiation or with more recent organ preservation protocols, including combined chemotherapy and radiation. Despite the promising overall increasing survival rates, swallowing impairments remain chronic, are often resistant to traditional swallowing therapy, and have devastating consequences on health and well-being. The respiratory-swallow cross-system approach presented here extends beyond traditional swallowing interventions that commonly targets muscles and structures alone, and is instead, directed toward the re-establishment of optimal respiratory-swallowing coordination. Results from our work investigating a respiratory-swallow treatment (RST) paradigm is presented, including results from an RST clinical trial in HNC patients, primarily with OP cancers, with chronic and with intractable dysphagia post-cancer and post-traditional swallowing treatment. Future work will investigate the impact of RST on the degree and durability of clinical outcomes, including oral intake and quality of life, while also examining the potential added benefits of a home practice program that uses a commercially available and easy to use recording and analysis hardware and software.

  8. Head and Neck Cancers in North-East Iran: A 25 year Survey

    PubMed Central

    Emadzadeh, Maryam; Shahidsales, Soodabeh; Mohammadian Bajgiran, Amirhossein; Salehi, Mahta; Massoudi, Toktam; Nikfarjam, Zahra; Salehi, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cancers are among the worst noncommunicable diseases around the world. Head and neck cancers are ranked as the fifth most common cancers worldwide. As there are different distributions of risk factors around the world, the incidence of these cancers varies from one place to another. Materials and Methods: We conducted a descriptive analytic cross-sectional study, based on census-based records from the private oncology clinic in Mashhad, Iran. Data from 1,075 patients with head and neck cancers were analyzed from 1986 to 2010. We categorized the duration of study into five periods: 1986–1990, 1991–1995, 1996–2000, 2001–2005, and 2006–2010. Head and neck cancers refers to cancers originating from seven sites in the head and neck including the nasal cavity, oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, salivary glands, paranasal sinuses, and thyroid. Results: Data of 1,075 patients were analyzed. 66.2% were male. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) age at the time of diagnosis was 55.37±15.55 years. The most frequent type of head and neck cancer was larynx cancer (36%), followed by pharynx (28.5%), oral (17.5%), thyroid (6.8%), sinus (6.4%), salivary gland (4.10%), and nasal cancer (0.70%). although larynx cancer was the most frequent cancer over the whole study duration, there was a significant (P=0.04) difference in the relative frequency of these cancers across the five time periods. There was a significant difference in mean age between cancer categories (P<0.001). The only cancer with a different mean age at different time periods was pharynx cancer (P=0.02). There was a significant difference between sex and cancer categories (P<0.001). Conclusion: Laryngeal cancer was the most common head and neck cancer over the whole duration of this study. The differences in the patterns of other head and neck cancers could be due to geographical differences and also different risk factors and lifestyles all over the world. Further investigations in these fields are

  9. Screening for oesophageal neoplasia in patients with head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scherübl, H; Lampe, B von; Faiss, S; Däubler, P; Bohlmann, P; Plath, T; Foss, H-D; Scherer, H; Strunz, A; Hoffmeister, B; Stein, H; Zeitz, M; Riecken, E-O

    2002-01-01

    Due to advanced disease at the time of diagnosis the prognosis of oesophageal cancer is generally poor. As mass screening for oesophageal cancer is neither feasible nor reasonable, high-risk groups should be identified and surveilled. The aim of this study was to define the risk of oesophageal cancer in patients with (previous) head and neck cancer. A total of 148 patients with (previous) head and neck cancer were prospectively screened for oesophageal cancer by video-oesophagoscopy and random oesophageal biopsies. Even in a macroscopically normal looking oesophagus, four biopsy specimens were taken every 3 cm throughout the entire length of the squamous oesophagus. Low- or high-grade squamous cell dysplasia was detected histologically in 10 of the 148 patients (6.8%). All but one dysplasias were diagnosed synchronously with the head and neck cancers. In addition, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 11 of the 148 patients (7.4%). Most invasive cancers (63.6%) occurred metachronously. The risk of squamous cell neoplasia of the oesophagus is high in patients with (previous) head and neck cancer. Surveillance is recommended in this high-risk group. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 239–243. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600018 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11870513

  10. Safety of drug treatments for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Galot, Rachel; Machiels, Jean-Pascal

    2016-11-01

    The treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and the neck depends on the disease's stage. In locally-advanced stage disease, multimodal treatment strategies, including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, give the best outcome in terms of overall survival. Those treatments are not without negligeable adverse events, which can lead to late debilitating toxicities. In recurrent/metastatic disease, not amenable to surgery or radiation therapy, palliative chemotherapy is the most appropriate treatment. Areas covered: This review aims to provide an overview of the safety of standard drug regimens used to treat SCCHN in daily practice, including platinum-based chemoradiation, induction chemotherapy, cetuximab and immunotherapy. The toxicities induced by single modality radiotherapy, or those resulting from surgery, are not part of the discussion. Expert opinion: Toxicities observed with multimodal treatment of SCCHN are the highest we can tolerate in terms of treatment-related mortality, morbidity and late consequences. Patients at high risk of developing such complications should be identified upfront for optimal prevention and management. There is a medical need to identify less toxic regimens without compromising the treatment efficacy, especially for patients with Human Papilloma Virus-induced oropharyngeal cancers. Finally, it is crucial in future trials to better standardize the scales used to report treatment related adverse events.

  11. Increase in head and neck cancer in younger patients due to human papillomavirus (HPV).

    PubMed

    Young, David; Xiao, Christopher C; Murphy, Benjamin; Moore, Michael; Fakhry, Carole; Day, Terry A

    2015-08-01

    The face of head and neck cancer has changed dramatically over the past 30 years. There has been a steady decline in the number of tobacco and alcohol related squamous cell carcinomas over the past 30 years, but and increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) related cancers. Some estimates suggest that 70-90% of new oropharyngeal cancers have evidence of HPV. These patients have different demographic patterns, in that they are more likely to be younger, white adults in their 40s and 50s who are never smokers or have reduced tobacco exposure. Studies have shown that a higher number of lifetime oral sex partners (>5) and a higher number of lifetime vaginal sex partners (>25) have been associated with increased risk of HPV positive head and neck cancer. People can also reduce their risk of HPV linked head and neck cancer by receiving the HPV vaccine series prior to becoming sexually active. Recent evidence suggests HPV related head and neck cancers present with different symptoms than those caused by tobacco. The most popular test for HPV status is the p16 immunohistochemical stain because it is cheap, simple, and studies have shown it to have comparable sensitivity and specificity to the previous standards. It is widely recommended that all cancers of the oropharynx be tested for the presence of HPV, and some recommend it for all head and neck cancers. Overall 2-year and 5-year survival for HPV positive head and neck cancer is significantly greater than for HPV negative cancers, likely due to HPV positive cancers being more responsive to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association Between Preoperative Nutritional Status and Postoperative Outcome in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Leung, John S L; Seto, Alfred; Li, George K H

    2017-04-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery often experience significant postoperative morbidities. Administering preoperative nutritional intervention may improve surgical outcomes, but there is currently a paucity of data reviewing the association between preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome. It is therefore of importance to investigate this association among head and neck cancer patients. To assess the association between preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome in head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery, a retrospective study of 70 head and neck cancer patients who were surgically treated between 2013 and 2014 in a tertiary referral head and neck surgery center in Hong Kong was conducted. Clinical data regarding preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome were retrieved from a computer record system. Logistic and linear regressions were used to analyze the appropriate parameters. A higher preoperative albumin level was associated with lower rates of postoperative complications and better wound healing (P < 0.05). In contrast, preoperative body mass index, hemoglobin level, and absolute lymphocyte count did not demonstrate significant associations with postoperative outcome. As high albumin levels are associated with better surgical outcome in head and neck cancer patients, preoperative intervention strategies that boost albumin levels could be considered for improving surgical outcome.

  13. Selective neck irradiation for supraglottic cancer: focus on Sublevel IIb omission.

    PubMed

    Kanayama, Naoyuki; Nishiyama, Kinji; Kawaguchi, Yoshifumi; Konishi, Koji; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Motoyuki; Yoshii, Tadashi; Fujii, Takashi; Yoshino, Kunitoshi; Teshima, Teruki

    2016-01-01

    To estimate selective neck irradiation omitting surgical Sublevel IIb. Bilateral necks of 47 patients (94 necks) were subjected to definitive radiotherapy for supraglottic cancer. Sixty-nine and 25 necks were clinically node negative (cN-) and clinically node positive (cN+), respectively. We subdivided Sublevel IIb by the international consensus guideline for radiotherapy into Sublevel IIb/a, directly posterior to the internal jugular vein, and Sublevel IIb/b, which was behind Sublevel IIb/a and coincided with surgical Sublevel IIb. Bilateral (Sub)levels IIa, III, IV and IIb/a were routinely irradiated, whereas Sublevel IIb/b was omitted from the elective clinical target volume in 73/94 treated necks (78%). Two patients presented with ipsilateral Sublevel IIb/a metastases. No Sublevel IIb/b metastasis was observed. Five patients experienced cervical lymph node recurrence; Sublevel IIb/a recurrence developed in two patients, whereas no Sublevel IIb/b recurrence occurred even in the cN- necks of cN+ patients or cN0 patients. The 5-year regional control rates were 91.5% for Sublevel IIb/b-omitted patients and 77.8% for Sublevel IIb/b treated patients. Selective neck irradiation omitting Sublevel IIb/b did not compromise regional control and could be indicated for cN- neck of supraglottic cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The financial impact of head and neck cancer caregiving: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Balfe, Myles; Butow, Phyllis; O'Sullivan, Eleanor; Gooberman-Hill, Rachael; Timmons, Aileen; Sharp, Linda

    2016-12-01

    There is a lack of research on the financial impacts that head and neck cancer has on caregivers. To explore the overall financial impact of head and neck cancer on caregivers; to describe the factors that mitigate this impact. Interviews with 31 caregivers (mean time caring: 5.7 years). Head and neck cancer had a considerable financial impact on caregivers. It resulted in out of pocket costs and caregivers and/or their relative/friend with cancer often became under- or un-employed. Caregivers with large debts or ongoing expenses appeared to be particularly vulnerable to cancer-related financial pressures. Finance related psychological stress was prevalent, although some caregivers hid their psychological difficulties from other people. Factors which help caregivers to mitigate financial distress included having private health insurance and being able to access to medical and/or social welfare benefits. Head and neck cancer can cause caregivers substantial financial and psychological distress. Distress may be mitigated by providing caregivers and their households with access to welfare benefits. Health professionals should be aware that head and neck cancer can have short and long-term financial consequences for caregivers and their families. Health professionals should refer patients and their caregivers to medical social workers who can help them with their financial issues. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. MicroRNAs Involvement in Radioresistance of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Parwez; Slavik, Marek; Slampa, Pavel; Smilek, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to the ionizing radiation is a current problem in the treatment and clinical management of various cancers including head and neck cancer. There are several biological and molecular mechanisms described to be responsible for resistance of the tumors to radiotherapy. Among them, the main mechanisms include alterations in intracellular pathways involved in DNA damage and repair, apoptosis, proliferation, and angiogenesis. It has been found that regulation of these complex processes is often controlled by microRNAs. MicroRNAs are short endogenous RNA molecules that posttranscriptionally modulate gene expression and their deregulated expression has been observed in many tumors including head and neck cancer. Specific expression patterns of microRNAs have also been shown to predict prognosis and therapeutic response in head and neck cancer. Therefore, microRNAs present promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets that might overcome resistance to radiation and improve prognosis of head and neck cancer patients. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the functional role of microRNAs in radioresistance of cancer with special focus on head and neck cancer. PMID:28325958

  16. Prevalence of secondary lymphedema in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Ridner, Sheila H; Dietrich, Mary S; Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A; Sinard, Robert J; Cmelak, Anthony J; Murphy, Barbara A

    2012-02-01

    Because surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy disrupt lymphatic structures, damage soft tissue leading to scar tissue formation and fibrosis, and further affect lymphatic function, patients with head and neck cancer may be at high risk for developing secondary lymphedema. Yet, no published data are available regarding the prevalence of secondary lymphedema after head and neck cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence of secondary lymphedema in patients with head and neck cancer. The study included 81 patients with head and neck cancer who were three months or more post-treatment. External lymphedema was staged using Foldi's lymphedema scale. Internal lymphedema was identified through a flexible fiber-optic endoscopic or mirror examination. Patterson's scale was used to grade degrees of internal lymphedema. Of the 81 patients, 75.3% (61 of 81) had some form of late-effect lymphedema. Of those, 9.8% (6 of 61) only had external, 39.4% (24 of 61) only had internal, and 50.8% (31 of 61) had both types. Lymphedema is a common late effect in patients with head and neck cancer, and it develops in multiple external and internal anatomical locations. During physical examination and endoscopic procedures, clinicians should assess patients with head and neck cancer for late-effect lymphedema. Referral for treatment should be considered when lymphedema is noted. Research is needed to examine risk factors of lymphedema in patients with head and neck cancer and its effects on patients' symptoms, function, and quality of life. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Socioeconomic disparities in head and neck cancer patients' access to cancer treatment centers.

    PubMed

    Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Auluck, Ajit; Lear, Scott A; Rosin, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Both socioeconomic status and travel time to cancer treatment have been associated with treatment choice and patient outcomes. An improved understanding of the relationship between these two dimensions of access may enable cancer control experts to better target patients with poor access, particularly in isolated suburban and rural communities. Using geographical information systems, head and neck cancer patients across British Columbia, Canada from 1981 to 2009, were mapped and their travel times to the nearest treatment center at their time of diagnosis were modelled. Patients' travel times were analysed by urban, suburban, and rural neighborhood types and an index of multiple socioeconomic deprivation was used to assess the role of socioeconomic status in patients' spatial access. Significant associations between socioeconomic deprivation and spatial access to treatment were identified, with the most deprived quintiles of patients experiencing nearly twice the travel time as the least deprived quintile. The sharpest disparities were observed among the most deprived patient populations in suburban and rural areas. However, the establishment of new treatment centers has decreased overall travel times by 28% in recent decades. Residence in a neighborhood with high socioeconomic deprivation is strongly associated with head and neck cancer patients' spatial access to cancer treatment centers. Patients residing in the most socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods consistently have longer travel times in urban, suburban, and rural communities in the study area.

  18. Capecitabine and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Head and Neck Cancer; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  19. General Information about Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lump or pain in the neck or throat. Check with your doctor if you have a lump or pain in your neck or throat that doesn't go away. These and other ... digestive tract (including the lips, mouth, tongue, nose, throat, vocal cords , and part of the esophagus), and ...

  20. Stages of Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lump or pain in the neck or throat. Check with your doctor if you have a lump or pain in your neck or throat that doesn't go away. These and other ... digestive tract (including the lips, mouth, tongue, nose, throat, vocal cords , and part of the esophagus), and ...

  1. Treatment Options for Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lump or pain in the neck or throat. Check with your doctor if you have a lump or pain in your neck or throat that doesn't go away. These and other ... digestive tract (including the lips, mouth, tongue, nose, throat, vocal cords , and part of the esophagus), and ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a lump or pain in the neck or throat. Check with your doctor if you have a lump or pain in your neck or throat that doesn't go away. These and other ... digestive tract (including the lips, mouth, tongue, nose, throat, vocal cords , and part of the esophagus), and ...

  3. [Current advances in diagnosis and surgical treatment of lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Teymoortash, A; Werner, J A

    2012-03-01

    Still today, the status of the cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for head and neck cancer. So the individual treatment concept of the lymphatic drainage depends on the treatment of the primary tumor as well as on the presence or absence of suspect lymph nodes in the imaging diagnosis. Neck dissection may have either a therapeutic objective or a diagnostic one. The selective neck dissection is currently the method of choice for the treatment of patients with advanced head and neck cancers and clinical N0 neck. For oncologic reasons, this procedure is generally recommended with acceptable functional and aesthetic results, especially under the aspect of the mentioned staging procedure. In this review article, current aspects on pre- and posttherapeutic staging of the cervical lymph nodes are described and the indication and the necessary extent of neck dissection for head and neck cancer is discussed. Additionally the critical question is discussed if the lymph node metastasis bears an intrinsic risk of metastatic development and thus its removal in a most possible early stage plays an important role. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Current advances in diagnosis and surgical treatment of lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Teymoortash, A.; Werner, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Still today, the status of the cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for head and neck cancer. So the individual treatment concept of the lymphatic drainage depends on the treatment of the primary tumor as well as on the presence or absence of suspect lymph nodes in the imaging diagnosis. Neck dissection may have either a therapeutic objective or a diagnostic one. The selective neck dissection is currently the method of choice for the treatment of patients with advanced head and neck cancers and clinical N0 neck. For oncologic reasons, this procedure is generally recommended with acceptable functional and aesthetic results, especially under the aspect of the mentioned staging procedure. In this review article, current aspects on pre- and posttherapeutic staging of the cervical lymph nodes are described and the indication and the necessary extent of neck dissection for head and neck cancer is discussed. Additionally the critical question is discussed if the lymph node metastasis bears an intrinsic risk of metastatic development and thus its removal in a most possible early stage plays an important role. PMID:23320056

  5. Efficacy of preoperative neck ultrasound in the detection of cervical lymph node metastasis from thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Harry S; Orloff, Lisa A

    2011-03-01

    This study was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of surgeon-performed preoperative neck ultrasound (US) in the detection of both central and lateral cervical lymph node metastases from thyroid cancer. Prospective cohort study. Data for all patients with thyroid cancers and follicular thyroid lesions who were evaluated by means of preoperative neck US were reviewed. The cervical lymph nodes were assessed for suspicion of metastasis based on US characteristics. The diagnostic accuracy of US was determined according to whether histologically confirmed cancer was present in surgical cervical lymph node specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of US in predicting papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) metastasis in the central neck were 30.0% and 86.8%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of US in predicting metastasis in the lateral neck were 93.8% and 80.0%, respectively. A subset of patients underwent US followed by revision neck dissection for PTC, and the sensitivity and specificity of US in predicting metastasis in the lateral neck were 100% and 100%, respectively. Preoperative neck US is a valuable tool in assessing patients with thyroid cancers. The highly sensitive and specific nature of US in predicting cervical lymph node metastasis in the lateral neck, especially in the setting of recurrent disease, can provide reliable information to assist in surgical management. Although US for central compartment lymphadenopathy in the presence of the thyroid gland is less sensitive and specific than US for the lateral neck, it still provides useful information that can be obtained at the same time the primary thyroid pathology is assessed. Copyright © 2010 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Aspiration pneumonia after concurrent chemoradiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Beibei; Boero, Isabel J.; Hwang, Lindsay; Le, Quynh-Thu; Moiseenko, Vitali; Sanghvi, Parag R.; Cohen, Ezra E. W.; Mell, Loren K.; Murphy, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Aspiration pneumonia represents an under-reported complication of chemoradiotherapy in head-and-neck cancer. This study evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and mortality of aspiration pneumonia in a large cohort of head-and-neck cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Methods Patients with head-and-neck cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 were identified from the SEER-Medicare database. Aspiration pneumonia was identified from Medicare billing claims. The cumulative incidence, risk factors, and survival after aspiration pneumonia were estimated and compared to a non-cancer population. Results Of 3,513 head-and-neck cancer patients, 801 patients developed aspiration pneumonia at a median time of 5 months after initiating treatment. The 1- and 5-year cumulative incidence of aspiration pneumonia was 15.8% and 23.8% for head-and-neck cancer patients and 3.6% and 8.7% for non-cancer controls, respectively. Among cancer patients multivariate analysis identified independent risk factors (p<0.05) for aspiration pneumonia including hypopharyngeal and nasopharyngeal tumors, male gender, older age, increased comorbidity, no surgery prior to radiation, and care received at a teaching hospital. Among cancer patients who experienced aspiration pneumonia, 674 (84%) were hospitalized of which 301 (45%) were admitted to an intensive care unit. Thirty-day mortality after hospitalization for aspiration pneumonia was 32.5%. Aspiration pneumonia was associated with a 42% increased risk of death (HR=1.42, p<0.001) after controlling for confounders. Conclusions This study found that nearly one-quarter of elderly patients will develop aspiration pneumonia within 5 years of chemoradiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer. A better understanding of mitigating factors will help identify patients at risk for this potentially lethal complication. PMID:25537836

  7. Feasibility of using head and neck CT imaging to assess skeletal muscle mass in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Justin E; Pothen, Ajit J; Wegner, Inge; Smid, Ernst J; Swart, Karin M A; de Bree, Remco; Leenen, Loek P H; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-11-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have a higher risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which is associated with adverse clinical outcome. As abdominal CT-imaging is often used to detect sarcopenia, such scans are rarely available in HNC patients, possibly explaining why no studies investigate the effect of sarcopenia in this population. We correlated skeletal muscle mass assessed on head and neck CT-scans with abdominal CT-imaging. Head and neck, and abdominal CT-scans of trauma (n=51) and HNC-patients (n=52) were retrospectively analyzed. On the head and neck CT-scans, the paravertebral and sternocleidomastoid muscles were delineated. On the abdominal CT-scans, all muscles were delineated. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the muscles at the level of the C3 vertebra was compared to CSA at the L3 level using linear regression. A multivariate linear regression model was established. HNC-patients had significantly lower muscle CSA than trauma patients (37.9 vs. 45.1cm(2), p<0.001, corrected for sex and age). C3 muscle CSA strongly predicted L3 muscle CSA (r=0.785, p<0.001). This correlation was stronger in a multivariate model including sex, age and weight (r=0.891, p<0.001). Assessment of skeletal muscle mass on head and neck CT-scans is feasible and may be an alternative to abdominal CT-imaging. This method allows assessment of sarcopenia using routinely performed scans without additional imaging or additional patient burden. Identifying sarcopenic patients may help in treatment selection, or to select HNC patients for physiotherapeutic or nutritional interventions to improve their outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lenalidomide and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Colorectal Cancer or Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-04

    Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal

  9. Effect of metformin on the incidence of head and neck cancer in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yung-Chang; Lin, Charlene; Lin, Shih-Wei; Lin, Yung-Song; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of metformin on head and neck cancer in patients with diabetes. We compared 66,600 patients, all with diabetes and all newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer in 2002. Half were being treated with metformin for diabetes (Met(+) ) and half were not (Met(-) : controls). All were matched for comorbidities (obesity, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension), sex, and age. The risk of head and neck cancer at the end of 2011 was determined. The incidence of head and neck cancer was 34% lower in the Met(+) cohort than in the Met(-) cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.55-0.79). The risks for oropharyngeal cancer (adjusted HR = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.17-0.74) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC; adjusted HR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.31-0.80) were significantly lower in the Met(+) cohort than in the Met(-) cohort. Metformin is associated with a lower risk of developing head and neck cancer in patients with diabetes. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Untreated head and neck cancer in Korea: a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo Geun; Park, Bumjung; Ahn, Soon-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have analyzed the survival of patients with untreated head and neck cancer. The objective of this study is to assess the survival rates of untreated head and neck cancer patients and to determine why the patients were not treated. Using data from a national patient sample cohort (1,025,340 cases) from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, 605 patients with diagnoses of head and neck cancer (lip and oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and laryngeal cancer) between 2003 and 2013 were evaluated. Cox proportional hazards modeling and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Of the considered cases of head and neck cancer, 32.2% were untreated. The median survival rate of untreated groups was 9 months. The untreated group showed poorer survival than the treatment groups. Old age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.37, 95% confidence internal (CI) 1.25-1.49, P < 0.001] and low income (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-1.00, P = 0.028) were related to not receiving treatment. Many head and neck cancers go untreated. Clinicians should focus on untreated patients and seek to understand the reasons for their lack of treatment.

  11. Overview of the 8th Edition TNM Classification for Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shao Hui; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2017-07-01

    The main purpose of the TNM system is to provide an anatomic-based classification to adequately depict cancer prognosis. Accurate cancer staging is important for treatment selection and outcome prediction, research design, and cancer control activities. To maintain clinical relevance, periodical updates to TNM are necessary. The recently published 8th edition TNM classification institutes the following changes to the staging of head and neck (excluding thyroid cancer): new stage classifications [HPV-related oropharyngeal cancer (HPV+ OPC) and soft tissue sarcoma of the head and neck (HN-STS)] and modification of T and N categories [T and N categories for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), T categories for oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), N categories for non-viral related head and neck cancer and unknown primary (CUP), and T categories for head and neck cutaneous carcinoma]. These changes reflect better understanding tumor biology and clinical behavior (e.g., HPV+ OPC and HN-STS), improved outcomes associated with technical advances in diagnosis and treatment (e.g., NPC), evolving knowledge about additional prognostic factors and risk stratification from research and observation (e.g., inclusion of depth of invasion variable for OSCC, inclusion of extranodal extension variable for all non-viral head and neck cancer, and reintroduction of size criteria for non-Merkel cell cutaneous carcinoma of the head and neck). This review summarizes the changes and potential advantages and limitations/caveats associated with them. Further evidence is needed to evaluate whether these changes would result in improvement in TNM stage performance to better serve the needs for clinical care, research, and cancer control.

  12. Lessons learned from next-generation sequencing in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Loyo, Myriam; Li, Ryan J.; Bettegowda, Chetan; Pickering, Curtis R.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Agrawal, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    Scientific innovation has enabled whole exome capture and massively parallel sequencing of cancer genomes. In head and neck cancer, next-generation sequencing has granted us further understanding of the mutational spectrum of squamous cell carcinoma. As a result of these new technologies, frequently occurring mutations were identified in NOTCH1, a gene that had not previously been implicated in head and neck cancer. The current review describes the most common mutations in head and neck cancer: TP53, NOTCH1, HRAS, PIK3CA, and CDKN2A. Emphasis is placed on the involved cellular pathways, clinical correlations, and potential therapeutic interventions. Additionally, the implications of human papillomavirus on mutation patterns are discussed. PMID:22907887

  13. Local hyperthermia in head and neck cancer: mechanism, application and advance

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xiaohua; Tang, Yaling; Liang, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Local hyperthermia (HT), particularly in conjunction with surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy was useful for the treatment of human malignant tumors including head and neck cancer. However, at present it suffered from many limitations such as thermal dose control, target treatment regions and discrimination between healthy and cancer cells. Recent developments in nanotechnology have introduced novel and smart therapeutic nanomaterials to local HT of head and neck cancer that basically take advantage of various targeting approaches. The aim of this paper is to give a brief review of the mechanism, methods and clinical applications of local HT in head and neck cancer, mainly focusing on photothermal therapy (PTT) and nanoparticle-based hyperthermia. PMID:27384678

  14. Developing the social distress scale for head and neck cancer outpatients in Japan.

    PubMed

    Deno, Minako; Tashiro, Mie; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Asakage, Takahiro; Takahashi, Koji; Saito, Kenich; Busujima, Yasunobu; Mori, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Hiroto; Ichikawa, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    This study assessed the factor structure, internal consistency, and concurrent and discriminant validity of a scale used to measure social distress in Japanese head and neck cancer outpatients with facial disfigurement. The sample included 225 Japanese outpatients with head and neck cancer, including 129 patients with facial disfigurement. Participants' level of social distress was assessed through our scale, the European Organization for Research and Treatment Cancer questionnaire (EORTC) QLQ-H&N35 and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). Factor analyses confirmed the structure of two subscales of the social distress scale. Social distress was significantly correlated with the social contact subscale of the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and the HADS. Results demonstrated preliminary reliability and validity of the social distress scale. This scale may extend social adjustment research by revealing its determinants and effects for head and neck cancer with facial disfigurement in Japan.

  15. Factors associated with malnutrition in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yukinori; Yamamoto, Masashi; Nakahara, Susumu; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yasui, Toshimichi; Hanamoto, Atshushi; Takemoto, Norihiko; Fukusumi, Takahito; Michiba, Takahiro; Cho, Hironori; Inohara, Hidenori

    2014-10-01

    Comorbidities as well as T classification were the primary determinants for the nutritional status of patients with head and neck cancer. We aimed to elucidate the underlying conditions of malnutrition in patients with head and neck cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 726 patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between 2004 and 2013. Associations between malnutrition and clinical parameters were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Median body mass index was 21.5 (range 11.6-38.0). According to World Health Organization criteria, the nutritional status of these patients was classified into four groups: underweight (18%), normal (63%), overweight (17%), and obese (1%). Comorbidities were detected in 40% of patients. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors to be independent factors associated with malnutrition: advanced T stage, metachronous cancer, collagen disease, gastrointestinal disease, and pulmonary disease.

  16. Surgical Treatment for Pulmonary Metastasis of Head and Neck Cancer: Study of 58 Cases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuki; Iijima, Yoshihito; Kinoshita, Hiroyasu; Akiyama, Hirohiko; Beppu, Takeshi; Uramoto, Hidetaka; Hirata, Tomomi

    2017-08-20

    Although the number of surgeries performed for pulmonary metastasis of head and neck cancer has been increasing, there have been few reports of the surgical effectiveness. We collected the data of surgeries performed in our facility in order to discuss the surgical performance and indication. We retrospectively examined the prognosis and predictors for 58 patients with pulmonary metastasis of head and neck cancer who underwent a surgery in our facility during the 15-year period, from January 2000 to December 2015. The 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 54.2% and 35.7%, respectively, and the median survival time was 42.2 months. The disease-free interval (DFI) was less than 24 months and patients with oral cavity cancer were poor prognostic factors. The effectiveness of surgical treatment for pulmonary metastasis of head and neck cancer was suggested.

  17. Measured Adiposity in Relation to Head and Neck Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ward, Heather A; Wark, Petra A; Muller, David C; Steffen, Annika; Johansson, Mattias; Norat, Teresa; Gunter, Marc J; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Halkjær, Jytte; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mesrine, Sylvie; Brennan, Paul; Freisling, Heinz; Li, Kuanrong; Kaaks, Rudolf; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Panico, Salavatore; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Palli, Domenico; Peeters, Petra H M; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Agudo, Antonio; Quirós, Jose Ramón; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ardanaz, Eva; Huerta, José María; Sánchez, María-José; Laurell, Göran; Johansson, Ingegerd; Westin, Ulla; Wallström, Peter; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Pearson, Clare; Boeing, Heiner; Riboli, Elio

    2017-06-01

    Background: Emerging evidence from cohort studies indicates that adiposity is associated with greater incidence of head and neck cancer. However, most studies have used self-reported anthropometry which is prone to error.Methods: Among 363,094 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC) with measured anthropometry, there were 837 incident cases of head and neck cancer. Head and neck cancer risk was examined in relation to body mass index (BMI) [lean: <22.5 kg/m(2), normal weight (reference): 22.5-24.9 kg/m(2), overweight 25-29.9 kg/m(2), obese: ≥30 kg/m(2)], waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) using Cox proportional hazards models.Results: Among men, a BMI < 22.5 kg/m(2) was associated with higher head and neck cancer risk [HR 1.62; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23-2.12)]; BMI was not associated with head and neck cancer among women. WC and WHR were associated with greater risk of head and neck cancer among women (WC per 5 cm: HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.38-1.93). After stratification by smoking status, the association for WHR was present only among smokers (Pinteraction = 0.004). Among men, WC and WHR were associated with head and neck cancer only upon additional adjustment for BMI (WC per 5 cm: HR 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26; WHR per 0.1 unit: HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.21-1.65).Conclusions: Central adiposity, particularly among women, may have a stronger association with head and neck cancer risk than previously estimated.Impact: Strategies to reduce obesity may beneficially impact head and neck cancer incidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 895-904. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. The incidence of p53 mutations increases with progression of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Boyle, J O; Hakim, J; Koch, W; van der Riet, P; Hruban, R H; Roa, R A; Correo, R; Eby, Y J; Ruppert, J M; Sidransky, D

    1993-10-01

    To establish a genetic model of the progression of head and neck squamous carcinoma we have defined the incidence and timing of p53 mutations in this type of cancer. We sequenced the conserved regions of the p53 gene in 102 head and neck squamous carcinoma lesions. These included 65 primary invasive carcinomas and 37 noninvasive archival specimens consisting of 13 severe dysplasias and 24 carcinoma in situ lesions. The incidence of p53 mutations in noninvasive lesions was 19% (7/37) and increased to 43% (28/65) in invasive carcinomas. These data suggest that p53 mutations can precede invasion in primary head and neck cancer. Furthermore, the spectrum of codon hotspots is similar to that seen in squamous carcinoma of the lung and 64% of mutations are at G nucleotides, implicating carcinogens from tobacco smoke in the etiology of head and neck squamous carcinoma.

  19. Hyperfractionated stereotactic reirradiation for recurrent head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Cvek, Jakub; Knybel, Lukas; Skacelikova, Eva; Stransky, Jiri; Matousek, Petr; Zelenik, Karol; Res, Oldrich; Otahal, Bretislav; Molenda, Lukas; Feltl, David

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of hyperfractionated stereotactic reirradiation (re-RT) as a treatment for inoperable, recurrent, or second primary head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) that is not suitable for systemic treatment. Forty patients with recurrent or second primary HNSCC were included in this study. The patients had a median gross tumor volume of 76 ml (range 14-193 ml) and a previous radiotherapy dose greater than 60 Gy. Treatment was designed to cover 95 % of the planning target volume (PTV, defined as gross tumor volume [GTV] + 3 mm to account for microscopic spreading, with no additional set-up margin) with the prescribed dose (48 Gy in 16 fractions b.i.d.). Treatment was administered twice daily with a minimum 6 h gap. Uninvolved lymph nodes were not irradiated. Treatment was completed as planned for all patients (with median duration of 11 days, range 9-14 days). Acute toxicity was evaluated using the RTOG/EORTC scale. A 37 % incidence of grade 3 mucositis was observed, with recovery time of ≤ 4 weeks for all of these patients. Acute skin toxicity was never observed to be higher than grade 2. Late toxicity was also evaluated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale. Mandible radionecrosis was seen in 4 cases (10 %); however, neither carotid blowout syndrome nor other grade 4 late toxicity occurred. One-year overall survival (OS) and local progression-free survival (L-PFS) were found to be 33 and 44 %, respectively. Performance status and GTV proved to be significant prognostic factors regarding local control and survival. Hyperfractionated stereotactic re-RT is a reasonable treatment option for patients with recurrent/second primary HNSCC who were previously exposed to high-dose irradiation and who are not candidates for systemic treatment or hypofractionation.

  20. Nutritional considerations for head and neck cancer patients: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alshadwi, Ahmad; Nadershah, Mohammed; Carlson, Eric R; Young, Lorrie S; Burke, Peter A; Daley, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 35% to 60% of all patients with head and neck cancer are malnourished at the time of their diagnosis because of tumor burden and obstruction of intake or the anorexia and cachexia associated with their cancer. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary review of the nutritional aspects of care for patients with head and neck cancer. A literature search was performed in Medline, Cochrane, and other available databases from 1990 through 2012 for the clinical effectiveness of nutritional support, treatment modalities, and methods of delivery in relation to patients with head and neck malignancies. Human studies published in English and having nutritional status and head and neck cancer as a predictor variable were included. Randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, prospective clinical studies, and systemic reviews were selected based on their relevance to the abovementioned subtitles. The resultant articles were analyzed and summarized into the definition, impact, assessment, treatment, and modes of administration of nutrition on the outcome of patients with head and neck cancer. Articles were reviewed that focused on the etiology and assessment of malnutrition and current nutritional treatments for cancer-induced anorexia and cachexia. Two hundred forty-eight articles were found: 2 clinical trials, 10 meta-analyses, 210 review studies, and 26 systematic reviews. Because of the lack of prospective data, a summative review of the conclusions of the studies is presented. Nutritional interventions should be initiated before cancer treatment begins and these interventions need to be ongoing after completion of treatment to ensure optimal outcomes for patients. A nutritional assessment must be part of all comprehensive treatment plans for patients with head and neck cancer. Alternative medical interventions, such as immune-enhancing nutrients or anticytokine pharmaceutical agents, also may be effective as adjuvant therapies, but more

  1. Synthetic Terrein Inhibits Progression of Head and Neck Cancer by Suppressing Angiogenin Production.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Akane; Ibaragi, Soichiro; Mandai, Hiroki; Tsumura, Toki; Kishimoto, Koji; Okui, Tatsuo; Hassan, Nur Mohammad Monsur; Shimo, Tsuyoshi; Omori, Kazuhiro; Hu, Guo-Fu; Takashiba, Shogo; Suga, Seiji; Sasaki, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Head and neck cancers are the fifth most common cancer type worldwide, affecting more than half a million patients annually. Development of effective therapeutic drugs is, therefore, required for this type of disease. This study assessed the effects of synthetic terrein on head and neck cancer. Synthetic terrein was prepared by using the modified Altenhach's procedure. The effect of synthetic terrein on cell proliferation of head and neck cancer cells and HUVECs was assessed. Angiogenin secretion and ribosome biogenesis were examined by ELISA and silver staining of the nucleolar organizer region. A mouse xenograft model was prepared by inoculating mice with suspensions of cells of the human head and neck cancer cell line OSC-19 subcutaneously into the dorsal region of each mouse. Ki-67, CD31 and angiogenin expression in xenografted tumors was examined by immunohistochemistry. Synthetic terrein inhibited the growth of various head and neck cancer cells. In addition, an in vivo experiment revealed that synthetic terrein inhibited a xenograft tumor growth in athymic mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that expression of Ki-67, CD31 and ANG was down-regulated in synthetic terrein-treated tumors, compared to controls. Synthetic terrein suppressed the ANG secretion and ribosome biogenesis in cancer cells, and cell proliferation in vascular endothelial cells. The mechanism underlying the anti-tumor effects of synthetic terrein against head and neck cancer consists of the inhibition of both tumor cell proliferation and angiogenesis via the suppression of ANG production. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Elective neck irradiation in the treatment of cancer of the oral tongue

    SciTech Connect

    Leborgne, F.; Leborgne, J.H.; Barlocci, L.A.; Ortega, B.

    1987-08-01

    A total of 69 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue Stages T1-2-3 N0 were treated between 1952 and 1982 at one cancer center in Montevideo, Uruguay. Of 52 patients with the primary disease controlled, 2 had elective cervical lymph node dissection, and were therefore excluded from the study, 25 were treated with elective neck irradiation, and 25 were followed without irradiation to the neck. In the untreated group, 40% developed neck node metastases, while this was observed only in 20% of the group receiving elective neck irradiation, but only 4% recurred in the elective irradiated areas of the neck (p: 0.0028). The survival was the same for each group (5-year absolute survival with NED 67% for the neck irradiation group and 64% for the unirradiated group). From this retrospective study, we conclude that elective neck irradiation in carcinoma of the oral tongue decreases the incidence of neck metastases but an improvement in survival of these patients was not demonstrated.

  3. Reconstructive Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanasono, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    The field of head and neck surgery has gone through numerous changes in the past two decades. Microvascular free flap reconstructions largely replaced other techniques. More importantly, there has been a paradigm shift toward seeking not only to achieve reliable wound closure to protect vital structures, but also to reestablish normal function and appearance. The present paper will present an algorithmic approach to head and neck reconstruction of various subsites, using an evidence-based approach wherever possible. PMID:26556426

  4. Prevalence and nature of survivorship needs in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Meredith; McQuestion, Maurene; Jones, Jennifer; Papadakos, Janet; Le, Lisa W; Alkazaz, Nour; Cheng, Terry; Waldron, John; Catton, Pamela; Ringash, Jolie

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number, type, and predictors of patients with head and neck cancer unmet survivorship needs. This study accrued patients with head and neck cancer at any time point in their survivorship course, and they completed a survey, including demographic information and the Cancer Survivors' Unmet Needs Measure (CaSUN). The median age of the 158 participants was 64 years. Ninety-six patients (61%) reported at least one unmet need on the CaSUN and 6 patients had a very high number of needs between 31 and 35. The mean number of unmet needs was 5.8 ± 8.9. Comprehensive Cancer Care was the most common domain of unmet need (n = 69; 45%). Younger age, earlier survivorship phase, and worse quality of life were associated with increased survivorship unmet needs on multivariable analysis. A high proportion of patients with head and neck cancer have unmet needs. These data can guide the development of head and neck survivorship programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1097-1103, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Change in tongue pressure in patients with head and neck cancer after surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Sugahara, Kazuma; Fukuoka, Tatsuyuki; Saito, Shota; Sakuramoto, Ayumi; Horii, Nobuhide; Sano, Saori; Hasegawa, Kana; Nakao, Yuta; Nanto, Tomoki; Kadoi, Kanenori; Moridera, Kuniyasu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Domen, Kazuhisa; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-02-14

    Tongue pressure is reportedly associated with dysphagia. This study investigated relationships among characteristics of head and neck cancer, tongue pressure and dysphagia screening tests performed in patients with head and neck cancer during the acute phase after surgical resection. Fifty-seven patients (36 men, 21 women; age range 26-95 years) underwent surgical resection and dysphagia screening tests (Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test, Water Swallowing Test, Modified Water Swallowing Test and Food Test) and pre- and postoperative measurement of tongue pressure at 5 time points (preoperatively, and 1-2 weeks and 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively). Progression of cancer (stage), tracheotomy, surgical reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and neck dissection were factors associated with postoperative tongue pressure. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-effect model, Spearman correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Tongue pressure was significantly reduced 1-2 weeks after surgery, and recovered over time. Changes in tongue pressure were significantly associated with stage, radiotherapy and reconstruction. All screening tests showed a significant relationship with tongue pressure. Analysis of ROC and area under the effect curve suggested that a tongue pressure of 15 kPa can be used as a cut-off value to detect dysphagia after surgery for head and neck cancer. Our results suggest that tongue pressure evaluation might offer a safe, useful and objective tool to assess dysphagia immediately postoperatively in patients with head and neck cancer.

  6. Molecular targeted therapies in all histologies of head and neck cancers: an update.

    PubMed

    Razak, Albiruni R A; Siu, Lillian L; Le Tourneau, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    This article reviewed the recent developments in molecular targeted therapy in head and neck cancers. A brief summary of other pathways of interest is also enclosed. The use of cetuximab in squamous cell head and neck cancer is associated with clinical benefit and, in some cases, survival. However, the use of targeted agents beyond cetuximab in this disease remains investigational. Combination therapy of molecular targeted agents with chemoradiation in the locally advanced setting of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and nasopharyngeal cancer shows early promising results, but at the expense of increased toxicity. In malignant salivary gland tumors, the evaluation of targeted therapy has been disappointing. New therapeutic targets warrant further evaluation in these cancers. Despite the encouraging results achieved with antiepidermal growth factor receptor therapy, particularly with cetuximab, targeted therapy trials conducted in head and neck cancers to date have largely lacked efficacy or are associated with significant toxicity. Further research into modulation of other aberrant pathways is needed. The recent identification of improved prognosis among head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients whose tumors harbor the human papilloma virus may allow better treatment selection for these patients, while the identification of a hallmark gene fusion transcript in adenocystic carcinoma may herald new treatment promise.

  7. Do antibacterial-coated sutures reduce wound infection in head and neck cancer reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Chen, S Y; Chen, T M; Dai, N T; Fu, J P; Chang, S C; Deng, S C; Chen, S G

    2011-04-01

    Surgical wound infection is a common complication, which increases the hospital stay and costs after surgery for head and neck cancer. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Triclosan-coated sutures on surgical wounds and analyzed the risk factors for wound infections in head and neck cancer surgery. From January 2007 to December 2009, 253 consecutive patients underwent wide excision of a head or neck cancer and reconstructive procedures. All patient data were collected prospectively. Of these, 241 patients were included in this study, divided into two groups. The Triclosan group contained 112 patients, whose surgical wounds were closed with Triclosan-coated sutures (Vicryl Plus). The control group included the remaining 129 patients, whose surgical wounds were closed with conventional Vicryl sutures. We conducted a retrospective, multivariate analysis to determine independent risk factors for the cervical wound infection. The cervical wound infection rate was 14.9% (17/112) in the Triclosan group and 14.7% (19/129) in the control group, and these rates were not significantly different. Tumour stage and delayed intra-oral flap healing were independent risk factors for cervical wound infection. In this preliminary study, Triclosan-coated Vicryl sutures did not reduce the infection rate of cervical wounds after head or neck cancer surgery. The effectiveness of this suture material in head and neck cancer surgery should be considered with caution. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacological and Other Interventions for Head and Neck Cancer Pain: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Patrick B.; Norton, Lindsey A.; Loo, Ann S.; Munn, Jonathan I.; Voge, Elena; Ah-See, Kim W.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Pain is a common complication in head and neck cancer. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the evidence from randomised control trials investigating pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of pain management in head and neck cancer. Material and Methods Medline, Embase and the Cochrane library databases were searched. Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck excluding nasopharyngeal and salivary gland cancers were included. The limits were "human" and "randomised clinical trials". A quality assessment was carried out. Results 13 studies were included with a total of 644 participants. The primary outcome for most of these papers was pain control post-treatment. Levels of bias varied between the studies. Majority (12 out of the 13 studies) reported intervention to be superior to the control or standard therapy in pain management. Only 46% of the studies were carried out on an intention to treat basis. Two studies reported high dropout rates, with one at 66%. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence from randomised clinical trials to suggest an optimal pharmacological intervention for head and neck cancer pain post-treatment. Further high quality randomised clinical trials should be conducted to develop an optimal management strategy for head and neck cancer pain. PMID:24422019

  9. Assessment of nutritional status and quality of life in patients treated for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Prevost, V; Joubert, C; Heutte, N; Babin, E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients, to evaluate the impact of malnutrition on therapeutic management and quality of life and to propose a simple screening approach adapted to routine clinical practice. The authors conducted a review of the literature to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients published in French and English. Articles were obtained from the PubMed database and from the references of these articles and selected journals, using the keywords: "nutritional assessment", and "head and neck" and "cancer". Anthropometric indices, laboratory parameters, dietary intake assessment, clinical scores and nutritional risk scores used in patients with head and neck cancers are presented. The relevance of these tools in clinical practice and in research is discussed, together with the links between nutritional status and quality of life. This article is designed to help teams involved in the management of patients with head and neck cancer to choose the most appropriate tools for assessment of nutritional status according to their resources and their objectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Surgical errors and risks – the head and neck cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Harréus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck surgery is one of the basic principles of head and neck cancer therapy. Surgical errors and malpractice can have fatal consequences for the treated patients. It can lead to functional impairment and has impact in future chances for disease related survival. There are many risks for head and neck surgeons that can cause errors and malpractice. To avoid surgical mistakes, thorough preoperative management of patients is mandatory. As there are ensuring operability, cautious evaluation of preoperative diagnostics and operative planning. Moreover knowledge of anatomical structures of the head and neck, of the medical studies and data as well as qualification in modern surgical techniques and the surgeons ability for critical self assessment are basic and important prerequisites for head and neck surgeons in order to make out risks and to prevent from mistakes. Additionally it is important to have profound knowledge in nutrition management of cancer patients, wound healing and to realize and to be able to deal with complications, when they occur. Despite all precaution and surgical care, errors and mistakes cannot always be avoided. For that it is important to be able to deal with mistakes and to establish an appropriate and clear communication and management for such events. The manuscript comments on recognition and prevention of risks and mistakes in the preoperative, operative and postoperative phase of head and neck cancer surgery. PMID:24403972

  11. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients treated with neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Gane, Elise M; McPhail, Steven M; Hatton, Anna L; Panizza, Benedict J; O'Leary, Shaun P

    2017-09-22

    Patients with head and neck cancer can report reduced health-related quality of life several years after treatment. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for reduced quality of life in patients up to 5 years following neck dissection. This cross-sectional study was conducted at two hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Patients completed two measures of quality of life: the Neck Dissection Impairment Index (NDII), a region- and disease-specific tool, and the Assessment of Quality of Life-4 Domains, a general tool. Generalised linear modelling was used to determine which demographic and clinical variables were associated with quality of life. The cohort included n = 129 patients (71% male, median age 61, median 3 years since surgery). Positive nodal disease was associated with better quality of life on the NDII [e.g. N2 vs N0 coeff (95% CI) = 22.84 (7.33, 38.37)]. Worse quality of life was associated with adjuvant treatment [e.g. Independent Living domain model: surgery with chemoradiation vs surgery only coeff (95% CI) = -0.11 (-0.22, -0.01)]. Positive nodal disease was associated with better quality of life, which may be a reflection of response shift. Multimodality treatment leads to worse quality of life compared with surgery only.

  12. Positron emission tomography scan to determine the need for neck dissection after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer: timing is everything.

    PubMed

    Canning, Christopher A; Gubbels, Samuel; Chinn, Crispin; Wax, Mark; Holland, John M

    2005-12-01

    We present a case of a negative positron emission tomography (PET) scan in a patient with pathologic viable cancer at neck dissection. Case Report. A 69-year-old man presented with clinical stage T2N2c squamous cell cancer of the left tonsil and was treated with definitive chemoradiation. Left-sided adenopathy decreased but remained palpable after therapy. PET scan performed 23 days after completion of treatment showed no suspicious uptake in the left neck. Neck dissection performed at 2 months post-therapy revealed viable tumor in left cervical nodes. Persistent adenopathy after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer remains a clinical dilemma. A negative PET scan is accurate but only if the scan is performed 3 to 4 months after therapy.

  13. Technical guidelines for head and neck cancer IMRT on behalf of the Italian association of radiation oncology - head and neck working group.

    PubMed

    Merlotti, Anna; Alterio, Daniela; Vigna-Taglianti, Riccardo; Muraglia, Alessandro; Lastrucci, Luciana; Manzo, Roberto; Gambaro, Giuseppina; Caspiani, Orietta; Miccichè, Francesco; Deodato, Francesco; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Corvò, Renzo; Russi, Elvio G; Sanguineti, Giuseppe

    2014-12-29

    Performing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) on head and neck cancer patients (HNCPs) requires robust training and experience. Thus, in 2011, the Head and Neck Cancer Working Group (HNCWG) of the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology (AIRO) organized a study group with the aim to run a literature review to outline clinical practice recommendations, to suggest technical solutions and to advise target volumes and doses selection for head and neck cancer IMRT. The main purpose was therefore to standardize the technical approach of radiation oncologists in this context. The following paper describes the results of this working group. Volumes, techniques/strategies and dosage were summarized for each head-and-neck site and subsite according to international guidelines or after reaching a consensus in case of weak literature evidence.

  14. The psychosocial impact of stigma in people with head and neck or lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Sophie; Castonguay, Myriam; Mackness, Gudrun; Irish, Jonathan; Bezjak, Andrea; Devins, Gerald M

    2013-01-01

    Lung and head and neck cancers are widely believed to produce psychologically destructive stigma because they are linked to avoidable risk-producing behaviors and are highly visible, but little research has tested these ideas. We examined cancer-related stigma, its determinants, and its psychosocial impact in lung (n = 107) and head and neck cancer survivors (n = 99) ≤ 3 years post-diagnosis. We investigated cancer site, self-blame, disfigurement, and sex as determinants, benefit finding as a moderator, and illness intrusiveness as a mediator of the relation between stigma and its psychosocial impact. Prospective participants received questionnaire packages 2 weeks before scheduled follow-up appointments. They self-administered widely used measures of subjective well-being, distress, stigma, self-blame, disfigurement, illness intrusiveness, and post-traumatic growth. As hypothesized, stigma correlated significantly and uniquely with negative psychosocial impact, but contrary to common beliefs, reported stigma was comparatively low. Reported stigma was higher in (i) men than women, (ii) lung as compared with head and neck cancer, and (iii) people who were highly disfigured by cancer and/or its treatment. Benefit finding buffered stigma's deleterious effects, and illness intrusiveness was a partial mediator of its psychosocial impact. Stigma exerts a powerful, deleterious psychosocial impact in lung and head and neck cancers, but is less common than believed. Patients should be encouraged to remain involved in valued activities and roles and to use benefit finding to limit its negative effects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Dietary fiber intake and head and neck cancer risk: A pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium.

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Daisuke; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Turati, Federica; Parpinel, Maria; Decarli, Adriano; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Garavello, Werner; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Hashibe, Mia; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Edefonti, Valeria

    2017-11-01

    The possible role of dietary fiber in the etiology of head neck cancers (HNCs) is unclear. We used individual-level pooled data from ten case-control studies (5959 cases and 12,248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, to examine the association between fiber intake and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx. Odds Ratios (ORs) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression applied to quintile categories of non-alcohol energy-adjusted fiber intake and adjusted for tobacco and alcohol use and other known or putative confounders. Fiber intake was inversely associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer combined (OR for 5th vs. 1st quintile category = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.40-0.59; p for trend <0.001) and with laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.82, p for trend <0.001). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of the estimated effect across studies for oral and pharyngeal cancer combined. Nonetheless, inverse associations were consistently observed for the subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancers and within most strata of the considered covariates, for both cancer sites. Our findings from a multicenter large-scale pooled analysis suggest that, although in the presence of between-study heterogeneity, a greater intake of fiber may lower HNC risk. © 2017 UICC.

  16. Immunotherapy of head and neck cancer: Emerging clinical trials from a National Cancer Institute Head and Neck Cancer Steering Committee Planning Meeting.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Julie E; Cohen, Ezra; Ferris, Robert L; Adelstein, David J; Brizel, David M; Ridge, John A; O'Sullivan, Brian; Burtness, Barbara A; Butterfield, Lisa H; Carson, William E; Disis, Mary L; Fox, Bernard A; Gajewski, Thomas F; Gillison, Maura L; Hodge, James W; Le, Quynh-Thu; Raben, David; Strome, Scott E; Lynn, Jean; Malik, Shakun

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances have permitted successful therapeutic targeting of the immune system in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). These new immunotherapeutic targets and agents are being rapidly adopted by the oncologic community and hold considerable promise. The National Cancer Institute sponsored a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to address the issue of how to further investigate the use of immunotherapy in patients with HNSCC. The goals of the meeting were to consider phase 2 or 3 trial designs primarily in 3 different patient populations: those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-initiated oropharyngeal cancers; those with previously untreated, human papillomavirus-negative HNSCC; and those with recurrent/metastatic HNSCC. In addition, a separate committee was formed to develop integrative biomarkers for the clinical trials. The meeting started with an overview of key immune components and principles related to HNSCC, including immunosurveillance and immune escape. Four clinical trial concepts were developed at the meeting integrating different immunotherapies with existing standards of care. These designs were presented for implementation by the head and neck committees of the National Cancer Institute-funded National Clinical Trials Network. This article summarizes the proceedings of this Clinical Trials Planning Meeting, the purpose of which was to facilitate the rigorous development and design of randomized phase 2 and 3 immunotherapeutic trials in patients with HNSCC. Although reviews usually are published immediately after the meeting is held, this report is unique because there are now tangible clinical trial designs that have been funded and put into practice and the studies are being activated to accrual. Cancer 2017;123:1259-1271. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  17. Partner's survivorship care needs: An analysis in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Meredith; Milne, Robin; McQuestion, Maurene; Sampson, Lorna; Le, Lisa W; Jones, Jennifer; Cheng, Terry; Waldron, John; Ringash, Jolie

    2017-08-01

    To determine the number, type and predictors of unmet needs for head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors' partner's. Partners of HNC patients were invited to complete the Cancer Survivors' Partners Unmet Needs Survey (CaSPUN). Analysis determined number, proportion and factors associated with greater unmet needs using linear regression. Agreement between the unmet needs of patients and their partners was determined. Among the 44 partners participated 29 reported ≥1 unmet need and 4 had a very high number of needs (31-35). The most common unmet needs were related to concerns about cancer returning, coping with supporting someone with cancer, and the changes cancer has caused. The highest reported needs were in the Relationships domain. Increasing patient unmet needs was significantly associated with increasing partner unmet needs (p<0.01). A significant proportion of head and neck cancer partners experience unmet needs, which often differ from the patient's needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pretreatment body mass index and head and neck cancer outcome: A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hollander, Dide den; Kampman, Ellen; van Herpen, Carla M L

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity defined as BMI≥25kg/m(2) is increasing, also among head and neck cancer patients. It is unknown whether the presence of high BMI influences disease-related mortality, overall survival and recurrence in these patients. We reviewed available literature using Pubmed and Web of Science. Human observational studies were included if they reported the impact of high BMI on mortality, recurrence or survival for head and neck cancer. Eleven full articles and two abstracts met the inclusion criteria: six prospective and seven retrospective cohort studies, which comprised 8.306 patients. Patients with higher BMI had increased overall survival and decreased disease-related mortality and recurrence rate compared with underweight and normal weight patients. Most studies were adjusted for potentially confounding variables, such as stage of disease and smoking habits. High BMI is associated with a better outcome in head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Unilateral Cervical Polyneuropathies following Concurrent Bortezomib, Cetuximab, and Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Elghouche, Alhasan; Shokri, Tom; Qin, Yewen; Wargo, Susannah; Citrin, Deborah; Van Waes, Carter

    2016-01-01

    We report a constellation of cervical polyneuropathies in a patient treated with concurrent bortezomib, cetuximab, and cisplatin alongside intensity modulated radiotherapy for carcinoma of the tonsil with neck metastasis. The described deficits include brachial plexopathy, cervical sensory neuropathy, and oculosympathetic, recurrent laryngeal, and phrenic nerve palsies within the ipsilateral radiation field. Radiation neuropathy involving the brachial plexus is typically associated with treatment of breast or lung cancer; however, increased awareness of this entity in the context of investigational agents with potential neuropathic effects in head and neck cancer has recently emerged. With this report, we highlight radiation neuropathy in the setting of investigational therapy for head and neck cancer, particularly since these sequelae may present years after therapy and entail significant and often irreversible morbidity.

  20. Maintaining physical activity during head and neck cancer treatment: Results of a pilot controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang G.; Alexander, Neil B.; Djuric, Zora; Zhou, Jessica; Tao, Yebin; Schipper, Matthew; Feng, Felix Y.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Worden, Francis P.; Strath, Scott J.; Jolly, Shruti

    2017-01-01

    Background Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (concurrent CRT) to treat head and neck cancer is associated with significant reductions of weight, mobility, and quality of life (QOL). An intervention focusing on functional exercise may attenuate these losses. Methods We allocated patients to a 14-week functional resistance and walking program designed to maintain physical activity during cancer treatment (MPACT group; n = 11), or to usual care (control group; n = 9). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, and 7 and 14 weeks. Results Compared to controls, the MPACT participants had attenuated decline or improvement in several strength, mobility, physical activity, diet, and QOL endpoints. These trends were statistically significant (p < .05) in knee strength, mental health, head and neck QOL, and barriers to exercise. Conclusion In this pilot study of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent CRT, MPACT training was feasible and maintained or improved function and QOL, thereby providing the basis for larger future interventions with longer follow-up. PMID:26445898

  1. Unilateral Cervical Polyneuropathies following Concurrent Bortezomib, Cetuximab, and Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Elghouche, Alhasan; Shokri, Tom; Qin, Yewen; Wargo, Susannah; Citrin, Deborah; Van Waes, Carter

    2016-01-01

    We report a constellation of cervical polyneuropathies in a patient treated with concurrent bortezomib, cetuximab, and cisplatin alongside intensity modulated radiotherapy for carcinoma of the tonsil with neck metastasis. The described deficits include brachial plexopathy, cervical sensory neuropathy, and oculosympathetic, recurrent laryngeal, and phrenic nerve palsies within the ipsilateral radiation field. Radiation neuropathy involving the brachial plexus is typically associated with treatment of breast or lung cancer; however, increased awareness of this entity in the context of investigational agents with potential neuropathic effects in head and neck cancer has recently emerged. With this report, we highlight radiation neuropathy in the setting of investigational therapy for head and neck cancer, particularly since these sequelae may present years after therapy and entail significant and often irreversible morbidity. PMID:27088023

  2. Symptoms of patients with incurable head and neck cancer: prevalence and impact on daily functioning.

    PubMed

    Lokker, Martine E; Offerman, Marinella P J; van der Velden, Lilly-Ann; de Boer, Maarten F; Pruyn, Jean F A; Teunissen, Saskia C C M

    2013-06-01

    There is lack of research on symptoms in patients with head and neck cancer in the palliative phase. The aim of this study was to explore symptom prevalence and the impact of these symptoms on daily functioning in patients with incurable head and neck cancer. Also, discrepancies between patients and family caregivers are described. Questionnaires were used to collect data about symptom prevalence (n = 124) and symptom impact (n = 24). We discovered that the symptoms with a high prevalence were fatigue, pain, weakness, trouble with short walks outside, and dysphagia. The symptoms with the greatest impact on daily functioning were dyspnea, voice changes, trouble with short walks outside, anger, and weakness. Patients with incurable head and neck cancer experience a great number of different symptoms. Focus on these symptoms by health care professionals could further optimize symptom management. In future research, we recommend further validation of the used questionnaires. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Impact of targeting insulin-like growth factor signaling in head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Limesand, Kirsten H; Chibly, Alejandro Martinez; Fribley, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The IGF system has been shown to have either negative or negligible impact on clinical outcomes of tumor development depending on specific tumor sites or stages. This review focuses on the clinical impact of IGF signaling in head and neck cancer, the effects of IGF targeted therapies, and the multi-dimensional role of IRS 1/2 signaling as a potential mechanism in resistance to targeted therapies. Similar to other tumor sites, both negative and positive correlations between levels of IGF-1/IGF-1-R and clinical outcomes in head and neck cancer have been reported. In addition, utilization of IGF targeted therapies has not demonstrated significant clinical benefit; therefore the prognostic impact of the IGF system on head and neck cancer remains uncertain.

  4. Sepsis in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: Literature review and consensus.

    PubMed

    Mirabile, Aurora; Numico, Gianmauro; Russi, Elvio G; Bossi, Paolo; Crippa, Fulvio; Bacigalupo, Almalina; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Musso, Stefania; Merlotti, Anna; Ghi, Maria Grazia; Merlano, Marco C; Licitra, Lisa; Moretto, Francesco; Denaro, Nerina; Caspiani, Orietta; Buglione, Michela; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Cascio, Antonio; Bernier, Jacques; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Vermorken, Jan B; Murphy, Barbara; Ranieri, Marco V; Dellinger, R Phillip

    2015-08-01

    The reporting of infection/sepsis in chemo/radiation-treated head and neck cancer patients is sparse and the problem is underestimated. A multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists from Italy met with the aim of reaching a consensus on a clinical definition and management of infections and sepsis. The Delphi appropriateness method was used for this consensus. External expert reviewers then evaluated the conclusions carefully according to their area of expertise. The paper contains seven clusters of statements about the clinical definition and management of infections and sepsis in head and neck cancer patients, which had a consensus. Furthermore, it offers a review of recent literature in these topics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Pain in head and neck cancer: prevalence and possible predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Chiara; Maldotti, Francesco; Crema, Laura; Malagò, Mariasole; Ciorba, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the main aspects of pain and its prevalence among head and neck cancer patients, as well as to identify the presence of possible pain predictive factors. For an integrated presentation of this topic a Pubmed database systematic search for relevant published studies was performed. When considering the prevalence of pain in head and neck cancer patients the studies available in this field show great variations in relation to the number of patients included, surgical procedures performed, and established approaches to analgesia. Despite the recognized association between cancer and pain, insufficient attention is paid in the head and neck pain problem, and to date, only few studies in the literature address the diagnosis of head and neck pain or its management. Further efforts are necessary in order to understand the real dimension of this problem in head and neck cancer patients, and therefore to recognize pain predictive factors and/or pain genetic factors aiming (i) to identify those subjects most at risk for pain, and (ii) to tailor, in a near future, 'targeted' analgesic interventions.

  6. Cessation of alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking and the reversal of head and neck cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Marron, Manuela; Boffetta, Paolo; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zaridze, David; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Schwartz, Stephen M; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P; Olshan, Andrew F; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; Vecchia, Carlo La; Koifman, Sergio; Kelsey, Karl; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Maso, Luigino Dal; Curado, Maria Paula; Cadoni, Gabriella; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; Boccia, Stefania; Benhamou, Simone; Ferro, Gilles; Berthiller, Julien; Brennan, Paul; Møller, Henrik; Hashibe, Mia

    2010-01-01

    Background Quitting tobacco or alcohol use has been reported to reduce the head and neck cancer risk in previous studies. However, it is unclear how many years must pass following cessation of these habits before the risk is reduced, and whether the risk ultimately declines to the level of never smokers or never drinkers. Methods We pooled individual-level data from case–control studies in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. Data were available from 13 studies on drinking cessation (9167 cases and 12 593 controls), and from 17 studies on smoking cessation (12 040 cases and 16 884 controls). We estimated the effect of quitting smoking and drinking on the risk of head and neck cancer and its subsites, by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using logistic regression models. Results Quitting tobacco smoking for 1–4 years resulted in a head and neck cancer risk reduction [OR 0.70, confidence interval (CI) 0.61–0.81 compared with current smoking], with the risk reduction due to smoking cessation after ≥20 years (OR 0.23, CI 0.18–0.31), reaching the level of never smokers. For alcohol use, a beneficial effect on the risk of head and neck cancer was only observed after ≥20 years of quitting (OR 0.60, CI 0.40–0.89 compared with current drinking), reaching the level of never drinkers. Conclusions Our results support that cessation of tobacco smoking and cessation of alcohol drinking protect against the development of head and neck cancer. PMID:19805488

  7. Vitamin E intake from natural sources and head and neck cancer risk: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium

    PubMed Central

    Edefonti, V; Hashibe, M; Parpinel, M; Ferraroni, M; Turati, F; Serraino, D; Matsuo, K; Olshan, A F; Zevallos, J P; Winn, D M; Moysich, K; Zhang, Z-F; Morgenstern, H; Levi, F; Kelsey, K; McClean, M; Bosetti, C; Schantz, S; Yu, G-P; Boffetta, P; Chuang, S-C; A Lee, Y-C; La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence for the possible effect of vitamin E on head and neck cancers (HNCs) is limited. Methods: We used individual-level pooled data from 10 case–control studies (5959 cases and 12 248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium to assess the association between vitamin E intake from natural sources and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models applied to quintile categories of nonalcohol energy-adjusted vitamin E intake. Results: Intake of vitamin E was inversely related to oral/pharyngeal cancer (OR for the fifth vs the first quintile category=0.59, 95% CI: 0.49–0.71; P for trend <0.001) and to laryngeal cancer (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.54–0.83, P for trend <0.001). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of the estimated effect across studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer. Inverse associations were generally observed for the anatomical subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancer and within covariate strata for both sites. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that greater vitamin E intake from foods may lower HNC risk, although we were not able to explain the heterogeneity observed across studies or rule out certain sources of bias. PMID:25989276

  8. Vitamin E intake from natural sources and head and neck cancer risk: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium.

    PubMed

    Edefonti, V; Hashibe, M; Parpinel, M; Ferraroni, M; Turati, F; Serraino, D; Matsuo, K; Olshan, A F; Zevallos, J P; Winn, D M; Moysich, K; Zhang, Z-F; Morgenstern, H; Levi, F; Kelsey, K; McClean, M; Bosetti, C; Schantz, S; Yu, G-P; Boffetta, P; Chuang, S-C; A Lee, Y-C; La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A

    2015-06-30

    Evidence for the possible effect of vitamin E on head and neck cancers (HNCs) is limited. We used individual-level pooled data from 10 case-control studies (5959 cases and 12 248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium to assess the association between vitamin E intake from natural sources and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models applied to quintile categories of non-alcohol energy-adjusted vitamin E intake. Intake of vitamin E was inversely related to oral/pharyngeal cancer (OR for the fifth vs the first quintile category=0.59, 95% CI: 0.49-0.71; P for trend <0.001) and to laryngeal cancer (OR=0.67, 95% CI: 0.54-0.83, P for trend <0.001). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of the estimated effect across studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer. Inverse associations were generally observed for the anatomical subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancer and within covariate strata for both sites. Our findings suggest that greater vitamin E intake from foods may lower HNC risk, although we were not able to explain the heterogeneity observed across studies or rule out certain sources of bias.

  9. Characterization of HPV and host genome interactions in primary head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Parfenov, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Gehlenborg, Nils; Freeman, Samuel S; Danilova, Ludmila; Bristow, Christopher A; Lee, Semin; Hadjipanayis, Angela G; Ivanova, Elena V; Wilkerson, Matthew D; Protopopov, Alexei; Yang, Lixing; Seth, Sahil; Song, Xingzhi; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Jianhua; Pantazi, Angeliki; Santoso, Netty; Xu, Andrew W; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Wheeler, David A; Haddad, Robert I; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Issaeva, Natalia; Yarbrough, Wendell G; Hayes, D Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R; El-Naggar, Adel K; Meyerson, Matthew; Park, Peter J; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, J G; Hammerman, Peter S; Kucherlapati, Raju

    2014-10-28

    Previous studies have established that a subset of head and neck tumors contains human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences and that HPV-driven head and neck cancers display distinct biological and clinical features. HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. Many of these events involved genes with documented roles in cancer. Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis.

  10. Characterization of HPV and host genome interactions in primary head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parfenov, Michael; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Gehlenborg, Nils; Freeman, Samuel S.; Danilova, Ludmila; Bristow, Christopher A.; Lee, Semin; Hadjipanayis, Angela G.; Ivanova, Elena V.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Protopopov, Alexei; Yang, Lixing; Seth, Sahil; Song, Xingzhi; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Zhang, Jianhua; Pantazi, Angeliki; Santoso, Netty; Xu, Andrew W.; Mahadeshwar, Harshad; Wheeler, David A.; Haddad, Robert I.; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Issaeva, Natalia; Yarbrough, Wendell G.; Hayes, D. Neil; Grandis, Jennifer R.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Meyerson, Matthew; Park, Peter J.; Chin, Lynda; Seidman, J. G.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Birol, Inanc; Bowlby, Reanne; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Cheng, Dean; Chu, Andy; Dhalla, Noreen; Guin, Ranabir; Holt, Robert A.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Lee, Darlene; Li, Haiyan I.; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Wong, Tina; Protopopov, Alexei; Santoso, Netty; Lee, Semin; Parfenov, Michael; Zhang, Jianhua; Mahadeshwar, Harshad S.; Tang, Jiabin; Ren, Xiaojia; Seth, Sahil; Haseley, Psalm; Zeng, Dong; Yang, Lixing; Xu, Andrew W.; Song, Xingzhi; Pantazi, Angeliki; Bristow, Christopher; Hadjipanayis, Angela; Seidman, Jonathan; Chin, Lynda; Park, Peter J.; Kucherlapati, Raju; Akbani, Rehan; Casasent, Tod; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon; Motter, Thomas; Weinstein, John; Diao, Lixia; Wang, Jing; Fan, You Hong; Liu, Jinze; Wang, Kai; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buda, Elizabeth; Hayes, D. Neil; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kimes, Patrick K.; Marron, J.S.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Prins, Jan F.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Singh, Darshan; Soloway, Mathew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Walter, Vonn; Waring, Scot; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wu, Junyuan; Zhao, Ni; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Tward, Aaron D.; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Saksena, Gordon; Jung, Joonil; Ojesina, Akinyemi I.; Carter, Scott L.; Zack, Travis I.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Freeman, Samuel S.; Meyerson, Matthew; Cho, Juok; Chin, Lynda; Getz, Gad; Noble, Michael S.; DiCara, Daniel; Zhang, Hailei; Heiman, David I.; Gehlenborg, Nils; Voet, Doug; Lin, Pei; Frazer, Scott; Stojanov, Petar; Liu, Yingchun; Zou, Lihua; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Sougnez, Carrie; Lichtenstein, Lee; Cibulskis, Kristian; Lander, Eric; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Muzny, Donna; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Kovar, Christie; Reid, Jeff; Morton, Donna; Han, Yi; Hale, Walker; Chao, Hsu; Chang, Kyle; Drummond, Jennifer A.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Kakkar, Nipun; Wheeler, David; Xi, Liu; Ciriello, Giovanni; Ladanyi, Marc; Lee, William; Ramirez, Ricardo; Sander, Chris; Shen, Ronglai; Sinha, Rileen; Weinhold, Nils; Taylor, Barry S.; Aksoy, B. Arman; Dresdner, Gideon; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin; Jacobsen, Anders; Reva, Boris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Chan, Timothy; Morris, Luc; Stuart, Joshua; Benz, Stephen; Ng, Sam; Benz, Christopher; Yau, Christina; Baylin, Stephen B.; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Herman, James G.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Laird, Peter W.; Triche, Timothy; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Agrawal, Nishant; Bishop, Justin; Boutros, Paul C.; Bruce, Jeff P; Byers, Lauren Averett; Califano, Joseph; Carey, Thomas E.; Chen, Zhong; Cheng, Hui; Chiosea, Simion I.; Cohen, Ezra; Diergaarde, Brenda; Egloff, Ann Marie; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Ferris, Robert L.; Frederick, Mitchell J.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Guo, Yan; Haddad, Robert I.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Harris, Thomas; Hayes, D. Neil; Hui, Angela BY; Lee, J. Jack; Lippman, Scott M.; Liu, Fei-Fei; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Myers, Jeff; Ng, Patrick Kwok Shing; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Pickering, Curtis R.; Prystowsky, Michael; Romkes, Marjorie; Saleh, Anthony D.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Seethala, Raja; Seiwert, Tanguy Y.; Si, Han; Tward, Aaron D.; Van Waes, Carter; Waggott, Daryl M.; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Yarbrough, Wendell; Zhang, Jiexin; Zuo, Zhixiang; Burnett, Ken; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candance; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Yena, Peggy; Black, Aaron D.; Bowen, Jay; Frick, Jessica; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Harper, Hollie A.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Baboud, Julien; Jensen, Mark A.; Kahn, Ari B.; Pihl, Todd D.; Pot, David A.; Srinivasan, Deepak; Walton, Jessica S.; Wan, Yunhu; Burton, Robert; Davidsen, Tanja; Demchok, John A.; Eley, Greg; Ferguson, Martin L.; Shaw, Kenna R. Mills; Ozenberger, Bradley A.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean Claude; Saller, Charles; Tarvin, Katherine; Chen, Chu; Bollag, Roni; Weinberger, Paul; Golusiński, Wojciech; Golusiński, Paweł; Ibbs, Matthiew; Korski, Konstanty; Mackiewicz, Andrzej; Suchorska, Wiktoria; Szybiak, Bartosz; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Burnett, Ken; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Mallery, David; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Troy; Yena, Peggy; Beard, Christina; Mitchell, Colleen; Sandusky, George; Agrawal, Nishant; Ahn, Julie; Bishop, Justin; Califano, Joseph; Khan, Zubair; Bruce, Jeff P; Hui, Angela BY; Irish, Jonathan; Liu, Fei-Fei; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Waldron, John; Boutros, Paul C.; Waggott, Daryl M.; Myers, Jeff; Lippman, Scott M.; Egea, Sophie; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen; Herbert, Lynn; Bradford, Carol R.; Carey, Thomas E.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Haddad, Andrea S.; Jones, Tamara R.; Komarck, Christine M.; Malakh, Mayya; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Nguyen, Ariane; Peterson, Lisa A.; Prince, Mark E.; Rozek, Laura S.; Sartor, Maureen A.; Taylor, Evan G.; Walline, Heather M.; Wolf, Gregory T.; Boice, Lori; Chera, Bhishamjit S.; Funkhouser, William K.; Gulley, Margaret L.; Hackman, Trevor G.; Hayes, D. Neil; Hayward, Michele C.; Huang, Mei; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Salazar, Ashley H.; Shockley, William W.; Shores, Carol G.; Thorne, Leigh; Weissler, Mark C.; Wrenn, Sylvia; Zanation, Adam M.; Chiosea, Simion I.; Diergaarde, Brenda; Egloff, Ann Marie; Ferris, Robert L.; Romkes, Marjorie; Seethala, Raja; Brown, Brandee T.; Guo, Yan; Pham, Michelle; Yarbrough, Wendell G.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that a subset of head and neck tumors contains human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences and that HPV-driven head and neck cancers display distinct biological and clinical features. HPV is known to drive cancer by the actions of the E6 and E7 oncoproteins, but the molecular architecture of HPV infection and its interaction with the host genome in head and neck cancers have not been comprehensively described. We profiled a cohort of 279 head and neck cancers with next generation RNA and DNA sequencing and show that 35 (12.5%) tumors displayed evidence of high-risk HPV types 16, 33, or 35. Twenty-five cases had integration of the viral genome into one or more locations in the human genome with statistical enrichment for genic regions. Integrations had a marked impact on the human genome and were associated with alterations in DNA copy number, mRNA transcript abundance and splicing, and both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. Many of these events involved genes with documented roles in cancer. Cancers with integrated vs. nonintegrated HPV displayed different patterns of DNA methylation and both human and viral gene expressions. Together, these data provide insight into the mechanisms by which HPV interacts with the human genome beyond expression of viral oncoproteins and suggest that specific integration events are an integral component of viral oncogenesis. PMID:25313082

  11. Head and neck cancer due to heavy metal exposure via tobacco smoking and professional exposure: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Khlifi, Rim Hamza-Chaffai, Amel

    2010-10-15

    Chronic exposures to heavy metals via tobacco smoking and professional exposure may increase the risk of head and neck cancer, although the epidemiologic evidence is limited by problems of low study power and inadequate adjustment for tobacco and professional exposure use. Numerous scientific reviews have examined the association of various heavy metals exposure with respiratory cancer as well as other cancer types, but few have been published on head and neck cancer. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to review the head and neck tract cancer-related data on exposure to heavy metals via smoking and working exposure and to study the major mechanisms underlying some toxic metals carcinogenesis.

  12. ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer: Do the Categories Discriminate Among Clinically Relevant Subgroups of Patients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschiesner, Uta; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Cieza, Alarcos

    2011-01-01

    The multidisciplinary assessment of functioning in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) according to the "ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer" (ICF-HNC) was developed in an international and multi-disciplinary approach. The ICF-HNC is an application of the ICF that was adopted by the World Health Organization. The objective of this study was…

  13. ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer: Do the Categories Discriminate Among Clinically Relevant Subgroups of Patients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschiesner, Uta; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Cieza, Alarcos

    2011-01-01

    The multidisciplinary assessment of functioning in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) according to the "ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer" (ICF-HNC) was developed in an international and multi-disciplinary approach. The ICF-HNC is an application of the ICF that was adopted by the World Health Organization. The objective of this study was…

  14. Outcomes for patients with papillary thyroid cancer who do not undergo prophylactic central neck dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, I. J.; Wang, L. Y.; Ganly, I.; Patel, S. G.; Morris, L. G.; Migliacci, J. C.; Tuttle, R. M.; Shah, J. P.; Shaha, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) in the management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is controversial. This report describes outcomes of an observational approach in patients without clinical evidence of nodal disease in PTC. Methods All patients who had surgery between 1986 and 2010 without CND for PTC were identified. All patients had careful clinical assessment of the central neck during preoperative and perioperative evaluation, with any suspicious nodal tissue excised for analysis. The cohort included patients in whom lymph nodes had been removed, but no patient had undergone a formal neck dissection. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), central neck RFS and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Of 1798 patients, 397 (22·1 per cent) were men, 1088 (60·5 per cent) were aged 45 years or more, and 539 (30·0 per cent) had pT3 or pT4 disease. Some 742 patients (41·3 per cent) received adjuvant treatment with radioactive iodine. At a median follow-up of 46 months the 5-year DSS rate was 100 per cent. Five-year RFS and central neck RFS rates were 96·6 and 99·1 per cent respectively. Conclusion Observation of the central neck is safe and should be recommended for all patients with PTC considered before and during surgery to be free of central neck metastasis. PMID:26511531

  15. Nanoparticle-based targeted therapeutics in head-and-neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Shui-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Head-and-neck cancer is a major form of the disease worldwide. Treatment consists of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but these have not resulted in improved survival rates over the past few decades. Versatile nanoparticles, with selective tumor targeting, are considered to have the potential to improve these poor outcomes. Application of nanoparticle-based targeted therapeutics has extended into many areas, including gene silencing, chemotherapeutic drug delivery, radiosensitization, photothermal therapy, and has shown much promise. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of nanoparticle-mediated targeted therapeutics for head-and-neck cancer, with an emphasis on the description of targeting points, including future perspectives.

  16. Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Hyperthermia for Head & Neck Cancer in Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qun; Wang, Luning; Cheng, Rui; Mao, Leidong; Arnold, Robert D.; Howerth, Elizabeth W.; Chen, Zhuo G.; Platt, Simon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle induced hyperthermia is applied for treatment of head and neck cancer using a mouse xenograft model of human head and neck cancer (Tu212 cell line). A hyperthermia system for heating iron oxide nanoparticles was developed by using alternating magnetic fields. Both theoretical simulation and experimental studies were performed to verify the thermotherapy effect. Experimental results showed that the temperature of the tumor center has dramatically elevated from around the room temperature to about 40oC within the first 5-10 minutes. Pathological studies demonstrate epithelial tumor cell destruction associated with the hyperthermia treatment. PMID:22287991

  17. Surgical treatment of head and neck cancers in the ancient world.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J; Mahalingam, S

    2015-06-01

    This paper attempts to chart the history of head and neck cancers and their surgical treatment, starting from ancient Egypt and concluding with Galen. The ancient Egyptians appear to have treated head and neck cancers with local applications. The ancient Greek corpus contains a reference to treating pharyngeal carcinoma with cautery, but the description is too vague to establish the diagnosis conclusively. The ancient Romans moved away from surgical treatments, with Galen establishing a prejudice against surgery that would last through the Middle Ages.

  18. Management of the node-positive neck in the patient with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garden, Adam S.; Gunn, Gary B.; Hessel, Amy; Beadle, Beth M.; Ahmed, Salmaan; El-naggar, Adel; Fuller, Clifton D.; Byers, Lauren A.; Phan, Jack; Frank, Steven J.; Morrison, William H.; Kies, Merill S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to assess the rates of recurrence in the neck for node-positive patients with HPV-associated oropharynx cancer treated with definitive radiation (with or without chemotherapy). Methods This is a single institutional retrospective study. Methodology included database search, and statistical testing including frequency analysis, Kaplan-Meier tests, and comparative tests including chi-square, logistic regression and log-rank. Results The cohort consisted of 401 node-positive patients irradiated between 2006 – June 2012. Three hundred eighty eight patients had CT restaging, and 251 had PET and/or US as a component of their post radiation staging. Eighty patients (20%) underwent neck dissection, and 21 (26%) had a positive specimen. The rate of neck dissection increased with increasing nodal stage, and was lower in patients who had PET scans or ultrasound in addition to CT restaging. The median follow-up was 30 months. The 2-year actuarial neck recurrence rate was 7% and 5% in all patients and those with local control, respectively. Nodal recurrence rates were greater in current smokers (p=.008). There was no difference in nodal recurrences rates in patients who did or did not have a neck dissection (p = .4) Conclusions A treatment strategy of (chemo)radiation with neck dissection performed based on response resulted in high rates of regional disease control in patients with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:24898672

  19. Cancer in neck nodes with unknown primary site: Role of mucosal radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, C.S.; Mendenhall, W.M.; Parsons, J.T.; Stringer, S.P.; Cassisi, N.J.; Million, R.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Sixty-nine patients with metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in neck nodes with an unknown primary lesion were treated with curative intent between October 1964 and December 1986. Sixty-five patients received radiotherapy to the neck and at least part of the mucosa of the head and neck, whereas 4 patients received treatment to the neck only. Mucosal doses were approximately 5,000 cGy-6,000 cGy at 170 cGy-180 cGy per fraction. Eight patients (12%) subsequently developed mucosal site failures, a figure that did not differ significantly from the incidence of a second metachronous head and neck cancer following definitive irradiation in a series of 393 patients with lesions of the supraglottic larynx, pharyngeal wall, pyriform sinus, or tonsillar area. This suggests that radiotherapy was highly effective in preventing the appearance of cancer at the unknown primary site from which the neck metastasis arose. Absolute and cause-specific 5-year survival rates were 48% and 66%, respectively.

  20. Applications of molecular diagnostics for personalized treatment of head and neck cancer: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Mes, Steven W; Leemans, C René; Brakenhoff, Ruud H

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck are the sixth most frequent tumors worldwide. Risk factors are carcinogenic exposure, infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) and genetic predisposition. Lymph node metastasis in the neck and HPV status are major prognostic factors. There are several important clinical challenges that determine the research agenda in head and neck cancer. The first is more accurate staging, particularly of occult metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. A second challenge is the lack of biomarkers for personalized therapy. There are a number of treatment modalities that can be employed both single and in combination, but at present only site and stage of the tumor are used for treatment planning. Provided here is an overview of the successes and failures of molecular diagnostic approaches that have been and are being evaluated to address these clinical challenges.

  1. The role of HPV in head and neck cancer and review of the HPV vaccine

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Dempsey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that human papillomavirus also plays a role in cancers other than ano-genital cancers, specifically head and neck cancers, and non-cancerous conditions such as recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. As more and more information about the role of infection in non-cervical diseases is amassed, additional questions about whether prophylactic human papillomavirus vaccines will effectively prevent these conditions are raised. This article reviews the epidemiology of oral human papillomavirus infection and the role of human papillomavirus in head and neck cancers. In addition, it will review the known clinical indications for human papillomavirus vaccination, and highlight other potential clinical targets for the vaccine that have not yet been demonstrated in clinical trials but for which there is biologic plausibility. PMID:21962471

  2. Assessing lymphatic response to treatments in head and neck cancer using near-infrared fluorescence imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, I.-Chih; Karni, Ron J.; Rasmussen, John C.; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.

    2014-05-01

    Care for head and neck (HN) cancer could be improved with better mapping of lymphatic drainage pathways in HN region as well as understanding the effect of the cancer treatments on lymphatics. In this study, near-infrared fluorescence imaging is being used to visualize the lymphatics in human subjects diagnosed with HN cancer before and after treatments. Imaging results show the lymphatic architecture and contractile function in HN. Reformation of lymphatics during the course of cancer care was also seen in the longitudinal imaging. This allows us to better understand the lymphatics in HN cancer patients.

  3. Cigarette, Cigar, and Pipe Smoking and the Risk of Head and Neck Cancers: Pooled Analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Annah; Hashibe, Mia; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M.; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M.; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P.; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Michaluart, Pedro; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B.; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W.; Dal Maso, Luigino; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Cadoni, Gabriella; Boccia, Stefania; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ≤ 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers. PMID:23817919

  4. Cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking and the risk of head and neck cancers: pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Wyss, Annah; Hashibe, Mia; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Yu, Guo-Pei; Winn, Deborah M; Wei, Qingyi; Talamini, Renato; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Sturgis, Erich M; Smith, Elaine; Shangina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Schantz, Stimson; Rudnai, Peter; Purdue, Mark P; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Muscat, Joshua; Morgenstern, Hal; Michaluart, Pedro; Menezes, Ana; Matos, Elena; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Lissowska, Jolanta; Levi, Fabio; Lazarus, Philip; La Vecchia, Carlo; Koifman, Sergio; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernandez, Leticia; Fabianova, Eleonora; Daudt, Alexander W; Dal Maso, Luigino; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsague, Xavier; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Cadoni, Gabriella; Boccia, Stefania; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Olshan, Andrew F

    2013-09-01

    Cigar and pipe smoking are considered risk factors for head and neck cancers, but the magnitude of effect estimates for these products has been imprecisely estimated. By using pooled data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium (comprising 13,935 cases and 18,691 controls in 19 studies from 1981 to 2007), we applied hierarchical logistic regression to more precisely estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for cigarette, cigar, and pipe smoking separately, compared with reference groups of those who had never smoked each single product. Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were stratified by ever cigarette smoking. We also considered effect estimates of smoking a single product exclusively versus never having smoked any product (reference group). Among never cigarette smokers, the odds ratio for ever cigar smoking was 2.54 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.93, 3.34), and the odds ratio for ever pipe smoking was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.55, 2.81). These odds ratios increased with increasing frequency and duration of smoking (Ptrend ≤ 0.0001). Odds ratios for cigar and pipe smoking were not elevated among ever cigarette smokers. Head and neck cancer risk was elevated for those who reported exclusive cigar smoking (odds ratio = 3.49, 95% CI: 2.58, 4.73) or exclusive pipe smoking (odds ratio = 3.71, 95% CI: 2.59, 5.33). These results suggest that cigar and pipe smoking are independently associated with increased risk of head and neck cancers.

  5. Sexual behaviours and the risk of head and neck cancers: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Berthiller, Julien; Vaccarella, Salvatore; Winn, Deborah M; Smith, Elaine M; Shan'gina, Oxana; Schwartz, Stephen M; Purdue, Mark P; Pilarska, Agnieszka; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael D; Matos, Elena; Koifman, Sergio; Kelsey, Karl T; Herrero, Rolando; Hayes, Richard B; Franceschi, Silvia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Fernández, Leticia; Daudt, Alexander W; Curado, Maria Paula; Chen, Chu; Castellsagué, Xavier; Ferro, Gilles; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Hashibe, Mia

    2010-01-01

    Background Sexual contact may be the means by which head and neck cancer patients are exposed to human papillomavirus (HPV). Methods We undertook a pooled analysis of four population-based and four hospital-based case–control studies from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium, with participants from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, India, Italy, Spain, Poland, Puerto Rico, Russia and the USA. The study included 5642 head and neck cancer cases and 6069 controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) of associations between cancer and specific sexual behaviours, including practice of oral sex, number of lifetime sexual partners and oral sex partners, age at sexual debut, a history of same-sex contact and a history of oral–anal contact. Findings were stratified by sex and disease subsite. Results Cancer of the oropharynx was associated with having a history of six or more lifetime sexual partners [OR = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01, 1.54] and four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.42, 3.58). Cancer of the tonsil was associated with four or more lifetime oral sex partners (OR = 3.36, 95 % CI 1.32, 8.53), and, among men, with ever having oral sex (OR = 1.59, 95% CI 1.09, 2.33) and with an earlier age at sexual debut (OR = 2.36, 95% CI 1.37, 5.05). Cancer of the base of the tongue was associated with ever having oral sex among women (OR = 4.32, 95% CI 1.06, 17.6), having two sexual partners in comparison with only one (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.19, 3.46) and, among men, with a history of same-sex sexual contact (OR = 8.89, 95% CI 2.14, 36.8). Conclusions Sexual behaviours are associated with cancer risk at the head and neck cancer subsites that have previously been associated with HPV infection. PMID:20022926

  6. Esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moss, William J; Pang, John; Orosco, Ryan K; Weissbrod, Philip A; Brumund, Kevin T; Weisman, Robert A; Brigger, Matthew T; Coffey, Charles S

    2017-05-12

    To characterize the safety profile and effectiveness of esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients. A systematic review was undertaken for articles reporting outcomes of esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients. The Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Complications related to esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients was the primary outcome of interest. Success rates, demographic data, cancer staging, and treatment data were assessed secondarily. Statistical analyses included both qualitative and quantitative assessments. A limited meta-analysis and pooling of the data was performed using a random effects model. Of the collective 8,243 initial candidate articles, 15 retrospective studies containing data for a collective 449 patients were ultimately included in the analysis. There was significant heterogeneity in the outcomes data. With an overall complication rate of 10.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1%,17%) and a pooled success rate of 72.9% (95% CI: 65.7%,80.1%) per patient, the articles generally supported the use of dilation. Head and neck cancer patients experience a higher rate of complications following dilation compared to patients with other causes of benign stricture. Esophageal dilation is effective in improving dysphagia, but these benefits are often transient and thus necessitate repeat interventions. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  7. The significance of fellow patients for head and neck cancer patients in the radiation treatment period.

    PubMed

    Egestad, Helen

    2013-10-01

    Head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy feel anxiety, fear, and stress. The literature describes the importance of social support; however, there is a lack of research that describes what value fellow patients provide to cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment. The objective of this study was to explore how head and neck cancer patients are affected by their fellow patients in the radiation treatment period. This study was conducted via qualitative interviews, taking on a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach. Eleven head and neck cancer patients were interviewed. Contact with fellow patients can lead to less loneliness, reduction of uncertainty and negative feelings can be reduced. The feelings of having control can increase and self-esteem can be strengthened. When head and neck cancer patients make relationship with fellow patients during radiation treatment, the contact can lead to a sense of emotional comfort or, sometimes, emotional distress. The relationship can result in increased knowledge and to a sense of feeling meaningful to fellow patients. This ensures better coping with treatment and side-effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Zinc and Copper Homeostasis in Head and Neck Cancer: Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ressnerova, Alzbeta; Raudenska, Martina; Holubova, Monika; Svobodova, Marketa; Polanska, Hana; Babula, Petr; Masarik, Michal; Gumulec, Jaromir

    2016-01-01

    Metals are known for playing essential roles in human physiology. Copper and zinc are trace elements closely dependent on one another and are involved in cell proliferation, growth, gene expression, apoptosis and other processes. Their homeostasis is crucial and tightly controlled by a resourceful system of transporters and transport proteins which deliver copper and zinc ions to their target sites. Abnormal zinc and copper homeostasis can be seen in a number of malignancies and also in head and neck cancer. Imbalance in this homeostasis is observed as an elevation or decrease of copper and zinc ions in serum or tissue levels in patients with cancer. In head and neck cancer these altered levels stand out from those of other malignancies which makes them an object of interest and therefore zinc and copper ions might be a good target for further research of head and neck cancer development and progression. This review aims to summarize the physiological roles of copper and zinc, its binding and transport mechanisms, and based on those, its role in head and neck cancer. To provide stronger evidence, dysregulation of levels is analysed by a meta-analytical approach.

  9. Treatment patterns and survival among low-income medicaid patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sujha; Chen, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Medicaid beneficiaries by definition are low income but they are not necessarily a homogeneous group. No study has assessed differences and disparities among Medicaid beneficiaries with head and neck cancers. To examine predictors of treatment receipt and mortality among Medicaid patients with head and neck cancer. Retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims linked with cancer registry data for 2 states, California and Georgia, for the years 2002 through 2006. Inpatient and ambulatory care. Medicaid beneficiaries aged 18 to 64 years diagnosed as having head and neck cancer (N = 1308) were included. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression models analyzed the likelihood of treatment receipt and survival. Receipt of treatment and 12- and 24-month mortality. Fewer than one-third of Medicaid patients with cancer received a diagnosis at an early stage. Overall, black patients were less likely to get surgical treatment and more likely to die than white patients, even after controlling for demographics, stage at diagnosis, and tumor site. Older age and disability status also increased 12-month mortality. Patients in California, who were alive for at least 12 months, have approximately half the odds of dying within 24 months compared with those in Georgia. Concrete steps should be taken to address the significant racial disparities observed in head and neck cancer outcomes among Medicaid beneficiaries. Further research is needed to explore the state-level policies and attributes to examine the startling differences in mortality among the state Medicaid programs analyzed in this study. Pooled comparisons of Medicaid beneficiaries with individuals covered by other types of insurance could mask important disparities among Medicaid beneficiaries, which need to be acknowledged and addressed to improve outcomes for these low-income patients with head and neck cancer.

  10. Measurement of the trapezius muscle volume: A new assessment strategy of shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection for the treatment of head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Gu; Lee, Naree; Park, Min-Woo; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Kwon, Soon-Young; Jung, Kwang-Yoon; Woo, Jeong-Soo

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual degree of shoulder muscle change and its relation to symptoms after neck dissection for head and neck cancers. Forty-two patients who underwent unilateral neck dissection were selected. Data obtained from each subject were trapezius muscle volume ratio and a Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) score. Patients who had undergone neck dissection with spinal accessory nerve (SAN) preservation were compared with those who had received radical neck dissection. The preservation group was further separated into subgroups by the extent of neck dissection. Trapezius muscle volume ratio was higher and SDQ score was significantly lower in the SAN preservation group compared to the radical neck dissection group. However, the SAN preservation subgroups did not differ from each other. In addition, a good correlation between the muscle volume ratio and SDQ score was observed. With trapezius muscle volume ratio, clinicians may be able to diagnose shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection. Further research on the subject is warranted. This suggests a novel strategy for assessing the degree of shoulder dysfunction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Planned Neck Dissection Is Not Necessary in All Patients With N2-3 Head-and-Neck Cancer After Sequential Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Soltys, Scott G.; Choi, Clara Y.H.; Fee, Willard E.; Pinto, Harlan A.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of a planned neck dissection (PND) after sequential chemoradiotherapy for patients with head-and-neck cancer with N2-N3 nodal disease. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 90 patients with N2-N3 head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma treated between 1991 and 2001 on two sequential chemoradiotherapy protocols. All patients received induction and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorocuracil, with or without tirapazamine. Patients with less than a clinical complete response (cCR) in the neck proceeded to a PND after chemoradiation. The primary endpoint was nodal response. Clinical outcomes and patterns of failure were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up durations for living and all patients were 8.3 years (range, 1.5-16.3 year) and 5.4 years (range, 0.6-16.3 years), respectively. Of the 48 patients with nodal cCR whose necks were observed, 5 patients had neck failures as a component of their recurrence [neck and primary (n = 2); neck, primary, and distant (n = 1); neck only (n = 1); neck and distant (n = 1)]. Therefore, PND may have benefited only 2 patients (4%) [neck only failure (n = 1); neck and distant failure (n = 1)]. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for those with a clinical partial response (cPR) undergoing PND (n = 30) was 53%. The 5-year neck control rates after cCR, cPR{yields}pCR, and cPR{yields}pPR were 90%, 93%, and 78%, respectively (p = 0.36). The 5-year disease-free survival rates for the cCR, cPR{yields}pCR, and cPR{yields}pPR groups were 53%, 75%, and 42%, respectively (p = 0.04). Conclusion: In our series, patients with N2-N3 neck disease achieving a cCR in the neck, PND would have benefited only 4% and, therefore, is not recommended. Patients with a cPR should be treated with PND. Residual tumor in the PND specimens was associated with poor outcomes; therefore, aggressive therapy is recommended. Studies using novel imaging modalities are needed to better assess treatment response.

  12. Utility of Surgeon-Performed Ultrasound Assessment of the Lateral Neck for Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cortney Y.; Snyder, Samuel K.; Lairmore, Terry C.; Dupont, Sean C.; Jupiter, Daniel C.

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasound is the recommended staging modality for papillary thyroid cancer. Surgeons proficient in US assessment of the neck and experienced in the management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) appear uniquely qualified to assess the lateral cervical lymph nodes for metastatic disease. Of 310 patients treated for PTC between 2000 and 2008, 109 underwent surgeon-performed ultrasound (SUS) of the lateral neck preoperatively. Fine needle aspiration was performed on suspicious lateral lymph nodes. SUS findings were compared with FNA cytology and results of postoperative imaging studies. The sensitivity and negative predictive value of SUS were 88% and 97%, respectively. Four patients were found to have missed metastatic disease within 6 months. No patient underwent a nontherapeutic neck dissection. SUS combined with US-guided FNA of suspicious lymph nodes can accurately stage PTC to reliably direct surgical management. PMID:22291704

  13. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in head and neck cancers - an overview.

    PubMed

    Nutting, C M

    2012-07-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) is effective in head and neck cancers. Following RT, dryness and dysphagia are the 2 major sequelae which alter the quality of life (QOL) significantly in these patients. There is randomized evidence that Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) effectively spares the parotid glands. IMRT has been attempted in all head and neck subsites with encouraging results (discussed below). Role of IMRT in swallowing structure (constrictor muscles) sparing is less clear.Further improvement in results may be possible by using functional imaging at the time of RT planning and by image guidance/verification at the time of treatment delivery. The following text discusses these issues in detail. Head and neck cancer, IMRT.

  14. Immunonutrition in head and neck cancer: have a look before surgery!

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Chiara; Ciorba, Andrea; Stomeo, Francesco; Pelucchi, Stefano; Pastore, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible role of immunonutrition in head and neck cancer patients. Malnutrition frequently occurs in head and neck oncological patients, due to mechanical obstruction, such as tumour induced cachexia, poor dietary habits, as well as excessive alcohol consumption. These defects combined with the immune suppressive effects of surgery have been claimed to contribute in increasing the postoperative complications rate, such as poor wound healing and higher incidence of infections. Immunonutrition has been proposed to provide specific benefits to the immune system; several clinical trials, also in head and neck cancer patients, are already present in the literature, even if methodological differences impede comparisons and firm conclusions so far. Nutritional oncology is a new and interesting field and requires the use of standardised intervention protocols in order to evaluate its clinical efficacy.

  15. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  16. Head and neck cancer burden and preventive measures in Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, Sandra; Martin Roa, Guillermo; Brennan, Paul; Forman, David; Sierra, Mónica S

    2016-09-01

    Central and South America comprise one of the areas characterized by high incidence rates for head and neck cancer. We describe the geographical and temporal trends in incidence and mortality of head and neck cancers in the Central and South American region in order to identify opportunities for intervention on the major identified risk factors: tobacco control, alcohol use and viral infections. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. Age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years were estimated. Brazil had the highest incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer in the region for both sexes, followed by Cuba, Uruguay and Argentina. Cuba had the highest incidence and mortality rates of laryngeal cancer in the region for males and females. Overall, males had rates about four times higher than those in females. Most countries in the region have implemented WHO recommendations for both tobacco and alcohol public policy control. Head and neck squamous-cell cancer (HNSCC) incidence and mortality rates in the Central and South America region vary considerably across countries, with Brazil, Cuba, French Guyana, Uruguay and Argentina experiencing the highest rates in the region. Males carry most of the HNSCC burden. Improvement and implementation of comprehensive tobacco and alcohol control policies as well as the monitoring of these factors are fundamental to prevention of head and neck cancers in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    PubMed

    MacCarthy, Denise; Flint, Stephen R; Healy, Claire; Stassen, Leo F A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of 'field cancerisation'/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  18. A phosphoarray platform is capable of personalizing kinase inhibitor therapy in head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Klinghammer, Konrad; Keller, James; George, Jonathan; Hoffmann, Jens; Chan, Edward L; Hayman, Michael J

    2017-09-14

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective treatments for cancers. Knowing the specific kinase mutants that drive the underlying cancers predict therapeutic response to these inhibitors. Thus, the current protocol for personalized cancer therapy involves genotyping tumors in search of various driver mutations and subsequently individualizing the tyrosine kinase inhibitor to the patients whose tumors express the corresponding driver mutant. While this approach works when known driver mutations are found, its limitation is the dependence on driver mutations as predictors for response. To complement the genotype approach, we hypothesize that a phosphoarray platform is equally capable of personalizing kinase inhibitor therapy. We selected head and neck squamous cell carcinoma as the cancer model to test our hypothesis. Using the receptor tyrosine kinase phosphoarray, we identified the phosphorylation profiles of 49 different tyrosine kinase receptors in five different head and neck cancer cell lines. Based on these results, we tested the cell line response to the corresponding kinase inhibitor therapy. We found that this phosphoarray accurately informed the kinase inhibitor response profile of the cell lines. Next, we determined the phosphorylation profiles of 39 head and neck cancer patient derived xenografts. We found that absent phosphorylated EGFR signal predicted primary resistance to cetuximab treatment in the xenografts without phosphorylated ErbB2. Meanwhile, absent ErbB2 signaling in the xenografts with phosphorylated EGFR is associated with a higher likelihood of response to cetuximab. In summary, the phosphoarray technology has the potential to become a new diagnostic platform for personalized cancer therapy. © 2017 UICC.

  19. Metallic Taste Phantom Predicts Oral Pain among 5-year Survivors of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta L.; Bartoshuk, Linda; Fillingim, Roger; Tomar, Scott L.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic pain following cancer-related treatment is emerging as a major concern. Heretofore, the pain level among 5-year survivors of head and neck cancer has received limited attention. This study proposes a predictive model for understanding factors associated with elevated levels of chronic oral pain. Cancer survivors were drawn from a pool of 5-year survivors. A listed sample matched on sex, age, and zip code was purchased and served as a comparison group. Telephone interviews were conducted by a professional call center. Oral pain levels and the presence of metallic taste phantoms were significantly higher in the cancer survivor group than among the comparison group. The prevalence of chronic oral pain among the 5-year survivors was 43% compared to 13% for the comparison group. Hierarchical linear regression showed that among the 5-year survivors, the predictive model for spontaneous pain accounted for 24% of the variance, and for function-related pain the model accounted for 34% of the variance, with the presence of a phantom metallic taste making a significant independent contribution in both models. In the function-related pain model, depression and level of oral function quality of life (QOL) made significant independent contributions. The presence of oral pain is a significant problem among head and neck cancer survivors. The presence of metallic phantoms is an important new piece of evidence suggesting neural damage following cancer-directed treatment. Routine assessment of oral pain levels could improve current analgesic approaches among head and neck cancer survivors. PMID:18845396

  20. Variables Associated With Communicative Participation After Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bolt, Susan; Eadie, Tanya; Yorkston, Kathryn; Baylor, Carolyn; Amtmann, Dagmar

    2016-12-01

    For patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), communication difficulties often create substantial barriers in daily life, affecting a person's ability to return to work, establish or maintain relationships, or participate in everyday activities. To examine variables significantly associated with communication in everyday activities, or communicative participation, in adult survivors of HNC. In a cross-sectional study, from November 1, 2008, through March 18, 2011, participants completed questionnaires about specific experiences and symptoms associated with their health and communication. Seventeen variables were considered in association with communicative participation. Data were collected from adult survivors of HNC residing in a community. Participants completed questionnaires, in English, either online or using paper forms according to their preference. Participants were recruited through support groups, professional email lists, and professional contacts. Communicative participation and predictor variables were measured using a variety of validated patient-report scales and demographic information. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted with variables entered using a backward stepwise regression procedure. Variables with significant regression coefficients were retained in the model and reported as change in R2. One hundred ninety-seven adults (121 males and 76 females; mean age, 61.5 years) participated, all at least 6 months posttreatment of HNC with no additional medical conditions affecting speech. The final model contained 4 significant variables (R2 = 0.462): self-rated speech severity, cognitive function, laryngectomy status, and time since diagnosis. Better communicative participation was associated with less severe speech and cognitive problems; together, these 2 variables explained 42% of the variance in the model (self-rated speech severity, R2 = 0.227, and cognitive function, R2 = 0.193 [0.227 + 0.193 = 0.420 = 42

  1. Health care delivery for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta: a practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J.R.; Lau, H.; Surgeoner, B.V.; Chua, N.; Dobrovolsky, W.; Dort, J.C.; Kalaydjian, E.; Nesbitt, M.; Scrimger, R.A.; Seikaly, H.; Skarsgard, D.; Webster, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment of head-and-neck cancer is complex and requires the involvement of various health care professionals with a wide range of expertise. We describe the process of developing a practice guideline with recommendations about the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta. Methods Outcomes of interest included composition of the health care team, qualification requirements for team members, cancer centre and team member volumes, infrastructure needs, and wait times. A search for existing practice guidelines and a systematic review of the literature addressing the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients were conducted. The search included the Standards and Guidelines Evidence (sage) directory of cancer guidelines and PubMed. Results One practice guideline was identified for adaptation. Three additional practice guidelines provided supplementary evidence to inform guideline recommendations. Members of the Alberta Provincial Head and Neck Tumour Team (consisting of various health professionals from across the province) provided expert feedback on the adapted recommendations through an online and in-person review process. Selected experts in head-and-neck cancer from outside the province participated in an external online review. SUMMARY The recommendations outlined in this practice guideline are based on existing guidelines that have been modified to fit the Alberta context. Although specific to Alberta, the recommendations lend credence to similar published guidelines and could be considered for use by groups lacking the resources of appointed guideline panels. The recommendations are meant to be a guide rather than a fixed protocol. The implementation of this practice guideline will depend on many factors, including but not limited to availability of trained personnel, adequate funding of infrastructure, and collaboration with other associations of

  2. Speech and swallow rehabilitation in head and neck cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P; Radford, K; Coffey, M; Stewart, M

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. The disease itself and the treatment can have far reaching effects on speech and swallow function, which are consistently prioritised by survivors as an area of concern. This paper provides recommendations on the assessments and interventions for speech and swallow rehabilitation in this patient group. Recommendations • All multidisciplinary teams should have rehabilitation patient pathways covering all stages of the patient's journey including multidisciplinary and pre-treatment clinics. (G) • Clinicians treating head and neck cancer patients should consult the National Cancer Rehabilitation Pathway for head and neck cancers. (G) • All head and neck cancer patients should have a pre-treatment assessment of speech and swallowing. (G) • A programme of prophylactic exercises and the teaching of swallowing manoeuvres can reduce impairments, maintain function and enable a speedier recovery. (R) • Continued speech and language therapist input is important in maintaining voice and safe and effective swallow function following head and neck cancer treatment. (R) • Disease recurrence must be ruled out in the management of stricture and/or stenosis. (R) • Continuous radial expansion balloons offer a safe, effective dilation method with advantages over gum elastic bougies. (R) • Site, length and completeness of strictures as well as whether they are in the presence of the larynx or not, need to be assessed when establishing the likelihood of surgically improved outcome. (G) • Primary surgical voice restoration should be offered to all patients undergoing laryngectomy. (R) • Attention to surgical detail and long-term speech and language therapist input is required to optimise speech and swallowing after laryngectomy. (G) • Patients should commence wearing heat and moisture exchange devices as soon as possible after

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in nucleotide excision repair genes, cancer treatment, and head and neck cancer survival

    PubMed Central

    Wyss, Annah B.; Weissler, Mark C.; Avery, Christy L.; Herring, Amy H.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Funkhouser, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Head and neck cancers (HNC) are commonly treated with radiation and platinum-based chemotherapy, which produce bulky DNA adducts to eradicate cancerous cells. Because nucleotide excision repair (NER) enzymes remove adducts, variants in NER genes may be associated with survival among HNC cases both independently and jointly with treatment. Methods Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate race-stratified (White, African American) hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals for overall (OS) and disease-specific (DS) survival based on treatment (combinations of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) and 84 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 15 NER genes among 1,227 HNC cases from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Study. Results None of the NER variants evaluated were associated with survival at a Bonferroni-corrected alpha of 0.0006. However, rs3136038 [OS HR = 0.79 (0.65, 0.97), DS HR = 0.69 (0.51, 0.93)] and rs3136130 [OS HR = 0.78 (0.64, 0.96), DS HR = 0.68 (0.50, 0.92)] of ERCC4 and rs50871 [OS HR = 0.80 (0.64, 1.00), DS HR = 0.67 (0.48, 0.92)] of ERCC2 among Whites, and rs2607755 [OS HR = 0.62 (0.45, 0.86), DS HR = 0.51 (0.30, 0.86)] of XPC among African Americans were suggestively associated with survival at an uncorrected alpha of 0.05. Three SNP-treatment joint effects showed possible departures from additivity among Whites. Conclusions Our study, a large and extensive evaluation of SNPs in NER genes and HNC survival, identified mostly null associations, though a few variants were suggestively associated with survival and potentially interacted additively with treatment. PMID:24487794

  4. Oral and head and neck cancer. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    This Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Human cancer etiology and epidemiology; Experimental carcinogenesis and pathology; Preclinical diagnosis and therapy; Clinical diagnosis and prognosis; Clinical therapy; Rehabilitation and psychological aspects of treatment; Training programs for dental professionals; Broad clinical programs.

  5. The Impact of Secondary Lymphedema after Head and Neck Cancer Treatment on Symptoms, Functional Status, and Quality Of Life

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jie; Murphy, Barbara A.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Sinard, Robert J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Gilbert, Jill; Ridner, Sheila H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Lymphedema may disrupt local function and affect quality of life (QOL) in patients with head and neck cancer. The study aim was to examine the associations among severity of internal and external lymphedema, symptoms, functional status, and QOL in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods The sample included 103 patients who were ≥3 months post head and neck cancer treatment. Variables assessed included severity of internal and external lymphedema, physical/psychological symptoms, functional status, and QOL. Results Severity of internal and external lymphedema was associated with physical symptoms and psychological symptoms. Patients with more severe external lymphedema were more likely to have a decrease in neck left/right rotation. The combined effects of external and internal lymphedema severity were associated with hearing impairment and decreased QOL. Conclusions Lymphedema severity correlates with symptom burden, functional status, and QOL in patients post head and neck cancer treatment. PMID:22791550

  6. Clinical utility and prospective comparison of ultrasonography and computed tomography imaging in staging of neck metastases in head and neck squamous cell cancer in an Indian setup.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mohammad; Biswas, Jaydip; Jha, Jayesh; Nayak, Sandeep; Singh, Vikas; Majumdar, Suparna; Bhowmick, Anup; Dam, Aniruddha

    2011-12-01

    Preoperative lymph node screening of all neck compartments is favored by clinicians for the management of the neck. The presence of a metastatic node on one side of the neck reduces the 5-year survival rate to 50%, and the presence of a metastatic node on both sides of the neck reduces the 5-year survival rate to 25%. This study compared the evaluation of lymph node metastases by ultrasonography (USG) and computed tomography (CT) in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck region. Five hundred and eighty-four patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck were prospectively evaluated for the presence of cervical lymph node metastases. All patients underwent clinical examination (palpation), USG and CT imaging. Neck dissection was performed in all the patients, and the results of the preoperative evaluation were correlated with the surgical and histopathological findings. Metastases in neck nodes were identified in 148 patients by histopathological examination. Doppler USG correctly identified 136 node-positive patients (n = 148; sensitivity 91.8%, specificity 97%). CT imaging correctly identified 122 patients with metastatic lymph nodes (n = 148; sensitivity 83%, specificity 93%). Positive predictive values of USG and CT imaging were 95.6% and 91.3%, respectively, whereas the negative predictive values of these two imaging studies were 95.4% and 89.6%, respectively. The accuracy and sensitivity of USG in detection of cervical lymph node metastases make it a potentially promising and cheap preoperative tool for staging neck node metastases and optimizing the treatment plan for surgeons, especially in countries such as India.

  7. Phase Ib Study of BKM120 With Cisplatin and XRT in High Risk Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Cancer of Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-19

    Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; HPV Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Early Invasive Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Carcinoma of Larynx; Cancer of Nasopharynx

  8. Ex vivo label-free microscopy of head and neck cancer patient tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Amy T.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2015-03-01

    Standard methods to characterize patient tissue rely on histology. This technique provides only anatomical information, so complementary imaging methods could provide beneficial phenotypic information. Cancer cells exhibit altered metabolism, and metabolic imaging could be applied to better understand cancer tissue. This study applies redox ratio, fluorescence lifetime, and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging to ex vivo tissue from head and neck cancer patients. This high-resolution imaging technique has unique advantages of utilizing intrinsic tissue contrast, which eliminates the need for sample processing or staining, and multiphoton microscopy, which provides depth sectioning in intact tissue. This study demonstrates feasibility of these measurements in patient tissue from multiple anatomical sites and carcinoma types of head and neck cancer.

  9. Targeted genetic and viral therapy for advanced head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pin-I; Chang, Ju-Fang; Kirn, David H; Liu, Ta-Chiang

    2009-06-01

    Head and neck cancers usually present with advanced disease and novel therapies are urgently needed. Genetic therapy aims at restoring malfunctioned tumor suppressor gene(s) or introducing proapoptotic genes. Oncolytic virotherapeutics induce multiple cycles of cancer-specific virus replication, followed by oncolysis, virus spreading and infection of adjacent cancer cells. Oncolytic viruses can also be armed to express therapeutic transgene(s). Recent advances in preclinical and clinical studies are revealing the potential of both therapeutic classes for advanced head and neck cancers, including the approval of two products (Gendicine and H101) by a governmental agency. This review summarizes the available clinical data to date and discusses the challenges and future directions.

  10. HPV-Associated Head and Neck Cancer: Unique Features of Epidemiology and Clinical Management.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, Jessica H; Grandis, Jennifer R; Ferris, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a recently identified causative agent for a subset of head and neck cancers, primarily in the oropharynx, and is largely responsible for the rising worldwide incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Patients with HPV-positive OPC have distinct risk factor profiles and generally have a better prognosis than patients with traditional, HPV-negative, head and neck cancer. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation is a widely accepted primary treatment modality for many patients with HPV-positive OPC. However, recent advances in surgical modalities, including transoral laser and robotic surgery, have led to the reemergence of primary surgical treatment for HPV-positive patients. Clinical trials are under way to determine optimal treatment strategies for the growing subset of patients with HPV-positive OPC. Similarly, identifying those patients with HPV-positive cancer who are at risk for recurrence and poor survival is critical in order to tailor individual treatment regimens and avoid potential undertreatment.

  11. HPV-Associated Head and Neck Cancer: Unique Features of Epidemiology and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Jessica H.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Ferris, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a recently identified causative agent for a subset of head and neck cancers, primarily in the oropharynx, and is largely responsible for the rising worldwide incidence of oropharyngeal cancer (OPC). Patients with HPV-positive OPC have distinct risk factor profiles and generally have a better prognosis than patients with traditional, HPV-negative, head and neck cancer. Concurrent chemotherapy and radiation is a widely accepted primary treatment modality for many patients with HPV-positive OPC. However, recent advances in surgical modalities, including transoral laser and robotic surgery, have led to the reemergence of primary surgical treatment for HPV-positive patients. Clinical trials are under way to determine optimal treatment strategies for the growing subset of patients with HPV-positive OPC. Similarly, identifying those patients with HPV-positive cancer who are at risk for recurrence and poor survival is critical in order to tailor individual treatment regimens and avoid potential undertreatment. PMID:26332002

  12. Anterolateral thigh skinfold thickness and the European head and neck cancer patient: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Achal, Kulraj S; Farrell, C; Smith, Adam B; Mücke, T; Mitchell, David A; Kanatas, Anastasios N

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively assess this widely recognised problem of the bulky adipocutaneous Anterolateral thigh flap in the European population that may have implications in the reconstruction of head and neck cancer patients. We report 50 cases that underwent specific prospective thigh skinfold thickness assessment as part of assessment of suitability for ALT flap reconstruction following cancer ablation. The null hypothesis was that thigh skinfold thickness and circumference in an oral cancer population do not differ significantly from published sino-Asian norms. This study confirms anthropometrically the suspicion that European thigh skinfold thickness in a head and neck cancer population is greater than sino-Asian comparators. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. International Cancer of the Head and Neck, Genetics and Environment (InterCHANGE) Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-10-29

    Evaluate the Association Between Certain Environmental Exposures (e.g. Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Drinking, Betel Nut Chewing…) and Head and Neck Cancers; Assess the Effect of Genetic Factors, Including Both SNP and Copy Number Variation (CNV) Through Analysis of Both Main Effect and Gene-gene Interaction

  14. Radiologic percutaneous gastrostomy: results in 56 patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Righi, P D; Reddy, D K; Weisberger, E C; Johnson, M S; Trerotola, S O; Radpour, S; Johnson, P E; Stevens, C E

    1998-07-01

    The establishment of a direct enteral feeding route is critical in the overall treatment of many patients with head and neck cancer. Use of radiologic percutaneous gastrostomy (RPG), the newest technique for gaining enteral access, has not been studied in such patients extensively. This study evaluated the indications, technique, success rate, and complications associated with RPG in patients with head and neck cancer. Retrospective. A comprehensive chart review was undertaken of 56 patients with head and neck cancer treated at a tertiary care institution who had undergone successful or attempted RPG at some point during their treatment course. Most study patients had advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The most frequent indications for RPG were dysphagia/aspiration following tumor resection (n = 26) and dysphagia following completion of single- or combined-modality therapy (n = 22). The success rate of attempted RPGs was 98.2%. The overall complication rate for RPG was 12.7% (10.9% minor and 1.8% major). RPG is a valuable tool for establishing enteral nutrition in patients with head and neck cancer. Advantages of RPG include high success rate despite obstructing lesions, low complication rate, time efficiency and scheduling ease compared with intraoperative percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) by a second team, no reported tumor seeding of the tube site, and the fact that postoperative RPG allows for more accurate selection of patients who require a gastrostomy tube.

  15. Immunoenhanced enteral nutrition formulas in head and neck cancer surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Casas Rodera, P; de Luis, D A; Gómez Candela, C; Culebras, J M

    2012-01-01

    Significant malnutrition exists in a high percentage of patients with head and neck cancer. Malnutrition is associated with defects in immune function that may impair the host response to malignancy. Malnutrition and immunosupression make patients highly susceptible to postoperative infections and complications. Some studies of patients receiving immuno-nutrition in the perioperative period in head and neck cancer have shown beneficial effects on clinical outcome and inmune status. The authors carried out a systematic review of randomised control trials to determine whether perioperative immunonutrition has a role in the treatment of head and neck cancer. 14 trials of polymeric nutritional supplementation with immunonutrition were identified. Two studies compared two types of immunonutrition. A reduction in the length of postoperative hospital stay was seen in some trials, but the reason for this reduction is not clear. Some studides showed statistical differences with less complications in arginine-enhanced group and also showed a significant decrease of fistula complications in patients treated with a high arginine dose enhanced formula, if compared with a medium dose of arginine. [corrected] Those planning future studies face challenges. A suitable powered clinical trial is required before firm recommendations can be made on the use of immunonutrition in head and neck cancer patients postoperatively.

  16. A dietitian-led clinic for patients receiving (chemo)radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Nicole K; Krishnasamy, Meinir; Loeliger, Jenelle; Granados, Alba; Dutu, Gaelle; Corry, June

    2012-09-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in head and neck cancer patients and is associated with poorer outcomes and increased health care costs. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability, organisational efficiency and clinical outcomes of a dietitian-led head and neck cancer clinic. Two consecutive, independent, patient cohorts were studied with a pre-post-test design of 98 patients prior to the introduction of a dietitian-led clinic (DLC) and the subsequent 100 patients who attended the newly formulated DLC. The two groups were compared for frequency of dietitian intervention, weight loss, enteral feeding, hospital admissions and post-treatment medical follow-up requirements. Nutritional management in a DLC was associated with reduced nutrition-related admissions from 12% to 4.5% (p = 0.0029), unplanned nasogastric tube insertions from 75% to 39% (p = 0.02), improved transition to oral diet post-radiotherapy from 68.3% to 76.7% (p = 0.10) and reduced radiation oncologist review at 2 weeks post-radiotherapy from 32% to 15% patients (p = 0.009) compared to the cohort prior to the DLC. A dietitian-led head and neck cancer clinic is associated with improved efficiency and nutritional management of head and neck cancer patients and offers a feasible model of care.

  17. Radiation treatment breaks and ulcerative mucositis in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gregory; Haddad, Robert; Posner, Marshall; Machtay, Mitchell

    2008-08-01

    Unplanned radiation treatment breaks and prolongation of the radiation treatment time are associated with lower survival and locoregional control rates when radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy is used in the curative treatment of head and neck cancer. Treatment of head and neck cancer is intense, involving high-dose, continuous radiotherapy, and often adding chemotherapy to radiotherapy. As the intensity of treatment regimens has escalated in recent years, clinical outcomes generally have improved. However, more intensive therapy also increases the incidence of treatment-related toxicities, particularly those impacting the mucosal lining of the oral cavity, pharynx, and cervical esophagus, and results in varying degrees of ulcerative mucositis. Ulcerative mucositis is a root cause of unscheduled radiation treatment breaks, which prolongs the total radiation treatment time. Alterations in radiotherapy and chemotherapy, including the use of continuous (i.e., 7 days/week) radiotherapy to ensure constant negative proliferative pressure, may improve efficacy outcomes. However, these approaches also increase the incidence of ulcerative mucositis, thereby increasing the incidence of unplanned radiation treatment breaks. Conversely, the reduction of ulcerative mucositis to minimize unplanned breaks in radiotherapy may enhance not only tolerability, but also efficacy outcomes. Several strategies to prevent ulcerative mucositis in radiotherapy for head and neck cancer have been evaluated, but none have demonstrated strong efficacy. Continued investigation is needed to identify superior radiation treatment regimens, technology, and supportive care that reduce unplanned radiation treatment breaks with the goal of improving clinical outcomes in head and neck cancer.

  18. Improved immobilization using an individual head support in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Houweling, Antonetta C; van der Meer, Skadi; van der Wal, Edwin; Terhaard, Chris H J; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J

    2010-07-01

    The benefits of a patient-specific head support, developed to improve immobilization during radiotherapy, were determined in head and neck cancer patients. Cone-beam CTs were registered to the planning CT in five regions. Compared to the standard head support, the individual head support decreased the systematic and random errors of the inter- and intrafraction displacements and reduced deformations.

  19. Swallowing performance in patients with head and neck cancer: a simple clinical test.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joanne M; McColl, Elaine; Carding, Paul N; Kelly, Charles; Wilson, Janet A

    2009-10-01

    Few simple clinical measures are available to monitor swallowing performance in head and neck cancer. Water swallow tests (WST) have been used as a part of clinical assessments in neurological dysphagia. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the utility of the 100 mL WST in head and neck cancer patients. The 100 mL WST was performed on 167 head and neck cancer patients. Measures were compared with respect to tumor site/stage, gender and age. The cohort was compared with published healthy controls. The test was quick to administer with excellent compliance. Patients had significantly poorer swallows than the published control group (mean reduction 1.6 mL/s). Function worsened with increased tumor stage and for patients with pharyngeal tumors. The 100 mL WST is an effective swallowing performance measure and is easily incorporated into a clinical examination. This paper provides benchmark data on the 100 mL WST for individuals with head and neck cancer.

  20. IMRT Reirradiation of Head and Neck Cancer-Disease Control and Morbidity Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Sulman, Erik P.; Schwartz, David L. Le, Thuy T.; Ang, K. Kian; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David I.; Ahamad, Anesa; Kies, Merril; Glisson, Bonnie; Garden, Adam S.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: Institutional and cooperative group experience has demonstrated the feasibility of reirradiation for head and neck cancer. Limited data are available regarding the use of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for this indication. We reviewed our initial experience using IMRT for previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Records of 78 consecutive patients reirradiated with IMRT for head and neck cancer between 1999 and 2004 were reviewed; 74 cases were analyzed. Reirradiation was defined as any overlap between original and new radiation treatment volumes regardless of the time interval between initial and subsequent treatment. Severe reirradiation-related toxicity was defined as toxic events resulting in hospitalization, corrective surgery, or patient death. Longitudinal estimates of survival were calculated by Kaplan-Meier technique. Results: Twenty (27%) patients underwent salvage surgical resection and 36 (49%) patients received chemotherapy. Median follow-up from reirradiation was 25 months. Median time interval between initial radiation and reirradiation was 46 months. Median reirradiation dose was 60 Gy. Median lifetime radiation dose was 116.1 Gy. The 2-year overall survival and locoregional control rates were 58% and 64%, respectively. Severe reirradiation related toxicity occurred in 15 patients (20%); one treatment-related death was observed. Conclusions: The use of IMRT for reirradiation of recurrent or second primary head and neck cancers resulted in encouraging local control and survival. Reirradiation-related morbidity was significant, but may be less severe than previously published reports using conventional techniques.

  1. Photodynamic therapy of head and neck cancer with different sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakoulovskaya, Elena G.; Shental, Victor V.; Abdoullin, N. A.; Kuvshinov, Yury P.; Tabolinovskaia, T. D.; Edinak, N. J.; Poddubny, Boris K.; Kondratjeva, T. T.; Meerovich, Gennadii A.; Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Agafonov, Valery V.

    1997-12-01

    This paper deals with the results of clinical trials for sulfated aluminum phthalocyanine (PHS) (Photosens, Russia; Photogeme (PG) in Russia. The results of photodynamic therapy (PDT) of head and neck tumors (HNT), side effects and ways of their correction and prevention, as well as possibility to work out less toxic regimes of PDT with photosense, choice of laser and type of irradiation are discussed. PDT have been provided in 79 patients with different head and neck tumors. Efficacy of PDT depended on tumor size and its histological type. Undesirable changes in plasma content of antioxidants by means of high pressure liquid chromatography (HLPC) have been found in patients after PHS injection. Influence of short-term and long-term supplementation with beta-carotene and vitamin E on this parameters are discussed.

  2. Treatment Outcome of Combined Modalities for Buccal Cancers: Unilateral or Bilateral Neck Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.-Y.; Lee, L.-Y.; Huang, S.-F.; Kang, C.-J.; Fan, K.-H.; Wang, H.-M.; Chen, I.-H.; Liao, C.-T.

    2008-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of treatment for buccal cancers and assess the impact of unilateral vs. bilateral adjuvant neck radiation. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the course of 145 patients newly diagnosed with buccal squamous cell carcinoma without distant metastases who completed definitive treatment between January 1994 and December 2000. Of 145 patients, 112 (77%) had Stage III or IV disease. All underwent radical surgery with postoperative radiotherapy (median dose, 64 Gy), including unilateral neck treatment in most (n = 120, 82.8%). After 1997, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy was given for high-risk patients with more than two involved lymph nodes, extracapsular spread, and/or positive margins. Results: The 5-year disease-specific survival rate for Stages I-IV was 87%, 83%, 61%, and 60%, respectively (p = 0.01). The most significant prognostic factor was N stage, with the 5-year disease-specific survival rate for N0, N1, and N2 being 79%, 65%, and 54%, respectively (p 0.001). For patients with more than two lymph nodes or positive extracapsular spread, cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy improved locoregional control (p = 0.02). Locoregional control did not differ between patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral neck treatments (p = 0.95). Contralateral neck failure occurred in only 2.1%. Conclusions: In patients with buccal carcinoma after radical resection, ipsilateral neck radiation is adequate. Bilateral prophylactic neck treatment does not confer an added benefit.

  3. Role of concomitant chemoradiation in locally advanced head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Lasrado, Savita; Moras, Kuldeep; Pinto, George Jawahar Oliver; Bhat, Mahesh; Hegde, Sanath; Sathian, Brijesh; Luis, Neil Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Standard therapy for advanced head and neck cancer consists of a combination of surgery and radiation. However, survival of this patient population has not improved during the past 20 years. Many different multimodality treatment schedules have been proposed, and chemotherapy is often used with the intent of organ preservation. The present study was intended to establish the efficacy of concomitant chemoradiation with a single agent carboplatin in advanced head and neck cancers.The objectives were to investigate the feasibility of concomitant administration of carboplatin, monitor acute toxicity during radiotherapy, and determine subacute side effects, such as wound healing following surgery after chemoradiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted wherein a total of 40 patients with stage III and IV squamous cell carcinomas of oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx were enrolled. All patients were treated with external beam radiotherapy and weekly carboplatin area under curve (AUC of 5). Radiotherapy was given in single daily fractions of 1.8-2 grays (Gy) to a total dose of 66-72 Gy. Salvage surgery was performed for any residual or recurrent locoregional disease. Neck dissection was recommended for all patients with neck disease showing less than a complete response after chemoradiation. A total of 40 patients were enrolled of whom 32 were males and 8 were females. Highest incidence of cancer was seen in the 5th-6th decades of life with a median age of 47.7 years. Oropharyngeal tumours constituted a maximum of 21 patients followed by hypopharynx in 10, larynx in 7 and oral cavity in 2. 80% of the patients had a neck node on presentation of which 40% had N2-N3 nodal status. TNM staging revealed that 58% of patients were in stage III and 43% in stage IV. Evaluation of acute toxicity revealed that 50% had grade II mucositis, 25% grade III mucositis, 2.5% grade IV mucositis. 50% of patients had grade I skin reactions, 65% of patients had grade I

  4. Premature carotid artery disease in pediatric cancer survivors treated with neck irradiation.

    PubMed

    Meeske, Kathleen A; Siegel, Stuart E; Gilsanz, Vicente; Bernstein, Leslie; Nelson, Mary B; Sposto, Richard; Weaver, Fred A; Lavey, Robert S; Mack, M P H Wendy J; Nelson, Marvin D

    2009-10-01

    While carotid artery disease and strokes have been documented in adult cancer patients treated with neck irradiation, little information is available on pediatric patients. The purpose of this study is to determine if carotid disease is more prevalent among pediatric cancer survivors treated with neck irradiation than among healthy controls. Thirty pediatric cancer survivors who received neck irradiation (2,000-6,660 cGy) and 30 healthy subjects underwent bilateral carotid ultrasounds. Study outcome measures were common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque (present or absent). Multivariate methods were used to compare cases and controls and to identify risk factors related to carotid disease in childhood cancer survivors. IMT was greater for cancer survivors than controls (0.46 mm (SD 0.12) vs. 0.41 mm (SD 0.06), P < 0.001). Plaque was present in 18% of irradiated vessels and 2% of non-irradiated vessels (P < 0.01). Among cancer survivors, IMT was positively associated with female gender (P < 0.05), non-white ethnicity (P < 0.01), positive family history of stroke/heart attack (P < 0.05), BMI (P < 0.001), total cholesterol (P < 0.01), cancer relapse (P < 0.001), and years off treatment (P < 0.0001). Plaque was positively associated with relapse (P < 0.05) and C-reactive protein (P < 0.01). There was no significant relationship between radiation dose at levels >or=2,000 cGy and IMT or plaque. Carotid artery disease was more prevalent among cancer survivors treated with neck irradiation than among controls. Due to the high risk of stroke associated with advanced carotid disease, larger prospective studies are needed to better define disease risk in these long-term survivors.

  5. AHNS Series: Do you know your guidelines? Principles of surgery for head and neck cancer: A review of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew C; Goldenberg, David

    2017-04-01

    This article continues a series developed by the American Head and Neck Society's Education Committee entitled "Do you know your guidelines?" It is hoped that these features will increase awareness of and adherence to current best practices in head and neck cancer care. In this installment, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines for surgical therapy are reviewed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 791-796, 2017.

  6. Nutrient-based dietary patterns and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium

    PubMed Central

    Edefonti, V.; Hashibe, M.; Ambrogi, F.; Parpinel, M.; Bravi, F.; Talamini, R.; Levi, F.; Yu, G.; Morgenstern, H.; Kelsey, K.; McClean, M.; Schantz, S.; Zhang, Z.; Chuang, S.; Boffetta, P.; La Vecchia, C.; Decarli, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The association between dietary patterns and head and neck cancer has rarely been addressed. Patients and methods We used individual-level pooled data from five case–control studies (2452 cases and 5013 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortium. A posteriori dietary patterns were identified through a principal component factor analysis carried out on 24 nutrients derived from study-specific food-frequency questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression models on quintiles of factor scores. Results We identified three major dietary patterns named ‘animal products and cereals’, ‘antioxidant vitamins and fiber’, and ‘fats’. The ‘antioxidant vitamins and fiber’ pattern was inversely related to oral and pharyngeal cancer (OR = 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.76 for the highest versus the lowest score quintile). The ‘animal products and cereals’ pattern was positively associated with laryngeal cancer (OR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.12–2.11), whereas the ‘fats’ pattern was inversely associated with oral and pharyngeal cancer (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.63–0.97) and positively associated with laryngeal cancer (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 1.22–2.34). Conclusions These findings suggest that diets rich in animal products, cereals, and fats are positively related to laryngeal cancer, and those rich in fruit and vegetables inversely related to oral and pharyngeal cancer. PMID:22123733

  7. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for previously irradiated, recurrent head-and-neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jen; Kuo, Jeffrey V; Ramsinghani, Nilam S; Al-Ghazi, Muthana S A L

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate our initial experience in treating previously irradiated, recurrent head-and-neck cancers using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Between July 1997 and September 1999, 12 patients with previously irradiated, locally recurrent head-and-neck cancers were treated with IMRT. These included cancers of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, larynx, paranasal sinus, skin of the head-and-neck region, and malignant melanoma. Five of these 12 patients had received radiation as the primary treatment, with doses ranging from 66.0 to 126.0 Gy, and the remaining 7 patients had undergone definitive surgeries followed by an adjuvant course of radiation treatment, with doses ranging between 36.0 and 64.8 Gy. Recurrence after the initial course of radiation occurred in periods ranging from 4 to 35 months, with 11 of 12 cases recurring fully in the fields of previous irradiation. Recurrent tumors were treated with IMRT to total doses between 30 to 70 Gy (> 50 Gy in 10 cases) prescribed at the 75% to 92% isodose lines with daily fractions of 1.8 to 2 Gy. The results revealed that acute toxicities were acceptable except in 1 patient who died of aspiration pneumonia during the course of retreatment. There were 4 complete responders, 2 partial responders, and 2 patients with stable disease in the IMRT-treated volumes. Three patients received IMRT as adjuvant treatment following salvage surgery. At 4 to 16 months of follow-up, 7 patients were still alive, with 5 revealing no evidence of disease. In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrates that IMRT offers a viable mode of re-irradiation for recurrent head-and-neck cancers in previously irradiated sites. Longer follow-up time and a larger number of patients are needed to better define the therapeutic advantage of IMRT in recurrent, previously irradiated head-and-neck cancers.

  8. Body image and depressive symptoms in patients with head and neck cancer: an important relationship

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jie; Dietrich, Mary S.; Murphy, Barbara; Ridner, Sheila H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms in patients who have been treated for head and neck cancer. Methods This is a prospective, longitudinal analysis. Body image and depressive symptoms were measured in patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer at baseline, end of treatment, 6 weeks post-treatment, and 12 weeks post-treatment. Body image was measured using the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results Forty-three individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer participated in this study. The majority of participants were male, Caucasian, and married or living with a partner. Participants ranged from age 32 to 78 years (M=57.8 years, SD=10.5 years). At 12 weeks post-treatment, body image scores were statistically significantly higher than they were at the end of treatment (p=0.016) and 6 weeks post-treatment (p=0.032). Statistically significant increases in levels of depressive symptoms were observed at the end of treatment (p<0.001) and 6 weeks post-treatment (p=0.036) with a return to baseline by the 12-week post-treatment assessment (p=0.115). Body image and depressive symptoms were statistically significantly associated at the end of treatment, 6 weeks post-treatment, and 12 weeks post-treatment (rs −0.32 to −0.56, p <0.05). Conclusions This study supports early assessment of body image in patients with head and neck cancer. Additionally, the association between poorer body image and increased depressive symptoms is key in understanding the symptom clusters that patients with head and neck cancer experience. PMID:24925049

  9. Postoperative care fragmentation and thirty-day unplanned readmissions after head and neck cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Graboyes, Evan M; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Saeed, Mohammed J; Olsen, Margaret A; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2017-04-01

    Postdischarge care fragmentation, readmission to a hospital other than the one performing the surgery, has not been described in head and neck cancer patients. We sought to determine the frequency, risk factors, and outcomes for head and neck cancer patients experiencing postdischarge care fragmentation. Retrospective cohort study. We analyzed patients in the 2008 to 2010 California State Inpatient Database with a 30-day unplanned readmission following head and neck cancer surgery. The frequency of postdischarge care fragmentation, patient- and hospital-level risk factors for care fragmentation, readmission diagnosis, and readmission outcomes were determined. Of 561 patients with a 30-day unplanned readmission, 210 (37.4%) were readmitted to a hospital other than the one performing the surgery. Surgical hospitalization length of stay ≥15 days (odds ratio [OR]: 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-3.10) and discharge to a care facility (OR: 2.85, 95% CI: 1.77-4.58) were associated with care fragmentation. Overall, 39.8% of unplanned 30-day readmissions (223/561) were treatment complications, and 30.9% of treatment complication readmissions (69/223) occurred at a nonindex hospital. Patients with postdischarge care fragmentation had a 2.1-fold increased risk of in-hospital mortality within 30 days of readmission compared to patients readmitted to the index hospital (95% CI: 1.04-4.26). Postdischarge care fragmentation following head an neck cancer surgery is common, as 37% of readmitted patients and 31% of patients readmitted with a treatment complication are readmitted to a hospital other than the surgical hospital. Head and neck cancer patients experiencing care fragmentation are at increased risk of in-hospital mortality within 30 days of readmission. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:868-874, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Interaction between tobacco and alcohol use and the risk of head and neck cancer: pooled analysis in the INHANCE consortium

    PubMed Central

    Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul; Chuang, Shu-chun; Boccia, Stefania; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Maso, Luigino Dal; Daudt, Alexander W.; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Franceschi, Silvia; Hayes, Richard B.; Herrero, Rolando; Kelsey, Karl; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lence, Juan J.; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; Menezes, Ana; McClean, Michael D.; Muscat, Joshua; Eluf-Neto, Jose; Olshan, Andrew F.; Purdue, Mark; Rudnai, Peter; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Smith, Elaine; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M.; Shangina, Oxana; Pilarska, Agnieszka; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Ferro, Gilles; Berthiller, Julien; Boffetta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Background The magnitude of risk conferred by the interaction between tobacco and alcohol use on the risk of head and neck cancers is not clear, since studies have used various methods to quantify the excess head and neck cancer burden. Methods We analyzed individual-level pooled data from 17 European and American case-control studies (11,221 cases and 16,168 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. We estimated the multiplicative interaction parameter (ψ) and population attributable risks (PAR). Results A greater than multiplicative joint effect between ever tobacco and alcohol use was observed for head and neck cancer risk (ψ=2.15, 95%CI=1.53–3.04). The PAR for tobacco or alcohol was 72% (95%CI=61%–79%) for head and neck cancer, of which 4% was due to alcohol alone, 33% was due tobacco alone and 35% was due to tobacco and alcohol combined. The total PAR differed by subsite (64% for oral cavity cancer, 72% for pharyngeal cancer, 89% for laryngeal cancer), by sex (74% for men, 57% for women) by age (33% for cases <45 years, 73% for cases >60 years) and by region (84% in Europe, 51% in North America, 83% in Latin America). Conclusions Our results confirm that the joint effect between tobacco and alcohol use is greater than multiplicative on head and neck cancer risk. However, a substantial proportion of head and neck cancers cannot be attributed to tobacco or alcohol use, particularly for oral cavity cancer, for head and neck cancer among women and among young onset cases. PMID:19190158

  11. Is an Elective Neck Dissection Necessary for All Cases of N0 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma? -Elective Neck Dissection may be Performed for Tongue Cancer with Tumor Thickness More than 4 mm.

    PubMed

    Otsuru, Mitsunobu; Aoki, Takayuki; Ota, Yoshihide; Denda, Yuya; Akiba, Takeshi; Sekine, Riyo; Yoshida, Yoshifumi; Osaka, Ryuta

    2016-09-20

    We investigated whether neck dissection should be performed to prevent T1-2N0M0 tongue cancer by using the Weiss and colleague's decision tree method. The results showed that preventive neck dissection should not be recommended for T1-2N0M0 tongue cancer. However, preventive neck dissection is a suitable approach when treating tongue cancer tumors with a thickness of ≥ 4 mm.

  12. Risk of depressive disorder among patients with head and neck cancer: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Yueh; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Lin, Chun-Shu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chang-Ming; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk of depressive disorder among patients with head and neck cancer. We identified 48 548 patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan who were newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer between 2000 and 2010. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched with an individual without head and neck cancer, based on index year, sex, age, occupation category, urbanization level, monthly income, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional Registry of Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of head and neck cancer on the risk of depressive disorder. Patients with head and neck cancer had a significantly higher risk of depressive disorder than the matched cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.05-3.61), with the highest risk seen in the hypopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with head and neck cancer had >3 times the incidence of depressive disorder, relative to the comparison group. Psychological evaluation and support are essential in head and neck cancer survivors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The characteristics of advanced cancer patients followed at home, but admitted to the hospital for the last days of life.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Mercadante, Alessandro; Aielli, Federica

    2016-08-01

    Information regarding advanced cancer patients followed at home who are admitted to the hospital in the last days of life are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of patients who were hospitalized in the last days of life after being assisted by a home palliative care team. The secondary outcome was to identify possible risk factors for hospitalization. The charts were analyzed of a consecutive sample of advanced cancer patients admitted to hospital wards in the last days of life after being followed at home by a palliative care team. Of 550 consecutive patients followed at home, 138 (25.1 %) were admitted to the hospital. Younger patients were more likely to die in the hospital. In a logistic risk analysis adjusted for age, patients with lung and head-neck cancer were more likely to die in the hospital. Patients having a female relative or a female consort as a caregiver were more likely to die at home. CAGE-positive patients (7.25 %), and patients with a shorter period of home assistance were more likely transported to hospital before dying (p = 0.00 and p < 0.024, respectively). The most frequent reason for hospital admission was dyspnea. Admission was more frequent to the oncology ward. Patients who were admitted to the hospital died after a mean of 10.2 days (SD 8.2, range 0-40). This study provides preliminary data on the risk factors of hospitalization at the end of life for advanced cancer patients followed at home.

  14. Biology and immunology of cancer stem(-like) cells in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xu; Ma, Chenming; Nie, Xiaobo; Lu, Jianxin; Lenarz, Minoo; Kaufmann, Andreas M; Albers, Andreas E

    2015-09-01

    Immunological approaches against tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) have been investigated for about 50 years. Such immunotherapeutic treatments are still not sufficiently effective for therapy of HNSCC. Despite the existence of immunosurveillance tumor cells may escape from the host immune system by a variety of mechanisms. Recent findings have indicated that cancer stem(-like) cells (CSCs) in HNSCC have the ability to reconstitute the heterogeneity of the bulk tumor and contribute to immunosuppression and resistance to current therapies. With regard to the CSC model, future immunotherapy possibly in combination with other modes of treatment should target this subpopulation specifically to reduce local recurrence and metastasis. In this review, we will summarize recent research findings on immunological features of CSCs and the potential of immune targeting of CSCs.

  15. Evaluation of cervical lymph nodes in head and neck cancer with CT and MRI: tips, traps, and a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Jenny K; Vanka, Jyotsna; Ludwig, Benjamin J; Glastonbury, Christine M

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present a 4-step approach to evaluating lymph nodes in the setting of head and neck squamous cell and thyroid carcinoma and highlight important tips and traps. The presence and extent of nodal metastases in head and neck cancer has a great impact on treatment and prognosis. Pretreatment CT and MRI of the neck are commonly performed to evaluate for nodal metastases.

  16. Promoting cancer screening within the patient centered medical home.

    PubMed

    Sarfaty, Mona; Wender, Richard; Smith, Robert

    2011-01-01

    While consensus has grown that primary care is the essential access point in a high-performing health care system, the current model of primary care underperforms in both chronic disease management and prevention. The Patient Centered Medical Home model (PCMH) is at the center of efforts to reinvent primary care practice, and is regarded as the most promising approach to addressing the burden of chronic disease, improving health outcomes, and reducing health spending. However, the potential for the medical home to improve the delivery of cancer screening (and preventive services in general) has received limited attention in both conceptualization and practice. Medical home demonstrations to date have included few evidence-based preventive services in their outcome measures, and few have evaluated the effect of different payment models. Decreasing use of hospitals and emergency rooms and an emphasis on improving chronic care represent improvements in effective delivery of healthcare, but leave opportunities for reducing the burden of cancer untouched. Data confirm that what does or does not happen in the primary care setting has a substantial impact on cancer outcomes. Insofar as cancer is the leading cause of death before age 80, the PCMH model must prioritize adherence to cancer screening according to recommended guidelines, and systems, financial incentives, and reimbursements must be aligned to achieve that goal. This article explores capacities that are needed in the medical home model to facilitate the integration of cancer screening and other preventive services. These capacities include improved patient access and communication, health risk assessments, periodic preventive health exams, use of registries that store cancer risk information and screening history, ability to track and follow up on tests and referrals, feedback on performance, and payment models that reward cancer screening.

  17. Natural vitamin C intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology consortiuma,b

    PubMed Central

    Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Turati, Federica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F.; Zevallos, Jose P.; Winn, Deborah M.; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of associations between single nutrients and head and neck cancer (HNC) is still more limited and less consistent than that for fruit and vegetables. However, clarification of the protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables is important to our understanding of HNC etiology. We investigated the association between vitamin C intake from natural sources and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx using individual-level pooled data from ten case-control studies (5959 cases and 12248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. After harmonization of study-specific exposure information via the residual method, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models on quintile categories of ’non-alcohol energy-adjusted’ vitamin C intake. In the presence of heterogeneity of the estimated ORs among studies, we derived those estimates from generalized linear mixed models. Higher intakes of vitamin C were inversely related to oral and pharyngeal (OR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.45–0.65, for the fifth quintile category versus the first one, p for trend<0.001) and laryngeal cancers (OR=0.52, 95% CI: 0.40–0.68, p for trend=0.006), although in the presence of heterogeneity among studies for both sites. Inverse associations were consistently observed for the anatomical subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancer, and across strata of age, sex, education, body mass index, tobacco, and alcohol, for both cancer sites. The inverse association of vitamin C intake from foods with HNC may reflect a protective effect on these cancers; however, we cannot rule out other explanations. PMID:25627906

  18. Natural vitamin C intake and the risk of head and neck cancer: A pooled analysis in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.

    PubMed

    Edefonti, Valeria; Hashibe, Mia; Parpinel, Maria; Turati, Federica; Serraino, Diego; Matsuo, Keitaro; Olshan, Andrew F; Zevallos, Jose P; Winn, Deborah M; Moysich, Kirsten; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Morgenstern, Hal; Levi, Fabio; Kelsey, Karl; McClean, Michael; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; Schantz, Stimson; Yu, Guo-Pei; Boffetta, Paolo; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Chuang, Shu-Chun; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2015-07-15

    Evidence of associations between single nutrients and head and neck cancer (HNC) is still more limited and less consistent than that for fruit and vegetables. However, clarification of the protective mechanisms of fruit and vegetables is important to our understanding of HNC etiology. We investigated the association between vitamin C intake from natural sources and cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx and larynx using individual-level pooled data from ten case-control studies (5,959 cases and 12,248 controls) participating in the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) consortium. After harmonization of study-specific exposure information via the residual method, adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models on quintile categories of 'non-alcohol energy-adjusted' vitamin C intake. In the presence of heterogeneity of the estimated ORs among studies, we derived those estimates from generalized linear mixed models. Higher intakes of vitamin C were inversely related to oral and pharyngeal (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.45-0.65, for the fifth quintile category versus the first one, p for trend<0.001) and laryngeal cancers (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.40-0.68, p for trend = 0.006), although in the presence of heterogeneity among studies for both sites. Inverse associations were consistently observed for the anatomical subsites of oral and pharyngeal cancer, and across strata of age, sex, education, body mass index, tobacco, and alcohol, for both cancer sites. The inverse association of vitamin C intake from foods with HNC may reflect a protective effect on these cancers; however, we cannot rule out other explanations. © 2014 UICC.

  19. The association of lymph node volume with cervical metastatic lesions in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ming-Tai; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang; Wang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Chen-Chi; Lin, Whe-Dar; Liu, Shih-An

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if volume of cervical lymph node measured via computed tomography (CT) could differentiate metastatic from benign lesions in head and neck cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective review of chart and images in a tertiary referring center in Taiwan. Patients with head and neck cancers underwent radical, modified radical or functional neck dissection were enrolled. The CT images before operation were reassessed by a radiologist and were compared with the results of pathological examination. A total of 102 patients were included for final analyses. Most patients were male (n = 96, 94%) and average age was 50.1 years. Although the average nodal volume in patients with cervical metastases was higher than those of patients without cervical metastases, it was not an independent factor associated with cervical metastasis after controlling for other variables; however, central nodal necrosis on enhanced CT image [odds ratio (OR) 18.95, P = 0.008) and minimal axial diameter >7.5 mm (OR 6.868, P = 0.001) were independent factors correlated with cervical metastasis. Therefore, the volume of cervical lymph node measured from CT images cannot predict cervical metastases in head and neck cancer patients. Measurement of minimal axial diameter of the largest lymph node is a simple and more accurate way to predict cervical metastasis instead.

  20. Cross-sectional imaging in cancers of the head and neck: how we review and report.

    PubMed

    Tshering Vogel, Dechen Wangmo; Thoeny, Harriet C

    2016-08-03

    Cancer of the head and neck is the sixth most frequent cancer worldwide and associated with significant morbidity. The head and neck area is complex and divided into various anatomical and functional subunits. Imaging is performed by cross-sectional modalities like computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound and positron emission tomography-computed tomography, usually with fluorine-18-deoxy-D-glucose. Therefore, knowledge of the cross-sectional anatomy is very important. This article seeks to give an overview of the various cross-sectional imaging modalities used in the evaluation of head and neck cancers. It briefly describes the anatomy of the extracranial head and neck and the role of imaging as well as the imaging appearance of tumours and their extension to lymph nodes, bone and surrounding tissue. The advantages and disadvantages as well as basic requirements of the various modalities are described along with ways of optimizing imaging quality. A general guideline for prescription of the various modalities is given. Pitfalls are many and varied and can be due to anatomical variation, due to pathology which can be misinterpreted and technical due to peculiarities of the various imaging modalities. Knowledge of these pitfalls can help to avoid misinterpretation. The important points to be mentioned while reporting are also enumerated.

  1. Head and neck cancer in elderly patients: is microsurgical free-tissue transfer a safe procedure?

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, A; Pizzigallo, A; Sgarzani, R; Oranges, C M; Cipriani, R; Marchetti, C

    2012-12-01

    The safety and success of microvascular transfer have been well documented in the general population, but the good results achieved with the use of free flaps in elderly patients have received little attention. This study sought to identify differences in complications, morbidity and functional outcomes between elderly (≥ 75 years) and younger (< 75 years) patients treated surgically for advanced head and neck cancer using the Head and Neck 35 module of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire. Patient treatment consisted of composite resection, including excision of the primary tumour with ipsilateral or bilateral neck dissection and microvascular reconstruction. Eighty-five microvascular tissue transfers were performed to reconstruct major surgical defects. Postoperative radiation therapy was performed when indicated. Total flap loss occurred in three cases in elderly patients and two cases in younger patients. The rates of major surgical complication were 9% in young patients and 11% in elderly patients. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in the rates of major and minor flap complications, morbidity or long-term functional outcome. The results of the present analysis indicate that free-flap microvascular reconstruction can be considered a safe procedure in elderly patients with head and neck cancer.

  2. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for recurrent head and neck cancer: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Sujith; Kabarriti, Rafi; Ohri, Nitin; Haynes-Lewis, Hilda; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Kalnicki, Shalom; Garg, Madhur K

    2017-03-01

    The management of patients with recurrent head and neck cancers remains a challenging clinical dilemma. Concerns over toxicity with re-irradiation have limited its use in the clinical setting. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a highly conformal and precise type of radiotherapy and has the advantage of sparing normal tissue. Although SBRT is an attractive treatment modality, its use in the clinic is limited, given the technically challenging nature of the procedure. In this review, we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of re-irradiation in patients with recurrent head and neck cancers, with particular attention to the advent of SBRT and its use with systemic therapies such as cetuximab. In the second portion of this review, we present our systematic review of published experiences with SBRT in recurrent head and neck cancers in an attempt to provide data on response rates (RR), overall survival and toxicity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 595-601, 2017.

  3. Limited mouth opening after primary therapy of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Weber, Clemens; Dommerich, Steffen; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Kramp, Burkhard

    2010-09-01

    Patients after surgery and radiation/chemoradiation for treatment of head and neck cancer often suffer from oral complications. These problems may be caused by surgery and radiation. Patients complain, for example, of swallowing problems and limited mouth opening (trismus). The maximal interincisal mouth opening (MIO) was measured in patients treated with surgery and radiation/chemoradiation for head and neck cancer at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at the University of Rostock. These patients also completed a 20-item questionnaire concerning nutritional, sensual, and speech disorders and pain. One hundred one patients (16 female and 85 male) returned the questionnaire and were included in the study. About 50% of the patients had a limited mouth opening (<36 mm); patients with oropharyngeal cancer had a significant higher risk for trismus (p = .024) than patients with other head and neck cancers, especially compared to patients with laryngeal cancer (p = .013). The questionnaire showed that especially patients with oral cancer report about problems with opening the mouth (73%), eating (65%), drinking (73%), xerostomia (92%), speech disorders (68%), and voice (62%). Patients with laryngeal cancer only reported about problems with xerostomia (62%), speech (83%), and voice (90%), similar to patients with pharyngeal cancer. About half of the patients who underwent primary treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancer developed trismus and reported about problems with opening the mouth, eating, drinking, dry mouth, voice, and speech. Trismus has a negative impact on quality of life and should be a focus in the postoperative management of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer, and, if diagnosed, special treatment should be initialized.

  4. Acupuncture in Treating Dry Mouth Caused By Radiation Therapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    RATIONALE: Acupuncture may help relieve dry mouth caused by radiation therapy. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying to see how well one set of acupuncture points work in comparison to a different set of acupuncture points or standard therapy in treating dry mouth caused by radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. |

  5. Molecular biology and immunology of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Theresa; Califano, Joseph A

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, our knowledge and understanding of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has expanded dramatically. New high-throughput sequencing technologies have accelerated these discoveries since the first reports of whole-exome sequencing of HNSCC tumors in 2011. In addition, the discovery of human papillomavirus in relationship with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma has shifted our molecular understanding of the disease. New investigation into the role of immune evasion in HNSCC has also led to potential novel therapies based on immune-specific systemic therapies.

  6. Isolation and characterization of cancer stem cells from primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong S.; Pearson, Alexander T.; Nör, Jacques E.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Drug resistance remains a significant problem in the treatment of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Recent reports showed that a sub-population of highly tumorigenic cells (cancer stem cells) is uniquely resistant to chemotherapy, and suggesting that these cells play an important role in the relapse of HNSCC. The development of methods for the isolation and culture of cancer stem cells is a key step to enable studies exploring the mechanisms underlying the role of these cells in chemoresistance. Here, we describe a method to isolate cancer stem cells from primary head and neck tumors and for the generation of orospheres, i.e. the culture of these cells in suspension in ultra-low attachment plates. PMID:26910078

  7. Developing a protocol for gastrostomy tube insertion in patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Habib, Syed F; Ahmed, Suhail; Skelly, Rachel; Bhatt, Kavita; Patel, Bhaveshree; Lowe, Derek; Tuson, Julian; Rogers, Simon N

    2014-05-01

    Selecting patients with head and neck cancer requiring a pretreatment gastrostomy feeding tube is not straightforward. The nutritional status and functional deficits associated with the cancer, its treatment, and the long-term side effects predicate the need for gastrostomy tube placement. However, gastrostomy tubes are not without morbidity and are an added burden to the patient. The aim of this retrospective case series review was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer treated with curative intent having gastrostomy placement, with the intent of developing a protocol to help with the timely selection of patients for pretreatment gastrostomy insertion. A gastrostomy tube was placed in 32%. A regression model identified 5 independent predictors (P < .001) to predict gastrostomy tube placement: overall clinical stage, tumor site, clinical T stage, patient age, and clinical N stage. A protocol to help the multidisciplinary team to decide whether a pretreatment gastrostomy tube should be placed is suggested.

  8. Effects of radiation therapy on T-lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.C.; Chretien, P.B.; Suter, C.M.; Revie, D.R.; Tomazic, V.T.; Blanchard, C.L.; Aygun, C.; Amornmarn, R.; Ordonez, J.V.

    1985-10-01

    Cellular immunity was assessed in 85 patients with head and neck cancer with monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte surface antigens that identify total T cells, helper cells, and suppressor cells. The control group consisted of 22 healthy volunteers. Nine patients who had surgical procedures for benign diseases were also studied. Compared with the controls, the patients with cancer who received radiation therapy had a significant decrease in total lymphocytes, T cells, helper cells, suppressor cells, and decreased helper/suppressor cell ratio. Significant decreases in lymphocyte subpopulations were not detected in patients tested before treatment or in patients treated with surgery alone. The immune deficits observed were prolonged in duration, with some present in the patients studied up to 11 years after radiation therapy. This long-lasting immune depression may have relevance to tumor recurrences and second primaries in patients with head and neck cancer treated by radiation therapy and to attempts at increasing cure rates with adjuvant agents that improve immune reactivity.

  9. Head and neck cancer in South Asia: macroeconomic consequences and the role of surgery.

    PubMed

    Alkire, Blake C; Bergmark, Regan W; Chambers, Kyle; Cheney, Mack L; Meara, John G

    2015-04-27

    Head and neck cancer, for which the diagnosis and treatment are often surgical, comprises a substantial proportion of the burden of disease in South Asia. Further, estimates of surgical volume suggest this region faces a critical shortage of surgical capacity. We aimed to estimate the total economic welfare losses due to the morbidity and mortality of head and neck cancer in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh for 1 year (2010). We used publicly available estimates from the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation regarding the morbidity and mortality of head and neck cancer in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, along with an economic concept termed the value of a statistical life, to estimate total economic welfare losses due to head and neck cancer in the aforementioned countries in the year 2010. The counterfactual scenario is absence of disease. Sensitivity analyses were done with regard to how the value of a statistical life changes with income. In 2010, the most conservative estimate of economic welfare losses due to head and neck cancer in the three studied countries is US$16·9 billion (2010 USD, PPP), equivalent to 0·26% of their combined gross domestic product (GDP). The welfare losses experienced by the population younger than 70 years of age accounted for US$15·2 billion (90% of the total losses). When adjusted for the size of their respective economies, Bangladesh, the poorest of the three countries, incurred the greatest loss (US$930 million), equivalent to 0·29% of its GDP. India and Pakistan experienced welfare losses of US$14·1 billion and US$1·9 billion, respectively. These figures are equivalent to 0·26% of the GDP for both countries. Oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer made up the largest share of the total burden at 39% (US$6·6 billion), followed closely by oral cavity cancer at 34% (US$5·7 billion). The burden of non-communicable diseases, to which cancer contributes greatly, is growing at a rapid pace in South Asia. Head and neck

  10. One patient - three head and neck primaries: nasopharyngeal, tongue and thyroid cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We report a rare case of three head and neck malignancies in one patient. Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue and papillary thyroid carcinoma occurred as metachronous cancers in a patient with primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma. These three pathologically distinct malignancies of head and neck region in one patient is a rare phenomenon and is not reported so far. Case presentation A 60 year old Saudi female patient presented in March 2011 with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. After completion of concurrent chemoradiation in June 2011, she developed two new primaries i-e thyroid cancer and tongue cancer in May 2012 along with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We discuss histopathologic features, diagnostic tools and treatment modalities for this rarely existing case. Conclusion High index of suspicion and thorough work up is essential in follow up of patients with head and neck primary cancers. The effect of field cancerization and environmental factors need to be explored in greater depths in such selected cases. However, which patients are at increased risk of triplet primaries, is still unknown. PMID:24164964

  11. Body image in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: the impact of surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tsung-Min; Lin, Ching-Rong; Chi, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao; Kang, Chung-Jan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Huang, Chun-Yu; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2017-08-23

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of surgical procedures on the body image of head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and with or without radical surgery. A cross-sectional survey of 150 patients with head and neck cancer was conducted. Sixty patients had nasopharyngeal cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy without surgery, and 90 patients had oral cavity cancer treated with radical surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy. All participants completed a 10-item Body Image Scale (BIS) questionnaire to assess body image dissatisfaction. Among all patients, the socio-demographic and clinical variables were age, gender, partnership, education, employment, and radical surgery. In surgically-treated patients, the clinical variables were facial skin sacrificed, mouth angle sacrificed, glossectomy, maxillectomy, and mandibulectomy. ANOVAs, t-tests, and multiple regressions were used to evaluate the relationships between these variables and BIS results. In all patients, radical surgery was the strongest independent predictor of BIS scores. Surgically-treated patients had significantly worse BIS scores than the patients without surgery. In surgically-treated patients, facial skin sacrificed, mouth angle sacrificed, maxillectomy, and mandibulectomy were significantly associated with body image. According to multivariable analyses, inferior maxillectomy and segmental mandibulectomy were independent prognosticators of a poor BIS score in surgically-treated patients. Radical surgery for head and neck cancer patients has a significant impact on their body image, especially for those undergoing facial bone destructive surgery.

  12. Emotions and coping of patients with head and neck cancers after diagnosis: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, A; Juvva, S

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Patients suffering with head and neck cancers are observed to have a relatively high risk of developing emotional disturbances after diagnosis and treatment. These emotional concerns can be best understood and explored through the method of content analysis or qualitative data. Though a number of qualitative studies have been conducted in the last few years in the field of psychosocial oncology, none have looked at the emotions experienced and the coping by head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five new cases of postsurgery patients of head and neck cancers were qualitatively interviewed regarding the emotions experienced and coping strategies after diagnosis. Results: Qualitative content analysis of the in-depth interviews brought out that patients experienced varied emotions on realizing that they were suffering from cancer, the cause of which could be mainly attributed to three themes: 1) knowledge of their illness; 2) duration of untreated illness; and 3) object of blame. They coped with their emotions by either: 1) inculcating a positive attitude and faith in the doctor/treatment, 2) ventilating their emotions with family and friends, or 3) indulging in activities to divert attention. Conclusion: The results brought out a conceptual framework, which showed that an in-depth understanding of the emotions — Their root cause, coping strategies, and spiritual and cultural orientations of the cancer survivor — Is essential to develop any effective intervention program in India. PMID:27320951

  13. Sleep quality in long-term survivors of head and neck cancer: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Otomaru, Takafumi; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2017-07-09

    This preliminary study evaluated sleep quality in long-term head and neck cancer survivors, using demographic data and clinical features of the cancers as assessment criteria. In addition, a possible correlation was examined between scores on self-rated questionnaires of sleep quality and assessments of quality of life and oral health status. Subjects were 77 head and neck cancer survivors. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Oral and general health status was assessed using The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), respectively, and correlated with clinical parameters. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to examine relationships between variables. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables associated with poor sleep quality. Eighty-three percent of patients had poor sleep quality (global scores ≥5) and 40% had a global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score ≥8, indicating significantly poor sleep quality. Nocturnal enuresis, daytime sleepiness, and early morning awakening were the most common complaints. Extensive neck dissection, a lower SF-36 mental component score, and a higher OHIP-14 psychological disability score were independently associated with poor sleep quality. OHIP-14 global score was linked independently with daytime sleepiness. This is the first study to demonstrate a high prevalence of poor sleep quality in long-term head and neck cancer survivors. Extensive neck dissection, poor mental health, and psychological disability may contribute to poor sleep quality. Maintaining good oral health-related quality of life could promote better sleep in these patients.

  14. Role of prophylactic central neck dissection in cN0 papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Costa, S; Giugliano, G; Santoro, L; Ywata De Carvalho, A; Massaro, MA; Gibelli, B; De Fiori, E; Grosso, E; Ansarin, M; Calabrese, L

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prophylactic central neck dissection in papillary thyroid cancer is controversial. In this retrospective cohort study, the aim was to assess possible advantages of prophylactic central neck dissection with total thyroidectomy in cN0 papillary thyroid cancer. A total of 244 consecutive patients with papillary thyroid cancer, without clinical and ultrasound nodal metastases (cN0), were evaluated out of 1373 patients operated for a thyroid disease at the Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan, Italy from 1994 to 2006. Of these 244 patients, 126 (Group A) underwent thyroidectomy with central neck dissection, while 118 (Group B) underwent thyroidectomy alone. Demographic, clinical and pathological features were analysed. Overall recurrence rate was 6.3% (8/126) in Group A and 7.7% (9/118) in Group B, with a mean follow-up of 47 (Group A) and 64 (Group B) months. In Group A patients, 47% were pN1a and all patients with recurrence had nodal involvement (p = 0.002). Survival rate did not differ in the two groups. Nine patients were lost to follow-up. Group A patients were older and their tumours were larger in size; according to the pT distribution, a higher extra-capsular invasion rate was observed. The two groups were equivalent as far as concerns histological high risk variants and multifocality. Nodal metastases correlated with stage: pT1-2 vs. pT3-T4a, p = 0.0036. A lower risk of nodal metastases was related to thyroiditis (p = 0.0034). In conclusion, central neck metastases were predictive of recurrence without influencing prognosis. From data obtained, possible greatest efficacy of central neck dissection in pT3-4 papillary thyroid cancer without thyroiditis is suggested. PMID:20111614

  15. Designing a Mobile Health App for Patients With Dysphagia Following Head and Neck Cancer: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Gabriela; Loewen, Irene; King, Ben; Brodt, Chris; Hodgetts, William; Rieger, Jana

    2017-03-24

    Adherence to swallowing rehabilitation exercises is important to develop and maintain functional improvement, yet more than half of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients report having difficulty adhering to prescribed regimens. Health apps with game elements have been used in other health domains to motivate and engage patients. Understanding the factors that impact adherence may allow for more effective gamified solutions. The aim of our study was to (1) identify self-reported factors that influence adherence to conventional home therapy without a mobile device in HNC patients and (2) identify appealing biofeedback designs that could be used in a health app. A total of 10 (4 females) HNC patients (mean=60.1 years) with experience completing home-based rehabilitation programs were recruited. Thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews was used to answer the first objective. Convergent interviews were used to obtain reactions to biofeedback designs. Facilitators and barriers of adherence to home therapy were described through 6 themes: patient perceptions on outcomes and progress, clinical appointments, cancer treatment, rehabilitation program, personal factors, and connection. App visuals that provide feedback on performance during swallowing exercises should offer an immediate representation of effort relative to a goal. Simple, intuitive graphics were preferred over complex, abstract ones. Continued engagement with the app could be facilitated by tracking progress and by using visuals that build structures with each use. This is a detailed documentation of the initial steps in designing a health app for a specific patient group. Results revealed the importance of patient engagement in early stages of app development.

  16. Evaluation of Human Papillomavirus Antibodies and Risk of Subsequent Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kreimer, Aimée R.; Johansson, Mattias; Waterboer, Tim; Kaaks, Rudolf; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Drogen, Dagmar; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; González, Carlos A.; Sánchez, Maria José; Larrañaga, Nerea; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Travis, Ruth C.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Peeters, Petra H.M.; Panico, Salvatore; Masala, Giovanna; Grioni, Sara; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Laurell, Göran; Hallmans, Göran; Manjer, Jonas; Ekström, Johanna; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Ferrari, Pietro; Byrnes, Graham; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Hildesheim, Allan; Boeing, Heiner; Pawlita, Michael; Brennan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16) infection is causing an increasing number of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States and Europe. The aim of our study was to investigate whether HPV antibodies are associated with head and neck cancer risk when measured in prediagnostic sera. Methods We identified 638 participants with incident head and neck cancers (patients; 180 oral cancers, 135 oropharynx cancers, and 247 hypopharynx/larynx cancers) and 300 patients with esophageal cancers as well as 1,599 comparable controls from within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Prediagnostic plasma samples from patients (collected, on average, 6 years before diagnosis) and control participants were analyzed for antibodies against multiple proteins of HPV16 as well as HPV6, HPV11, HPV18, HPV31, HPV33, HPV45, and HPV52. Odds ratios (ORs) of cancer and 95% CIs were calculated, adjusting for potential confounders. All-cause mortality was evaluated among patients using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present in prediagnostic samples for 34.8% of patients with oropharyngeal cancer and 0.6% of controls (OR, 274; 95% CI, 110 to 681) but was not associated with other cancer sites. The increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer among HPV16 E6 seropositive participants was independent of time between blood collection and diagnosis and was observed more than 10 years before diagnosis. The all-cause mortality ratio among patients with oropharyngeal cancer was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.13 to 0.67), for patients who were HPV16 E6 seropositive compared with seronegative. Conclusion HPV16 E6 seropositivity was present more than 10 years before diagnosis of oropharyngeal cancers. PMID:23775966

  17. Predictors of readmissions after head and neck cancer surgery: A national perspective.

    PubMed

    Chen, Michelle M; Orosco, Ryan K; Harris, Jeremy P; Porter, Julie B; Rosenthal, Eben L; Hara, Wendy; Divi, Vasu

    2017-08-01

    Surgical oncology patients have multiple comorbidities and are at high risk of readmission. Prior studies are limited in their ability to capture readmissions outside of the index hospital that performed the surgery. Our goal is to evaluate risk factors for readmission for head and neck cancer patients on a national scale. A retrospective cohort study of head and neck cancer patients in the Nationwide Readmissions Database (2013). Our main outcome was 30-day readmission. Statistical analysis included 2-sided t tests, χ(2), and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Within 30days, 16.1% of 11,832 patients were readmitted and 20% of readmissions were at non-index hospitals, costing $31million. Hypopharyngeal cancer patients had the highest readmission rate (29.6%), followed by laryngeal (21.8%), oropharyngeal (18.2%), and oral cavity (11.6%) cancers (P<0.001). Half of readmissions occurred within 10days and were often associated with infections (27%) or wound complications (12%). Patients from lower household income areas were more likely to be readmitted (odds ratio [OR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.05). Patients with valvular disease (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.16-3.69), rheumatoid arthritis/collagen vascular disease (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.27-3.31), liver disease (OR, 2.02, 95% CI, 1.37-2.99), and hypothyroidism (OR 1.30; 95% CI, 1.02-1.66) were at highest risk of readmission. The true rate of 30-day readmissions after head and neck cancer surgery is 16%, capturing non-index hospital readmissions which make up 20% of readmissions. Readmissions after head and neck cancer surgery are most commonly associated with infections and wound complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Primary facial reanimation in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Sahovaler, Axel; Yeh, David; Yoo, John

    2017-09-12

    Facial Paralysis (FP) profoundly impairs the life of individuals, both functionally and psychosocially. Surgical approaches to treat this condition are myriad, but the ultimate goal is to restore symmetry and movement. Ablative surgery for tumors of the head and neck region are amongst the most common etiologies causing FP and this group of patients represents unique challenges. Surgical defects may have multiple competing reconstructive requirements and addressing the FP must be considered in this context. Furthermore, extent of disease, patient age, duration of preceding paralysis, adjuvant treatment, as well as the various different type of facial nerve defects are factors that may influence the type of reconstructive technique selected to address the FP. The complexity of FP especially following head and neck ablation can lead to results that are inconsistent and humbling. FP defects can be broadly described as having the potential for facial muscle recovery versus irreversible paralysis. Literature that specifically focuses on primary facial reanimation procedures in the oncological setting is scarce. We present a comprehensive review of primary facial reanimation after ablative surgery including the descriptions of a wide array of surgical techniques such as reinnervation, dynamic muscle transposition, static suspension, and free tissue transfer. Understanding the advantages and limitations of the different options will enable the surgeon to offer treatment for the paralyzed face for most clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Focal autoimmune pancreatitis and chronic sclerosing sialadenitis mimicking pancreatic cancer and neck metastasis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Zhou, Qiang; Brigstock, David R; Yan, Su; Xiu, Ming; Piao, Rong-Li; Gao, Yan-Hang; Gao, Run-Ping

    2014-12-14

    Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) or chronic sclerosing sialadenitis (Küttner's tumour) is an uncommon disorder that has recently been confirmed as an IgG4-related disease. Here, we describe a rare case of a 53-year-old male patient who primarily presented with pancreatic body mass, left neck mass and several lumps in his lower lip mimicking pancreatic cancer (PC) and neck metastasis. The patient underwent pancreatic body mass and labial gland lumps resection as well as an ultrasound-guided biopsy of the left neck mass. He was diagnosed with IgG4-related focal type of AIP (f-AIP) and Küttner's tumour by immunohistochemistry. The patient responded well to corticosteroid therapy and remains healthy with no signs of recurrence at one year follow-up. The differentiation of f-AIP from PC is very important to avoid unnecessary pancreatic resection.

  20. [Nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients: the impact on the prognoses].

    PubMed

    Martín Villares, C; San Román Carbajo, J; Fernández Pello, M E; Tapia Risueño, M; Domínguez Calvo, J

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition is reported to affect 30-50% of all patients with head and neck cancer. The impact of malnutrition on surgical outcome is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study is to determine if nutritional status is related to postoperative complications (pharyngostoma) or tumor recurrence. Fifty patients with T2-4 head and neck carcinomas underwent surgery were studied prospectively. Nutritional status was related to postoperative complications and 2-year survival. Twenty-seven patients present malnutrition (54%). We had 15 patients with pharyngostoma and 11 tumor recurrences. We did not find any correlation between the pharyngostoma and malnutrition, but we we found correlation between malnutrition and tumor recurrence (p < .05). Malnutrition has negative impact on outcome of patients with head and neck carcinomas.

  1. Irrigation solutions in head and neck cancer surgery: a preclinical efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Lodhia, Kunal A; Dale, Oliver T; Winter, Stuart C

    2015-01-01

    It is common practice to irrigate the operative site following tumor resection during major head and neck surgery. A variety of irrigation solutions are used, but there are few data on their relative efficacies in this context. The effect of different irrigation solutions on cell survival was assessed by clonogenic survival assay in 5 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines at different time points. Saline had no effect on cell survival in any of the cell lines tested. Hydrogen peroxide, povidone-iodine, and a hydrogen peroxide/povidone-iodine mix caused complete cell death in all cell lines. Irrigation with distilled water caused a significant reduction in cell survival in 3 cell lines. Duration of exposure showed no effect on cell survival. These data suggest a significant difference in the cytocidal effect of commonly used irrigation solutions on head and neck cancer cells in an in vitro model. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Intimacy Processes and Psychological Distress among Couples Coping with Head and Neck or Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Manne, Sharon; Badr, Hoda

    2009-01-01

    Objective Couples coping with head and neck and lung cancers are at increased risk for psychological and relationship distress given patients’ poor prognosis and aggressive and sometimes disfiguring treatments. The relationship intimacy model of couples’ psychosocial adaptation proposes that relationship intimacy mediates associations between couples’ cancer-related support communication and psychological distress. Because the components of this model have not yet been evaluated in the same study, we examined associations between three types of cancer-related support communication (self-disclosure, perceived partner disclosure, and protective buffering), intimacy (global and cancer-specific), and global distress among patients coping with either head and neck or lung cancer and their partners. Method One hundred and nine patients undergoing active treatment and their partners whose average time since diagnosis was 15 months completed cross-sectional surveys. Results For both patients and their partners, multilevel analyses using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model showed that global and cancer-specific intimacy fully mediated associations between self- and perceived partner disclosure and distress; global intimacy partially mediated the association between protective buffering and distress. Evidence for moderated mediation was found; specifically, lower levels of distress were reported as a function of global and cancer-specific intimacy, but these associations were stronger for partners than for patients. Conclusions Enhancing relationship intimacy by disclosing cancer-related concerns may facilitate both partners’ adjustment to these illnesses. PMID:19885852

  3. FDG uptake in cervical lymph nodes in children without head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Vali, Reza; Bakari, Alaa A; Marie, Eman; Kousha, Mahnaz; Charron, Martin; Shammas, Amer

    2017-06-01

    Reactive cervical lymphadenopathy is common in children and may demonstrate increased (18)F-fluoro-deoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). We sought to evaluate the frequency and significance of (18)F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes in children with no history of head and neck cancer. The charts of 244 patients (114 female, mean age: 10.4 years) with a variety of tumors such as lymphoma and post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (PTLD), but no head and neck cancers, who had undergone (18)F-FDG PET/CT were reviewed retrospectively. Using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), increased (18)F-FDG uptake by neck lymph nodes was recorded and compared with the final diagnosis based on follow-up studies or biopsy results. Neck lymph node uptake was identified in 70/244 (28.6%) of the patients. In 38 patients, the lymph nodes were benign. In eight patients, the lymph nodes were malignant (seven PTLD and one lymphoma). In 24 patients, we were not able to confirm the final diagnosis. Seven out of the eight malignant lymph nodes were positive for PTLD. The mean SUVmax was significantly higher in malignant lesions (4.2) compared with benign lesions (2.1) (P = 0.00049). (18)F-FDG uptake in neck lymph nodes is common in children and is frequently due to reactive lymph nodes, especially when the SUVmax is <3.2. The frequency of malignant cervical lymph nodes is higher in PTLD patients compared with other groups.

  4. EVIDENCE OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS ASSOCIATION WITH HEAD AND NECK CANCERS: A REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Soorebettu R; Wilson, David F

    2016-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is ubiquitous: over 90% of the adult population is infected with this virus. EBV is capable of infecting both B lymphocytes and epithelial cells throughout the body including the head and neck region. Transmission occurs mainly by exchange of saliva. The infection is asymptomatic or mild in children but, in adolescents and young adults, it causes infectious mononucleosis, a self-limiting disease characterized by lethargy, sore throat, fever and lymphadenopathy. Once established, the virus often remains latent and people become lifelong carriers without experiencing disease. However, in some people, the latent virus is capable of causing malignant tumours, such as nasopharyngeal carcinoma and various B- and T-cell lymphomas, at sites including the head, neck and oropharyngeal region. As lymphoma is the second-most common malignant disease of the head, neck and oral region after squamous cell carcinoma, oral health care workers including dentists and specialists have a responsibility to carry out a thorough clinical examination of this anatomical region with a view to identifying and diagnosing lesions that may represent lymphomas. Early detection allows early treatment resulting in better prognosis. The focus of this review is on the morphology, transmission and carcinogenic properties of EBV and clinical and diagnostic aspects of a range of EBV-associated malignancies occurring in the head, neck and oral region. As carcinogenic agents, viruses contribute to a significant proportion of the global cancer burden: approximately 15% of all human cancers, worldwide, are attributable to viruses.1,2 Serologic and epidemiologic studies are providing mounting evidence of an etiologic association between viruses and head and neck malignancies.3 To update oral and maxillofacial surgeons and oral medicine specialists and raise awareness of this association, we recently reviewed the evidence of the etiologic role of human papillomavirus in oral disease.4

  5. Matrix Metalloproteinases: The Gene Expression Signatures of Head and Neck Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Iizuka, Shinji; Ishimaru, Naozumi; Kudo, Yasusei

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix degradation by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression by promoting motility, invasion and angiogenesis. Studies have shown that MMP expression is increased in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), one of the most common cancers in the world, and contributes to poor outcome. In this review, we examine the expression pattern of MMPs in HNSCC by microarray datasets and summarize the current knowledge of MMPs, specifically MMP-1, -3, -7 -10, -12, -13, 14 and -19, that are highly expressed in HNSCCs and involved cancer invasion and angiogenesis. PMID:24531055

  6. Clinical Practice in PET/CT for the Management of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer.

    PubMed

    Goel, Reema; Moore, William; Sumer, Baran; Khan, Saad; Sher, David; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize the evidence for the value of PET/CT for the management of patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer and suggest best clinical practices. FDG PET/CT is a valuable imaging tool for identifying unknown primary tumors in patients with known cervical node metastases leading to management change and is the standard of care for the initial staging of stage III and IV head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), for assessing therapy response when performed at least 12 weeks after chemoradiation therapy, and for avoiding unnecessary planned neck dissection. Neck dissection is avoided if PET/CT findings are negative-regardless of the size of the residual neck nodes-because survival outcomes are not compromised. FDG PET/CT is valuable in detecting recurrences and metastases during follow-up when suspected because of clinical symptoms and serves as a prognostic marker for patient survival outcomes, for 5 years. Using FDG PET/CT for routine surveillance of HNSCC after 6 months of treatment without any clinical suspicion should be discouraged.

  7. Individualized optimal surgical extent of the lateral neck in papillary thyroid cancer with lateral cervical metastasis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Yong; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-06-01

    Despite an excellent prognosis, cervical lymph node (LN) metastases are common in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The presence of metastasis is associated with an increased risk of locoregional recurrence, which significantly impairs quality of life and may decrease survival. Therefore, it has been an important determinant of the extent of lateral LN dissection in the initial treatment of PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis. However, the optimal extent of therapeutic lateral neck dissection (ND) remains controversial. Optimizing the surgical extent of LN dissection is fundamental for balancing the surgical morbidity and oncological benefits of ND in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. We reviewed the currently available literature regarding the optimal extent of lateral LN dissection in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Even in cases with suspicion of metastatic LN at the single lateral level or isolated metastatic lateral LN, the application of ND including all sublevels from IIa and IIb to Va and Vb may be overtreatment, due to the surgical morbidity. When there is no suspicion of LN metastasis at levels II and V, or when multilevel aggressive neck metastasis is not found, sublevel IIb and Va dissection may not be necessary in PTC patients with lateral neck metastasis. Thus consideration of the individualized optimal surgical extent of lateral ND is important when treating PTC patients with lateral cervical metastasis.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of spinal manipulative therapy, supervised exercise, and home exercise for older adults with chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Brent; McDonough, Christine; Evans, Roni; Tosteson, Tor; Tosteson, Anna N A; Bronfort, Gert

    2016-11-01

    Chronic neck pain is a prevalent and disabling condition among older adults. Despite the large burden of neck pain, little is known regarding the cost-effectiveness of commonly used treatments. This study aimed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of home exercise and advice (HEA), spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) plus HEA, and supervised rehabilitative exercise (SRE) plus HEA. Cost-effectiveness analysis conducted alongside a randomized clinical trial (RCT) was performed. A total of 241 older adults (≥65 years) with chronic mechanical neck pain comprised the patient sample. The outcome measures were direct and indirect costs, neck pain, neck disability, SF-6D-derived quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) over a 1-year time horizon. This work was supported by grants from the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (#F32AT007507), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (#P60AR062799), and Health Resources and Services Administration (#R18HP01425). The RCT is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (#NCT00269308). A societal perspective was adopted for the primary analysis. A healthcare perspective was adopted as a sensitivity analysis. Cost-effectivenesswas a secondary aim of the RCT which was not powered for differences in costs or QALYs. Differences in costs and clinical outcomes were estimated using generalized estimating equations and linear mixed models, respectively. Cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were calculated to assess the uncertainty surrounding cost-effectiveness estimates. Total costs for SMT+HEA were 5% lower than HEA (mean difference: -$111; 95% confidence interval [CI] -$1,354 to $899) and 47% lower than SRE+HEA (mean difference: -$1,932; 95% CI -$2,796 to -$1,097). SMT+HEA also resulted in a greater reduction of neck pain over the year relative to HEA (0.57; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.92) and SRE+HEA (0.41; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.76). Differences in disability and

  9. [Ways to make cooperation between hospital nurse and home visiting nurse in treating a final stage cancer patient at home].

    PubMed

    Nagai, Hamae; Ohori, Yoko; Shino, Satoko; Marutani, Harumi; Numata, Kumiko; Sato, Yasutomo

    2005-12-01

    Due to a payment system based on Comprehensive Medical Evaluation has been adopted, both a shorter hospitalization and the use of home nursing care have been increasing. A good cooperation between hospital and home visiting nurses is desired in order to transfer continued nursing. Regarding a home nursing care service for the most terminal cancer patients, we conducted a survey of 459 home visiting nurses with twelve questions in five categories: (1) Before transferring to home care, (2) Right after the transfer to home care, (3) Patient in a stable period, (4) Time of near death and (5) Other (Requests to hospital nurses). The following issues became clearer in terms of how hospital and home visiting nurses should be cooperating with the handling of last stage terminal cancer patients: (1) A home visiting nurse should have a coordinating role with a hospital nurse when the patient is discharged from the hospital. (2) A participation of home visiting nurses on the coordination guidance at the time of a patient discharge is influenced by a manpower of the nursing station. (3) Even though home visiting nurses found a discrepancy between the hospital information and what patients and their families were getting from the hospital, home visiting nurses have learned through the job to clarify what patient and family needs were, and they responded accordingly. (4) A coordination between hospital and home visiting nurses was needed quite often when the patient's time has come to die at home.

  10. S0420, Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  11. [Mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Santos, Renata Cristina Schmidt; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of present study was to classify oral mucositis according to the Common Toxicity Criterion (CTC) international parameters in head and neck tumor patients simultaneously treated with radio and chemotherapy, and characterize a patient profile in our area, observing the individuals' habits, tumor characteristics, treatment protocol and acute reaction intensity. Fifty patients undergoing simultaneous 66 to 70 Gy megavoltage radiotherapy and cisplatin/carboplatin chemotherapy were evaluated in this study. Weekly evaluations of the degree of mucositis were perfoemed according to CTC, a four-degree ordinal scale; 36% of all patients and 100% of those with diabetes discontinued treatment due to mucositis, showing that this pathology contributes to the severity of mucositis.

  12. Targeting cancer cell invasiveness using homing peptide-nanocomplexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarato, Giulia; Cathcart, Jillian; Li, Weiyi; Cao, Jian; Meng, Yizhi

    Matrix metalloproteinase-14 (MMP-14) plays critical roles in digesting the basement membrane and extracellular matrix and inducing cancer migration. We recently unraveled a unique role in cell invasion of the hemopexin (PEX) domain of MMP-14. The minimal motif located at the outmost strand of the fourth blade of the PEX domain was identified to form homodimers of MMP-14. A peptide (IVS4) mimicking the binding motif was shown to interrupt MMP-14 dimerization and decrease MMP-14-mediated functions. Since most invasive cancer cells express upregulated MMP-14 at the surface, IVS4 could be used as a cancer homing peptide to specifically deliver cytotoxic drugs for cancer therapy. We developed cancer homing nanocarriers by linking IVS4 to polysaccharide-based micellar nanoparticles (NPs). To determine if conjugation of IVS4 to NPs maintains the IVS4 inhibition of MMP-14 function, substrate degradation and cell migration assays were performed. IVS4-NPs efficiently prevented MMP-14-mediated substrate degradation and cell migration, and were minimally uptaken by non-cancer cells. Importantly, IVS4 confers an uptake advantage compared to the control peptide in MMP-14-expressing cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the potential use of IVS4-NPs as novel cancer nanotherapeutics.

  13. Chlorinated pesticides and cancer of the head and neck: a retrospective case series.

    PubMed

    Govett, Gregg; Genuis, Stephen John; Govett, Hannah E; Beesoon, Sanjay

    2011-07-01

    Cancer of the head and neck is a pervasive problem with recognized determinants including tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and earlier radiation exposure. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been shown to have carcinogenic potential in both animals and humans. OCPs have previously been widely used in the agricultural industry of rural Oklahoma. Seven patients from rural Oklahoma with head and neck cancer and without any of the usual risk factors were tested for the presence of OCPs in their adipose tissue. Clinical and toxicological data on each of these patients are presented for consideration. Results were compared with (i) levels from five individuals not experiencing cancer but who lived in the same area, and (ii) adipose tissue OCP levels in other population groups. Each of the seven patients tested had markedly elevated levels of some OCPs in their adipose tissue compared with the cohort of noncancer patients. Further research is required to confirm whether there is a causative link between OCP bioaccumulation and head and neck cancer as suggested by this case series.

  14. Photodynamic therapy and fluorescent diagnostics of head and neck cancer with second-generation photosensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulovskaya, Elena G.

    2005-08-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and fluorescent diagnostics (FD) using Photosense was provided in 50 patients with head and neck cancer T1-3 stage, in 89 patients with skin cancer, using Radaclorine (RC) in 42 patients with T1-4 stage basal cell carcinoma (BCC),in 6 patients with oral cancer. Detection of borders of tumor, intensity of accumulation of photosensitizers in tumor, normal tissues were done by Spectral-fluorescent Complex. We"ve got fluorescence o fa 11 tumors and additional fluorescence zones were found with cytological verification. We used semiconductive lasers: Milon - h = 660+2nm, light dose 200 - 300 J/cm2 and Biospec (h=672+2nm), multiple laser surface and interstitial irradiation with total 1 ight d ose till 4 00-600 Ji cm2. A fter P DT with P S in head and neck cancer we"ve had complete response (CR) in 66.0% and partial response (PR) in 30.0%, with RC CR in BCC T1- 2NOMO - 92.9%, in recurrrencies CR - 60,6%, PR - 39,4%. The efficacy of PDT with PS was higher (CR - 86.7%, PR - 13,3%) and the recurrence rate in 6 months lower. Our experience show pronounced efficacy of PDT for head and neck tumors of different localization and histology, FD is providing diagnostically significant information, demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity.

  15. Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer of Unknown Primary: Toxicity and Preliminary Efficacy

    SciTech Connect

    Klem, Michelle L. Mechalakos, James G.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Kraus, Dennis; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin; Pfister, David G.; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2008-03-15

    Purpose: Unknown primary head and neck cancers often require comprehensive mucosal and bilateral neck irradiation. With conventional techniques, significant toxicity can develop. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) has the potential to minimize the toxicity. Methods and Materials: Between 2000 and 2005, 21 patients underwent IMRT for unknown primary head and neck cancer at our center. Of the 21 patients, 5 received IMRT with definitive intent and 16 as postoperative therapy; 14 received concurrent chemotherapy and 7 IMRT alone. The target volumes included the bilateral neck and mucosal surface. The median dose was 66 Gy. Acute and chronic toxicities, esophageal strictures, and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube dependence were evaluated. Progression-free survival, regional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were estimated with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results: With a median follow-up of 24 months, the 2-year regional progression-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival rate was 90%, 90%, and 85%, respectively. Acute grade 1 and 2 xerostomia was seen in 57% and 43% of patients, respectively. Salivary function improved with time. Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement was required in 72% with combined modality treatment and 43% with IMRT alone. Only 1 patient required percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy support at the last follow-up visit. Two patients treated with combined modality and one treated with IMRT alone developed esophageal strictures, but all had improvement or resolution with dilation. Conclusion: The preliminary analysis of IMRT for unknown primary head and neck cancer has shown acceptable toxicity and encouraging efficacy. The analysis of the dosimetric variables showed excellent tumor coverage and acceptable doses to critical normal structures. Esophageal strictures developed but were effectively treated with dilation. Techniques to limit the esophageal dose

  16. The association between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L.; Poulin, P.; Feldstain, A.; Chasen, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Malnutrition and psychological distress are often seen in patients with head-and-neck cancer, but little is known about the interrelationships between those two symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Methods Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, 99 patients with advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer were screened for nutrition status. The patients were also screened for psychosocial distress (using the Distress Thermometer) and for psychosocial issues (using the Problem Checklist). Any relationship between malnutrition and psychosocial distress was determined by regression and correlation analysis. We also used t-tests to compare distress levels for patients with and without specific nutrition-related symptoms. Results The study group included 80 men and 19 women [mean age: 58.4 ± 10.9 years (range: 23–85 years)]. The correlation between poorer nutrition status and level of psychological distress was significant r = 0.37 (p < 0.001). Specifically, reduced food intake and symptoms were both positively associated with distress: r = 0.27 and r = 0.29 respectively, both significant at p < 0.01. After controlling for the effects of psychosocial problems and pain, nutrition status remained a significant predictor of distress, explaining 3.8% of the variance in the distress scores of the patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions Malnutrition and symptoms were strongly related to distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Our results suggest the need for further research into the complex relationship between nutrition status and distress and into the management of both nutrition and distress in cancer care. PMID:24311956

  17. The association between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Poulin, P; Feldstain, A; Chasen, M R

    2013-12-01

    Malnutrition and psychological distress are often seen in patients with head-and-neck cancer, but little is known about the interrelationships between those two symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, 99 patients with advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer were screened for nutrition status. The patients were also screened for psychosocial distress (using the Distress Thermometer) and for psychosocial issues (using the Problem Checklist). Any relationship between malnutrition and psychosocial distress was determined by regression and correlation analysis. We also used t-tests to compare distress levels for patients with and without specific nutrition-related symptoms. The study group included 80 men and 19 women [mean age: 58.4 ± 10.9 years (range: 23-85 years)]. The correlation between poorer nutrition status and level of psychological distress was significant r = 0.37 (p < 0.001). Specifically, reduced food intake and symptoms were both positively associated with distress: r = 0.27 and r = 0.29 respectively, both significant at p < 0.01. After controlling for the effects of psychosocial problems and pain, nutrition status remained a significant predictor of distress, explaining 3.8% of the variance in the distress scores of the patients (p < 0.05). Malnutrition and symptoms were strongly related to distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Our results suggest the need for further research into the complex relationship between nutrition status and distress and into the management of both nutrition and distress in cancer care.

  18. Marginal Misses After Postoperative Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Chen, Leon M.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Purdy, James A.

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To describe the spatial distribution of local-regional recurrence (LRR) among patients treated postoperatively with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer. Methods and Materials: The medical records of 90 consecutive patients treated by gross total resection and postoperative IMRT for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck from January 2003 to July 2009 were reviewed. Sites of disease were the oral cavity (43 patients), oropharynx (20 patients), larynx (15 patients), and hypopharynx (12 patients). Fifty patients (56%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Results: Seventeen of 90 patients treated with postoperative IMRT experienced LRR, yielding a 2-year estimate of local regional control of 80%. Among the LRR patients, 11 patients were classified as in-field recurrences, occurring within the physician-designated clinical target volume, and 6 patients were categorized as marginal recurrences. There were no out-of-field geographical misses. Sites of marginal LRRs included the contralateral neck adjacent to the spared parotid gland (3 patients), the dermal/subcutaneous surface (2 patients), and the retropharyngeal/retrostyloid lymph node region (1 patient). Conclusions: Although the incidence of geographical misses was relatively low, the possibility of this phenomenon should be considered in the design of target volumes among patients treated by postoperative IMRT for head and neck cancer.

  19. What Does PET Imaging Add to Conventional Staging of Head and Neck Cancer Patients?

    SciTech Connect

    Pohar, Surjeet . E-mail: poharss@evms.edu; Brown, Robert B.S.; Newman, Nancy; Koniarczyk, Michael; Hsu, Jack; Feiglin, David

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of PET scans in the staging of patients with head and neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: The charts of 25 patients who underwent neck dissection, computed tomography (CT) scan, and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging as part of their initial work-up for a head and neck squamous cell cancer between 2000-2003 were reviewed. All patients underwent clinical examination, triple endoscopy, and chest radiograph as part of their clinical staging, adhering to American Joint Commission for Cancer criteria. In addition to the clinical nodal (N) stage, PET findings were incorporated to determine a second type of N staging: clinical N + PET stage. The number of neck sides and nodal levels involved on CT or PET and on pathologic examination were recorded. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for detection of nodal disease were similar for CT and FDG-PET. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were similar for both diagnostic tests. None of our 25 patients had unsuspected distant disease detected by PET. Conclusion: The addition of PET imaging did not improve diagnostic accuracy in our patients compared with CT. PET scanning did not alter clinical management in any of the patients.

  20. A Retrospective Evaluation of Clinical Profile of Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Nupur; Kumar, J Vijaya; Khurana, Anil; Chauhan, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Incidence of Second Primary Malignancy (SPM) after successful treatment of primary is increasing and may cause the problem for optimal treatment. Aim This study was conducted retrospectively to analyse incidence, disease free survival between malignancies, pattern of treatment and outcome. Materials and Methods Sixteen out of 22 patients of previously treated cases of head and neck cancer those develop SPM of head and neck region managed over a period of January 2012 to December 2015 in Department of Radiotherapy–II, Pt. BD Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak were analyzed retrospectively. Sixteen patients with unresectable disease were given reirradiation with external beam radiotherapy. Results Median age of presentation of first malignancy was 27 years (Ranged 26 -65 years), whereas median age was 60 years for second malignancy (range 45-71 years). All patients were smokers during first malignancy; 87.5% (14/16) had historyof smoking during second malignancy. Oropharynx (50%) was most common site of presentation of primary tumor whereas oral cavity was most common site of presentation in second primary tumor. Conclusion Incidence of Second primary head and neck tumor after successful treatment for primary Head and neck cancer are increasing due to newer treatment strategies, longer survival and follow up. Reirradiation, surgery and or chemotherapy are treatment modalities. However second primary tumor of this region are associated with poor prognosis. PMID:27891442

  1. What does PET imaging add to conventional staging of head and neck cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Pohar, Surjeet; Brown, Robert; Newman, Nancy; Koniarczyk, Michael; Hsu, Jack; Feiglin, David

    2007-06-01

    To determine the value of PET scans in the staging of patients with head and neck carcinoma. The charts of 25 patients who underwent neck dissection, computed tomography (CT) scan, and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging as part of their initial work-up for a head and neck squamous cell cancer between 2000-2003 were reviewed. All patients underwent clinical examination, triple endoscopy, and chest radiograph as part of their clinical staging, adhering to American Joint Commission for Cancer criteria. In addition to the clinical nodal (N) stage, PET findings were incorporated to determine a second type of N staging: clinical N + PET stage. The number of neck sides and nodal levels involved on CT or PET and on pathologic examination were recorded. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of nodal disease were similar for CT and FDG-PET. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were similar for both diagnostic tests. None of our 25 patients had unsuspected distant disease detected by PET. The addition of PET imaging did not improve diagnostic accuracy in our patients compared with CT. PET scanning did not alter clinical management in any of the patients.

  2. The controversial role of electrochemotherapy in head and neck cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Riccardo; Muscatello, Luca; Saibene, Alberto Maria; Felisati, Giovanni; Pipolo, Carlotta

    2017-02-24

    Electroporation, also known as electrochemotherapy, combines an antineoplastic agent with electroporation, causing localized progressive necrosis in the treated area. Today it is primarily used in the palliative treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases and has been found to be safe and efficacious in head and neck cancer recurrences. Despite the steady increase in the number of published studies this treatment is not universally available and used systematically in head and neck carcinomas. To shed light on its limitations and analyze treatment outcome we have, therefore, reviewed all available literature regarding this topic. This systematic review includes 16 studies on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and reports the data of 200 treated patients. The combined results show a very heterogeneous overall response rate, ranging from 0 to 100%, while the complete response rate ranges between 0 and 83.3%. No major side effects have been described in those who used electrochemotherapy as a mono modality palliative treatment. This systematic review shows how standardization of treatment is still pivotal to achieve a more homogeneous response rate in the approach to head and neck tumors. In conclusion, due to the scarcity of alternatives of treatment in advanced stage cancer in this anatomical region and the good tolerability and mostly high success rates of electrochemotherapy, this palliative approach should be taken into consideration in these patients.

  3. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle as a prognostic indicator of survival in head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Władysiuk, M.S.; Mlak, R.; Morshed, K.; Surtel, W.; Brzozowska, A.; Małecka-Massalska, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Phase angle could be an alternative to subjective global assessment for the assessment of nutrition status in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods We prospectively evaluated a cohort of 75 stage iiib and iv head-and-neck patients treated at the Otolaryngology Department, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of Lublin, Poland. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was performed in all patients using an analyzer that operated at 50 kHz. The phase angle was calculated as reactance divided by resistance (Xc/R) and expressed in degrees. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to calculate survival. Results Median overall survival in the cohort was 32.0 months. At the time of analysis, 47 deaths had been recorded in the cohort (62.7%). The risk of shortened overall survival was significantly higher in patients whose phase angle was less than 4.733 degrees than in the remaining patients (19.6 months vs. 45 months, p = 0.0489; chi-square: 3.88; hazard ratio: 1.8856; 95% confidence interval: 1.0031 to 3.5446). Conclusions Phase angle might be prognostic of survival in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Further investigation in a larger population is required to confirm our results. PMID:27803609

  4. Exploring patient satisfaction: a secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial of spinal manipulation, home exercise, and medication for acute and subacute neck pain.

    PubMed

    Leininger, Brent D; Evans, Roni; Bronfort, Gert

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess satisfaction with specific aspects of care for acute neck pain and explore the relationship between satisfaction with care, neck pain, and global satisfaction. This study was a secondary analysis of patient satisfaction from a randomized trial of spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) delivered by doctors of chiropractic, home exercise and advice (HEA) delivered by exercise therapists, and medication (MED) prescribed by a medical doctors for acute/subacute neck pain. Differences in satisfaction with specific aspects of care were analyzed using a linear mixed model. The relationship between specific aspects of care and (1) change in neck pain (primary outcome of the randomized trial) and (2) global satisfaction were assessed using Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression. Individuals receiving SMT or HEA were more satisfied with the information and general care received than MED group participants. Spinal manipulation therapy and HEA groups reported similar satisfaction with information provided during treatment; however, the SMT group was more satisfied with general care. Satisfaction with general care (r = -0.75 to -0.77; R(2) = 0.55-0.56) had a stronger relationship with global satisfaction compared with satisfaction with information provided (r = -0.65 to 0.67; R(2) = 0.39-0.46). The relationship between satisfaction with care and neck pain was weak (r = 0.17-0.38; R(2) = 0.08-0.21). Individuals with acute/subacute neck pain were more satisfied with specific aspects of care received during spinal manipulation therapy or home exercise interventions compared to receiving medication. The relationship between neck pain and satisfaction with care was weak. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of excisional or incisional biopsy of metastatic neck nodes on the management of head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, J.T.; Million, R.R.; Cassisi, N.J.

    1985-08-01

    Between November 1964 and December 1981, 80 patients who had undergone an open biopsy of a cervical lymph node containing squamous cell carcinoma were treated with curative intent in the University of Florida Division of Radiation Therapy. Irradiation was the initial step in the definitive treatment of all patients, followed by neck dissection and/or primary resection, as indicated. The patients were divided into two groups. (a) NX (no gross residual neck disease) (25 patients). No neck dissections were added following irradiation in this group of patients. The absolute 5 year disease-free survival in the NX group was 79%, and the rate of neck disease control was 96%. (b) Gross residual neck disease (55 patients). The absolute 5 year disease-free survival in this group of patients was 31%, and the rate of neck disease control was 64%. The more consistent addition of a neck dissection in recent years has resulted in improved neck control rates in this group. There are some differences in the rates of neck control, control above the clavicles, survival, distant metastasis, and complications between this series and other reported series in which open neck-node biopsy preceded definitive treatment. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed.

  6. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  7. Cervical Cancer: paradigms at home and abroad

    Cancer.gov

    NCI funded a clinical trial that will have an impact on the treatment of late-stage cervical cancer, and also supported a screening trial in India using a network of community outreach workers offering low tech-screening by direct visualization of the cer

  8. Involvement of Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Predisposition to Head and Neck Cancer in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hadyan, Khaled S.; Al-Harbi, Najla M.; Al-Qahtani, Sara S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Individuals differ in their inherited tendency to develop cancer. This has been suggested to be due to genetic variations between individuals. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common form of genetic variations found in the human population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between 10 SNPs in genes involved in cell cycle control and DNA repair (p21 C31A, p53 G72C, ATM G1853A, XRCC1 G399A, XRCC3 C241T, Ku80 A2790G, DNA Ligase IV C9T, DNA-PKcs A3434G, TGF-beta T10C, MDM2 promoter T309G) and the risk to develop head and neck cancer. Materials and Methods: A cohort of 407 individuals (156 cancer patients and 251 controls) was included. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. SNPs were genotyped by direct sequencing. Results: Data showed significant allelic associations for p21 C31A (p=0.04; odds ratio [OR]=1.44; confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–2.03), Ku80 A2790G (p=0.04; OR=1.5; CI: 1.01–2.23), and MDM2 T309G (p=0.0003; OR=0.58; CI: 0.43–0.78) and head and neck cancer occurrence. Both cancer cases and controls were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Conclusion: SNPs can be associated with head and neck cancer in the Saudi population. The p21 C31A, Ku80 A2790G, and MDM2 T309G SNPs could be used as genetic biomarkers to screen individuals at high cancer risk. PMID:21877955

  9. Survey of usual practice: dysphagia therapy in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Krisciunas, Gintas P; Sokoloff, William; Stepas, Katherine; Langmore, Susan E

    2012-12-01

    There is no standardized dysphagia therapy for head and neck cancer patients and scant evidence to support any particular protocol, leaving institutions and individual speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to determine their own protocols based on "typical" practices or anecdotal evidence. To gain an understanding of current usual practices, a national internet-based survey was developed and disseminated to SLPs who treat head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. From a random sample of 4,000 ASHA SID13 members, 1,931 fit the inclusion criteria, and 759 complete responses were recorded for a 39.3 % response rate. Results were analyzed by institution type as well as by individual clinical experience. While some interesting trends emerged from the data, a lack of uniformity and consensus regarding best practices was apparent. This is undoubtedly due to a paucity of research adequately addressing the efficacy of any one therapy for dysphagia in the HNC population.

  10. [Role and interest of induction chemotherapy for head and neck cancers].

    PubMed

    Pointreau, Y; Schick, U; Huguet, F

    2017-10-01

    Induction chemotherapy must be integrated in a global approach for locally advanced head and neck cancer. Its use has theoretical advantages but should not compromise locoregional radiotherapy. Induction chemotherapy is a standard for organ preservation with the use of the TPF scheme to avoid total laryngectomy without compromising survival data. It is more controversial in other locally advanced head and neck cancer because concurrent chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care. It may be an option for patients with significant lymph node invasion to reduce the occurrence of distant metastasis. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Value considerations in the treatment of head and neck cancer: radiation, chemotherapy, and supportive care.

    PubMed

    Baxi, Shrujal S; Sher, David J; Pfister, David G

    2014-01-01

    The management of head and neck cancer has advanced in many areas, including but not limited to diagnostic imaging and response assessment, radiation delivery, surgical approaches, combined-modality therapy, as well as new drug discovery. These advances have become widely used, however, the associated improvements in outcomes of interest compared with other options may at times be modest in magnitude or supported by limited data. In addition, the price tag of these advancements is often high. There is a growing mandate to look at existing data to identify insights into how to improve the value of care and to better understand the comparative effectiveness of one intervention versus another with regard to tumor control, quality of life, and other important outcomes; such insights become particularly important when considerable disparities exist in related costs. We review selected issues in radiotherapy, chemotherapy and supportive care applicable to the management of head and neck cancer and relevant to ascertaining the value of care.

  12. Dental care during and after radiotherapy in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Devi, Seema; Singh, Nimisha

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is a major health problem. Oral cancer is increasing in Indian subcontinent mainly due to lack of hygiene, tobacco use, chewing tobacco, smoking, and many other factors. Radiation therapy is the most common form of treatment along with surgery and chemotherapy. There are 2 types of complication that occurs during and after radiotherapy, that occur because of effects on normal tissue. Radiotherapy-induced effects occur on the oral mucosa salivary glands, bone, teeth, and musculature of face and neck. These complications needs special attention for their prevention and treatment, Preradiotherapy evaluation and disease stabilization are necessary in every patient, counseling of patients before during and after radiotherapy is important to help them become aware of several oral complications and their prevention. PMID:25937720

  13. Effectiveness of prophylactic retropharyngeal lymph node irradiation in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for the prevention of retropharyngeal nodal recurrences in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods A retrospective review of 76 patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiation or postoperative radiotherapy with IMRT or IGRT who were at risk for retropharyngeal nodal recurrences because of anatomic site (hypopharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx) and/or the presence of nodal metastases was undertaken. The prevalence of retropharyngeal nodal recurrences was assessed on follow-up positron emission tomography (PET)-CT scans. Results At a median follow-up of 22 months (4–53 months), no patient developed retropharyngeal nodal recurrences. Conclusion Prophylactic irradiation of retropharyngeal lymph nodes with IMRT or IGRT provides effective regional control for individuals at risk for recurrence in these nodes. PMID:22708791

  14. [The Role of microRNA in head and neck cancer focusing on sinonasal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Kovaříková, Helena; Chmelařová, Marcela; Palička, Vladimír

    MicroRNAs are small (18-25 nt) noncoding RNA molecules that are part of gene expression regulation and influence tumorigenesis. They could possibly be used as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in cancer in the future.Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. These also include sinonasal carcinoma, a rare disease arising in the epithelium of respiratory tract, which is very poorly studied from the molecular perspective.MicroRNAs that have influence on pathogenesis of head and neck tumors have been divided into three categories: microRNAs associated with invasiveness and metastatic processes, microRNAs operating as oncogenes and microRNAs associated with HPV status and smoking. We expect that the described microRNAs could be part of regulatory mechanisms also in sinonasal carcinoma.

  15. [Clinical and paraclinical follow-up after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Clément-Colmou, K; Troussier, I; Bardet, É; Lapeyre, M

    2015-10-01

    Head and neck cancer management often involves heavy multimodal treatments including radiotherapy. Despite the improvement of intensity-modulated radiation therapy, acute and late toxicities remain important. After such treatment, patients have to face different potential problems, depending on the post-therapeutic delay. In this way, short-term follow-up permits to appreciate the healing of acute toxicities and response to treatment. Long-term follow-up aims to recognize second primitive tumours and distant failure, and to detect and manage late toxicities. Medical and psychosocial supportive cares are essential, even after several years of complete remission. The objective of this article is to review the modalities of short-term and long-term follow-up of patients who receive a radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

  16. Soothing and balmy, cure without disfigurement: Benjamin Bye, false promises, and head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jennifer; Shuman, Andrew G

    2015-04-01

    One century ago, patients dreaded a diagnosis of head and neck cancer, fearing not only the progression of the disease but also the prospect of surgery. A cadre of charlatans preyed upon these fears to make a profit. We unearth the tale of Benjamin Bye, an Indianapolis doctor peddling the Combination Oil Cure. His collection of creams applied to the face offered unsuspecting patients a painless cure of their head and neck cancer. Bye eventually came under the fire of muckrakers as well as the federal government. Not long thereafter, Bye's practice was declared fraudulent, and the US Postmaster General refused to send his products. Bye's story recalls a time in which curative options were few and fear of malignancy was pervasive. Today, as our treatment armamentarium grows, we are reminded to critically assess efficacy, honestly discuss options with patients, and ensure that charlatanism remains a shadow of the past.

  17. Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for head and neck cancer using a totally implantable infusion pump.

    PubMed

    Baker, S R; Wheeler, R H; Ensminger, W D; Niederhuber, J E

    1981-01-01

    Intraarterial infusion chemotherapy has not been widely accepted for the treatment of head and neck cancer due to the high rate of complications it involves. To avoid these complications, a totally implantable infusion pump has been developed to achieve continuous low-level drug delivery for long periods of time. The pump is implanted in a subcutaneous pocket and connected to a permanent, indwelling, arterial catheter. It can be repeatedly refilled with chemotherapeutic agents by hypodermic needle injection through the skin and through a self-sealing septum located at the entry to the pump. Refilling the pump recharges an inexhaustible power source for the next delivery cycle. Preliminary results suggest that long term intraarterial infusion chemotherapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer is practical for outpatients.

  18. Induction Chemotherapy for Locoregionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer: Past, Present, Future?

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Glenn J.; Haddad, Robert I.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of patients with locoregionally advanced squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is still evolving. Induction chemotherapy (IC) is widely used in this patient population and it is unclear how to best incorporate IC into multimodality treatment. Recently, the results of two randomized clinical trials were presented (the PARADIGM and Docetaxel Based Chemotherapy Plus or Minus Induction Chemotherapy to Decrease Events in Head and Neck Cancer trials), which showed no demonstrable benefit of IC followed by concurrent chemoradiation over concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone. However, a lower rate of distant metastatic disease was noted, suggesting that patients who are at high risk for metastatic disease may benefit from IC. This review summarizes how IC has evolved over the years, provides an update of recent developments, and discusses how IC may develop in the future. PMID:23442306

  19. The Role of Chemotherapy in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Savvides, Panayiotis (Panos)

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the management of patients with head and neck cancer point to an expanding role of chemotherapy, resulting in an increased involvement of the medical oncologist in the multidisciplinary care of these patients. This review focuses on patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. A comprehensive review of the clinical trial data that have defined new standards of care and a detailed presentation of widely used chemotherapeutic regimens, including both cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents, are presented. Information on human papilloma virus–associated squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is presented, and implications in the clinical management of this subgroup of patients based on the epidemiologic and pathologic characteristics are discussed. PMID:22550434

  20. Associations Among Speech, Eating, and Body Image Concerns for Surgical Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Hutcheson, Katherine A.; Jensen, Katrina; Yuan, Ying; Urbauer, Diana; Lewin, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Body image can be affected by bodily experiences extending beyond physical appearance. This study evaluated associations among speech, eating, and body image concerns for surgically treated patients with oral cavity, midface, and cutaneous cancers of the head and neck. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 280 participants completed the Body Image Scale, a survey evaluating disease-specific body image issues, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale – General. Results Participants with speech and eating concerns reported the highest levels of body image/appearance dissatisfaction compared to those without such concerns. This group also reported greater cognitive and behavioral difficulties associated with body image concerns and significantly higher levels of interest in psychosocial interventions to address appearance-related difficulties compared to all other participants. Conclusions Findings point to the need for more comprehensive psychosocial care for head and neck patients with speech and eating difficulties, which extends beyond functional rehabilitation. PMID:22431304

  1. Nanoparticle-Based Targeted Therapeutics in Head-And-Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Shui-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Head-and-neck cancer is a major form of the disease worldwide. Treatment consists of surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy, but these have not resulted in improved survival rates over the past few decades. Versatile nanoparticles, with selective tumor targeting, are considered to have the potential to improve these poor outcomes. Application of nanoparticle-based targeted therapeutics has extended into many areas, including gene silencing, chemotherapeutic drug delivery, radiosensitization, photothermal therapy, and has shown much promise. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of nanoparticle-mediated targeted therapeutics for head-and-neck cancer, with an emphasis on the description of targeting points, including future perspectives. PMID:25589895

  2. An overview of randomised controlled trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Munro, A. J.

    1995-01-01

    Meta-analysis of the published results from 54 randomised controlled trials of adjuvant chemotherapy in head and neck cancer suggests that chemotherapy might increase absolute survival by 6.5% (95% confidence interval 3.1-9.9%). The odds ratio in favour of chemotherapy is 1.37 (95% confidence interval 1.24-1.5). Single-agent chemotherapy given synchronously with radiotherapy increased survival by 12.1% (95% confidence interval 5-19%). The benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy was less: a rate difference of 3.7% (95% confidence interval 0.9-6.5%). The results suggest that the investigation of optimal agents and scheduling for synchronous radiotherapy and chemotherapy might still be important in clinical trials in head and neck cancer. PMID:7819055

  3. Is a Preoperative Gastrointestinal Endoscopy for Second Primary Cancer Detection in Head and Neck Cancer Necessary? Ten-year Registry Data.

    PubMed

    Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Mi Hee; Kim, Jin Hwan; Rho, Young Soo; Shin, Woon Geon

    2016-07-25

    In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, second primary gastrointestinal tumors are not uncommon. However, it is unclear whether a screening endoscopy is needed for detecting gastrointestinal neoplasm in patients with head and neck cancer. Therefore, we analyzed the prevalence and independent risk factors for second primary gastrointestinal neoplasm in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. A consecutive series of 328 patients with primary head and neck squamous cell carcinoma that underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy or colonoscopy were included using our registry. An age- and sex-matched group of 328 control subjects was enrolled. We assessed risk factors of synchronous gastrointestinal cancer. The prevalence of esophageal cancer with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than that of the control group (1.5% vs. 0.0%, p=0.011). An age of 54 years or more (OR, 1.033; 95% CI, 1.008-1.059; p=0.009) and male gender (OR, 4.974; 95% CI, 1.648-15.013; p=0.004) were risk factors for concomitant colorectal cancer or adenomas in the head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Preoperative colonoscopy can be recommended for detecting synchronous second primary colorectal lesions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients with male sex regardless of age, and esophagogastroduodenoscopy is necessary in all head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients for detecting esophageal cancer.

  4. Early-onset dropped head syndrome after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: dose constraints for neck extensor muscles.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Koji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Kashihara, Tairo; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Murakami, Naoya; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a famous but unusual late complication of multimodality treatment for head and neck carcinoma. We reported this early-onset complication and analyzed the dose to the neck extensor muscles. We examined the records of three patients with DHS after radiotherapy. The doses to the neck extensor muscles were compared between three patients with DHS and nine patients without DHS. The mean dose to the neck extensor muscles of the three patients with DHS were 58.5 Gy, 42.3 Gy and 60.9 Gy, while the dose was <50 Gy in all nine patients in the control group. The onset of this syndrome was 5 months, 6 months and 15 months. The early-onset DHS may have something to do with dose to the neck extensor muscles. The proposed dose to the neck extensor muscles might be <46 Gy (or at least <50 Gy).

  5. AHNS series: Do you know your guidelines? Management of head and neck cancer in the era of human papillomavirus: Educating our patients on human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Theresa; Goldenberg, David; Fakhry, Carole

    2017-03-06

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has changed the face of head and neck cancer over the past 2 decades. No longer is this solely a disease of older patients with a history of heavy tobacco and alcohol use. Patients with HPV-related head and neck cancers tend to be younger, healthier, and have an improved prognosis, compared with those with HPV-negative tumors. As more patients are diagnosed with HPV-related head and neck cancer, physicians have important topics to consider. These include prevalence, transmission, and natural history of HPV, the role of screening, vaccines, and HPV testing in head and neck cancer. This article continues a series developed by the American Head and Neck Society's Education Committee entitled "Do you know your guidelines?" and is intended to provide guidance for navigating common questions and concerns patients may have about HPV infection and HPV-related head and neck cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2017.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder in caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu; Lin, Pao-Yen; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder in caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer. Study subjects were recruited from a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for head and neck cancer in a medical center from February to July 2012. Caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer were enrolled and assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV, Clinician Version, the Short Form 36 Health Survey, and the Family APGAR index. The main aim of the study was to examine the difference in demographic data and clinical characteristics between the caregivers with and without depressive disorders. In addition, a stepwise forward model of logistic regression was used to test the possible risk factors. One hundred and forty-three caregivers were included in the study. The most prevalent psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder (14.7%), followed by adjustment disorder (13.3%). Nearly one-third of the caregivers had a psychiatric diagnosis. By using logistic regression analysis, it was found that unemployment (odds ratio (OR) = 3.16; 95% CI, 1.04-9.68), lower social functioning (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.18-1.72), and lower educational level (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34) were significant risk factors for the depressive disorder. The clinical implication of our results is the value of using the standardized structured interview for early diagnosis of depressive disorder in caregivers of head and neck cancer patients. Early screening and management of depression in these caregivers will raise their quality of life and capability to care patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Nutritional management of patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiation].

    PubMed

    Thureau, S; Lefebvre, L; Dandoy, S; Guérault, F; Ebran, M; Lebreton, M; Veresezan, O; Rigal, O; Clatot, F

    2015-10-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are standard treatment of head and neck cancer alone or associated to surgical treatment. Early (during treatment or the following weeks) and late side effects contribute to malnutrition in this population at risk. In this context, nutritional support adapted by dietary monitoring and enteral nutrition (nasogastric tube or gastrostomy) are often necessary. The early identification of the patients with high malnutrition risk and requiring enteral nutrition is necessary to improve the tolerance and efficacy of treatment.

  8. Assessing head and neck cancer patient preferences and expectations: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Pierre; Volk, Robert J; Ringash, Jolie; Peterson, Susan K; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Frank, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    To enhance the value of care, interventions should aim at improving endpoints that matter to patients. The preferences of head and neck cancer patients regarding treatment outcomes are therefore a major topic for patient-centered research. A systematic review (PROSPERO number CRD42016035692) was conducted by searching electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL) for articles evaluating patient or surrogate preferences in head and neck cancer. A qualitative review was performed but no quantitative synthesis. Of 817 references retrieved, 20full-text articles were eventually included in the qualitative analysis Disease sites included mixed head and neck tumor sites, n=9; larynx, n=6; oropharynx/oral cavity, n=5. Overall, patients prioritized survival over functional endpoints. However, preferences and utility scores varied greatly between patients and healthy subjects, and differences were less pronounced with spouses or healthcare providers. Findings from studies of laryngeal preservation are consistent and conclude that a subset of patients would be willing to compromise a certain amount of survival to avoid laryngectomy. On the other hand, studies of patients with oropharyngeal cancer are too heterogeneous to draw conclusions about acceptable functional trade-offs or priorities, and should be the focus of future research. Future research surrounding head and neck cancer patients will most likely be clinically applicable if the questions are focused on well-defined patient groups and treatment options. Gathering reliable and valid quality-of-life data, designing patient preference studies that use reliable and generalizable methods, and using the results to develop decision aids for shared decision-making strategies are recommended going forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Management of Chemoradiation-Induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancers With Oral Glutamine

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Niharika; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Mohanty, Sumita; Samantaray, Sagarika

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Head and neck cancers are the third most common cancers worldwide. Oral mucositis is the most common toxicity seen in patients who receive chemoradiation to treat head and neck cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral glutamine supplementation in these patients. Materials and Methods From December 2013 to December 2014, we randomly assigned to two arms 162 patients who had squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Patients in arm A were given oral glutamine once per day, whereas those in arm B served as negative control subjects. All patients received radiotherapy given as 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks with an injection of cisplatin once per week. Patients were assessed once per week to evaluate for the onset and severity of mucositis, pain, use of analgesics, and for Ryle tube feeding. Results We observed that 53.1% of patients developed mucositis toward the fifth week in the glutamine arm compared with 55.5% of patients in the control arm at the third week. None in the glutamine arm compared with 92.35% of patients in the control arm developed G3 mucositis. Rates of adverse events like pain, dysphagia, nausea, edema, and cough, as well as use of analgesics and Ryle tube feeding, were significantly lower in the glutamine arm than in the control arm. Conclusion This study highlights that the onset as well as the severity of mucositis in patients receiving glutamine was significantly delayed. None of the patients receiving glutamine developed G3 mucositis. Hence, the findings emphasize the use of oral glutamine supplementation as a feasible and affordable treatment option for mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers who are receiving chemoradiation. PMID:28717702

  10. Characteristics of NIH- and industry-sponsored head and neck cancer clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Devaiah, Anand; Murchison, Charles

    2016-09-01

    Compare U.S. clinical trials sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and industry, especially with regard to trial design, interventions studied, and results reporting rates. U.S. head and neck cancer clinical trials. We used information from ClinicalTrials.gov to compare NIH- and industry-sponsored head and neck cancer clinical trials, specifically analyzing differences in trial design and interventions studied. We examined publication rates and positive results rates using PubMed.gov. About 50% of NIH- and industry-sponsored clinical trials have their results reported in peer-reviewed literature. Industry-sponsored trials had higher rates of positive results than NIH-sponsored trials. NIH- and industry-sponsored clinical trials had similar trial designs, although industry-sponsored trials had significantly lower rates of randomization. Industry trials utilized radiation in 19% of trials and surgery in 2% of trials. NIH trials also had low utilization of both radiation and surgery (27% and 12% of trials, respectively). NIH- and industry-sponsored trials published their results in journals with comparable impact factors. There is significant underreporting of results in U.S. head and neck cancer clinical trials, whether sponsored by NIH or industry. Industry trials have significantly higher rates of positive results, although it is unclear what contributes to this. Both NIH- and industry-sponsored trials underutilize surgery and radiation as treatment modalities, despite the fact that these are standard-of-care therapies for head and neck cancer. We recommend that the NIH and industry report all results from clinical trials and use surgery and radiation as treatment arms in order to arrive at more balanced therapeutic recommendations. N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:E300-E303, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Re-irradiation for recurrent and second primary cancers of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Velez, Maria A; Veruttipong, Darlene; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Chin, Robert; Beron, Philip; Abemayor, Elliot; St John, Maie; Chen, Allen M

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate a single-institutional experience with the use of re-irradiation for recurrent and new primary cancers of the head and neck. The medical charts of 80 consecutive patients who underwent re-irradiation for local-regionally recurrent or second primary head and neck cancer between November 1998 and December 2015 were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression to determine predictors of clinical outcomes. Seventy-six of the 80 patients were evaluable. The median age was 57.5 (range 26.6-84.9); Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) was used in 71 (93.4%) patients with a median dose of 60Gy. Thirty-one patients (40.8%) underwent salvage surgery before re-irradiation and 47 (61.8%) received concurrent systemic therapy. The median time interval between radiation courses was 25.3months (range 2-322months). The 2-year estimates of overall survival, progression free survival, locoregional control, and distant control were 51.0%, 31.3%, 36.8% and 68.3%, respectively. Patients who underwent salvage surgery prior to re-irradiation had significantly improved locoregional control, progression free survival, and overall survival (p<0.05, for all). On multivariate analysis, gross tumor volume (GTV) at re-irradiation and interval between radiation courses were associated with improved overall survival. Severe (grade⩾3) late complications were observed in 25 patients (32.8%). Re-irradiation for recurrent or second primary head and neck cancer is feasible and effective in select patients with head and neck cancer. The high observed rate of treatment-related morbidity highlights the continue challenges that accompany this approach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ninety Day Mortality After Radical Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dixon, L; Garcez, K; Lee, L W; Sykes, A; Slevin, N; Thomson, D

    2017-09-13

    Treatment for head and neck cancers using definitive radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy, is associated with significant acute toxicity. Our aim was to assess 90 day mortality after radical radiotherapy. A further aim was to identify patient, tumour or treatment factors associated with early death after treatment and whether these could be used to predict outcomes. In total, 1116 patients with squamous cell pharyngeal and larynx cancer between January 2011 and December 2015 were included. Patients with T1 larynx cancer were excluded. Patients were treated using radical radiotherapy, with or without chemotherapy. Ninety day mortality was calculated using survival of less than 135 days from the planned start date for radical radiotherapy, to include early deaths during and up to 90 days after treatment. Overall, 90 day mortality was 4.7%. Among the subgroup of patients treated with concurrent platinum chemotherapy, the 90 day mortality rate was 0.4%. Overall survival at 1, 3 and 5 years was 84%, 62% and 53%, respectively. Factors associated with a higher risk of early death included performance status > 1, haemoglobin <100 g/l, weight < 60 kg, age > 80 years and presence of multiple comorbidities. We report excellent crude overall survival rates among our radically treated cohort of head and neck cancer patients. Several factors were associated with an increased risk of death within 90 days of completion of radical head and neck radiotherapy. Given the potential severe acute effects and the impact on patient quality of life associated with radical head and neck radiotherapy, this information is helpful to inform treatment-related discussions with patients. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Home-use cancer detecting band aid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Rudnitsky, Arkady; Sheinman, Victor; Tzoy, Andrey; Toktosunov, Aitmamat; Adashov, Arkady

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a novel concept in which special band aid is developed for early detection of cancer. The band aid contains an array of micro needles with small detection array connected to each needle which inspects the color of the surface of the skin versus time after being pinched with the needles. We were able to show in pre-clinical trials that the color varies differently if the skin is close to tumor tissue.

  14. Cold Atmospheric Plasma: A Promising Complementary Therapy for Squamous Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Welz, Christian; Emmert, Steffen; Canis, Martin; Becker, Sven; Baumeister, Philipp; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Morfill, Gregor E.; Harréus, Uli; Zimmermann, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. Despite the development of new therapeutic agents such as monoclonal antibodies, prognosis did not change for the last decades. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) presents the most promising new technology in cancer treatment. In this study the efficacy of a surface micro discharging (SMD) plasma device against two head and neck cancer cell lines was proved. Effects on the cell viability, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induction were evaluated with the MTT assay, alkaline microgel electrophoresis (comet assay) and Annexin-V/PI staining. MTT assay revealed that the CAP treatment markedly decreases the cell viability for all tested treatment times (30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 s). IC 50 was reached within maximal 120 seconds of CAP treatment. Comet assay analysis showed a dose dependent high DNA fragmentation being one of the key players in anti-cancer activity of CAP. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed induction of apoptosis in CAP treated HNSCC cell lines but no significant dose dependency was seen. Thus, we confirmed that SMD Plasma technology is definitely a promising new approach on cancer treatment. PMID:26588072

  15. Cold Atmospheric Plasma: A Promising Complementary Therapy for Squamous Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Welz, Christian; Emmert, Steffen; Canis, Martin; Becker, Sven; Baumeister, Philipp; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Morfill, Gregor E; Harréus, Uli; Zimmermann, Julia L

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) is the 7th most common cancer worldwide. Despite the development of new therapeutic agents such as monoclonal antibodies, prognosis did not change for the last decades. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) presents the most promising new technology in cancer treatment. In this study the efficacy of a surface micro discharging (SMD) plasma device against two head and neck cancer cell lines was proved. Effects on the cell viability, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis induction were evaluated with the MTT assay, alkaline microgel electrophoresis (comet assay) and Annexin-V/PI staining. MTT assay revealed that the CAP treatment markedly decreases the cell viability for all tested treatment times (30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 s). IC 50 was reached within maximal 120 seconds of CAP treatment. Comet assay analysis showed a dose dependent high DNA fragmentation being one of the key players in anti-cancer activity of CAP. Annexin-V/PI staining revealed induction of apoptosis in CAP treated HNSCC cell lines but no significant dose dependency was seen. Thus, we confirmed that SMD Plasma technology is definitely a promising new approach on cancer treatment.

  16. SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-13

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

  17. Cigarette Smoking Prior to First Cancer and Risk of Second Smoking-Associated Cancers Among Survivors of Bladder, Kidney, Head and Neck, and Stage I Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, Meredith S.; Gibson, Todd; Sampson, Joshua; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Beane Freeman, Laura; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Caporaso, Neil; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Elena, Joanne; Freedman, Neal D.; Robien, Kim; Black, Amanda; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Data on smoking and second cancer risk among cancer survivors are limited. We assessed associations between smoking before first cancer diagnosis and risk of second primary smoking-associated cancers among survivors of lung (stage I), bladder, kidney, and head/neck cancers. Methods Data were pooled from 2,552 patients with stage I lung cancer, 6,386 with bladder cancer, 3,179 with kidney cancer, and 2,967 with head/neck cancer from five cohort studies. We assessed the association between prediagnostic smoking and second smoking-associated cancer risk with proportional hazards regression, and compared these estimates to those for first smoking-associated cancers in all cohort participants. Results Compared with never smoking, current smoking of ≥ 20 cigarettes per day was associated with increased second smoking-associated cancer risk among survivors of stage I lung (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.26; 95% CI, 0.92 to 11.6), bladder (HR = 3.67; 95% CI, 2.25 to 5.99), head/neck (HR = 4.45; 95% CI, 2.56 to 7.73), and kidney cancers (HR = 5.33; 95% CI, 2.55 to 11.1). These estimates were similar to those for first smoking-associated cancer among all cohort participants (HR = 5.41; 95% CI, 5.23 to 5.61). The 5-year cumulative incidence of second smoking-associated cancers ranged from 3% to 8% in this group of cancer survivors. Conclusion Understanding risk factors for second cancers among cancer survivors is crucial. Our data indicate that cigarette smoking before first cancer diagnosis increases second cancer risk among cancer survivors, and elevated cancer risk in these survivors is likely due to increased smoking prevalence. The high 5-year cumulative risks of smoking-associated cancers among current smoking survivors of stage I lung, bladder, kidney, and head/neck cancers highlight the importance of smoking cessation in patients with cancer. PMID:25385740

  18. Cigarette smoking prior to first cancer and risk of second smoking-associated cancers among survivors of bladder, kidney, head and neck, and stage I lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Shiels, Meredith S; Gibson, Todd; Sampson, Joshua; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Beane Freeman, Laura; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Caporaso, Neil; Curtis, Rochelle E; Elena, Joanne; Freedman, Neal D; Robien, Kim; Black, Amanda; Morton, Lindsay M

    2014-12-10

    Data on smoking and second cancer risk among cancer survivors are limited. We assessed associations between smoking before first cancer diagnosis and risk of second primary smoking-associated cancers among survivors of lung (stage I), bladder, kidney, and head/neck cancers. Data were pooled from 2,552 patients with stage I lung cancer, 6,386 with bladder cancer, 3,179 with kidney cancer, and 2,967 with head/neck cancer from five cohort studies. We assessed the association between prediagnostic smoking and second smoking-associated cancer risk with proportional hazards regression, and compared these estimates to those for first smoking-associated cancers in all cohort participants. Compared with never smoking, current smoking of ≥ 20 cigarettes per day was associated with increased second smoking-associated cancer risk among survivors of stage I lung (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.26; 95% CI, 0.92 to 11.6), bladder (HR = 3.67; 95% CI, 2.25 to 5.99), head/neck (HR = 4.45; 95% CI, 2.56 to 7.73), and kidney cancers (HR = 5.33; 95% CI, 2.55 to 11.1). These estimates were similar to those for first smoking-associated cancer among all cohort participants (HR = 5.41; 95% CI, 5.23 to 5.61). The 5-year cumulative incidence of second smoking-associated cancers ranged from 3% to 8% in this group of cancer survivors. Understanding risk factors for second cancers among cancer survivors is crucial. Our data indicate that cigarette smoking before first cancer diagnosis increases second cancer risk among cancer survivors, and elevated cancer risk in these survivors is likely due to increased smoking prevalence. The high 5-year cumulative risks of smoking-associated cancers among current smoking survivors of stage I lung, bladder, kidney, and head/neck cancers highlight the importance of smoking cessation in patients with cancer. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Peptides homing to tumor vasculature: imaging and therapeutics for cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiguo; Wu, Kaichun

    2008-11-01

    A major obstacle to advances in anti-vascular therapy is the lack of molecule candidates that are effective in selectively targeting cancer tissues while sparing normal ones. Phage display peptide library greatly eases the discovery of peptides with specific homing capacity. Many novel peptides homing to angiogenic vessels were isolated recently. Notably, many such peptides showed relatively specific affinity with particular tumor types. These peptides appear to be able to accumulate in the target vascular site of tumor, making them particularly efficient to deliver drugs or other therapeutic and imaging agents. Some homing peptides could not only target to the desired location, but also be internalized into targeted cells, or even induce destruction in desired cells all by the same peptide sequence itself. Accumulating evidence has shown that by tumor specific targeting delivery, improved local effect can be achieved with well tolerated side effects. In the current review, recent literatures and patents in this field have been summarized.

  20. Alcohol and cigarette consumption as predictors of mortality in patients with head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, L; Leoncini, E; Pastorino, R; Wünsch-Filho, V; de Carvalho, M; Lopez, R; Cadoni, G; Arzani, D; Petrelli, L; Matsuo, K; Bosetti, C; La Vecchia, C; Garavello, W; Polesel, J; Serraino, D; Simonato, L; Canova, C; Richiardi, L; Boffetta, P; Hashibe, M; Lee, C A Y; Boccia, S

    2017-08-30

    Our study evaluated whether demographics, pre-diagnosis lifestyle habits and clinical data are associated with the overall survival (OS) and head and neck cancer (HNC)-specific survival in patients with HNC.PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis, including 4,759 HNC patients from five studies within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. Cox proportional Hazard Ratios (HRs) and the corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated including terms reported significantly associated with the survival in the univariate analysis.RESULTS: Five-years OS was 51.4% for all HNC sites combined: 50.3% for oral cavity, 41.1% for oropharynx, 35.0% for hypopharynx and 63.9% for larynx. When we considered HNC-specific survival, 5-year survival rates were 57.4% for all HNC combined, 54.6% for oral cavity, 45.4% for oropharynx, 37.1% for hypopharynx and 72.3% for larynx. Older ages at diagnosis and advanced tumour staging were unfavourable predictors of OS and HNC-specific survival. In laryngeal cancer, low educational level was an unfavourable prognostic factor for OS (HR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.01-6.38, for high school or lower vs. college graduate), and status and intensity of alcohol drinking were prognostic factors both of the OS (current drinkers HR = 1.73, CI: 1.16-2.58) and HNC-specific survival (current drinkers HR = 2.11, CI: 1.22-3.66). In oropharyngeal cancer, smoking status was an independent prognostic factors for OS. Smoking intensity (>20 cigarettes/day HR = 1.41, CI: 1.03-1.92) was also an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with cancer of the oral cavity.CONCLUSIONS: OS and HNC-specific survival differ among HNC sites. Pre-diagnosis cigarette smoking is a prognostic factor of the OS for patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx, while pre-diagnosis alcohol drinking is a prognostic factor of OS and HNC-specific survival for patients with cancer of the larynx. Low

  1. [Role of induction chemotherapy in head and neck cancer: Cons].

    PubMed

    Huguet, F; Schick, U; Pointreau, Y

    2017-10-01

    The treatment of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is based on concomitant chemoradiotherapy. A sequential treatment combining induction chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TPF), followed by (chemo)radiotherapy is frequently used as part of laryngeal preservation strategies. Apart from this particular situation, the benefit in terms of survival of induction chemotherapy has been much discussed in recent years. In five recent randomized trials, chemoradiotherapy was compared with TPF induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy. Of these five trials, four concluded that these treatments were similar. A single trial reports a benefit for induction chemotherapy but its methodology is highly debatable. After TPF chemotherapy, chemoradiotherapy is less well tolerated. In patients with significant lymph node invasion (N2b-c-N3), induction chemotherapy reduces the occurrence of distant metastasis. The HPV status should not influence the therapeutic decision. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of human papillomavirus-related head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, A M; Qiu, S; Underbrink, M P

    2014-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck malignancies (HNMs) have become a serious health risk over the past 20 years. Despite decreases in non-HPV-related HNMs, the incidence of HPV-related HNMs has skyrocketed, and a new form of tumorigenesis is developing. HPV type 16 is the primary offender, and the majority of these tumors present in the oropharynx, with a smaller proportion in the larynx and oral cavity. While traditionally treated with surgery, the paradigm has shifted to more of a nonoperative chemoradiation therapy approach, with the hope of improving vital functions after therapy. Unfortunately, we continue to see significant dysphagia in these patients after treatment, and work is being done to improve outcomes. With the advent of transoral robotic surgery, we have again been able to reconsider treatment options for these patients, although it has been met with some skepticism and resistance. Here we discuss the scope of HPV-related HNMs, the treatment options and prognosis for the disease, and finally touch upon psychosocial issues related to HPV-related HNMs. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Activation of the NOTCH pathway in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenyue; Gaykalova, Daria A.; Ochs, Michael F.; Mambo, Elizabeth; Arnaoutakis, Demetri; Liu, Yan; Loyo, Myriam; Agrawal, Nishant; Howard, Jason; Li, Ryan; Ahn, Sun; Fertig, Elana; Sidransky, David; Houghton, Jeffery; Buddavarapu, Kalyan; Sanford, Tiffany; Choudhary, Ashish; Darden, Will; Adai, Alex; Latham, Gary; Bishop, Justin; Sharma, Rajni; Westra, William H.; Hennessey, Patrick; Chung, Christine H.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    NOTCH1 mutations have been reported to occur in 10 to 15% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). To determine the significance of these mutations, we embarked upon a comprehensive study of NOTCH signaling in a cohort of 44 HNSCC tumors and 25 normal mucosal samples through a set of expression, copy number, methylation and mutation analyses. Copy number increases were identified in NOTCH pathway genes including the NOTCH ligand JAG1. Gene set analysis defined a differential expression of the NOTCH signaling pathway in HNSCC relative to normal tissues. Analysis of individual pathway-related genes revealed overexpression of ligands JAG1 and JAG2 and receptor NOTCH3. In 32% of the HNSCC examined, activation of the downstream NOTCH effectors HES1/HEY1 was documented. Notably, exomic sequencing identified 5 novel inactivating NOTCH1 mutations in 4/37 of the tumors analyzed, with none of these tumors exhibiting HES1/HEY1 overexpression. Our results revealed a bimodal pattern of NOTCH pathway alterations in HNSCC, with a smaller subset exhibiting inactivating NOTCH1 receptors mutations but a larger subset exhibiting other NOTCH1 pathway alterations, including increases in expression or gene copy number of the receptor or ligands as well as downstream pathway activation. Our results imply that therapies that target the NOTCH pathway may be more widely suitable for HNSCC treatment than appreciated currently. PMID:24351288

  4. Evolving trends in head and neck cancer epidemiology: Ontario, Canada 1993-2010.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, Matthew; Eskander, Antoine; Irish, Jonathan; Gullane, Patrick; Gilbert, Ralph; Brown, Dale; de Almeida, John R; Urbach, David R; Goldstein, David P

    2017-09-01

    Given the dramatic changes in global head and neck cancer epidemiology, the purpose of this study was to present the findings of our investigation on patterns of head and neck cancer incidence/survival within the province of Ontario, Canada. Temporal variations in age/sex adjusted incidence and survival were analyzed for all incident head and neck cancer cases (n = 20 781) managed within Ontario from 1993-2010. From 1993-2010, the incidence of oropharyngeal (average annual percentage change [AAPC] 4.56%; P < .001) and salivary gland (AAPC 4.99%; P < .001) carcinomas increased, whereas oral cavity (AAPC -1.44%; P < .001) and laryngeal/hypopharyngeal (AAPC -3.20%; P < .001) carcinomas declined, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remained static (AAPC 0.28%; P = .72). A general trend for improved 5-year overall survival (OS), was observed for all tumor sites. Consistent with previous studies, our results suggest a simultaneous decline in tobacco-associated and increase in human papillomavirus (HPV)-mediated carcinomas. The rising incidence of salivary malignancy and improvement in 5-year OS are novel findings, in need of future investigation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Intraoperative radiation therapy for recurrent head-and-neck cancer: The UCSF experience

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. . E-mail: allenmchen@yahoo.com; Bucci, M. Kara; Singer, Mark I.; Garcia, Joaquin; Kaplan, Michael J.; Chan, Albert S.; Phillips, Theodore L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To review a single-institutional experience with the use of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) for recurrent head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2004, 137 patients were treated with gross total resection and IORT for recurrence or persistence of locoregional cancer of the head and neck. One hundred and thirteen patients (83%) had previously received external beam radiation as a component of definitive therapy. Ninety-four patients (69%) had squamous cell histology. Final surgical margins were microscopically positive in 56 patients (41%). IORT was delivered using either a modified linear accelerator or a mobile electron unit and was administered as a single fraction to a median dose of 15 Gy (range, 10-18 Gy). Median follow-up among surviving patients was 41 months (range, 3-122 months). Results: The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year estimates of in-field control after salvage surgery and IORT were 70%, 64%, and 61%, respectively. Positive margins at the time of IORT predicted for in-field failure (p = 0.001). The 3-year rates of locoregional control, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival were 51%, 46%, and 36%, respectively. There were no perioperative fatalities. Complications included wound infection (4 patients), orocutaneous fistula (2 patients), flap necrosis (1 patient), trismus (1 patient), and neuropathy (1 patient). Conclusions: Intraoperative RT results in effective disease control with acceptable toxicity and should be considered for selected patients with recurrent or persistent cancers of the head and neck.

  6. Reirradiation of head and neck cancer: Long‐term disease control and toxicity

    PubMed Central

    van den Bosch, Sven; Zwijnenburg, Ellen M.; Dijkema, Tim; van den Broek, Guido B.; Weijs, Willem L. J.; Verhoef, Lia C. G.; Kaanders, Johannes H. A. M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background The purpose of this study was to report long‐term disease control and late radiation toxicity for patients reirradiated for head and neck cancer. Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis of 137 patients reirradiated with a prescribed dose ≥45 Gy between 1986 and 2013 for a recurrent or second primary malignancy. Endpoints were locoregional control, overall survival (OS), and grade ≥4 late complications according to European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) criteria. Results Five‐year locoregional control rates were 46% for patients reirradiated postoperatively versus 20% for patients who underwent reirradiation as the primary treatment (p < .05). Sixteen cases of serious (grade ≥4) late toxicity were seen in 11 patients (actuarial 28% at 5 years). In patients reirradiated with intensity‐modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a borderline improved locoregional control was observed (49% vs 36%; p = .07), whereas late complication rates did not differ. Conclusion Reirradiation should be considered for patients with a recurrent or second primary head and neck cancer, especially postoperatively, if indicated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 1122–1130, 2017 PMID:28263446

  7. The role of dietary counseling and nutrition support in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Platek, Mary E

    2012-12-01

    Head and neck cancer patients frequently present with malnutrition. Treatment options put the patient at further nutritional risk. Inadequate nutritional status is associated with poor prognosis. Dietary counseling and nutrition support can positively impact prognosis; however, the evidence is sparse and of poor quality. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence concerning the role of dietary counseling and nutrition support in head and neck cancer patients undergoing curative treatment. There remains a lack of evidence both in quantity and quality. Current findings support a role for dietary counseling and nutrition support from diagnosis through rehabilitation. Prognostic indicators for nutrition support include tumor location, tumor stage, and multimodal treatment. Results of an innovative nutrition-based care delivery model were positive. Dietary counseling is appropriate for all head and neck cancer patients to enable adequate oral intake from diagnosis through rehabilitation; however, some patients require nutrition support. Prognostic indicators and predictive models have been developed to identify patients who require early nutrition support. Next steps include development of evidence-based nutrition care paths that are tested at multiple sites using well designed longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials.

  8. Development of a Telehealth Intervention for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Studts, Jamie L.; Bumpous, Jeffrey M.; Gregg, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Liz; Keeney, Cynthia; Scharfenberger, Jennifer A.; Pfeifer, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Treatment for head and neck cancer precipitates a myriad of distressing symptoms. Patients may be isolated both physically and socially and may lack the self-efficacy to report problems and participate as partners in their care. The goal of this project was to design a telehealth intervention to address such isolation, develop patient self-efficacy, and improve symptom management during the treatment experience. Participatory action research and a review of the literature were used to develop electronically administered symptom management algorithms addressing all major symptoms experienced by patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancers. Daily questions and related messages were then programmed into an easy-to-use telehealth messaging device, the Health Buddy®. Clinician and patient acceptance, feasibility, and technology issues were measured. Using participatory action research is an effective means for developing electronic algorithms acceptable to both clinicians and patients. The use of a simple tele-messaging device as an adjunct to symptom management is feasible, affordable, and acceptable to patients. This telehealth intervention provides support and education to patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancers. PMID:19199847

  9. Prosthetic rehabilitation of head and neck cancer patients focusing on mandibular dentures in irradiated patients.

    PubMed

    Buurman, Doke J M; Vaassen, Lauretta A; Bockmann, Roland; Kessler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed treatment outcomes and patient satisfaction of irradiated head and neck cancer patients treated with mandibular implant overdentures (IODs) or conventional dentures (CDs). Fifty-one irradiated head and neck cancer patients, out of a total of 158 patients included, completed the standardized questionnaire and underwent a clinical assessment. Nineteen patients were treated with removable CDs and 32 patients received IODs between January 2006 and January 2011. The mean follow-up of patients was 5.75 years (range: 1 to 23 years). A total of 45 (88.3%) mandibular dentures were in function at the time of assessment. The overall denture satisfaction was 7.3 (range: 1 to 10, SD: 2.14). Patients being treated with adjuvant concepts, including surgical tumor ablation, scored worse than patients after radiation therapy alone. Edentulous patients seem to benefit from implants, especially with respect to prosthesis retention. Men take more benefit from IODs compared with women. The results are comparable to other studies of head and neck cancer patients and also of healthy individuals. Surgical interventions in adjuvant therapy concepts lead to reduced denture satisfaction. The concept of prosthetic rehabilitation as part of oncologic treatment can be judged as successful.

  10. Lymph node density--prognostic value in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Rudra, Sonali; Spiotto, Michael T; Witt, Mary Ellyn; Blair, Elizabeth A; Stenson, Kerstin; Haraf, Daniel J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic value of lymph node density in head and neck cancer. We utilized a prospective, multicenter database of 223 patients with head and neck cancer to identify patients who underwent lymph node dissection before chemoradiation to assess the prognostic significance of lymph node density. In 38 patients who met study criteria, lymph node density ≤0.20 predicted for improved overall survival (OS; 79% vs 50%; p = .04). Lymph node density was also associated with a trend toward improved 3-year locoregional control (96% vs 79%; p = .14) and distant metastasis-free survival (93% vs 78%; p = .13). In the patients with treatment failure distantly or locoregionally, that failure was earlier in patients with lymph node density >0.20 than in patients with lymph node density ≤0.20 (median, 12.7 months vs 5.2 months; p = .004). Our data suggest that lymph node density predicts for OS in patients with head and neck cancer and that the difference in OS may be because of differences in time to failure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Postradiation trismus and its impact on quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Yun; Chen, Shu-Ching; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Bing-Shen; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the following in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC): (1) factors related to trismus that predict the development of trismus, (2) factors affecting quality of life and measurements of these factors, and (3) comparison of these findings in patients with and without trismus to evaluate the effects of trismus on quality of life. This cross-sectional study included the questionnaires: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) - Depression Subscale, the Chewing Function Questionnaire (CFQ), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - Head and Neck Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-HN35). A scaled ruler was used to measure maximal intercisal opening (MIO). Of the 104 patients in the study, 8.7% had clinical depression. The average MIO was 35.81 mm, and 47.1% of patients had trismus. Moderate levels of chewing dysfunction with regard to different types of food were noted. Lower body mass index, chemoradiotherapy treatment, longer time since treatment completion, and higher radiation dose were significantly associated with trismus. Such patients had significantly lower head and neck-specific quality of life in terms of social contact, sexuality, teeth, mouth opening, dry mouth, feeling ill, nutritional supplement, and weight loss. Patients with trismus should be provided mouth opening exercises after treatment and programs to improve trismus and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Preoperative localization of neck recurrences from thyroid cancer: charcoal tattooing under ultrasound guidance.

    PubMed

    Chami, Linda; Hartl, Dana; Leboulleux, Sophie; Baudin, Eric; Lumbroso, Jean; Schlumberger, Martin; Travagli, Jean Paul

    2015-03-01

    Reoperation for thyroid cancer recurrence is a surgical challenge in previously dissected necks, and there is a need for a reliable procedure for surgeon guidance. In this study, the usefulness of preoperative charcoal tattooing for surgical guidance was evaluated. From July 2007 to May 2010, 53 patients (40 females; Mage=44 years, range 19-76 years) were prospectively included for preoperative localization of neck recurrences from differentiated (n=46) or medullary thyroid cancer (n=7). Preoperative cytological assessment was performed for at least one lesion in each patient. Ultrasound (US) imaging was performed with high-frequency probes (8-14 Mhz). Micronized peat charcoal (0.5-3 mL) was injected under US guidance using a 25 gauge needle, 0-15 days preoperatively. A total of 106 lesions were selected for charcoal tattooing. Of these, 101 had been tattooed, and 102 were removed (85 metastases, 17 benign on pathology). The tolerance of charcoal injection was good in all but three patients. A mean volume of 1 mL of charcoal was injected with a mean of two targets per patient. Charcoal labeling facilitated intraoperative detection in 56 "difficult" lesions (i.e., small size, dense fibrosis, anatomical pitfalls), and charcoal trace facilitated intraoperative guidance in 17 lesions. Feasibility and usefulness rates were 83% and 70.7% respectively. These findings suggest that charcoal tattooing under US guidance is an easy to implement, safe, and useful procedure for surgeon guidance in neck reoperation for thyroid cancer.

  13. Changes in nutritional status and dietary intake during and after head and neck cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Vissink, Arjan; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Pruim, Jan; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether nutritional status of patients with head and neck cancer changes during and after treatment. Nutritional status (including body weight, lean mass, and fat mass) and dietary intake were assessed in 29 patients with head and neck cancer. Patients were assessed 1 week before, and 1 and 4 months after treatment (radiotherapy, either alone or combined with chemotherapy or surgery). During treatment, body weight (-3.6 ± 5.3 kg; p = .019) and lean mass (-2.43 ± 2.81 kg; p = .001) significantly declined. Patients with sufficient intake (≥35 kcal and ≥1.5 grams protein/kg body weight) lost less body weight and lean mass than patients with insufficient intake (mean difference, -4.0 ± 1.9 kg; p = 0.048 and -2.1 ± 1.0 kg; p = .054, respectively). After treatment, only patients with sufficient intake gained body weight (2.3 ± 2.3 kg) and lean mass (1.2 ± 1.3 kg). Patients with head and neck cancer fail to maintain or improve nutritional status during treatment, despite sufficient intake. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Definitive Radiation Therapy Without Chemotherapy for Human Papillomavirus-Positive Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Allen M.; Zahra, Talia; Daly, Megan E.; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Vaughan, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a single institutional experience with definitive radiation therapy alone for human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive head and neck cancer Methods and Materials Sixty-seven patients were treated by radiation therapy alone to a median dose of 70 Gy (range, 66 to 72 Gy) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed pre-treatment tumor tissues were used to establish HPV-positivity using standardized techniques of immunohistochemistry for p16 and polymerase chain reaction for HPV. Results Twenty-three patients with HPV-positive cancers were identified. With a median follow-up of 28 months (range, 6 to 85 months), the 3-year actuarial rates of overall survival, local-regional control, and distant metastasis-free survival were 83%, 90%, and 88%, respectively. Conclusion These findings attest to the exquisite radiosensitivity of HPV-positive head and neck cancer. The clinical outcomes observed from this selected series compare favorably to historical controls treated by more intensive chemoradiotherapy strategies. PMID:23335285

  15. Oropharyngeal candidiasis in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation: update 2011.

    PubMed

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Patton, Lauren L; Lalla, Rajesh V; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-06-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is a major cause of morbidity in patients with malignancies. It is a common complication of head and neck radiation therapy and can result in pain, dysgeusia (taste changes), anorexia, malnutrition, and esophageal or systemic dissemination. Clinicians should be aware of current epidemiology, elements of diagnosis, and therapeutic trials guiding the recent recommendations for prophylaxis and management of OPC, a disease often incorrectly perceived as benign. This review discusses OPC with focus in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Local treatments are recommended as first-line therapy in milder forms of OPC. In the setting of local therapy, products that provide prolonged contact time and are not sucrose sweetened may result in successful prevention and management with low risk of oral/dental complications. Diagnosis and management of OPC is required in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation. Local therapy is suggested as first-line treatment for OPC, unless severe clinical infection or high risk immune suppression necessitate systemic therapy. The availability of effective locally delivered (topical) medications may provide potential for prophylaxis for carriers of Candida species in head and cancer patients during radiation therapy.

  16. Primary Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer in the Setting of Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Emily A.; Guiou, Michael; Farwell, D. Gregory; Luu, Quang; Lau, Derick H.; Stuart, Kerri; Vaughan, Andrew; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Chen, Allen M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze outcomes after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer among a cohort of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods and Materials: The medical records of 12 patients with serologic evidence of HIV who subsequently underwent radiation therapy to a median dose of 68 Gy (range, 64-72 Gy) for newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were reviewed. Six patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy was used in 6 cases (50%). All patients had a Karnofsky performance status of 80 or 90. Nine patients (75%) were receiving antiretroviral therapies at the time of treatment, and the median CD4 count was 460 (range, 266-800). Toxicity was graded according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group / European Organization for the Treatment of Cancer toxicity criteria. Results: The 3-year estimates of overall survival and local-regional control were 78% and 92%, respectively. Acute Grade 3+ toxicity occurred in 7 patients (58%), the most common being confluent mucositis (5 patients) and moist skin desquamation (4 patients). Two patients experienced greater than 10% weight loss, and none experienced more than 15% weight loss from baseline. Five patients (42%) experienced treatment breaks in excess of 10 cumulative days, although none required hospitalization. There were no treatment-related fatalities. Conclusions: Radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer seems to be relatively well tolerated among appropriately selected patients with HIV. The observed rates of toxicity were comparable to historical controls without HIV.

  17. Occupation and head and neck cancer in women-Results of the ICARE study.

    PubMed

    Carton, Matthieu; Guida, Florence; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Cyr, Diane; Radoi, Loredana; Sanchez, Marie; Schmaus, Annie; Cénée, Sylvie; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Menvielle, Gwenn; Févotte, Joëlle; Pilorget, Corinne; Molinié, Florence; Bara, Simona; Stücke, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2014-12-01

    Few occupational studies have addressed head and neck cancer, and these studies have been predominantly conducted in men. Accordingly, our objective was to investigate the association between head and neck cancer and occupation in women. ICARE, a French population-based case-control study, included 296 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck in women and 775 controls. Lifelong occupational history was collected. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for smoking, alcohol drinking and education level, were estimated for occupations and industries. An elevated OR was observed for working proprietors working for 10 years or more (OR = 3.83, 95% CI: 1.12-13.0) with a significant trend with duration of employment (P = 0.047). Elevated but non-significant ORs were observed for street vendors (OR = 3.76, 95% CI: 0.99-14.3, P for trend = 0.13), bakers (OR = 4.19, 95% CI: 0.63-27.9, P for trend = 0.06), and welders and flame cutters (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 0.33-14.4, P for trend = 0.05). This exploratory study suggests a role of occupational exposures in the development of HN cancer in women. Further investigations of exposures to specific agents are needed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Outcomes of Induction Chemotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Combined Study of Two National Cohorts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Hua; Yen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Wu, Li-Li; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Kuan-Chou; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Chia-Lun; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Ding, Yi-Fang; Lin, Ming-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    The use of induction chemotherapy (CT) is controversial. We compared the survival of head and neck cancer patients receiving docetaxel- or platinum-based induction CT before concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with the survival of those receiving upfront CCRT alone. Data from the National Health Insurance and cancer registry databases in Taiwan were linked and analyzed. We enrolled patients who had head and neck cancer between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2011. Follow-up was from the index date to December 31, 2013. We included head and neck patients diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 140.0-148.9 who were aged >20 years, at American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical cancer stage III or IV, and receiving induction CT or platinum-based CCRT. The exclusion criteria were a cancer history before head and neck cancer diagnosis, distant metastasis, AJCC clinical cancer stage I or II, receipt of platinum and docetaxel before radiotherapy, an age <20 years, missing sex data, docetaxel use during or after RT, induction CT for >8 weeks before RT, induction CT alone before RT, cetuximab use, adjuvant CT within 90 days after RT completion, an RT dose <7000 cGy, curative head and neck cancer surgery before RT, nasopharyngeal cancer, in situ carcinoma, sarcoma, and head and neck cancer recurrence. We enrolled 10,721 stage III-IV head and neck cancer patients, with a median follow-up of 4.18 years (interquartile range, 3.25 years). The CCRT (arm 1), docetaxel-based induction CT (arm 2), and platinum-based CCRT (arm 3; control arm) groups comprised 7968, 503, and 2232 patients, respectively. Arm 3 was used to investigate mortality risk after induction CT. After adjustment for age, sex, clinical stage, and comorbidities, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for overall death were 1.37 (1.22-1.53) and 1.44 (1.36-1.52) in arms 2 and 3, respectively. In a disease

  19. Elective free flap revision in the head and neck cancer patient: Indications and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Poore, Samuel O; Wieland, Aaron M; Mcculloch, Timothy M; Hartig, Gregory K

    2015-11-01

    Elective free flap revision among head and neck cancer patients remains poorly characterized. This study evaluates patients who underwent flap revision and their surgical outcomes. Patients who underwent tumor extirpation with free flap reconstruction were identified over a 5-year period. Elective flap revision was defined as debulking or redraping of the original free flap for functional or cosmetic reasons. Patient demographics, surgical indications, and outcomes were reviewed. One hundred and eighty-six patients were identified, and 19 (10.2%) underwent flap revision. Revision of oral cavity flaps (n = 9, 47.4%) was performed to address excessive flap bulk compromising lip competence, speech, swallowing, mastication, or placement of a dental prosthesis. Revision of flaps resurfacing the face or neck (n = 10, 52.6%) was performed to address facial ptosis after facial nerve sacrifice, facial asymmetry, or soft tissue redundancy. Revisions were performed at an average of 7.3 months postoperatively and there was no age or gender bias toward undergoing flap revision. Patients whose flap skin paddles were used to resurface the facial or neck skin were significantly more likely to undergo elective revision than patients with an external paddle designed for flap monitoring (p < 0.01). We identified a 10% elective revision rate for head and neck free flaps in cancer patients, approximately half of which were performed to improve oral cavity function and half of which were performed to address facial ptosis or asymmetry. While there was no age or gender preference for flap revision, extensive facial or neck resurfacing was significantly associated with eventual flap revision. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Regional Relapse After Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Duprez, Frederic; Bonte, Katrien; De Neve, Wilfried; Boterberg, Tom; De Gersem, Werner; Madani, Indira

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the regional relapse rate in the elective neck using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the data from 285 patients treated with IMRT between 2000 and 2008. The median dose prescription to the primary tumor and involved lymph nodes was 69 Gy in 32 fractions. The elective neck was treated simultaneously according to Protocol 1 (multiple dose prescription levels of 56-69 Gy; 2-Gy normalized isoeffective dose, 51-70 Gy; 222 patients) or Protocol 2 (one dose prescription level of 56 Gy; 2-Gy normalized isoeffective dose, 51 Gy; 63 patients). Primary surgery or lymph node dissection was performed before IMRT in 72 (25%) and 157 (55%) patients, respectively. Also, 92 patients (32%) received concomitant chemotherapy. The median follow-up of living patients was 27.4 months (range, 0.3-99). Results: Regional, local, and distant relapse were observed in 16 (5.6%), 35 (12.3%), and 47 (16.5%) patients, respectively. The 2- and 5-year rate of regional relapse was 7% and 10%, respectively, with a trend favoring Protocol 2 (p = 0.06). Seven isolated regional relapses were detected at a median follow-up of 7.3 months in patients treated with Protocol 1 and none in those treated with Protocol 2. Percutaneous gastrostomy was required more frequently in patients who received Protocol 1 (p = 0.079). Conclusion: Isolated regional relapse is rare after IMRT for head-and-neck cancer. Elective neck node doses >51 Gy for a 2-Gy normalized isoeffective dose do not seem to improve regional control.

  1. Current understanding of cancer stem cells: Review of their radiobiology and role in head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Reid, Paul Ambrose; Wilson, Puthenparampil; Li, Yanrui; Marcu, Loredana Gabriela; Bezak, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Evidence of cancer cells that bear attributes analogous to those of normal stem cells has developed a hierarchical model of cancer's architecture and progression. This subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs) drives the progression and therapy resistance of cancers. Research to identify the phenotypes of these CSCs presents evidence of a subpopulation that is more resistant to therapy and may proliferate in response. Literature shows that CSCs typically represent around 1%-10% of cell populations in head and neck cancer but this proportion may increase in response to a therapeutic radiation dose. This is shown to be not just as a result of preferential killing, but also their capacity to alter divisional dynamics and enlist the support of a complicit microenvironment in therapy resistance and proliferation. The CSCs represent the apex of a hierarchy in the heterogeneity of cancer cells and may be seen as the agents of treatment failure, metastasis, and tumor recurrence, the principal cause of mortality in head and neck cancers. Greater than 90% of head and neck cancers are squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs), and among these an increasing incidence of the involvement of the human papillomavirus (HPV) is reported. Chemoradiotherapy along with surgical resection are the interventions of choice for control and cure of HNSCC, but given CSCs therapy resistance and proliferative responses to radiation, the identification and understanding of the radiobiology of this subpopulation is critical to their targeted elimination. This article reviews the current evidence on CSC generally and in HNSCC specifically to identify their phenotype, evaluate their responses to radiotherapy, and evaluate the defensive mechanisms used to resist therapeutic control. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Home - The Cancer Genome Atlas - Cancer Genome - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate our understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of genome analysis technologies, including large-scale genome sequencing.

  3. Freedom from local and regional failure of contralateral neck with ipsilateral neck radiotherapy for node-positive tonsil cancer: updated results of an institutional clinical management approach.

    PubMed

    Dan, Tu D; Raben, David; Schneider, Charles J; Hockstein, Neil G; Witt, Robert L; Dzeda, Michael; Cormier, Jennifer F; Raben, Adam

    2015-06-01

    To update the outcomes of an institutional clinical management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion. Between August 2003 and April 2014, 61 consecutive patients with ipsilateral node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate were treated at a community hospital-based cancer center with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck. Overall survival, disease-free survival and freedom from contralateral failure were calculated. Median follow up was 37.2months (range 4-121months). Freedom from contralateral nodal failure at 5years was 98% with one contralateral nodal failure noted. The patient underwent a salvage neck dissection and was treated with post-operative radiotherapy with no evidence of disease to date. 5-year overall survival (OS) was 92.4% and 5year disease-free survival (DFS) was 86.7%. This represents the single largest series reported from a community hospital-based cancer center in which lateralized tonsil cancers with N+ disease were treated with ipsilateral neck radiotherapy. In this carefully selected cohort of patients with well-lateralized tonsil cancers, the risk of contralateral nodal failure appears to be <5%, suggesting that prophylactic radiation of the contralateral neck may not be necessary. Future planned studies will focus on prospectively selecting subgroups of patients eligible for treatment de-intensification as survivorship issues in excellent prognosis HPV positive patients are increasingly becoming relevant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental considerations in management of head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, P.S.

    1985-08-01

    The successful management of patients with squamous cell cancer of the aerodigestive tract requires a multispecialty team. Cooperation among these individuals will ensure that the patient has the best possible chance for a favorable outcome. The role of the dentist as a member of this team is discussed.

  5. Baroreceptor reflex failure: Review of the literature and the potential impact on patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah-Becker, Shivani; Pennock, Michael; Sinoway, Lawrence; Goldenberg, David; Goyal, Neerav

    2017-10-01

    Baroreceptor dysfunction and reflex failure may occur after surgery affecting the carotid artery. The implications for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer are not well described. A literature search of PubMed was performed between March 2016 and May 2016. Search terms used individually and in combination included: "baroreflex failure," "carotid sinus sensitivity," "carotid endarterectomy," "carotid body tumor," and "head and neck cancer." Bibliographies of included articles were also reviewed for additional pertinent articles. There is evidence of baroreceptor failure in certain patients after interventions associated with the carotid artery, including carotid endarterectomy and carotid body tumor excision. Few studies have been performed investigating the potential effect of head and neck surgery treatment, including surgery and/or radiation, on baroreflex function. Head and neck cancer treatment has the potential to cause baroreflex failure, and this is likely an underrecognized and underdiagnosed condition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer: From visualization of lymphatic vessels to sentinel nodes.

    PubMed

    de Bree, Remco; Nieweg, Omgo E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this report is to describe the history of sentinel node biopsy in head and neck cancer. Sentinel node biopsy is a minimally invasive technique to select patients for treatment of metastatic lymph nodes in the neck. Although this procedure has only recently been accepted for early oral cancer, the first studies on visualization of the cervical lymphatic vessels were reported in the 1960s. In the 1980s mapping of lymphatic drainage from specific head and neck sites was introduced. Sentinel node biopsy was further developed in the 1990s and after validation in this century the procedure is routinely performed in early oral cancer in several head and neck centers. New techniques may improve the accuracy of sentinel node biopsy further, particularly in difficult subsites like the floor of mouth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Autoantibody Approach for Serum-Based Detection of Head and Neck Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our long term goal is to improve survival of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) through early detection using simple noninvasive serum assays in an ELISA-like platform. The objective of this proposal is to improve and confirm the validity of a diagnostic serum assay based on a panel of cancer-specific biomarkers for early cancer detection in patients with HNSCC. Our central hypothesis is that the detection of antibody responses to HNSCC-specific antigens, using a panel of biomarkers, can provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity suitable for clinical testing in the primary setting to screen and diagnose HNSCC in high risk populations to improve early detection.

  8. Complications of Bilateral Neck Dissection in Thyroid Cancer From a Single High-Volume Center.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Caitlin; Rocke, Daniel; Freeman, Jeremy

    2017-04-01

    The morbidity of bilateral lateral neck dissection (BLND) for thyroid cancers has not been described in detail. This study delineates the specific complications arising from BLND for thyroid cancers at a single high-volume center. To determine the morbidity associated with BLNDs for differentiated thyroid cancers at our institution. This was a retrospective review of medical records performed to identify patients having undergone BLNDs for thyroid cancers by a single surgeon at an academic, tertiary medical center in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, from 1988 to 2015. Patients who underwent BLND for papillary, follicular, or medullary thyroid cancers were identified through operative procedure codes and review of operative and pathology reports. The indication for this procedure was suspicious bilateral lateral compartment on imaging and clinical examination. Sixty-two patients who underwent BLND for thyroid cancers, with or without total thyroidectomy and central compartment dissection, were identified. The main outcome measures for this study were unanticipated medical or surgical complications during the operation or in the postoperative period. Secondary measures were oncologic outcomes, including regional structural or biochemical recurrence. Of the 62 patients, 24 were male (39%), and 38 (61%) were female. Their mean age was 46 years (range, 17-80 years). The overall risk of permanent hypoparathyroidism was 37%. There was 1 case of unanticipated permanent recurrent nerve paralysis and 1 case of temporary nerve paresis. Postoperative chyle fistula occurred in 6 cases (10%). There were 3 readmissions within 30 days of surgery, 1 pulmonary embolism, and 1 perioperative mortality. Fifty percent of patients had pN0 contralateral necks despite preoperative clinical suspicion. Four patients were found to have anaplastic thyroid cancers intraoperatively. Five patients (8%) developed nodal recurrence in the neck. Four patients died of their disease within available follow

  9. Oncolytic virotherapy for head and neck cancer: current research and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Akshiv; Sendilnathan, Arun; Old, Matthew O; Wise-Draper, Trisha M

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Despite recent advancements in surgical, chemotherapy, and radiation treatments, HNC remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Unlike many other cancers, local control rather than systemic control is important for HNC survival. Therefore, novel local therapy in addition to systemic therapy is urgently needed. Oncolytic virotherapy holds promise in this regard as viruses can be injected intratumorally as well as intravenously with excellent safety profiles. This review will discuss the recent advancements in oncolytic virotherapy, highlighting some of the most promising candidates and modifications to date. PMID:27512673

  10. Oncolytic virotherapy for head and neck cancer: current research and future developments.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Akshiv; Sendilnathan, Arun; Old, Matthew O; Wise-Draper, Trisha M

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Despite recent advancements in surgical, chemotherapy, and radiation treatments, HNC remains a highly morbid and fatal disease. Unlike many other cancers, local control rather than systemic control is important for HNC survival. Therefore, novel local therapy in addition to systemic therapy is urgently needed. Oncolytic virotherapy holds promise in this regard as viruses can be injected intratumorally as well as intravenously with excellent safety profiles. This review will discuss the recent advancements in oncolytic virotherapy, highlighting some of the most promising candidates and modifications to date.

  11. Changes in intimate relationships following treatment for head and neck cancer-A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Stenhammar, Christina; Isaksson, Joakim; Granström, Brith; Laurell, Göran; Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how patients with head and neck cancer experience changes within their intimate relationships at the end of treatment and detect detrimental and facilitating factors in the process of resuming intimate relationships. Interviews were conducted with 131 patients. A core category - "being open versus not sharing the cancer journey" - emerged from the patients' narratives and was based on the experiences of engagement/disengagement, openness/fear, and patronizing attitudes/sharing the burden. The findings point to the necessity of patients being open about the disease trajectory and might be understood in the light of theories about potential changes in identity and self-concept.

  12. Viral Therapy In Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Cancer or Metastatic Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-31

    Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; HER2/Neu Negative; HER2/Neu Positive; Invasive Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Negative; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Triple-Negative Breast Carcinoma

  13. Immunotherapy With MK-3475 in Surgically Resectable Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-08

    Cancer of Head and Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Carcinoma, Squamous Cell of Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck; Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Head and Neck

  14. Gene Expression Characterization of HPV Positive Head and Neck Cancer to Predict Response to Chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Bryan J; Geddes, Timothy J; Fortier, Laura E; Ahmed, Samreen; Pruetz, Barbara L; Wobb, Jessica; Chen, Peter; Wilson, George D; Akervall, Jan A

    2015-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been shown to have a causal role in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. While HPV-positive head and neck cancer is associated with a better response to treatment in the majority of patients, there is a subset who does not respond favorably to current therapy. Identification of these patients could prevent unnecessary morbidity and indicate the need for alternative therapeutic options. Tissue samples were obtained from 19 patients with HPV-positive head and neck squamous carcinoma treated with chemoradiation therapy. HPV status was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis through detection of HPV16 E7 in both DNA and RNA. RNA was isolated from tissue samples and subjected to microarray gene expression analysis. In addition to identification of potential genetic biomarkers (including LCE3D, KRTDAP, HMOX1, KRT19, MDK, TSPAN1), differentially expressed genes associated with genomic stability, cell cycle, and DNA damage were detected between responders and non-responders. These results were further validated with publicly available gene expression studies. This pilot study suggests prospective biomarkers that predict response to therapy. The importance of genes involved with genomic stability is highlighted in both development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma but also recurrence. Potential development of an assay may prove beneficial to clinicians, assisting them to provide alternative care sooner thus lowering morbidity.

  15. Unknown primary cancer of the head and neck: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Laura; Raboso, Eduardo; Ballesteros, Ana Isabel

    2011-02-01

    The management of patients with cervical lymph node metastases from an unknown primary cancer (CUP) remains a matter of controversy. Although new advanced diagnostic tools, such as positron emission tomography, have recently been introduced in oncology, the frequency of this tumour entity in clinical practice means it is still relevant. Recently introduced molecular profiling platforms may provide biological classification for the primary tissue of origin as well as insights into the pathophysiology of this clinical entity, including the characterisation of the Epstein-Barr virus and human papilloma virus genomas in the metastatic cervical nodes. Due to the lack of randomised trials, a standard therapy has not been identified yet. Although neck dissection followed by post-operative radiotherapy is the most generally accepted approach, there are other curative options that can be used in some patients: neck dissection alone, nodal excision followed by post-operative radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone. A major controversy remains in the target radiation volumes that range from ipsilateral neck irradiation to prophylactic irradiation of all potential mucosal sites and both sides of the neck. Finally, the administration of concurrent chemotherapy is currently being advised for patients with adverse prognostic factors.

  16. Does a Standalone Cancer Center Improve Head and Neck Microsurgical Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Tamplen, Matthew L; Tamplen, Jesse; Torrecillas, Vanessa; Seth, Rahul; Ricceri, Santo; Hemmat, Shirin; Heaton, Chase; Ryan, William R; Knott, P Daniel

    2017-01-06

    Objectives To evaluate the role of hospital setting (standalone cancer center vs. large multidisciplinary hospital) on free tissue transfer (FTT) outcomes for head and neck reconstruction. Methods Medical records were reviewed of 180 consecutive patients undergoing FTT for head and neck reconstruction. Operations occurred at either a standalone academic cancer center (n = 101) or a large multidisciplinary academic medical center (n = 79) by the same surgeons. Patient outcomes, operative comparisons, and hospital costs were compared between the hospital settings. Results The cancer center group had higher mean age (65.2 vs. 60 years; p = 0.009) and a shorter mean operative time (12.3 vs. 13.2 hours; p = 0.034). Postoperatively, the cancer center group had a significantly shorter average ICU stay (3.45 vs. 4.41 days; p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in medical or surgical complications between the groups. Having surgery at the cancer center was the only significant independent predictor of a reduced ICU stay on multivariate analysis (Coef 0.73; p < 0.020). Subgroup analysis, including only patients with cancer of the aerodigestive tract, demonstrated further reduction in ICU stay for the cancer center group (3.85 vs. 5.1 days; p < 0.001). A cost analysis demonstrated that the reduction in ICU saved $223,816 for the cancer center group. Conclusion Standalone subspecialty cancer centers are safe and appropriate settings for FTT. We found both reduced operative time and ICU length of stay, both of which contributed to lower overall costs. These findings challenge the concept that FTT requires a large multidisciplinary hospital. Level of Evidence 4.

  17. [Nutritional risk factors in patients with head and neck cancer in oncology care center Michoacan state].

    PubMed

    García Rojas Vázquez, L E; Trujano-Ramos, L A; Pérez-Rivera, E

    2013-01-01

    The head and neck cancer in Michoacán, Mexico, ranks as the third most common cancer and accounts for 12% of deaths. The increase in malnutrition in a patient with this disease has been associated with increased mortality. We studied prospectively 30 patients of both sexes, aged 18 years with head and neck cancer in the Cancer Care Center of Michoacan. In the evaluation period since August 2010 to August 2011. Formats were used VGS-Oncology (Subjective Global Assessment), NRS 2002 (Nutritional risk screen) and Guss (Gugging Swallowing Screen), through which nutritional risk was determined, and established the swallowing capacity of the study population. In our study, 53.3% of the population had moderate malnutrition according to the VGS Oncology, 33% weight loss record. The NRS 2002 show that 43.3% is at risk of malnutrition. The degree of dysphagia is shown more often in older patients, cancer type and stage of illness. Nutritional risk scales relate directly proportional to tumor location and stage, as well, there are other different oncological factors involved in the patient's nutritional deterioration. Therefore it is of vital importance to have a nutritionist as part of the multidisciplinary team, to detect the nutritional risk and to be able to handle it in an opportune way. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comprehensive Review of Head and Neck Cancer Rehabilitation: Physical Therapy Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Guru, Karthikeyan; Manoor, Udaya Kumar; Supe, Sanjay Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    Rehabilitation in relation to cancer can be preventative, restorative, supportive, and palliative. It is recognized that patients may have rehabilitation needs throughout their care pathway. The role of physiotherapy in the cancer rehabilitation is less understood and particularly in the head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. This results in various residual deformities and dysfunctions for the patients with HNC. The objective of this review is to provide detailed information regarding the problems faced after the cancer treatments and rehabilitation of patients who suffered with HNC. The fact that cancer patients are facing several months of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy and usually major surgery, as well as the direct effect of immobility due to pain, means that muscle wasting, joint stiffness, as well as de-conditioning and fatigue are inevitable. The absence of physiotherapy intervention would be detrimental to patient care and the ability of the patient/family to cope with the effects of the disease or its treatment on their functional capacity and quality of life. Following any treatment for HNC, physical therapy may play an essential role in preventing various complications and helping patients to mitigate impairments, and restoring function of the shoulder joint, neck, and face. PMID:23093823

  19. Hematoporphyrin-mediated photodynamic therapy for treatment of head and neck cancer: clinical update 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Vanessa G.

    1996-04-01

    From 1983 to 1996 Phase II and III clinical studies at Henry Ford Hospital demonstrated complete or partial responses in 55 of 56 patients treated with hematoporphyrin-derivative or PHOTOFRIN-mediated photodynamic therapy (HPD-PDT) for a variety of benign and malignant upper aerodigestive tract disease: (1) superficial 'condemned mucosa' or 'field cancerization' of the oral cavity and larynx (7 cases); (2) Stage III/IV head and neck cancer (25 cases); (3) mucocutaneous AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma of the upper aerodigestive tract and non AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the lower extremity (15 cases); (4) recurrent laryngotracheal papillomatosis (3 cases); (5) severe dysplasia/adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (4 cases); (6) partial or completely obstructing terminal esophageal cancer (9 cases). At the time of this report, HPD-PDT produced complete responses in 24 patients (follow up 6 months to 9 years) with 'field cancerization' (CIS, T1N0M0) of the oral cavity and larynx (6 cases), adenocarcinoma in situ in Barrett's esophagus (3 cases), mucocutaneous Kaposi's sarcoma (12 cases), obstructing esophageal carcinoma (1 case), and stage IV squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx (1 case), and radiation therapy or solar-induced basal cell/squamous cell carcinomas (2 cases). PDT treatment protocols, results, complications, and application as adjunct or primary oncologic therapy for head and neck cancer are reviewed in this article.

  20. Factors affecting access to head and neck cancer care after a natural disaster: a post-Hurricane Katrina survey.

    PubMed

    Loehn, Bridget; Pou, Anna M; Nuss, Daniel W; Tenney, Justin; McWhorter, Andrew; DiLeo, Michael; Kakade, Anagha C; Walvekar, Rohan R

    2011-01-01

    Our aim was to survey the factors affecting access to cancer care in patients with head and neck cancer after Hurricane Katrina. In this cross-sectional survey, 207 patients with head and neck cancer were identified post-Hurricane Katrina, but only 83 patients completed the questionnaires and were analyzed. Clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic data were recorded. Chi-square test and t test were used for comparisons. Patients who felt that there was a lack of access to cancer care would have sought treatment earlier had they had better access to cancer care (chi-square[1] = 32; p < .0001). Patients who felt that there was a lack of access to cancer care also had difficulty receiving treatment (chi-square[1] = 48; p < .0001). Availability of transportation affected access to cancer care in patients with early-stage cancers (chi-square[1] = 4; p < .035). In the postdisaster environment, patients who felt the lack of access to cancer care post-Hurricane Katrina would have sought treatment earlier with better access to cancer care. These patients also reported difficulty obtaining cancer treatment. Availability of transportation affected access to cancer care in patients with early-stage cancers. Clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic factors did not influence access to cancer care. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  1. COFFEE AND TEA INTAKE AND RISK OF HEAD AND NECK CANCER: POOLED ANALYSIS IN THE INTERNATIONAL HEAD AND NECK CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY CONSORTIUM

    PubMed Central

    Galeone, Carlotta; Tavani, Alessandra; Pelucchi, Claudio; Turati, Federica; Winn, Deborah M.; Levi, Fabio; Yu, Guo-Pei; Morgenstern, Hal; Kelsey, Karl; Maso, Luigino Dal; Purdue, Mark P.; McClean, Michael; Talamini, Renato; Hayes, Richard B.; Franceschi, Silvia; Schantz, Stimson; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Ferro, Gilles; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Boffetta, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Hashibe, Mia

    2011-01-01

    Background Only a few studies have explored the relation between coffee and tea intake and head and neck (HN) cancers, with inconsistent results. Methods We pooled individual-level data from nine case-control studies of HN cancers, including 5139 cases and 9028 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for potential confounders. Results Caffeinated coffee intake was inversely related with the risk of cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx (OP): the ORs were 0.96 (95% CI 0.94–0.98) for an increment of one cup per day and 0.61 (95% CI 0.47–0.80) in drinkers of >4 cups per day vs. non-drinkers. This latter estimate was consistent for different anatomical sites (ORs were 0.46, 95%CI 0.30–0.71 for oral cavity, 0.58, 95% CI 0.41–0.82 for oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal and 0.61, 95% CI 0.37–1.01 for OP not otherwise specified), and across strata of selected covariates. No association of caffeinated coffee drinking was found with laryngeal cancer (OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.64–1.45 in drinkers of >4 cups per day vs. non-drinkers). Data on decaffeinated coffee were too sparse for detailed analysis, but indicated no increased risk. Tea intake was not associated with HN cancer risk (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.89–1.11 for drinkers vs. non-drinkers). Conclusions This pooled-analysis of case-control studies support the hypothesis of an inverse association between caffeinated coffee drinking and OP cancer risk. Impact Given widespread use of coffee and the relatively high incidence and low survival of HN cancers, the observed inverse association may have appreciable public health relevance. PMID:20570908

  2. Functional analysis of ESM1 by siRNA knockdown in primary and metastatic head and neck cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bender, Onur; Gunduz, Mehmet; Cigdem, Sadik; Hatipoglu, Omer Faruk; Acar, Muradiye; Kaya, Mesut; Grenman, Reidar; Gunduz, Esra; Ugur, Kadriye Serife

    2017-10-11

    Genetic factors play a large role in cancer and thus there is a great desire to understand the effects of different genes in cancer and to also develop gene therapy for better treatments. Therefore, the development of alternative diagnosis and therapy modalities are of utmost importance. The aim of our study is to illuminate the role of ESM1 (endothelial cell specific molecule-1, also known as Endocan) in proliferation and migration of head and neck cancer, thus helping to pave the way for new treatment modalities and predictive biomarkers. ESM1 expression was shown with immunofluorescence assay by using confocal laser scanning microscope in primary and metastatic head and neck cancer cells. ESM1 expression was knocked down by RNA interference in head and neck cancer cells. Knockdown efficiency was evaluated by quantitative real time RT-PCR and western blot. Cell proliferation and migration assays were performed by xCELLigence real time cell analysis system. Immunofluorescence assay showed nuclear localization and high expression of ESM1 in primary and metastatic head and neck cancer cells. ESM1 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in ESM1-knockdown cells compared to control. ESM1-knockdown cells showed reduced proliferation and migration activity when compared to control cells. These findings suggest that ESM1 has roles on proliferation and migration of head and neck cancer cells. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Prepare to Care, A Supported Self-Management Intervention for Head and Neck Cancer CaregiversHead and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-16

    Caregiver; Malignant Head and Neck Neoplasm; Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  4. Advice about Work-Related Issues to Peers and Employers from Head and Neck Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Dewa, Carolyn S.; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this exploratory and descriptive study is to contribute to the sparse return-to-work literature on head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Interview participants were asked to reflect upon their work-related experience with cancer by answering two specific questions: (1) What advice would you give someone who has been newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer? (2) What advice would you give to employers of these people? Methods Data were gathered through 10 individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with HNC clinic patients at a regional cancer center’s head and neck clinic in Ontario, Canada. A constant comparative method of theme development was used. Codes identified in and derived from the data were discussed by research team members until consensus was reached. Codes with similar characteristics were grouped together and used to develop overarching themes. Results Work-related advice for peers focused on personal self-care and interactions within workplaces. Work-related advice to employers focused on demonstrating basic human values as well as the importance of communication. Discussion The study results suggest HNC clinic patients should be proactive with employers and help to set reasonable expectations and provide a realistic plan for work to be successfully completed. HNC clinic patients should develop communication skills to effectively disclose their cancer and treatment to employers. Conclusions In this exploratory study, HNC clinic patients’ advice was solution-focused underscoring the importance of self-care and pro-active communication and planning with employers. Employers were advised to demonstrate core human values throughout all phases of the work disability episode beginning at diagnosis. PMID:27070654

  5. Advice about Work-Related Issues to Peers and Employers from Head and Neck Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Trojanowski, Lucy; Tamminga, Sietske J; Ringash, Jolie; McQuestion, Maurene; Hoch, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory and descriptive study is to contribute to the sparse return-to-work literature on head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors. Interview participants were asked to reflect upon their work-related experience with cancer by answering two specific questions: (1) What advice would you give someone who has been newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer? (2) What advice would you give to employers of these people? Data were gathered through 10 individual semi-structured in-depth interviews with HNC clinic patients at a regional cancer center's head and neck clinic in Ontario, Canada. A constant comparative method of theme development was used. Codes identified in and derived from the data were discussed by research team members until consensus was reached. Codes with similar characteristics were grouped together and used to develop overarching themes. Work-related advice for peers focused on personal self-care and interactions within workplaces. Work-related advice to employers focused on demonstrating basic human values as well as the importance of communication. The study results suggest HNC clinic patients should be proactive with employers and help to set reasonable expectations and provide a realistic plan for work to be successfully completed. HNC clinic patients should develop communication skills to effectively disclose their cancer and treatment to employers. In this exploratory study, HNC clinic patients' advice was solution-focused underscoring the importance of self-care and pro-active communication and planning with employers. Employers were advised to demonstrate core human values throughout all phases of the work disability episode beginning at diagnosis.

  6. [Survival Analysis Three-year Follow-up of Pacients with Head and Neck Cancer].

    PubMed

    Malá, E; Vejražková, E; Vošmik, M; Novosad, J; Sobotka, L

    2016-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer are predominantnly at the risk for malnutrition. Monitoring of nutritional status and pre-treatment variables can favorably observe many prognostic indicators for overall survival in head and neck cancer before and during oncological treatment up to three years in head and neck cancer pacients. In 726 patients diagnosed head and neck cancer patients with curative intent, were collected data according to the monitoring scheme of observation. As a clinical important of uninteded weight loss was defined weight loss 10% in input (T0). Differences in groups were analysed by Coxs regression with adjustments for important demografic and tumor-related data. The acceptance of the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy was a key factor for less complications and to improve tolerance of anticancer treatment. Men-smokers have the highest risk of cardiovascular mortality. Men-stop-smokers have the most significant life extension of 11 to 22 months; p < 0.007. Men-non-smokers have a life extension of 15 to 23 months (p < 0.005) and having its lowest cardiovascular mortality (11%). Women tolerate cancer better, have minor subjective complaints and a lower number of complications but significantly higher consumption of antidepressants (p < 0.003). While men have higher analgesic consumption (p < 0.001). Weight loss > 10% significantly correlates with the clinical manifestations of malnutrition and is associated with an increase in complications and mortality dependent cancer (p < 0.008). Consistent assessment of nutritional status with early intervention is considered as an essential part of comprehensive anticancer treatment. An independent risk factor for cancer-dependent mortality is considered weight loss of > 5% with a BMI < 21 at time T0 or weight loss > 10% weight T0 in BMI 21- 29 and continuing weight loss to T12 and also BMI 30. The highest-risk profile has a male sex-smoker, age > 63, hypopharyngeal carcinoma, stage III- IV, weight

  7. Association of NOTCH with different microRNAs in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Masood, N; Qureshi, M Z; Yasmin, A

    2015-10-30

    Head and neck cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide with an alarming increase in Asian countries. Overwhelmingly increasing cell culture and preclinical studies are identifying wide ranging mechanisms which are instrumental in disease development, progression and resistance against different therapeutics. The scientists are unable to differentiate whether expressional mutation is a cause or a consequence of some other alterations occurring in the body. We partition this review into how NOTCH1 and p16 contribute in cancer development and how microRNAs quantitatively control NOTCH1 expression. Future studies must converge on identification of miRNAs which negatively regulate p16 and targeted inhibition of p16 targeting miRNAs will be helpful in inhibiting tumor growth, cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Detailed mechanistic insights related to miRNA mediated Notch regulation will also be useful in delivery of tumor suppressor miRNAs or mimics to effectively inhibit cancer.

  8. Association of optimism-pessimism with quality of life in patients with head and neck and thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Kung, Simon; Rummans, Teresa A; Colligan, Robert C; Clark, Matthew M; Sloan, Jeff A; Novotny, Paul J; Huntington, Jefrey L

    2006-12-01

    To examine the relationship between optimism-pessimism and quality of life (QOL) in survivors of head and neck and thyroid cancers. Between 1963 and 2000, 190 patients completed both the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), used to assess explanatory style (optimism-pessimism), and either the 12-Item or 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 or SF-36), used to assess QOL. The MMPIs were completed an average of 13.4 years before the QOL assessment. The QOL measures were completed an average of 12.5 years after cancer diagnosis. Patients were divided into quartiles based on their MMPI Optimism-Pessimism scale score. Analysis was performed for all patients, those with head and neck cancer, and those with thyroid