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Sample records for neck cancer patient

  1. Rehabilitation of the head and neck cancer patient: Psychosocial aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Blitzer, A.; Baredes, S.; Kutscher, A.; Seeland, I.B.; Barrett, V.W.; Mossman, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 42 chapters divided among six sections. Some of the chapter titles are: The Challenge of Cancer; Communicaton Needs of Head and Neck Cancer Patients; Normal Tissue Effects of the Radiotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer; Chemotherapy in the Treatment of Head and Neck Cancer; and Thyroid Cancer.

  2. Hypothyroidism after radiotherapy for patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Hideyuki; Mizutari, Kunio; Takata, Yasunori; Ogawa, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    We report on 2 cases of hypothyroidism presenting clinical symptoms that occurred after radiotherapy for cancer of the head and neck and on the results of estimating thyroid function in patients with head and neck cancer who received radiotherapy. The first patient underwent total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer without sacrificing the thyroid gland and partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Radiotherapy of the neck was carried out postoperatively. Two years later, the patient developed chest pain; pericardial effusion was detected, leading to a diagnosis of myxedema caused by hypothyroidism. The second patient received radiotherapy alone for laryngeal cancer. Two months later, low serum sodium concentration and anemia were detected in this patient. The cause of these changes was subsequently found to be hypothyroidism. Based on our experience with these 2 cases, we measured thyroid function in 35 patients who had undergone neck radiation for head and neck cancer at our hospital over the past 10 years. Hypothyroidism was observed in 13 of the 35 patients (37%). The prevalence of hypothyroidism was 46% (6/13) for patients treated with both radiation and surgery, as compared with 32% (7/22) for those who received radiation alone. The risk factors responsible for hypothyroidism were not evident from the statistical analysis of these cases. We believe that thyroid function should be evaluated periodically in patients who have undergone neck radiation because it is often difficult to diagnose hypothyroidism only from clinical symptoms.

  3. The nutritional assessment of head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Magnano, Mauro; Mola, Patrizia; Machetta, Giacomo; Maffeis, Paola; Forestiero, Ilenia; Cavagna, Roberta; Artino, Elena; Boffano, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Patients affected by head and neck cancer are particularly at risk for nutritional depletion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional status of patients affected by head and neck cancer at diagnosis. All adult patients with head and neck cancer between January 2009 and December 2013 were included. The following data were recorded: demographics, tobacco and/or alcohol consumption, weight, height, the reference weight 6 months before the diagnosis, tumor site, tumor stage, and laboratory data. Then, Body mass index (BMI), and Buzby nutrition risk index (NRI) were calculated. Statistical analysis was used to search for associations among multiple variables. 122 men and 22 women were enrolled. As for reference BMI, 77 patients were overweight, whereas just 7 subjects were underweight. At diagnosis, 72 subjects were overweight according to BMI, whereas 52 patients were underweight. Instead, according to NRI, 96 patients were severely malnourished, 42 patients were moderately malnourished, whereas just 6 patients had a normal value of NRI. The assessment of nutrition by BMI excluded from a thorough consideration all overweight and obese patients with head and neck cancer. Instead, NRI correctly identified both undernourished and overweight/obese patients as "malnourished" subjects.

  4. Head and neck cancer in renal transplant patients in Finland.

    PubMed

    Mäkitie, Antti A; Lundberg, Marie; Salmela, Kaija; Kyllönen, Lauri; Pukkala, Eero

    2008-11-01

    This study found a 0.8% incidence of non-cutaneous head and neck cancer during a mean follow-up of 10 years. The benefits of successful renal transplantation clearly outweigh the observed risk of malignancy. Increased cancer incidence after organ transplantation is well documented but few studies have reported on the rate of head and neck malignancies among these patients. This study aimed to determine the incidence and specific sites of head and neck cancer in a nationwide series of renal transplant patients in Finland. Data from the National Kidney Transplant Registry and the Finnish Cancer Registry were used. A total of 2884 kidney transplant patients from the period 1964 to 1997 were followed for cancer incidence during the period from 1967 to 2003. There were 113 non-lymphomatous head and neck malignancies. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR), as compared with the general population, was 13.6, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 11.2-16.2. The SIR was significantly elevated for cancers of the skin (47.3, 95% CI 36.3-60.7), lip (31.8, 95% CI 20.8-46.6), oral cavity (6.5, 95% CI 2.4-14.0) and thyroid (5.8, 95% CI 3.0-10.2).

  5. [Psychological care of patients with head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Moya, Mélanie

    2015-09-01

    Treatments for head and neck cancers are generally complex and debilitating. Surgery, often mutilating, profoundly affects the relationship between oneself and others and causes verbal communication, breathing and swallowing difficulties. The functional and aesthetic sequelae are a constant reminder to the patient of the disease and make them conscious of their appearance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictors of pain among patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Shuman, Andrew G; Terrell, Jeffrey E; Light, Emily; Wolf, Gregory T; Bradford, Carol R; Chepeha, Douglas; Jiang, Yunyun; McLean, Scott; Ghanem, Tamer A; Duffy, Sonia A

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine predictors of pain 1 year after the diagnosis of head and neck cancer. DESIGN Prospective, multisite cohort study. SETTING Three academically affiliated medical centers. PATIENTS The study population comprised 374 previously untreated patients with carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Participants were surveyed before treatment and 1 year thereafter. Multivariate analyses were conducted to determine predictors of the 36-Item Short-Form Instrument (SF-36) bodily pain score 1 year after diagnosis. RESULTS The mean SF-36 bodily pain score at 1 year was 65, compared with 61 at the time of diagnosis (P = .004), and 75, the population norm (lower scores indicate worse pain). Variables independently associated with pain included pretreatment pain score (P < .001), less education (P = .02), neck dissection (P = .001), feeding tube (P = .05), xerostomia (P < .001), depressive symptoms (P < .001), taking more pain medication (P < .001), less physical activity (P = .02), and poor sleep quality (P = .006). The association between head and neck cancer pain and current smoking and problem drinking did not reach significance (P = .07 and P = .08, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Aggressive pain management may be indicated for patients with head and neck cancer who undergo neck dissections, complain of xerostomia, require feeding tubes, and have medical comorbidities. Treatment of modifiable risk factors such as depression, poor sleep quality, tobacco use, and alcohol abuse may also reduce pain and improve quality of life among patients with head and neck cancer.

  7. [Heavy alcohol intake, malnutrition and head and neck cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Martín Villares, C; Domínguez Calvo, J; San Román Carbajo, J; Fernández Pello, M E; Pomar Blanco, P; Tapia Risueño, M

    2004-01-01

    Head and neck cancer patients are frecuently heavy alcohol drinkers. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of alcohol intake on nutritional status and the impact in prognoses. Fifty patients with oral and pharyngolaryngeal carcinomas were prospective studied in a control-case study. We studied nutritional status and tumoral recurrence in alcoholic and non-alcoholic patients. We also studied alcohol intake after oncologic treatment in these patients. 51% of these patients had excesive alcohol intake before oncologic, treatment. The impact of malnutrition was 70% in alcoholic patients vs 30% in non-alcoholic (p < 0.01). Tumoral recurrence was 30% in alcoholic patients vs 13% in non-alcoholic patients (p < 0.05 ). Only 48% of alcoholic patient stopped alcohol intake after treatment. Excesive alcohol intake in head and neck cancer patients is a predictive malnutrition factor and it is related to poor prognoses. Alcoholic patients with head and neck cancer and malnutrition need an agresive nutritional, medical and psycosocial support after oncologic treatment, in order to reach a better and longer survival.

  8. Access to dental services for head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Mark; Aleid, Wesam; McKechnie, Alasdair

    2013-07-01

    Dental assessment is important for patients with cancer of the head and neck who are to have radiotherapy, as many of these patients have poor dental health before they start treatment. This, compounded by the fact that radiotherapy to the head and neck has a detrimental effect on oral health, has led the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) to issue guidance that the dental health of these patients should be assessed before treatment. Unfortunately some multidisciplinary teams, such as the one at United Lincolnshire Hospitals, do not have access to a restorative dentist or a dental hygienist. In a retrospective survey we investigated access to general dental services by patients with head and neck cancer who were to have radiotherapy at our hospital and found that 37/71 (52%) had not been reviewed by a dentist within the past 12 months. A secondary national survey that investigated the availability of restorative dental and dental hygienic services showed that of the 56 multidisciplinary teams that deal with head and neck cancer in England, 19 (34%) do not have access to a restorative dentist and 23 (41%) do not have access to a dental hygienist, suggesting that this problem may be countrywide. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dementia Risk in Irradiated Patients With Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Hua; Yen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Kuan-Chou; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Chang, Chia-Lun; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer are treated through surgery, radiotherapy (RT), and chemotherapy (CT). Carotid artery damage and neurotoxicity were previously observed in these patients. This study estimated the dementia risk associated with different treatment modalities in a head and neck cancer population with long-term follow-up. Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database and a cancer registry database from the Collaboration Center of Health Information Application were linked for the present analysis. Patients with head and neck cancer, treated from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2010, were included in the study. The follow-up duration was the period from the index date to December 31, 2012. Inclusion criteria were head and neck cancer; an age >20 years; and having undergone surgery, CT, concurrent CT, or surgery with adjuvant treatment. Exclusion criteria were another cancer diagnosed before the head and neck cancer, death or being diagnosed with dementia within 2 years after the treatment of the head and neck cancer, stroke before the index date, distant metastasis, in situ carcinoma, sarcoma, head and neck cancer recurrence, an unknown sex, and an age <20 years. In total, 20,135 patients were included. In patient groups that underwent surgery alone, surgery and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, and chemoradiotherapy alone, the dementia incidence per 1000 person-years was 1.44, 1.04, and 1.98, respectively. The crude hazard ratio (HR) of dementia was 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-2.81) in the RT with or without CT group. After adjustment for age, sex, clinical stage, and comorbidity, the HR was 1.92 (95% CI 1.14-3.24). Examining the dementia risk in patients who received different treatment modalities according to the Cox proportional-hazard model revealed that an age >65 years and having undergone RT with or without CT were risk factors (P < 0.001 and P = 0.015; and HRs of 16.5 and 1.92, respectively). The dementia risk in patients

  10. Psychosocial interventions for patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Semple, Cherith; Parahoo, Kader; Norman, Alyson; McCaughan, Eilis; Humphris, Gerry; Mills, Moyra

    2013-07-16

    A diagnosis of head and neck cancer, like many other cancers, can lead to significant psychosocial distress. Patients with head and neck cancer can have very specific needs, due to both the location of their disease and the impact of treatment, which can interfere with basic day-to-day activities such as eating, speaking and breathing. There is a lack of clarity on the effectiveness of the interventions developed to address the psychosocial distress experienced by patients living with head and neck cancer. To assess the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions to improve quality of life and psychosocial well-being for patients with head and neck cancer. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ICTRP and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the most recent search was 17 December 2012. We selected randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials of psychosocial interventions for adults with head and neck cancer. For trials to be included the psychosocial intervention had to involve a supportive relationship between a trained helper and individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer. Outcomes had to be assessed using a validated quality of life or psychological distress measure, or both. Two review authors independently selected trials, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias, with mediation from a third author where required. Where possible, we extracted outcome measures for combining in meta-analyses. We compared continuous outcomes using either mean differences (MD) or standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), with a random-effects model. We conducted meta-analyses for the primary outcome measure of quality of life and secondary outcome measures of psychological distress, including anxiety

  11. Homogeneous irradiation of the ''short-necked'' laryngeal cancer patient

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew, J.W.; Eapen, L.; Kulkarni, N.S.

    1984-04-01

    A technique for homogeneous irradiation of the ''short-necked'' laryngeal cancer patient is presented. The method is similar to a previously described technique in that inferiorly angled opposed lateral beams are used with tissue compensators and beam wedges. The advantages of the technique presented here are that the patient is treated supine rather than sitting and therapy simulation is more easily carried out. Experimental verification of the calculated radiation distributions was carried out in a water phantom having the same shape as the patient. These results show the extent of dose homogeneity and in addition show that neglecting tissue inhomogeneity, the measured and calculated dose distribuion agree within 2%.

  12. Quality of Life in Patients Undergoing Radiation Therapy for Primary Lung Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, or Gastrointestinal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-23

    Anal Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lung Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer

  13. Dysphagia after nonsurgical head and neck cancer treatment: patients' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Janet A; Carding, Paul N; Patterson, Joanne M

    2011-11-01

    Assess patients' perspectives on the severity, time course, and relative importance of swallowing deficit before and after (chemo)radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Before-and-after cohort study. Head and neck cancer UK multidisciplinary clinic. A total of 167 patients with a primary cancer, mostly laryngopharyngeal, completed the MD Anderson Dysphagia Index (MDADI) and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UWQOL) before treatment and at 3, 6, and 12 months. Pretreatment swallowing, age, gender, and tumor site and stage were assessed. Statistical methods used were Mann-Whitney, analysis of variance, and logistic regression. There was a sharp deterioration in swallowing on average by 18%, from before treatment to 3 months post treatment (mean difference in MDADI score = 14.5; P < .001). Treatment schedule, pretreatment score, and age accounted for 37% of the variance in 3-month posttreatment MDADI scores. There was then little improvement from 3 to 12 months. Patients treated with only 50-Gy radiotherapy reported significantly less dysphagia at 1 year than patients receiving higher doses or combined chemoradiation (P < .001). Swallowing was the most commonly prioritized of the 12 UWQOL domains both before and after therapy. The MDADI and UWQOL scores were strongly correlated: ρ > 0.69. Swallowing is a top priority before and after treatment for the vast majority of patients with head and neck cancer. Swallowing deteriorates significantly posttreatment (P < .001). Treatment intensity, younger age, and lower pretreatment scores predict long-term dysphagia. After chemoradiation, there is little improvement from 3 to 12 months.

  14. [Postoperative nutrition in patients with head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Martín Villares, C; Fernández Pello, M E; San Román Carbajo, J; Tapia Risueño, M; Domínguez Calvo, J

    2003-01-01

    Patients who underwent surgery for head and neck malignant neoplasms are problematic because dysphagia, pain and postoperative secuelaes. Nutritional support is necessary in more than 90% of all patients with head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study is to determine nutritional support in these patients and problems related to nutrition. Fifty-four patients with oral and pharyngolaryngeal carcinomas underwent surgery were studied prospectively. We studied nutritional support (oral nutrition, enteral nutrition or parenteral nutrition) and problems related to nutrition: aspiration neumoniae and pharyngostoma. The 7% of the patients underwent oral feeding after surgery, 87% enteral nutrition with nasogastric tube and 6% parenteral nutrition. We identified neumoniae in 6% of patients and faringocutaneous fistula in 19%. When patients leaved the hospital, 98% of the patients underwent oral feeding and one patient had nasopharyngeal tube for enteral nutrition. 1. Artificial nutrition was necessary in 93% patients with oropharyngolaryngealcancer; 2. Enteral nutrition was the most useful modality of alimentation (87%); 3.25% of patients had postoperative complications: (18% pharyngostoma, 6% neumoniae); 4. Oral feeding was possible in 98% of patients out of hospital.

  15. Evaluating synchronous esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients using Lugol dye chromoendoscopy.

    PubMed

    Laohawiriyakamol, Supparerk; Sunpaweravong, Somkiat; Leelamanit, Vitoon; Pruegsanusak, Kowit; Sinkijcharoenchai, Wattana

    2014-11-01

    Routine screening for esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients in Thailand is controversial, because of concerns regarding the screening methods and cost effectiveness. Since Lugol dye chromoendoscopy is an effective technique for early detection of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, the objectives of the present study are to evaluate the synchronous esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients and the effectiveness of Lugol dye chromoendoscopy for routine screening. All diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer between September 1, 2009 and June 30, 2011 were enrolled into the study. Both conventional esophagoscopy and Lugol dye chromoendoscopy were done. The incidence of esophageal cancer was calculated. A diagnostic statistical analysis was done to compare the diagnostic properties between conventional esophagoscopy and Lugol dye chromoendoscopy. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to find significant factors associated with esophageal cancer in this study. Eighty-nine head and neck cancer patients were enrolled in this study. The incidence of esophageal cancer in head and neck cancer patients was 12.4% (11/89). Conventional esophagoscopy found a highly suspicious malignant lesion in only six patients, while the Lugol dye chromoendoscopy detected all 11 esophageal cancers. The sensitivity and specificity for conventional esophagoscopy were 54.5% and 100%, respectively, andfor Lugol dye chromoendoscopy were 100% and 70.5%, respectively. The three significant factors that increased the likelihood of synchronous esophageal cancer from univariate analysis were age less than 50 years, presence of dysphagia, and an unstained Lugol dye area ≥10 mm. Howeve, these factors were not statistically significant by multivariate analysis. Lugol dye chromoendoscopy is a promising tool to enhance the diagnosis of esophageal cancer among head and neck cancer patients.

  16. Life style management in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Taneja, M K

    2013-12-01

    Head and neck (HN) cancers involve highly visible body parts, structurally complex, and crucial to survival. A diagnosis of HN cancer, like any cancer diagnosis, is often accompanied by much fear and uncertainty. In addition, patients treated for HN cancer face difficulties in eating, chewing, drinking, breathing, speaking, as well as changes in appearance. Simultaneously, the burden of HN cancer is often manifested in psychosocial dysfunction, which can have a negative impact on quality of life (QL). Psychosocial interventions such as education along with cognitive-behavioral therapy generally provide an overall positive effect. With the growing impetus to investigate factors associated with these dysfunctions and disfigurement caused by the treatment, and considerable advancement in the development and validation of many global and disease-specific measures, there is an opportunity for further research to develop an appropriate clinical intervention program for such patients so that these patients can live a near normal life. Life style changes including dietary habits make gross changes in QL.

  17. Dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Platteaux, Nele; Dirix, Piet; Dejaeger, Eddy; Nuyts, Sandra

    2010-06-01

    Dysphagia is a very common complaint of head and neck cancer patients and can exist before, during, and after chemoradiotherapy. It leads to nutritional deficiency, weight loss, and prolonged unnatural feeding and also has a major potential risk for aspiration. This has a significant negative impact on the patient's entire quality of life. Because treatment of dysphagia in this setting is rarely effective, prevention is paramount. Several strategies have been developed to reduce dysphagia. These include swallowing exercises, treatment modification techniques such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy, selective delineation of elective nodes, reducing xerostomia by parotid-sparing radiotherapy, and adding of radioprotectors. However, more research is needed to further decrease the incidence of dysphagia and improve quality of life.

  18. Informational Needs of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Papadakos, Janet; McQuestion, Maurene; Gokhale, Anandita; Damji, Ali; Trang, Aileen; Abdelmutti, Nazek; Ringash, Jolie

    2017-02-02

    The patient journey with head and neck cancer (HNC) is particularly challenging given the physical and functional impact of the cancer and treatment. The ability to perform activities of daily living can be severely compromised and have a profound impact on psychosocial well-being. These complex and long-lasting effects can affect patient quality of life for months to years and the literature shows that information for HNC patients is often insufficient. This observational cross-sectional study utilized survey methodology to investigate the informational needs of HNC patients and the preferred modalities for delivery. This was done to inform the development of resources for HNC patients. Four hundred fifty surveys were analyzed. The median age was 61 years and 58% of the cohort was born in Canada. Most were Caucasian (72%), Chinese being the next largest ethnicity (12%). A third had less than high school education and most had cancer of the oral cavity (28%) and were in long-term follow-up (41%). Comparison of the percentage of items to which a patient responded "very important" across the six domains shows variation of importance by domain (overall mixed effects regression model p < 0.0001). Additionally, each domain was compared to the medical domain and all had significantly lower mean scores (all p < 0.0001) with the medical domain scoring highest (mean score 64.6). The top preferred education modalities were teaching with a healthcare professional and pamphlets. This study highlights the type of information that HNC patients want and the format they wish to receive it in. The design provides a comprehensive way to consult with patients toward building education that responds to their specific needs.

  19. Use of dental X rays on postirradiated patients with head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.A.; Purdy, R.B.; Stoker, H.W.; Palmer RW 4

    1988-10-01

    As cancer therapy becomes more successful and cancer survival rates increase, the dentist will be treating more patients who have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Occasionally, patients and health professionals have indicated a belief that patients who have received irradiation to the head and neck regions should not be subjected to additional radiation through dental diagnostic X-ray exposures. A literature search failed to find any references that specifically addressed this question. This study reflects the opinions of 278 radiation oncologists (400 surveyed) who responded to questions about contraindications of dental X rays for the patient with head and neck cancer.

  20. The significance of fellow patients for head and neck cancer patients in the radiation treatment period.

    PubMed

    Egestad, Helen

    2013-10-01

    Head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy feel anxiety, fear, and stress. The literature describes the importance of social support; however, there is a lack of research that describes what value fellow patients provide to cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment. The objective of this study was to explore how head and neck cancer patients are affected by their fellow patients in the radiation treatment period. This study was conducted via qualitative interviews, taking on a phenomenological, hermeneutic approach. Eleven head and neck cancer patients were interviewed. Contact with fellow patients can lead to less loneliness, reduction of uncertainty and negative feelings can be reduced. The feelings of having control can increase and self-esteem can be strengthened. When head and neck cancer patients make relationship with fellow patients during radiation treatment, the contact can lead to a sense of emotional comfort or, sometimes, emotional distress. The relationship can result in increased knowledge and to a sense of feeling meaningful to fellow patients. This ensures better coping with treatment and side-effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation into neck-related muscles after neck dissection for patients with oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kito, Shinji; Koga, Hirofumi; Kodama, Masaaki; Habu, Manabu; Kokuryo, Shinya; Oda, Masafumi; Matsuo, Kou; Nishino, Takanobu; Matsumoto-Takeda, Shinobu; Uehara, Masataka; Yoshiga, Daigo; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Nishimura, Shun; Miyamoto, Ikuya; Sasaguri, Masaaki; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; Yoshioka, Izumi; Morimoto, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Background 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18F-FDG) accumulations are commonly seen in the neck-related muscles of the surgical and non-surgical sides after surgery with neck dissection (ND) for oral cancers, which leads to radiologists having difficulty in diagnosing the lesions. To examine the alterations in 18F-FDG accumulation in neck-related muscles of patients after ND for oral cancer. Material and Methods 18F-FDG accumulations on positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) in neck-related muscles were retrospectively analyzed after surgical dissection of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancers. Results According to the extent of ND of cervical lymph nodes, the rate of patients with 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas increased in the trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and posterior neck muscles of the surgical and/or non-surgical sides. In addition, SUVmax of 18F-FDG-PET-positive areas in the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles were increased according to the extent of the ND. Conclusions In evaluating 18F-FDG accumulations after ND for oral cancers, we should pay attention to the 18F-FDG distributions in neck-related muscles including the non-surgical side as false-positive findings. Key words:18F-FDG, PET-CT, oral cancers, muscles. PMID:27031062

  2. Head and neck cancer patients' perceptions of swallowing following chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joanne M; McColl, Elaine; Wilson, Janet; Carding, Paul; Rapley, Tim

    2015-12-01

    The study aims to describe patients' experiences of swallowing difficulties following (chemo)radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and to explore any changes over time. A purposive sample of patients with swallowing difficulties was selected at a range of time points, from 3 to 18 months following treatment. Ethnographic observations of 12 patients were conducted in their own homes, over a mealtime situation. Nine new patients were interviewed about changes to their eating and drinking from pre- to post-treatment. Thematic analysis was used to code and analyse the data. Patients' reports of swallowing function were divided into four time zones: pre-treatment, during radiotherapy, early (0-3 months) and late (6-18 months) time points following treatment. The majority reported minimal problems at diagnosis, but marked impairment during and after radiotherapy, without a return to pre-treatment functioning. The focus was on severe physical side effects and changes to food preparation during radiotherapy and in the early phase of recovery. By 6 months, side effects began to subside, but swallowing was still difficult, leading to major changes to family life, socialisation and lifestyle. Swallowing problems after (chemo)radiotherapy are multi-faceted and highly individualised and restrict lives in the long term. Swallowing ability may improve in time, but does not appear to return to pre-treatment function. Further work is required to find ways of being able to best support patients living with this long-term condition.

  3. Incidental thyroid lesions identified by ultrasound in patients with non-thyroidal head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heung Cheol; Yoon, Dae Young; Seo, Young Lan; Namkung, Sook; Hong, Myung Sun; Baek, Sora; Lim, Kyoung Ja; Yun, Eun Joo; Choi, Chul Soon; Bae, Sang Hoon; Chung, Eun-Jae; Kwon, Kee Hwan; Rho, Young-Soo

    2013-12-01

    Thyroid cancer is one of the common head and neck malignancies and may be found incidentally with other head and neck cancers. To evaluate the prevalence and risk of malignancy in incidental thyroid lesions identified by ultrasound (US) in patients with head and neck cancer. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all patients with head and neck cancer other than of thyroid origin between January 2004 and December 2011. A total of 690 patients (537 men and 153 women; mean age, 58.9 ± 12.9 years) underwent US of the neck for the evaluation of cervical lymph node status (including thyroid gland). We evaluated the prevalence of patients with incidental thyroid lesions identified by US and the risk of malignancy in these patients. Of the 690 patients with head and neck cancer, 234 (33.9%) had incidental thyroid lesions on US. Based on US findings, 61 patients underwent fine-needle aspiration, with 39 eventually undergoing thyroidectomy. Among these thyroid lesions, 24 incidental thyroid lesions of 22 patients were histologically proven to be malignant (23 papillary and 1 follicular carcinomas). The risk of malignancy was 9.4% on a patient-by-patient basis. Screening of the thyroid gland should be included in the preoperative US examination for cervical lymph node metastases in patients with non-thyroidal head and neck cancer.

  4. Molecular Detection of Minimal Residual Cancer in Surgical Margins of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Graveland, A. Peggy; de Maaker, Michiel; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J. M.; de Bree, Remco; Eerenstein, Simone E. J.; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Leemans, C. René; Brakenhoff, Ruud H.

    2009-01-01

    A great disappointment in head and neck cancer surgery is that 10–30% of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients develop local recurrences despite histopathologically tumor-free surgical margins. These recurrences result from either minimal residual cancer (MRC) or preneoplastic lesions that remain behind after tumor resection. Distinguishing MRC from preneoplasic lesions is important to tailor postoperative radiotherapy more adequately. Here we investigated the suitability of quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) using human Ly-6D (hLy-6D) transcripts as molecular marker to detect MRC in surgical margins. Submucosal samples of deep surgical margins were collected from 18 non-cancer control patients and 67 HNSCC patients of whom eight had tumor-positive surgical margins. The samples were analyzed with hLy-6D qRT-PCR, and the data were analyzed in relation to the clinicohistological parameters. A significant difference was shown between the group of patients with histopathological tumor-positive surgical margins and the non-cancer control group (p < 0.001), and the group of patients with histopathological tumor-free surgical margins (p = 0.001). This study shows a novel approach for molecular analysis of deep surgical margins in head and neck cancer surgery. The preliminary data of this approach for detection of MRC in deep margins of HNSCC patients are promising. PMID:19633367

  5. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  6. Incidental nodal metastasis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in neck dissection specimens from head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, R; Marchetti, M; Muscatello, L

    2017-04-01

    Occult differentiated thyroid carcinomas are not uncommon. The initial presentation of a thyroid carcinoma is often detection of a metastatic cervical lymph node. A retrospective review was performed of the medical records of 304 patients who underwent neck dissection between 1996 and 2008 for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Ten patients (3.3 per cent) had nodal metastasis originating from papillary thyroid cancer. All of these patients underwent thyroidectomy and post-operative 131iodine radiometabolic therapy. No patient developed a thyroid tumour after surgery. Despite its metastatic spread, thyroid cancer does not affect the overall prognosis of patients who are already being treated for a more aggressive malignancy. However, in otherwise healthy patients, it is worth treating this second malignancy to avoid potential complications related to local disease or metastatic thyroid cancer.

  7. Metal concentrations in hair of patients with various head and neck cancers as a diagnostic aid.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Anna; Napierala, Marta; Golasik, Magdalena; Herman, Małgorzata; Walas, Stanisław; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Szyfter, Witold; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Golusinski, Wojciech; Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Florek, Ewa

    2016-02-01

    Head and neck cancers are one of the most frequent cancers worldwide. This paper attempts to evaluate disturbances of homeostasis of the necessary elements (calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, manganese) and changes in the levels of toxic metals (lead, cadmium, cobalt, chromium VI) in hair of patients with head and neck cancers, as well as people without a diagnosed neoplastic disease. In order to quantify the necessary elements and toxic metals, a method using ICP-MS and ICP-OES techniques had been developed and validated. The studies have shown that patients with head and neck cancer used to drink alcohol and smoked much more frequently than healthy individuals, both in the past and presently. Statistically significant differences in concentrations of average metal content in the group of patients with head and neck cancers compared to the control group were confirmed. Significant differences in metal content between the group of patients with head and neck cancers and healthy individuals were found which enabled distinguishing between the study groups. To this end, a more advanced statistical tool, i.e. chemometrics, was used. The conducted research analyses and the use of advanced statistical techniques confirm the benefits of using alternative material to distinguish the patients with head and neck cancers from the healthy individuals.

  8. Lymphoedema following treatment for head and neck cancer: impact on patients, and beliefs of health professionals.

    PubMed

    McGarvey, A C; Osmotherly, P G; Hoffman, G R; Chiarelli, P E

    2014-05-01

    Cervicofacial lymphoedema is a recognised side-effect that may result following treatment for head and neck cancer. This study aimed to investigate the perspectives of affected patients and the beliefs that treating health professionals hold about head and neck lymphoedema. Ten patients with head and neck lymphoedema and 10 health professionals experienced in the treatment of head and neck cancer patients agreed to participate in semi-structured face to face interviews. Interviews were recorded, audio files were transcribed and coded and then analysed for themes. Themes of experiences of patients with head and neck lymphoedema and the beliefs of health professionals largely overlapped. Given its visible deformity, the main effect of lymphoedema in head and neck cancer patients was on appearance. In some cases this lead to negative psychosocial sequelae such as reduced self-esteem, and poor socialisation. Clinicians need to be aware of those patients more likely to experience lymphoedema following treatment for head and neck cancer, and how they are affected. Understanding how patients with facial lymphoedema are affected psychologically and physically, and the importance of prompt referral for lymphoedema treatment, might ultimately improve outcomes and ensure optimal management.

  9. Socioeconomic disparities in head and neck cancer patients' access to cancer treatment centers.

    PubMed

    Walker, Blake Byron; Schuurman, Nadine; Auluck, Ajit; Lear, Scott A; Rosin, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Both socioeconomic status and travel time to cancer treatment have been associated with treatment choice and patient outcomes. An improved understanding of the relationship between these two dimensions of access may enable cancer control experts to better target patients with poor access, particularly in isolated suburban and rural communities. Using geographical information systems, head and neck cancer patients across British Columbia, Canada from 1981 to 2009, were mapped and their travel times to the nearest treatment center at their time of diagnosis were modelled. Patients' travel times were analysed by urban, suburban, and rural neighborhood types and an index of multiple socioeconomic deprivation was used to assess the role of socioeconomic status in patients' spatial access. Significant associations between socioeconomic deprivation and spatial access to treatment were identified, with the most deprived quintiles of patients experiencing nearly twice the travel time as the least deprived quintile. The sharpest disparities were observed among the most deprived patient populations in suburban and rural areas. However, the establishment of new treatment centers has decreased overall travel times by 28% in recent decades. Residence in a neighborhood with high socioeconomic deprivation is strongly associated with head and neck cancer patients' spatial access to cancer treatment centers. Patients residing in the most socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods consistently have longer travel times in urban, suburban, and rural communities in the study area.

  10. Prosthetic rehabilitation of head and neck cancer patients focusing on mandibular dentures in irradiated patients.

    PubMed

    Buurman, Doke J M; Vaassen, Lauretta A; Bockmann, Roland; Kessler, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed treatment outcomes and patient satisfaction of irradiated head and neck cancer patients treated with mandibular implant overdentures (IODs) or conventional dentures (CDs). Fifty-one irradiated head and neck cancer patients, out of a total of 158 patients included, completed the standardized questionnaire and underwent a clinical assessment. Nineteen patients were treated with removable CDs and 32 patients received IODs between January 2006 and January 2011. The mean follow-up of patients was 5.75 years (range: 1 to 23 years). A total of 45 (88.3%) mandibular dentures were in function at the time of assessment. The overall denture satisfaction was 7.3 (range: 1 to 10, SD: 2.14). Patients being treated with adjuvant concepts, including surgical tumor ablation, scored worse than patients after radiation therapy alone. Edentulous patients seem to benefit from implants, especially with respect to prosthesis retention. Men take more benefit from IODs compared with women. The results are comparable to other studies of head and neck cancer patients and also of healthy individuals. Surgical interventions in adjuvant therapy concepts lead to reduced denture satisfaction. The concept of prosthetic rehabilitation as part of oncologic treatment can be judged as successful.

  11. Enteral feeding in head and neck cancer patients at a UK cancer centre.

    PubMed

    Sheth, C H; Sharp, S; Walters, E R

    2013-10-01

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer have an increased risk of malnutrition, and may require enteral feeding via nasogastric or gastrostomy tube. The aim of this audit was to examine current enteral feeding practice, mortality, morbidity and 6-month outcome data of head and neck cancer patients receiving radical (chemo)radiotherapy at a regional cancer centre and to compare the results with a regional head and neck cancer gastrostomy audit. A 2-year audit was conducted (2006-2008). Inclusion criteria were all adult patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, receiving radical radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy treatment. The first-year data were collected retrospectively, and the second-year data were collected prospectively. Data were collected on all patients requiring enteral feeding with 6-month outcome data relating to route of nutrition. Approximately 14% (n = 32/223) of patients were admitted for nasogastric feeding as a result of inadequate oral alimentation. On admission, 94% were at risk of refeeding syndrome, taking a mean (SD) of 11 (4.9) days to reach full nutritional requirements. Mean (SD) length of hospital stay was 13 (5.1) days. No major complications from nasogastric tube insertion were found. The mean (SD) length of nasogastric feeding was 72 (20.1) days with 89.6% managing full nutritional requirements orally at 6 months. Patients requiring enteral feeding during treatment were fed via a nasogastric tube, rather than via a prophylactic gastrostomy tube. Compared with the regional gastrostomy audit results, our patients had a lower clinical risk/complication rate, with a greater proportion tolerating full oral intake at 6 months. Therefore, nasogastric feeding, rather than prophylactic gastrostomy tube feeding, could be a more appropriate method of enteral feeding in this patient group. © 2013 University Hospital Southampton Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics

  12. Screening for oesophageal neoplasia in patients with head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scherübl, H; Lampe, B von; Faiss, S; Däubler, P; Bohlmann, P; Plath, T; Foss, H-D; Scherer, H; Strunz, A; Hoffmeister, B; Stein, H; Zeitz, M; Riecken, E-O

    2002-01-01

    Due to advanced disease at the time of diagnosis the prognosis of oesophageal cancer is generally poor. As mass screening for oesophageal cancer is neither feasible nor reasonable, high-risk groups should be identified and surveilled. The aim of this study was to define the risk of oesophageal cancer in patients with (previous) head and neck cancer. A total of 148 patients with (previous) head and neck cancer were prospectively screened for oesophageal cancer by video-oesophagoscopy and random oesophageal biopsies. Even in a macroscopically normal looking oesophagus, four biopsy specimens were taken every 3 cm throughout the entire length of the squamous oesophagus. Low- or high-grade squamous cell dysplasia was detected histologically in 10 of the 148 patients (6.8%). All but one dysplasias were diagnosed synchronously with the head and neck cancers. In addition, oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed in 11 of the 148 patients (7.4%). Most invasive cancers (63.6%) occurred metachronously. The risk of squamous cell neoplasia of the oesophagus is high in patients with (previous) head and neck cancer. Surveillance is recommended in this high-risk group. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 86, 239–243. DOI: 10.1038/sj/bjc/6600018 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 The Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11870513

  13. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cancer and the stage (extent) of the disease. In general, patients with early-stage head and neck cancers (particularly those limited to the site of origin) are treated with one modality—either radiation therapy ...

  14. Prevalence of secondary lymphedema in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jie; Ridner, Sheila H; Dietrich, Mary S; Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A; Sinard, Robert J; Cmelak, Anthony J; Murphy, Barbara A

    2012-02-01

    Because surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy disrupt lymphatic structures, damage soft tissue leading to scar tissue formation and fibrosis, and further affect lymphatic function, patients with head and neck cancer may be at high risk for developing secondary lymphedema. Yet, no published data are available regarding the prevalence of secondary lymphedema after head and neck cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to examine prevalence of secondary lymphedema in patients with head and neck cancer. The study included 81 patients with head and neck cancer who were three months or more post-treatment. External lymphedema was staged using Foldi's lymphedema scale. Internal lymphedema was identified through a flexible fiber-optic endoscopic or mirror examination. Patterson's scale was used to grade degrees of internal lymphedema. Of the 81 patients, 75.3% (61 of 81) had some form of late-effect lymphedema. Of those, 9.8% (6 of 61) only had external, 39.4% (24 of 61) only had internal, and 50.8% (31 of 61) had both types. Lymphedema is a common late effect in patients with head and neck cancer, and it develops in multiple external and internal anatomical locations. During physical examination and endoscopic procedures, clinicians should assess patients with head and neck cancer for late-effect lymphedema. Referral for treatment should be considered when lymphedema is noted. Research is needed to examine risk factors of lymphedema in patients with head and neck cancer and its effects on patients' symptoms, function, and quality of life. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association Between Preoperative Nutritional Status and Postoperative Outcome in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Leung, John S L; Seto, Alfred; Li, George K H

    2017-04-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery often experience significant postoperative morbidities. Administering preoperative nutritional intervention may improve surgical outcomes, but there is currently a paucity of data reviewing the association between preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome. It is therefore of importance to investigate this association among head and neck cancer patients. To assess the association between preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome in head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery, a retrospective study of 70 head and neck cancer patients who were surgically treated between 2013 and 2014 in a tertiary referral head and neck surgery center in Hong Kong was conducted. Clinical data regarding preoperative nutritional status and postoperative outcome were retrieved from a computer record system. Logistic and linear regressions were used to analyze the appropriate parameters. A higher preoperative albumin level was associated with lower rates of postoperative complications and better wound healing (P < 0.05). In contrast, preoperative body mass index, hemoglobin level, and absolute lymphocyte count did not demonstrate significant associations with postoperative outcome. As high albumin levels are associated with better surgical outcome in head and neck cancer patients, preoperative intervention strategies that boost albumin levels could be considered for improving surgical outcome.

  16. Factors associated with malnutrition in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, Yukinori; Yamamoto, Masashi; Nakahara, Susumu; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yasui, Toshimichi; Hanamoto, Atshushi; Takemoto, Norihiko; Fukusumi, Takahito; Michiba, Takahiro; Cho, Hironori; Inohara, Hidenori

    2014-10-01

    Comorbidities as well as T classification were the primary determinants for the nutritional status of patients with head and neck cancer. We aimed to elucidate the underlying conditions of malnutrition in patients with head and neck cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 726 patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between 2004 and 2013. Associations between malnutrition and clinical parameters were assessed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Median body mass index was 21.5 (range 11.6-38.0). According to World Health Organization criteria, the nutritional status of these patients was classified into four groups: underweight (18%), normal (63%), overweight (17%), and obese (1%). Comorbidities were detected in 40% of patients. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors to be independent factors associated with malnutrition: advanced T stage, metachronous cancer, collagen disease, gastrointestinal disease, and pulmonary disease.

  17. Prevalence and nature of survivorship needs in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Meredith; McQuestion, Maurene; Jones, Jennifer; Papadakos, Janet; Le, Lisa W; Alkazaz, Nour; Cheng, Terry; Waldron, John; Catton, Pamela; Ringash, Jolie

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number, type, and predictors of patients with head and neck cancer unmet survivorship needs. This study accrued patients with head and neck cancer at any time point in their survivorship course, and they completed a survey, including demographic information and the Cancer Survivors' Unmet Needs Measure (CaSUN). The median age of the 158 participants was 64 years. Ninety-six patients (61%) reported at least one unmet need on the CaSUN and 6 patients had a very high number of needs between 31 and 35. The mean number of unmet needs was 5.8 ± 8.9. Comprehensive Cancer Care was the most common domain of unmet need (n = 69; 45%). Younger age, earlier survivorship phase, and worse quality of life were associated with increased survivorship unmet needs on multivariable analysis. A high proportion of patients with head and neck cancer have unmet needs. These data can guide the development of head and neck survivorship programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1097-1103, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Nutritional considerations for head and neck cancer patients: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Alshadwi, Ahmad; Nadershah, Mohammed; Carlson, Eric R; Young, Lorrie S; Burke, Peter A; Daley, Brian J

    2013-11-01

    Approximately 35% to 60% of all patients with head and neck cancer are malnourished at the time of their diagnosis because of tumor burden and obstruction of intake or the anorexia and cachexia associated with their cancer. The purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary review of the nutritional aspects of care for patients with head and neck cancer. A literature search was performed in Medline, Cochrane, and other available databases from 1990 through 2012 for the clinical effectiveness of nutritional support, treatment modalities, and methods of delivery in relation to patients with head and neck malignancies. Human studies published in English and having nutritional status and head and neck cancer as a predictor variable were included. Randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, prospective clinical studies, and systemic reviews were selected based on their relevance to the abovementioned subtitles. The resultant articles were analyzed and summarized into the definition, impact, assessment, treatment, and modes of administration of nutrition on the outcome of patients with head and neck cancer. Articles were reviewed that focused on the etiology and assessment of malnutrition and current nutritional treatments for cancer-induced anorexia and cachexia. Two hundred forty-eight articles were found: 2 clinical trials, 10 meta-analyses, 210 review studies, and 26 systematic reviews. Because of the lack of prospective data, a summative review of the conclusions of the studies is presented. Nutritional interventions should be initiated before cancer treatment begins and these interventions need to be ongoing after completion of treatment to ensure optimal outcomes for patients. A nutritional assessment must be part of all comprehensive treatment plans for patients with head and neck cancer. Alternative medical interventions, such as immune-enhancing nutrients or anticytokine pharmaceutical agents, also may be effective as adjuvant therapies, but more

  19. Outcomes for patients with papillary thyroid cancer who do not undergo prophylactic central neck dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, I. J.; Wang, L. Y.; Ganly, I.; Patel, S. G.; Morris, L. G.; Migliacci, J. C.; Tuttle, R. M.; Shah, J. P.; Shaha, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) in the management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is controversial. This report describes outcomes of an observational approach in patients without clinical evidence of nodal disease in PTC. Methods All patients who had surgery between 1986 and 2010 without CND for PTC were identified. All patients had careful clinical assessment of the central neck during preoperative and perioperative evaluation, with any suspicious nodal tissue excised for analysis. The cohort included patients in whom lymph nodes had been removed, but no patient had undergone a formal neck dissection. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), central neck RFS and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Of 1798 patients, 397 (22·1 per cent) were men, 1088 (60·5 per cent) were aged 45 years or more, and 539 (30·0 per cent) had pT3 or pT4 disease. Some 742 patients (41·3 per cent) received adjuvant treatment with radioactive iodine. At a median follow-up of 46 months the 5-year DSS rate was 100 per cent. Five-year RFS and central neck RFS rates were 96·6 and 99·1 per cent respectively. Conclusion Observation of the central neck is safe and should be recommended for all patients with PTC considered before and during surgery to be free of central neck metastasis. PMID:26511531

  20. Partner's survivorship care needs: An analysis in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Meredith; Milne, Robin; McQuestion, Maurene; Sampson, Lorna; Le, Lisa W; Jones, Jennifer; Cheng, Terry; Waldron, John; Ringash, Jolie

    2017-08-01

    To determine the number, type and predictors of unmet needs for head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors' partner's. Partners of HNC patients were invited to complete the Cancer Survivors' Partners Unmet Needs Survey (CaSPUN). Analysis determined number, proportion and factors associated with greater unmet needs using linear regression. Agreement between the unmet needs of patients and their partners was determined. Among the 44 partners participated 29 reported ≥1 unmet need and 4 had a very high number of needs (31-35). The most common unmet needs were related to concerns about cancer returning, coping with supporting someone with cancer, and the changes cancer has caused. The highest reported needs were in the Relationships domain. Increasing patient unmet needs was significantly associated with increasing partner unmet needs (p<0.01). A significant proportion of head and neck cancer partners experience unmet needs, which often differ from the patient's needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of the node-positive neck in the patient with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garden, Adam S.; Gunn, Gary B.; Hessel, Amy; Beadle, Beth M.; Ahmed, Salmaan; El-naggar, Adel; Fuller, Clifton D.; Byers, Lauren A.; Phan, Jack; Frank, Steven J.; Morrison, William H.; Kies, Merill S.; Rosenthal, David I.; Sturgis, Erich M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The goal of this study was to assess the rates of recurrence in the neck for node-positive patients with HPV-associated oropharynx cancer treated with definitive radiation (with or without chemotherapy). Methods This is a single institutional retrospective study. Methodology included database search, and statistical testing including frequency analysis, Kaplan-Meier tests, and comparative tests including chi-square, logistic regression and log-rank. Results The cohort consisted of 401 node-positive patients irradiated between 2006 – June 2012. Three hundred eighty eight patients had CT restaging, and 251 had PET and/or US as a component of their post radiation staging. Eighty patients (20%) underwent neck dissection, and 21 (26%) had a positive specimen. The rate of neck dissection increased with increasing nodal stage, and was lower in patients who had PET scans or ultrasound in addition to CT restaging. The median follow-up was 30 months. The 2-year actuarial neck recurrence rate was 7% and 5% in all patients and those with local control, respectively. Nodal recurrence rates were greater in current smokers (p=.008). There was no difference in nodal recurrences rates in patients who did or did not have a neck dissection (p = .4) Conclusions A treatment strategy of (chemo)radiation with neck dissection performed based on response resulted in high rates of regional disease control in patients with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. PMID:24898672

  2. Nutrition Care in Patients With Head and Neck or Esophageal Cancer: The Patient Perspective.

    PubMed

    Alberda, Cathy; Alvadj-Korenic, Tatjana; Mayan, Maria; Gramlich, Leah

    2017-10-01

    Patients with head/neck or esophageal (HNE) cancer are likely to develop malnutrition throughout the course of their disease and its treatment. Although nutrition care is considered a cornerstone of disease management, clinical practices to treat malnutrition vary. The objective of this qualitative study is to understand the patients' experiences with nutrition care in the context of their treatment and recovery. A descriptive qualitative study design was used to explore patients' experiences. Ten patients with head and neck (HN) cancer and 10 patients with esophageal cancer were interviewed near the completion of their cancer treatment using a semistructured interview guide. The data sets were analyzed separately using qualitative content analysis. The preliminary findings from each data set were compared and contrasted; 3 themes that crossed both data sets were identified. Three themes were identified: (1) coping with physical and psychosocial aspects of illness and nutrition; (2) understanding the nature of the illness, treatment, and nutrition pathway; and (3) being supported during the trajectory of care. The major differences between HN and esophageal groups were identified in the context of understanding and being supported: the lack of coordination throughout the trajectory of care and conflicting messages from healthcare providers were a source of uncertainty, confusion, and isolation in the HN group. The need for timely and ongoing patient-focused nutrition care, with formal and informal support, was identified in both groups. Models for nutrition care should support provision of consistent information across health professionals and throughout the treatment trajectory.

  3. Symptoms of patients with incurable head and neck cancer: prevalence and impact on daily functioning.

    PubMed

    Lokker, Martine E; Offerman, Marinella P J; van der Velden, Lilly-Ann; de Boer, Maarten F; Pruyn, Jean F A; Teunissen, Saskia C C M

    2013-06-01

    There is lack of research on symptoms in patients with head and neck cancer in the palliative phase. The aim of this study was to explore symptom prevalence and the impact of these symptoms on daily functioning in patients with incurable head and neck cancer. Also, discrepancies between patients and family caregivers are described. Questionnaires were used to collect data about symptom prevalence (n = 124) and symptom impact (n = 24). We discovered that the symptoms with a high prevalence were fatigue, pain, weakness, trouble with short walks outside, and dysphagia. The symptoms with the greatest impact on daily functioning were dyspnea, voice changes, trouble with short walks outside, anger, and weakness. Patients with incurable head and neck cancer experience a great number of different symptoms. Focus on these symptoms by health care professionals could further optimize symptom management. In future research, we recommend further validation of the used questionnaires. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Santos, Renata Cristina Schmidt; Dias, Rodrigo Souza; Giordani, Adelmo José; Segreto, Roberto Araújo; Segreto, Helena Regina Comodo

    2011-12-01

    The objective of present study was to classify oral mucositis according to the Common Toxicity Criterion (CTC) international parameters in head and neck tumor patients simultaneously treated with radio and chemotherapy, and characterize a patient profile in our area, observing the individuals' habits, tumor characteristics, treatment protocol and acute reaction intensity. Fifty patients undergoing simultaneous 66 to 70 Gy megavoltage radiotherapy and cisplatin/carboplatin chemotherapy were evaluated in this study. Weekly evaluations of the degree of mucositis were perfoemed according to CTC, a four-degree ordinal scale; 36% of all patients and 100% of those with diabetes discontinued treatment due to mucositis, showing that this pathology contributes to the severity of mucositis.

  5. Feasibility of using head and neck CT imaging to assess skeletal muscle mass in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Justin E; Pothen, Ajit J; Wegner, Inge; Smid, Ernst J; Swart, Karin M A; de Bree, Remco; Leenen, Loek P H; Grolman, Wilko

    2016-11-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have a higher risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia, which is associated with adverse clinical outcome. As abdominal CT-imaging is often used to detect sarcopenia, such scans are rarely available in HNC patients, possibly explaining why no studies investigate the effect of sarcopenia in this population. We correlated skeletal muscle mass assessed on head and neck CT-scans with abdominal CT-imaging. Head and neck, and abdominal CT-scans of trauma (n=51) and HNC-patients (n=52) were retrospectively analyzed. On the head and neck CT-scans, the paravertebral and sternocleidomastoid muscles were delineated. On the abdominal CT-scans, all muscles were delineated. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the muscles at the level of the C3 vertebra was compared to CSA at the L3 level using linear regression. A multivariate linear regression model was established. HNC-patients had significantly lower muscle CSA than trauma patients (37.9 vs. 45.1cm(2), p<0.001, corrected for sex and age). C3 muscle CSA strongly predicted L3 muscle CSA (r=0.785, p<0.001). This correlation was stronger in a multivariate model including sex, age and weight (r=0.891, p<0.001). Assessment of skeletal muscle mass on head and neck CT-scans is feasible and may be an alternative to abdominal CT-imaging. This method allows assessment of sarcopenia using routinely performed scans without additional imaging or additional patient burden. Identifying sarcopenic patients may help in treatment selection, or to select HNC patients for physiotherapeutic or nutritional interventions to improve their outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of nutritional status and quality of life in patients treated for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Prevost, V; Joubert, C; Heutte, N; Babin, E

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients, to evaluate the impact of malnutrition on therapeutic management and quality of life and to propose a simple screening approach adapted to routine clinical practice. The authors conducted a review of the literature to identify tools for the assessment of nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients published in French and English. Articles were obtained from the PubMed database and from the references of these articles and selected journals, using the keywords: "nutritional assessment", and "head and neck" and "cancer". Anthropometric indices, laboratory parameters, dietary intake assessment, clinical scores and nutritional risk scores used in patients with head and neck cancers are presented. The relevance of these tools in clinical practice and in research is discussed, together with the links between nutritional status and quality of life. This article is designed to help teams involved in the management of patients with head and neck cancer to choose the most appropriate tools for assessment of nutritional status according to their resources and their objectives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Is elective neck dissection in T1-2, N0 patients with lower lip cancer necessary?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Sarper; Ercocen, Ali Riza

    2009-04-01

    The significance of elective neck dissection in the early stages of lower lip cancer is generally underestimated. In the classic textbooks of plastic surgery it has been generally accepted that lymphatic spread to neck is negligible and therefore it is not imperative to perform any kind of neck dissection. However, in some recent studies high rates of clinically positive neck that were initially negative began to appear in the literature especially in otorhinolaryngology and head and neck journals. Our clinical series consisted of 21 lower lip cancer cases with T1-2, N0 tumors; the rate of lymphatic spread to neck was found to be 19%. Because of this high rate, we conclude that it is not sound to discard the importance of neck dissection even in the early stages of lower lip cancers. At least, a suprahyoid neck dissection should be performed in all patients with lower lip cancer.

  8. Head and neck management of the cancer patient

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.E.; Elias, E.G.; Sonis, S.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 26 chapters. Some of the titles are: Principles of radiation therapy; Radiotherapeutic management of head and neck neoplasia; Diagnostic radiology for head and neck neoplasms with emphasis on computerized tomography; and Oral complications of radiation therapy.

  9. Increase in head and neck cancer in younger patients due to human papillomavirus (HPV).

    PubMed

    Young, David; Xiao, Christopher C; Murphy, Benjamin; Moore, Michael; Fakhry, Carole; Day, Terry A

    2015-08-01

    The face of head and neck cancer has changed dramatically over the past 30 years. There has been a steady decline in the number of tobacco and alcohol related squamous cell carcinomas over the past 30 years, but and increasing incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) related cancers. Some estimates suggest that 70-90% of new oropharyngeal cancers have evidence of HPV. These patients have different demographic patterns, in that they are more likely to be younger, white adults in their 40s and 50s who are never smokers or have reduced tobacco exposure. Studies have shown that a higher number of lifetime oral sex partners (>5) and a higher number of lifetime vaginal sex partners (>25) have been associated with increased risk of HPV positive head and neck cancer. People can also reduce their risk of HPV linked head and neck cancer by receiving the HPV vaccine series prior to becoming sexually active. Recent evidence suggests HPV related head and neck cancers present with different symptoms than those caused by tobacco. The most popular test for HPV status is the p16 immunohistochemical stain because it is cheap, simple, and studies have shown it to have comparable sensitivity and specificity to the previous standards. It is widely recommended that all cancers of the oropharynx be tested for the presence of HPV, and some recommend it for all head and neck cancers. Overall 2-year and 5-year survival for HPV positive head and neck cancer is significantly greater than for HPV negative cancers, likely due to HPV positive cancers being more responsive to treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Change in tongue pressure in patients with head and neck cancer after surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yoko; Sugahara, Kazuma; Fukuoka, Tatsuyuki; Saito, Shota; Sakuramoto, Ayumi; Horii, Nobuhide; Sano, Saori; Hasegawa, Kana; Nakao, Yuta; Nanto, Tomoki; Kadoi, Kanenori; Moridera, Kuniyasu; Noguchi, Kazuma; Domen, Kazuhisa; Kishimoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-02-14

    Tongue pressure is reportedly associated with dysphagia. This study investigated relationships among characteristics of head and neck cancer, tongue pressure and dysphagia screening tests performed in patients with head and neck cancer during the acute phase after surgical resection. Fifty-seven patients (36 men, 21 women; age range 26-95 years) underwent surgical resection and dysphagia screening tests (Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test, Water Swallowing Test, Modified Water Swallowing Test and Food Test) and pre- and postoperative measurement of tongue pressure at 5 time points (preoperatively, and 1-2 weeks and 1, 2, and 3 months postoperatively). Progression of cancer (stage), tracheotomy, surgical reconstruction, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and neck dissection were factors associated with postoperative tongue pressure. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-effect model, Spearman correlation coefficient and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Tongue pressure was significantly reduced 1-2 weeks after surgery, and recovered over time. Changes in tongue pressure were significantly associated with stage, radiotherapy and reconstruction. All screening tests showed a significant relationship with tongue pressure. Analysis of ROC and area under the effect curve suggested that a tongue pressure of 15 kPa can be used as a cut-off value to detect dysphagia after surgery for head and neck cancer. Our results suggest that tongue pressure evaluation might offer a safe, useful and objective tool to assess dysphagia immediately postoperatively in patients with head and neck cancer.

  11. Esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Moss, William J; Pang, John; Orosco, Ryan K; Weissbrod, Philip A; Brumund, Kevin T; Weisman, Robert A; Brigger, Matthew T; Coffey, Charles S

    2017-05-12

    To characterize the safety profile and effectiveness of esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients. A systematic review was undertaken for articles reporting outcomes of esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients. The Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Complications related to esophageal dilation in head and neck cancer patients was the primary outcome of interest. Success rates, demographic data, cancer staging, and treatment data were assessed secondarily. Statistical analyses included both qualitative and quantitative assessments. A limited meta-analysis and pooling of the data was performed using a random effects model. Of the collective 8,243 initial candidate articles, 15 retrospective studies containing data for a collective 449 patients were ultimately included in the analysis. There was significant heterogeneity in the outcomes data. With an overall complication rate of 10.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.1%,17%) and a pooled success rate of 72.9% (95% CI: 65.7%,80.1%) per patient, the articles generally supported the use of dilation. Head and neck cancer patients experience a higher rate of complications following dilation compared to patients with other causes of benign stricture. Esophageal dilation is effective in improving dysphagia, but these benefits are often transient and thus necessitate repeat interventions. Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Surgical errors and risks – the head and neck cancer patient

    PubMed Central

    Harréus, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck surgery is one of the basic principles of head and neck cancer therapy. Surgical errors and malpractice can have fatal consequences for the treated patients. It can lead to functional impairment and has impact in future chances for disease related survival. There are many risks for head and neck surgeons that can cause errors and malpractice. To avoid surgical mistakes, thorough preoperative management of patients is mandatory. As there are ensuring operability, cautious evaluation of preoperative diagnostics and operative planning. Moreover knowledge of anatomical structures of the head and neck, of the medical studies and data as well as qualification in modern surgical techniques and the surgeons ability for critical self assessment are basic and important prerequisites for head and neck surgeons in order to make out risks and to prevent from mistakes. Additionally it is important to have profound knowledge in nutrition management of cancer patients, wound healing and to realize and to be able to deal with complications, when they occur. Despite all precaution and surgical care, errors and mistakes cannot always be avoided. For that it is important to be able to deal with mistakes and to establish an appropriate and clear communication and management for such events. The manuscript comments on recognition and prevention of risks and mistakes in the preoperative, operative and postoperative phase of head and neck cancer surgery. PMID:24403972

  13. Body image in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy: the impact of surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tsung-Min; Lin, Ching-Rong; Chi, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chien-Yu; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao; Kang, Chung-Jan; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Juang, Yeong-Yuh; Huang, Chun-Yu; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2017-08-23

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the impact of surgical procedures on the body image of head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and with or without radical surgery. A cross-sectional survey of 150 patients with head and neck cancer was conducted. Sixty patients had nasopharyngeal cancer treated with definitive radiotherapy without surgery, and 90 patients had oral cavity cancer treated with radical surgery plus adjuvant radiotherapy. All participants completed a 10-item Body Image Scale (BIS) questionnaire to assess body image dissatisfaction. Among all patients, the socio-demographic and clinical variables were age, gender, partnership, education, employment, and radical surgery. In surgically-treated patients, the clinical variables were facial skin sacrificed, mouth angle sacrificed, glossectomy, maxillectomy, and mandibulectomy. ANOVAs, t-tests, and multiple regressions were used to evaluate the relationships between these variables and BIS results. In all patients, radical surgery was the strongest independent predictor of BIS scores. Surgically-treated patients had significantly worse BIS scores than the patients without surgery. In surgically-treated patients, facial skin sacrificed, mouth angle sacrificed, maxillectomy, and mandibulectomy were significantly associated with body image. According to multivariable analyses, inferior maxillectomy and segmental mandibulectomy were independent prognosticators of a poor BIS score in surgically-treated patients. Radical surgery for head and neck cancer patients has a significant impact on their body image, especially for those undergoing facial bone destructive surgery.

  14. Improved immobilization using an individual head support in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Houweling, Antonetta C; van der Meer, Skadi; van der Wal, Edwin; Terhaard, Chris H J; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J

    2010-07-01

    The benefits of a patient-specific head support, developed to improve immobilization during radiotherapy, were determined in head and neck cancer patients. Cone-beam CTs were registered to the planning CT in five regions. Compared to the standard head support, the individual head support decreased the systematic and random errors of the inter- and intrafraction displacements and reduced deformations.

  15. Head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2017-03-29

    Essential facts Head and neck cancers include those of the mouth and throat, and rarer forms affecting the sinuses, salivary glands, nose or middle ear. The Oracle Cancer Trust says head and neck cancer is the UKs sixth most common type, with 31 people diagnosed each day.

  16. Sepsis in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: Literature review and consensus.

    PubMed

    Mirabile, Aurora; Numico, Gianmauro; Russi, Elvio G; Bossi, Paolo; Crippa, Fulvio; Bacigalupo, Almalina; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Musso, Stefania; Merlotti, Anna; Ghi, Maria Grazia; Merlano, Marco C; Licitra, Lisa; Moretto, Francesco; Denaro, Nerina; Caspiani, Orietta; Buglione, Michela; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Cascio, Antonio; Bernier, Jacques; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Vermorken, Jan B; Murphy, Barbara; Ranieri, Marco V; Dellinger, R Phillip

    2015-08-01

    The reporting of infection/sepsis in chemo/radiation-treated head and neck cancer patients is sparse and the problem is underestimated. A multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists from Italy met with the aim of reaching a consensus on a clinical definition and management of infections and sepsis. The Delphi appropriateness method was used for this consensus. External expert reviewers then evaluated the conclusions carefully according to their area of expertise. The paper contains seven clusters of statements about the clinical definition and management of infections and sepsis in head and neck cancer patients, which had a consensus. Furthermore, it offers a review of recent literature in these topics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of radiation therapy on T-lymphocyte subpopulations in patients with head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, W.C.; Chretien, P.B.; Suter, C.M.; Revie, D.R.; Tomazic, V.T.; Blanchard, C.L.; Aygun, C.; Amornmarn, R.; Ordonez, J.V.

    1985-10-01

    Cellular immunity was assessed in 85 patients with head and neck cancer with monoclonal antibodies to lymphocyte surface antigens that identify total T cells, helper cells, and suppressor cells. The control group consisted of 22 healthy volunteers. Nine patients who had surgical procedures for benign diseases were also studied. Compared with the controls, the patients with cancer who received radiation therapy had a significant decrease in total lymphocytes, T cells, helper cells, suppressor cells, and decreased helper/suppressor cell ratio. Significant decreases in lymphocyte subpopulations were not detected in patients tested before treatment or in patients treated with surgery alone. The immune deficits observed were prolonged in duration, with some present in the patients studied up to 11 years after radiation therapy. This long-lasting immune depression may have relevance to tumor recurrences and second primaries in patients with head and neck cancer treated by radiation therapy and to attempts at increasing cure rates with adjuvant agents that improve immune reactivity.

  18. Radiologic percutaneous gastrostomy: results in 56 patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Righi, P D; Reddy, D K; Weisberger, E C; Johnson, M S; Trerotola, S O; Radpour, S; Johnson, P E; Stevens, C E

    1998-07-01

    The establishment of a direct enteral feeding route is critical in the overall treatment of many patients with head and neck cancer. Use of radiologic percutaneous gastrostomy (RPG), the newest technique for gaining enteral access, has not been studied in such patients extensively. This study evaluated the indications, technique, success rate, and complications associated with RPG in patients with head and neck cancer. Retrospective. A comprehensive chart review was undertaken of 56 patients with head and neck cancer treated at a tertiary care institution who had undergone successful or attempted RPG at some point during their treatment course. Most study patients had advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. The most frequent indications for RPG were dysphagia/aspiration following tumor resection (n = 26) and dysphagia following completion of single- or combined-modality therapy (n = 22). The success rate of attempted RPGs was 98.2%. The overall complication rate for RPG was 12.7% (10.9% minor and 1.8% major). RPG is a valuable tool for establishing enteral nutrition in patients with head and neck cancer. Advantages of RPG include high success rate despite obstructing lesions, low complication rate, time efficiency and scheduling ease compared with intraoperative percutaneous gastrostomy (PEG) by a second team, no reported tumor seeding of the tube site, and the fact that postoperative RPG allows for more accurate selection of patients who require a gastrostomy tube.

  19. Treatment patterns and survival among low-income medicaid patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sujha; Chen, Amy

    2013-05-01

    Medicaid beneficiaries by definition are low income but they are not necessarily a homogeneous group. No study has assessed differences and disparities among Medicaid beneficiaries with head and neck cancers. To examine predictors of treatment receipt and mortality among Medicaid patients with head and neck cancer. Retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims linked with cancer registry data for 2 states, California and Georgia, for the years 2002 through 2006. Inpatient and ambulatory care. Medicaid beneficiaries aged 18 to 64 years diagnosed as having head and neck cancer (N = 1308) were included. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression models analyzed the likelihood of treatment receipt and survival. Receipt of treatment and 12- and 24-month mortality. Fewer than one-third of Medicaid patients with cancer received a diagnosis at an early stage. Overall, black patients were less likely to get surgical treatment and more likely to die than white patients, even after controlling for demographics, stage at diagnosis, and tumor site. Older age and disability status also increased 12-month mortality. Patients in California, who were alive for at least 12 months, have approximately half the odds of dying within 24 months compared with those in Georgia. Concrete steps should be taken to address the significant racial disparities observed in head and neck cancer outcomes among Medicaid beneficiaries. Further research is needed to explore the state-level policies and attributes to examine the startling differences in mortality among the state Medicaid programs analyzed in this study. Pooled comparisons of Medicaid beneficiaries with individuals covered by other types of insurance could mask important disparities among Medicaid beneficiaries, which need to be acknowledged and addressed to improve outcomes for these low-income patients with head and neck cancer.

  20. Effects of Swallowing Exercises on Patients Undergoing Radiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-25

    Head and Neck Cancer; Stage I Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage I Laryngeal Cancer; Stage I Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage II Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage II Laryngeal Cancer; Stage II Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage III Laryngeal Cancer; Stage III Oropharyngeal Cancer; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Stage IV Laryngeal Cancer; Stage IV Oropharyngeal Cancer

  1. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular head and ...

  2. A dietitian-led clinic for patients receiving (chemo)radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Nicole K; Krishnasamy, Meinir; Loeliger, Jenelle; Granados, Alba; Dutu, Gaelle; Corry, June

    2012-09-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent in head and neck cancer patients and is associated with poorer outcomes and increased health care costs. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability, organisational efficiency and clinical outcomes of a dietitian-led head and neck cancer clinic. Two consecutive, independent, patient cohorts were studied with a pre-post-test design of 98 patients prior to the introduction of a dietitian-led clinic (DLC) and the subsequent 100 patients who attended the newly formulated DLC. The two groups were compared for frequency of dietitian intervention, weight loss, enteral feeding, hospital admissions and post-treatment medical follow-up requirements. Nutritional management in a DLC was associated with reduced nutrition-related admissions from 12% to 4.5% (p = 0.0029), unplanned nasogastric tube insertions from 75% to 39% (p = 0.02), improved transition to oral diet post-radiotherapy from 68.3% to 76.7% (p = 0.10) and reduced radiation oncologist review at 2 weeks post-radiotherapy from 32% to 15% patients (p = 0.009) compared to the cohort prior to the DLC. A dietitian-led head and neck cancer clinic is associated with improved efficiency and nutritional management of head and neck cancer patients and offers a feasible model of care.

  3. Head and neck cancer in elderly patients: is microsurgical free-tissue transfer a safe procedure?

    PubMed

    Tarsitano, A; Pizzigallo, A; Sgarzani, R; Oranges, C M; Cipriani, R; Marchetti, C

    2012-12-01

    The safety and success of microvascular transfer have been well documented in the general population, but the good results achieved with the use of free flaps in elderly patients have received little attention. This study sought to identify differences in complications, morbidity and functional outcomes between elderly (≥ 75 years) and younger (< 75 years) patients treated surgically for advanced head and neck cancer using the Head and Neck 35 module of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire. Patient treatment consisted of composite resection, including excision of the primary tumour with ipsilateral or bilateral neck dissection and microvascular reconstruction. Eighty-five microvascular tissue transfers were performed to reconstruct major surgical defects. Postoperative radiation therapy was performed when indicated. Total flap loss occurred in three cases in elderly patients and two cases in younger patients. The rates of major surgical complication were 9% in young patients and 11% in elderly patients. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in the rates of major and minor flap complications, morbidity or long-term functional outcome. The results of the present analysis indicate that free-flap microvascular reconstruction can be considered a safe procedure in elderly patients with head and neck cancer.

  4. Predictors of health-related quality of life in patients treated with neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Gane, Elise M; McPhail, Steven M; Hatton, Anna L; Panizza, Benedict J; O'Leary, Shaun P

    2017-09-22

    Patients with head and neck cancer can report reduced health-related quality of life several years after treatment. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for reduced quality of life in patients up to 5 years following neck dissection. This cross-sectional study was conducted at two hospitals in Brisbane, Australia. Patients completed two measures of quality of life: the Neck Dissection Impairment Index (NDII), a region- and disease-specific tool, and the Assessment of Quality of Life-4 Domains, a general tool. Generalised linear modelling was used to determine which demographic and clinical variables were associated with quality of life. The cohort included n = 129 patients (71% male, median age 61, median 3 years since surgery). Positive nodal disease was associated with better quality of life on the NDII [e.g. N2 vs N0 coeff (95% CI) = 22.84 (7.33, 38.37)]. Worse quality of life was associated with adjuvant treatment [e.g. Independent Living domain model: surgery with chemoradiation vs surgery only coeff (95% CI) = -0.11 (-0.22, -0.01)]. Positive nodal disease was associated with better quality of life, which may be a reflection of response shift. Multimodality treatment leads to worse quality of life compared with surgery only.

  5. Developing a protocol for gastrostomy tube insertion in patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Habib, Syed F; Ahmed, Suhail; Skelly, Rachel; Bhatt, Kavita; Patel, Bhaveshree; Lowe, Derek; Tuson, Julian; Rogers, Simon N

    2014-05-01

    Selecting patients with head and neck cancer requiring a pretreatment gastrostomy feeding tube is not straightforward. The nutritional status and functional deficits associated with the cancer, its treatment, and the long-term side effects predicate the need for gastrostomy tube placement. However, gastrostomy tubes are not without morbidity and are an added burden to the patient. The aim of this retrospective case series review was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer treated with curative intent having gastrostomy placement, with the intent of developing a protocol to help with the timely selection of patients for pretreatment gastrostomy insertion. A gastrostomy tube was placed in 32%. A regression model identified 5 independent predictors (P < .001) to predict gastrostomy tube placement: overall clinical stage, tumor site, clinical T stage, patient age, and clinical N stage. A protocol to help the multidisciplinary team to decide whether a pretreatment gastrostomy tube should be placed is suggested.

  6. Ex vivo label-free microscopy of head and neck cancer patient tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Amy T.; Skala, Melissa C.

    2015-03-01

    Standard methods to characterize patient tissue rely on histology. This technique provides only anatomical information, so complementary imaging methods could provide beneficial phenotypic information. Cancer cells exhibit altered metabolism, and metabolic imaging could be applied to better understand cancer tissue. This study applies redox ratio, fluorescence lifetime, and second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging to ex vivo tissue from head and neck cancer patients. This high-resolution imaging technique has unique advantages of utilizing intrinsic tissue contrast, which eliminates the need for sample processing or staining, and multiphoton microscopy, which provides depth sectioning in intact tissue. This study demonstrates feasibility of these measurements in patient tissue from multiple anatomical sites and carcinoma types of head and neck cancer.

  7. The association of lymph node volume with cervical metastatic lesions in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ming-Tai; Chen, Clayton Chi-Chang; Wang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Chen-Chi; Lin, Whe-Dar; Liu, Shih-An

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if volume of cervical lymph node measured via computed tomography (CT) could differentiate metastatic from benign lesions in head and neck cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective review of chart and images in a tertiary referring center in Taiwan. Patients with head and neck cancers underwent radical, modified radical or functional neck dissection were enrolled. The CT images before operation were reassessed by a radiologist and were compared with the results of pathological examination. A total of 102 patients were included for final analyses. Most patients were male (n = 96, 94%) and average age was 50.1 years. Although the average nodal volume in patients with cervical metastases was higher than those of patients without cervical metastases, it was not an independent factor associated with cervical metastasis after controlling for other variables; however, central nodal necrosis on enhanced CT image [odds ratio (OR) 18.95, P = 0.008) and minimal axial diameter >7.5 mm (OR 6.868, P = 0.001) were independent factors correlated with cervical metastasis. Therefore, the volume of cervical lymph node measured from CT images cannot predict cervical metastases in head and neck cancer patients. Measurement of minimal axial diameter of the largest lymph node is a simple and more accurate way to predict cervical metastasis instead.

  8. [Nutritional status in head and neck cancer patients: the impact on the prognoses].

    PubMed

    Martín Villares, C; San Román Carbajo, J; Fernández Pello, M E; Tapia Risueño, M; Domínguez Calvo, J

    2003-01-01

    Malnutrition is reported to affect 30-50% of all patients with head and neck cancer. The impact of malnutrition on surgical outcome is not clearly understood. The purpose of this study is to determine if nutritional status is related to postoperative complications (pharyngostoma) or tumor recurrence. Fifty patients with T2-4 head and neck carcinomas underwent surgery were studied prospectively. Nutritional status was related to postoperative complications and 2-year survival. Twenty-seven patients present malnutrition (54%). We had 15 patients with pharyngostoma and 11 tumor recurrences. We did not find any correlation between the pharyngostoma and malnutrition, but we we found correlation between malnutrition and tumor recurrence (p < .05). Malnutrition has negative impact on outcome of patients with head and neck carcinomas.

  9. Swallowing performance in patients with head and neck cancer: a simple clinical test.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Joanne M; McColl, Elaine; Carding, Paul N; Kelly, Charles; Wilson, Janet A

    2009-10-01

    Few simple clinical measures are available to monitor swallowing performance in head and neck cancer. Water swallow tests (WST) have been used as a part of clinical assessments in neurological dysphagia. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the utility of the 100 mL WST in head and neck cancer patients. The 100 mL WST was performed on 167 head and neck cancer patients. Measures were compared with respect to tumor site/stage, gender and age. The cohort was compared with published healthy controls. The test was quick to administer with excellent compliance. Patients had significantly poorer swallows than the published control group (mean reduction 1.6 mL/s). Function worsened with increased tumor stage and for patients with pharyngeal tumors. The 100 mL WST is an effective swallowing performance measure and is easily incorporated into a clinical examination. This paper provides benchmark data on the 100 mL WST for individuals with head and neck cancer.

  10. One patient - three head and neck primaries: nasopharyngeal, tongue and thyroid cancers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We report a rare case of three head and neck malignancies in one patient. Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue and papillary thyroid carcinoma occurred as metachronous cancers in a patient with primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma. These three pathologically distinct malignancies of head and neck region in one patient is a rare phenomenon and is not reported so far. Case presentation A 60 year old Saudi female patient presented in March 2011 with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. After completion of concurrent chemoradiation in June 2011, she developed two new primaries i-e thyroid cancer and tongue cancer in May 2012 along with recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We discuss histopathologic features, diagnostic tools and treatment modalities for this rarely existing case. Conclusion High index of suspicion and thorough work up is essential in follow up of patients with head and neck primary cancers. The effect of field cancerization and environmental factors need to be explored in greater depths in such selected cases. However, which patients are at increased risk of triplet primaries, is still unknown. PMID:24164964

  11. ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer: Do the Categories Discriminate Among Clinically Relevant Subgroups of Patients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschiesner, Uta; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Cieza, Alarcos

    2011-01-01

    The multidisciplinary assessment of functioning in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) according to the "ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer" (ICF-HNC) was developed in an international and multi-disciplinary approach. The ICF-HNC is an application of the ICF that was adopted by the World Health Organization. The objective of this study was…

  12. ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer: Do the Categories Discriminate Among Clinically Relevant Subgroups of Patients?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tschiesner, Uta; Oberhauser, Cornelia; Cieza, Alarcos

    2011-01-01

    The multidisciplinary assessment of functioning in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) according to the "ICF Core Set for Head and Neck Cancer" (ICF-HNC) was developed in an international and multi-disciplinary approach. The ICF-HNC is an application of the ICF that was adopted by the World Health Organization. The objective of this study was…

  13. Reconstructive Surgery for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanasono, Matthew M.

    2014-01-01

    The field of head and neck surgery has gone through numerous changes in the past two decades. Microvascular free flap reconstructions largely replaced other techniques. More importantly, there has been a paradigm shift toward seeking not only to achieve reliable wound closure to protect vital structures, but also to reestablish normal function and appearance. The present paper will present an algorithmic approach to head and neck reconstruction of various subsites, using an evidence-based approach wherever possible. PMID:26556426

  14. Body image and depressive symptoms in patients with head and neck cancer: an important relationship

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jie; Dietrich, Mary S.; Murphy, Barbara; Ridner, Sheila H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between body image and depressive symptoms in patients who have been treated for head and neck cancer. Methods This is a prospective, longitudinal analysis. Body image and depressive symptoms were measured in patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer at baseline, end of treatment, 6 weeks post-treatment, and 12 weeks post-treatment. Body image was measured using the Body Image Quality of Life Inventory, and depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Results Forty-three individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer participated in this study. The majority of participants were male, Caucasian, and married or living with a partner. Participants ranged from age 32 to 78 years (M=57.8 years, SD=10.5 years). At 12 weeks post-treatment, body image scores were statistically significantly higher than they were at the end of treatment (p=0.016) and 6 weeks post-treatment (p=0.032). Statistically significant increases in levels of depressive symptoms were observed at the end of treatment (p<0.001) and 6 weeks post-treatment (p=0.036) with a return to baseline by the 12-week post-treatment assessment (p=0.115). Body image and depressive symptoms were statistically significantly associated at the end of treatment, 6 weeks post-treatment, and 12 weeks post-treatment (rs −0.32 to −0.56, p <0.05). Conclusions This study supports early assessment of body image in patients with head and neck cancer. Additionally, the association between poorer body image and increased depressive symptoms is key in understanding the symptom clusters that patients with head and neck cancer experience. PMID:24925049

  15. [Self presentation of patients disfigured by head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Miyata, R

    1996-01-01

    Surgery for maxilofacial cancer is often radical and disfiguring, and therefore can have an influence on patient's interpersonal relationship and social activities. However, little is known about self-presentation of disfigured patients during rehabilitation. This is an inductive and qualitative study based on 26 extensive interviews. The results demonstrate that patients with disfigurement cope actively with problems in their interpersonal relationship and even go through the empowerment process. Self-presentation of the disfigured patients consisted of four dimensions: (1)self-evaluation: (2)judgment of others' reactions; (3)intention of personal relations and style of self-presentation; and (4) concrete self-presentation using six "strategies". Each of the dimensions 1-3 included several processes that were generally taken in sequence according to time after surgery, but also strongly influenced by behaviors of family members or medical staff. "Strategies" chosen in dimension 4 depending upon the situations in dimensions 1-3 corresponded to the five type of "self-presentation" reported by Goffman (1959), except for "letting others be used to the patients", which was one of the continuous efforts to overcome their chronic disfigurement. Importantly, the patients became confident by focusing upon their chronic disfigurement. Importantly, the patients became confident by focusing upon their healthy parts such as maxiofacial functions recovered to some degree, and this confidence led to the acceptance of disfigurement and further to the expansion of their social behaviors.

  16. Assessing head and neck cancer patient preferences and expectations: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Pierre; Volk, Robert J; Ringash, Jolie; Peterson, Susan K; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Frank, Steven J

    2016-11-01

    To enhance the value of care, interventions should aim at improving endpoints that matter to patients. The preferences of head and neck cancer patients regarding treatment outcomes are therefore a major topic for patient-centered research. A systematic review (PROSPERO number CRD42016035692) was conducted by searching electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Cochrane, CINAHL) for articles evaluating patient or surrogate preferences in head and neck cancer. A qualitative review was performed but no quantitative synthesis. Of 817 references retrieved, 20full-text articles were eventually included in the qualitative analysis Disease sites included mixed head and neck tumor sites, n=9; larynx, n=6; oropharynx/oral cavity, n=5. Overall, patients prioritized survival over functional endpoints. However, preferences and utility scores varied greatly between patients and healthy subjects, and differences were less pronounced with spouses or healthcare providers. Findings from studies of laryngeal preservation are consistent and conclude that a subset of patients would be willing to compromise a certain amount of survival to avoid laryngectomy. On the other hand, studies of patients with oropharyngeal cancer are too heterogeneous to draw conclusions about acceptable functional trade-offs or priorities, and should be the focus of future research. Future research surrounding head and neck cancer patients will most likely be clinically applicable if the questions are focused on well-defined patient groups and treatment options. Gathering reliable and valid quality-of-life data, designing patient preference studies that use reliable and generalizable methods, and using the results to develop decision aids for shared decision-making strategies are recommended going forward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The association between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L.; Poulin, P.; Feldstain, A.; Chasen, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Malnutrition and psychological distress are often seen in patients with head-and-neck cancer, but little is known about the interrelationships between those two symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Methods Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, 99 patients with advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer were screened for nutrition status. The patients were also screened for psychosocial distress (using the Distress Thermometer) and for psychosocial issues (using the Problem Checklist). Any relationship between malnutrition and psychosocial distress was determined by regression and correlation analysis. We also used t-tests to compare distress levels for patients with and without specific nutrition-related symptoms. Results The study group included 80 men and 19 women [mean age: 58.4 ± 10.9 years (range: 23–85 years)]. The correlation between poorer nutrition status and level of psychological distress was significant r = 0.37 (p < 0.001). Specifically, reduced food intake and symptoms were both positively associated with distress: r = 0.27 and r = 0.29 respectively, both significant at p < 0.01. After controlling for the effects of psychosocial problems and pain, nutrition status remained a significant predictor of distress, explaining 3.8% of the variance in the distress scores of the patients (p < 0.05). Conclusions Malnutrition and symptoms were strongly related to distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Our results suggest the need for further research into the complex relationship between nutrition status and distress and into the management of both nutrition and distress in cancer care. PMID:24311956

  18. The association between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Ma, L; Poulin, P; Feldstain, A; Chasen, M R

    2013-12-01

    Malnutrition and psychological distress are often seen in patients with head-and-neck cancer, but little is known about the interrelationships between those two symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between malnutrition and psychological distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, 99 patients with advanced-stage head-and-neck cancer were screened for nutrition status. The patients were also screened for psychosocial distress (using the Distress Thermometer) and for psychosocial issues (using the Problem Checklist). Any relationship between malnutrition and psychosocial distress was determined by regression and correlation analysis. We also used t-tests to compare distress levels for patients with and without specific nutrition-related symptoms. The study group included 80 men and 19 women [mean age: 58.4 ± 10.9 years (range: 23-85 years)]. The correlation between poorer nutrition status and level of psychological distress was significant r = 0.37 (p < 0.001). Specifically, reduced food intake and symptoms were both positively associated with distress: r = 0.27 and r = 0.29 respectively, both significant at p < 0.01. After controlling for the effects of psychosocial problems and pain, nutrition status remained a significant predictor of distress, explaining 3.8% of the variance in the distress scores of the patients (p < 0.05). Malnutrition and symptoms were strongly related to distress in patients with advanced head-and-neck cancer. Our results suggest the need for further research into the complex relationship between nutrition status and distress and into the management of both nutrition and distress in cancer care.

  19. Emotions and coping of patients with head and neck cancers after diagnosis: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, A; Juvva, S

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Patients suffering with head and neck cancers are observed to have a relatively high risk of developing emotional disturbances after diagnosis and treatment. These emotional concerns can be best understood and explored through the method of content analysis or qualitative data. Though a number of qualitative studies have been conducted in the last few years in the field of psychosocial oncology, none have looked at the emotions experienced and the coping by head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five new cases of postsurgery patients of head and neck cancers were qualitatively interviewed regarding the emotions experienced and coping strategies after diagnosis. Results: Qualitative content analysis of the in-depth interviews brought out that patients experienced varied emotions on realizing that they were suffering from cancer, the cause of which could be mainly attributed to three themes: 1) knowledge of their illness; 2) duration of untreated illness; and 3) object of blame. They coped with their emotions by either: 1) inculcating a positive attitude and faith in the doctor/treatment, 2) ventilating their emotions with family and friends, or 3) indulging in activities to divert attention. Conclusion: The results brought out a conceptual framework, which showed that an in-depth understanding of the emotions — Their root cause, coping strategies, and spiritual and cultural orientations of the cancer survivor — Is essential to develop any effective intervention program in India. PMID:27320951

  20. What Does PET Imaging Add to Conventional Staging of Head and Neck Cancer Patients?

    SciTech Connect

    Pohar, Surjeet . E-mail: poharss@evms.edu; Brown, Robert B.S.; Newman, Nancy; Koniarczyk, Michael; Hsu, Jack; Feiglin, David

    2007-06-01

    Purpose: To determine the value of PET scans in the staging of patients with head and neck carcinoma. Methods and Materials: The charts of 25 patients who underwent neck dissection, computed tomography (CT) scan, and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging as part of their initial work-up for a head and neck squamous cell cancer between 2000-2003 were reviewed. All patients underwent clinical examination, triple endoscopy, and chest radiograph as part of their clinical staging, adhering to American Joint Commission for Cancer criteria. In addition to the clinical nodal (N) stage, PET findings were incorporated to determine a second type of N staging: clinical N + PET stage. The number of neck sides and nodal levels involved on CT or PET and on pathologic examination were recorded. Results: The sensitivity and specificity for detection of nodal disease were similar for CT and FDG-PET. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were similar for both diagnostic tests. None of our 25 patients had unsuspected distant disease detected by PET. Conclusion: The addition of PET imaging did not improve diagnostic accuracy in our patients compared with CT. PET scanning did not alter clinical management in any of the patients.

  1. What does PET imaging add to conventional staging of head and neck cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Pohar, Surjeet; Brown, Robert; Newman, Nancy; Koniarczyk, Michael; Hsu, Jack; Feiglin, David

    2007-06-01

    To determine the value of PET scans in the staging of patients with head and neck carcinoma. The charts of 25 patients who underwent neck dissection, computed tomography (CT) scan, and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging as part of their initial work-up for a head and neck squamous cell cancer between 2000-2003 were reviewed. All patients underwent clinical examination, triple endoscopy, and chest radiograph as part of their clinical staging, adhering to American Joint Commission for Cancer criteria. In addition to the clinical nodal (N) stage, PET findings were incorporated to determine a second type of N staging: clinical N + PET stage. The number of neck sides and nodal levels involved on CT or PET and on pathologic examination were recorded. The sensitivity and specificity for detection of nodal disease were similar for CT and FDG-PET. Positive and negative likelihood ratios were similar for both diagnostic tests. None of our 25 patients had unsuspected distant disease detected by PET. The addition of PET imaging did not improve diagnostic accuracy in our patients compared with CT. PET scanning did not alter clinical management in any of the patients.

  2. Caregivers' Illness Perceptions Contribute to Quality of Life in Head and Neck Cancer Patients at Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Amy E; Morton, Randall; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of patient and caregiver illness perceptions to the quality of life of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Ninety-eight patients and their caregivers (n = 80) completed questionnaires at diagnosis. Caregivers' illness perceptions were significantly more negative than patients with respect to consequences, timeline, treatment, concern, and the emotional impact of HNC. The interaction between some patient and caregiver illness perceptions explained additional variance in patient quality of life, above and beyond patients' own illness perceptions. These findings suggest that caregivers should be included in psychological interventions to improve HNC patient quality of life.

  3. Health care delivery for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta: a practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J.R.; Lau, H.; Surgeoner, B.V.; Chua, N.; Dobrovolsky, W.; Dort, J.C.; Kalaydjian, E.; Nesbitt, M.; Scrimger, R.A.; Seikaly, H.; Skarsgard, D.; Webster, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The treatment of head-and-neck cancer is complex and requires the involvement of various health care professionals with a wide range of expertise. We describe the process of developing a practice guideline with recommendations about the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients in Alberta. Methods Outcomes of interest included composition of the health care team, qualification requirements for team members, cancer centre and team member volumes, infrastructure needs, and wait times. A search for existing practice guidelines and a systematic review of the literature addressing the organization and delivery of health care services for head-and-neck cancer patients were conducted. The search included the Standards and Guidelines Evidence (sage) directory of cancer guidelines and PubMed. Results One practice guideline was identified for adaptation. Three additional practice guidelines provided supplementary evidence to inform guideline recommendations. Members of the Alberta Provincial Head and Neck Tumour Team (consisting of various health professionals from across the province) provided expert feedback on the adapted recommendations through an online and in-person review process. Selected experts in head-and-neck cancer from outside the province participated in an external online review. SUMMARY The recommendations outlined in this practice guideline are based on existing guidelines that have been modified to fit the Alberta context. Although specific to Alberta, the recommendations lend credence to similar published guidelines and could be considered for use by groups lacking the resources of appointed guideline panels. The recommendations are meant to be a guide rather than a fixed protocol. The implementation of this practice guideline will depend on many factors, including but not limited to availability of trained personnel, adequate funding of infrastructure, and collaboration with other associations of

  4. Anterolateral thigh skinfold thickness and the European head and neck cancer patient: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Achal, Kulraj S; Farrell, C; Smith, Adam B; Mücke, T; Mitchell, David A; Kanatas, Anastasios N

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to objectively assess this widely recognised problem of the bulky adipocutaneous Anterolateral thigh flap in the European population that may have implications in the reconstruction of head and neck cancer patients. We report 50 cases that underwent specific prospective thigh skinfold thickness assessment as part of assessment of suitability for ALT flap reconstruction following cancer ablation. The null hypothesis was that thigh skinfold thickness and circumference in an oral cancer population do not differ significantly from published sino-Asian norms. This study confirms anthropometrically the suspicion that European thigh skinfold thickness in a head and neck cancer population is greater than sino-Asian comparators. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Chemotherapy in the Management of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Savvides, Panayiotis (Panos)

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in the management of patients with head and neck cancer point to an expanding role of chemotherapy, resulting in an increased involvement of the medical oncologist in the multidisciplinary care of these patients. This review focuses on patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx. A comprehensive review of the clinical trial data that have defined new standards of care and a detailed presentation of widely used chemotherapeutic regimens, including both cytotoxic and molecularly targeted agents, are presented. Information on human papilloma virus–associated squamous cell cancer of the head and neck is presented, and implications in the clinical management of this subgroup of patients based on the epidemiologic and pathologic characteristics are discussed. PMID:22550434

  6. Risk of depressive disorder among patients with head and neck cancer: A nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chao-Yueh; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Lin, Chun-Shu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chen, Chang-Ming; Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and risk of depressive disorder among patients with head and neck cancer. We identified 48 548 patients from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan who were newly diagnosed with head and neck cancer between 2000 and 2010. Each patient was randomly frequency-matched with an individual without head and neck cancer, based on index year, sex, age, occupation category, urbanization level, monthly income, and comorbidities. The Cox proportional Registry of Catastrophic Illnesses Patient Database regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of head and neck cancer on the risk of depressive disorder. Patients with head and neck cancer had a significantly higher risk of depressive disorder than the matched cohort (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.05-3.61), with the highest risk seen in the hypopharynx and oropharynx. Patients with head and neck cancer had >3 times the incidence of depressive disorder, relative to the comparison group. Psychological evaluation and support are essential in head and neck cancer survivors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Development of a Telehealth Intervention for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Studts, Jamie L.; Bumpous, Jeffrey M.; Gregg, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Liz; Keeney, Cynthia; Scharfenberger, Jennifer A.; Pfeifer, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Treatment for head and neck cancer precipitates a myriad of distressing symptoms. Patients may be isolated both physically and socially and may lack the self-efficacy to report problems and participate as partners in their care. The goal of this project was to design a telehealth intervention to address such isolation, develop patient self-efficacy, and improve symptom management during the treatment experience. Participatory action research and a review of the literature were used to develop electronically administered symptom management algorithms addressing all major symptoms experienced by patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancers. Daily questions and related messages were then programmed into an easy-to-use telehealth messaging device, the Health Buddy®. Clinician and patient acceptance, feasibility, and technology issues were measured. Using participatory action research is an effective means for developing electronic algorithms acceptable to both clinicians and patients. The use of a simple tele-messaging device as an adjunct to symptom management is feasible, affordable, and acceptable to patients. This telehealth intervention provides support and education to patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancers. PMID:19199847

  8. Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Request Permissions Head and Neck Cancer: Symptoms and Signs Approved by the Cancer. ... f t k e P Types of Cancer Head and Neck Cancer Guide Cancer.Net Guide Head and Neck ...

  9. Elective free flap revision in the head and neck cancer patient: Indications and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Garg, Ravi K; Poore, Samuel O; Wieland, Aaron M; Mcculloch, Timothy M; Hartig, Gregory K

    2015-11-01

    Elective free flap revision among head and neck cancer patients remains poorly characterized. This study evaluates patients who underwent flap revision and their surgical outcomes. Patients who underwent tumor extirpation with free flap reconstruction were identified over a 5-year period. Elective flap revision was defined as debulking or redraping of the original free flap for functional or cosmetic reasons. Patient demographics, surgical indications, and outcomes were reviewed. One hundred and eighty-six patients were identified, and 19 (10.2%) underwent flap revision. Revision of oral cavity flaps (n = 9, 47.4%) was performed to address excessive flap bulk compromising lip competence, speech, swallowing, mastication, or placement of a dental prosthesis. Revision of flaps resurfacing the face or neck (n = 10, 52.6%) was performed to address facial ptosis after facial nerve sacrifice, facial asymmetry, or soft tissue redundancy. Revisions were performed at an average of 7.3 months postoperatively and there was no age or gender bias toward undergoing flap revision. Patients whose flap skin paddles were used to resurface the facial or neck skin were significantly more likely to undergo elective revision than patients with an external paddle designed for flap monitoring (p < 0.01). We identified a 10% elective revision rate for head and neck free flaps in cancer patients, approximately half of which were performed to improve oral cavity function and half of which were performed to address facial ptosis or asymmetry. While there was no age or gender preference for flap revision, extensive facial or neck resurfacing was significantly associated with eventual flap revision. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The role of dietary counseling and nutrition support in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Platek, Mary E

    2012-12-01

    Head and neck cancer patients frequently present with malnutrition. Treatment options put the patient at further nutritional risk. Inadequate nutritional status is associated with poor prognosis. Dietary counseling and nutrition support can positively impact prognosis; however, the evidence is sparse and of poor quality. The aim of this review is to summarize the current evidence concerning the role of dietary counseling and nutrition support in head and neck cancer patients undergoing curative treatment. There remains a lack of evidence both in quantity and quality. Current findings support a role for dietary counseling and nutrition support from diagnosis through rehabilitation. Prognostic indicators for nutrition support include tumor location, tumor stage, and multimodal treatment. Results of an innovative nutrition-based care delivery model were positive. Dietary counseling is appropriate for all head and neck cancer patients to enable adequate oral intake from diagnosis through rehabilitation; however, some patients require nutrition support. Prognostic indicators and predictive models have been developed to identify patients who require early nutrition support. Next steps include development of evidence-based nutrition care paths that are tested at multiple sites using well designed longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials.

  11. Postradiation trismus and its impact on quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Li-Yun; Chen, Shu-Ching; Chen, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Bing-Shen; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the following in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC): (1) factors related to trismus that predict the development of trismus, (2) factors affecting quality of life and measurements of these factors, and (3) comparison of these findings in patients with and without trismus to evaluate the effects of trismus on quality of life. This cross-sectional study included the questionnaires: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) - Depression Subscale, the Chewing Function Questionnaire (CFQ), and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire - Head and Neck Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-HN35). A scaled ruler was used to measure maximal intercisal opening (MIO). Of the 104 patients in the study, 8.7% had clinical depression. The average MIO was 35.81 mm, and 47.1% of patients had trismus. Moderate levels of chewing dysfunction with regard to different types of food were noted. Lower body mass index, chemoradiotherapy treatment, longer time since treatment completion, and higher radiation dose were significantly associated with trismus. Such patients had significantly lower head and neck-specific quality of life in terms of social contact, sexuality, teeth, mouth opening, dry mouth, feeling ill, nutritional supplement, and weight loss. Patients with trismus should be provided mouth opening exercises after treatment and programs to improve trismus and quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional support, and other therapies. You may ... help treat head and neck cancer. Immunotherapy. An active area of immunotherapy research centers around drugs that ...

  13. A Planned Neck Dissection Is Not Necessary in All Patients With N2-3 Head-and-Neck Cancer After Sequential Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Soltys, Scott G.; Choi, Clara Y.H.; Fee, Willard E.; Pinto, Harlan A.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of a planned neck dissection (PND) after sequential chemoradiotherapy for patients with head-and-neck cancer with N2-N3 nodal disease. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 90 patients with N2-N3 head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma treated between 1991 and 2001 on two sequential chemoradiotherapy protocols. All patients received induction and concurrent chemotherapy with cisplatin and 5-fluorocuracil, with or without tirapazamine. Patients with less than a clinical complete response (cCR) in the neck proceeded to a PND after chemoradiation. The primary endpoint was nodal response. Clinical outcomes and patterns of failure were analyzed. Results: The median follow-up durations for living and all patients were 8.3 years (range, 1.5-16.3 year) and 5.4 years (range, 0.6-16.3 years), respectively. Of the 48 patients with nodal cCR whose necks were observed, 5 patients had neck failures as a component of their recurrence [neck and primary (n = 2); neck, primary, and distant (n = 1); neck only (n = 1); neck and distant (n = 1)]. Therefore, PND may have benefited only 2 patients (4%) [neck only failure (n = 1); neck and distant failure (n = 1)]. The pathologic complete response (pCR) rate for those with a clinical partial response (cPR) undergoing PND (n = 30) was 53%. The 5-year neck control rates after cCR, cPR{yields}pCR, and cPR{yields}pPR were 90%, 93%, and 78%, respectively (p = 0.36). The 5-year disease-free survival rates for the cCR, cPR{yields}pCR, and cPR{yields}pPR groups were 53%, 75%, and 42%, respectively (p = 0.04). Conclusion: In our series, patients with N2-N3 neck disease achieving a cCR in the neck, PND would have benefited only 4% and, therefore, is not recommended. Patients with a cPR should be treated with PND. Residual tumor in the PND specimens was associated with poor outcomes; therefore, aggressive therapy is recommended. Studies using novel imaging modalities are needed to better assess treatment response.

  14. Acupuncture in Treating Dry Mouth Caused By Radiation Therapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    RATIONALE: Acupuncture may help relieve dry mouth caused by radiation therapy. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying to see how well one set of acupuncture points work in comparison to a different set of acupuncture points or standard therapy in treating dry mouth caused by radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. |

  15. Oropharyngeal candidiasis in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation: update 2011.

    PubMed

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Patton, Lauren L; Lalla, Rajesh V; Epstein, Joel B

    2011-06-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is a major cause of morbidity in patients with malignancies. It is a common complication of head and neck radiation therapy and can result in pain, dysgeusia (taste changes), anorexia, malnutrition, and esophageal or systemic dissemination. Clinicians should be aware of current epidemiology, elements of diagnosis, and therapeutic trials guiding the recent recommendations for prophylaxis and management of OPC, a disease often incorrectly perceived as benign. This review discusses OPC with focus in head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy. Local treatments are recommended as first-line therapy in milder forms of OPC. In the setting of local therapy, products that provide prolonged contact time and are not sucrose sweetened may result in successful prevention and management with low risk of oral/dental complications. Diagnosis and management of OPC is required in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiation. Local therapy is suggested as first-line treatment for OPC, unless severe clinical infection or high risk immune suppression necessitate systemic therapy. The availability of effective locally delivered (topical) medications may provide potential for prophylaxis for carriers of Candida species in head and cancer patients during radiation therapy.

  16. Survey of usual practice: dysphagia therapy in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Krisciunas, Gintas P; Sokoloff, William; Stepas, Katherine; Langmore, Susan E

    2012-12-01

    There is no standardized dysphagia therapy for head and neck cancer patients and scant evidence to support any particular protocol, leaving institutions and individual speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to determine their own protocols based on "typical" practices or anecdotal evidence. To gain an understanding of current usual practices, a national internet-based survey was developed and disseminated to SLPs who treat head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. From a random sample of 4,000 ASHA SID13 members, 1,931 fit the inclusion criteria, and 759 complete responses were recorded for a 39.3 % response rate. Results were analyzed by institution type as well as by individual clinical experience. While some interesting trends emerged from the data, a lack of uniformity and consensus regarding best practices was apparent. This is undoubtedly due to a paucity of research adequately addressing the efficacy of any one therapy for dysphagia in the HNC population.

  17. Effectiveness of prophylactic retropharyngeal lymph node irradiation in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for the prevention of retropharyngeal nodal recurrences in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Methods A retrospective review of 76 patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent chemoradiation or postoperative radiotherapy with IMRT or IGRT who were at risk for retropharyngeal nodal recurrences because of anatomic site (hypopharynx, nasopharynx, oropharynx) and/or the presence of nodal metastases was undertaken. The prevalence of retropharyngeal nodal recurrences was assessed on follow-up positron emission tomography (PET)-CT scans. Results At a median follow-up of 22 months (4–53 months), no patient developed retropharyngeal nodal recurrences. Conclusion Prophylactic irradiation of retropharyngeal lymph nodes with IMRT or IGRT provides effective regional control for individuals at risk for recurrence in these nodes. PMID:22708791

  18. Associations Among Speech, Eating, and Body Image Concerns for Surgical Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Hutcheson, Katherine A.; Jensen, Katrina; Yuan, Ying; Urbauer, Diana; Lewin, Jan S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Body image can be affected by bodily experiences extending beyond physical appearance. This study evaluated associations among speech, eating, and body image concerns for surgically treated patients with oral cavity, midface, and cutaneous cancers of the head and neck. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 280 participants completed the Body Image Scale, a survey evaluating disease-specific body image issues, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scale – General. Results Participants with speech and eating concerns reported the highest levels of body image/appearance dissatisfaction compared to those without such concerns. This group also reported greater cognitive and behavioral difficulties associated with body image concerns and significantly higher levels of interest in psychosocial interventions to address appearance-related difficulties compared to all other participants. Conclusions Findings point to the need for more comprehensive psychosocial care for head and neck patients with speech and eating difficulties, which extends beyond functional rehabilitation. PMID:22431304

  19. Prophylactic treatment of mycotic mucositis in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Koc, Mehmet; Aktas, Esin

    2003-02-01

    Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical Candida mucositis and interruptions in radiotherapy in patients suffering from head and neck cancer, receiving fluconazole in comparison with a control group without specific prophylaxis. Eighty consecutive patients were randomized in a prospective double-blind trial of prophylactic oral fluconazole or treatment with the same drug when mycotic infections appeared. Adult head and neck cancer patients who were undergoing treatment with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy, radiotherapeutic coverage of the entire oropharynx and oral cavity at least 3 cm anterior to the retromolar trigone and receiving a total dose of more than 6000 cGy and Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) >70 were included in the study. Group A received radiation therapy plus fluconazole (Fluzole 100 mg/day) starting from the sixth irradiation session throughout the treatment; 40 patients in group B received the same baseline treatment, but were given fluconazole only when mycotic infections appeared. We evaluated 37 patients in group A and the first 37 patients were evaluated in group B. Three of the patients in group A (8.1%) and 14 of the patients in group B (37.8%) demonstrated clinical candidasis. Radiotherapy was interrupted in all of these patients. The differences between the two groups were statistically significant with respect to clinical candidiasis (P = 0.005). The median discontinuation time was 5 days (range, 3-7 days) in group A and 7 days (range, 4-10 days) in group B. The median dose resulting in clinical candidiasis was 3200 cGy (range, 2200-5800 cGy) in all groups. In the fluconazole group it was 4200 cGy and in the control group 2800 cGy. These results suggest that patients undergoing head and neck radiation therapy are at risk of developing candidiasis and that fluconazole may be used to reduce the frequency of

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder in caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu; Lin, Pao-Yen; Chien, Chih-Yen; Fang, Fu-Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder in caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer. Study subjects were recruited from a multidisciplinary outpatient clinic for head and neck cancer in a medical center from February to July 2012. Caregivers of patients with head and neck cancer were enrolled and assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV, Clinician Version, the Short Form 36 Health Survey, and the Family APGAR index. The main aim of the study was to examine the difference in demographic data and clinical characteristics between the caregivers with and without depressive disorders. In addition, a stepwise forward model of logistic regression was used to test the possible risk factors. One hundred and forty-three caregivers were included in the study. The most prevalent psychiatric disorder was depressive disorder (14.7%), followed by adjustment disorder (13.3%). Nearly one-third of the caregivers had a psychiatric diagnosis. By using logistic regression analysis, it was found that unemployment (odds ratio (OR) = 3.16; 95% CI, 1.04-9.68), lower social functioning (OR = 1.43; 95% CI, 1.18-1.72), and lower educational level (OR = 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.34) were significant risk factors for the depressive disorder. The clinical implication of our results is the value of using the standardized structured interview for early diagnosis of depressive disorder in caregivers of head and neck cancer patients. Early screening and management of depression in these caregivers will raise their quality of life and capability to care patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. [Nutritional management of patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiation].

    PubMed

    Thureau, S; Lefebvre, L; Dandoy, S; Guérault, F; Ebran, M; Lebreton, M; Veresezan, O; Rigal, O; Clatot, F

    2015-10-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are standard treatment of head and neck cancer alone or associated to surgical treatment. Early (during treatment or the following weeks) and late side effects contribute to malnutrition in this population at risk. In this context, nutritional support adapted by dietary monitoring and enteral nutrition (nasogastric tube or gastrostomy) are often necessary. The early identification of the patients with high malnutrition risk and requiring enteral nutrition is necessary to improve the tolerance and efficacy of treatment.

  2. [Nutritional risk factors in patients with head and neck cancer in oncology care center Michoacan state].

    PubMed

    García Rojas Vázquez, L E; Trujano-Ramos, L A; Pérez-Rivera, E

    2013-01-01

    The head and neck cancer in Michoacán, Mexico, ranks as the third most common cancer and accounts for 12% of deaths. The increase in malnutrition in a patient with this disease has been associated with increased mortality. We studied prospectively 30 patients of both sexes, aged 18 years with head and neck cancer in the Cancer Care Center of Michoacan. In the evaluation period since August 2010 to August 2011. Formats were used VGS-Oncology (Subjective Global Assessment), NRS 2002 (Nutritional risk screen) and Guss (Gugging Swallowing Screen), through which nutritional risk was determined, and established the swallowing capacity of the study population. In our study, 53.3% of the population had moderate malnutrition according to the VGS Oncology, 33% weight loss record. The NRS 2002 show that 43.3% is at risk of malnutrition. The degree of dysphagia is shown more often in older patients, cancer type and stage of illness. Nutritional risk scales relate directly proportional to tumor location and stage, as well, there are other different oncological factors involved in the patient's nutritional deterioration. Therefore it is of vital importance to have a nutritionist as part of the multidisciplinary team, to detect the nutritional risk and to be able to handle it in an opportune way. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  3. Hearing and tinnitus in head and neck cancer patients after chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Niemensivu, Riina; Saarilahti, K; Ylikoski, J; Aarnisalo, A; Mäkitie, A A

    2016-09-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated with high-dose cisplatin and radiotherapy will suffer from hearing deficits. The current low-dose regimen seldom causes hearing threshold decrease. Tinnitus in this patient population has not been investigated earlier. We aimed to evaluate the possible ototoxicity of low-dose (40 mg/m(2)) weekly administered cisplatin with concomitant radiotherapy. Twenty-two patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer were prospectively recruited to participate the study after treatment recommendation for chemoradiotherapy with low-dose cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiotherapy. They filled in a Tinnitus Handicap Inventory and undertook audiologic evaluations before and after treatment. Ototoxicity was determined by >10 dB threshold shift at frequencies 4 and 8 kHz or in pure tone average. A historical cohort of nine patients treated with high-dose (100 mg/m(2)) cisplatin and radiotherapy was used for comparison. After treatment, study patients demonstrated no significant changes in their hearing over frequencies 0.5-4 kHz, and the threshold shifts were minor at 4 and 8 kHz. More than 50 % of patients reported no tinnitus after treatment and the remainder only had slight to moderate tinnitus causing no interference with their daily activities. In contrast, five of the nine patients having received high-dose cisplatin reported disturbing tinnitus. Further, changes in pure tone averages were exhibited in three of these patients and six had significant threshold shifts at 4 and 8 kHz. Head and neck cancer patients treated with concomitant intensity-modulated radiotherapy and low-dose cisplatin seem to experience only minor audiological sequelae and therefore, these patients appear to require no routine audiological monitoring. Such evaluation could be performed only when needed.

  4. Cachexia at diagnosis is associated with poor survival in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Orell-Kotikangas, Helena; Österlund, Pia; Mäkitie, Outi; Saarilahti, Kauko; Ravasco, Paula; Schwab, Ursula; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2017-07-01

    One third of the patients had cachexia with an association of significantly shorter survival. These results suggest that combining HGS and MAMA seems to be a practical method to screen cachexia in patients with head and neck cancer and may also be used when assessing their prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the hypothesis that cachexia defined as both low mid-arm muscle area (MAMA) and handgrip strength (HGS) is associated with decreased survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Sixty-five consecutive patients with primary HNSCC were enrolled prior to cancer therapy. Cachexia was defined as low handgrip strength (HGS) and low mid-arm muscle area (MAMA). Nutritional status was assessed by patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) and sarcopenia by low MAMA. Biochemical parameters reflecting nutritional status and S-25-OHD were measured. Cachexia was seen in 31% and sarcopenia in 46% of patients. Altogether, 34% of patients were malnourished. Disease-free survival was 13 months (3-62) in cachectic patients, compared with 66 months (31-78) in non-cachectic patients (p = 0.009). S-25-OHD was 28 nmol/l in cachectic patients, compared with 46 nmol/l in non-cachectic patients (p = 0.009) and prealbumin 187 mg/l and 269 mg/l, respectively (p < 0.001).

  5. Conservative neck dissection in oral cancer patients: a 5 year retrospective study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Balasundram, Sathesh; Mustafa, Wan Mahadzir Wan; Ip, Jolene; Adnan, Tassha Hilda; Supramaniam, Premaa

    2012-01-01

    The impact of ablative oral cancer surgery was studied, with particular reference to recurrence and nodal metastasis, to assess survival probability and prognostic indicators and to elucidate if ethnicity influences the survival of patients. Patients who underwent major ablative surgery of the head and neck region with neck dissection were identified and clinical records were assessed. Inclusion criteria were stage I-IV oral and oropharyngeal malignancies necessitating resection with or without radiotherapy from 2004 to 2009. All individuals had a pre-operative assessment prior to the surgery. The post operative assessment period ranged from 1 year to 5 years. Survival distributions were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves. 87 patients (males:38%; females:62%) were included in this study, with an age range of 21-85 years. Some 78% underwent neck dissections while 63% had surgery and radiotherapy. Nodal recurrence was detected in 5.7% while 20.5% had primary site recurrence within the study period. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that the median survival time was 57 months. One year overall survival (OS) rate was 72.7% and three year overall survival rate dropped to 61.5%. On OS analysis, the log-rank test showed a significant difference of survival between Malay and Chinese patients (Bonferroni correction p=0.033). Recurrence-free survival (RFS) analysis revealed that 25% of the patients have reached the event of recurrence at 46 months. One year RFS rate was 85.2% and the three year survival rate was 76.1%. In the RFS analysis, the log-rank test showed a significant difference in the event of recurrence and nodal metastasis (p<0.001). Conservative neck is effective, in conjunction with postoperative radiotherapy, for control of neck metastases. Ethnicity appears to influence the survival of the patients, but a prospective trial is required to validate this.

  6. Reciprocity for patients with head and neck cancer participating in an instrument development project.

    PubMed

    Crighton, Margaret H; Goldberg, Andrew N; Kagan, Sarah H

    2002-01-01

    To examine reciprocity (i.e., a mutual exchange of benefit) in study participation via a thematic analysis of field notes on study participation from a parent psychometric study. Qualitative. Head and neck surgery clinic in an urban tertiary hospital. Seven patients with head and neck cancer recruited to participate in an instrument development project. Symbolic interactionism was employed to frame the examination of field notes from observations and interactions with patients, as well as participant notes accompanying returned retest questionnaires. Analysis relied on the constant comparative technique at the levels of open and axial coding. Participation in an instrument development project. Four content themes emerged in the analysis: Willingness to Help, Reassurance That the Deficits Patients Experience Are Common, Participation Provides Social Contact, and Confirmation of Clinically Significant Findings. A process theme, Unveiling the Experience, integrated the content themes in relation to participation itself. The role of the study nurse appears to be pivotal in this process. A notion of reciprocity in research participation is apparent. The role of the study nurse is an important element in the process of reciprocity. This role should be explored to enhance study participation. Implications, particularly for clinical trial nurses, include recasting the benefits of participating in research, better addressing preparation for patients scheduled to receive treatment for head and neck cancer, and exploring and enhancing the role of the study nurse.

  7. Prospective Study of Psychosocial Distress Among Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Allen M. Jennelle, Richard; Grady, Victoria; Tovar, Adrienne; Bowen, Kris; Simonin, Patty; Tracy, Janice; McCrudden, Dale; Stella, Jonathan R.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prevalence of psychosocial distress among patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer and to examine the association between depression and anxiety and demographic and medical variables. Methods and Materials: A total of 40 patients (25 men and 15 women) with nonmetastatic head and neck cancer were enrolled in this prospective study and underwent RT administered with definitive (24 patients) or postoperative (16 patients) intent. Twenty patients (50%) received concurrent chemotherapy. All patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II instrument before RT, on the last day of RT, and at the first follow-up visit. The effect of patient-, tumor-, and treatment-related factors on psychosocial distress was analyzed. Results: The prevalence of mild to severe pre-RT depression was 58% and 45% using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-D and Beck Depression Inventory-II scale, respectively. The prevalence of severe pre-RT anxiety was 7%. The depression levels, as determined by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II instrument increased significantly during RT and remained elevated at the first follow-up visit (p < 0.001 for both). The variables that were significantly associated with post-RT depression included a greater pre-RT depression level, employment status (working at enrollment), younger age (<55 years), single marital status, and living alone (p < 0.05, for all). Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that an alarming number of patients undergoing RT for head and neck cancer have symptoms suggestive of psychosocial distress even before beginning treatment. This proportion increases significantly during RT. Studies investigating the role of antidepressants and/or psychiatric counseling might be warranted in the future.

  8. [Predict factors associated with malnutrition from patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA) in head and neck cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Arribas, L; Hurtós, L; Milà, R; Fort, E; Peiró, I

    2013-01-01

    Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) is a validated tool for nutrition evaluation in patients with cancer. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in head and neck cancer patients at diagnosis and evaluate the independent prognostic factors for malnutrition from PG-SGA. All outpatients attending at the Head and Neck Cancer Multidisciplinary Meeting for primary diagnosis, staging and treatment were evaluated by an oncology dietitian using the patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA). Patients with recurrences or secondary tumours will be excluded. 64 patients were evaluated (55 men and 9 women) with an average age of 63 years and body mass index (BMI) of 25.3 kg/m(2) (SD ± 5.18). After the nutritional assessment we observed that 43.8% of patients were malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. The most frequent symptom at diagnosis was dysphagia (48.4%) and anorexia (26.6%). From PG-SGA, the main prognostic factors (p<0,001) were the percentage of weight loss, serum albumin levels, BMI and the presence of dysphagia or/and anorexia prior diagnosis. Parameters as BMI, weight loss and low albumin levels at the time of diagnosis in head and neck cancer patients are independent predictors for malnutrition as well as the presence of anorexia or dysphagia.reaffirms the need for sustainability of interventions over time. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Postradiotherapy quality of life for head-and-neck cancer patients is independent of xerostomia

    SciTech Connect

    Ringash, Jolie . E-mail: jolie.ringash@rmp.uhn.on.ca; Warde, Padraig; Lockwood, Gina; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Cummings, Bernard

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To determine the relationship between quality of life (QOL) and xerostomia over time for patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer in a prospective clinical trial. Methods and materials: Patients with head-and-neck cancer were randomized to pilocarpine (n = 65) vs. placebo (n = 65) during RT. QOL was measured using the McMaster Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ). Xerostomia was measured on a linear analog scale. No statistically significant differences were observed between arms; all 130 patients were analyzed together. Results: Baseline QOL data were obtained for 98.5% of participants. The baseline HNRQ score of 5.7 declined significantly to 4.0 (p <0.0001) by RT Week 6 and returned to baseline (5.8) by 6 months after treatment. This represents a large, clinically important change of 1.7 of 7 (24%; effect size 1.34). The decline in HNRQ score during RT paralleled the onset of xerostomia on the linear analog scale (r = 0.36 at 1 month). After treatment, the QOL scores recovered without improvement in xerostomia. The trajectory of the linear analog scale score resembled that of the HNRQ's single xerostomia question (r = 0.75 at 1 month). Conclusion: Quality of life recovers to baseline after RT, despite persistent xerostomia. Either a response shift occurs or xerostomia in the absence of acute mucositis has a relatively small influence on overall QOL.

  10. Nutritional and zinc status of head and neck cancer patients: an interpretive review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, A S; Beck, F W; Doerr, T D; Shamsa, F H; Penny, H S; Marks, S C; Kaplan, J; Kucuk, O; Mathog, R H

    1998-10-01

    In this review, we provide evidence based on our studies, for zinc deficiency and cell mediated immune disorders, and the effects of protein and zinc status on clinical morbidities in patients with head and neck cancer. We investigated subjects with newly diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, and hypopharynx. Patients with metastatic disease and with severe co-morbidity were excluded. Nutritional assessment included dietary history, body composition, and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) determination. Zinc status was determined by zinc assay in plasma, lymphocytes, and granulocytes. Pretreatment zinc status and nutritional status were correlated with clinical outcomes in 47 patients. Assessment of immune functions included production of TH1 and TH2 cytokines, T cell subpopulations and cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity reaction to common antigens. At baseline approximately 50% of our subjects were zinc-deficient based on cellular zinc criteria and had decreased production of TH1 cytokines but not TH2 cytokines, decreased NK cell lytic activity and decreased proportion of CD4+ CD45RA+ cells in the peripheral blood. The tumor size and overall stage of the disease correlated with baseline zinc status but not with PNI, alcohol intake, or smoking. Zinc deficiency was associated with increased unplanned hospitalizations. The disease-free interval was highest for the group which had both zinc sufficient and nutrition sufficient status. Zinc deficiency and cell mediated immune dysfunctions were frequently present in patients with head and neck cancer when seen initially. Zinc deficiency resulted in an imbalance of TH1 and TH2 functions. Zinc deficiency was associated with increased tumor size, overall stage of the cancer and increased unplanned hospitalizations. These observations have broad implications in the management of patients with head and neck cancer.

  11. [Good clinical practice in nutritional management of head and neck cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Meuric, J; Garabige, V; Blanc-Vincent, M P; Lallemand, Y; Bachmann, P

    1999-10-01

    The "Standards, Options and Recommendations" (SOR) project, started in 1993, is a collaboration between the Federation of the French Cancer Centres (FNCLCC), the 20 French Cancer Centres and specialists from French Public Universities, General Hospitals and Private Clinics. The main objective is the development of clinical practice guidelines to improve the quality of health care and outcome for cancer patients. The methodology is based on literature review and critical appraisal by a multidisciplinary group of experts, with feedback from specialists in cancer care delivery. To develop clinical practice guidelines according to the definitions of Standards, Options and Recommandations for the nutritional management of the head and neck cancer patients. Data have been identified by literature search using Medline and the expert groups personal reference lists. Once the guidelines were defined, the document was submitted for review to 121 independent reviewers, and to the medical committees of the 20 French Cancer Centres. The main recommendations for the nutritional management of head and neck cancer patients are that: 1) Nutritional management prevents undernutrition, improves quality of life, reduces adverse effects of the treatment and prevents treatment delay; 2) The nutritional management of the head and neck cancer patient must be done before, during and after cancer treatment; 3) Before treatment, the weight of the patient must be assessed: 10% of weight loss in 6 months requires to an urgent nutritional intervention; 4) During radiation therapy, feeding should be adapted to various characteristics such as swallowing mechanism, side effects of the treatment, age; 5) During chemotherapy, nutrition must be checked and assessed at each cycle; 6) During surgery, enteral feeding must be stopped and nasogastric feeding progressively introduced starting on day 1 post-operatively. The quality of feed must be adequate during all the healing period. Close surveillance

  12. Cost analysis of a speech pathology synchronous telepractice service for patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Burns, Clare L; Kularatna, Sanjeewa; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hill, Anne J; Byrnes, Joshua; Kenny, Lizbeth M

    2017-09-30

    The purpose of this study is to report the economic outcomes of a new synchronous telepractice service providing speech pathology intervention to patients with head and neck cancer at nonmetropolitan facilities. A multisite randomized controlled trial comparing standard care versus a new synchronous telepractice model was conducted within a large Australian public cancer service. Data pertaining to health service costs (staff wages, equipment, and patient travel reimbursement), patient +/- carer costs (travel and wages), and patient-reported quality of life (Assessment of Quality of Life questionnaire 4D) were collected. Eighty-two referrals (39 standard care and 43 synchronous telepractice care) were managed. The new telepractice service reported average cost savings of 12% (P < .0058) for the health service and $40.05 saving per patient per referral. An equivalent positive increase in quality of life (0.04) was reported for both groups. The synchronous telepractice service provides cost efficiencies over standard care for providing remote specialist speech pathology head and neck cancer intervention. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prediction of post-treatment trismus in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, R; Slevin, N; Musgrove, B; Swindell, R; Molassiotis, A

    2012-06-01

    Our aim was to establish the incidence of trismus over time, together with risk factors (including quality of life (QoL)) for the prediction of trismus after treatment in patients with cancer of the head and neck. It was a longitudinal study of 152 patients accepted for primary operation who attended the head and neck cancer clinic of a tertiary referral cancer centre in the United Kingdom. A total of 87 patients was studied prospectively. Our results showed that 41/87 (47%) of patients presented with trismus, 57/80 (71%) had postoperative trismus, and 41/52 (79%) had trismus 6 months after operation or radiotherapy (trismus defined as a maximum mouth opening of ≤ 35 mm). Men and those who drank a lot of alcohol were less likely to have trismus after treatment. QoL variables showed that pain, eating, chewing, taste, saliva, social functioning, social contact, and dry mouth were significantly more impaired in the trismus group than among those without trismus. Postoperative differences in QoL between the two groups highlighted problems with social function and role-playing, fatigue, activity, recreation, and overall reduction in QoL. Women, and those who do not drink alcohol, are at particularly high risk of developing trismus, and, to prevent it and treat it, patients may benefit from multidisciplinary management at an early stage during treatment. Copyright © 2011 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy as Primary Treatment for Elderly Patients with Medically Inoperable Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargo, John A.; Ferris, Robert L.; Clump, David A.; Heron, Dwight E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: With a growing elderly population, elderly patients with head and neck cancers represent an increasing challenge with limited prospective data to guide management. The complex interplay between advanced age, associated co-morbidities, and conventional local therapies, such as surgery and external beam radiotherapy ± chemotherapy, can significantly impact elderly patients’ quality of life (QoL). Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a well-established curative strategy for medical-inoperable early-stage lung cancers even in elderly populations; however, there is limited data examining SBRT as primary therapy in head and neck cancer. Material/methods: Twelve patients with medically inoperable head and neck cancer treated with SBRT ± cetuximab from 2002 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. SBRT consisted of primarily 44 Gy in five fractions delivered on alternating days over 1–2 weeks. Concurrent cetuximab was administered at a dose of 400 mg/m2 on day −7 followed by 250 mg/m2 on day 0 and +7 in n = 3 (25%). Patient-reported quality of life (PRQoL) was prospectively recorded using the previously validated University of Washington quality of life revised (UW-QoL-R). Results: Median clinical follow-up was 6 months (range: 0.5–29 months). The 1-year actuarial local progression-free survival, distant progression-free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival for definitively treated patients were 69, 100, 69, and 64%, respectively. One patient (8%) experienced acute grade 3 dysphagia and one patient (8%) experienced late grade 3 mucositis; there were no grade 4–5 toxicities. Prospective collection of PRQoL as assessed by UW-QoL-R was preserved across domains. Conclusion: Stereotactic body radiotherapy shows encouraging survival and relatively low toxicity in elderly patients with unresectable head and neck cancer, which may provide an aggressive potentially curative local therapy while maintaining QoL. PMID

  15. An exploration of the perceived changes in intimacy of patients' relationships following head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kathryn; Roe, Brenda; Low, Christopher; Deyn, Lorraine; Rogers, Simon N

    2012-09-01

    This paper reports the experiences of former patients who have undergone a range of head and neck cancer treatments and their perceptions of the changes in intimacy experienced, as an individual and through their relationships with partners, family and friends. A diagnosis of head and neck cancer, subsequent surgical treatment and radiotherapy can lead to an altered quality of life. Whilst important developments have been made to improve the quality of life for this patient group from a functional perspective, psychosocial perspectives are much less understood. A qualitative study approach. Data were collected in 2007/2008 via interview using open-ended questions from a purposive sample of 16 participants who were at least one year post-treatment. A thematic analysis was employed to interpret the findings. Analysis of the data produced three broad themes. These were 'personal identity', 're-establishing social networks' and 'intimate relationships' and explored the person as an individual and their perceived changes to self-esteem and image. The perception of their altered position in society, the impact this has on their willingness to re-engage with society and the degree to which treatment can alter an individual's ability to resume former intimate relationships with family and partners. Patients' definitions of intimacy are multifaceted and related directly to the type of relationship that existed prior to treatment. The concerns and challenges faced by patients need to be addressed and support opportunities considered as part of the rehabilitation process. The paper gives insight for nurses and other healthcare professionals who are expected to provide effective emotional and therapeutic support for patients who have undergone treatment for head and neck cancer. Understanding of patient concerns and recognition of adaptive and coping strategies are essential for this practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Nutritional Interventions in Head and Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemoradiotherapy: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Bossola, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    The present review aimed to define the role of nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HNC patients undergoing CRT as well as their impact on CRT-related toxicity and survival. Head and neck cancer patients are frequently malnourished at the time of diagnosis and prior to the beginning of treatment. In addition, chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) causes or exacerbates symptoms, such as alteration or loss of taste, mucositis, xerostomia, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, with consequent worsening of malnutrition. Nutritional counseling (NC) and oral nutritional supplements (ONS) should be used to increase dietary intake and to prevent therapy-associated weight loss and interruption of radiation therapy. If obstructing cancer and/or mucositis interfere with swallowing, enteral nutrition should be delivered by tube. However, it seems that there is not sufficient evidence to determine the optimal method of enteral feeding. Prophylactic feeding through nasogastric tube or percutaneous gastrostomy to prevent weight loss, reduce dehydration and hospitalizations, and avoid treatment breaks has become relatively common. Compared to reactive feeding (patients are supported with oral nutritional supplements and when it is impossible to maintain nutritional requirements enteral feeding via a NGT or PEG is started), prophylactic feeding does not offer advantages in terms of nutritional outcomes, interruptions of radiotherapy and survival. Overall, it seems that further adequate prospective, randomized studies are needed to define the better nutritional intervention in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. PMID:25569622

  17. Nutritional interventions in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio

    2015-01-05

    The present review aimed to define the role of nutritional interventions in the prevention and treatment of malnutrition in HNC patients undergoing CRT as well as their impact on CRT-related toxicity and survival. Head and neck cancer patients are frequently malnourished at the time of diagnosis and prior to the beginning of treatment. In addition, chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) causes or exacerbates symptoms, such as alteration or loss of taste, mucositis, xerostomia, fatigue, nausea and vomiting, with consequent worsening of malnutrition. Nutritional counseling (NC) and oral nutritional supplements (ONS) should be used to increase dietary intake and to prevent therapy-associated weight loss and interruption of radiation therapy. If obstructing cancer and/or mucositis interfere with swallowing, enteral nutrition should be delivered by tube. However, it seems that there is not sufficient evidence to determine the optimal method of enteral feeding. Prophylactic feeding through nasogastric tube or percutaneous gastrostomy to prevent weight loss, reduce dehydration and hospitalizations, and avoid treatment breaks has become relatively common. Compared to reactive feeding (patients are supported with oral nutritional supplements and when it is impossible to maintain nutritional requirements enteral feeding via a NGT or PEG is started), prophylactic feeding does not offer advantages in terms of nutritional outcomes, interruptions of radiotherapy and survival. Overall, it seems that further adequate prospective, randomized studies are needed to define the better nutritional intervention in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy.

  18. Neurotoxic radiosensitizers and head and neck cancer patients-how many will benefit

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, B.J.; Thomas, G.M.; Rauth, A.M.; Sorrenti, V.; Black, B.; Bush, R.S.

    1982-03-01

    The causes for the exclusion of patients from a Phase I dose tolerance study of metronidazole as a hypoxic cell sensitizing agent in patients receiving radiation therapy for head and neck cancer have been reviewed. One hundred and fifty nine consecutive patients were assessed between October 1979 and December 1980 according to eligibility criteia decided upon prior to the study. Only 26 (23%) of 111 patients treated with radical radiation therapy entered the Phase I study. The major reasons for exclusion were a history of prior nervous system abnormality, age over 70, and refusal by some patients to participate in the study. The criteria used for patient selection for studies of hypoxic cell sensitizers (and other investigational agents) must be known so that data from each study can be assessed appropriately before being extrapolated to the general patient population. Clinical trials should be designed to take into account factors that might influence patient entry.

  19. The effect of radiotherapy on survival of dental implants in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Shugaa-Addin, Bassam; Al-Shamiri, Hashem-Motahir; Al-Maweri, Sadeq; Tarakji, Bassel

    2016-04-01

    To explore the current literature of the survival of dental implants in irradiated head and neck cancer patients considering the role of implant location, bone augmentation, dose of radiation and timing of implant placement. Pubmed search was conducted to identify articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 and presenting data of dental implant survival with radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Studies on animal subjects and craniofacial implants were excluded. 18 articles out of 27 were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. 12 out of 18 studies reported favorable outcome of dental implants and radiotherapy with survival rates between 74.4% and 97%. Seven out of ten studies comparing the survival rates according to site of implant placement reported that implants were found to osseointegrate with greater success in the irradiated mandible than irradiated maxilla. 5 studies which compared implant survival in irradiated native bone versus irradiated grafted bone reported that irradiated grafted bone showed a significantly reduced dental implant survival rate in comparison to irradiated native bone. 6 out of 18studies in which radiation doses exceeded 70 Gy reported lower survival rates of dental implants in comparison to the studies in which radiation doses were ≤70Gy. Higher survival rates were reported in 2 studies in which implants placement was before radiotherapy in comparison to the remaining 16 studies in which implants placement was after radiotherapy. Dental implants may be affected by radiotherapy especially when they are placed in maxilla, in grafted bone, or after radiation, however, they remain a functional option for rehabilitation of head and cancer patients. More Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trails are still needed to draw more evidence based conclusions. Dental implants, implant survival, radiotherapy, head and neck cancer.

  20. Outcomes of Induction Chemotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Combined Study of Two National Cohorts in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jin-Hua; Yen, Yu-Chun; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Yuan, Sheng-Po; Wu, Li-Li; Lee, Fei-Peng; Lin, Kuan-Chou; Lai, Ming-Tang; Wu, Chia-Che; Chen, Tsung-Ming; Chang, Chia-Lun; Chow, Jyh-Ming; Ding, Yi-Fang; Lin, Ming-Chin; Wu, Szu-Yuan

    2016-02-01

    The use of induction chemotherapy (CT) is controversial. We compared the survival of head and neck cancer patients receiving docetaxel- or platinum-based induction CT before concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) with the survival of those receiving upfront CCRT alone. Data from the National Health Insurance and cancer registry databases in Taiwan were linked and analyzed. We enrolled patients who had head and neck cancer between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2011. Follow-up was from the index date to December 31, 2013. We included head and neck patients diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 140.0-148.9 who were aged >20 years, at American Joint Committee on Cancer clinical cancer stage III or IV, and receiving induction CT or platinum-based CCRT. The exclusion criteria were a cancer history before head and neck cancer diagnosis, distant metastasis, AJCC clinical cancer stage I or II, receipt of platinum and docetaxel before radiotherapy, an age <20 years, missing sex data, docetaxel use during or after RT, induction CT for >8 weeks before RT, induction CT alone before RT, cetuximab use, adjuvant CT within 90 days after RT completion, an RT dose <7000 cGy, curative head and neck cancer surgery before RT, nasopharyngeal cancer, in situ carcinoma, sarcoma, and head and neck cancer recurrence. We enrolled 10,721 stage III-IV head and neck cancer patients, with a median follow-up of 4.18 years (interquartile range, 3.25 years). The CCRT (arm 1), docetaxel-based induction CT (arm 2), and platinum-based CCRT (arm 3; control arm) groups comprised 7968, 503, and 2232 patients, respectively. Arm 3 was used to investigate mortality risk after induction CT. After adjustment for age, sex, clinical stage, and comorbidities, the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for overall death were 1.37 (1.22-1.53) and 1.44 (1.36-1.52) in arms 2 and 3, respectively. In a disease

  1. Association of optimism-pessimism with quality of life in patients with head and neck and thyroid cancers.

    PubMed

    Kung, Simon; Rummans, Teresa A; Colligan, Robert C; Clark, Matthew M; Sloan, Jeff A; Novotny, Paul J; Huntington, Jefrey L

    2006-12-01

    To examine the relationship between optimism-pessimism and quality of life (QOL) in survivors of head and neck and thyroid cancers. Between 1963 and 2000, 190 patients completed both the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), used to assess explanatory style (optimism-pessimism), and either the 12-Item or 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12 or SF-36), used to assess QOL. The MMPIs were completed an average of 13.4 years before the QOL assessment. The QOL measures were completed an average of 12.5 years after cancer diagnosis. Patients were divided into quartiles based on their MMPI Optimism-Pessimism scale score. Analysis was performed for all patients, those with head and neck cancer, and those with thyroid cancer. Adjustments were made for age, sex, and disease stage. For all 190 patients, optimism was associated with a higher QOL on both the mental and the physical component scales and 6 of 8 subscales of the SF-12 and SF-36. For patients with head and neck cancer, optimism was associated with higher QOL on 3 subscales but neither component scale. For patients with thyroid cancer, optimism was associated with higher QOL on both component scales and 6 subscales. After adjusting for age, sex, and disease stage, optimism was not associated with QOL in the head and neck cancer group. Optimism was associated with a higher QOL in survivors of thyroid cancer compared with survivors of head and neck cancer. After adjusting for age, sex, and disease stage, optimism was not associated with QOL for survivors of head and neck cancer. Optimism was more associated with the mental rather than physical QOL subscales.

  2. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lang, Hans Peter; Loizeau, Frédéric; Hiou-Feige, Agnès; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Romero, Pedro; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gerber, Christoph; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-07-22

    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient's exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients' exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients' breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful.

  3. AHNS series: Do you know your guidelines? Management of head and neck cancer in the era of human papillomavirus: Educating our patients on human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Guo, Theresa; Goldenberg, David; Fakhry, Carole

    2017-03-06

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has changed the face of head and neck cancer over the past 2 decades. No longer is this solely a disease of older patients with a history of heavy tobacco and alcohol use. Patients with HPV-related head and neck cancers tend to be younger, healthier, and have an improved prognosis, compared with those with HPV-negative tumors. As more patients are diagnosed with HPV-related head and neck cancer, physicians have important topics to consider. These include prevalence, transmission, and natural history of HPV, the role of screening, vaccines, and HPV testing in head and neck cancer. This article continues a series developed by the American Head and Neck Society's Education Committee entitled "Do you know your guidelines?" and is intended to provide guidance for navigating common questions and concerns patients may have about HPV infection and HPV-related head and neck cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2017.

  4. Baroreceptor reflex failure: Review of the literature and the potential impact on patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Shah-Becker, Shivani; Pennock, Michael; Sinoway, Lawrence; Goldenberg, David; Goyal, Neerav

    2017-10-01

    Baroreceptor dysfunction and reflex failure may occur after surgery affecting the carotid artery. The implications for patients undergoing treatment for head and neck cancer are not well described. A literature search of PubMed was performed between March 2016 and May 2016. Search terms used individually and in combination included: "baroreflex failure," "carotid sinus sensitivity," "carotid endarterectomy," "carotid body tumor," and "head and neck cancer." Bibliographies of included articles were also reviewed for additional pertinent articles. There is evidence of baroreceptor failure in certain patients after interventions associated with the carotid artery, including carotid endarterectomy and carotid body tumor excision. Few studies have been performed investigating the potential effect of head and neck surgery treatment, including surgery and/or radiation, on baroreflex function. Head and neck cancer treatment has the potential to cause baroreflex failure, and this is likely an underrecognized and underdiagnosed condition. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Determination of malnourishment in the head and neck cancer patient: assessment tools and nutrition education of radiation oncologists.

    PubMed

    DeCicco, Paul V; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Emmolo, Joana S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate current assessment practices of malnourishment by radiation oncologists among the head and neck cancer patient population. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. A 14-question survey was mailed to 333 radiation oncologists self-identified as "interested in the treatment of head and neck cancer." About 87% of radiation oncologists indicated that they used bodyweight as the sole determinant of malnourishment in head and neck cancer patients at initial consultation. Radiation oncologists with 0 to 10 years experience were found to have a higher level of formal nutrition education than those with 11 to 20 years (p=0.0052). A significant difference was found between radiation oncologists with formal nutrition education vs. those without, in answering whether nutrition interventions play a significant role in the prognosis of such cancer patients (p=0.0013). In addition, a significant difference was noted in methods used to determine proper caloric intake when the oncologists were stratified by their beliefs about nutrition being a significant variable affecting the prognosis of head and neck cancer patients (p=0.0024). Assessment or screening for malnourishment in the head and neck cancer patient should be a routine part of the initial consultation. Radiation oncologists and their medical team, including nutritionists, should use an appropriate nutrition screening and assessment tool in addition to the body weight as an indicator of malnourishment. Nutrition education provided to radiation oncologists should be improved to better communicate the positive effects of nutrition interventions on prognosis.

  6. Association between severity of dysphagia and survival in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Shune, Samantha E; Karnell, Lucy Hynds; Karnell, Michael P; Van Daele, Douglas J; Funk, Gerry F

    2012-06-01

    This study examined risk factors for dysphagia, a common and serious condition in patients with head and neck cancer, and the association between severity of dysphagia and survival. Chart reviews were performed on patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between January 2001 and April 2003, who had dysphagia diagnoses or swallowing evaluations. Regression analyses determined factors associated with dysphagia and the association between observed survival and severity of dysphagia. Almost 50% of the 407 patients had dysphagia. Risk factors included advanced stage, older age, female sex, and hypopharyngeal tumors. The most severe dysphagia ([L.] nil per os or "nothing by mouth" status), which was associated with lower survival rates, was the strongest independent predictor of survival. Swallowing problems should be considered when determining appropriate cancer-directed treatment and posttreatment care. Because of dysphagia's high incidence rate and association with survival, a speech-language pathologist should be involved to ensure routine diagnostic and therapeutic swallowing interventions. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SEVERITY OF DYSPHAGIA AND SURVIVAL IN PATIENTS WITH HEAD AND NECK CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Shune, Samantha E.; Karnell, Lucy Hynds; Karnell, Michael P.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Funk, Gerry F.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examined risk factors for dysphagia, a common and serious condition in patients with head and neck cancer, and the association between severity of dysphagia and survival. Methods Chart reviews were performed on patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer between January 2001 and April 2003, who had dysphagia diagnoses or swallowing evaluations. Regression analyses determined factors associated with dysphagia and the association between observed survival and severity of dysphagia. Results Almost 50% of the 407 patients had dysphagia. Risk factors included advanced stage, older age, female sex, and hypopharyngeal tumors. The most severe dysphagia ([L.] nil per os or “nothing by mouth” status), which was associated with lower survival rates, was the strongest independent predictor of survival. Conclusions Swallowing problems should be considered when determining appropriate cancer-directed treatment and posttreatment care. Because of dysphagia’s high incidence rate and association with survival, a speech-language pathologist should be involved to ensure routine diagnostic and therapeutic swallowing interventions. PMID:22127835

  8. An exploration of factors predicting malnutrition in patients with advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Silander, Ewa; Nyman, Jan; Hammerlid, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Malnutrition is common among head and neck cancer patients and negatively impacts on survival and quality of life. This study aimed to identify predictors of malnutrition at time of diagnosis in order to identify patients at risk and enable early nutritional support and prevent malnutrition. A total of 134 patients with advanced oral and pharyngeal cancer were included in the study. Weight, body mass index (BMI), fat free mass (FFM), dysphagia, and quality of life were measured at diagnosis and after 6 months. Two definitions for malnutrition were applied: >10% weight loss and BMI <20 after 6 months. Six months after diagnosis, 66% of the patients were malnourished as per the >10% weight loss definition, and 26% of the patients were malnourished as per the BMI < 20 weight loss definition. In multivariate analysis, low BMI followed by low FFM and dysphagia were the strongest predictors for malnutrition using BMI <20. Chemotherapy and high BMI at diagnosis were the strongest predictors of malnutrition using the 10% weight loss definition. For patients treated with chemotherapy, the risk for malnutrition was very high both for patients with normal BMI (67%) and for patients with BMI 30 (89%). Unintended weight loss more than 10% seems to be the most reasonable definition of malnutrition for identifying predictors of this in head and neck cancer patients. The weight loss correlated significantly to a loss of FFM. Treatment with chemotherapy was a strong predictor, as was a high BMI at time of diagnosis. This is an important finding since overweight patients might not be considered at high risk for developing malnutrition, and consequently nutritional support for them might be delayed. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Cardiovascular risk and prevention in patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Christian C; Bucher, Jessica; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Parikh, Sahil A; Oliveira, Guilherme H; Gibson, Michael K; Machtay, Mitchell; Yao, Min; Zender, Chad A; Dorth, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    The underlying contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are poorly characterized. Patients with HNSCC who underwent definitive or adjuvant (chemo)radiation between 2011 and 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. The 10-year risk estimates for a CVD event were calculated according to the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). One hundred fifteen patients with predominantly stage III/IV HNSCC had a median follow-up of 2 years. At diagnosis, 23% of patients had CVD. The FRS was higher among patients with laryngeal cancer versus other sites (20.5% vs 14.4%). Twenty-four percent of all patients had uncontrolled blood pressure at diagnosis. Among the patients with CVD, 41% were not taking antiplatelet therapy and 30% were not taking statin therapy. Thirty-four percent of patients without CVD had indications for initiating statin therapy. Patients with HNSCC have a high baseline CVD risk and many do not receive optimal preventive care. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 527-532, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Influence of body composition on survival in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Karnell, Lucy Hynds; Sperry, Steven M; Anderson, Carryn M; Pagedar, Nitin A

    2016-04-01

    Recent evidence has suggested links between obesity and outcomes for various types of cancer. This study investigates the impact that body composition has on survival in patients with head and neck cancer. Data prospectively collected from 578 patients were analyzed using Cox regression models to determine independent associations that pretreatment body mass index (BMI) and 3-month weight change have on observed survival. Higher BMIs were associated with better survival (p < .001). Five-year rates ranged from 33.8% for underweight to 75.3% for overweight/obese patients. Patients with stable weight had the highest 5-year rate (72.6%; p = .019), whereas patients who gained ≥5% had worse survival (45.8%) than those who lost ≥5% (65.8%). BMI independently predicted survival, whereas weight change was not an independent predictor. This demonstrated association between BMI and survival provides useful information when offering prognoses and investigating optimal treatments © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E261-E267, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Nutritional surveillance and weight loss in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ehrsson, Ylva Tiblom; Langius-Eklöf, Ann; Laurell, Göran

    2012-04-01

    This retrospective single-institution cohort study aims to evaluate if therapeutic approach, tumour site, tumour stage, BMI, gender, age and civil status predict body weight loss and to establish the association between weight loss on postoperative infections and mortality. Consecutive patients with head and neck cancer were seen for nutritional control at a nurse-led outpatient clinic and followed-up for 2 years after radiotherapy. Demographic, disease-specific and nutrition data were collected from case records. The primary outcome measure was maximum body weight loss during the whole study period. The nadir of body weight loss was observed 6 months after radiotherapy. In total, 92 patients of 157 (59%) with no evidence of residual tumour after treatment received enteral nutrition. The mean maximum weight loss for patients receiving enteral nutrition and per oral feeding was 13% and 6%, respectively (p < 0.001). Using multivariate analysis, tumour stage (p < 0.001) was the only independent factor of maximum weight loss. Weight loss was not significantly related to risk for postoperative infection. Weight loss is frequently noted among head and neck cancer patients during and after treatment. Weight loss was not found to be associated with postoperative infections and mortality. Nutritional surveillance is important in all patients, but special attention should be given to those on enteral nutrition and those with more advanced disease.

  12. Patient and staff perceptions of social worker counseling before surgical therapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Yarlagadda, Bharat Bhushan; Hatton, Elissa; Huettig, Janet; Deschler, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    Patients who undergo surgical therapy for head and neck cancer often face a tremendous challenge involving considerable psychological distress and impaired social functioning. These difficulties are often compounded by logistical difficulties such as transportation, financial assistance, and continuity of care after the acute hospitalization. Social workers have a unique opportunity to address the psychosocial and logistical issues facing these patients through preadmission counseling and coordination. The study reported in this article aimed to assess the effect of preadmission counseling for patients planning to undergo major surgical therapy for head and neck cancer. Ten patients who received preadmission counseling were surveyed to ascertain the utility of it in regard to multiple social and logistical factors. Comparisons were made with patients who did not receive such counseling. Staff perceptions were likewise obtained. The surveys indicated that preadmission counseling helped in regard to improving peri-admission support and access to financial and logistical resources, and lowered levels of anxiety during admission. Areas of potential improvement were identified, including addressing substance abuse issues in a timely manner.

  13. Malnutrition and cachexia in patients with head and neck cancer treated with (chemo)radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gorenc, Mojca; Kozjek, Nada Rotovnik; Strojan, Primož

    2015-01-01

    To highlight the problems associated with nutrition that occur in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). SCCHN is associated with weight loss before, during and after radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Because of serious consequences of malnutrition and cachexia on treatment outcome, mortality, morbidity, and quality of life, it is important to identify SCCHN patients with increased risk for the development of malnutrition and cachexia. Critical review of the literature. This review describes pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition and cancer cachexia. Treatment of malnutrition and cancer cachexia includes nutritional interventions and pharmacological therapy. Advantages and disadvantages of different nutritional interventions and their effect on the nutritional status, quality of life and specific oncological treatment are presented. Nutritional management is an essential part of care of these patients, including early screening, assessment of nutritional status and appropriate intervention.

  14. Malnutrition and cachexia in patients with head and neck cancer treated with (chemo)radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gorenc, Mojca; Kozjek, Nada Rotovnik; Strojan, Primož

    2015-01-01

    Aim To highlight the problems associated with nutrition that occur in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Background SCCHN is associated with weight loss before, during and after radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Because of serious consequences of malnutrition and cachexia on treatment outcome, mortality, morbidity, and quality of life, it is important to identify SCCHN patients with increased risk for the development of malnutrition and cachexia. Materials and methods Critical review of the literature. Results This review describes pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition and cancer cachexia. Treatment of malnutrition and cancer cachexia includes nutritional interventions and pharmacological therapy. Advantages and disadvantages of different nutritional interventions and their effect on the nutritional status, quality of life and specific oncological treatment are presented. Conclusions Nutritional management is an essential part of care of these patients, including early screening, assessment of nutritional status and appropriate intervention. PMID:26109912

  15. Lenalidomide and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Colorectal Cancer or Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-04

    Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Neck With Occult Primary; Recurrent Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Oral Cavity Verrucous Carcinoma; Recurrent Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Recurrent Salivary Gland Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Squamous Cell Carcinoma Metastatic in the Neck With Occult Primary; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Nasopharyngeal Keratinizing Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colon Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Laryngeal Verrucous Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVC Lip and Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVC Major Salivary Gland Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVC Nasal Cavity and Paranasal

  16. Implementing routine screening for distress, the sixth vital sign, for patients with head and neck and neurologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Bultz, Barry D; Waller, Amy; Cullum, Jodi; Jones, Paula; Halland, Johan; Groff, Shannon L; Leckie, Catriona; Shirt, Lisa; Blanchard, Scott; Lau, Harold; Easaw, Jacob; Fassbender, Konrad; Carlson, Linda E

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the benefits of incorporating screening for distress as a routine part of care for patients with head and neck and neurologic cancers in a tertiary cancer center. Using a comparative 2-cohort pre-post implementation sequential design, consecutive outpatients with head and neck and neurologic cancers were recruited into 2 separate cohorts. Cohort 1 included patients attending clinics during April 2010, before the implementation of the screening program. The program was then implemented and patients completed the Screening for Distress Minimum Dataset (the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS] and the Canadian Problem Checklist [CPC]) at each clinic visit. Cohort 2 included patients attending clinics during March 2011. Consenting patients completed screening and outcome measures (ESAS, CPC, and either the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain or the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck). A total of 146 patients (78 head and neck and 68 neurologic) provided data for Cohort 1, and 143 (81 head and neck and 62 neurologic) provided data for Cohort 2. Compared with Cohort 1, patients with neurologic cancers in Cohort 2 reported significantly higher scores on the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: General total and emotional quality of life subscale; fewer high scores (≥ 4) on the ESAS breathlessness item; and fewer problems with fears/worries, frustration/anger, finding meaning in life, and worry about friends/family. Head and neck patients in Cohort 2 reported significantly higher emotional quality of life and fewer problems with eating and weight than those in Cohort 1. Although no definitive causal attributions can be made, patients exposed to routine screening for distress reported better well-being and fewer emotional, physical, and practical problems than historical controls.

  17. Associations between psychosocial functioning and smiling intensity in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juhun; Teo, Irene; Guindani, Michele; Reece, Gregory P; Markey, Mia K; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve

    2015-01-01

    Increasing attention is being given to developing quantitative measures of facial expression. This study used quantitative facial expression analysis to examine associations between smiling intensity and psychosocial functioning in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Smiling intensity of 95 HNC patients was measured using 48 quantitative measures calculated from facial photographs with and without a smile. We computed a composite smiling intensity score for each patient representing the degree of similarity to healthy controls. A lower composite score indicates that the person is less expressive, on average, than healthy controls. Patients also completed self-report measures assessing domains of body image and quality of life (QOL). Spearman rank correlations were computed to examine relationships between composite scores and psychosocial functioning. Composite scores were significantly correlated with multiple measures of body image and QOL. Specifically, decreased smiling intensity was associated with feelings of dissatisfaction with one's body, perceived negative social impact of body image, increased use of avoidance as a body image-coping strategy, reduced functional well-being, and greater head and neck cancer-specific issues. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate associations between an objectively quantified facial expression (i.e. smiling) and psychosocial functioning. Most previous studies have measured facial expression qualitatively. These findings indicate that smiling intensity may serve as an important clinical indicator of psychosocial well-being and warrants further clinical investigation.

  18. Early clinical experience with volumetric modulated arc therapy in head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To report about early clinical experience in radiation treatment of head and neck cancer of different sites and histology by volumetric modulated arcs with the RapidArc technology. Methods During 2009, 45 patients were treated at Istituto Clinico Humanitas with RapidArc (28 males and 17 females, median age 65 years). Of these, 78% received concomitant chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients were treated as exclusive curative intent (group A), three as postoperative curative intent (group B) and six with sinonasal tumours (group C). Dose prescription was at Planning Target Volumes (PTV) with simultaneous integrated boost: 54.45Gy and 69.96Gy in 33 fractions (group A); 54.45Gy and 66Gy in 33 fractions (group B) and 55Gy in 25 fractions (group C). Results Concerning planning optimization strategies and constraints, as per PTV coverage, for all groups, D98% > 95% and V95% > 99%. As regards organs at risk, all planning objectives were respected, and this was correlated with observed acute toxicity rates. Only 28% of patients experienced G3 mucositis, 14% G3 dermitis 44% had G2 dysphagia. Nobody required feeding tubes to be placed during treatment. Acute toxicity is also related to chemotherapy. Two patients interrupted the course of radiotherapy because of a quick worsening of general clinical condition. Conclusions These preliminary results stated that volumetric modulated arc therapy in locally advanced head and neck cancers is feasible and effective, with acceptable toxicities. PMID:20950429

  19. Medical education by bedside learning - helping medical students to interact with patients who have head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaga, Kimitaka; Asakage, Takahiro

    2007-04-01

    Our bedside interviews with patients with head neck cancer are unique and valuable educational experiences for undergraduate medical students. How can we help medical students to understand patients' thoughts and feelings? We believe that students can learn and practice empathy at the patient's bedside. Sixty medical students in their final year at the University of Tokyo and 10 patients with head and neck cancer were supervised by a professor and senior head and neck surgeons. Questionnaires were delivered to each student before and after bedside teaching, to investigate their impressions on thoughts and feelings of patients with head and neck cancer. Questions to patients were composed of: 1) backgrounds: birthplace, education, occupation and hobby; 2) cancer: the time of the first visit to clinic and the time of referral to the University of Tokyo Hospital; 3) preoperative feelings; 4) impression of surgical treatment and postoperative care; and 5) messages to medical students from the patient. Medical students also asked additional questions. Before the bedside teaching our medical students believed that it must be important to listen to patients (100%); and that it must be possible to encourage patients (50%). After the bedside teaching they noticed that a medical interview could have a positive influence on the patient (93%), probably because of general conversation (45%), the patient's personality (50%), listening to information about the patient's birthplace, education, occupation and hobby (48%), and the instructor's life experiences (25%). Most patients asked medical students to be good doctors who can understand their thoughts and feelings.

  20. Lugol's iodine dye-enhanced endoscopy in patients with cancer of the oesophagus and head and neck.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, E M; Williams, S R; Leung, J W; Chung, S C; Van Hasselt, C A; Li, A K

    1992-12-01

    Lugol's iodine dye indicates the presence of unsuspected early oesophageal cancers during endoscopy at which such cancers fail to show the characteristic black colour change. We evaluated Lugol's iodine dye-enhanced endoscopy in 17 patients with oesophageal cancer. In a further 37 patients with head and neck cancer we examined the use of Lugol's iodine since these patients have a 29% risk of synchronous oesophageal cancer. The oesophagus was sprayed with Lugol's iodine (1.5%) during endoscopy. Any areas not turning black were biopsied. In 13 patients with oesophageal cancer discrete areas beyond the macroscopically obvious primary tumour showed no change in colour. Biopsy revealed cancer in all cases. Six synchronous cancers were found in the head and neck group, one of which was identified only by the use of Lugol's iodine. Lugol's iodine augmented the information gained about the oesophageal mucosa during endoscopy. It revealed unsuspected cancer which altered the management of patients with primary oesophageal cancer as well as those with head and neck cancer. We recommend the routine use of Lugol's iodine-enhanced endoscopy for surveillance of all 'at risk' oesophageal cases.

  1. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of the Oral Cavity in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    van der Vorst, Joost R.; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Keereweer, Stijn; Jansen, Jeroen C.; van der Velden, Lilly-Ann; Langeveld, Antonius; Hutteman, Merlijn; Löwik, Clemens; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Frangioni, John V.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Elective neck dissection is frequently performed during surgery in head and neck cancer patients. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure can prevent the morbidity of a neck dissection and improve lymph node staging by fine pathology. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a promising technique to identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN) intraoperatively. This feasibility study explored the use of indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin (ICG:HSA) for SLN mapping in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods A total of 10 consecutive patients with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer and a clinical N0 neck were included. After exposure of the neck, 1.6 mL of ICG:HSA (500 μM) was injected at 4 quadrants around the tumor. During the neck dissection, levels I, II, III and IV were measured for fluorescence using the Mini-FLARE imaging system. Results In all 10 patients, NIR fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of one or more SLNs. A total of 17 SLNs were identified. The mean contrast between the fluorescent signal of the lymph nodes and of the surrounding tissue was 8.7 ± 6.4. In 3 patients, of which 1 was false-negative, lymph node metastases were found. After administration of ICG:HSA, the average number of fluorescent lymph nodes significantly increased over time (P < 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated feasibility to detect draining lymph nodes in head and neck cancer patients using NIR fluorescence imaging. However, the fluorescent tracer quickly migrated beyond the SLN to higher tier nodes. PMID:22939692

  2. Alcohol and cigarette consumption as predictors of mortality in patients with head and neck cancer: a pooled analysis within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium.

    PubMed

    Giraldi, L; Leoncini, E; Pastorino, R; Wünsch-Filho, V; de Carvalho, M; Lopez, R; Cadoni, G; Arzani, D; Petrelli, L; Matsuo, K; Bosetti, C; La Vecchia, C; Garavello, W; Polesel, J; Serraino, D; Simonato, L; Canova, C; Richiardi, L; Boffetta, P; Hashibe, M; Lee, C A Y; Boccia, S

    2017-08-30

    Our study evaluated whether demographics, pre-diagnosis lifestyle habits and clinical data are associated with the overall survival (OS) and head and neck cancer (HNC)-specific survival in patients with HNC.PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis, including 4,759 HNC patients from five studies within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. Cox proportional Hazard Ratios (HRs) and the corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CIs) were estimated including terms reported significantly associated with the survival in the univariate analysis.RESULTS: Five-years OS was 51.4% for all HNC sites combined: 50.3% for oral cavity, 41.1% for oropharynx, 35.0% for hypopharynx and 63.9% for larynx. When we considered HNC-specific survival, 5-year survival rates were 57.4% for all HNC combined, 54.6% for oral cavity, 45.4% for oropharynx, 37.1% for hypopharynx and 72.3% for larynx. Older ages at diagnosis and advanced tumour staging were unfavourable predictors of OS and HNC-specific survival. In laryngeal cancer, low educational level was an unfavourable prognostic factor for OS (HR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.01-6.38, for high school or lower vs. college graduate), and status and intensity of alcohol drinking were prognostic factors both of the OS (current drinkers HR = 1.73, CI: 1.16-2.58) and HNC-specific survival (current drinkers HR = 2.11, CI: 1.22-3.66). In oropharyngeal cancer, smoking status was an independent prognostic factors for OS. Smoking intensity (>20 cigarettes/day HR = 1.41, CI: 1.03-1.92) was also an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with cancer of the oral cavity.CONCLUSIONS: OS and HNC-specific survival differ among HNC sites. Pre-diagnosis cigarette smoking is a prognostic factor of the OS for patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx, while pre-diagnosis alcohol drinking is a prognostic factor of OS and HNC-specific survival for patients with cancer of the larynx. Low

  3. Differentiation of benign from malignant cervical lymph nodes in patients with head and neck cancer using PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Payabvash, Seyedmehdi; Meric, Kaan; Cayci, Zuzan

    2016-01-01

    To differentiate malignant from benign cervical lymph nodes in patients with head/neck cancer. In this retrospective study, 39 patients with primary head/neck cancer who underwent Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/Computerized Tomography (CT) and image-guided lymph node biopsy were included. Overall, 23 (59%) patients had biopsy-proven malignant cervical lymphadenopathy. Malignant lymph nodes had higher maximum standardized uptake (SUV-max) value (P<.001) and short-axis diameter (P=.015) compared to benign nodes. An SUV-max of ≥2.5 was 100% sensitive, and an SUV-max ≥5.5 was 100% specific for malignant lymphadenopathy. The PET/CT SUV-max value can help with differentiation of malignant cervical lymph nodes in patients with head/neck cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Validity of Self-reported Recent Smoking in Head and Neck Cancer Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Alberg, Anthony J.; Worley, Mitchell L.; Tooze, Janet A.; Hatcher, Jeanne L.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; Day, Terry A.; Sullivan, Christopher A.; Warren, Graham W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In cancer patients, cigarette smoking causes poorer response to treatment, treatment toxicity, increased risk of recurrence, higher surgical complication rates, and poorer overall survival. As such a significant determinant of patient prognosis, accurate classification of current smoking status is important. Self-reported smoking status may lead to misclassification if patients conceal their true status. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of self-reported tobacco use during the previous 48 hours in head and neck cancer patients on the day of surgery. Study Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two academic medical centers in the southeastern United States. Subjects and Methods On the day of surgery, 108 head and neck cancer patients completed a survey asking about tobacco use during the past 48 hours and had semi-quantitative levels of urinary cotinine measured to biochemically validate self-reported recent smoking. Results Self-reported smoking yielded a sensitivity of 60.9% (95% CI, 45.4%-74.9%) and a specificity of 98.4% (95% CI, 91.3%-100.0%). The sensitivity increased to 76.1% (95% CI, 61.2%-87.4%) when allowing for the possibility that exposure to secondhand smoke or use of nicotine-containing products could have caused a positive cotinine test. Conclusion In this patient population, self-reported recent smoking yielded a high (39%) proportion of false-negatives, and even 24% remained false-negatives after allowing for other sources of nicotine exposure. This magnitude of underreporting combined with the importance of tobacco use to patient prognosis supports the need for routinely biochemically verifying recent tobacco use in self-reported nonsmokers within the clinical setting. PMID:26195573

  5. [What nutritional management in patients with head and neck cancers undergoing radiotherapy? An overview].

    PubMed

    Kouhen, Fadila; Afif, Mohammed; Benhmidou, Naoual; El Majjaoui, Sanaa; Elkacemi, Hanan; Kebdani, Tayeb; Benjaafar, Noureddine

    2015-10-01

    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment for head and neck cancers but patients often experience side effects, which lead to malnutrition. Morbidity related to weight loss during treatment may include dehydration, hospitalization, compromised treatment efficacy, and reduced quality of life and may impact survival hence the importance of early nutritional management prior to radiotherapy. Multiple interventions have been implemented to help ameliorate the impact of treatment on weight loss and nutritional status, including the use of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tubes. The goal of this overview is to search the predictive factors of malnutrition and an overview of the different types of nutritional interventions and their impact on the local control of the disease, mortality and quality of life of patients treated with radiotherapy or concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Piezoresistive Membrane Surface Stress Sensors for Characterization of Breath Samples of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Hans Peter; Loizeau, Frédéric; Hiou-Feige, Agnès; Rivals, Jean-Paul; Romero, Pedro; Akiyama, Terunobu; Gerber, Christoph; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    For many diseases, where a particular organ is affected, chemical by-products can be found in the patient’s exhaled breath. Breath analysis is often done using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, but interpretation of results is difficult and time-consuming. We performed characterization of patients’ exhaled breath samples by an electronic nose technique based on an array of nanomechanical membrane sensors. Each membrane is coated with a different thin polymer layer. By pumping the exhaled breath into a measurement chamber, volatile organic compounds present in patients’ breath diffuse into the polymer layers and deform the membranes by changes in surface stress. The bending of the membranes is measured piezoresistively and the signals are converted into voltages. The sensor deflection pattern allows one to characterize the condition of the patient. In a clinical pilot study, we investigated breath samples from head and neck cancer patients and healthy control persons. Evaluation using principal component analysis (PCA) allowed a clear distinction between the two groups. As head and neck cancer can be completely removed by surgery, the breath of cured patients was investigated after surgery again and the results were similar to those of the healthy control group, indicating that surgery was successful. PMID:27455276

  7. Cevimeline for the Treatment of Postirradiation Xerostomia in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Mark S. . E-mail: mchamber@mdanderson.org; Posner, Marshall; Jones, Christopher Uwe; Biel, Merrill A.; Hodge, Kenneth M.; Vitti, Robert; Armstrong, Ingrid; Yen, Cindy; Weber, Randal S.

    2007-07-15

    Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of cevimeline in two double-blind trials (Studies 003 and 004) enrolling patients with head and neck cancer in whom xerostomia developed after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Subjects were randomly assigned to receive cevimeline, 30 mg three times daily, or placebo for 12 weeks, with the possibility of dose escalation to 45 mg three times daily at 6 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the patient's final global evaluation of oral dryness; change in unstimulated salivary flow was a secondary endpoint. Results: Five hundred seventy subjects (284 in Study 003 and 286 in Study 004) were randomized. Significantly more cevimeline-treated subjects than placebo recipients (47.4% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.0162) in Study 003 reported improvement in dry mouth in the final global evaluation of oral dryness. No significant difference between groups in the final global evaluation was seen in Study 004, in which a high placebo response rate of 47.6% was observed. In both studies, cevimeline-treated subjects had significantly greater increases in the objective measure of unstimulated salivary flow than placebo recipients (p 0.0093 [Study 003] and p = 0.0215 [Study 004]), whereas no significant differences in stimulated salivary flow were observed. The most frequent adverse event was increased sweating. Conclusion: Cevimeline was well tolerated by patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and oral administration of 30-45 mg of cevimeline three times daily increased unstimulated salivary flow.

  8. [EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire role as predictor for malnutrition risk in head and neck cancer Mexican patients].

    PubMed

    Sat-Muñoz, D; Morán Mendoza, A de J; Solano-Murillo, P; Balderas-Peña, L M A; Rivera-Morales, D; Iñíguez-Virgen, A; Salcedo-Rocha, A L; García de Alba-García, J E

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck cancer treatment restricts oral intake and conditioning malnutrition. Adequate nutritional support during treatment can limit the impact of side effects. To describe EORTC QLQ-C30 role for malnutrition risk screening in head and neck cancer patients. Analytical and cross-sectional, diagnostic test study in head and neck cancer patients. We correlated malnutrition diagnosis with subjective global assessment (SGA) and score for the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales with Pearson and Spearman correlation. We realized COR (Receiver Operating Characteristic) curves to calculate cut point in the score for the EORTC QLQ-C30 scales; we calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Odds Ratio through logistic regression. Functional scales (role, physic, global health status/QoL) showed limited utility to malnutrition risk estimation in people with head and neck cancer. Symptoms' scales with strong association were: pain (sensitivity 76.47%, specificity 69.23%), insomnia (sensitivity 88.24%, specificity 53.85%), fatigue (sensitivity 70.59%, specificity 76.92%). EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire is a useful tool to early malnutrition diagnosis in head and neck cancer patients with short term results in nutritional condition, treatment response and a better QoL in this kind of patients.

  9. Induction chemotherapy in head and neck cancer patients followed by concomitant docetaxel-based radiochemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mencoboni, M; Grillo-Ruggieri, F; Salami, A; Scasso, F; Rebella, L; Grimaldi, A; Dellepiane, M; Moratti, G; Bruzzone, A; Spigno, F; Ghio, R; Figliomeni, M

    2011-07-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy has become the standard of care for patients with inoperable squamous cell head and neck carcinoma. More recently, induction chemotherapy has been adopted as an approach in the management of these patients. We report the results of a phase II trial associating induction chemotherapy and concomitant chemoradiotherapy in a series of patients with inoperable squamous cell head and neck cancer. Twenty-nine patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma ineligible for surgery were enrolled. Induction chemotherapy with docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) and cisplatin 75 mg/m(2) every 21 days was administered for two cycles. Radiotherapy followed the induction phase. During radiotherapy, docetaxel was administered weekly at the dose of 33 mg/m(2) . Primary end point of the study was feasibility of treatment. Six (18%) patients failed to conclude the treatment schedule. Although response rates in evaluable patients were very high (disease control rate >90%), toxicities were a matter of concern. The reported treatment schedule proved infeasible. However, some modifications in ancillary therapies aimed at exploiting its efficacy could make it practicable.

  10. Trismus in head and neck cancer patients treated by telecobalt and effect of early rehabilitation measures.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Sindhu; Kadam, S Amrut; Selvaraj, Karthikeyan; Ahmed, Iqbal; Javarappa, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Trismus is one of the common late side effects of radiotherapy (RT) of head and neck cancers. It occurs in about 30% of patients treated by telecobalt. It, in turn, leads to significant morbidity, including malnutrition, difficulty in speaking, and compromised oral hygiene with severe psychosocial, and economic impacts. To determine the prevalence of trismus and its progression in patients who have received radical concurrent chemoradiation for head and neck cancer by telecobalt at our institution. To note the effect of early rehabilitative measures on the severity of trismus and to assess its impact on the quality of life (QOL). A total of 47 evaluable patients of head and neck cancer patients treated by telecobalt with radical intent between January 2012 and December 2013 were analyzed and baseline maximal inter-incisal opening (MIO) and MIO at the completion of RT, after 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year, after completion of RT were noted. Grading of trismus was done using Modified Common Toxicity Criteria (CTCAE Version 3.0). QOL assessment was done using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-HN35. The time when the rehabilitative measures were started were also noted. Chi-square test with Fisher exact probability test and Students t-test. Radiation-induced trismus (RIT) was seen in 31.9%, 34.04%, and 38.39% of cases at 3, 6, and 12 months after completion of RT. Grade II and III trismus accounted for 17.02% and 6.38% at the end of 1 year. Patients who started regular rehabilitative exercises soon, after completion of RT had a better mean MIO as compared to those who were not compliant (32 mm vs. 24 mm at 1 year), and there was a trend toward delayed progression in them. Trismus was also seen to adversely affect QOL of the patients. RIT is a major cause for late morbidity in patients treated with conventional RT leading to poor QOL. Early rehabilitative measures are useful in preventing progression of trismus.

  11. Aspiration in head and neck cancer patients: a single centre experience of clinical profile, bacterial isolates and antibiotic sensitivity pattern.

    PubMed

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Sirsath, Nagesh T; Subramanyam, Jayshree R; Govind, Babu K; Lokanatha, D; Shenoy, Ashok M

    2013-07-01

    Most patients with head and neck cancer have dysphagia and are at increased risk of having aspiration and subsequent pneumonia. It can cause prolonged hospitalization, treatment delay and/or interruption and mortality in cancer patients. The treatment of these infections often relies on empirical antibiotics based on local microbiology and antibiotic sensitivity patterns. The aim of present study is to analyse respiratory tract pathogens isolated by sputum culture in head and neck cancer patients undergoing treatment at a tertiary cancer centre in South India who presented with features of aspiration. The study is carried out to establish empirical antibiotic policy for head and neck cancer patients who present with features of aspiration. This was a retrospective study. The study included sputum samples sent for culture and sensitivity from January 2011 to December 2012. Analysis of microbiologic species isolated in sputum specimen and the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the bacterial isolates was performed. A detailed study of case files of all patients was done to find out which is the most common site prone for producing aspiration. There were 47 (31.54 %) gram positive isolates and 102 (68.45 %) gram negative isolates. The most common bacterial isolates were Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.50 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16.77 %) and Haemophilus influenzae (15.43 %). Levofloxacin was the most effective antibiotic with excellent activity against both gram positive and gram negative isolates. Most patients with aspiration had laryngeal cancer (34.89 %). Aspiration pneumonia was present in 14 (9.39 %) patients. Gram negative bacteria are common etiologic agents in head and neck cancer patients presenting with features of aspiration. Levofloxacin should be started as empirical antibiotic in these patients while awaiting sputum culture sensitivity report. As aspiration in head and neck cancer is an underreported event such institutional antibiotic sensitivity

  12. Radiation Therapy and MK-3475 for Patients With Recurrent/Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer, Renal Cell Cancer, Melanoma, and Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-18

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Metastatic Renal Cell Cancer; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Lung Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  13. Education and support needs in patients with head and neck cancer: A multi-institutional survey.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Joe; Milross, Chris; Sundaresan, Puma; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Shepherd, Heather L; Dhillon, Haryana M; Morgan, Gary; Ashford, Bruce; Abdul-Razak, Muzib; Wong, Eva; Veness, Michael; Palme, Carsten E; Froggatt, Cate; Cohen, Ruben; Ekmejian, Rafael; Tay, Jessica; Roshan, David; Clark, Jonathan R

    2017-06-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) encompasses a diverse group of tumors, and thus providing appropriate and tailored information to patients before, during, and after treatment is a challenge. The objective of the current study was to characterize the experience and unmet needs of patients with HNC with regard to information and support provision. A 28-question, cross-sectional survey was completed by patients treated for HNC at 1 of 4 institutions in New South Wales, Australia (Chris O'Brien Lifehouse and Liverpool, Westmead, and Wollongong hospitals). It consisted of the adapted Kessler Psychological Distress Scale and questions assessing information quality, quantity, and format. A total of 597 patients responded. The mean age of the patients was 58 years (range, 21-94 years) with 284 men and 313 women (1:1.1). The majority of patients reported information concerning the disease process (76%), prognosis (67%), and treatment (77%) was sufficient, and approximately 50% reporting having received little or no information regarding coping with stress and anxiety. A substantial percentage of patients reported receiving minimal information concerning psychosexual health (56%) or the availability of patient support groups (56%). The majority of patients preferred access to multiple modes of information delivery (72%), with the preferred modality being one-on-one meetings with a health educator (37%) followed by internet-based written information (19%). Patients with HNC are a diverse group, with complex educational and support needs. Patients appear to be given information regarding survivorship topics such as psychological well-being, patient support groups, and psychosexual health less frequently than information concerning disease and treatment. Verbal communication needs to be reinforced by accessible, well-constructed, written and multimedia resources appropriate to the patient's educational level. Cancer 2017;123:1949-1957. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017

  14. Smoking Cessation and Electronic Cigarette Use among Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    McQueen, Nicholas; Partington, Erin J; Harrington, Kathleen F; Rosenthal, Eben L; Carroll, William R; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2016-01-01

    (1) Investigate electronic cigarette (e-cig) use among head and neck (HN) cancer patients; (2) define quit methods, success, motivations, and barriers to smoking cessation; and (3) determine the impact of e-cig use in smoking cessation. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care center. An in-office survey was administered to HN cancer patients ≥ 19 years of age with past/present tobacco use. Patient demographics were collected. Quit methods, success, and motivations/barriers were surveyed. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to correlate alcohol use and cessation. Independent variables associated with cessation were studied with Fisher's exact test and Student's t test. Subgroup analysis was performed for e-cig users. Of 110 eligible patients, 106 (96%) enrolled (83% male, 82% Caucasian), of whom 69 (65%) successfully quit. Age of first tobacco use did not differ between the smoking and cessation groups (P = .14), nor did hazardous drinking (30% smoking vs 14% cessation; P = .072). "Cold turkey" (ie, stopping abruptly without smoking cessation aids) was the most common method attempted (n = 88, 83%) and most successful (n = 65, 94%). There was no statistical difference in age, sex, race, drinking, or socioeconomic status between e-cig users and nonusers. Nonusers achieved higher quit rates as compared with e-cig users (72% vs 39%; P = .0057). E-cig use did not decrease the number of cigarettes smoked (463 cigarettes/month) versus that of nonusers (341 cigarettes/month; P = .2). Seventy percent of e-cig users wore a nicotine patch. HN cancer patients desire smoking cessation. E-cig did not decrease tobacco use, and patients who utilize e-cigs are less likely to achieve smoking cessation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  15. Tube feeding during treatment for head and neck cancer - Adherence and patient reported barriers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Teresa; Banks, Merrilyn; Hughes, Brett G M; Lin, Charles; Kenny, Lizbeth; Bauer, Judith

    2017-09-01

    The main aim was to investigate the incidence of patient adherence to nutritional tube feeding recommendations in patients with head and neck cancer and to determine patient barriers to meeting tube feeding prescription. This was an observational study from a randomised controlled trial in patients with head and neck cancer deemed at high nutritional risk with prophylactic gastrostomy (n=125). Patients were randomised to receive early tube feeding prior to treatment (intervention group) or standard care. All patients in the intervention and standard care groups then commenced clinical tube feeding as required during treatment. Patients maintained a daily record of gastrostomy intake, main nutrition impact symptom necessitating gastrostomy use, and reasons for not meeting nutrition prescription. Adherence was defined as meeting ≥75% of total prescribed intake. Patients were predominantly male (89%), median age 60, with oropharyngeal tumours (78%), stage IV disease (87%) treated with chemoradiotherapy (87%). Primary reasons for gastrostomy use were poor appetite/dysgeusia (week 2-3) and odynophagia/mucositis (week 4-7). Early tube feeding adherence was 51%. Clinical tube feeding adherence was significantly higher in the intervention group (58% vs 38%, p=0.037). Key barriers to both phases of tube feeding were; nausea, early satiety and treatment factors (related to hospital healthcare processes). Early tube feeding can improve patient adherence to clinically indicated tube feeding during treatment. Low adherence overall is a likely explanation for clinically significant weight loss despite intensive nutrition interventions. Optimising symptom management and strategies to overcome other barriers are key to improving adherence. This trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials registry as ACTRN12612000579897. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural Analysis of Enamel in Teeth from Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Who Underwent Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Cristhian C; de Pauli Paglioni, Mariana; Line, Sergio R; Vasconcelos, Karina G; Brandão, Thaís Bianca; Lopes, Marcio A; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger; De Goes, Mario Fernando

    2017-01-01

    To analyze macroscopic, microscopic, and ultrastructural aspects of enamel from head-and-neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy. Twenty sound extracted permanent molars were used and divided into 2 groups. The experimental group consisted of 10 molars from head-and-neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy with total doses that ranged from 50 to 70 Gy. Ten molars from patients who did not receive radiotherapy were matched with experimental-group samples by anatomic tooth group and comprised the control group. To perform a macroscopic analysis, standardized photos of different enamel faces were taken with a camera. Teeth were subjected to longitudinal cuts and hand polished to a final thickness of 0.1 mm. Enamel was analyzed under polarized light microscopy, and optical retardation values of birefringence were calculated in cervical, cusp, and occlusal pit areas. Subsequently, the same enamel areas were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Data from optical retardation values were statistically analyzed by 2-way ANOVA and Fisher's test (α < 0.05). No macroscopic differences were observed between the irradiated and control groups. Polarized light microscopy analysis revealed that cervical enamel exhibited darker areas characterized by discrete birefringence patterns compared to the control enamel. Optical retardation values were only significantly different in the cervical enamel of the irradiated and control groups (p < 0.0001). Scanning electron microscopy analysis revealed more evident interprismatic spaces in the cervical and outer cusp enamel of irradiated samples. Head-and-neck radiotherapy reduced optical retardation values of birefringence in cervical enamel, and the interprismatic spaces became more evident. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Repeat PEG placement is safe for head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nicholl, Michael B; Lyons, Daniel A; Wheeler, Andrew A; Jorgensen, Jeffery B

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) provides durable nutritional access for head and neck (HNC) patients as they undergo treatment. Continuing treatment of HNC may necessitate repeat PEG placement. We report our outcomes with repeat PEG compared to first-time PEG in HNC patients. A retrospective chart review identified morbidity, mortality, and possible risk factors for complications. Repeat PEG tubes constituted 17% of PEG procedures. Morbidity was rare and similar complication rates were found between the initial PEG and repeat PEG groups (2% vs. 11%, p=0.131). There were no mortalities. Repeat PEG plays an important role in the care of HNC patients and can be considered a safe means to establish durable enteric feeding access for patients with recurrent cancer or treatment complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Counseling the Patient with Potentially HPV-Related Newly Diagnosed Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Finnigan, John P.; Sikora, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    The recent emergence of a clinically distinct subset of head and neck cancers (HNC) caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) necessitates critical reevaluation of the existing counseling paradigm for patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Herein we propose a structural framework for patient counseling in which HPV testing is incorporated and the impact of HPV-status is discussed in the context of multiple medical and psychosocial domains. We strive to maintain a balance between making recommendations based on the best available scientific evidence and acknowledgment of uncertainty for both patients and providers. We anticipate that both the standard-of-care diagnostic workup and treatment, and counseling guidelines for these patients will change rapidly in the years ahead, as data from ongoing and planned prospective clinical trials become available. PMID:24488548

  19. Potential prevention: Aloe vera mouthwash may reduce radiation-induced oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Amirhossein

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, more head and neck cancer patients have been treated with radiotherapy. Radiation-induced mucositis is a common and dose limiting toxicity of radiotherapy among patients with head and neck cancers. Patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancer are also at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis. A number of new agents applied locally or systemically to prevent or treat radiation-induced mucositis have been investigated, but there is no widely accepted prophylactic or effective treatment for mucositis. Topical Aloe vera is widely used for mild sunburn, frostbites, and scalding burns. Studies have reported the beneficial effects of Aloe gel for wound healing, mucous membrane protection, and treatment of oral ulcers, in addition to antiinflammatory, immunomudulation, antifungal, scavenging free radicals, increasing collagen formation and inhibiting collagenase. Herein the author postulates that oral Aloe vera mouthwash may not only prevent radiation-induced mucositis by its wound healing and antiinflammatory mechanism, but also may reduce oral candidiasis of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy due to its antifungal and immunomodulatory properties. Hence, Aloe vera mouthwash may provide an alternative agent for treating radiation-induced oral mucositis and candidiasis in patients with head and neck cancers.

  20. High prevalence of cachexia in newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dijkstra, Gerard; Bijzet, Johan; Langendijk, Johannes A; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2017-03-01

    In patients with cancer, weight loss can be related to simple starvation, disturbed metabolism, or both. In patients with head and neck cancer (HNC), weight loss often is attributed to simple starvation because the obvious oral symptoms are known to hinder dietary intake. In this population, cachexia remains a relatively unexplored phenomenon. The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of cachexia and precachexia in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Fifty-nine patients with newly diagnosed HNC were asked to participate in the prospective cohort study, from which only baseline data were used in the analyses. Measurements were performed 1 wk before cancer treatment, that is, cachexia status by Fearon's cancer-specific framework, dietary intake, muscle mass, muscle strength, and biochemical markers (C-reactive protein, albumin, hemoglobin, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) were assessed. Data of 26 patients were included in the analyses (59% participation rate). Forty-two percent of the patients (n = 12) were classified as cachectic and 15% (n = 4) as precachectic. Muscle mass depletion was significantly more frequent in cachectic patients (67%) than in noncachectic patients (14%; P = 0.014). No differences in inflammatory markers were observed between cachectic and noncachectic patients. This exploratory study suggested a high prevalence of cachexia (42%) in patients with newly diagnosed HNC. Although a large study is needed to further elucidate the role of cachexia in patients with HNC, the data presented here suggest that cachexia is a common problem in this patient population, which has therapeutic and prognostic implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of weekly paclitaxel, carboplatin, and cetuximab in head and neck cancer patients with incurable disease.

    PubMed

    Narveson, Lisa; Kathol, Emily; Rockey, Michelle; Henry, David; Grauer, Dennis; Neupane, Prakash

    2016-10-01

    Weekly paclitaxel, carboplatin, and cetuximab (PCC) has been found to be efficacious and well-tolerated in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) with good performance status (PS) when used as induction chemotherapy. Use of PCC in incurable SCCHN in patients with poor PS or in a non-induction setting is an area which warrants further evaluation. Current recommendations for incurable disease consist of a platinum-based regimen with fluorouracil and cetuximab. Studied in patients with PS of 0 to 1, the fluorouracil-based regimens were associated with significant toxicities. Therefore, weekly PCC may offer an appealing, less toxic alternative for incurable patients with poor PS. This retrospective analysis evaluated 41 patients with very advanced or metastatic head and neck cancer who had received PCC (paclitaxel 80 mg/m(2), carboplatin AUC 2, and a cetuximab 400 mg/m(2) loading dose, followed by 250 mg/m(2) weekly) for up to 6 cycles between April 2008 and September 2014. Maximal response achieved and progression-free survival (PFS), as well as dose intensity and adverse effects, were evaluated. Of the 41 patients evaluated, baseline PS ranged as follows: PS of 2 (41 %), PS of 1 (54 %), and PS of 0 (5 %). Patients received 2 to 6 cycles, averaging 4 cycles. Thirty-one patients (76 %) required treatment to be held, delayed or dose reduced, most commonly for hematologic toxicities. Grades 3/4 neutropenia occurred in 16 patients (39 %), grades 1/2 neutropenia in 12 patients (29 %), with grades 3/4 thrombocytopenia in 1 patient (2 %), and grades 1/2 thrombocytopenia in 2 patients (4 %). No patients developed febrile neutropenia or required hospitalization due to treatment. Partial radiographic response occurred in 15 patients (37 %), complete radiographic response in 2 patients (5 %), stable disease in 14 patients (34 %), and progression in 8 patients (20 %). PFS ranged from 1.6 to 45 months, with a median duration of 4.6

  2. HSP-90 expression as a predictor of response to radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    García Lorenzo, Jacinto; León Vintró, Xavier; Camacho Pérez de Madrid, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    HSP-90 is an intracellular protein that protects the cell from environmental stress situations. The overexpression of HSP-90 isoforms could serve as a mechanism of resistance to radiotherapy for tumour cells. We studied this effect in a sample of head and neck tumours. We included 87 patients diagnosed with oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx and hypopharynx tumours. We studied the expression of the HSP-90 isoforms by real-time PCR on pre-treatment biopsy samples. We analysed the relationship between HSP-90 expression levels and local relapse of the tumour with CRT decision trees. The expression levels of the inducible citosolic isoform (HSP90AA) allowed the definition of 2 groups of patients with different rates of local relapse. The group with a low expression level showed a 2.9% local relapse rate, while the group with a high expression level showed a 38.2% rate. Survival curves showed differences in time to local relapse for both groups of patients. These differences did not reach statistical significance. Radiotherapy response was related to expression levels of HSP-90 in a sample of head and neck cancer patients. This result could prove useful in the selection of treatments for this group of patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  3. Repair of oronasal fistula with silicone button in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yu-Ting; Hao, Sheng-Po

    2015-06-01

    Until now, there is no optimal technique for repairing oronasal fistula in patients with prior head and neck radiotherapy and trismus. Use of the silicone button is a safe, office-based, and validated method in this situation. The indications of this procedure are also clarified in this study. This is a retrospective study of four patients who underwent a newly designed endoscopic repair of oronasal fistula with silicone button under local anesthesia from July 2012 to August 2012. Data on the size of the defect, length of operation, symptom relief, and post-operative complications were collected. Four patients underwent endoscopic repair of oronasal fistula with silicone button under local anesthesia. The diagnoses were benign palate lesion s/p operation, oral cancer s/p operation and radiotherapy. The defect diameter varied from 1 to 1.5 cm. The operation durations were between 20 and 30 min. In all cases, nasal regurgitation symptoms were relieved. The hypernasality of one case improved, while another had decreased nasal crusting and foul odors. No major complications were noted. There was a minor complication in one case, which exhibited frequent crusting around the silicone button. Silicon button can act as a temporary obturator to improve quality of life of patients. The indications for this procedure include patient undergone head and neck radiotherapy with (1) chronic fistula (>6 months); (2) small defect (1-2 cm); and (3) trismus. 4.

  4. Nutritional changes in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer during treatment.

    PubMed

    Arribas, L; Hurtós, L; Taberna, M; Peiró, I; Vilajosana, E; Lozano, A; Vazquez, S; Mesia, R; Virgili, N

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate changes in body composition and nutritional status that occur throughout the oncological treatment in head and neck cancer patients. A prospective cohort observational study in patients diagnosed with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that underwent treatment with induction chemotherapy (iCT) followed by chemoradiotherapy or bioradiotherapy were invited to participate. All patients had dietetic counseling from the diagnosis and a close monitoring throughout the treatment implementing nutritional support as needed. From June 2011 until October 2012, 20 patients were included. Nutritional and anthropometric parameters were collected at diagnosis, post iCT, after radiotherapy, 1 and 3months post radiotherapy. According to Patient Generated Subjective Global Assessment, 30% of patients were malnourished at diagnosis. After iCT there was an increase in weight, body mass index (BMI) and fat free mass (FFM) with almost complete improvement in dysphagia and odynophagia. Nevertheless a significant nutritional deterioration (p=0.0022) occurred at the end of radiotherapy with 95% of patients becoming severe or moderate malnourished. Nutritional parameters such as weight, BMI and hand grip strength also decrease significantly during treatment. Despite an intensive nutritional support from the diagnosis throughout the oncological treatment in advanced HNSCC cancer patients, nutritional status deteriorates during radiotherapy. Our findings suggest that iCT may help improve nutritional status by ameliorating the symptoms that limit the oral intake. This improvement in the nutritional status could contribute to minimize further deterioration. Further investigations are needed involving novel approaches to avoid nutritional deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oral and head and neck cancer. Special listing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-03

    The Special Listing of Current Cancer Research Projects is a publication of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute. Each Listing contains descriptions of ongoing projects in one selected cancer research area. The research areas include: Diagnostic and prognostic studies of oral and head and neck cancers; Treatment of oral and head and neck cancers; Rehabilitation and other support following treatment of oral and head and neck cancers; Etiology, epidemiology, and follow-up studies of patients with oral and head and neck cancers; Training programs for dental professions; Broad clinical programs for treatment of head and neck cancers; Salivary gland pathology.

  6. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Glucose Uptake and Metabolism in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jihong; Weygand, Joseph; Hwang, Ken-Pin; Mohamed, Abdallah S. R.; Ding, Yao; Fuller, Clifton D.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Frank, Steven J.; Zhou, Jinyuan

    2016-01-01

    Imaging metabolic dysfunction, a hallmark of solid tumors, usually requires radioactive tracers. Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging can potentially detect and visualize glucose uptake and metabolism, without the need for radioisotopes. Here, we tested the feasibility of using glucose CEST (glucoCEST) to image unlabeled glucose uptake in head and neck cancer by using a clinical 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. The average CEST contrast between tumors and normal tissue in 17 patients was 7.58% (P = 0.006) in the 3–4 ppm offset frequency range and 5.06% (P = 0.02) in 1–5 ppm range. In a subgroup of eight patients, glucoCEST signal enhancement was higher in tumors than in normal muscle (4.98% vs. 1.28%, P < 0.021). We conclude that glucoCEST images of head and neck cancer can be obtained with a clinical 3T MRI scanner. PMID:27461165

  7. [Physiological metals in the serum, hair and nails of patients with head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Woźniak, Anna; Kujawa, Anita; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Kulza, Maksymilian; Gawecki, Wojciech; Szybiak, Bartosz; Herman, Małgorzata; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Kurhańska-Flisykowska, Anna; Chesy, Paulina; Szyfter, Witold; Walas, Stanisław; Golusiński, Wojciech; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Parczewski, Andrzej; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Cigarette smoking and excessive alcohol drinking result in the rise of numbers of patients suffering from the head and neck cancer. Addiction to any of these stimulants carry a risk of developing a cancerogenesis process. Using them simultaniously lead not to a summary of each of those risks but multiplies them. Scientific research also indicates the important difference in the incidence of cancer in people who have never smoked cigarettes or drunk alcohol in comparison to those, whose exposure to these stimulatns was longterm - in such case, the former group had a lower percentage of developing the disease. Human body burdened with the ongoing cancer shows disturbances on various levels of the system. One of such disturbances is change of the concetration levels of physiological metals, such as calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc or mangenese. They play key roles in maintaing the hormonal and ionic stability, they act as cofactors in many enzymes in metabolic processes. Diagnostic research of any deviations in levels of those essential elements enables a full estimation of a patient condition. The aim of this study was physiological metal levels evaluation in different kinds of biological material in patients with tumors of larynx, salivary glands and oral cavity and tongue. Hair and nail samples were used as examples of alternative material, beside the serum samples, which is a standard material and often used. Subjects were patients of Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Clinic of Poznan University of Medical Sciences (Samodzielny Publiczny Szpital Kliniczny nr 2 im. Heliodora Swiecickiego Uniwersytetu Medycznego im. Karola Marcinkowskiego w Poznaniu) and The Head and Neck Surgery Ward of The Greater Poland Cancer Centre in Poznan. Subjects were 41 men and 18 women with tumors of larynx, salivary glands and oral cavity and tongue. The control group consisted of patients from the Otolaryngology and Laryngological Oncology Clinic of Poznan University of

  8. Malnutrition and Clinical Outcome of 234 Head and Neck Cancer Patients who Underwent Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Jorge; Santos, Carla Adriana; Brito, José

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients who underwent percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) present malnutrition risk and speech impairments. Their assessment relies on objective anthropometric/laboratory data. Focusing on HNC PEG patients, our aims were to evaluate: 1) outcome; 2) nutritional status when the patients underwent PEG; and 3) association of nutritional status/outcome, creating a survival predictive model. We evaluated the outcome based on NRS 2002, dietary assessment, body mass index (BMI), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), albumin, transferrin, and cholesterol on the day of gastrostomy. Using BMI, TSF, MAMC, and laboratory data, a survival predictive model was created. Of the 234 patients (cancer stages III-IV), 149 died, 33 were still PEG-fed, and 36 resumed oral intake (NRS-2002≥3, caloric needs <50% in all). BMI was 12.7-43. 189, 197, and 168 patients displayed, respectively, low MUAC, TSF, and MAMC. 91, 155, and 119 patients displayed low albumin, transferrin, and cholesterol. Albumin, cholesterol, and transferrin were strongly associated with the outcome. A predictive model was created, discriminating between short-term survivors (<4 months) and long-term survivors. HNC patients were malnourished. Using anthropometric/laboratory parameters, a predictive model provides discrimination between patients surviving PEG for <4 months and long-term survivors. Teams taking care of PEG patients may provide special support to potential short-term survivors.

  9. Factors Associated With External and Internal Lymphedema in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jie; Ridner, Sheila H.; Dietrich, Mary S.; Wells, Nancy; Wallston, Kenneth A.; Sinard, Robert J.; Cmelak, Anthony J.; Murphy, Barbara A.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with the presence of secondary external and internal lymphedema in patients with head-and-neck cancer (HNC). Methods and Materials: The sample included 81 patients {>=}3 months after HNC treatment. Physical and endoscopic examinations were conducted to determine if participants had external, internal, and/or combined head-and-neck lymphedema. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the factors associated with the presence of lymphedema. Results: The following factors were statistically significantly associated with presence of lymphedema: (1) location of tumor associated with presence of external (P=.009) and combined lymphedema (P=.032); (2) time since end of HNC treatment associated with presence of external (P=.004) and combined lymphedema (P=.005); (3) total dosage of radiation therapy (P=.010) and days of radiation (P=.017) associated with the presence of combined lymphedema; (4) radiation status of surgical bed was associated with the presence of internal lymphedema, including surgery with postoperative radiation (P=.030) and (salvage) surgery in the irradiated field (P=.008); and (5) number of treatment modalities associated with external (P=.002), internal (P=.039), and combined lymphedema (P=.004). No demographic, health behavior-related, or comorbidity factors were associated with the presence of lymphedema in the sample. Conclusions: Select tumor and treatment parameters are associated with increased occurrence of lymphedema in patients with HNC. Larger and longitudinal studies are needed to identify adjusted effects and causative risk factors contributing to the development of lymphedema in patients with HNC.

  10. Aspiration as a late complication after accelerated versus conventional radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Ulrika; Nilsson, Per; Gärskog, Ola; Kjellen, Elisabeth; Laurell, Göran; Wahlberg, Peter; Zackrisson, Björn; Levring Jäghagen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Neck dissection after radiotherapy increased the risk of aspiration as a late effect in a sub-sample of patients treated for head and neck cancer in the ARTSCAN study. Patients treated with accelerated fractionation (AF) developed aspiration, with or without coughing, more frequently than patients treated with conventional fractionation (CF). Objectives A long-term follow-up study was conducted to determine the frequency of aspiration as a late effect in patients with head and neck cancer treated with AF or CF. Method One-hundred and eight patients were recruited from two centres of the Swedish multi-centre study, ARTSCAN, where AF and CF were compared. Patients with positive lymph nodes were treated with neck dissection after completing radiotherapy. The follow-up was performed at a median of 65 months after initiation of radiotherapy and included an ENT and a videofluoroscopic examination. Results Aspiration was found in 51/108 (47%) and silent aspiration in 34/96 (35%) patients. Neck dissection (n = 47 patients) was significantly associated with both aspiration and silent aspiration. Aspiration was more common among patients treated with AF (34/61; 56%) compared to CF (17/47; 36%; p = 0.053). Silent aspiration was also more common after AF (24/54; 44%) than after CF (10/42; 24%; p = 0.052).

  11. A new complementary procedure for patients affected by head and neck cancer: Chemo-predictive assay.

    PubMed

    Cortese, Antonio; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Amato, Massimo; Lawrence, Logan; Mayes, Veronica; Brown, Linda; Sarno, Maria Rosaria; Valluri, Jagan; Claudio, Pier Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Administration of ineffective anticancer therapy is associated with unnecessary toxicity and development of resistant clones. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) resist chemotherapy, thereby causing relapse of the disease. Thus, development of a test that identifies the most effective chemotherapy management offers great promise for individualized anticancer treatments. We have developed an ex vivo chemotherapy drug response assay (ChemoID(®)), which measures the sensitivity of CSCs as well as the bulk of tumor cells to a variety of chemotherapy agents to assist an oncologist in making treatment decisions. Three patients affected by oral cancer were referred. Biopsy showed a well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (G1) in case 1, a G2 adenocarcinoma in case 2 and a G3 squamous cell carcinoma in case 3. In all of the three cases, after clinical inspection and suspicion of a diagnosis of cancer, a double biopsy was performed. One specimen was sent to the ChemoID laboratory for chemosensitivity assay and the other for histological analysis. Chemotherapy dose response curves were generated, and grouped in 3 categories: 1. No response (less than 30% cell kill), Intermediate (30-60% cell kill), and 3. Sensitive (60% cell kill or above). This procedure may be useful in helping physicians choose an effective chemotherapy regimen for head and neck cancer patients and lower treatment costs by eliminating ineffective chemotherapies and unnecessary toxicity particularly in elderly patients. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Radiotherapy for head and neck cancer in nonagenarian patients: a possible cornerstone?

    PubMed

    Rivoirard, Romain; Moncharmont, Coralie; Assouline, Avi; Auberdiac, Pierre; Mery, Benoite; Falk, Alexander Tuan; Annède, Pierre; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Vial, Nicolas; Fournel, Pierre; Merrouche, Yacine; Chargari, Cyrus; Magné, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    In the field of radiotherapy, there is very little scientific data on the management of nonagenarians, especially in patients aged 90 years or more and with head and neck cancer (HNC). We made one of the first retrospective study of the feasibility and safety of radiotherapy in this population with HNC. Records of radiotherapy coming from four health facilities were studied to include all nonagenarian patients with HNC in the last 10 years and who received radiation therapy. We analyzed patient characteristics and primary cancers, as well as objective of the treatment (curative or palliative), efficacy and toxicity. Twenty patients receiving radiotherapy were identified; mean age was 93.2 years (standard deviation 2.8). Treatment was given with curative and palliative intent in 40 and 60 % of cases, respectively. The most common primary tumors were tumors of the salivary glands (30 % of cases), oral cavity tumors (25 % of cases) and thyroid tumors (15 % of cases). Median total prescribed dose was 47.5 Gy (12-70 Gy). Median number of delivered fractions was 18.5 (2-35 fractions). All patients received intensive supportive care during radiotherapy. Toxicities were mild to moderate. Radiotherapy could not be completed for four patients (20 % of cases). One patient developed grade 1-2 delayed toxicities. At the last follow-up, only four patients (20 % of cases) were alive. Cancer was cause of death in most cases. Radiotherapy may be performed for the nonagenarians with HNC. The total dose and fractionation must be adjusted to optimize the tolerance. However, the prognosis remains very poor, cancer being the main cause of death. Research of geriatric vulnerabilities prior to any treatment, in the context of a comprehensive geriatric assessment, is still recommended to select patients for radiotherapy.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Elective Neck Dissection in Patients With Clinically Node-Negative Oral Cavity Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Joseph R.; Fero, Katherine E.; Wilson, Bayard; Sacco, Assuntina G.; Mell, Loren K.; Coffey, Charles S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recently, a large randomized trial found a survival advantage among patients who received elective neck dissection in conjunction with primary surgery for clinically node-negative oral cavity cancer compared with those receiving primary surgery alone. However, elective neck dissection comes with greater upfront cost and patient morbidity. We present a cost-effectiveness analysis of elective neck dissection for the initial surgical management of early-stage oral cavity cancer. Methods We constructed a Markov model to simulate primary, adjuvant, and salvage therapy; disease recurrence; and survival in patients with T1/T2 clinically node-negative oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Transition probabilities were derived from clinical trial data; costs (in 2015 US dollars) and health utilities were estimated from the literature. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, expressed as dollar per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), were calculated with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios less than $100,000/QALY considered cost effective. We conducted one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses to examine model uncertainty. Results Our base-case model found that over a lifetime the addition of elective neck dissection to primary surgery reduced overall costs by $6,000 and improved effectiveness by 0.42 QALYs compared with primary surgery alone. The decrease in overall cost despite the added neck dissection was a result of less use of salvage therapy. On one-way sensitivity analysis, the model was most sensitive to assumptions about disease recurrence, survival, and the health utility reduction from a neck dissection. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis found that treatment with elective neck dissection was cost effective 76% of the time at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000/QALY. Conclusion Our study found that the addition of elective neck dissection reduces costs and improves health outcomes, making this a cost-effective treatment strategy for patients

  14. The relationship between measures of nutritional status and masticatory function in untreated patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Arthur H; Tajima, Tracey; Kawakami, Kyle T; Wang, Marilene B; Tomlinson, James

    2008-01-01

    Nearly 40% of newly diagnosed patients with head and neck cancer are malnourished before treatment begins with many researchers ascribing the malnutrition to a paucity of teeth. We attempted to determine if inadequate numbers of occluding pairs of teeth, rather than mere numbers of teeth, in newly hospitalized, untreated head and neck cancer patients correlates with nutritional status parameters used to identify those at heightened risk for malnutrition-related complications. Patients and cancer-free, matched controls were evaluated for malnutrition (body mass index < or = 20 [weight (kg)/height (m2)]), serum albumin < or = 2.7 g/dL, hemoglobin < or = 11.9 g/dL, and total lymphocyte count < or = 1,449/muL), and inadequate numbers of occluding pairs of teeth variably defined as less than 5 "posterior pairs" of occluding teeth or less than 6 or 7 "total pairs" of occluding teeth. Head and neck cancer patients had significantly lower body mass index (P = .005) and total lymphocyte count (P = .019) than controls, but there were no significant correlations between the nutritional and dental variables in either group. Untreated head and neck cancer patients frequently have nutritional status parameters indicating heightened risk for malnutrition-related complications but inadequate masticatory function is not a causative factor.

  15. Mouth opening and trismus in patients undergoing curative treatment for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Steiner, F; Evans, J; Marsh, R; Rigby, P; James, S; Sutherland, K; Wickens, R; Nedev, N; Kelly, B; Tan, S T

    2015-03-01

    This study documents mouth opening and the incidence of and factors contributing to trismus (<35 mm mouth opening), as well as the associated impact on quality of life, following curative treatment for head and neck cancer. Patient demographics, cancer type and location, and treatments were documented. Mouth opening was measured at >6 months after treatment completion. Patients rated the impact of mouth opening on quality of life from 0 (no effect) to 10 (greatest effect). The mean mouth opening in 120 patients was 40.1mm (range 11-65 mm), with trismus occurring in 34 (28.3%) patients. Surgery and radiotherapy, surgery and chemoradiotherapy, and resection and reconstruction were associated with reduced mouth opening. The mean effect of mouth opening on quality of life for those with and without trismus was 3.8 and 1.5, respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean effect on quality of life for patients with and without trismus for those patients who underwent chemoradiotherapy or combined surgery and radiotherapy (4.0 vs. 1.0, and 3.6 vs. 1.6 respectively). Trismus impacts negatively on patient quality of life. Multi-modality treatment is associated with decreased mouth opening, an increased incidence of trismus, and reduced quality of life. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Capecitabine and Lapatinib Ditosylate in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-24

    Head and Neck Cancer; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  17. Cetuximab as treatment for head and neck cancer patients with a previous liver transplant: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Holguin, Francia; Rubió-Casadevall, Jordi; Saigi, Maria; Marruecos, Jordi; Taberna, Miren; Tobed, Marc; Maños, Manuel; Mesía, Ricard

    2017-10-01

    Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor useful in the treatment of patients with Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma combined with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Its pharmacokinetics are not influenced by hepatic status and there are no specific warnings concerning its indication in patients with impaired hepatic function. Patients with a previous liver transplant are at risk for hepatic toxicity and use immunosupressants to avoid rejection that can interact with other drugs. We present two cases of patients with a previous liver transplant in which cetuximab was administered to treat head and neck cancer.

  18. Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms and Cancer Risk, Tumor Recurrence, or Survival of Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Cederblad, Lena; Andersson, Bengt-Åke; Olin, Mattias; Nilsson, Mats; Rutqvist, Lars Erik; Lundgren, Jan; Engström, Mats; Tytor, Wieslaw; Löfgren, Sture; Lewin, Freddi

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on cancer risk, tumor recurrence, and survival in head and neck (H&N) cancer patients. A total of 45 SNPs in 41 genes were investigated. A total of 174 Caucasian H&N cancer patients and 245 healthy blood donors were enrolled in the study. Ten SNPs were associated with H&N cancer risk, but the identified SNPs differed among males and females. Some of the SNPs were related to immune response genes. The immune response gene SNPs were also related to survival. In particular, we noted that the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) rs1800629 could have an influence on cancer risk, tumor recurrence as well as survival. Genetic variation of the TNFα rs1800629 might be useful as a biomarker in clinical decision-making since it was found to be related to cancer risk, tumor recurrence, and survival of H&N cancer patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Survey of Usual Practice: Dysphagia Therapy in Head & Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Krisciunas, Gintas P.; Sokoloff, William; Stepas, Katherine; Langmore, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    There is no standardized dysphagia therapy for head and neck cancer patients and scant evidence to support any particular protocol, leaving institutions and individual speech language pathologists (SLPs) to determine their own protocols based on “typical” practices or anecdotal evidence. To gain an understanding of current usual practices, a national internet-based survey was developed and disseminated to SLPs who treat HNC patients. From a random sample of 4,000 ASHA SID 13 members, 1,931 fit the inclusion criteria, and 759 complete responses were recorded for a 39.3% response rate. Results were analyzed by institution type as well as by individual clinical experience. While some interesting trends emerged from the data, a lack of uniformity and consensus regarding best practices was apparent. This is undoubtedly due to a paucity of research adequately addressing the efficacy of any one therapy for dysphagia in the HNC population. PMID:22456699

  20. Effects of a spleen peptide preparation as supportive therapy in inoperable head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Borghardt, J; Rosien, B; Görtelmeyer, R; Lindemann, S; Hartleb, M; Klingmüller, M

    2000-02-01

    Patients with inoperable head and neck cancer were treated with a spleen peptide preparation (Polyerga) in a phase III randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind study during chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin, 5-fluorouracil) to investigate further the efficacy of this peptide preparation as supportive treatment under chemotherapy. Immunological changes as well as quality of life aspects were examined. Forty patients were included in this study. The peptide preparation had a significant stabilizing effect on the peripheral blood lymphocyte status during chemotherapy cycles (Student t-test, p = 0.05) and tended to stabilize the shift of granulocyte count (Student t-test, p = 0.18). In addition, the group receiving the verum showed a remarkable stabilization of body weight (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.17) during chemotherapy treatment and the generally observed increase of fatigue-inertia during the chemotherapy cycles was significantly reduced (Student t-test, p = 0.01).

  1. Orbital apex syndrome affecting head and neck cancer patients: A case series.

    PubMed

    Prado-Ribeiro, A-C; Luiz, A-C; Montezuma, M-A; Mak, M-P; Santos-Silva, A-R; Brandão, T-B

    2017-05-01

    Orbital apex syndrome (OAS) is a complex and uncommon disorder that typically damages multiple cranial nerves in association with optic nerve dysfunction. OAS is associated with several different pathologies, however; only a few cases have been reported in association with head and neck cancer (HNC) so far. A case series of HNC patients diagnosed with OAS is described including clinicopathological data, image findings, and disease outcome. Ptosis and diplopia were diagnosed in four male patients with mean age of 61.2 years who were undergoing treatment for late-stage carcinomas of the tongue, larynx, and nasopharynx, eventually leading to the diagnosis of OAS. The mean overall survival rate after the diagnosis of OAS was 9.5 months. The current study reinforces evidence that OAS indicates poor prognosis and highlights the importance of early diagnosis.

  2. The dental problems of patients with head and neck cancer treated with CHART.

    PubMed

    Roos, D E; Dische, S; Saunders, M I

    1996-05-01

    Between 1985 and 1990, 99 head and neck cancer patients were treated at Mount Vernon Centre for Cancer Treatment in a CHART pilot study. The aims of this retrospective review were to obtain baseline data for this population on their pretreatment dental status and to determine the extent to which our conservative policy of teeth preservation is being realised. This is of particular interest because of the believed sparing of late normal tissue effects by CHART compared with conventional fractionation. Prior to treatment, 40% of patients were edentulous, and prophylactic dental clearance was avoided in 59% of the remaining (dentate) patients. Following radiotherapy, only 21% of dentate patients subsequently lost all their remaining teeth. The proportion of patients with full or partial upper dentures increased from 61% pretreatment to 76% post-treatment; the corresponding increase in lower dentures was 46% to 66%. However, actual usage of dentures decreased somewhat. There was only one documented case of (minor) osteo-radionecrosis of the mandible which resolved with conservative care. The greater use in our patients of prophylactic measures, in particular, chlorhexidine and fluoride mouthwashes seemed indicated.

  3. Significance of p16 expression in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy and cetuximab.

    PubMed

    Heiduschka, Gregor; Grah, Anja; Oberndorfer, Felicitas; Seemann, Rudolf; Kranz, Alexander; Kornek, Gabriela; Wrba, Fritz; Thurnher, Dietmar; Selzer, Edgar

    2014-09-01

    HPV-infection, p16 positivity, and EGFR expression have been correlated with favorable responses of head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) with or without chemotherapy. However, a possible correlation of HPV/p16 and EGFR status on the effect of RT in combination with cetuximab has not been sufficiently investigated. We analyzed tumor samples for p16 and EGFR expression and correlated these variables with treatment outcome. Cox-proportional-hazard regression models were applied to compare the risk of death among patients stratified according to risk factors. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results were compared with an institutional historical control group treated without cetuximab and with published data. Expression of p16 was predominantly found in oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer patients (OPSCC; 36.6% positivity; 92% of all cases), while EGFR was expressed at high levels in all tumor subsites (82%). p16 expression was associated with improved overall survival in irradiated OPSCC patients (2-year overall survival of 80% in p16-positive vs. 33% overall survival in p16-negative patients). In a multivariable analysis covering all tumor sites, nodal stage (> N2a vs. ≤ N2a) and tumor site (OPSSC vs. non-OPSCC) had an impact on overall survival. Our results show that p16 positivity is associated with a favorable outcome in OPSCC patients treated with RT and cetuximab.

  4. Usefulness of Prophylactic Percutaneous Gastrostomy Placement in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Treated with Chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Moleiro, Joana; Faias, Sandra; Fidalgo, Catarina; Serrano, Miguel; Pereira, A Dias

    2016-02-01

    Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has evolved as the preferred organ preservation strategy in the treatment of locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). This approach increases malnutrition, and thus, establishing a direct enteral feeding route is essential. To evaluate the usefulness of prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in HNC patients receiving definitive CRT, we performed a prospective evaluation of HNC patients over a 6-month period. Patients and tumor characteristics, nutritional status 30 days after PEG insertion and technique complications were evaluated. We also assessed the long-term PEG usage. Forty-seven PEGs were placed and only 2 patients did not use it. The mean time of PEG use was 131 days (4-255) and mean duration of exclusive utilization was 71 days (4-180). On 30th day after procedure, 34/45 (76 %) patients had lost weight, but only 10/45 (22 %) patients had lost more than 10 % of their initial weight. The most frequent complications were minor peristomal infections, which were correlated with proton-pump inhibitor use before PEG placement (OR 3.91, 95 % CI 1.01-15.2, and p = 0.049). One year later, 19 % of patients in remission continue needing PEG. Enteric nutritional support is essential during and after CRT in HNC patients. Most patients lost weight even with PEG. One-fifth of patients in remission required long-term PEG utilization.

  5. Trismus in head and neck cancer patients in Sweden: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joakim; van As-Brooks, Corina J; Fagerberg-Mohlin, Bodil; Finizia, Caterina

    2010-06-01

    The aim was to retrospectively investigate trismus (reduced mandible mobility) development in specified head and neck (H&N) cancer diagnosis according to different radiotherapy dosage regimens. Sixty-nine out of 246 patients with different H&N cancer diagnoses and available maximum interincisal opening (MIO) measurements before and after treatment were analyzed according to age, gender, radiation dose, tumor site and stage, and Karnofsky Performance Status Scale index. MIO was measured over time (range: 3-48 months), with a cutoff criterion for trismus of 35 mm. Overall, 42% of the patients had post-treatment MIO <35 mm, and trismus incidence was highest in patients treated for parotid gland tumors followed by those treated for nasopharyngeal cancers. The mean MIO values at baseline were significantly different (p=0.0078) between patients who developed trismus (i.e. MIO <35 mm; mean: 43 mm) and those who did not (mean: 51 mm). The trismus patients also had significantly larger tumors (p=0.0437), poorer physical function before start of treatment (p=0.0344), and had more often received a higher total tumor radiation dose (p=0.0418). This study reports a high incidence of trismus in H&N cancer patients after treatment. Furthermore, it was found that poor physical function before the start of treatment and high external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) dosages (>50 Gy) were related to significantly more trismus. Future prospective studies are needed to provide a better understanding of different risk factors associated with trismus development, the impact on health-related quality of life, and the effects of early treatment.

  6. A descriptive review of the factors contributing to nutritional compromise in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Chasen, Martin R; Bhargava, Ravi

    2009-11-01

    Malnutrition has been known to be associated with adverse outcomes in cancer patients. Patients who have been and/or are being treated for head and neck cancer have a compromised nutritional status. Nutritional deficits have a significant impact on mortality, morbidity, and quality of life. The wasting in cancer cachexia involves loss of muscle and fat and reflects a catabolic metabolism induced by an abnormal host response to tumor presence and/or tumor factors. Disturbances of various physiological functions like taste, smell, dysphagia, xerostomia apart from cachexia can contribute to long-term nutritional complications and outcome. Improved management of patients in posttreatment for head and neck cancer may require a multimodal approach by a multidisciplinary team and is best commenced earlier in the trajectory of the disease.

  7. Change of Swallowing in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer After Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the functional characteristics of swallowing and to analyze the parameters of dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Methods The medical records of 32 patients with head and neck cancer who were referred for a videofluoroscopic swallowing study from January 2012 to May 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were allocated by duration after starting CCRT into early phase (<1 month after radiation therapy) and late phase (>1 month after radiation therapy) groups. We measured the modified penetration aspiration scale (MPAS) and American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System swallowing scale (ASHA-NOMS). The oral transit time (OTT), pharyngeal delay time (PDT), and pharyngeal transit time (PTT) were recorded to assess the swallowing physiology. Results Among 32 cases, 18 cases (56%) were of the early phase. In both groups, the most common tumor site was the hypopharynx (43.75%) with a histologic type of squamous cell carcinoma (75%). PTT was significantly longer in the late phase (p=0.03). With all types of boluses, except for soup, both phases showed a statistically significant difference in MPAS results. The mean ASHA-NOMS level for the early phase was 5.83±0.78 and that for the late phase was 3.79±1.80, with statistical significance (p=0.01). The PTT and ASHA-NOMS level showed a statistically significant correlation (correlation coefficient=–0.52, p=0.02). However, it showed no relationship with the MPAS results. Conclusion The results of our study suggest that in the late phase that after CCRT, the OTT, PDT, and PTT were longer than in the early phase and the PTT prolongation was statistically significant. Therefore, swallowing therapy targeting the pharyngeal phase is recommended after CCRT. PMID:28119841

  8. Unmet needs and relationship challenges of head and neck cancer patients and their spouses.

    PubMed

    Badr, Hoda; Herbert, Krista; Reckson, Batya; Rainey, Hope; Sallam, Aminah; Gupta, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    In head and neck cancer (HNC), couple-based interventions may be useful for facilitating treatment completion, patient rehabilitation, and improving both partners' quality of life. With the goal of identifying targets for future interventions, we conducted a qualitative study to understand patient and spouse unmet needs and relationship challenges during curative radiotherapy for HNC. Semistructured interviews were conducted with six HNC patients (83% male) and six spouses (83% female) within 6 months of completing treatment. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed using grounded theory analysis. Patients and spouses identified several unmet needs including better preparation regarding the severity of physical side effects, a clearer timeline for recovery, and strategies for dealing with their own and each other's emotional reactions. Caregiver's unmet needs included balancing competing roles/responsibilities, making time for self-care, and finding effective strategies for encouraging patient's self-care. Eighty-three percent of spouses and all patients reported increased conflict during treatment. Other relationship challenges included changes in intimacy and social/leisure activities. Findings suggest that couple-based interventions that emphasize the importance of managing physical and psychological symptoms through the regular practice of self-care routines may be beneficial for both patients and spouses. Likewise, programs that teach spouses ways to effectively motivate and encourage patients' self-care may help minimize conflict and help couples navigate HNC treatment and recovery together as a team.

  9. Patients' perspective of financial benefits following head and neck cancer in Merseyside and Cheshire.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; Harvey-Woodworth, C N; Lowe, D

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this interview study was to ask patients with head and neck cancer in the Mersey region about their need for financial benefits, the advice they were given about benefits and financial matters, and the financial burden of the disease. Stratified quota sampling was by employment status, whether work had been affected by the cancer, and by sex. Of 51 interviewees (mean (SD) age 61(8) years) 20 were retired, 11 were unemployed, 13 worked full-time, and 7 worked part-time. Cancer had affected the work status of 24. Since diagnosis 57% had suffered financially; this was particularly high in those who had retired (65%), and in those whose work had been affected by cancer (79%). Quality of life had decreased in 53% as a result of the financial impact of the disease. This was most common in the unemployed (64%), and in those whose work was affected by cancer (83%). Only a quarter had been given adequate help and information about finance; this was lowest in the unemployed (18%) and highest in those who were fully employed (39%). One third (17/51) had never claimed benefits. The most common benefits were Disability Living Allowance and Incapacity Benefit. Two-thirds (21/31) had applied for benefits after diagnosis, 18 of these were directly as a result of the disease. The median (IQR) weekly income from benefits was £88 (£60-170). Patients and carers need better access to financial advice. We suggest that each multidisciplinary team should have a designated benefits or financial advisor who is readily available to patients in the clinic and on the ward.

  10. CD73 expression in lymph node metastases in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Mandapathil, Magis; Boduc, Mehtap; Netzer, Christoph; Güldner, Christian; Roessler, Marion; Wallicek-Dworschak, Ute; Jahns, Evelyn; Stuck, Boris

    2017-09-22

    CD73 is an enzyme crucial in the metabolism of immunosuppressive adenosine. In cancer, it has various functions including tumor growth and metastases. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck has an overall poor prognosis, also due to early spread of metastatic cells. Tumor and lymph node specimens of 65 patients with HNSCC were subjected to immunohistochemical and H-score analysis of CD73 expression. Demographics, diagnoses, histopathology and subsequent outcome were analyzed. The primary cancer was squamous cell carcinoma in all patients (male/female 55:10) with the following locations: oral cavity n:16, oropharynx n:28, hypopharynx n:11 and larynx n:10. H-score for CD73 expression in the primary lesion and metastatic lymph nodes was significantly higher in advanced compared to early stages with no significant differences among tumor locations. High CD73 expression was associated with reduced overall survival rates at a mean follow-up of 83.4 months (6-204 months). CD73 expression in HNSCC correlated positively with tumor stage and was associated with poor prognosis. Therefore, CD73 expression in primary lesions and regional metastases appears to predict HNSCC patients at high risk of all tumor sites. Therapeutic approaches targeting CD73 might seem promising for this patient population.

  11. Photobiomodulation therapy: management of mucosal necrosis of the oropharynx in previously treated head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Joel B; Song, Paul Y; Ho, Allen S; Larian, Babak; Asher, Arash; Bensadoun, Rene-Jean

    2017-04-01

    Necrosis of the oral mucosa following head and neck cancer radiation therapy presents considerable clinical management challenges. We report three cases of symptomatic persisting oral ulcerations where the addition of photobiomodulation therapy resulted in a rapid resolution of the oral lesions and in patient symptoms. These cases suggest that photobiomodulation may represent an adjunct to care of these difficult to manage complications in oncology.

  12. Integrative Medicine in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Matovina, Chloe; Birkeland, Andrew C; Zick, Suzanna; Shuman, Andrew G

    2017-02-01

    Objective Complementary and alternative medicine, or integrative medicine, has become increasingly popular among patients with head and neck cancer. Despite its increasing prevalence, many patients feel uncomfortable discussing such therapies with their physicians, and many physicians are unaware and underequipped to evaluate or discuss their use with patients. The aim of this article is to use recent data to outline the decision making inherent to integrative medicine utilization among patients with head and neck cancer, to discuss the ethical implications inherent to balancing integrative and conventional approaches to treatment, and to highlight available resources to enhance head and neck cancer providers' understanding of integrative medicine. Data Sources Randomized controlled trials involving integrative medicine or complementary and alternative medicine treatment for cancer patients. Review Methods Trials were drawn from a systematic PubMed database search categorized into cancer prevention, treatment, and symptom management. Conclusions Integrative medicine is gaining popularity for the management of cancer and is most commonly used for symptom management. A number of randomized controlled trials provide data to support integrative therapies, yet physicians who treat head and neck cancer may be faced with ethical dilemmas and practical barriers surrounding incorporation of integrative medicine. Implications for Practice In the management of head and neck cancer, there is an increasing demand for awareness of, dialogue about, and research evaluating integrative medicine therapies. It is important for otolaryngologists to become aware of integrative therapy options, their risks and benefits, and resources for further information to effectively counsel their patients.

  13. Nicotine dependence and smoking habits in patients with head and neck cancer*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Adriana Ávila; Bandeira, Celso Muller; Gonçalves, Antonio José; Araújo, Alberto José

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess smoking habits and nicotine dependence (ND) in patients with head and neck cancer Methods: This study involved 71 smokers or former smokers with squamous cell carcinoma in the oral cavity, pharynx, or larynx who were treated at a university hospital in the city of São Paulo between January and May of 2010. We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence to evaluate smoking habits and ND in the sample. Data regarding cancer treatment were collected from medical records. Depending on the variables studied, we used the chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, or Spearman's correlation test. Results: Of the 71 patients, 47 (66.2%) presented with high or very high ND, 40 (56.3%) smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day, and 32 (45.1%) smoked their first cigarette within 5 min of awakening. Advanced disease stage correlated significantly with the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = 0.011) and with smoking history (p = 0.047). We found that ND did not correlate significantly with gender, disease stage, smoking cessation, or number of smoking cessation attempts, nor did the number of cigarettes smoked per day correlate with smoking cessation or gender. Treatment for smoking cessation was not routinely offered. Conclusions: In most of the patients studied, the level of ND was high or very high. The prevalence of heavy smoking for long periods was high in our sample. A diagnosis of cancer is a motivating factor for smoking cessation. However, intensive smoking cessation treatment is not routinely offered to smoking patients diagnosed with cancer. PMID:25029652

  14. Epidemiology of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Among HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Carey, Thomas E.; William, William N.; Nguyen, Minh Ly; Ko, Eric C.; Riddell, James; Pai, Sara I.; Gupta, Vishal; Walline, Heather M.; Lee, J. Jack; Wolf, Gregory T.; Shin, Dong M.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Ferris, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV-infected individuals have a higher incidence of head and neck cancer. Methods Case series of 94 HIV-infected head and neck cancer patients (HIV-HNC) at six tertiary care referral centers in the US between 1991–2011. Clinical and risk factor data were abstracted from the medical record. Risk factors for survival were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard models. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and p16 testing was performed in 46 tumors. Findings were compared with SEER HNC (US-HNC) data. Results This study represents the largest HIV-HNC series reported to date. HIV-HNC cases were more likely than US-HNC to be male (91% vs. 68%), younger (median 50 vs. 62 years), non-White (49% vs.18%), and current smokers (61% vs. 18%). Median HIV-HNC survival was not appreciably lower than US-HNC survival (63 vs. 61 months). At diagnosis, most cases were currently on HAART (77%), but had detectable HIV viremia (99%) and median CD4 was 300 cells/μL (IQR=167–500). HPV was detected in 30% of HIV-HNC and 64% of HIV-oropharyngeal cases. Median survival was significantly lower among those with CD4 counts ≤200 than >200 cells/μL at diagnosis (16.1 vs. 72.8 months, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, poorer survival was associated with CD4 <100 cells/μL (aHR=3.09, 95%CI=1.15–8.30), larynx/hypopharynx site (aHR=3.54, 95%CI=1.34–9.35), and current tobacco use (aHR=2.54, 95%CI=0.96–6.76). Conclusion Risk factors for the development of HNC in patients with HIV infection are similar to the general population, including both HPV-related and tobacco/alcohol-related HNC. PMID:24326607

  15. Tumor blood flow and systemic shunting in patients receiving intraarterial chemotherapy for head and neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, R.H.; Ziessman, H.A.; Medvec, B.R.; Juni, J.E.; Thrall, J.H.; Keyes, J.W.; Pitt, S.R.; Baker, S.R.

    1986-08-01

    Radionuclide techniques have been used to estimate the systemic shunt and to quantitate blood flow to the tumor and a reference normal tissue in nine patients undergoing intraarterial chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. The systemic shunt was calculated as the percentage of pulmonary trapping of intraarterially injected /sup 99m/Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin. The mean systemic shunt in the 12 separate arteries studied was 23 +/- 13% (SE) (range 8-43%). Quantitative blood flow was determined from the slope of the washout curve of intraarterially injected /sup 133/Xe. The mean tumor blood flow was 13.6 +/- 6.7 ml/100 g/min, while the mean blood flow to the scalp was 4.2 +/- 2.1 ml/100 g/min providing a mean tumor/normal tissue ratio of 3.9 +/- 2.7. An estimate of blood flow distribution was obtained by calculating the ratio of counts/pixel in the tumor mass versus the remainder of the head as determined by single photon emission computed tomography following an intraarterial injection of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin. The mean ratio of tumor to normal tissue perfusion by this technique was 5.6 +/- 3.7. These techniques have allowed noninvasive determination of the blood flow parameters associated with intraarterial chemotherapy. At least part of the therapeutic advantage of regional chemotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer is due to a tumor/normal tissue blood flow ratio that favors drug delivery to the tumor contained within the infused volume.

  16. Head and neck cancer in transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deeb, Robert; Sharma, Saurabh; Mahan, Meredith; Al-Khudari, Samer; Hall, Francis; Yoshida, Atsushi; Schweitzer, Vanessa

    2012-07-01

    The development of malignancy in organ transplant patients is a well-known complication of long-term immunosuppressive therapy. We sought to characterize our institution's 20-year experience with head and neck cancer after solid organ transplantation. Retrospective review. Patients who underwent a solid organ transplant with subsequent development of a head and neck malignancy, including cutaneous and noncutaneous (upper aerodigestive tract and salivary gland) cancers, from January 1990 through December 2011 were identified. Patients were stratified according to cancer type, location, stage, and survival and compared to a nontransplant cohort in our institution's tumor registry. Of 95 patients identified, 17 had noncutaneous and 78 had cutaneous head and neck malignancies post-transplant. Among the noncutaneous group, no statistically significant differences occurred in age, gender, stage, or 5-year survival status when compared to the nontransplant tumor registry cohort. However, significantly fewer transplant patients were alive at 1 year. Among the cutaneous group, >50% had multiple malignancies. The total incidence of head and neck cancer following organ transplantation was 2.6%. Although the development of head and neck cancer is a rare side effect of immunosuppression, it still warrants attention. These patients have been found to be less likely to survive >1 year when compared to their nontransplant counterparts. Patients who develop head and neck malignancies following organ transplantation require aggressive screening, treatment, and follow-up, as this diagnosis may portend a poor prognosis. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Analysis of time taken to discuss new patients with head and neck cancer in multidisciplinary team meetings.

    PubMed

    Mullan, B J; Brown, J S; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N; Shaw, R J

    2014-02-01

    Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings have an important role in the management of head and neck cancer. Increasing incidence of the disease and a drive towards centralised meetings on large numbers of patients mean that effective discussions are pertinent. We aimed to evaluate new cases within a single high volume head and neck cancer MDT and to explore the relation between the time taken to discuss each case, the number of discussants, and type of case. A total of 105 patients with a new diagnosis of head and neck malignancy or complex benign tumour were discussed at 10 head and neck cancer MDT meetings. A single observer timed each discussion using a stopwatch, and recorded the number of discussants and the diagnosis and characteristics of each patient. Timings ranged from 15 to 480 s (8 min) with a mean of 119 s (2 min), and the duration of discussion correlated closely with the number of discussants (rs=0.63, p<0.001). The longest discussions concerned patients with advanced T stage (p=0.006) and advanced N stage (p=0.009) disease, the elderly (p=0.02) and male patients (p=0.05). Tumour site and histological findings were not significant factors in the duration of discussion. Most discussions on patients with early stage tumours were short (T1: 58% less than 60s, mean 90) and fewer people contributed. Many patients, particularly those with early stage disease, require little discussion, and their treatment might reasonably be planned according to an agreed protocol, which would leave more time and resources for those that require greater multidisciplinary input. Further studies may highlight extended discussions on patients with head and neck cancer, which may prompt a review of protocols and current evidence.

  18. Noncutaneous head and neck cancer in solid organ transplant patients: single center experience.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Charlotte; Lambrecht, Maarten; Nevens, Frederik; Van Raemdonck, Dirk; Vanhaecke, Johan; Kuypers, Dirk; Pirenne, Jacques; Nuyts, Sandra

    2014-04-01

    We investigated the incidence and survival of non-cutaneous head and neck cancer (HNC) after solid organ transplantation and identified prognostic factors impacting the outcome after treatment. A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent solid organ transplantation in our institution between 1987 and 2012. Of 5255 organ transplant patients, 48 recipients (0.9%) developed HNC in the posttransplant follow-up period. Liver transplant recipients showed the highest risk. Median follow-up of cancer patients was 46.7 months (range 2.9-256.2 months). Three-year overall survival and disease free survival (DFS) were 70% and 53%. Locoregional control was 67% and 48% at 3 and 5 years, respectively. Smoking and initial AJCC stage were two significant prognostic factors influencing DFS. Non-cutaneous HNC is rare in transplant recipients, but slightly more common after liver transplantation. Outcome after treatment is poor with locoregional recurrence being the main problem. Screening of high risk groups might be relevant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Supportive Management of Mucositis and Metabolic Derangements in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Marcelo; Batt, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is among the most undesirable, painful, and expensive toxicities of cytotoxic cancer therapy, and is disheartening for patients and frustrating for caregivers. Accurate assessment of the incidence of OM has been elusive, but accumulating data suggests that reported OM frequency is significantly less than its actual occurrence. It has been suggested that over 90% of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent cisplatin experience severe OM with symptoms of extreme pain, mucosal ulceration and consequent limitations in swallowing and achieving adequate nutritional intake. This panoply of symptoms inevitably impacts a patients’ quality of life and their willingness to continue treatment. In spite of all the advances made in understanding the pathophysiology of OM, there is still no prophylactic therapy with proven efficacy. Strategies to limit the extent of OM and to manage its symptomatology include basic oral care, supportive medications, nutritional support and targeting aggressive treatments to high-risk patients. This review focuses on OM recognition, preventive measurements, and symptom-management strategies. PMID:26404378

  20. Impact of Radiotherapy Dose on Dentition Breakdown in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mary P.; Wichman, Brian; Cheng, An-Lin; Coster, James; Williams, Karen B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the severity of post-radiation dental lesions and possible correlation with radiation dose to the teeth in patients treated for head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials Data from 93 head and neck radiotherapy patients treated between 1997 and 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. The main effect, radiation dose to the individual teeth, was evaluated with covariates of elapsed time after radiation, xerostomia, topical fluoride use, and oral hygiene status included. Patients’ radiotherapy plans were used to calculate cumulative exposure for each tooth. Patients’ teeth were evaluated using a validated index and then categorized as having none/slight or moderate/severe post-radiation damage. Results Patients (31 females, 62 males) ranged in age from 18–82 yrs (mean=57). The number of teeth/patient ranged from 3–30 (mean=20) with a total of 1873 teeth evaluated. Overall, 51% of teeth had moderate/severe damage, with the remaining having little or none. Using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, the odds for moderate/severe damage were 2–3x greater for teeth exposed to between 30–60 Gy as compared to no radiation. However, for teeth exposed to ≥60 Gy as compared to no radiation the odds of moderate/severe tooth damage was greater by a magnitude of 10 times. Conclusions The results indicate that there is minimal tooth damage below 30 Gy (salivary gland threshold), a greater than 1:1 increased dose-response between 30–60y likely related to salivary gland damage, and a critical threshold of ≥60Gy which may be linked to direct effects of radiation on tooth structure. These findings suggest that care should be taken during the treatment planning process to limit tooth dose, and when clinically possible to limit tooth dose to less than 60 Gy. PMID:21857887

  1. Trismus in patients with head and neck cancer: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Rapidis, A D; Dijkstra, P U; Roodenburg, J L N; Rodrigo, J P; Rinaldo, A; Strojan, P; Takes, R P; Ferlito, A

    2015-12-01

    Trismus indicates severely restricted mouth opening of any aetiology. A mouth opening of 35 mm or less should be regarded as trismus. Aim of this study was to review the etiopathogenesis, incidence, treatment and prevention of trismus in patients with head and neck cancer. Trismus is frequently seen in patients suffering from malignant tumours of the head and neck. The reported prevalence of trismus in those patients varies considerably in the literature and ranges from 0 to 100% depending on the tumour site and extension. Trismus may worsen or remain the same over time, or the symptoms may reduce, even in the absence of treatment. When a patient presents with trismus after tumour treatment, it is important to determine whether the trismus is the result of the treatment, or is the first sign of a recurrence. Restricted mouth opening may impede inspection of the oral cavity as needed for dental care, and particularly for oncologic follow-up. Mouth opening after radiotherapy (RT) decreases on average by approximately 20% compared to mouth opening prior to RT. The prevalence of trismus increases with increasing doses of RT to mastication structures. The use of intensity-modulated RT seems to lower the percentage and severity of RT-induced trismus. Treatment of trismus can be conservative (with either medical or physical therapy) or surgical. Exercise therapy is the mainstay of treatment and exercise should start as soon as possible after treatment. The prevention of trismus, rather than its treatment, is the most important objective. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Changes in and predictors of pain characteristics in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Guro Lindviksmoen; Rustøen, Tone; Miaskowski, Christine; Paul, Steven M; Bjordal, Kristin

    2015-05-01

    Pain is a common symptom in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) that is associated with significant decrements in physical and psychological functioning. Only 4 studies have evaluated for changes in and predictors of different pain characteristics in these patients. In this longitudinal study of patients with HNC, changes in pain intensity (i.e., average pain, worst pain), pain interference with function, and pain relief were evaluated from the initiation of radiotherapy and through the following 6 months. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate for changes over time in these 4 pain characteristics, as well as to identify predictors of interindividual variability in each characteristic. Overall, pain intensity and interference with function scores were in the mild-to-moderate range, while pain relief scores were in the moderate range. The occurrence of pain, as well as scores for each pain characteristic, increased from the initiation to the completion of radiotherapy, followed by a gradual decrease to near pretreatment levels at 6 months. However, interindividual variability existed in patients' ratings of each pain characteristic. Predictors of more severe pain characteristic scores were more comorbidities, worse physical functioning, not having surgery before radiotherapy, difficulty swallowing, mouth sores, sleep disturbance, fatigue, more energy, and less social support. Patients with more depressive symptoms had better pain relief. Although some of the predictors cannot be modified (e.g., rrence of surgery), other predictors (e.g., symptoms) can be treated. Therefore, information about these predictors may result in decreased pain in patients with HNC.

  3. Psychological support needs of patients with head and neck cancer and their caregivers: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Amy E; Morton, Randall; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the psychological support needs of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) and their caregivers. The appropriate timing, length, format and content of sessions were also investigated. Eighty-three patients with HNC and 73 of their caregivers completed questionnaires at diagnosis. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to patients six months later. Free text-comments to open-ended questions in the questionnaires were analysed using an inductive thematic approach with coding and theme development directed by the content of responses. This was used to determine psychological support needs both at diagnosis and at six month follow-up. Patients described 'just being there', empathy, maintaining normality and practical support as helpful from family/friends. They desired information, honesty, positivity and empathy from clinical staff. Formal psychological support was desired by approximately 40% of patients and caregivers, particularly early after diagnosis and during treatment. Most participants desired face to face sessions, providing individualised information and coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that psychological interventions for patients with HNC and their caregivers should be delivered early after diagnosis in face to face sessions, presenting honest and factual information about the disease and coping strategies.

  4. A prospective study on malnutrition and quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Manon G A; Rasmussen-Conrad, Ellen L; van Nispen, Lillian; van Binsbergen, Jaap J; Merkx, Matthias A W

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this observational prospective study in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cavity was to look into the relation between malnutrition (>or=10% unintended weight loss within 6 months) and specific quality of life (QoL) parameters longitudinally. Bodyweight and QoL were monitored in 47 patients with SCC at diagnosis, end of treatment and six months after treatment. EORTC QoLQ-C30 and H&N 35 questionnaires were used to assess QoL. Significantly lower scores on the global QoL during treatment (p=0.01) and revalidation (p=0.02) were found for patients who had lost >or=10% compared to patients with <10% loss of weight within 6 month. Patients with radiotherapy and a treatment modality of radiotherapy with surgery or chemotherapy kept their unintended weight loss until the end of treatment. Patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy are specifically susceptible to malnutrition during treatment with no improvement in body weight or QoL. Professional preventive nutritional support is therefore already required on diagnoses.

  5. The role of tumor volume in radiotherapy of patients with head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The assumption that the larger tumor contains a higher number of clonogenic cells what may deteriorate prognosis of patients treated with RT has been confirmed in many clinical studies. Significant prognostic influence of tumor volume (TV) on radiotherapy (RT) outcome has been found for tumors of different localizations including patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Although TV usually is a stronger prognostic factor than T stage, commonly used TNM classification system dose not incorporate TV data. The aim of the paper is to refresh clinical data regarding the role of TV in RT of patients with HNC. At present somehow new meaning of TV could be employed in the aspect of modern RT techniques and combined treatment strategies. For larger TV more aggressive treatment options may be considered. In modern RT techniques escalated dose could be provided highly conformal or RT can be combined with systemic treatment increasing therapeutic ratio. In the study several reports estimating prognostic value of TV for patients with HNC treated with RT has been reviewed. Due to substantially various reported groups of patients as to tumor site, stage of disease or treatment strategies, precise cut-off value could not be establish in general, but the significant association between TV and treatment outcome had been found in almost all studies. There is a strong suggestion that TV should supplement clinical decision in the choice of optimal treatment strategy for patients with HNC. PMID:24423415

  6. Institutional Clinical Trial Accrual Volume and Survival of Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wuthrick, Evan J.; Zhang, Qiang; Machtay, Mitchell; Rosenthal, David I.; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Fortin, André; Silverman, Craig L.; Raben, Adam; Kim, Harold E.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Read, Nancy E.; Harris, Jonathan; Wu, Qian; Le, Quynh-Thu; Gillison, Maura L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines recommend patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) receive treatment at centers with expertise, but whether provider experience affects survival is unknown. Patients and Methods The effect of institutional experience on overall survival (OS) in patients with stage III or IV HNC was investigated within a randomized trial of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG 0129), which compared cisplatin concurrent with standard versus accelerated fractionation radiotherapy. As a surrogate for experience, institutions were classified as historically low- (HLACs) or high-accruing centers (HHACs) based on accrual to 21 RTOG HNC trials (1997 to 2002). The effect of accrual volume on OS was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. Results Median RTOG accrual (1997 to 2002) at HLACs was four versus 65 patients at HHACs. Analysis included 471 patients in RTOG 0129 (2002 to 2005) with known human papillomavirus and smoking status. Patients at HLACs versus HHACs had better performance status (0: 62% v 52%; P = .04) and lower T stage (T4: 26.5% v 35.3%; P = .002) but were otherwise similar. Radiotherapy protocol deviations were higher at HLACs versus HHACs (18% v 6%; P < .001). When compared with HHACs, patients at HLACs had worse OS (5 years: 51.0% v 69.1%; P = .002). Treatment at HLACs was associated with increased death risk of 91% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.91; 95% CI, 1.37 to 2.65) after adjustment for prognostic factors and 72% (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.23 to 2.40) after radiotherapy compliance adjustment. Conclusion OS is worse for patients with HNC treated at HLACs versus HHACs to cooperative group trials after accounting for radiotherapy protocol deviations. Institutional experience substantially influences survival in locally advanced HNC. PMID:25488965

  7. Smoking Status and Pain Level Among Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta L.; Fillingim, Roger B.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Sandow, Pamela; Tomar, Scott L.; Werning, John W.; Mendenhall, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract with recidivism rates high even after diagnosis. Nicotine, a major product in tobacco, is a complex drug with multiple characteristics including analalgesic properties. The goal of the study was to examine pain levels in the context of smoking status among patients recently diagnosed with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract who have not yet received any treatment including radiation, surgery, or chemotherapy. A convenience sample of 112 newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients (78 men and 34 women) were recruited from clinics at the University of Florida. Smoking rates were: 32% never smoked, 34% former smokers, 34% current smokers. Among current smokers, 62% reported plans to quit in the next 3 months and 38% had tried to quit more than three times in the past 5 years. Current smokers reported higher general (sensory and affective) and oral pain levels (spontaneous and functional) and pain-related interference than did never and former smokers (all F’s >8. and p’s <.0001) even after controlling for stage of diagnosis. In addition, current smokers reported significantly greater interference from the pain (F2,73=10.5 p<.0001). Perspective This study highlights the importance of understanding self-reported pain in cancer patients who continue to smoke. When pain is elevated, smokers may be motivated to use tobacco as a means of reducing pain, which in turn reinforces smoking behavior. Tobacco cessation programs should include pain management as a component of treatment. PMID:20015696

  8. Impact of Pretreatment Body Mass Index on Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer Treated With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Pai, Ping-Ching; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Chang, Kai-Ping; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Hong, Ji-Hong; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association of pretreatment body mass index (preT BMI) with outcomes of head-and-neck cancer in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: All 1,562 patients diagnosed with head-and-neck cancer and treated with curative-intent RT to a dose of 60 Gy or higher were retrospectively studied. Body weight was measured both at entry and at the end of RT. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant metastasis (DM) were analyzed by preT BMI (<25 kg/m{sup 2} vs. {>=}25 kg/m{sup 2}). The median follow-up was 8.6 years. Results: Patients with lower preT BMI were statistically significantly associated with poorer CSS and OS than those with higher preT BMI. There was no significant difference between preT BMI groups in terms of LRC and DM. Body weight loss (BWL) during radiation did not influence survival outcomes. However, in the group with higher preT BMI, CSS, OS, and DM-free survival of patients with less BWL during radiation were statistically longer when compared with greater BWL. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that higher preT BMI positively influenced survival outcomes for patients with head-and-neck cancer. Patients with higher preT BMI who were able to maintain their weight during radiation had significantly better survival than patients with greater BWL.

  9. Nutritional counselling and oral nutritional supplements in head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Valentini, V; Marazzi, F; Bossola, M; Miccichè, F; Nardone, L; Balducci, M; Dinapoli, N; Bonomo, P; Autorino, R; Silipigni, S; Giuliani, F; Tamanti, C; Mele, M C; Martorana, G E

    2012-06-01

    The role of nutritional counselling (NC) with or without oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) still remains to be clearly defined, particularly with regard to CRT-related toxicity. Patients undergoing CRT for HNC received NC by the dietitian within the first 4 days of radiotherapy and weekly for the course of radiotherapy (approximately 6 weeks). A weekly supply of oral nutrition supplements [1560 kJ (373 kcal) per 100 g] for up to 3 months was provided to all patients. Twenty-one patients completed CRT. Mucositis G3 developed in seven (33.3%) patients, whereas mucositis G4 was absent. Dysphagia was present before the start of treatment in four patients. In the remaining 17 patients, dysphagia G3 developed during/at the end of treatment in five cases. The percentage of patients interrupting anti-neoplastic treatment for was 28% for ≥6 days, 28% for 3-5 days and 44% for 0-2 days. Mucositis G3 frequency was lower in patients with a baseline body mass index (BMI, kg m(-2) ) ≥25 (two out of 12; 16.6%) than in patients with BMI <25 (five out of nine; 55.5%) (P = 0.161) and in patients with a baseline mid arm circumference >30 cm than in those with a mid arm circumference in the range 28.1-30 cm and <28 cm, and higher in patients with a greater weight loss and a greater reduction of serum albumin and mid arm circumference. Nutritional counselling and ONS are associated with relatively low CRT-related toxicity and with mild deterioration of nutritional parameters. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2012 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  10. Endoscopic surveillance of head and neck cancer in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Minoru; Ishihara, Ryu; Hamada, Kenta; Tonai, Yusuke; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Matsuura, Noriko; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Multiple squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) frequently arise in the upper aerodigestive tract, referred to as the field cancerization phenomenon. The aim of this study was to elucidate the detailed clinical features of second primary head and neck (H&N) SCCs arising in patients with esophageal SCC. Patients and methods: A total of 818 patients underwent endoscopic resection for superficial esophageal cancer between January 2006 and December 2013. Of these, 439 patients met our inclusion criteria, and we retrospectively investigated the incidence, primary sites, and stages of second primary H&N SCCs in these patients. Results: A total of 53 metachronous H&N SCCs developed in 40 patients after a median follow-up period of 46 months (range 9 – 109). The cumulative incidence rates of metachronous H&N SCCs at 3, 5, and 7 years were 5.3 %, 9.7 %, and 17.2 %, respectively. These lesions were frequently located at pyriform sinus or in the posterior wall of the pharynx (70 %, 37/53 lesions). Most of the lesions were detected at an early stage, though 4 lesions were associated with lymph node metastasis when their primary sites were detected (1 postcricoid area, 2 posterior wall of hypopharynx, and 1 lateral wall of oropharynx). Conclusions: Patients with esophageal SCC should undergo careful inspection of the pyriform sinus and posterior wall of the pharynx for detection of H&N SCCs. Methods to open the hypopharyngeal space, such as the Valsalva maneuver, should be included in the surveillance program. PMID:27556090

  11. Innate tissue fluorescence of the oral mucosa of controls and head-and-neck cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Howard E.; Kolli, Venkateswara; Ansley, John; Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y.; Alfano, Robert R.; Schantz, Stimson P.

    1995-04-01

    Base line spectral excitation and emission scans were defined for the oral mucosa in a population of 61 controls, 16 oral tongue cancer patients and 2 patients with tongue leukoplakia. A xenon-based fluorescence spectrophotometer (Mediscience Corp.) with a fiberoptic probe (Mediscience Corp.) was used to collect excitation and emission spectra. Two excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm; (lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm) and two emission scans ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm; (lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360-660 nm) were used to analyze the buccal mucosa (BM), hard palate (HP), floor of mouth (FOM) and dorsal tongue (DT) of 61 control individuals. In 41 controls the lateral tongue site (LT) was added. The same set of scans was performed on tumor lesions and contralateral normal tissues of 16 patients with lateral tongue tumors and on two individuals with leukoplakia of the tongue. Ratios of points on the individual scans were used to quantitate data. The excitation scan ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm) and the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm) were able to statistically discriminate the HP and DT from the BM and FOM. The ratios of intensities of neoplastic mucosa and contralateral sites were significantly different with the excitation scans ((lambda) Ex 200-360 nm, (lambda) Em 380 nm, p < 0.001) and ((lambda) Ex 240-430 nm, (lambda) Em 450 nm, p < 0.01) and with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 300 nm, (lambda) Em 320-580 nm, p < 0.001). Discrimination was significant with the emission scan ((lambda) Ex 340 nm, (lambda) Em 360- 660 nm, p < 0.07). Innate tissue fluorescence has potential as a monitor of cancer patients and populations at risk for head and neck cancer.

  12. Long-term prevalence of oropharyngeal dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients: Impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    García-Peris, P; Parón, L; Velasco, C; de la Cuerda, C; Camblor, M; Bretón, I; Herencia, H; Verdaguer, J; Navarro, C; Clave, P

    2007-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. To study the impact of dysphagia on food habits, nutritional status, and quality of life. Retrospective cross-sectional study of 87 head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy from January 2000 through May 2005. Time since surgery was 28.5+/-17.8 months. A clinical test was used to detect dysphagia. A nutritional assessment was performed in all patients. A questionnaire was used to evaluate quality of life. Oropharyngeal dysphagia was present in 50.6% of patients, mostly to solid foods (72.4%). Patients with total glossectomy and chemoradiotherapy had the highest rate of dysphagia. Nutritional support was necessary in 57.1% of patients. Malnutrition was present in 20.3% of patients, mainly marasmus (81%). Fifty-one percent of patients reported a decrease in their quality of life due to dysphagia. We found a high prevalence of dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients treated with surgery and coadjuvant treatment. This problem negatively affects their quality of life. It is important that nutritional surveillance be provided to detect it and to prevent malnutrition.

  13. Comparing dysphagia therapy in head and neck cancer patients in Australia with international healthcare systems.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nadine; Krisciunas, Gintas P; Langmore, Susan E; Castellano, Kerlly; Sokoloff, William; Hayatbakhsh, Reza

    2017-04-01

    The Australian healthcare system has invested heavily in multidisciplinary cancer care teams. Despite such investments, guidelines that clearly delineate standard of care dysphagia treatment are lacking and services provided to Head and Neck Cancer (HNC) patients are not always consistent. There is little consensus regarding the frequency and intensity of dysphagia therapy. This is largely due to a lack of well-designed clinical trials that establish the efficacy of any dysphagia therapy in this patient population. The aim of this study was to evaluate HNC dysphagia therapy patterns among Australian speech-language pathologists (SLPs). A 22 question internet-based survey was administered to a web-based professional interest group. Results were analysed by institution type and individual clinical experience. A response rate of 46% was achieved (67 out of 144 surveyed). This survey identified several aspects of dysphagia management that were provided uniformly in addition to many aspects of care that showed a lack of consensus. By comparing the results of this survey with existing international best-evidence treatment guidelines, the development of uniform Australian guidelines may be facilitated. However, more authoritative data on dysphagia treatment efficacy is needed to provide uniform evidence-based HNC dysphagia treatment guidelines.

  14. Baseline depression predicts malnutrition in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Britton, Ben; Clover, Kerrie; Bateman, Lorna; Odelli, Cathy; Wenham, Karen; Zeman, Annette; Carter, Gregory Leigh

    2012-02-01

    Poor nutritional status is common and associated with mortality and morbidity in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). While there are several established clinical risk factors for poor nutritional status during HNC radiotherapy, the complete aetiology is not known. The association of malnutrition with psychological factors has been recognised in other chronic illnesses but has not been studied in HNC patients who have higher levels of malnutrition and psychological disorder than many other patient populations. Patients with HNC were assessed at three time points: week 1 of radiotherapy treatment (T1, n = 72), end of radiotherapy treatment (T2, n = 64) and 4 weeks post-radiotherapy treatment (T3, n = 58). Nutritional outcome was measured using the Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment, and psychological factors measured were depression, anxiety and adjustment style. Linear mixed models indicated that a model containing the variables time, tumour site and baseline depression best explained malnutrition at T2 and T3 (-2 restricted log likelihood = 695.42). The clinical risk factors: cancer stage, number of radiotherapy fractionations, a PEG feeding tube, availability of a care giver and dietitian's informal clinical assessment did not predict later nutritional status. Depression is a modifiable risk factor for malnutrition among HNC patients undergoing radiation therapy, offering the potential to ameliorate malnutrition in this group. While the nature of any causal relationship between depression and malnutrition in HNC is yet to be understood, the utility of a short depression screen in predicting malnutrition has been demonstrated and could be adopted in clinical practice.

  15. Enhanced patient reported outcome measurement suitable for head and neck cancer follow-up clinics.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Naseem; Lowe, Derek; Rogers, Simon N

    2012-06-13

    The 'Worse-Stable-Better' (W-S-B) question was introduced to capture patient-perceived change in University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) domains. 202 head and neck cancer patients in remission prospectively completed UW-QOL and Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI). For each UW-QOL domain, patients indicated whether over the last month things had worsened (W), remained stable (S) or were better (B). 202 patients at 448 attendances selected 1752 PCI items they wanted to discuss in consultation, and 58% (1024/1752) of these were not covered by the UW-QOL. UW-QOL algorithms highlighted another 440 significant problems that the patient did not want to discuss (i.e. the corresponding items on the PCI were not selected).After making allowance for UW-QOL algorithms to identify 'significant problems' and PCI selection of corresponding issues for discussion there remained clear residual and notable variation in W-S-B responses, in particular to identify patients with significant problems that were getting worse, and patients without significant problems that wanted to discuss issues that were getting worse. Changes in mean UW-QOL scores were notably lower for those getting worse on the W-S-B question, typically by 10 or more units a magnitude that suggests clinically important changes in score. The W-S-B question adds little questionnaire burden and could help to better identify patients who might benefit from intervention. The results of this study suggest that the UW-QOL with the W-S-B modification should be used together with the PCI to allow optimal identification of issues for patient-clinician discussion during routine outpatient clinics.

  16. Enhanced patient reported outcome measurement suitable for head and neck cancer follow-up clinics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The ‘Worse-Stable-Better’ (W-S-B) question was introduced to capture patient-perceived change in University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) domains. Methods 202 head and neck cancer patients in remission prospectively completed UW-QOL and Patients Concerns Inventory (PCI). For each UW-QOL domain, patients indicated whether over the last month things had worsened (W), remained stable (S) or were better (B). Results 202 patients at 448 attendances selected 1752 PCI items they wanted to discuss in consultation, and 58% (1024/1752) of these were not covered by the UW-QOL. UW-QOL algorithms highlighted another 440 significant problems that the patient did not want to discuss (i.e. the corresponding items on the PCI were not selected). After making allowance for UW-QOL algorithms to identify 'significant problems' and PCI selection of corresponding issues for discussion there remained clear residual and notable variation in W-S-B responses, in particular to identify patients with significant problems that were getting worse, and patients without significant problems that wanted to discuss issues that were getting worse. Changes in mean UW-QOL scores were notably lower for those getting worse on the W-S-B question, typically by 10 or more units a magnitude that suggests clinically important changes in score. Conclusions The W-S-B question adds little questionnaire burden and could help to better identify patients who might benefit from intervention. The results of this study suggest that the UW-QOL with the W-S-B modification should be used together with the PCI to allow optimal identification of issues for patient-clinician discussion during routine outpatient clinics. PMID:22695251

  17. Long-term hearing loss after chemoradiation in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Theunissen, Eleonoor A R; Zuur, Charlotte L; Bosma, Sophie C J; Lopez-Yurda, Marta; Hauptmann, Michael; van der Baan, Sieberen; de Boer, Jan Paul; van der Molen, Lisette; Rasch, Coen R N; Dreschler, Wouter A; Balm, Alfons J M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether concomitant chemoradiation (CCRT)-induced hearing loss is progressive over time or not. Long-term (LT) follow-up study. Between 1999 and 2004, 158 patients with head and neck cancer were treated with intravenous (IV) CCRT (n = 80) or intraarterial CCRT (n = 78). Audiometry was performed before, short-term (ST), and LT posttreatment. Differences in hearing were assessed with a multivariable linear regression analysis, incorporating the effect of aging. Long-term audiometry (median 4.5 years) was available in 67 patients (42%). At ST follow-up, a deterioration of 21.6 decibel was seen compared to baseline at pure-tone averages (PTA) 8-10-12.5 kHz. At LT follow-up, this deterioration further increased with 5 decibel (P = 0.005). Only in CCRT-IV patients was a significant progressive treatment-induced hearing loss seen, at PTA 8-10-12.5 kHz (P = 0.005), PTA 1-2-4 kHz air conduction (P = 0.014), and PTA 0.5-1-2 kHz bone conduction (P = 0.045). CCRT-induced hearing impairment was progressive over time, especially in higher frequencies and only in CCRT-IV patients, with a modest deterioration of 5 decibel 4.5 years post-treatment. 4. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Self-image of the Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Mixed Method Research.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Shalini G; Pai, Mamatha Shivananda; George, Linu Sara

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the self-image of the patients with head and neck cancers (HNCs) by using a mixed method research. A mixed method approach and triangulation design was used with the aim of assessing the self-image of the patients with HNCs. Data was gathered by using self-administered self-image scale and structured interview. Nested sampling technique was adopted. Sample size for quantitative approach was 54 and data saturation was achieved with seven subjects for qualitative approach. Institutional Ethical Committee clearance was obtained. The results of the study showed that 30 (56%) subjects had positive self-image and 24 (44%) had negative self-image. There was a moderate positive correlation between body image and integrity (r = 0.430, P = 0.001), weak positive correlation between body image and self-esteem (r = 0.270, P = 0.049), and no correlation between self-esteem and integrity (r = 0.203, P = 0.141). The participants also scored maximum (24/24) in the areas of body image and self-esteem. Similar findings were also observed in the phenomenological approach. The themes evolved were immaterial of outer appearance and desire of good health to all. The illness is long-term and impacts the individual 24 h a day. Understanding patients' self-concept and living experiences of patients with HNC is important for the health care professionals to improve the care.

  19. Pretreatment Quality of Life Predicts for Locoregional Control in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Pajak, Thomas F.; Watkins-Bruner, Deborah; Konski, Andre A.; Coyne, James C.; Gwede, Clement K.; Garden, Adam S.; Spencer, Sharon A.; Jones, Christopher; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prospectively collected health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) data from patients enrolled in two Radiation Therapy Oncology Group randomized Phase III head and neck cancer trials (90-03 and 91-11) to assess their value as an independent prognostic factor for locoregional control (LRC) and/or overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: HRQOL questionnaires, using a validated instrument, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H and N), version 2, were completed by patients before the start of treatment. OS and LRC were the outcome measures analyzed using a multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Baseline FACT-H and N data were available for 1,093 patients and missing for 417 patients. No significant difference in outcome was found between the patients with and without baseline FACT-H and N data (p = 0.58). The median follow-up time was 27.2 months for all patients and 49 months for surviving patients. Multivariate analyses were performed for both OS and LRC. Beyond tumor and nodal stage, Karnofsky performance status, primary site, cigarette use, use of concurrent chemotherapy, and altered fractionation schedules, the FACT-H and N score was independently predictive of LRC (but not OS), with p = 0.0038. The functional well-being component of the FACT-H and N predicted most significantly for LRC (p = 0.0004). Conclusions: This study represents, to our knowledge, the largest analysis of HRQOL as a prognostic factor in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients. The results of this study have demonstrated the importance of baseline HRQOL as a significant and independent predictor of LRC in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.

  20. Calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic radiographs of head and neck cancer patients before and after radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Markman, Renata-Lucena; Conceição-Vasconcelos, Karina-Gondim-Moutinho; Brandão, Thais-Bianca; Prado-Ribeiro, Ana-Carolina; Santos-Silva, Alan-Roger

    2017-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to verify if head and neck radiotherapy (RT) is able to induce calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in a large head and neck cancer (HNC) population and also to compare the socio-demographic and clinical findings of patients with and without CCAA detected on panoramic radiographs. Material and Methods Panoramic radiographs taken before and after head and neck radiotherapy (RT) of 180 HNC patients were selected and analyzed in order to identify the presence of CCAA. In addition, CCAA presence or absence on panoramic radiographs were compared and correlated with clinicopathological findings. Results A high overall prevalence of CCAA was found on panoramic radiographs (63 out of 180 = 35%) of HNC patients. No significant difference of CCAA before and after RT was observed. There were also no differences between groups (with and without CCAA) regarding age, gender, tobacco and alcohol use, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction, hypercholesterolemia, tumor location, clinical stage of disease and RT dose. However, there was a greater prevalence of strokes in patients with CCAA (p<0.05). Conclusions Although CCAA were frequently found in panoramic radiographs of patients with HNC, RT seems not to alter the prevalence of these calcifications. Key words:Head and neck cancer, radiotherapy, carotid artery diseases, panoramic radiography. PMID:28160583

  1. Compliance to radiation therapy of head and neck cancer patients and impact on treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, B C; Sá-Couto, P; Lopes, M C; Khouri, L

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate head and neck cancer (HNC) patient's compliance to the planned radiation therapy (RT) using the department policy established in 2005 at IPOCFG and to estimate the impact on treatment outcome due to failure in receiving RT as prescribed. 359 HNC patients irradiated from 2007 to 2013 were included in this study. Patient cohort was divided into Group 1: patients receiving RT as prescribed and Group 2: patients that interrupted or suspended RT. Group Tox is the subgroup of patients that interrupted RT due to toxicity or intercurrent disease. Number and causes for treatment interruptions were assessed. The cumulative incidence of locoregional control (LRC), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival for Groups 1 and 2 was determined. Cox regression was performed to investigate potential hazard factors and logistic regression was made to determine risk factors related to treatment interruptions. Major causes for treatment interruptions were toxicity plus intercurrent disease (41.7 %) and public holidays (30.1 %). 10.3 % of the patients interrupted 3-9 days. Significant differences in survival distributions of the LRC between Groups 1 and 2, of up to 19 %, were found in the subgroup of patients with N2-3 tumours, for post-operative RT and for concomitant RT. Treatment breaks larger than two days had an almost fourfold increased risk of poorer LRC and DFS. Twin accelerators and treating on public holidays are effective measures minimizing RT breaks. For HNC, patient compliance is mostly limited by RT side-effects. Efforts to maintain RT biological effective dose in HNC must be always undertaken.

  2. Perioperative arginine-supplemented nutrition in malnourished patients with head and neck cancer improves long-term survival.

    PubMed

    Buijs, Nikki; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Langius, Jacqueline A E; Leemans, C Rene; Kuik, Dirk J; Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-11-01

    Plasma arginine concentrations are lower in patients with cancer, which indicates that arginine metabolism may be disturbed in these patients. Arginine supplementation has been associated with positive effects on antitumor mechanisms and has been shown to reduce tumor growth and to prolong survival. Furthermore, the prognosis of patients with head and neck cancer remains disappointing. Insufficient intake frequently leads to malnutrition, which contributes to high morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term effects of perioperative arginine supplementation in severely malnourished patients with head and neck cancer. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we randomly assigned 32 severely malnourished patients with head and neck cancer to receive 1) standard perioperative enteral nutrition (n = 15) or 2) arginine-supplemented perioperative enteral nutrition (n = 17). The primary outcome was long-term (≥10 y) survival. Secondary outcomes included the long-term appearance of locoregional recurrence, distant metastases, and second primary tumors. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were observed between groups. The group receiving arginine-enriched nutrition had a significantly better overall survival (P = 0.019) and better disease-specific survival (P = 0.022). Furthermore, the arginine-supplemented group had a significantly better locoregional recurrence-free survival (P = 0.027). No significant difference in the occurrence of distant metastases or occurrence of a second primary tumor was observed between the groups. Perioperative arginine-enriched enteral nutrition significantly improved the long-term overall survival and long-term disease-specific survival in malnourished patients with head and neck cancer.

  3. Post-operative pain management in head and neck cancer patients: predictive factors and efficacy of therapy.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, C; Malagò, M; Crema, L; Aimoni, C; Matarazzo, T; Bortolazzi, S; Ciorba, A; Pelucchi, S; Pastore, A

    2016-04-01

    There is increasing interest about all aspects of pain sensation for patients undergoing head and neck surgery, and efforts have been made to better assess, monitor and reduce the occurrence of pain. The aetiology of pain is considered to be "multifactorial", as it is defined by several features such as personal experience, quality perception, location, intensity and emotional impact. The aim of this paper is: (i) to evaluate the efficacy of analgesic treatment in patients with head and neck cancer treated by surgery, and (ii) to study the variables and predictive factors that can influence the occurrence of pain. A total of 164 patients, affected by head and neck cancer and surgically treated, between December 2009 and December 2013, were included in this study. Data collected include age, gender, assessment of anaesthetic risk, tumour localisation, pathological cancer stage, TNM stage, type of surgery performed, complexity and duration of surgery, post-operative complications, postoperative days of hospital stay and pain evaluation on days 0, 1, 3 and 5 post-surgery. We studied the appropriateness of analgesic therapy in terms of incidence and prevalence of post-operative pain; we also related pain to patient characteristics, disease and surgical treatment to determine possible predictive factors. The population studied received adequate pain control through analgesic therapy immediately post-surgery and in the following days. No associations between gender, age and post-operative pain were found, whereas pathological cancer stage, complexity of surgery and tumour site were significantly associated with the risk of post-operative pain. Adequate pain control is essential in oncological patients, and particularly in head and neck cancer patients as the prevalence of pain in this localisation is reported to be higher than in other anatomical sites. Improved comprehension of the biological and psychological factors that characterise pain perception will help to

  4. Symptom burden and patient characteristics: Association with quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Guro Lindviksmoen; Rustøen, Tone; Hofsø, Kristin; Gran, Jon Michael; Bjordal, Kristin

    2017-10-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) experience diminished quality of life (QOL) during and after treatment. This study examined which characteristics were associated with QOL over time. One hundred thirty-three patients with HNC from a study of 534 oncology patients rated physical and mental QOL using the Short Form-12 5 times from the initiation of radiotherapy (RT) through the following 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses examined changes over time and associated characteristics. The QOL deteriorated during RT and gradually improved after completion. Less social support was negatively associated with both physical and mental QOL. Older age, more comorbidities, more psychological symptoms, and concomitant chemotherapy (CTX) were negatively associated with physical QOL. Male sex, less physical symptoms, surgery before RT, and concomitant chemotherapy were positively associated with mental QOL. Clinicians can use knowledge on time course and associated characteristics to identify and inform patients at higher risk for diminished QOL. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison of Two Types of Meditation on Patients' Psychosocial Responses During Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Boxleitner, Gisela; Jolie, Shelley; Shaffer, Dana; Pasacreta, Nicholas; Bai, Mei; McCorkle, Ruth

    2017-05-01

    Radiation treatment for head and neck cancer introduces adaptive demands and subjects patients to significant and unique psychosocial challenges. There is growing evidence that meditation is useful in lessening anxiety and depression in cancer patients. This study compared the effects of two types of meditation training on the psychological responses of patients with head and neck cancer during radiation therapy. Randomized clinical trial. Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale New Haven. A total of 29 patients with head and neck cancers were recruited and 28 patients were followed during their radiation therapy over 12 weeks. Depending on their group assignment, patients were taught one of two standardized meditations: meditation with a coach or self-meditation with a CD. Patient psychosocial responses were defined as anxiety, depression, and emotional distress and were measured by the Hospital and Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and the Emotional Distress Thermometer. Measures were self-reported and collected by the nurse manager at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks during the patient's scheduled weekly visit. No significant mean differences were found between the two meditation groups on all three outcomes: anxiety, depression, and emotional distress. Patients in both the meditation with a coach and self-meditation with a CD groups reported less distress from baseline and at 6 and 12 weeks, as evidenced by the HADS anxiety scale. This study demonstrated two equally effective meditation techniques that can be implemented with patients experiencing high stress during radiation treatments in any health care setting to decrease patient anxiety, depression, and emotional distress. The data established self-meditation with a CD as a more cost-effective alternative to meditation with a coach, which requires intensive training and time commitment for patients.

  6. Optimizing Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination in Patients With Oropharyngeal Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Garand, Kendrea L. (Focht); McFarland, David

    2017-01-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) represents the highest functional morbidity in oropharyngeal (OP) head and neck (HNC) treated either with surgical approaches followed by radiation or with more recent organ preservation protocols, including combined chemotherapy and radiation. Despite the promising overall increasing survival rates, swallowing impairments remain chronic, are often resistant to traditional swallowing therapy, and have devastating consequences on health and well-being. The respiratory-swallow cross-system approach presented here extends beyond traditional swallowing interventions that commonly targets muscles and structures alone, and is instead, directed toward the re-establishment of optimal respiratory-swallowing coordination. Results from our work investigating a respiratory-swallow treatment (RST) paradigm is presented, including results from an RST clinical trial in HNC patients, primarily with OP cancers, with chronic and with intractable dysphagia post-cancer and post-traditional swallowing treatment. Future work will investigate the impact of RST on the degree and durability of clinical outcomes, including oral intake and quality of life, while also examining the potential added benefits of a home practice program that uses a commercially available and easy to use recording and analysis hardware and software. PMID:28884146

  7. Optimizing Respiratory-Swallowing Coordination in Patients With Oropharyngeal Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Garand, Kendrea L Focht; McFarland, David

    2017-07-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) represents the highest functional morbidity in oropharyngeal (OP) head and neck (HNC) treated either with surgical approaches followed by radiation or with more recent organ preservation protocols, including combined chemotherapy and radiation. Despite the promising overall increasing survival rates, swallowing impairments remain chronic, are often resistant to traditional swallowing therapy, and have devastating consequences on health and well-being. The respiratory-swallow cross-system approach presented here extends beyond traditional swallowing interventions that commonly targets muscles and structures alone, and is instead, directed toward the re-establishment of optimal respiratory-swallowing coordination. Results from our work investigating a respiratory-swallow treatment (RST) paradigm is presented, including results from an RST clinical trial in HNC patients, primarily with OP cancers, with chronic and with intractable dysphagia post-cancer and post-traditional swallowing treatment. Future work will investigate the impact of RST on the degree and durability of clinical outcomes, including oral intake and quality of life, while also examining the potential added benefits of a home practice program that uses a commercially available and easy to use recording and analysis hardware and software.

  8. Accurate positioning for head and neck cancer patients using 2D and 3D image guidance

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyejoo; Lovelock, Dale M.; Yorke, Ellen D.; Kriminiski, Sergey; Lee, Nancy; Amols, Howard I.

    2011-01-01

    Our goal is to determine an optimized image-guided setup by comparing setup errors determined by two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) image guidance for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients immobilized by customized thermoplastic masks. Nine patients received weekly imaging sessions, for a total of 54, throughout treatment. Patients were first set up by matching lasers to surface marks (initial) and then translationally corrected using manual registration of orthogonal kilovoltage (kV) radiographs with DRRs (2D-2D) on bony anatomy. A kV cone beam CT (kVCBCT) was acquired and manually registered to the simulation CT using only translations (3D-3D) on the same bony anatomy to determine further translational corrections. After treatment, a second set of kVCBCT was acquired to assess intrafractional motion. Averaged over all sessions, 2D-2D registration led to translational corrections from initial setup of 3.5 ± 2.2 (range 0–8) mm. The addition of 3D-3D registration resulted in only small incremental adjustment (0.8 ± 1.5 mm). We retrospectively calculated patient setup rotation errors using an automatic rigid-body algorithm with 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) on regions of interest (ROI) of in-field bony anatomy (mainly the C2 vertebral body). Small rotations were determined for most of the imaging sessions; however, occasionally rotations > 3° were observed. The calculated intrafractional motion with automatic registration was < 3.5 mm for eight patients, and < 2° for all patients. We conclude that daily manual 2D-2D registration on radiographs reduces positioning errors for mask-immobilized HNC patients in most cases, and is easily implemented. 3D-3D registration adds little improvement over 2D-2D registration without correcting rotational errors. We also conclude that thermoplastic masks are effective for patient immobilization. PMID:21330971

  9. Coping strategies predict post-traumatic stress in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Amy E; Morton, Randall P; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) are susceptible to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, research is yet to examine predictors of PTSD symptoms in this patient group. The objective of this study was to investigate whether coping strategies at HNC diagnosis were related to outcomes of post-traumatic stress and health-related quality of life (HRQL) 6 months later. Sixty-five patients with HNC completed an assessment of coping, distress, and health-related quality of life at diagnosis and again 6 months later, and an assessment of post-traumatic stress at 6 months. Correlations and regression analyses were performed to examine relationships between coping and outcomes over time. Regression analyses showed that denial, behavioural disengagement and self-blame at diagnosis predicted post-traumatic stress symptoms. Self-blame at diagnosis also predicted poor HRQL. Results have implications for the development of psychological interventions that provide alternative coping strategies to potentially reduce PTSD symptoms and improve HRQL.

  10. Feasibility of tongue strength measurements during (chemo)radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Vanderwegen, Jan; Van Gestel, Dirk; Daisne, Jean-François; Allouche, Johan; Delacroix, Laurence; Van Rompaey, Diane; Beauvois, Sylvie; Cvilic, Sophie; Mariën, Steven; Desuter, Gauthier; Vermorken, Jan Baptist; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Chantrain, Gilbert; Lawson, Georges; Lazarus, Cathy; De Bodt, Marc; Van Nuffelen, Gwen

    2017-06-02

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of tongue strength measures (TSMs) and the influence of bulb location, sex, and self-perceived pain and mucositis in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients during chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Twenty-six newly diagnosed HNC patients treated with CRT performed anterior and posterior maximal isometric tongue pressures by means of the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI). The Oral Mucositis Weekly Questionnaire (OMWQ) and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain during swallowing were completed weekly from baseline to 1 week post CRT. Feasibility of TSMs during CRT declines significantly from 96 to 100% at baseline to 46% after 6 weeks of CRT. But post-hoc analyses reveal only significant differences in feasibility between baseline and measurements after 4 weeks of treatment. No effect of gender or bulb location was established, but feasibility is influenced by pain and mucositis. Feasibility of TSMs declines during CRT and is influenced by mucositis and pain. For the majority of subjects, TSMs were feasible within the first 4 weeks, which provides a window of scientific and clinical opportunities in this patient population.

  11. Confounding factors associated with oral mucositis assessment in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yih-Lin; Pui, Newman N M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify patient-centered, mucositis-associated adverse impact factors and events that might confound physician-assessed oral mucositis (OM) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving chemoradiotherapy. This was a post hoc analysis of a previously conducted randomized trial to determine the efficacy of 5% phenylbutyrate mouthwash in preventing chemoradiotherapy-induced OM. This analysis identified patient-centered symptomatic, observable, and measurable factors that may confound physician scoring of the severity of OM during chemoradiotherapy. Confounding factors were then combined with physician-rated OM scores according to World Health Organization (WHO) and OM Assessment Scale (OMAS) criteria to investigate the therapeutic implications of OM treatment. The original analysis found no significant differences between experimental and placebo groups with respect to the cumulative incidence of physician-recorded severe OM (WHO ≥3 or OMAS ≥2), patient-reported adverse events, and opioid use. However, patients in the experimental arm had relatively lower rates of OM-associated adverse clinical issues including unplanned short radiation breaks, skipping of chemotherapy, nausea/vomiting, late loss of body weight, and early opioid use, all of which could potentially interfere with physician-assessed OM scoring. When WHO OM grade (functional impact and pain), OMAS ulceration size (organic impact), and prolonged radiation treatment time (cancer treatment impact) were combined, there were significantly fewer interruptions of chemoradiotherapy treatment in symptomatic OM patients in the experimental compared to the placebo group. The benefits conferred by reducing the amount of chemoradiotherapy-related, OM-associated adverse impacts in the experimental group were reflected by better 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival. This exploratory study raises questions as to whether the severity reflected by physician-rated OM scores is

  12. A Novel In Vivo Protocol for Molecular Study of Radiation-Induced Fibrosis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Krisciunas, Gintas P; Platt, Michael; Trojanowska, Maria; Grillone, Gregory A; Haines, Paul C; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-03-01

    Radiation-induced fibrosis is a common complication for patients following head and neck cancer treatment. This study presents a novel minimally invasive protocol for molecular study of fibrosis in the stromal tissues. Subjects with radiation-induced fibrosis in the head and neck who were at least 6 months post treatment received submental core needle biopsies, followed by molecular processing and quantification of gene expression for 14 select pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic genes. Control biopsies from the upper arm were obtained from the same subjects. Patients were followed up at 1 and 2 weeks to monitor for safety and adverse outcomes. Six subjects were enrolled and completed the study. No subjects experienced adverse outcomes or complication. An 18 gauge core biopsy needle with a 10 mm notch inserted for up to 60 seconds was needed. Subcutaneous tissue yielded 3 ng of RNA, amplified to 6 µg of cDNA, allowing for adequately sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis of approximately 28 genes. This study demonstrates the safety and utility of a novel technique for the molecular study of fibrosis in head and neck cancer patients. Longitudinal studies of patients undergoing radiation therapy will allow for identification of molecular targets that contribute to the process of fibrosis in the head and neck. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Effect of Pretreatment Anemia on Treatment Outcome of Concurrent Radiochemotherapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fortin, Andre Wang Changshu; Vigneault, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of anemia on outcome of treatment with radiochemotherapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: The data of 196 patients with Stage II-IV head-and-neck cancer treated with concomitant cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Anemia was defined according to World Health Organization criteria as hemoglobin <130 g/L in men and <120 g/L in women. Results: Fifty-three patients were classified as anemic, 143 as nonanemic. The 3-year local control rate of anemic and nonanemic patients was 72% and 85%, respectively (p = 0.01). The 3-year overall survival rate of anemic and nonanemic patients was 52% and 77%, respectively (p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis, anemia was the most significant predictor of local control (hazard ratio, 0.37, p = 0.009) and survival (hazard ratio, 0.47, p = 0.007). A dose-effect relationship was also found for local control (p = .04) and survival (0.04) when grouping by hemoglobin concentration: <120, 120-140, and >140 g/L. Conclusions: Anemia was strongly associated with local control and survival in this cohort of patients with head-and-neck cancer receiving radiochemotherapy.

  14. Implant-prosthetic rehabilitation after radiation treatment in head and neck cancer patients: a case-series report of outcome

    PubMed Central

    Cotic, Jasna; Jamsek, Jure; Kuhar, Milan; Ihan Hren, Natasa; Kansky, Andrej; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Slovenia has a high burden of head and neck cancer. Patients are mostly treated with surgery followed by radiation therapy. Advanced surgical and prosthodontic techniques have expanded the rehabilitation options. The aim of the study was to review the outcome of implant-prosthetic treatment after radiation therapy. Patients and methods Twenty irradiated head and neck cancer patients who received a removable implant-supported denture at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana were included in the study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox proportional hazard models and logistic regression were used to assess the implant survival and success rate. Results Twenty patients had 100 implants inserted. The estimated implant survival rate was 96% after 1 year and 87% after 5 years. Failures were mostly observed before loading (91.2%). Implants inserted in the transplanted bone were significantly more likely to fail. Out of 89 implants supporting the dentures, 79 implants (88.7%) were successful, meaning that they were functionally loaded and exhibited no pain, radiolucency or progressive bone loss. Prosthetic treatment was significantly less successful in older patients. The attachment system and the number of implants did not have a statistically significant influence on the success rate. Conclusions Implant-supported dentures have been shown to be a reliable treatment modality after head and neck cancer surgery and radiation therapy. Possible early failures should be communicated with the patients. PMID:28265238

  15. Bioelectrical impedance phase angle and subjective global assessment in detecting malnutrition among newly diagnosed head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Małecka-Massalska, Teresa; Mlak, Radoslaw; Smolen, Agata; Morshed, Kamal

    2016-05-01

    Malnutrition, which can be determined by subjective and objective methods, has a high prevalence in head and neck cancer patients. Subjective Global Assessment is a subjective method of nutritional status evaluation. Phase angle, determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, is proposed as an objective nutritional marker in various disease conditions. The study was conducted to investigate the association between phase angle and Subjective Global Assessment to validate the determination of the nutrition status in adult patients with head and neck cancer. In a prospective cohort study, patients were classified as either well-nourished or malnourished using the Subjective Global Assessment. Phase angle measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis was planned in 75 naive patients with histologically confirmed head and neck cancer. Receiver operating characteristic curves were estimated using the non-parametric method to determine the optimal cut-off level of phase angle. The study was conducted on a cohort population of 75 patients. Well-nourished patients (n = 45) had a statistically significantly higher (p = 0.005) median phase angle score (5.25º) as compared to those who were malnourished (4.73º) (n = 30). A phase angle cut-off of 4.73 was 80 % sensitive and 56.7 % specific in detecting malnutrition diagnosed by SGA in these populations. Phase angle is considered to be a nutritional indicator in patients with head and neck cancer in detecting malnutrition. Further observations are needed to calculate survival, and validate the prognostic significance of phase angle. For future studies, it is important to indicate the specificity of the PA in comparison to SGA measurement.

  16. Patient reported outcomes in head and neck cancer: selecting instruments for quality of life integration in clinical protocols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Health Related Quality of Life has been used in medical research for more than twenty years, being progressively accepted during the last decade as an important patient reported outcome. Considering the multidimensional approach involved in Health Related Quality of Life assessment, instrument applicability and cultural adaptation must be tested for each population. In order to select the most appropriate instrument for Head and Neck cancer patients, two major Health Related Quality of Life specific questionnaires for Head and Neck cancer patients were compared. Conceptual differences, psychometric characteristics, scores, reliability, construct validity and sensitivity to symptomatology, tumour location, tumour size were analyzed. Methods 102 consecutive Head and Neck cancer patients completed two different Health Related Quality of Life questionnaires: EORTC QLQ-C30 and its specific head and neck module QLQ-H&N35 and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Scales (FACT-H&N). Patients completed the questionnaires, immediately before consultation as a part of the routine evaluation. Results A greater variability was always found in the EORTC QLC-C30 questionnaire's scores for all comparable domains. Both instruments revealed a good internal consistency and demonstrated to be good tools to distinguish symptomatic patients. The EORTC questionnaires still demonstrated sensitivity to distinguish T3 and T4 staging. Conceptual differences and the psychometric characteristics are discussed. Our results suggest that these two instruments assess different aspects of Health Related Quality of Life - the questionnaires should be used separately and chosen according to the study objectives and methodology. Conclusions This study emphases the importance in selecting the appropriate tool as a critical success factor in implementing routine Health Related Quality of Life assessment in clinical practice. This decision assumes particularly importance when utilization

  17. Implant-prosthetic rehabilitation after radiation treatment in head and neck cancer patients: a case-series report of outcome.

    PubMed

    Cotic, Jasna; Jamsek, Jure; Kuhar, Milan; Ihan Hren, Natasa; Kansky, Andrej; Özcan, Mutlu; Jevnikar, Peter

    2017-03-01

    Slovenia has a high burden of head and neck cancer. Patients are mostly treated with surgery followed by radiation therapy. Advanced surgical and prosthodontic techniques have expanded the rehabilitation options. The aim of the study was to review the outcome of implant-prosthetic treatment after radiation therapy. Twenty irradiated head and neck cancer patients who received a removable implant-supported denture at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana were included in the study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox proportional hazard models and logistic regression were used to assess the implant survival and success rate. Twenty patients had 100 implants inserted. The estimated implant survival rate was 96% after 1 year and 87% after 5 years. Failures were mostly observed before loading (91.2%). Implants inserted in the transplanted bone were significantly more likely to fail. Out of 89 implants supporting the dentures, 79 implants (88.7%) were successful, meaning that they were functionally loaded and exhibited no pain, radiolucency or progressive bone loss. Prosthetic treatment was significantly less successful in older patients. The attachment system and the number of implants did not have a statistically significant influence on the success rate. Implant-supported dentures have been shown to be a reliable treatment modality after head and neck cancer surgery and radiation therapy. Possible early failures should be communicated with the patients.

  18. Q36R polymorphism of KiSS-1 gene in Brazilian head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Mariângela Torreglosa; Galbiatti, Ana Lívia Silva; Pavarino, Erika Cristina; Maniglia, José Victor; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

    2012-05-01

    The KiSS-1 metastasis-suppressor gene (KiSS-1) product (metastin, kisspeptin) is reported to act after binding with the natural ligand of a G-protein coupled receptor and this gene product inhibits chemotaxis, invasion, and metastasis of cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Q36R polymorphism of KiSS-1 in patients with head and neck cancer and to compare the results with healthy individuals and its association with clinicopathological parameters. Gender, age, smoking and alcohol consumption were analyzed for 744 individual (252 head and neck cancer patients and in 522 control individuals). The molecular analysis of these individuals was made after extraction of genomic DNA using the SSCP-PCR technique. This study did not reveal any significant differences in genotype frequencies between healthy individuals and patients with head and neck cancer or with the clinical parameters. This study showed an increase frequency of the Q36R polymorphism in pharyngeal cancer.

  19. Nasogastric tube feeding and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube feeding in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Nugent, B; Parker, M J; McIntyre, I A

    2010-06-01

    For patients with a diagnosis of head and neck cancer, oral nutrition may not provide adequate nutrition during radical radiotherapy or chemoradiation treatment, resulting in enteral feeding initiation. Enteral feeding may be delivered via a nasogastric tube or by a gastrostomy tube. The present study aimed to determine how different treatment modalities impact on requirement for enteral feeding and which method of enteral feeding provided the most benefit to the patient, as demonstrated by weight loss and the number of unscheduled radiotherapy treatment interruptions. Patients who were treated with radical radiotherapy or chemoradiation between January 2004 and June 2007 were reviewed retrospectively (n = 196, male = 149, female = 47). Data were collected on demographics, diagnosis, T and N classification, nutritional status, unscheduled radiotherapy treatment interruptions, and type and duration of enteral feeding. Subjects were divided into three subgroups depending on the treatment received. Comparisons were then made between methods of enteral feeding. Combined modality treatment (Induction Chemotherapy and Chemoradiation) results in a higher proportion of patients requiring enteral feeding (66-71% compared to 12% for radiotherapy). Patients fed via a prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy lost the least amount of weight during treatment (-4.6% to +1.4%), although the method of enteral feeding did not statistically influence weight difference at the end of treatment. The enteral feeding method did not influence unscheduled radiotherapy treatment interruptions. Combined modality treatment results in a greater requirement for enteral feeding, with these patient groups having the greatest weight loss. The findings obtained in the present study indicate that the method of enteral feeding did not statistically influence weight loss at the end of treatment or unscheduled radiotherapy treatment interruptions.

  20. A specific approach for elderly patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Ortholan, Cécile; Benezery, Karen; Dassonville, Olivier; Poissonnet, Gilles; Bozec, Alexandre; Guiochet, Nicole; Belkacemi, Yazid

    2011-08-01

    Approximately 10% of head and neck (HN) tumors occur in patients aged more than or equal to 80 years. In this population, the main challenge for physicians is to deal with the benefit/risk ratio of treatments and tumor-related symptoms. As elderly patients are generally excluded from clinical trials, there is a lack of evidence-based data with regard to the most appropriate multidisciplinary management. The prevalence of frailty and the pattern of comorbidities in this specific population are still unknown. The management of these tumors in a geriatric context is complex due to the high risk of toxicity of locoregional treatments. Thus, physicians often have to adapt to the treatment schedule to decrease potential adverse effects even with a risk of undertreatment. A retrospective series reported that the treatment delivered to elderly patients presenting with HN tumor complies with an institution's policy in less than 50% of cases, emphasizing the need to assess the outcome of personalized/adapted treatment in geriatric patients. The major issue is to determine which adaptation could be carried out, and then, what could be the respective individual benefit/risk ratio of each adaptation. In this review, we will focus on the locoregional management of elderly patients, and develop the issue of adapted local treatment. We will discuss the feasibility of adapted surgery and radiotherapy and provide current evidence-based data that may allow physicians involved in locoregional treatment of elderly patients with HN cancers to be acquainted with practical guidelines. Then, we will highlight the importance of nutritional support in this population in which the prevalence of malnutrition is high.

  1. Assessing the psychological predictors of benefit finding in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Carrie D; Horney, Debbie J; McGurk, Mark; Weinman, John; Herold, Jim; Altman, Keith; Smith, Helen E

    2013-01-01

    Some individuals are able to gain psychological benefits from illness and adversity, such as a greater sense of purpose and closer relationships, termed 'benefit finding' (BF). The main aim of this study was to explore the extent to which BF is reported in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Secondary aims were to establish the relationships between BF, other patient-reported outcomes and predictive factors such as coping strategy and level of optimism. This repeat measures study was conducted with 103 newly diagnosed patients with HNC. Self-completion questionnaires were used to assess BF pre-treatment and 6 months after treatment and pre-treatment coping, optimism, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Sixty-eight patients (66%) completed follow-ups. Moderate to high levels of BF were reported. Anxiety, depression and quality of life were not related to BF. Regression models of BF total score and three new factor analysed BF scales indicated that use of emotional support and active coping strategies were predictive of finding more positive consequences. Optimism, living with a partner and higher educational attainment were also found to have a protective effect. The amount of variance in BF explained by these five pre-treatment factors ranged from 32 to 46%. These findings demonstrate that both dispositional and potentially modifiable factors, in particular optimism and coping strategies, were associated with patients identifying positive consequences of a diagnosis of HNC. To maximise patient's longer-term resilience and adaptation, components of BF, either directly or via coping strategies, could be targeted for intervention. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Dose-volume analysis of radiation-induced trismus in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gebre-Medhin, Maria; Haghanegi, Mahnaz; Robért, Lotta; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Per

    2016-11-01

    Trismus is a treatment-related late side effect in patients treated for cancer in the head and neck region (HNC). The condition can have a considerable negative impact on nutrition, dental hygiene, ability to speak and quality of life. We have previously studied trismus within the frame of a randomized phase 3 study of HNC patients treated with mainly three-dimensional (3D) conformal radiotherapy (CRT) and found a strong association to mean radiation dose to the mastication muscles, especially the ipsilateral masseter muscle (iMAS). In the present study we have investigated trismus prevalence and risk factors in a more recent cohort of patients, treated with todays' more updated radiation techniques. Maximal interincisal distance (MID) was measured on 139 consecutive patients. Trismus was defined as MID ≤35 mm. Patient-, disease- and treatment-specific data were retrospectively recorded. Differences between groups were analyzed and mean absorbed dose to mastication structures was evaluated. Dosimetric comparisons were made between this study and our previous results. The prevalence of trismus was 24% at a median of 16 months after completion of radiotherapy. In bivariate analysis treatment technique (3DCRT vs. intensity modulated radiotherapy or helical tomotherapy), tumor site (oropharynx vs. other sites) and mean radiation doses to the ipsilateral lateral pterygoid muscle, the paired masseter muscles and the iMAS were significantly associated with MID ≤35 mm. In multivariable analysis only mean radiation dose to the iMAS was significantly associated to MID ≤35 mm. Mean radiation dose to the ipsilateral masseter muscle is an important risk factor for trismus development. Dose reduction to this structure during radiotherapy should have a potential to diminish the prevalence of trismus in this patient group.

  3. Depression and Survival in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Barber, Brittany; Dergousoff, Jace; Slater, Linda; Harris, Jeffrey; O'Connell, Daniel; El-Hakim, Hamdy; Biron, Vincent L; Mitchell, Nicholas; Seikaly, Hadi

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of depression in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) is estimated to be as high as 40%. Previous studies have demonstrated an effect of depression on rehabilitation and survival in the posttreatment period. To systematically review the relationship between depression and survival in patients with HNC undergoing curative treatment. A search of electronic databases as well as gray literature was undertaken from January 1, 1974, to August 20, 2014, including MEDLINE (via Ovid), EMBASE (via Ovid), CINAHL, EBSCO, PsycINFO (via Ovid), Elsevier Scopus, and Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science Core Collection, using controlled vocabulary and medical subject headings representing HNC, depression, and survival. Articles in these databases were reviewed for inclusion by 2 independent reviewers according to predetermined eligibility criteria and were adjudicated by a third reviewer. The articles were then quantitatively scored using the GRACE (Good Research for Comparative Effectiveness) tool, a validated instrument for assessing the quality of observational studies. Qualitative assessment of each article was then undertaken. A total of 654 references were retrieved across all databases. A review of the abstracts and full texts identified 3 articles, each describing a distinct, single study, including a total of 431 patients, that were eligible for analysis. Scores for the articles as assessed with the GRACE tool ranged from 9 to 11. In each of the 3 studies used in the analysis, the comparison groups were depressed and nondepressed patients as established by a standardized psychiatric assessment tool. Two of the 3 studies demonstrated a statistically significant difference in survival for patients with HNC and depression; however, a sensitivity analysis was not possible due to the incompatible statistical analyses performed in each study. An association between depression and survival in patients with HNC is apparent; however, the strength

  4. Incidence of second primary malignancies in patients with treated head and neck cancer: a comprehensive review of literature.

    PubMed

    Atienza, Jonessa Ann S; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2012-12-01

    Increased incidence of a second primary aero-digestive malignancy after an index head and neck cancer (HNC) is well-documented. Furthermore, a clear set of surveillance strategies for second primary aero-digestive cancers in these patients exists. The goal of this article is to review the published literature on risk of second primary malignancies (SPMs) (including aero-digestive malignancies) after a treated index HNC as well as its associated predictors, prognosis and surveillance. Most relevant publications were identified through searching the PubMed database for articles published up to July 2012; epidemiologic evidence was synthesized and thoroughly analyzed. Data from randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, population-based and cohort group studies, prior reviews, and case reports indicate an increased incidence of various SPMs after occurrence of a HNC. These cancers are not limited to upper aero-digestive sites. Common risk factors including environmental, genetic and immune factors may explain the increased incidence of second cancers in this patient population. In addition, site of the index HNC may predict the site of a future SPM. As a general rule, oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers are associated more with head and neck region SPM, while laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers - with that of the lung. As these cancers confer dismal prognosis and shorter survival in patients with HNCs, several literature sources recommend close surveillance for and an aggressive therapy of SPM. Notwithstanding, their optimal management and follow-up schedule remains to be established.

  5. Effects of nutritional intervention in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy: A prospective randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Kang, Wen-Xing; Li, Wentao; Huang, Shi-Gao; Dang, Yazhang; Gao, Hongxiang

    2016-09-01

    Head and neck malignant tumors have numerous locations of the disease. After patients receive radiotherapy, their nutritional status is very poor, thus the curative effect is unsatisfactory. The aims of the present study were to investigate and analyze the nutritional status of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy (RT) in order to provide positive nutrition intervention for assisting the radiotherapy effect. A total of 40 patients with head and neck cancer were selected using a method of subjective global assessment (SGA) to assess nutritional status, including calorie intake and energy expenditure. In a randomized, controlled study, 20 patients received intensive dietary counseling and nutritional therapy (G1) and 20 received regular dietary as controls (G0) preradiotherapy and postradiotherapy. The primary endpoint was calorie intake and energy expenditure. The secondary endpoint was SGA rating with nutritional therapy. At the end of RT, energy intake showed a net increase in G1 (1,691±301 kcal) compared with that in G0 (1,066±312 kcal) (P<0.05); energy expenditure increased in G1 (1,673±279 kcal) compared with G0 (1,490±298 kcal) (P<0.05). The prevalence of severe malnutrition following radiotherapy was significantly different between the two study groups (10 patients in G0 and 4 patients in G1; P<0.05). The number of the normal malnutrition patients postRT in G0 decreased from 4 to 2 and conversely, in G1 it increased from 3 to 6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, patients with head and neck cancer were most malnutritioned, which impacted on clinical outcome. Timely nutritional intervention can effectively prevent weight loss and muscle wasting. Additionally, it may improve quality of life by decreasing the frequency of severe malnutrition.

  6. Effects of nutritional intervention in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy: A prospective randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wen-Xing; Li, Wentao; Huang, Shi-Gao; Dang, Yazhang; Gao, Hongxiang

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck malignant tumors have numerous locations of the disease. After patients receive radiotherapy, their nutritional status is very poor, thus the curative effect is unsatisfactory. The aims of the present study were to investigate and analyze the nutritional status of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy (RT) in order to provide positive nutrition intervention for assisting the radiotherapy effect. A total of 40 patients with head and neck cancer were selected using a method of subjective global assessment (SGA) to assess nutritional status, including calorie intake and energy expenditure. In a randomized, controlled study, 20 patients received intensive dietary counseling and nutritional therapy (G1) and 20 received regular dietary as controls (G0) preradiotherapy and postradiotherapy. The primary endpoint was calorie intake and energy expenditure. The secondary endpoint was SGA rating with nutritional therapy. At the end of RT, energy intake showed a net increase in G1 (1,691±301 kcal) compared with that in G0 (1,066±312 kcal) (P<0.05); energy expenditure increased in G1 (1,673±279 kcal) compared with G0 (1,490±298 kcal) (P<0.05). The prevalence of severe malnutrition following radiotherapy was significantly different between the two study groups (10 patients in G0 and 4 patients in G1; P<0.05). The number of the normal malnutrition patients postRT in G0 decreased from 4 to 2 and conversely, in G1 it increased from 3 to 6 (P<0.05). In conclusion, patients with head and neck cancer were most malnutritioned, which impacted on clinical outcome. Timely nutritional intervention can effectively prevent weight loss and muscle wasting. Additionally, it may improve quality of life by decreasing the frequency of severe malnutrition. PMID:27588193

  7. Value of Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI to Detect Local Tumor Recurrence in Primary Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Jun; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Sung, Yu Sub; Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Park, Ji Eun; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2016-05-01

    Treatment failures in head and neck cancer patients are mainly related to locoregional tumor recurrence. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of model-free dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) to detect local recurrence during the surveillance of head and neck cancer patients.Our retrospective study enrolled 24 patients with primary head and neck cancer who had undergone definitive treatment. Patients were grouped into local recurrence (n = 12) or posttreatment change (n = 12) groups according to the results of biopsy or clinicoradiologic follow-up. The types of time-signal intensity (TSI) curves were classified as follows: "progressive increment" as type I, "plateau" as type II, and "washout" as type III. TSI curve types and their parameters (i.e., wash-in, Emax, Tmax, area under the curve [AUC]60, AUC90, and AUC120) were compared between the 2 study groups.The distributions of TSI curve types for local recurrence versus posttreatment change were statistically significant (P < 0.001) (i.e., 0% vs 83.3% for type I, 58.3% vs 16.7% for type II, and 41.7% vs 0% for type III). There were statistically significant differences in Emax, Tmax, and all of the AUC parameters between 2 groups (P < 0.0083 [0.05/6]). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses indicated that the TSI curve type was the best predictor of local recurrence with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI, 73.5-100.0) and a specificity of 83.3% (95% CI, 51.6-97.9) (cutoff with type II).Model-free DCE-MRI using TSI curves and TSI curve-derived parameters detects local recurrence in head and neck cancer patients with a high diagnostic accuracy.

  8. S0420, Sorafenib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-27

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  9. Respiratory-swallow training in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; McFarland, David; Hill, Elizabeth G; Strange, Charlton B; Focht, Kendrea L; Wan, Zhuang; Blair, Julie; McGrattan, Katlyn

    2015-05-01

    To test a novel intervention to train swallowing to occur in the midexpiratory to low expiratory phase of quiet breathing to improve swallowing safety and efficiency. Safety and efficacy nonrandomized controlled trial with 1-month follow-up. Ambulatory clinics. Patients (N=30) with head and neck cancer (HNC) and chronic dysphagia completed the intervention. Fifteen of these patients participated in a 1-month follow-up visit. Training protocol based on hierarchy of motor skill acquisition to encourage autonomous and optimal respiratory-swallowing coordination. Visual feedback of respiratory phase and volume for swallowing initiation was provided by nasal airflow and rib cage/abdomen signals. Respiratory-swallow phase pattern, Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImP) scores, Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores, and MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory scores. Using visual feedback, patients were trained to initiate swallows during the midexpiratory phase of quiet breathing and continue to expire after swallowing. This optimal phase patterning increased significantly after treatment (P<.0001). Changes in respiratory-swallowing coordination were associated with improvements in 3 MBSImP component scores: laryngeal vestibular closure (P=.0004), tongue base retraction (P<.0001), and pharyngeal residue (P=.01). Significant improvements were also seen in PAS scores (P<.0001). Relative to pretreatment values, patients participating in 1-month follow-up had increased optimal phase patterning (P<.0001), improved laryngeal vestibular closure (P=.01), tongue base retraction (P=.003), and pharyngeal residue (P=.006) MBSImP scores and improved PAS scores (P<.0001). Improvements in respiratory-swallowing coordination can be trained using a systematic protocol and respiratory phase-lung volume-related biofeedback in patients with HNC and chronic dysphagia, with favorable effects on airway protection and bolus clearance. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of

  10. Respiratory-Swallow Training in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Harris, Bonnie; McFarland, David; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Strange, Charlton B.; Focht, Kendrea L.; Wan, Zhuang; Blair, Julie; McGrattan, Katlyn

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test a novel intervention to train swallowing to occur in the mid-to-low expiratory phase of quiet breathing to improve swallowing safety and efficiency. Design Safety and efficacy non-randomized clinical trial with one-month follow-up. Setting Head and neck cancer (HNC) ambulatory clinics. Participants Thirty patients with HNC and chronic dysphagia completed the intervention. Fifteen of these patients participated in a one-month follow-up visit. Interventions Training protocol based on hierarchy of motor skill acquisition to encourage autonomous and optimal respiratory-swallowing coordination. Visual feedback of respiratory phase and volume for swallowing initiation was provided by nasal airflow and rib cage/abdomen signals. Main Outcome Measures Respiratory-swallow phase pattern, Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile™© (MBSImP) scores, Penetration Aspiration Scale (PAS) scores, M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory scores Results Using visual feedback, patients were trained to initiate swallows during the mid-expiratory phase of quiet breathing and to continue to expire after swallowing. This optimal phase patterning increased significantly after treatment (p <0.0001). Changes in respiratory-swallowing coordination were associated with improvements in three MBSImP component scores: laryngeal vestibular closure (p = 0.0004), tongue base retraction (p <0.0001), and pharyngeal residue (p = 0.01). Significant improvements were also seen in PAS scores (p <0.0001). Relative to pre-treatment values, patients participating in one-month follow-up had increased optimal phase patterning (p <0.0001), improved laryngeal vestibular closure (p = 0.01), tongue base retraction (p = 0.003), and pharyngeal residue (p = 0.006) MBSImP scores, and improved PAS scores (p <0.0001). Conclusions Improvements in respiratory-swallowing coordination can be trained using a systematic protocol and respiratory phase-lung volume related biofeedback in patients with HNC and

  11. Robust Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) Increases Estimated Clinical Benefit in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Lisanne V.; Steenbakkers, Roel J. H. M.; ten Haken, Bennie; van der Laan, Hans Paul; van ‘t Veld, Aart A.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Korevaar, Erik W.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the clinical benefit of robust optimized Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (minimax IMPT) with current photon Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and PTV-based IMPT for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. The clinical benefit is quantified in terms of both Normal Tissue Complication Probability (NTCP) and target coverage in the case of setup and range errors. Methods and Materials For 10 HNC patients, PTV-based IMRT (7 fields), minimax and PTV-based IMPT (2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 fields) plans were tested on robustness. Robust optimized plans differed from PTV-based plans in that they target the CTV and penalize possible error scenarios, instead of using the static isotropic CTV-PTV margin. Perturbed dose distributions of all plans were acquired by simulating in total 8060 setup (±3.5 mm) and range error (±3%) combinations. NTCP models for xerostomia and dysphagia were used to predict the clinical benefit of IMPT versus IMRT. Results The robustness criterion was met in the IMRT and minimax IMPT plans in all error scenarios, but this was only the case in 1 of 40 PTV-based IMPT plans. Seven (out of 10) patients had relatively large NTCP reductions in minimax IMPT plans compared to IMRT. For these patients, xerostomia and dysphagia NTCP values were reduced by 17.0% (95% CI; 13.0–21.1) and 8.1% (95% CI; 4.9–11.2) on average with minimax IMPT. Increasing the number of fields did not contribute to plan robustness, but improved organ sparing. Conclusions The estimated clinical benefit in terms of NTCP of robust optimized (minimax) IMPT is greater than that of IMRT and PTV-based IMPT in HNC patients. Furthermore, the target coverage of minimax IMPT plans in the presence of errors was comparable to IMRT plans. PMID:27030987

  12. Impact of transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation on dysphagia in patients with head and neck cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Aashish D; Goodwin, Nicole; Cash, Elizabeth; Bhatt, Geetika; Silverman, Craig L; Spanos, William J; Bumpous, Jeffrey M; Potts, Kevin; Redman, Rebecca; Allison, Wes A; Dunlap, Neal E

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (TNMES) therapy in maintaining swallowing function during chemoradiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer. We retrospectively compared 43 consecutive patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer treated with TNMES (treatment group) to 55 control patients. Validated swallowing scale scores were assigned. All patients' swallowing scores declined post-chemoradiotherapy. A difference in mean decline in scores for the control group versus the treatment group using the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) was seen, favoring TNMES intervention (23% vs 7%; p = .015). Age, race, >10 pack-years smoking, diabetes, stage, nodal disease, accelerated fractionation, weight loss, dietary modification, no TNMES, and radiotherapy dose were all significant for poorer scores on the swallowing scales. TNMES should be considered an adjunct to dysphagia reduction and possible prevention in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer. Further studies should be conducted to define the benefit of TNMES intervention. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evolutionary Action Score of TP53 Coding Variants Is Predictive of Platinum Response in Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Osman, Abdullah A; Neskey, David M; Katsonis, Panagiotis; Patel, Ameeta A; Ward, Alexandra M; Hsu, Teng-Kuei; Hicks, Stephanie C; McDonald, Thomas O; Ow, Thomas J; Alves, Marcus Ortega; Pickering, Curtis R; Skinner, Heath D; Zhao, Mei; Sturgis, Eric M; Kies, Merrill S; El-Naggar, Adel; Perrone, Federica; Licitra, Lisa; Bossi, Paolo; Kimmel, Marek; Frederick, Mitchell J; Lichtarge, Olivier; Myers, Jeffrey N

    2015-04-01

    TP53 is the most frequently altered gene in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), with mutations occurring in over two thirds of cases; however, the predictive response of these mutations to cisplatin-based therapy remains elusive. In the current study, we evaluate the ability of the Evolutionary Action score of TP53-coding variants (EAp53) to predict the impact of TP53 mutations on response to chemotherapy. The EAp53 approach clearly identifies a subset of high-risk TP53 mutations associated with decreased sensitivity to cisplatin both in vitro and in vivo in preclinical models of HNSCC. Furthermore, EAp53 can predict response to treatment and, more importantly, a survival benefit for a subset of head and neck cancer patients treated with platinum-based therapy. Prospective evaluation of this novel scoring system should enable more precise treatment selection for patients with HNSCC. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. The Nature and Extent of Body Image Concerns Among Surgically Treated Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Yuan, Ying; Urbauer, Diana; Weston, June; Nipomnick, Summer; Weber, Randal

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe body image concerns for surgically treated patients with head and neck cancer and evaluate the relationship between body image concerns and quality of life outcomes. Methods Data were obtained from 280 patients undergoing surgical treatment for head and neck cancer. We used a cross-sectional design and obtained data from individuals at different time points relative to initiation of surgical treatment. Participants completed the Body Image Scale, the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy scale – Head and Neck version, and a survey designed for this study to evaluate disease-specific body image issues, satisfaction with care regarding body image issues, and interest in psychosocial intervention. Results Body image concerns were prevalent in the majority of participants with 75% acknowledging concerns or embarrassment about one or more types of bodily changes at some point during treatment. Significant associations were found between body image concerns and all major domains of quality of life. Age, gender, cancer type, time since surgery, and body image variables were significantly associated with psychosocial outcomes. A clear subset of participants expressed dissatisfaction with care received about body image issues and/or indicated they would have liked additional resources to help them cope with body image changes. Conclusions These data provide useful information to document wide-ranging body image difficulties for this population and provide important targets for the development of relevant psychosocial interventions. PMID:21706673

  15. Patterns of Care in Elderly Head-and-Neck Cancer Radiation Oncology Patients: A Single-Center Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect

    Huang Shaohui; O'Sullivan, Brian; Waldron, John; Lockwood, Gina; Bayley, Andrew; Kim, John; Cummings, Bernard; Dawson, Laura A.; Hope, Andrew; Cho, John; Witterick, Ian; Chen, Eric X.; Ringash, Jolie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the patterns of care for elderly head-and-neck cancer patients with those of younger patients. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was conducted of all new mucosal head-and-neck cancer referrals to radiation oncology between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2007 at our institution. The clinical characteristics, treatment pattern, tolerance, and outcomes were compared between the elderly (aged {>=}75 years) and younger (aged <75 years) cohorts. Results: A total of 2,312 patients, including 452 (20%) elderly and 1,860 (80%) younger patients, were studied. The elderly patients were more likely to be women (36% vs. 27%, p <.01) and to have other malignancies (23% vs. 13%, p <.01), Stage I or II disease (38% vs. 32%, p <.01), and N0 status (56% vs. 42%, p <.01). Treatment was less often curative in intent (79% vs. 93%, p <.01). For the 1,487 patients who received definitive radiotherapy (RT), no differences were found between the elderly (n = 238) and younger (n = 1,249) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. Within the subset of 760 patients who received intensified treatment (concurrent chemoradiotherapy or hyperfractionated accelerated RT), no difference was seen between the elderly (n = 46) and younger (n = 714) patients in treatment interruption, completion, or treatment-related death. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years, the 2-year cause-specific survival rate after definitive RT was 72% (range, 65-78%) for the elderly vs. 86% (range, 84-88%) for the younger patients (p <.01). Conclusion: Elderly head-and-neck cancer patients exhibited different clinical characteristics and experienced different patterns of care from younger patients. Although age itself was an adverse predictor of cause-specific survival, its effect was modest. Elderly patients selected for definitive RT or intensified RT showed no evidence of impaired treatment tolerance.

  16. Identifying cutoff scores for the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the head and neck cancer-specific module EORTC QLQ-H&N35 representing unmet supportive care needs in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Femke; Snyder, Claire F; Leemans, C René; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates cutoff scores for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30-questions (EORTC QLQ-C30) and head and neck cancer-specific module (QLQ-H&N35) to identify patients with head and neck cancer who may require clinical attention. Ninety-six patients with head and neck cancer completed the EORTC QLQ-C30/H&N35 and questions on supportive care needs. For all EORTC domains with the ability to discriminate between patients with and without unmet needs (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] ≥0.70), the accuracy (eg, sensitivity and specificity) of potential cutoff scores were calculated. Cutoff scores (sensitivity ≥0.80 and specificity ≥0.60) of 90 (functioning domains) and 5 to 10 (symptom domains) were found on 7 of 28 continuous EORTC QLQ-C30/H&N35 domains. Borderline cutoff scores (sensitivity ≥0.70 and specificity ≥0.60 or sensitivity ≥0.80 and specificity ≥0.50) were found on 5 other domains. This study provided cutoff scores on the EORTC QLQ-C30 and H&N35 based on patients' perceptions of their needs for supportive care. Future research is needed on the replicability of these cutoff scores. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1493-E1500, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Poster — Thur Eve — 29: Characterization of Patient Immobilization for Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Courneyea, L; Mullins, J; Howard, M; Beltran, C; Brinkmann, D; Pafundi, D

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Evaluate an immobilization system to determine its adequacy for the reduced margins required for proton therapy. Methods: Twelve head-and-neck cancer patients were immobilized for conventional photon radiotherapy and imaged with pre- and post-treatment cone beam CTs (CBCTs) for each treatment fraction. To quantify the patient positioning reproducibility, each CBCT was registered to the simulation CT offline. Registrations were performed using auto-match tools and a matching volume-of-interest (VOI) consisting of a 5mm expansion around the mandible, occipital bone, C1/C2 and C7/T1. For each registration, the bony anatomy in the VOI was evaluated for agreement with the simulation position using 3 and 5mm margins. Registrations were initially restricted to translational corrections. If the bony anatomy did not agree with the simulation position to within 3mm or 5mm, the auto-match was repeated with 3 additional rotational corrections. Intrafraction motion was calculated as the difference between the pre- and post-treatment CBCT matches. Results: Pre-treatment patient positioning agreed with the simulation CT to within 3mm/5mm for 62%/86% of fractions using translational matching and 84%/100% of fractions when rotations were included. Intrafraction motion averaged 1.1±0.8mm, with 12% of fractions having >2mm intrafraction motion. Post-treatment positioning accuracy was 57%/84% and 80%/100% for registrations without/with rotations. For the mandible, positioning accuracy dropped from 93% pre-treatment to 82% post-treatment. Conclusion: If rotational corrections are available, the immobilization system studied created reproducible patient positioning to within 3mm for 84% of fractions. However, intrafraction motion caused additional anatomy to fall outside the 3mm margin by the end of treatment.

  18. APACHE II scoring for the prediction of immediate surgical complications in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Grant, Chris A; Dempsey, Ged A; Lowe, Derek; Brown, James S; Vaughan, E David; Rogers, Simon N

    2007-05-01

    Aggressive surgical treatment of oral and oropharyngeal cancers may be compromised by significant surgical complications. Early identification of patients at risk for postoperative complications may assist in clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to assess the value of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score in predicting early postoperative surgical complications. There were 510 cases of free tissue transfer surgery identified on the Liverpool Oncology Head and Neck Database for 1995 to 2002. APACHE II data were collected independently from critical care records and by case note retrieval. The authors' main a priori outcomes were total flap failure and any immediate complication requiring further surgery (including any from hemorrhage, hematoma, partial flap failure, airways, and anastomosis exploration). Overall total flap loss and immediate complication rates were 6.2 percent (30 of 485) and 13.6 percent (66 of 485), respectively. APACHE II data were known for 399 operations (82 percent) and, of these, 90 percent (360 of 399) were managed postoperatively in the critical care unit. There were clear correlations between APACHE II scores with total flap loss and with other immediate complications. The APACHE II score is associated with immediate postoperative surgical complications involving flap compromise and thus may be a useful tool in postoperative decision-making.

  19. Transcervical approach to percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion in a patient with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Shariff, Amir Hafeez; Waqas, Muhammad; Akhtar, Shabbir

    2014-08-01

    This is the case of a 48-year-old woman with recurrent head and neck cancer. Six years before presenting at our institution, she was diagnosed with a moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma involving the right maxilla and underwent surgical resection followed by chemoradiation. More recently, she presented at our institution with oral bleeding and pain. Examination revealed severe trismus, and biopsy demonstrated recurrent squamous cell carcinoma. She underwent surgical resection with a plan for simultaneous placement of a feeding gastrostomy tube. Owing to the near non-existent mouth opening, traditional per-oral placement of a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube was impossible. Intraoperatively, following tumor resection, endoscopy was performed via direct pharyngeal access through a right cervical incision. The PEG tube was then placed uneventfully. Numerous studies have shown the superiority of PEG tubes over either radiologically or surgically placed gastrostomy tubes. This report describes an approach to PEG placement in a patient in whom per-oral placement was not feasible.

  20. SB-715992 in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-13

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity

  1. Perioperative assessment of psychological state and quality of life of head and neck cancer patients undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, Yumi; Matsushima, Eisuke; Omura, Ken

    2009-02-01

    This study assessed psychological state and quality of life (QOL) in head and neck cancer patients during the perioperative period. Patients who had undergone primary surgery at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan were enrolled. After obtaining informed consent, three tests were administered: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess psychological state, and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy General (FACT-G) and Functional Assessment of Head and Neck (FACT-H&N) to assess QOL. Japanese language versions of all tests were administered. Tests were administered 1 day before surgery, 1 week after surgery, and 1 and 6 months after discharge. Test scores were analyzed, as were relationships between psychological state, QOL and clinical factors. Anxiety was greatest before surgery, while depression was greatest immediately after surgery. QOL in the somatic and specific domains also decreased immediately after surgery. QOL in most domains improved 1 month after discharge. This study offers important information regarding perioperative psychological state and QOL in head and neck cancer patients.

  2. Functional outcomes and rehabilitation strategies in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, Lisette; van Rossum, Maya A; Burkhead, Lori M; Smeele, Ludi E; Hilgers, Frans J M

    2009-06-01

    Organ preservation with radiotherapy and concomitant chemotherapy has become an accepted treatment modality in advanced head and neck cancer. Unfortunately, organ preservation is not synonymous with function preservation. The aim of this review was to systematically assess the effects of the disease and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) on functions such as swallowing, mouth opening, nutrition, pain and quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer. Another aim was to search for (evidence-based) techniques or strategies known to alleviate or rehabilitate the loss of function(s) associated with CRT. Two databases were searched (time period, January 1997 to August 2007) for the terms head and neck cancer, chemotherapy or cisplatin and radiotherapy, and the functional outcomes swallowing, trismus, nutrition, pain and quality of life or a variation of those words. In total, 15 relevant articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The majority of the studies that met the criteria focused on the outcomes swallowing, quality of life, and nutrition. Two studies reported on the outcome pain, but no paper reported on the outcome trismus. Only two papers mentioned rehabilitation options, but specific information was lacking. Further long-term prospective research is essential, not only to determine the function impairment caused by the tumor and CRT, but also to assess the effects of known and newly developed rehabilitation measures. Therefore, in September 2006, the Netherlands Cancer Institute started a randomised clinical trial (RCT): Prevention of trismus, swallowing and speech problems in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancer. This systematic review was carried out to collect the baseline information for the future outcomes of this RCT.

  3. Risk of Esophageal Cancer Following Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuen-Tze; Lin, Chun-Shu; Lee, Shih-Yu; Huang, Wen-Yen; Chang, Wei-Kuo

    2016-03-01

    Esophageal cancers account for majority of synchronous or metachronous head and neck cancers. This study examined the risk of esophageal cancer following percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in head and neck cancer patients using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. From 1997 to 2010, we identified and analyzed 1851 PEG patients and 3702 sex-, age-, and index date-matched controls. After adjusting for esophagitis, esophagus stricture, esophageal reflux, and primary sites, the PEG cohort had a higher adjusted hazard ratio (2.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09-4.09) of developing esophageal cancer than the controls. Primary tumors in the oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx were associated with higher incidence of esophageal cancer. The adjusted hazard ratios were 1.49 (95% CI = 1.01-1.88), 3.99 (95% CI = 2.76-4.98), and 1.98 (95% CI = 1.11-2.76), respectively. Head and neck cancer patients treated with PEG were associated with a higher risk of developing esophageal cancer, which could be fixed by surgically placed tubes.

  4. Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) of the head and neck: retrospective analysis of 81 patients.

    PubMed

    Al Kadah, Basel; Papaspyrou, Giorgos; Linxweiler, Maximilian; Schick, Bernhard; Rübe, Christian; Büchler, Benjamin Simeon; Niewald, Marcus

    2017-03-17

    The treatment of patients with cervical lymph node metastases without detectable primary tumor remains an important challenge, until today, no standard therapy is available. The present study investigated the multimodal treatment of patients with head and neck CUP syndrome (HNCUP) and their follow-up retrospectively. 81 patients with cervical lymph node metastases without a primary tumor were treated at the Departments of Otorhinolaryngology as well as Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology at the University of Saarland in Homburg, Germany in the period between 1991 and 2013. All patients received routine work-up consisting of CUP panendoscopy and imaging. Neck dissection was then performed in 77% of the patients. The most common histology was squamous cell carcinoma (80%). Ten percent of the patients had distant metastases. All patients underwent primary or adjuvant radiation therapy, or simultaneous radiochemotherapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the 5-year survival rate was 30%. There was a local recurrence that was known in 20/63 patients (31%) and distant metastases were documented in 19/61 M0 patients (31%). Higher grade late toxicity (grade 3-4) was observed in 12% of patients. Neck dissection and radiation therapy remains an integral part of HNCUP therapy, while the use of chemotherapy could be considered in selected cases. Prospective multicenter randomized trials would be necessary to identify the best target volume and to clarify the role of chemotherapy.

  5. SU-E-J-225: CEST Imaging in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Hwang, K; Fuller, C; Mohamed, A; Ding, Y; Frank, S; Hazle, J; Zhou, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) imaging is an MRI technique enables the detection and imaging of metabolically active compounds in vivo. It has been used to differentiate tumor types and metabolic characteristics. Unlike PET/CT,CEST imaging does not use isotopes so it can be used on patient repeatedly. This study is to report the preliminary results of CEST imaging in Head and Neck cancer (HNC) patients. Methods: A CEST imaging sequence and the post-processing software was developed on a 3T clinical MRI scanner. Ten patients with Human papilloma virus positive oropharyngeal cancer were imaged in their immobilized treatment position. A 5 mm slice CEST image was acquired (128×128, FOV=20∼24cm) to encompass the maximum dimension of tumor. Twenty-nine off-set frequencies (from −7.8ppm to +7.8 ppm) were acquired to obtain the Z-spectrum. Asymmetry analysis was used to extract the CEST contrasts. ROI at the tumor, node and surrounding tissues were measured. Results: CEST images were successfully acquired and Zspectrum asymmetry analysis demonstrated clear CEST contrasts in tumor as well as the surrounding tissues. 3∼5% CEST contrast in the range of 1 to 4 ppm was noted in tumor as well as grossly involved nodes. Injection of glucose produced a marked increase of CEST contrast in tumor region (∼10%). Motion and pulsation artifacts tend to smear the CEST contrast, making the interpretation of the image contrast difficult. Field nonuniformity, pulsation in blood vesicle and susceptibility artifacts caused by air cavities were also problematic for CEST imaging. Conclusion: We have demonstrated successful CEST acquisition and Z-spectrum reconstruction on HNC patients with a clinical scanner. MRI acquisition in immobilized treatment position is critical for image quality as well as the success of CEST image acquisition. CEST images provide novel contrast of metabolites in HNC and present great potential in the pre- and post-treatment assessment

  6. Impaired swallowing mechanics of post radiation therapy head and neck cancer patients: A retrospective videofluoroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Pearson, William G; Davidoff, Alisa A; Smith, Zachary M; Adams, Dorothy E; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-02-28

    To determine swallowing outcomes and hyolaryngeal mechanics associated with post radiation therapy head and neck cancer (rtHNC) patients using videofluoroscopic swallow studies. In this retrospective cohort study, videofluoroscopic images of rtHNC patients (n = 21) were compared with age and gender matched controls (n = 21). Penetration-aspiration of the bolus and bolus residue were measured as swallowing outcome variables. Timing and displacement measurements of the anterior and posterior muscular slings elevating the hyolaryngeal complex were acquired. Coordinate data of anatomical landmarks mapping the action of the anterior muscles (suprahyoid muscles) and posterior muscles (long pharyngeal muscles) were used to calculate the distance measurements, and slice numbers were used to calculate time intervals. Canonical variate analysis with post-hoc discriminant function analysis was performed on coordinate data to determine multivariate mechanics of swallowing associated with treatment. Pharyngeal constriction ratio (PCR) was also measured to determine if weak pharyngeal constriction is associated with post radiation therapy. The rtHNC group was characterized by poor swallowing outcomes compared to the control group in regards to: Penetration-aspiration scale (P < 0.0001), normalized residue ratio scale (NRRS) for the valleculae (P = 0.002) and NRRS for the piriform sinuses (P = 0.003). Timing and distance measurements of the anterior muscular sling were not significantly different in the two groups, whereas for the PMS time of displacement was abbreviated (P = 0.002) and distance of excursion was reduced (P = 0.02) in the rtHNC group. A canonical variate analysis shows a significant reduction in pharyngeal mechanics in the rtHNC group (P < 0.0001). The PCR was significantly higher in the test group than the control group (P = 0.0001) indicating reduced efficiency in pharyngeal clearance. Using videofluoroscopy, this study shows rtHNC patients have worse swallowing

  7. Self-image of the Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Mixed Method Research

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Shalini G; Pai, Mamatha Shivananda; George, Linu Sara

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the self-image of the patients with head and neck cancers (HNCs) by using a mixed method research. Subjects and Methods: A mixed method approach and triangulation design was used with the aim of assessing the self-image of the patients with HNCs. Data was gathered by using self-administered self-image scale and structured interview. Nested sampling technique was adopted. Sample size for quantitative approach was 54 and data saturation was achieved with seven subjects for qualitative approach. Institutional Ethical Committee clearance was obtained. Results: The results of the study showed that 30 (56%) subjects had positive self-image and 24 (44%) had negative self-image. There was a moderate positive correlation between body image and integrity (r = 0.430, P = 0.001), weak positive correlation between body image and self-esteem (r = 0.270, P = 0.049), and no correlation between self-esteem and integrity (r = 0.203, P = 0.141). The participants also scored maximum (24/24) in the areas of body image and self-esteem. Similar findings were also observed in the phenomenological approach. The themes evolved were immaterial of outer appearance and desire of good health to all. Conclusion: The illness is long-term and impacts the individual 24 h a day. Understanding patients’ self-concept and living experiences of patients with HNC is important for the health care professionals to improve the care. PMID:27559264

  8. Effect of Recombinant Human Deoxyribonuclease on Oropharyngeal Secretions in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancers Treated With Radiochemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Bharat B.; Wang, Edward; Sejpal, Samir; Agulnik, Mark; Mittal, Amit; Harris, Kirk

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The current study examined the effect of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) on quality of life (QOL) measures, clinical improvement, and DNA content of thick oropharyngeal secretions (OPS) in patients with head-and-neck (H and N) cancers. Methods and Materials: Thirty-six patients with local-regional advanced H and N cancer receiving chemoradiationtherapy (CRT) were randomized to receive either placebo or rhDNase. Endpoints included MD Anderson Symptom Inventory-Head and Neck (MDASI-HN) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Head and Neck (FACT-NH) scores, along with clinical assessment and DNA concentration of OPS. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in patients' QOL outcomes over the study period. Both groups showed an increase in symptom and interference scores, although patients in the rhDNase group showed a greater decline in both scores during the 3 months posttreatment. Similarly, both groups showed a decline in physical and functional well being but recovered in the 3 months posttreatment follow-up, with the rhDNase group exhibiting speedier recovery. Patients in the rhDNase group exhibited significant clinical improvement in OPS, blindly assessed by a physician, compared with the placebo group (67% vs 27%, respectively; P=.046). The rhDNase group showed no change in OPS-DNA concentration, although the placebo group showed a significant increase in DNA concentration during the drug trial (P=.045). There was no differences in acute toxicities between the 2 groups. Conclusions: Our preliminary data suggest that rhDNase did not significantly improve study primary endpoints of QOL measures compared with the placebo group. However, there was a significant improvement in secondary endpoints of clinically assessed OPS and DNA concentration compared with placebo in H and N cancer patients treated with CRT. Further investigation in larger numbers of patients is warranted.

  9. Clinical significance of prophylactic central compartment neck dissection in the treatment of clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Claudio; Tartaglia, Ernesto; Nunziata, Anna; Izzo, Graziella; Siciliano, Giuseppe; Cavallo, Fabio; Mauriello, Claudio; Napolitano, Salvatore; Thomas, Guglielmo; Testa, Domenico; Rossetti, Gianluca; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Avenia, Nicola; Conzo, Giovanni

    2016-09-19

    Lymph nodal involvement is very common in differentiated thyroid cancer, and in addition, cervical lymph node micrometastases are observed in up to 80 % of papillary thyroid cancers. During the last decades, the role of routine central lymph node dissection (RCLD) in the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been an object of research, and it is now still controversial. Nevertheless, many scientific societies and referral authors have definitely stated that even if in expert hands, RCLD is not associated to higher morbidity; it should be indicated only in selected cases. In order to better analyze the current role of prophylactic neck dissection in the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid cancers, an analysis of the most recent literature data was performed. Prophylactic or therapeutic lymph node dissection, selective, lateral or central lymph node dissection, modified radical neck dissection, and papillary thyroid cancer were used by the authors as keywords performing a PubMed database research. Literature reviews, PTCs large clinical series and the most recent guidelines of different referral endocrine societies, inhering neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancers, were also specifically evaluated. A higher PTC incidence was nowadays reported in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) clinical series. In addition, ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration citology allowed a more precocious diagnosis in the early phases of disease. The role of prophylactic neck dissection in papillary thyroid cancer management remains controversial especially regarding indications, approach, and surgical extension. Even if morbidity rates seem to be similar to those reported after total thyroidectomy alone, RCLD impact on local recurrence and long-term survival is still a matter of research. Nevertheless, only a selective use in high-risk cases is supported by more and more scientific data. In the last years, higher papillary thyroid cancer incidence and more

  10. The prognostic value of severe malnutrition in the development of nonthyroidal illness in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Siroen, M P C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M A E; Richir, M C; Sauerwein, H P; Leemans, C R; Quak, J J; van Leeuwen, P A M

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid hormone metabolism is modulated by starvation and overfeeding but also by dietary composition. Unfortunately, little is known about the effect of malnutrition on disease-induced nonthyroidal illness (NTI). In this study, we investigated whether the degree of NTI after surgery differed between severely malnourished and well-fed patients with head and neck cancer. Plasma levels of the thyroid hormones 3',5-triiodothyronine (T(3)), reverse T(3) (rT(3)), free T(4) (FT(4)), and thyrotropin (TSH) were measured on the first day before the operation and on the first, fourth, and seventh day after the operation in 16 malnourished patients who were admitted for intentional curative surgery of T1-T4 carcinomas of the head and neck. Six well-fed head and neck cancer patients eligible for surgical treatment served as a control group. In the malnourished group, rT(3) showed a significant increase, whereas T(3) and FT(4) decreased significantly due to the operation. TSH showed no significant change. During the postoperative course, it took 7 days until rT(3) and 4 days until T(3) and FT(4) were restored to their preoperative value. In contrast, well-fed patients did not develop NTI. This study shows that peri- and postoperative rT(3), T(3), and FT(4) levels change significantly in malnourished patients compared with well-fed patients. Therefore, it can be concluded that nutrition status of patients undergoing major head and neck surgery should be optimized in order to prevent the development of NTI.

  11. Dual-Lumen Chest Port Infection Rates in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Aaron Ahmed, Osman; Jilani, Danial; Giger, Maryellen; Funaki, Brian S.; Zangan, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThe aim of this study was to investigate dual-lumen chest port infection rates in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) compared to those with other malignancies (non-HNC).Materials and MethodsAn IRB-approved retrospective study was performed on 1,094 consecutive chest ports placed over a 2-year period. Patients with poor follow-up (n = 53), no oncologic history (n = 13), or single-lumen ports (n = 183) were excluded yielding a study population of 845 patients. The electronic medical records were queried for demographic information, data regarding ports and infections, and imaging review.ResultsHNC patients experienced more infections (42 vs. 30), an increased infection rate per 1,000 catheter days (0.68 vs. 0.21), and more early infections within 30 days compared to non-HNC patients (10 vs. 6) (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.02, respectively). An existing tracheostomy at the time of port placement was associated with infection in the HNC group (p = 0.02) but was not an independent risk factor for infection in the study population overall (p = 0.06). There was a significant difference in age, male gender, and right-sided ports between the HNC and non-HNC groups (p < 0.01, p < 0.001, and p = 0.01), although these were not found to be independent risk factors for infection (p = 0.32, p = 0.76, p = 0.16).ConclusionHNC patients are at increased risk for infection of dual-lumen chest ports placed via a jugular approach compared to patients with other malignancies. Tracheostomy is associated with infection in HNC patients but is not an independent risk factor for infection in the oncologic population as a whole.

  12. Preliminary Testing of a Patient-Reported Outcome Measure for Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Leanne K; Deng, Jie; Ridner, Sheila H; Gilbert, Jill; Dietrich, Mary S; Murphy, Barbara A

    2016-05-01

    We describe development and preliminary testing of Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey-Recurrent/Metastatic (VHNSS-RM) to assess residual symptoms, tumor-related symptoms, and side effects from therapy. Items were identified through patient and provider interviews. Card sort selected high-yield and high-impact items. The VHNSS-RM was administered to 50 patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer (RMHNC). The VHNSS-RM includes 12 unique symptoms (diet change, tongue movement affecting speech/swallowing, face/neck swelling, neck/jaw cramping, bad breath, drooling, wound drainage/pain/odor, nasal congestion/drainage, eyes watering, face/tongue/ear/scalp numbness, headaches, and confusion) and 7 unique psychosocial issues (burden to family/friends, lost independence, fear, embarrassment, mood swings, stress, and boredom). The VHNSS-RM contains 35 physical and 12 psychosocial issues. The VHNSS-RM is feasible and not overly burdensome. Nineteen unique items may improve palliation to patients with RMHNC. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Oncologic safety of cervical nerve preservation in neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Honda, Keigo; Asato, Ryo; Tsuji, Jun; Miyazaki, Masakazu; Kada, Shinpei; Tsujimura, Takashi; Kataoka, Michiko

    2017-09-01

    Although the functional merits of preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection for head and neck cancer have been reported, the oncologic safety has not yet been determined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of cervical nerve preservation. A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with head and neck cancer who had been treated by neck dissection between 2009 and 2014 at Kyoto Medical Center. Management of cervical nerves and clinical results were analyzed. A total of 335 sides of neck dissection had been performed in 222 patients. Cervical nerves were preserved in 175 neck sides and resected in 160 sides. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method was 71%. The 5-year neck control rate was 95% in cervical nerve preserved sides and 89% in cervical nerve resected sides. Preserving cervical nerves in neck dissection is oncologically safe in selected cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Associations between quality of life, coping styles, optimism, and anxiety and depression in pretreatment patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Horney, Debbie J; Smith, Helen E; McGurk, Mark; Weinman, John; Herold, Jim; Altman, Keith; Llewellyn, Carrie D

    2011-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is often diagnosed at a late stage and consequently radical treatment is necessary. The pretreatment phase is a time of high anxiety and depression for patients. This study aimed to investigate whether anxiety and depression are related to quality of life, coping styles, and dispositional optimism. One hundred and three patients were recruited after diagnosis to a questionnaire study. Measures included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; SF12v2 Health Survey; Brief COPE, and the Revised Life Orientation Test. Quality of life, in particular emotional role explained a large proportion of the variance in pretreatment anxiety and depression. In addition, the use of negative coping styles was related to high anxiety levels and low levels of optimism were related to higher levels of depression. There are a small but significant proportion of pretreatment patients that may benefit from individualized support. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2011.

  15. Prognostic value of continued smoking on survival and recurrence rates in patients with head and neck cancer: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Imhoff, Lieke C R; Kranenburg, Gabriëlle G J; Macco, Sven; Nijman, Nicoline L; van Overbeeke, Elisabeth J; Wegner, Inge; Grolman, Wilko; Pothen, Ajit J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the prognostic value of continued smoking after diagnosis on survival and recurrence rates in head and neck cancer. A systematic search was performed and predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to screen and select the articles. The remaining articles were critically appraised. Six articles were used for data extraction. The survival rate of patients who continued to smoke was 21% to 35% lower compared with patients who quit smoking. The recurrence rate for continued smoking was 23% and 30% higher. In 1 study, there was no difference between continuation and cessation of smoking, and 1 study showed a higher recurrence rate for patients who continued to smoke, which was not statistically significant. There is consistent evidence that survival rates are lower and recurrence rates are higher for patients who continue to smoke after being diagnosed with head and neck cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2214-E2220, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A systematic review of trismus induced by cancer therapies in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bensadoun, Rene-Jean; Riesenbeck, Dorothea; Lockhart, Peter B; Elting, Linda S; Spijkervet, Fred K L; Brennan, Mike T

    2010-08-01

    This systematic review represents a thorough evaluation of the literature to clarify the impact of cancer therapies on the prevalence, quality of life and economic impact, and management strategies for cancer-therapy-induced trismus. A systematic literature search was conducted with assistance from a research librarian in the databases MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE for articles published between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2008. Each study was independently assessed by two reviewers. Taking into account predetermined quality measures, a weighted prevalence was calculated for the prevalence of trismus. The level of evidence, recommendation grade, and guideline (if possible) were given for published preventive and management strategies for trismus. We reviewed a total of 22 published studies between 1990 and 2008. Most of them assessed the prevalence of this complication, and few focused on management. The weighted prevalence for trismus was 25.4% in patients who received conventional radiotherapy and 5% for the few intensity-modulated radiation therapy studies. No clear guideline recommendations could be made for the prevention or management of trismus. Newer radiation modalities may decrease the prevalence of trismus compared to conventional radiotherapy. Few studies have addressed the quality of life impact of trismus, and no studies were identified to assess the economic impact of trismus. The few preventive and management trials identified in the literature showed some promise, although larger, well-designed studies are required to appropriately assess these therapies before recommendations can be provided.

  17. Ultrasound-Guided Needle Biopsy of Neck Lymph Nodes in Patients With Suspected Lung Cancer: Are the Specimens Sufficient for Complete Pathologic Evaluation to Guide Patient Management?

    PubMed

    Duguay, Sean; Wagner, Jason M; Zheng, Wei; Ling, Johnny; Zhao, Lichao C; Allen, Karen S; North, Justin C; Deb, Subrato J

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of ultrasound guided needle biopsy of a neck lymph node to provide adequate tissue for complete pathologic evaluation of suspected metastatic lung cancer, including molecular testing for epidermal growth factor receptor gene mutations by pyrosequencing and anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Institutional review board approval was obtained and the requirement for informed consent was waived. All ultrasound guided neck biopsies performed July 1, 2011, to June 30, 2015, were retrospectively reviewed, and all biopsies performed for suspected lung cancer metastatic to supraclavicular and cervical lymph nodes were included. Forty patients with suspected lung cancer underwent ultrasound-guided needle biopsy of an abnormal appearing neck lymph node identified on preprocedure computed tomography or positron emission tomography/computed tomography. Thirty-seven patients were subsequently diagnosed with lung cancer and 3 were diagnosed with lymphoma. A definitive pathologic diagnosis was rendered in 95% of neck node biopsies (38/40; 95% confidence interval, 84%-99%). Of the 36 specimens diagnostic for lung cancer, 16 were considered for further molecular testing and the specimen was adequate for molecular testing in 15 (94%; 73%-100%) cases. Therefore, the neck node biopsy specimens were adequate for complete pathologic workup in 93% (37/40; 81%-98%). No complications related to the biopsies were observed. In patients presenting with suspected lung cancer and suspicious neck lymph nodes, ultrasound-guided needle biopsy frequently provides adequate tissue for complete pathologic evaluation and eliminates the need for more invasive procedures.

  18. Quality of information available via the internet for patients with head and neck cancer: are we improving?

    PubMed

    Best, James; Muzaffar, Jameel; Mitchell-Innes, Alistair

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the type, content, accessibility and quality of information available via the internet for patients with head and neck cancer. The Google search engine was used to generate lists of the first 100 websites for general head and neck cancer and the first ten for head and neck cancers by anatomical location (160 total). Websites were evaluated with the validated DISCERN and LIDA instruments, the SMOG (Simple measure of gobbledygook) readability score and against the JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) criteria. 40 of the 160 websites ranked by Google were suitable for analysis. Seven websites (17.5%) partially or fully achieved all four JAMA benchmarks and only one (2.5%) site achieved none. 28 (70%) included reference to quality of life factors. Correlations were identified between Google site rank and all four of our appraisal tools; LIDA (-0.966, p = 0.006), JAMA (-5.93, p = 0.028), DISCERN (-0.568, p = 0.037) and SMOG (4.678, p = 0.04). Google site rank and both government run sites (-35.38, p = 0.034) and sites run by universities or hospitals (-27.32, p = 0.016) also showed an association. Comparing our observations with those of Riordain in 2008, there has been little improvement in the quality of head and neck cancer information available online over this time. Given the variability in quality of information online, patients would benefit from being directed to reliable websites by clinicians.

  19. Smoking cessation care among patients with head and neck cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    McCarter, Kristen; Martínez, Úrsula; Britton, Ben; Baker, Amanda; Bonevski, Billie; Carter, Gregory; Beck, Alison; Wratten, Chris; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Halpin, Sean A

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in improving cessation rates and smoking related behaviour in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Design A systematic review of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. Methods We searched the following data sources: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL up to February 2016. A search of reference lists of included studies and Google Scholar (first 200 citations published online between 2000 and February 2016) was also undertaken. The methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP). 2 study authors independently screened and extracted data with disagreements resolved via consensus. Results Of the 5167 studies identified, 3 were eligible and included in the review. Trial designs of included studies were 2 randomised controlled trials and 1 non-randomised controlled trial. 2 studies received a weak methodological rating and 1 received a moderate methodological rating. The trials examine the impact of the following interventions: (1) nurse delivered cognitive–behaviour therapy (CBT) via telephone and accompanied by a workbook, combined with pharmacotherapy; (2) nurse and physician brief advice to quit and information booklets combined with pharmacotherapy; and (3) surgeon delivered enhanced advice to quit smoking augmented by booster sessions. Only the trial of the nurse delivered CBT and pharmacotherapy reported significant increases in smoking cessation rates. 1 study measured quit attempts and the other assessed consumption of cigarettes per day and readiness to change. There was no significant improvement in quit attempts or cigarettes smoked per day among patients in the intervention groups, relative to control. Conclusions There are very few studies evaluating the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions that report results specific to the HNC

  20. Mouth opening in patients irradiated for head and neck cancer: a prospective repeated measures study.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, J I; Dijkstra, P U; van Leeuwen, M; Roodenburg, J L N; Langendijk, J A

    2015-05-01

    Aims of this prospective cohort study were (1) to analyze the course of mouth opening up to 48months post-radiotherapy (RT), (2) to assess risk factors predicting decrease in mouth opening, and (3) to develop a multivariable prediction model for change in mouth opening in a large sample of patients irradiated for head and neck cancer. Mouth opening was measured prior to RT (baseline) and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48months post-RT. The primary outcome variable was mouth opening. Potential risk factors were entered into a linear mixed model analysis (manual backward-stepwise elimination) to create a multivariable prediction model. The interaction terms between time and risk factors that were significantly related to mouth opening were explored. The study population consisted of 641 patients: 70.4% male, mean age at baseline 62.3years (sd 12.5). Primary tumors were predominantly located in the oro- and nasopharynx (25.3%) and oral cavity (20.6%). Mean mouth opening at baseline was 38.7mm (sd 10.8). Six months post-RT, mean mouth opening was smallest, 36.7mm (sd 10.0). In the linear mixed model analysis, mouth opening was statistically predicted by the location of the tumor, natural logarithm of time post-RT in months (Ln (months)), gender, baseline mouth opening, and baseline age. All main effects interacted with Ln (months). The mean mouth opening decreased slightly over time. Mouth opening was predicted by tumor location, time, gender, baseline mouth opening, and age. The model can be used to predict mouth opening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Salivary flow rates in patients with head and neck cancer 0. 5 to 25 years after radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, R.P.; Fleming, T.J.; Toth, B.B.; Keene, H.J. )

    1990-12-01

    In this clinical study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates were obtained from 47 patients with head and neck cancer who had received mantle, unilateral facial, or bilateral facial field radiotherapy from 0.5 to 25 years earlier. The magnitude of salivary flow rate reduction compared with a healthy control group was primarily related to the radiation dosage and the amount of salivary gland tissue included in the irradiated fields. Flow rates were lower for women in all groups, but these differences were not statistically significant.

  2. Effects of chemotherapy on gene expression of lingual taste receptors in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, Rie; Goda, Masakazu; Fujimoto, Chisa; Kanno, Kyoko; Nobe, Misaki; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Abe, Koji; Kawai, Misako; Matsumoto, Hideki; Sakai, Tohru; Takeda, Noriaki

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that chemotherapy changes the gene expression of taste receptors in the tongue to induce dysgeusia in patients with head and neck cancer. Prospective observation study. We enrolled 21 patients who received chemoradiotherapy and five patients who underwent radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the taste receptor subunits T1R1, T1R2, T1R3, and T2R5 were measured in lingual mucosa scrapings obtained with a small spatula. The perception thresholds of umami, sweet, and bitter tastes were assessed by the whole mouth gustatory test. In four patients with severe stomatitis induced by chemoradiotherapy, the mRNA levels of T1R1, T1R2, T1R3, and T2R5 in the lingual mucosa were significantly decreased. However, in 17 patients with mild/moderate stomatitis, the mRNA levels of T1R3 were significantly and transiently decreased, whereas those of T1R1 and T1R2 remained unchanged and those of T2R5 mRNA were significantly and transiently increased after chemotherapy. There was a significant negative correlation between the perception thresholds of umami or sweet tastes and lingual mRNA levels of T1R3 in patients with mild/moderate stomatitis after chemotherapy. Although the perception threshold of bitter taste remained unchanged, lingual mRNA levels of T2R5 were significantly increased in patients who complained of phantogeusia after chemotherapy. Chemotherapy specifically changed the gene expression of T1R3 and T2R5 in head and neck cancer patients with mild/moderate stomatitis, resulting in both dysgeusia of umami and sweet tastes as well as phantogeusia. 4. Laryngoscope, 126:E103-E109, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. A Phase II trial of subcutaneous amifostine and radiation therapy in patients with head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Anne, Pramila Rani . E-mail: rani.anne@mail.tju.edu; Machtay, Mitchell; Rosenthal, David I.; Brizel, David M.; Morrison, William H.; Irwin, David H.; Chougule, Prakash B.; Estopinal, Noel C.; Berson, Anthony; Curran, Walter J.

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Intravenous amifostine 200 mg/m{sup 2} reduces xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients. This Phase II study evaluated subcutaneous (s.c.) amifostine in a similar patient population. Patients and Methods: Patients received amifostine 500 mg, administered as two 250-mg s.c. injections 60 min before once-daily radiation for head-and-neck cancer (50-70 Gy in 5-7 weeks). The primary endpoint was the incidence of {>=}Grade 2 acute xerostomia. Results: Fifty-four patients received s.c. amifostine and radiotherapy. The incidence of {>=}Grade 2 acute xerostomia was 56% (95% CI, 43-69%) and the incidence of {>=}Grade 2 late xerostomia at 1 year was 45% (95% CI, 29-61%). The incidence of acute xerostomia was lower than reported previously with no amifostine in a controlled study; rates of acute xerostomia were similar between s.c. and i.v. amifostine in the two studies. The rate of late xerostomia with s.c. amifostine was intermediate between rates for i.v. amifostine and no amifostine, and not statistically significantly different from either historical control. Grades 1-2 nausea and emesis were the most common amifostine-related adverse events. Grade 3 amifostine-related adverse events reported by >1 patient included: dehydration (11%); rash (6%); and weight decrease, mucositis, dyspnea, and allergic reaction (each 4%). Seven patients (13%) had serious cutaneous adverse events outside the injection site. One-year rates of locoregional control, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 78%, 75%, and 85%, respectively. Conclusions: Subcutaneous amifostine provides a well-tolerated yet simpler alternative to i.v. amifostine for reducing acute xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer patients.

  4. [Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development of Hypomagnesemia in Patients Receiving Cetuximab Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer].

    PubMed

    Inose, Ryo; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Nagayama, Katsuya

    2015-01-01

    Cetuximab was approved in Japan as the only clinically available molecular targeted drug for the treatment of head and neck cancer. Hypomagnesemia associated with cetuximab is considered one of the most serious adverse events. However, the factors influencing the development of hypomagnesemia are not clear, although the drug was previously approved for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Thus, we studied the factors involved in the development of hypomagnesemia in patients receiving cetuximab therapy for head and neck cancer. Patients' background data and laboratory values before starting cetuximab therapy did not affect the development of hypomagnesemia. Among patients who had never been treated with cisplatin (NT group), 36.4% developed hypomagnesemia. In contrast, all patients who had previously been treated with cisplatin (T group) developed hypomagnesemia (p=0.034). Magnesium is reabsorbed by transient receptor potential subfamily melastatin 6 (TRPM6) in the distal convoluted tubule. The expression level of TRPM6 is controlled by the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway. Cetuximab is an EGF receptor inhibitor and reduces the expression of TRPM6. Additionally, recent studies have shown that the expression of TRPM6 is reduced by cisplatin. Therefore, we considered that the serum magnesium level was cumulatively reduced by cetuximab and cisplatin. In conclusion, the T group was more likely to develop hypomagnesemia than the NT group, and therefore the serum magnesium level in the T group requires careful monitoring so that magnesium supplementation can be provided to patients when the level decreases.

  5. Surgical Morbidity and Mortality in Patients after Microvascular Reconstruction for Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Joo, Young-Hoon; Cho, Kwang-Jae; Park, Jun-Ook; Kim, Sang-Yeon; Kim, Min-Sik

    2017-10-11

    The aim was to evaluate the importance of clinical factors in the prediction of postoperative complications in patients with microvascular reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). A retrospective review of case notes was performed. Patients treated at a single institute. The present study included 259 patients with HNSCC treated with radical surgery and microvascular reconstruction between 1993 and 2014. We allocated the patients to three groups using a preoperative comorbidity score based on risk factors: group A (≥ 3 risk factors, n=16), group B (2 risk factors, n=49), and group C (0 or 1 risk factor, n=194). Surgical mortality in this cohort was 1.9% (5 of 259 patients). The preoperative comorbidity score was associated with surgical mortality (p<0.001). Pharyngocutaneous fistula (p=0.001) and flap compromise (p=0.023) were more frequent as preoperative comorbidity score increased. Preoperative comorbidity score (p<0.001), advanced age (p=0.007), advanced pathologic T stage (p=0.028), advanced pathologic N stage (p=0.005), preoperative (chemo)radiotherapy (p<0.001), history of cardiovascular disease (p=0.015) and pulmonary disease (p=0.007), and diabetes (p<0.001) had significant adverse effects on 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) in a univariate analysis. The 5-DSS rates of groups A, B, and C were 30%, 37%, and 70%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative comorbidity score was significantly correlated with 5-year DSS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.81-6.99; p<0.001 for group A and HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.15-3.18; p=0.013 for group B compared with group C). Patients with a high preoperative comorbidity score have an increased risk of surgical mortality and morbidity after microvascular reconstruction for HNSCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Transaminase Activity Predicts Survival in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takenaka, Yukinori; Takemoto, Norihiko; Yasui, Toshimichi; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Uno, Atsuhiko; Miyabe, Haruka; Ashida, Naoki; Shimizu, Kotaro; Nakahara, Susumu; Hanamoto, Atshushi; Fukusumi, Takahito; Michiba, Takahiro; Cho, Hironori; Yamamoto, Masashi; Inohara, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Various serum biomarkers have been developed for predicting head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) prognosis. However, none of them have been proven to be clinically significant. A recent study reported that the ratio of aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) to alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) had a prognostic effect on non-metastatic cancers. This study aimed to examine the effect of the AST/ALT ratio on the survival of patients with HNSCC. Clinical data of 356 patients with locoregionally advanced HNSCC were collected. The effect of the AST/ALT ratio on overall survival was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazard model. Moreover, recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to divide the patients into groups on the basis of the clinical stage and AST/ALT ratio. The prognostic ability of this grouping was validated using an independent data set (N = 167). The AST/ALT ratio ranged from 0.42 to 4.30 (median, 1.42) and was a prognostic factor for overall survival that was independent of age, primary sites, and tumor stage (hazard ratio: 1.36, confidence interval: 1.08−1.68, P = 0.010). RPA divided patients with stage IVA into the following two subgroups: high AST/ALT (≥2.3) and low AST/ALT (<2.3) subgroups. The 5-year survival rate for patients with stage III, stage IVA with a low AST/ALT ratio, stage IVA with a high AST/ALT ratio, and stage IVB were 64.8%, 49.2%, 28.6%, and 33.3%, respectively (p < 0.001). Compared with the low AST/ALT group, the adjusted hazard ratio for death was 2.17 for high AST/ALT group (confidence interval: 1.02–.22 P = 0.045). The AST/ALT ratio was demonstrated to be a prognostic factor of HNSCC. The ratio subdivided patients with stage IVA into low- and high-risk groups. Moreover, intensified treatment for the high-risk group may be considered. PMID:27732629

  7. Impact of pre-operative body mass index in head and neck cancer patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hyun, D-J; Joo, Y-H; Kim, M-S

    2017-10-02

    To analyse the relationship of pre-operative body mass index with surgical complications and oncological outcomes in patients undergoing microvascular reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell cancer. A retrospective review was conducted of 259 patients who underwent microvascular free flap reconstruction after head and neck ablative surgery. Mean body mass index was 22.48 kg/m2. There were no correlations between body mass index and: flap failure (p = 0.739), flap ischaemia (p = 0.644), pharyngocutaneous fistula (p = 0.141) or wound infection (p = 0.224). The five-year disease-specific survival rate was 63 per cent. On univariate analysis, the five-year disease-specific survival rate was significantly correlated with pre-operative body mass index, based on Kaplan-Meier survival curves (p = 0.028). The five-year disease-specific survival rates in underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese groups were 47 per cent, 55 per cent, 65 per cent and 80 per cent, respectively. Pre-operative body mass index was a useful predictor for recurrence and survival in patients who underwent microvascular reconstruction for head and neck squamous cell cancer.

  8. Tumour-derived plasma cell-free DNA in patients with head and neck cancer: A short review.

    PubMed

    Rave-Fränk, M

    2017-10-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality worldwide. The prognosis for patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has not substantially improved during the last decades, despite numerous advancements in treatment options. Reliable markers for early tumour detection and treatment response, which complement clinical examinations, imaging techniques, and biopsies would be extremely useful. One fairly new and promising method is the analysis of tumour-derived cell-free DNA (ctDNA) in the plasma of cancer patients. First data indicate that this method may assist, in the future, in the early detection of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, the real-time monitoring of the disease course, the therapy response, and the prediction of prognosis with direct therapeutic implications by determining the best therapeutic modality for patient care. Copyright © 2017 Société française de radiothérapie oncologique (SFRO). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Head and Neck Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Research Cancer Genomics Research Research on Causes of ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  10. Posttraumatic growth, depression and anxiety in head and neck cancer patients: examining their patterns and correlations in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Leong Abdullah, Mohammad Farris Iman; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Zakaria, Hazli; Rajandram, Rama Krsna; Mahadevan, Raynuha; Mohamad Yunus, Mohd Razif; Shah, Shamsul Azhar

    2015-08-01

    Positive and negative psychological reactions have been described in head and neck cancer patients. Nevertheless, the relationships between these responses across time need to be studied to understand the patients' strengths and vulnerabilities. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in posttraumatic growth (PTG), depression and anxiety longitudinally and the correlations between PTG and depression and anxiety in head and neck cancer patients. A prospective study was conducted on 60 head and neck cancer patients within a year of diagnosis recruited from an oncology referral centre in Malaysia with 50 patients completing the study. The PTG Inventory-Short Form (PTGI-SF) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) were used at baseline and at 6 months follow-up. There were significant reductions in the scores of PTGI-SF (mean difference = -5.5, p = 0.014), HADS (Depression) (mean difference = -2.0, p < 0.05) and HADS (Anxiety) (mean difference = -2.0, p < 0.05) from baseline to follow-up. However, their correlations were not significant. HADS (Depression) score at baseline showed weak inverse correlation with PTGI-SF score (rho = -0.147, p = 0.309), whereas PTGI-SF score had weak positive correlations with HADS (Anxiety) at baseline (rho = 0.261, p = 0.067), HADS (Depression) at follow-up (rho = 0.083, p = 0.566) and HADS (Anxiety) at follow-up (rho = 0.111, p = 0.445). HADS scores also did not predict total PTGI-SF score longitudinally. There were reductions in PTG, depression and anxiety within a year of cancer diagnosis and 6 months later with no significant correlations between PTG with depression and anxiety. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Ixabepilone in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Recurrent Squamous Cell Cancer of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-26

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  12. Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-17

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  13. NRS-2002 for pre-treatment nutritional risk screening and nutritional status assessment in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Orell-Kotikangas, Helena; Österlund, Pia; Saarilahti, Kauko; Ravasco, Paula; Schwab, Ursula; Mäkitie, Antti A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of nutritional risk screening-2002 (NRS-2002) as a nutritional risk screening and status assessment method and to compare it with nutritional status assessed by subjective and objective methods in the screening of head and neck cancer patients. Sixty-five consecutive patients (50 male), with a median age of 61 years (range, 33-77), with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) were enrolled prior to cancer therapy. Nutritional status was assessed by NRS-2002, patient-generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA), handgrip strength (HGS) and mid-arm muscle area (MAMA). Twenty-eight percent of patients were at nutritional risk based on NRS-2002, and 34 % were malnourished according to PG-SGA, while 43 % had low HGS. NRS-2002 cut-off score of ≥3 compared with the nutritional status according to PG-SGA showed 77 % specificity and 98 % sensitivity (K = 0.78). NRS-2002 was able to predict malnutrition (PG-SGA BC) both in men (p < 0.001) and in women (p < 0.05). NRS-2002 identified correctly patients with malnutrition with a score of ≥3 (p < 0.001) and risk patients with a score of ≥2 (p < 0.001). These results suggest that NRS-2002 seems to be a reliable indicator of malnutrition, while NRS-2002 with the cut-off score of ≥2 seems to be more reliable for nutrition screening in head and neck cancer patients prior to oncological treatment.

  14. Intravenous paracetamol infusion: Superior pain management and earlier discharge from hospital in patients undergoing palliative head-neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Saikat; Das, Anjan; Kundu, Ratul; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Hazra, Bimal; Mitra, Tapobrata

    2014-01-01

    Background: Paracetamol; a cyclooxygenase inhibitor; acts through the central nervous system as well as serotoninergic system as a nonopioid analgesic. A prospective, double-blinded, and randomized-controlled study was carried out to compare the efficacy of preoperative 1g intravenous (iv) paracetamol with placebo in providing postoperative analgesia in head-neck cancer surgery. Materials and Methods: From 2008 February to 2009 December, 80 patients for palliative head-neck cancer surgery were randomly divided into (F) and (P) Group receiving ivplacebo and iv paracetamol, respectively, 5 min before induction. Everybody received fentanyl before induction and IM diclofenac for pain relief at8 hourly for 24 h after surgery. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and amount of fentanyl were measured for postoperative pain assessment (24 h). Results and Statistical analysis: The mean VAS score in 1st, 2nd postoperative hour, and fentanyl requirement was less and the need for rescue analgesic was delayed in ivparacetamol group which were all statistically significant. Paracetamol group had a shorter surgical intensive care unit (SICU) and hospital stay which was also statistically significant. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the effectiveness of ivparacetamol as preemptive analgesic in the postoperative pain control after head-neck cancer surgery and earlier discharge from hospital. PMID:25276627

  15. Pretreatment depression as a prognostic indicator of survival and nutritional status in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Shin-Ae; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Lee, Sang-Ah; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Sung-Bae; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Sang Yoon

    2016-01-01

    The emotional status of cancer patients is associated with disease course and treatment outcomes. In this study, the authors evaluated associations between the presence of pretreatment depression and pretreatment quality of life (QOL), nutritional status, and survival outcomes in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). For this prospective study, 241 patients with previously untreated HNSCC who underwent curative treatments were enrolled. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 30-item Core QOL Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), and the EORTC QLQ Head and Neck Cancer module (QLQ-H&N35). EORTC QLQ scores were compared between depressive and nondepressive patients, as determined according to pretreatment BDI-II scores ≥ 14 and <14, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess whether the presence of depression was associated with overall survival, disease-free survival (DFS), or posttreatment changes in nutritional status and laboratory data. Pretreatment depression was present in 60 patients (24.9%). In depressive and nondepressive patients, the 3-year overall survival rates were 70.8% and 82.7%, respectively (P = .045), and the 3-year DFS rates were 63.5% and 79.1%, respectively (P = .015). After controlling for clinical factors, the presence of depression was predictive of 3-year DFS (P = .032). EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-HN35 scores on all items except feeding tube, nutritional supplement, and problem with mouth opening differed between depressive and nondepressive patients (P < .05). Depressive patients had lower pretreatment serum albumin levels than nondepressive patients (P < .05). There was a significant correlation between pretreatment depression and pretreatment QOL, nutritional status, and survival outcomes in patients with HNSCC. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  16. Plasma Carotenoids and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Patients with prior Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Kathryn J.; Mayne, Susan T.; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D.; Johnson, Elizabeth J.; Cartmel, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Diets high in fruits and vegetables are generally believed protective against several chronic diseases. One suggested mechanism is a reduction in oxidative stress. The carotenoids, nutrients found in colored fruits and vegetables, possess antioxidant properties in vitro, but their role in humans is less well documented. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to explore the relationships between the most abundant plasma carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin and beta-cryptoxanthin), as well as grouped carotenoids (total xanthophylls, carotenes and carotenoids), and urinary excretion of the F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), stable and specific biomarkers of oxidative damage to lipids. Two F2-IsoP measures were utilized: total F2-IsoPs and 8-iso-PGF2α. The study population (N = 52) was drawn from a study among patients curatively treated for early-stage head and neck cancer. Unadjusted linear regression analyses revealed significant inverse associations between plasma lutein, total xanthophylls and both F2-IsoP measures at baseline. After control for potential confounders, all individual and grouped xanthophylls remained inversely associated with the F2-IsoP measures, but none of these associations achieved significance. The carotenes were not inversely associated with total F2-IsoPs or 8-iso-PGF2a concentrations. The finding of consistent inverse associations between individual and grouped xanthophylls, but not individual and grouped carotenes, and F2-IsoPs is intriguing and warrants further investigation. PMID:19554200

  17. Calcified carotid artery atheromas on panoramic radiographs of head and neck cancer patients before and after radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Markman, R-L; Conceição-Vasconcelos, K-G; Brandão, T-B; Prado-Ribeiro, A-C; Santos-Silva, A-R; Lopes, M-A

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to verify if head and neck radiotherapy (RT) is able to induce calcified carotid artery atheroma (CCAA) in a large head and neck cancer (HNC) population and also to compare the socio-demographic and clinical findings of patients with and without CCAA detected on panoramic radiographs. Panoramic radiographs taken before and after head and neck radiotherapy (RT) of 180 HNC patients were selected and analyzed in order to identify the presence of CCAA. In addition, CCAA presence or absence on panoramic radiographs were compared and correlated with clinicopathological findings. A high overall prevalence of CCAA was found on panoramic radiographs (63 out of 180 = 35%) of HNC patients. No significant difference of CCAA before and after RT was observed. There were also no differences between groups (with and without CCAA) regarding age, gender, tobacco and alcohol use, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, acute myocardial infarction, hypercholesterolemia, tumor location, clinical stage of disease and RT dose. However, there was a greater prevalence of strokes in patients with CCAA (p<0.05). Although CCAA were frequently found in panoramic radiographs of patients with HNC, RT seems not to alter the prevalence of these calcifications.

  18. Erlotinib, Docetaxel, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-05

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  19. CT-Guided Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrostomy for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Retrospective Evaluation in 177 Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Akio Kato, Kenichi Suzuki, Michiko; Sone, Miyuki; Tanaka, Ryoichi Nakasato, Tatsuhiko Ehara, Shigeru

    2016-02-15

    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to assess the technical success rate and adverse events (AEs) associated with computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous gastrostomy for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC).Materials and MethodsThis retrospective study included patients with HNC who had undergone CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy between February 2007 and December 2013. Information regarding the patients’ backgrounds, CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy techniques, technical success rate, and AEs were obtained from the medical records. In all patients, the stomach was punctured under CT fluoroscopy with a Funada gastropexy device.ResultsDuring the study period, 177 patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy. The most common tumor location was the oral cavity, followed by the pharynx and maxilla. The indication for CT-guided percutaneous gastrostomy were tumor obstruction in 78 patients, postoperative dysphagia in 55 patients, radiation edema in 43 patients, and cerebral infarction in 1 patient. The technical success rate was 97.7 %. The overall mean procedure time was 25.3 min. Major AEs occurred in seven patients (4.0 %), including bleeding (n = 4), colonic injury (n = 1), gastric tear (n = 1), and aspiration pneumonia (n = 1). Minor AEs occurred in 15 patients (8.5 %), which included peristomal leakage (n = 6), irritation (n = 4), inadvertent removal (n = 2), peristomal hemorrhage (n = 1), peristomal infection (n = 1), and wound granulation (n = 1). The mean follow-up period was 111 days (range 1–1106 days).ConclusionOur study suggests that CT-guided gastrostomy may be suitable in patients with HNC.

  20. Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aberrations and proliferation rates in cultured lymphocytes of head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    George, Alex; Dey, Rupraj; Bhuria, Vikas; Banerjee, Shouvik; Ethirajan, Sivakumar; Siluvaimuthu, Ashok; Saraswathy, Radha

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (HNC) are extremely complex disease types and it is likely that chromosomal instability is involved in the genetic mechanisms of its genesis. However, there is little information regarding the background levels of chromosome instability in these patients. In this pilot study, we examined spontaneous chromosome instability in short-term lymphocyte cultures (72 hours) from 72 study subjects - 36 newly diagnosed HNC squamous cell carcinoma patients and 36 healthy ethnic controls. We estimated chromosome instability (CIN) using chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis and nuclear level anomalies using the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome Assay (CBMN Cyt Assay). The proliferation rates in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were assessed by calculating the Cytokinesis Block Proliferation Index (CBPI). Our results showed a significantly higher mean level of spontaneous chromosome type aberrations (CSAs), chromatid type aberration (CTAs) dicentric chromosomes (DIC) and chromosome aneuploidy (CANEUP) in patients (CSAs, 0.0294±0.0038; CTAs, 0.0925±0.0060; DICs, 0.0213±0.0028; and CANEUPs, 0.0308±0.0035) compared to controls (CSAs, 0.0005±0.0003; CTAs, 0.0058±0.0015; DICs, 0.0005±0.0003; and CANEUPs, 0.0052±0.0013) where p<0.001. Similarly, spontaneous nuclear anomalies showed significantly higher mean level of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) among cases (MNi, 0.01867±0.00108; NPBs, 0.01561±0.00234; NBUDs, 0.00658±0.00068) compared with controls (MNi, 0.00027±0.00009; NPBs, 0.00002±0.00002; NBUDs, 0.00011±0.00007).The evaluation of CBPI supported genomic instability in the peripheral blood lymphocytes showing a significantly lower proliferation rate in HNC patients (1.525±0.005552) compared to healthy subjects (1.686±0.009520 ) (p<0.0001). In conclusion, our preliminary results showed that visible spontaneous genomic instability and low rate proliferation in the cultured peripheral

  1. Head and neck cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Stepnick, David; Gilpin, David

    2010-05-01

    Ablative surgery for malignancies of the upper aerodigestive tract is the most common reason why the reconstructive surgeon is called upon to reconstruct adult head and neck defects. An understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of head and neck malignancy is vital to the reconstructive surgeon so that restoration of both form and function can be achieved. It is important to understand the behavior of cancers of each head and neck subsite, as staging and ultimately the treatment of tumors from each subsite is different. Historically, the standard treatment of head and neck cancer was surgery and/or primary radiation therapy with surgical salvage for failure. Beginning in the 1980s, advances in chemotherapy and concurrent delivery with radiation offered new options to standard surgical therapy. Over the past two decades, the concept of organ preservation using chemotherapy together with radiation therapy has been definitively established. Yet, even with the strides made over these two decades with chemoradiation, surgical treatment of head and neck cancer and reconstruction thereof will be an important treatment option for the foreseeable future. Therefore, the relationship between the extirpative and reconstructive surgeon is vital, and a clear understanding of the biology and behavior of head and neck malignancy is crucial to successful patient outcomes.

  2. Response evaluation of the neck in oropharyngeal cancer: Value of magnetic resonance imaging and influence of p16 in selecting patients for post-radiotherapy neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Lilja-Fischer, Jacob K; Jensen, Kenneth; Eskildsen, Helle W; Fink-Jensen, Vibeke; Nielsen, Viveque E

    2015-01-01

    Residual neck disease after radiotherapy in advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is associated with increased mortality, and some patients may benefit from post-radiotherapy neck dissection (PRND). The aim of the present study was to assess the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other clinical characteristics in selecting patients for PRND. Retrospective cohort study. Consecutive patients with N+ OPSCC were included. Medical records, pathology reports and imaging reports were reviewed. Pre- and post-therapeutic imaging was re-evaluated. A total of 100 consecutive patients from a three-year period were included. Neck response was evaluated with MRI two months after treatment. Sixty patients were suspicious for residual neck disease, and were offered surgery; seven of these patients had histologic evidence of carcinoma. Cumulative neck failure after three years was 14% (8.4-24%), and did not differ significantly among patients with positive compared to negative MRI (radiologist's initial description; p = 0.47, log-rank test). Applying neck failure as gold standard, sensitivity and specificity of MRI was 69% and 41%, respectively; positive and negative predictive value was 15% and 90%. Patients with p16 + disease had significantly larger lymph nodes after treatment, and imaging based on lymph node size resulted in many false positives. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves in 191 individual lymph nodes showed that a short axis ≥ 10 mm should be classified as suspicious. Furthermore, T-stage and p16-status were associated with increased risk of neck recurrence. Salvage was successful in four patients with early detected nodal recurrence. These results suggest that lymph node size, T-stage and p16 status could be used in selecting patients for PRND in OPSCC. Yet, early anatomical imaging may be inappropriate for evaluating neck response in patients with p16 + disease as enlarged lymph nodes often do not indicate residual

  3. Head and neck cancer patient and family member interest in and use of E-mail to communicate with clinicians.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Sarah H; Clarke, Sean P; Happ, Mary Beth

    2005-11-01

    E-mail is actively discussed as a promising method for clinical communication, but little study of patient and family preferences regarding its use has been done. This study aimed to describe patients' and family members' interest in and use of E-mail with their surgeons and nurses after head and neck cancer surgery. Surveys were distributed to patients and family members attending postoperative clinic visits. Seventy-four patients and 35 caregivers completed the surveys. Although one in three patients expressed interest in E-mailing their clinicians, only 9.5% reported actually doing so. Symptom management and prescription refills were the most common issues addressed by E-mail. Few family members expressed any interest in using E-mail. The findings suggest that E-mail communication between patients with head and neck cancer or their family members with surgeons and nurses is not common. Interest in using E-mail tends to be stronger among patients than family members. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Variation in repeated mouth-opening measurements in head and neck cancer patients with and without trismus.

    PubMed

    Jager-Wittenaar, H; Dijkstra, P U; Vissink, A; van Oort, R P; Roodenburg, J L N

    2009-01-01

    Trismus after head and neck cancer treatment may severely limit mandibular functioning. Interventions aimed at reducing trismus can only be evaluated when the amount of variation associated with these measurements is known. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation in mouth-opening measurements in patients treated for head and neck cancer, with and without trismus. Maximal mouth opening was measured in 120 patients in two sessions of three repeated measurements by one observer. To analyse the influence of interobserver variation on mouth-opening measurements a subgroup of 30 patients was measured by a second observer. The standard deviation of the six measurements per patient was used as the variation in measurements of maximal mouth opening. No significant difference was found in maximal mouth opening in patients with (n=33) or without (n=87) trismus. The interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.98. Intraobserver ICC and intersession ICC reliabilities both were 0.99. The variation in the mean values of the three measurements was only slightly smaller than the variation of the single measurements. Variation in maximal mouth opening in patients with trismus does not differ from variation in maximal mouth opening in patients without trismus. Interobserver variation is limited.

  5. Influence of pain severity on the quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer before antineoplastic therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the severity of pain and its impact on the quality of life (QoL) in untreated patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods A study group of 127 patients with HNSCC were interviewed before antineoplastic treatment. The severity of pain was measured using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI) questionnaire, and the QoL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the head and neck module (QLQ-H&N35). Results The mean age of the patients was 57.9 years, and there was a predominance of men (87.4%). The most frequent site of the primary tumor was the oral cavity (70.6%), and the majority of the patients had advanced cancers (stages III and IV). QoL in early stage of cancer obtained better scores. Conversely, the patients with advanced stage cancer scored significantly higher on the symptom scales regarding fatigue, pain, appetite loss and financial difficulties, indicating greater difficulties. Regard to the severity of pain, patients with moderate-severe pain revealed a significantly worse score than patients without pain. Conclusions The severity of pain is statistically related to the advanced stages of cancer and directly affects the QoL. An assessment of the quality of life and symptoms before therapy can direct attention to the most important symptoms, and appropriate interventions can then be directed toward improving QoL outcomes and the response to treatment. PMID:24460780

  6. The lack of evidence for PET or PET/CT surveillance of patients with treated lymphoma, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kamal; Hadar, Nira; Lee, Jounghee; Siegel, Barry A; Hillner, Bruce E; Lau, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    PET and PET/CT are widely used for surveillance of patients after cancer treatments. We conducted a systematic review to assess the diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact of PET and PET/CT used for surveillance in several cancers. We searched MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases from 1996 to March 2012 for English-language studies of PET or PET/CT used for surveillance of patients with lymphoma, colorectal cancer, or head and neck cancer. We included prospective or retrospective studies that reported test accuracy and comparative studies that assessed clinical impact. Twelve studies met our inclusion criteria: 6 lymphoma (n = 767 patients), 2 colorectal cancer (n = 96), and 4 head and neck cancer (n = 194). All studies lacked a uniform definition of surveillance and scan protocols. Half the studies were retrospective, and a third were rated as low quality. The majority reported sensitivities and specificities in the range of 90%-100%, although several studies reported lower results. The only randomized controlled trial, a colorectal cancer study with 65 patients in the surveillance arm, reported earlier detection of recurrences with PET and suggested improved clinical outcomes. There is insufficient evidence to draw conclusions on the clinical impact of PET or PET/CT surveillance for these cancers. The lack of standard definitions for surveillance, heterogeneous scanning protocols, and inconsistencies in reporting test accuracy preclude making an informed judgment on the value of PET for this potential indication.

  7. Predictors of long-term opioid treatment among patients who receive chemoradiation for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung Hye; Hui, David; Chisholm, Gary; Bruera, Eduardo

    2013-06-01

    The factors associated with successful opioid discontinuation after cancer treatment are not well-known. We determined the proportion of patients with advanced head and neck cancer who continued using opioids 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy. We included 70 patients with head and neck cancer referred to our institution's supportive care center between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2010. Patients who no longer used opioids 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy were classified as stoppers; patients who continued using opioids were considered nonstoppers. We compared demographics, cancer-related characteristics, alcoholism, substance abuse history, use of psychoactive drugs, and opioid-related factors between stoppers and nonstoppers. In all, 44 of 70 patients (63%) and 23 of 70 patients (33%) continued opioids 3 months and 6 months after the completion of radiation therapy, respectively. A total of 18 of 44 nonstoppers (41%) and 3 of 26 stoppers (12%) were positive for alcoholism based on the CAGE questionnaire (i.e., Cut down, Annoying, Guilty, Eye opener; odds ratio: 5.3). Demographic and clinical characteristics did not differ between stoppers and nonstoppers. The median duration of any type of opioid use of CAGE-positive patients was significantly longer than that of CAGE-negative patients (median: 261 days vs. 93 days; hazard ratio: 2.5). CAGE positivity is a risk factor for opioid use beyond 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy and for duration of opioid treatment. Routine CAGE screening and meticulous follow-up are needed for these patients.

  8. Bevacizumab, Fluorouracil, and Hydroxyurea Plus Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-06

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage III Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous

  9. Association between aldehyde dehydrogenase gene polymorphisms and the phenomenon of field cancerization in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Muto, Manabu; Nakane, Mari; Hitomi, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Shigeru; Sasaki, Satoshi; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Yoshida, Shigeaki; Ebihara, Satoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu

    2002-10-01

    Patients with squamous-cell carcinoma in the head and neck (HNSCC) often develop second primary esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas (ESCC). In addition, widespread epithelial oncogenic alterations are also frequently observed in the esophagus and can be made visible as multiple Lugol-voiding lesions (multiple LVL) by Lugol chromoendoscopy. Multiple occurrences of neoplastic change in the upper aerodigestive tract have been explained by the concept of 'field cancerization', usually associated with repeated exposure to carcinogens such as alcohol and cigarette smoke. However, the etiology of second ESCC in HNSCC patients remains unclear and acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol, has been implicated as the ultimate carcinogen in alcohol-related carcinogenesis. We first investigated the relation between second ESCC and multiple LVL in 78 HNSCC patients. Multiple LVL and second ESCC were observed in 29 (37%) and 21 (27%) patients, respectively. All of the second ESCC were accompanied by multiple LVL. This may indicate that episodes of multiple LVL are precursors for second ESCC. We then examined the association of multiple LVL with the patients' characteristics, including genetic polymorphisms of the alcohol metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase type 3 (ADH3) and aldehyde dehydrogenase type 2 (ALDH2). We also investigated acetaldehyde concentrations in the breath of 52 of the 78 patients. All the patients with multiple LVL were both drinkers and smokers. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that the inactive ALDH2 allele (ALDH2-2) was the strongest contributing factor for the development of multiple LVL (odds ratio 17.6; 95% confidence intervals 4.7-65.3). After alcohol ingestion, acetaldehyde in the breath was elevated to a significantly higher level in all patients with the ALDH2-2 allele than in those without it. The high levels of breath acetaldehyde were significantly modified by the slow-metabolizing ADH3-2 allele. These results reveal strong

  10. Effect of selective elimination of the oral flora on mucositis in irradiated head and neck cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Spijkervet, F.K.; Van Saene, H.K.; Van Saene, J.J.; Panders, A.K.; Vermey, A.; Mehta, D.M.; Fidler, V. )

    1991-03-01

    Recently it has been reported that chlorhexidine 0.1% rinsing was not successful in eradication of gram-negative bacilli in patients who have head and neck cancer. These bacilli could play a role in irradiation mucositis. This study reports the effect of lozenges containing 2 mg polymyxin E, 1.8 mg tobramycin, and 10 mg amphotericin B qid on the oropharyngeal flora in 15 irradiated head and neck cancer patients. The results were compared with those of a previous study in two groups of 15 patients comparing chlorhexidine rinsing with placebo. In all patients using lozenges, eradication of gram-negative bacilli and yeasts was achieved within 3 weeks. A significant increase of enterococci was found. Mucositis was significantly reduced compared with the previous two groups. All patients showed erythema only, whereas 80% of both the placebo and chlorhexidine rinsing patients suffered from severe mucositis, with signs of pseudomembranes developing from the third week of conventional irradiation protocol. The effect of selective elimination of gram-negative bacilli from the oropharynx and the prevention of severe mucositis may be explained by the eradication of these bacteria and/or neutralization of salivary endotoxin, released by gram-negative bacilli, mediating the inflammatory processes.

  11. Characteristics of head and neck cancer patients referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon in the United States for management.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Jon D; Martin, R Andrew; Gutta, Rajesh

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the characteristics of patients with head and neck cancer, excluding cutaneous malignancies, referred to an oral and maxillofacial surgeon in the United States for management. We performed a retrospective chart review of all head and neck cancer patients referred to the senior author's oral and maxillofacial surgery practice over 12 consecutive months. Data were extracted from the patients' comprehensive record and included demographics, social history, site, histologic diagnosis, staging, treatment, and referral patterns. A total of 90 patients, 51 men and 39 women (male-female ratio, 1.3:1), with a mean age of 64.4 years (range, 32-91 years) were referred with head and neck cancer, excluding skin cancer, over the 12-month period and were included in the study. Regarding ethnicity, 88.8% of the patients were white, 11.1% African American, and 1.1% Asian. Most of the patients, 84.4%, were referred from within the state, but only 21.1% of these resided within the metropolitan area of the senior author's practice. Of the patients in the study population, 95.5% had either private or state-provided/federally provided insurance. Social history showed that 59.9% of patients were current or past smokers, 31.1% were nonsmokers, and 8.8% were smokeless tobacco users, and only 18.8% admitted to alcohol use. Approximately 80% of patients were initially evaluated by a general dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, or periodontist, and 93% of referrals were from other oral and maxillofacial surgeons. Over 90% of lesions were located in the oral cavity, and only 6.6% were oropharyngeal primary cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma made up 89% of the lesions, whereas minor salivary gland and metastatic carcinomas comprised the other 11%. At the time of diagnosis, 64.4% of the lesions were early stage (I/II) and 35.6% were late stage (III/IV). Analysis of treatment modalities showed that 87.8% underwent surgery, excluding biopsy, as part of

  12. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Results Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. Conclusions The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy. PMID:22313843

  13. Pretreatment performance status and nutrition are associated with early mortality of locally advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Hung; Yeh, Kun-Yun; Huang, Jen-Seng; Lai, Chien-Hong; Wu, Tsung-Han; Lan, Yii-Jenq; Tsai, Jason Chien-Sheng; Chen, Eric Yen-Chao; Yang, Shih-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Hsu

    2013-05-01

    Unexpected fatal events in patients with head and neck cancers undergoing concurrent chemoradiation therapy are a clinical concern. Malnutrition, which is reported frequently in head and neck cancer patients, are associated with immunity derangement. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for early death of patients undergoing chemoradiation. We retrospectively analyzed the records of 194 stage III, IVA, and IVB head and neck cancer patients who were treated with chemoradiation between 2007 and 2009. We defined early death as death while receiving chemoradiation or within 60 days of treatment completion. Risk factors for early death were tested using univariate and multivariate analyses. Fourteen patients (7.2 %) experienced early death, 78.6 % of whom died of infection. Univariate analysis revealed significant correlations between early death and several pretreatment variables, including Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) >1, hemoglobin <10 g/dL, albumin <3 g/dL, body mass index (BMI) <19 kg/m(2), and peripheral blood total lymphocyte count <700/μL. Multivariate analysis showed that PS >1, BMI <19 kg/m(2), and peripheral blood total lymphocyte count <700/μL were independent variables associated with early death. Poor performance status and malnutrition before chemoradiation independently predict early death in locally advanced head and neck cancer patients undergoing chemoradiation. Cautious management of head and neck cancer patients with these risk factors is required throughout chemoradiation period.

  14. Perioperative enteral nutrition and quality of life of severely malnourished head and neck cancer patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Van Bokhorst-de Van der Schuer, M A; Langendoen, S I; Vondeling, H; Kuik, D J; Quak, J J; Van Leeuwen, P A

    2000-12-01

    This study evaluated the use of perioperative nutritional support on Quality of Life (QOL) in malnourished head and neck cancer patients undergoing surgery. 49 Malnourished (weight loss >10%) head and neck cancer patients who were included in a nutrition intervention trial were randomized to receive either no preoperative and standard postoperative tube-feeding (group I), standard preoperative and postoperative tube-feeding (group II) or arginine-supplemented preoperative and postoperative tube-feeding (group III). Of these patients, 31 completed a full QOL assessment on the first day of preoperative nutritional support, one day before surgery, and 6 months after surgery. Both a disease-specific (EORTC QLQ-C30) and a generic questionnaire (COOP-WONCA) were used. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied for testing differences in scores between groups. Between baseline and the day before surgery, both preoperatively fed groups revealed a positive change for the dimensions physical and emotional functioning and dyspnea (with significance in group II, P=0.050,0.031,0.045 respectively). Group III showed a negative change in appetite (P=0.049). Between baseline and 6 months after surgery, there were no differences between group I and both pre-fed groups. There were no differences in favour of group III compared to group II. Enteral nutrition improves QOL of severely malnourished head and neck cancer patients in the period preceding surgery. No benefit of preoperative enteral feeding on QOL could be demonstrated 6 months after surgery. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  15. Importance of hemoglobin concentration and its modification for the outcome of head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Camilla Molich

    2012-04-01

    Hypoxia induced radioresistance has been acknowledged for decades. One of the indirect evidences of the influence of hypoxia on radiation response comes from the observations of a correlation between tumor control and hemoglobin level. This review examines the clinical data on the prognostic and predictive role of hemoglobin level and hemoglobin manipulation in radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, a tumor type where hypoxic radioresistance have been previously documented. The aim is to evaluate the existing literature for information of the influence of hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin modifications on tumor oxygenation and outcome in head and neck squamous cell cancer patients. The data from several randomized trials show that while most studies have confirmed the prognostic value of hemoglobin, increasing the hemoglobin level through transfusion or erythropoietin stimulation did not result in improved outcome for patients with low initial hemoglobin levels. Clinical studies showed that smoking reduced the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood through formation of carboxyhemoglobin, and lead to poorer response to radiotherapy in smokers compared to non-smokers. Smoking also increased the risk of the development of secondary cancers. In conclusion, low hemoglobin is a significant negative prognostic factor for radiotherapy of head and neck cancer. Correction of pre-treatment low hemoglobin by blood transfusion and/or erythropoietin stimulating agents does, however, not improve the outcome. Smoking leads to a decrease in effective hemoglobin and poorer treatment outcome. Smoking should be avoided in order to improve the therapeutic efficacy of radiotherapy and development of other smoking-related diseases and/or secondary cancers.

  16. The Effects of Compliance with Nutritional Counselling on Body Composition Parameters in Head and Neck Cancer Patients under Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ozkaya Akagunduz, O.; Meseri Dalak, R.; Esassolak, M.; Uyar, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Radiotherapy (RT) has been associated with increased risk of malnutrition in cancer patients, particularly in those with head and neck cancer (HNC). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of compliance of patients with individual dietary counselling on body composition parameters in HNC patients under RT. Material and Methods. Sixty-nine consecutive patients (mean age: 61.0 ± 13.8) were prospectively followed. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed to determine body composition parameters before, in the middle of, and at the end of RT. All patients received nutritional counselling and majority of them (94.6%) received oral nutritional supplement (ONS) during RT or chemoradiotherapy. If a patient consumed ≥75% of the recommended energy and protein intake via ONS and regular food, he/she was considered to be “compliant” (n = 18), while those who failed to meet this criteria were considered to be “noncompliant” (n = 30). Results. Body mass index, weight, fat percentage, fat mass, fat free mass, and muscle mass did not decrease significantly over time in compliant patients, but in noncompliant patients, all of these indices decreased significantly from baseline compared to the end of treatment (p < 0.001). Hand grip strength did not differ significantly between the two groups at baseline and over time in each group. When retrospectively evaluated, heavy mucositis was less commonly observed in compliant than noncompliant patients (11.1% versus 88.9%, resp.) (p < 0.009). Conclusion. We conclude that body composition parameters were better in head and neck cancer patients considered as compliant with nutritional counselling than noncompliant ones during RT period. PMID:28116152

  17. Indomethacin sensitive suppressor cell activity in head and neck cancer patients pre- and postirradiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Maca, R.D.; Panje, W.R.

    1982-08-01

    The effects of the addition of indomethacin to PHA or Con A stimulated lymphocytes from patients with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or from patients with the disease who have just finished irradiation therapy from the disease was quantitated and compared to those of the control group. Lymphocytes from eight of 26 patients with untreated carcinoma were significantly augmented by the addition of indomethacin. The remaining eighteen patients were equal to the controls. For all 17 patients who had just finished extensive field irradiation therapy, significant enhancement of PHA and Con A reactivity by indomethacin was found, which did not appear to be solely a function of low baseline mitogen reactivity. The results of this study support the hypothesis that perhaps patients receiving irradiation therapy may benefit by the oral administration of indomethacin, an approach that needs further consideration.

  18. Neck dissection with cervical sensory preservation in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shuai; Wang, Peisong; Chen, Guang

    2013-11-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Recently, controversy has focused on the management of lymph node metastases, which represent approximately 90% of disease recurrences and may require considerable time, effort, and resources to diagnose and treat. Neck dissections play an essential role in the management of head and neck cancer. A modified radical neck dissection (MND) refers to resection of the lymph nodes in levels II through V and often including the central nodes in level VI. When performing modified neck dissection, we recommend to protect more reserved cervical plexus. The purpose is to better protect patient's neck skin feeling.

  19. Trial of Postoperative Radiation, Cisplatin, and Panitumumab in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-28

    Cancer of Head; Cancer of Head and Neck; Cancer of Neck; Cancer of the Head; Cancer of the Head and Neck; Cancer of the Neck; Head and Neck Cancer; Head Cancer; Head Neoplasms; Head, Neck Neoplasms; Neck Cancer; Neck Neoplasms; Neoplasms, Head; Neoplasms, Head and Neck; Neoplasms, Neck; Neoplasms, Upper Aerodigestive Tract; UADT Neoplasms; Upper Aerodigestive Tract Neoplasms

  20. Venous Thromboembolism—Incidence of Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Tertiary Care Experience in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Naeem Sultan; Nawaz, Ahmad; Junaid, Montasir; Kazi, Maliha; Akhtar, Shabbir

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although venous thromboembolism (VTE) is seen with morbidity and mortality in various surgical specialties, scarce data are available in the head and neck surgery domain. Objective We aim to determine the incidence of VTE in patients receiving surgery for head and neck cancer. Methods Four hundred thirteen patients who underwent head and neck surgery procedures between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients with head and neck surgery had received thromboprophylaxis (i.e., compression stockings and subcutaneous heparin). Patient demographics, operating time, and length of hospital stay were analyzed. The incidence of symptomatic deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) during the initial postoperative hospitalization was assessed. Results Twelve patients were identified who developed VTE. Three patients developed DVT, and nine developed PE. The incidence of DVT and PE was 0.72 and 2.17%, respectively. Interestingly, all of these patients had undergone excision of extensive head and neck cancers accompanied by a reconstructive procedure. Patients who developed PE had a longer hospital stay compared with those who only had DVT. There were overall three mortalities in the nine patients who developed PE. Conclusion Although VTE has a low incidence, it is a known complication of extensive head and neck surgeries with life-threatening outcomes. We recommend early mobilization and physiotherapy with the possible aid from appropriate mechanical and pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis. PMID:26157492

  1. Validated swallowing and nutrition guidelines for patients with head and neck cancer: identification of high-risk patients for proactive gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Teresa E; Spurgin, Ann-Louise; Ross, Lynda; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Hughes, Brett G M; Hodge, Rob; Walker, Quenten; Banks, Merrilyn; Kenny, Lizbeth Moira; Crombie, Jane

    2013-10-01

    The "Swallowing and Nutrition Guidelines for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer" were developed to guide early identification and management of dysphagia and nutritional risk before, during, and after cancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to validate these guidelines. Patients attending a Combined Head and Neck Clinic at a major tertiary hospital in 2007 to 2008 were assessed using the guidelines, with high-risk category patients recommended for proactive gastrostomy. Data were collected on guideline adherence, gastrostomy tube insertion, and weight. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value were calculated for validation. Proactive gastrostomy tubes were inserted in 173 of 501 patients (25%). Overall guideline adherence was 87%. High-risk category adherence was 75%. Validation outcomes were sensitivity 54%, specificity 93%, and positive predictive value 82%. The risk categories in the guidelines are valid to assist early identification of swallowing and nutritional risk and guide decision-making on proactive gastrostomy tube insertion. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Assessment of nutritional status at the time of diagnosis in patients treated for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Righini, C-A; Timi, N; Junet, P; Bertolo, A; Reyt, E; Atallah, I

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status at the time of diagnosis of patients treated for head and neck cancer. Single-centre prospective study. Nutritional assessment comprised: clinical interview, physical examination, and a laboratory work-up. Clinical interview assessed: reference weight, diet, calorie intake, causes of weight loss, use of dietary supplements. A subjective global assessment of nutritional status (Detsky index) was established on the basis of clinical interview. The patient's height and weight were determined and serum albumin was assayed. Weight loss, body mass index, and Buzby index were then calculated. Two groups of malnourished patients were distinguished: moderately malnourished (group 1), severely malnourished (group 2). Variables were compared between the two groups by Chi(2) test. One hundred and sixty-nine patients were included in the study: 145 had a history of smoking and alcohol abuse, 82 (48.5%) were malnourished and 47 of them were classified in group 1. All patients of group 1 had a normal or pureed diet. 21 (69%) patients of group 2 had a pureed or liquid diet. The mean daily calorie intake was 31kcal/kg/24h for group 1 and 20kcal/kg/24h for group 2. The main causes of weight loss were pain and dysphagia. Dietary supplements were not used by any of the patients in group 1 and by four (13%) patients in group 2. The concordance between the Detsky index and objective nutritional status was 92% for the overall population. Malnutrition was significantly more frequent among males (P=0.01), alcohol users (P=0.02), elderly subjects (P=0.01), patients with pharyngeal tumour (P=0.03), and patients with advanced tumour stage (P=0.01). The prevalence of malnutrition among patients with head and neck cancer is high. Assessment of nutritional status and appropriate management must be part of the initial work-up of these patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Is ExacTrac x-ray system an alternative to CBCT for positioning patients with head and neck cancers?

    SciTech Connect

    Clemente, Stefania; Chiumento, Costanza; Fiorentino, Alba; Cozzolino, Mariella; Oliviero, Caterina; Califano, Giorgia; Caivano, Rocchina; Fusco, Vincenzo; Simeon, Vittorio

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of a six-degrees-of freedom (6D) correction using ExacTrac robotics system in patients with head-and-neck (HN) cancer receiving radiation therapy.Methods: Local setup accuracy was analyzed for 12 patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patient position was imaged daily upon two different protocols, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and ExacTrac (ET) images correction. Setup data from either approach were compared in terms of both residual errors after correction and punctual displacement of selected regions of interest (Mandible, C2, and C6 vertebral bodies).Results: On average, both protocols achieved reasonably low residual errors after initial correction. The observed differences in shift vectors between the two protocols showed that CBCT tends to weight more C2 and C6 at the expense of the mandible, while ET tends to average more differences among the different ROIs.Conclusions: CBCT, even without 6D correction capabilities, seems preferable to ET for better consistent alignment and the capability to see soft tissues. Therefore, in our experience, CBCT represents a benchmark for positioning head and neck cancer patients.

  4. Randomised controlled trial of early prophylactic feeding vs standard care in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Brown, Teresa E; Banks, Merrilyn D; Hughes, Brett G M; Lin, Charles Y; Kenny, Lizbeth M; Bauer, Judith D

    2017-06-27

    Weight loss remains significant in patients with head and neck cancer, despite prophylactic gastrostomy and intensive dietary counseling. The aim of this study was to improve outcomes utilising an early nutrition intervention. Patients with head and neck cancer at a tertiary hospital in Australia referred for prophylactic gastrostomy prior to curative intent treatment were eligible for this single centre randomised controlled trial. Exclusions included severe malnutrition or dysphagia. Patients were assigned following computer-generated randomisation sequence with allocation concealment to either intervention or standard care. The intervention group commenced supplementary tube feeding immediately following tube placement. Primary outcome measure was percentage weight loss at three months post treatment. Recruitment completed June 2015 with 70 patients randomised to standard care (66 complete cases) and 61 to intervention (56 complete cases). Following intention-to-treat analysis, linear regression found no effect of the intervention on weight loss (10.9±6.6% standard care vs 10.8±5.6% intervention, P=0.930) and this remained non-significant on multivariable analysis (P=0.624). No other differences were found for quality of life or clinical outcomes. No serious adverse events were reported. The early intervention did not improve outcomes, but poor adherence to nutrition recommendations impacted on potential outcomes.

  5. Saracatinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-02

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of

  6. Quality of life associated factors in head and neck cancer patients in a developing country using the FACT-H&N.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Sobia; Doss, Jennifer Geraldine; Cella, David; Rogers, Simon N

    2015-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) associated factors are vital considerations prior to treatment decision-making for head and neck cancer patients. The study aimed to identify potential socio-demographic and clinical prognostic value of HRQoL in head and neck cancer patients in a developing country. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-H&N)-V4 in Urdu language was administered among 361 head and neck cancer patients. Data were statistically tested through multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and regression modeling to identify the potentially associated factors. Treatment status, tumor stage and tumor site had the strongest negative impact on patients HRQoL, with a statistically significant decrement in FACT summary scales (effect size >0.15). Moderate associated factors of HRQoL included treatment type, marital status, employment status and age (effect size range 0.06-0.15). Weak associated factors of HRQoL with a small effect size (>0.01-0.06) included tumor size and type, gender, education level and ethnicity. This study reports 12 socio-demographic and clinical variables that have a significant impact on HRQoL of head, and neck cancer patients, and that should be considered during treatment decision-making by multidisciplinary teams and also in future HRQoL studies conducted in other developing countries. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical impact of surveillance for head and neck cancer in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Yano, Tomonori; Yoda, Yusuke; Oono, Yasuhiro; Ikematsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ohtsu, Atsushi; Kaneko, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the clinical impact of surveillance for head and neck (HN) region with narrow band imaging (NBI) in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). METHODS Since 2006, we introduced the surveillance for HN region using NBI for all patients with ESCC before treatment, and each follow-up. The patients with newly diagnosed stage I to III ESCC were enrolled and classified into two groups as follows: Group A (no surveillance for HN region); between 1992 and 2000), and Group B (surveillance for HN region with NBI; between 2006 and 2008). We comparatively evaluated the detection rate of superficial head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and the serious events due to metachronous advanced HNSCC during the follow-up. RESULTS A total 561 patients (group A: 254, group B: 307) were enrolled. Synchronous superficial HNSCC was detected in 1 patient (0.3%) in group A, and in 12 (3.9%) in group B (P = 0.008). During the follow up period, metachronous HNSCC were detected in 10 patients (3.9%) in group A and in 30 patients (9.8%) in group B (P = 0.008). All metachronous lesions in group B were early stage, and 26 patients underwent local resection, however, 6 of 10 patients (60%) in group A lost their laryngeal function and died with metachronous HNSCC. CONCLUSION Surveillance for the HN region by using NBI endoscopy increase the detection rate of early HNSCC in patients with ESCC, and led to decrease serious events related to advanced metachronous HNSCC. PMID:28246479

  8. Quantifying fibrosis in head and neck cancer treatment: An overview.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Emma C; Brunner, Markus; Alexander, Ashlin J; Clark, Jonathan

    2015-08-01

    Fibrosis is a common late complication of radiotherapy and/or surgical treatment for head and neck cancers. Fibrosis is difficult to quantify and formal methods of measure are not well recognized. The purpose of this review was to summarize the methods available to quantify neck fibrosis. A PubMed search of articles was carried out using key words "neck" and "fibrosis." Many methods have been used to assess fibrosis, however, there is no preferred methodology. Specific to neck fibrosis, most studies have relied upon hand palpation rating scales. Indentation and suction techniques have been used to mechanically quantify neck fibrosis. There is scope to develop applications of ultrasound, dielectric, bioimpedance, and MRI techniques for use in the neck region. Quantitative assessment of neck fibrosis is sought after in order to compare treatment regimens and improve quality of life outcomes in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil for head and neck cancer--for tongue cancer patients in comparison patients with other therapies].

    PubMed

    Furusaka, Tohru

    2006-09-01

    In order to cure head and neck cancer without resection, chemotherapy (superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy with DCF) was conducted by anterograde, superselective intra-arterial infusion of 50-60 mg/m(2) of DOC and 50-60 mg/m(2) of CDDP via the femoral artery on day 1 followed by continuous intravenous instillation of 600-750 mg/m(2)/day of 5-FU for 5 days from day 2. A total of 70 patients with advanced and recurrent cancer of the head and neck have been treated since April 2000. With the median follow-up duration of 1,017 days, the survival rate was 92.7% and the organ preservation rate was 90.1%. Almost no complications associated with this therapy were observed. Due to space limitations, here we report only cases of tongue cancer. Histological CR was obtained from all 19 patients with squamous cell cancer of the tongue. With the median follow-up duration of 1,371 days (45.7 months: 471-2, 133 days), the survival rate was 94.74% and the organ preservation rate was 88.42% by the Kaplan-Meier method. For both the survival rate and organ preservation rate, extremely good results were obtained by the superselective intra-arterial infusion therapy with DCF compared to the intravenous infusion therapy using a combination of CDDP and 5-FU (five-year survival rate: 20%) as well as the superselective intra-arterial infusion of CDDP alone followed by continuous intravenous infusion of 5-FU (five year survival rate: 28.5%) that had been conducted before. Major adverse effects observed were leukopenia and alopecia. Although patients who underwent concurrent radiation therapy developed mucositis and dermatitis, both were reversible changes.

  10. Energy intake and sources of nutritional support in patients with head and neck cancer--a randomised longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Silander, E; Jacobsson, I; Bertéus-Forslund, H; Hammerlid, E

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition decreases the cancer patient's ability to manage treatment, affects quality of life and survival, and is common among head and neck (HN) cancer patients due to the tumour location and the treatment received. In this study, advanced HN cancer patients were included and followed during 2 years in order to measure their energy intake, choice of energy sources and to assess problems with dysphagia. The main purpose was to explore when and for how long the patients had dysphagia and lost weight due to insufficient intake and if having a PEG (percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy) in place for enteral nutrition made a difference. One hundred thirty-four patients were included and randomised to either a prophylactic PEG for early enteral feeding or nutritional care according to clinical praxis. At seven time points weight, dysphagia and energy intake (assessed as oral, nutritional supplements, enteral and parenteral) were measured. Both groups lost weight the first six months due to insufficient energy intake and used enteral nutrition as their main intake source; no significant differences between groups were found. Problems with dysphagia were vast during the 6 months. At the 6-, 12- and 24-month follow-ups both groups reached estimated energy requirements and weight loss ceased. Oral intake was the major energy source after 1 year. HN cancer patients need nutritional support and enteral feeding for a long time period during and after treatment due to insufficient energy intake. A prophylactic PEG did not significantly improve the enteral intake probably due to treatment side effects.

  11. Sequential chemoradiotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Janinis, J; Papadakou, M; Panagos, G; Panousaki, A; Georgoulias, V; Hatzidaki, D; Lefantzis, D; Dokianakis, G

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this phase II trial was to evaluate the toxicity of a sequential chemoradiotherapy approach using docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) (DCF) with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor support in previously untreated patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (HNC). Secondary endpoints included preliminary assessment of response. Patients with locally advanced HNC, a World Health Organization performance status 0 to 2, and no prior history of chemotherapy or radiotherapy were included. Treatment consisted of docetaxel 80 mg/m2 (1-hour infusion) on day 1, cisplatin 40 mg/m2 (1-hour infusion) on days 2 and 3, and 5-fluorouracil 1,000 mg/m2 (24-hour continuous infusion), on days 1 to 3, repeated every 28 days for a maximum of 4 cycles per patient. All patients received granulocyte colony stimulating factors subcutaneously between days 4 and 9. Radiation therapy (RT) to the primary tumor site and neck lymph nodes was planned within 5 weeks of the last cycle of chemotherapy. The primary tumor site received 60 to 70 Gy. Twenty patients (median age 56 years, range: 40-72 years) received a total of 60 cycles of DCF. The median number of cycles was 3 (range: 1-4 cycles). All patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. The most common acute nonhematologic toxicities from DCF induction chemotherapy included alopecia, mucositis, peripheral sensory neuropathy, onycholysis, and asthenia. Febrile neutropenia developed in two patients and grade IV diarrhea in one patient. There were no treatment-related deaths. The overall response rate (RR) after DCF induction chemotherapy was 90% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 76.8-103.1%). After the completion of RT, the overall RR was 95% with a complete response rate of 73% (95% CI: 49.9-90.1%). Organ preservation was achieved in eight patients with laryngeal cancer and one patient with base of tongue involvement. After a median follow-up of 36 months (range: 5-43 months) the median disease-free and

  12. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Cutaneous Melanoma AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer

  13. Adherence to Preventive Exercises and Self-Reported Swallowing Outcomes in Post-Radiation Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shinn, Eileen Huh; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Baum, George; Steen, Sven; Bauman, Rachel Freeman; Morrison, William; Garden, Adam Seth; Sheil, Cathleen; Kilgore, Kelly; Hutcheson, Kate; Barringer, Denise; Yuan, Ying; Lewin, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background To reduce the risk of long-term swallowing complications after radiation, swallowing exercises may be helpful. Both the rate of adherence to swallowing exercises and its impact on future swallowing function is unknown. Methods 109 oropharyngeal cancer patients beginning radiation were tracked for two years to determine adherence to swallowing exercises. Participants completed the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) 1–2 years after treatment to assess self-reported swallowing function. Adherence, demographics, tumor and treatment variables were multivariably regressed onto the MDADI physical subscale score. Results Per speech pathologist documentation, 13% of the participants were fully adherent and 32% were partially adherent. Adherence was associated with the Physical MDADI Subscale score in the multivariate model (p=.01). Conclusions The majority of head and neck cancer patients are nonadherent to swallowing exercise regimens and may benefit from supportive care strategies to optimize their adherence. PMID:24142523

  14. Outcome of patients with early stage oral cancer managed by an observation strategy towards the N0 neck using ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology: No survival difference as compared to elective neck dissection.

    PubMed

    Flach, Géke B; Tenhagen, Mark; de Bree, Remco; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; van der Waal, Isaac; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Kuik, Dirk J; Castelijns, Jonas A; Leemans, C René

    2013-02-01

    Management of the clinically N0 neck in oral cancer patients remains controversial. We describe the outcome of patients with T1-T2 oral cancer and N0 neck based on ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology (USgFNAC) who were treated by transoral excision and followed by a 'wait and scan' policy (W&S). This retrospective analysis included 285 consecutive patients of whom 234 were followed by W&S and 51 underwent elective neck dissection (END). Survival rates were compared between groups and correction for confounding factors was performed. Of W&S patients, the 5-year disease-specific (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were 94.2% and 81.6% respectively. During follow-up 72.2% remained free of lymph node metastases and 27.8% developed delayed metastases. W&S patients with delayed metastases had a 5-year DSS and OS of 80.0% and 62.8%, respectively. In patients with positive END these rates were 81.3% and 64.2%, respectively. Between the groups, survival rates were not significantly different. Of the W&S patients with delayed metastases, 90.6% needed adjuvant radiotherapy versus 55.0% of patients with positive END. With regard to survival, in patients with early stage oral cancer and cN0 neck a 'wait and scan' policy using strict USgFNAC surveillance is justified as survival is not negatively influenced. Using a 'wait and scan' follow-up strategy instead of elective neck treatment, unnecessary neck dissection and its accompanying morbidity can be avoided in 72.2% of patients. However, for the small proportion of patients with delayed metastases, more extensive treatment with adjuvant radiotherapy is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Pretreatment nutritional status and locoregional failure of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing definitive concurrent chemoradiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Platek, Mary E; Reid, Mary E; Wilding, Gregory E; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Rigual, Nestor R; Hicks, Wesley L; Popat, Saurin R; Warren, Graham W; Sullivan, Maureen; Thorstad, Wade L; Khan, Mohamed K; Loree, Thom R; Singh, Anurag K

    2011-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine if markers of nutritional status predict for locoregional failure following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). We performed a retrospective chart review of 78 patients with SCCHN who received definitive CCRT. We compared patient factors, tumor characteristics, and nutritional status indicators between patients with and without locoregional failure. Fifteen of 78 patients (19%) experienced locoregional failure. Median follow-up for live patients was 38 months. On univariate analysis, pretreatment percentage of ideal body weight (%IBW) (p < .01), pretreatment hemoglobin (p = .04), and treatment duration (p < .01) were significant predictors of failure. On multivariate analysis, pretreatment %IBW (p = .04) and treatment time (p < .01) remained statistically significant. Although treatment time is an accepted risk factor for failure, differences in outcome for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing definitive CCRT based on pretreatment %IBW should be examined further. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. PRETREATMENT NUTRITIONAL STATUS AND LOCOREGIONAL FAILURE IN PATIENTS WITH HEAD AND NECK CANCER UNDERGOING DEFINITIVE CONCURRENT CHEMORADIATION THERAPY

    PubMed Central

    Platek, Mary E.; Reid, Mary E.; Wilding, Gregory E.; Jaggernauth, Wainwright; Rigual, Nestor R.; Hicks, Wesley L.; Popat, Saurin R.; Warren, Graham W.; Sullivan, Maureen; Thorstad, Wade L.; Khan, Mohamed K.; Loree, Thom R.; Singh, Anurag K.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was carried out to determine if markers of nutritional status predict for locoregional failure following intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 78 patients with SCCHN who received definitive CCRT. We compared patient factors, tumor characteristics, and nutritional status indicators between patients with and without locoregional failure. Results Fifteen of 78 patients (19%) experienced locoregional failure. Median follow-up for live patients was 38 months. On univariate analysis, pretreatment percentage of ideal body weight (%IBW) (p < .01), pretreatment hemoglobin (p = .04), and treatment duration (p < .01) were significant predictors of failure. On multivariate analysis, pretreatment %IBW (p = .04) and treatment time (p < .01) remained statistically significant. Conclusions Although treatment time is an accepted risk factor for failure, differences in outcome for patients with head and neck cancer undergoing definitive CCRT based on pre-treatment %IBW should be examined further. PMID:21990220

  17. Risk of head and neck cancer in patients with diabetes mellitus: a retrospective cohort study in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Shu; Lin, Charlene; Lin, Yung-Song; Weng, Shih-Feng

    2014-08-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that certain types of cancers are more common in people with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, the risk of head and neck cancer (HNC) in patients with DM has seldom been explored. To examine the risk of HNC in patients with DM. In this retrospective cohort study using Taiwan's Longitudinal Health Insurance Research Database, we compared 89,089 patients newly diagnosed as having DM and controls without DM-related medical claims matched for comorbidities (obesity, coronary artery disease, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension), sex, and age. Patients were assessed from the index date until the end of follow-up on December 31, 2011, or until the patient was censored because of death. The incidence of HNC at the end of 2011. The incidence of HNC was 1.47 times higher in patients newly diagnosed as having DM than was the risk of a first malignant tumor in the control group (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 1.48; 95% CI, 1.31-1.67). The risks of oral cancer (AHR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.47-2.06), oropharyngeal cancer (AHR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.01-2.31), and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (AHR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.03-1.89) were significantly higher in patients with DM than in controls. Diabetes is associated with an increased risk of developing HNC. The risks of developing oral cavity cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma were significantly higher in patients with DM.

  18. Validation of an educative manual for patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Flávia Oliveira de Almeida Marques da; Ferreira, Elaine Barros; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira da; Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz Dos

    2016-06-14

    develop the content and face validation of an educative manual for patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiation therapy. descriptive methodological research. The Theory of Psychometrics was used for the validation process, developed by 15 experts in the theme area of the educative manual and by two language and publicity professionals. A minimum agreement level of 80% was considered to guarantee the validity of the material. the items addressed in the assessment tool of the educative manual were divided in three blocks: objectives, structure and format, and relevance. Only one item, related to the sociocultural level of the target public, obtained an agreement rate <80%, and was reformulated based on the participants' suggestions. All other items were considered appropriate and/or complete appropriate in the three blocks proposed: objectives - 92.38%, structure and form - 89.74%, and relevance - 94.44%. the face and content validation of the educative manual proposed were attended to. This can contribute to the understanding of the therapeutic process the head and neck cancer patient is submitted to during the radiation therapy, besides supporting clinical practice through the nursing consultation. validar o conteúdo e a aparência de manual educativo direcionado aos pacientes com câncer de cabeça e pescoço, submetidos à radioterapia. pesquisa metodológica, de caráter descritivo. Utilizou-se a Teoria da Psicometria para o processo de validação, o qual foi realizado por 15 peritos na área temática do manual educativo e por dois profissionais de letras e publicidade. Foi considerado o índice de concordância de, no mínimo, 80% para se garantir a validação do material. os itens abordados no instrumento de avaliação do manual educativo foram divididos em três blocos: objetivos, estrutura e apresentação, e relevância. Apenas um item, relacionado ao nível sociocultural do público-alvo, obteve índice de concordância <80%, tendo sido

  19. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation into Brazilian Portuguese of the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 (VHNSS 2.0) for the assessment of oral symptoms in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Eliane Marçon; Carvalho, André Lopes; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo; Nunes, João Soares; Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro

    2015-01-01

    Patients submitted to radiotherapy for the treatment of head and neck cancer have several symptoms, predominantly oral. The Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 is an American tool developed to evaluate oral symptoms in head and neck cancer patients submitted to radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to translate the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey version 2.0 into Brazilian Portuguese and cross-culturally adapt this tool for subsequent validation and application in Brazil. A method used for the translation and cultural adaptation of tools, which included independent translations, synthesis of the translations, back-translations, expert committee, and pre-test, was used. The pre-test was performed with 37 head and neck cancer patients, who were divided into four groups, to assess the relevance and understanding of the assessed items. Data were submitted to descriptive statistical analysis. The overall mean of the content validity index was 0.79 for semantic and idiomatic equivalence, and it was higher than 0.8 for cultural and conceptual equivalence. The cognitive interview showed that patients were able to paraphrase the items, and considered them relevant and easily understood. The tool was translated and cross-culturally adapted to be used in Brazil. The authors believe this translation is suited for validation. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of Molecular Predictors on the Response Rates in Head and Neck Cancer Patients - an Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Sathyamurthy, Arvind; Koushik, A S Kirthi; Gowri, Mangala; Janaki, M G; Kilara, Nalini; Ponni, T R Arul; Alva, Ram Charith; Kumar, S Mohan; Kannan, Ram Abhinav; Harjani, Ritika

    2016-12-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck region account for more than 25 % of male and more than 10 % of female cancers in India (1). Head and neck cancer treatment includes a multidisciplinary approach involving all specialties. Concurrent chemo-radiation is the standard of care in most of the subsites (2). Inspite of the multi-disciplinary approach, a plateau has been reached in terms of results with 5 year survival of locally advanced disease of around 30 % (3). In order to improve outcomes, there has been considerable interest in molecular profiling of head and neck cancers 4-10. However there is still significant paucity in terms of Indian data, hence the need for the study. The objectives are to assess the HPV-p16, EGFR and p53 status, to correlate HPV-p16, EGFR and p53 status with the response rates, to correlate HPV-p16,EGFR and p53 status with other factors like age, sex, tobacco use. Twenty five consecutive cases of histopathologically proven head and neck cancers were accrued. All patients were treated with external radiation to a dose of 66Gy in 33 fractions along with concurrent weekly cisplatin chemotherapy at a dose of 40mg/sqm. HPV-p16, EGFR and p53 mutation analysis was done on paraffin embedded histopathological blocks. PCR technique used for HPV-p16, EGFR and p53 status detection. Response assessment was done based on RECIST criteria. Correlation of HPV, EGFR and p53 status on response was done. The EGFR positivity rate was 84 %, the p53 positivity rate was 76 % and the HPV p-16 positivity rate was 28 %. Out of 25 patients, 13(52%) had complete response, 7(28 %) had partial response, 3(12 %) had stable disease and 2(8 %) had progressive disease. On correlation of molecular profile with response, there was no statistical significance between EGFR status and response (p 0.5) or HPV-p16 and response (p 0.8). However, p53 positivity was approaching significance with respect to good response (p 0.07).

  1. Efficacy of Electrical Stimulation and Exercise for Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Langmore, Susan E; McCulloch, Timothy M; Krisciunas, Gintas P; Lazarus, Cathy L.; Van Daele, Douglas J; Pauloski, Barbara Roa; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe

    2015-01-01

    Background Electrical stimulation (NMES) is a highly sought after but poorly studied treatment for dysphagia among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with dysphagia. This study investigated the efficacy of NMES in this patient population. Methods In this double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, 170 HNC patients experiencing post-treatment dysphagia were randomized into active NMES + swallow exercise versus sham NMES + swallow exercise groups. Outcomes after a 12-week program included changes in fluoroscopy measures, diet, and quality of life. Results After the 12-week program, the active NMES group had significantly worse Penetration Aspiration Scale scores than the sham group. Both groups reported significantly better diet and quality of life. No other measures were significant. Conclusions NMES did not add benefit to traditional swallow exercises. Unfortunately swallow exercises were not effective by themselves either. For HNC patients with moderate-severe dysphagia caused by radiation therapy, current behavioral therapies are of limited help in reversing long-term dysphagia. PMID:26469360

  2. Outcome Analysis of Patients With Oral Cavity Cancer and Extracapsular Spread in Neck Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chun-Ta; Lee, Li-Yu; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Chen, I-How; Kang, Chung-Jan; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Extracapsular spread (ECS) in neck lymph nodes is a major adverse prognostic factor in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We conducted a retrospective analysis of prognostic factors in this patient group and tried to identify a subset of patients with a worse prognosis suitable for more aggressive therapeutic interventions. Methods and Materials: Enrolled in the study were 255 OSCC patients with ECS in neck nodes and without evidence of distant metastasis. All participants were followed-up for at least 2 years or censored at last follow-up. The 5-year rates of control, distant metastasis, and survival were the main outcome measures. Results: Level IV/V lymph node metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm were independent predictors of 5-year survival and identified three prognostic groups. In the low-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth <12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 60%, 66%, and 50%, respectively. In the intermediate-risk group (no level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 39%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In the high-risk group (evidence of level IV/V metastases), the 5-year disease-free, disease-specific, and overall survival rates were 14%, 12%, and 10%, respectively. Conclusions: Among OSCC patients with ECS, those with level IV/V metastases appear to have the worst prognosis followed by without level IV/V metastases and tumor depth {>=}12 mm. An aggressive therapeutic approach may be suitable for intermediate- and high-risk patients.

  3. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  4. The impact of treatment on quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer and its association with prognosis.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, J F; Carrillo, L C; Ramirez-Ortega, M C; Ochoa-Carrillo, F J; Oñate-Ocaña, L F

    2016-10-01

    Information is scarce regarding the impact of treatment on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) of patients with Head and Neck (H&N) cancers. We assessed the effect of treatment on HRQL and its association with prognosis in H&N cancer. Patients with H&N cancer in whom HRQL was assessed before and after treatment. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and QLQ-H&N35 instruments were used. Association of changes in patients' HRQL after treatment with Loco-Regional Recurrence (LRR) and Overall Survival (OS) was investigated. One hundred sixty patients were included; scales of the baseline assessment of HRQL were moderately associated with LRR and OS, but the impact of treatment on most HRQL scales was strongly associated with OS. By multivariate analysis, baseline assessment of Global Health, Physical, HN Teeth, HN Dry mouth, and HN Cough scales, and impact of treatment on the Physical and Pain scales comprised independent variables associated with LRR. Male gender, positive lymph nodes, baseline assessment of Role, HN Pain, HN Cough, and impact of treatment on Emotion, Pain, Financial, HN Swallowing, HN Social contact, and the interaction of HN Pain-change in Pain scales were associated with OS. Both multivariate models were adjusted by the neoplasm's site of origin. Aside from well-known clinical-pathologic prognostic factors in H&N cancers, HRQL assessment, both prior to and after treatment, provides significant prognostic information and should be measured. Design of therapeutic clinical trials in patients with H&N cancers should consider these novel prognostic factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ the Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  5. Improving guideline sensitivity and specificity for the identification of proactive gastrostomy placement in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Brown, Teresa E; Crombie, Jane; Spurgin, Ann-Louise; Tripcony, Lee; Keller, Jacqui; Hughes, Brett G M; Dickie, Graeme; Kenny, Lizbeth Moira; Hodge, Robert A

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing and nutrition guidelines for patients with head and neck cancer are available for identification of proactive gastrostomy placement in patients with high nutritional risk. The purpose of this study was to investigate improvements to the validity of these guidelines. A multivariate analysis was fitted to the original dataset (n = 501) to examine the variables that may predict gastrostomy placement (eg, tumor site, treatment, sex, and age). Using these factors, the high risk category was modified and retrospectively validated in the same cohort to provide new measures of sensitivity and specificity. The following were positive predictors of gastrostomy placement: T3 (p = .01), T4 (p < .001), and chemoradiotherapy (p < .001). Laryngeal (p = .02) and skin cancer (p < .001) were negative predictors. Modification of the high risk definition improved sensitivity to 58% and maintained specificity at 92%. Minor modifications to the high risk definition in the guidelines have improved the guideline sensitivity for future use. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1163-E1171, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Validation of an educative manual for patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiation therapy 1

    PubMed Central

    da Cruz, Flávia Oliveira de Almeida Marques; Ferreira, Elaine Barros; Vasques, Christiane Inocêncio; da Mata, Luciana Regina Ferreira; dos Reis, Paula Elaine Diniz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: develop the content and face validation of an educative manual for patients with head and neck cancer submitted to radiation therapy. Method: descriptive methodological research. The Theory of Psychometrics was used for the validation process, developed by 15 experts in the theme area of the educative manual and by two language and publicity professionals. A minimum agreement level of 80% was considered to guarantee the validity of the material. Results: the items addressed in the assessment tool of the educative manual were divided in three blocks: objectives, structure and format, and relevance. Only one item, related to the sociocultural level of the target public, obtained an agreement rate <80%, and was reformulated based on the participants' suggestions. All other items were considered appropriate and/or complete appropriate in the three blocks proposed: objectives - 92.38%, structure and form - 89.74%, and relevance - 94.44%. Conclusion: the face and content validation of the educative manual proposed were attended to. This can contribute to the understanding of the therapeutic process the head and neck cancer patient is submitted to during the radiation therapy, besides supporting clinical practice through the nursing consultation. PMID:27305178

  7. Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Pretreatment Evaluation, Predictive Factors, and Assessment during Radio-Chemotherapy, Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Denaro, Nerina; Merlano, Marco C; Russi, Elvio G

    2013-09-01

    Progress in head and neck cancer (HNC) therapies has improved tumor response, loco-regional control, and survival. However, treatment intensification also increases early and late toxicities. Dysphagia is an underestimated symptom in HNC patients. Impairment of swallowing process could cause malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration, and pneumonia. A comprehensive literature review finalized in May 2012 included searches of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and CAB abstracts) and scientific societies meetings materials (American Society of Clinical Oncology, Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica, Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Cervico-Cefalica, American Head and Neck Society, and European Society for Medical Oncology). Hand-searches of HNC journals and reference lists were carried out. Approximately one-third of dysphagia patients developed pneumonia requiring treatment. Aspiration pneumonia associated mortality ranged from 20% to 65%. Unidentified dysphagia caused significant morbidity, increased mortality, and decreased the quality of life. In this review we underline definition, causes, predictive factors of dysphagia and report on pretreatment and on-treatment evaluation, suggesting some key points to avoid underestimation. A multi-parameter assessment of swallowing problems may allow an earlier diagnosis. An appropriate evaluation might lead to a better treatment of both symptoms and cancer.

  8. Changes in the Submandibular Gland in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer After Radiation Therapy: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Yuka; Kreiborg, Sven; Murakami, Shumei; Tsujimoto, Tomomi; Sumida, Iori

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impairment of the submandibular gland, in terms of changes in volume by computed tomography (CT) and CT value, which was the mean pixel value at a region of interest, in a group of patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiation therapy (RT). Eleven patients treated with RT, where the effective radiation dose to the submandibular gland was known, were included in the study. CT scanning was performed both before and after RT. The average follow-up period after RT was 555 days (range=107-1231 days). The mean volume of the submandibular gland decreased by around 38% (p<0.001) compared to the pre-treatment average until 600 days after RT. The mean CT value of the submandibular gland decreased until 200 days after RT (p<0.05). Both volume and CT value of the submandibular gland showed signs of impairment of the gland during the first several months after RT for head and neck cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  9. Dysphagia in Head and Neck Cancer Patients: Pretreatment Evaluation, Predictive Factors, and Assessment during Radio-Chemotherapy, Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Merlano, Marco C.; Russi, Elvio G.

    2013-01-01

    Progress in head and neck cancer (HNC) therapies has improved tumor response, loco-regional control, and survival. However, treatment intensification also increases early and late toxicities. Dysphagia is an underestimated symptom in HNC patients. Impairment of swallowing process could cause malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration, and pneumonia. A comprehensive literature review finalized in May 2012 included searches of electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and CAB abstracts) and scientific societies meetings materials (American Society of Clinical Oncology, Associazione Italiana Radioterapia Oncologica, Associazione Italiana di Oncologia Cervico-Cefalica, American Head and Neck Society, and European Society for Medical Oncology). Hand-searches of HNC journals and reference lists were carried out. Approximately one-third of dysphagia patients developed pneumonia requiring treatment. Aspiration pneumonia associated mortality ranged from 20% to 65%. Unidentified dysphagia caused significant morbidity, increased mortality, and decreased the quality of life. In this review we underline definition, causes, predictive factors of dysphagia and report on pretreatment and on-treatment evaluation, suggesting some key points to avoid underestimation. A multi-parameter assessment of swallowing problems may allow an earlier diagnosis. An appropriate evaluation might lead to a better treatment of both symptoms and cancer. PMID:24069513

  10. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Head and Neck Cancer or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-11

    Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Insular Thyroid Cancer; Metastatic Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IVA Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus

  11. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    PubMed Central

    Overgaard, Jens; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Godballe, Christian; Grau Eriksen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Aim of the database The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. Study population The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma) of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01–C.11, C.30–C.32, C.73, and C.80). Main variables The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms; etiological factors; pretreatment and diagnostic evaluation, including tumor–node–metastasis classification, imaging, histopathology, and laboratory tests; primary treatment with semidetailed information of radiotherapy, surgery, and medical treatment; follow-up registration of tumor status and side effects; registration of relapse and treatment thereof; and registration of death and cause of death. Main results Data from >33,000 patients have been recorded during a period of >45 years. In this period, the outcome of treatment improved substantially, partly due to better treatment as a result of a series of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time, changed epidemiology, and influence of comorbidity and socioeconomic parameters. Conclusion Half a century of registration of head and neck cancer treatment and outcome has created the basis for understanding and has substantially contributed to improve the treatment of head and neck cancer at both

  12. Indomethacin sensitive suppressor cell activity in head and neck cancer patients pre- and postirradiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Maca, R.D.; Panje, W.R.

    1982-08-01

    The effects of the addition of indomethacin to PHA or Con A stimulated lymphocytes from patients with untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck or from patients with the disease who have just finished irradiation therapy from the disease was quantitated and compared to those of the control group. Lymphocytes from eight of 26 patients with untreated carcinoma were significantly augmented by the addition of indomethacin. The remaining eighteen patients were equal to the controls. For all 17 patients who had just finished extensive field irradiation therapy, significant enhancement of PHA and Con A reactivity by indomethacin was found, which did not appear to be solely a function of low baseline mitogen reactivity. In additional studies, stimulated lymphocytes of irradiated patients were tested for their sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of PGE2. The mitogen treated lymphocytes from all patients that had just finished irradiation therapy were found to be significantly more sensitive to the inhibition by PGE2 as compared to the normal lymphocyte response. This effect was also found not to be related merely to a low PHA or Con A reactivity of the lymphocytes. The results of this study support the hypothesis that perhaps patients receiving irradiation therapy may benefit by the oral administration of indomethacin, an approach that needs further consideration.

  13. Identification of behaviour change components in swallowing interventions for head and neck cancer patients: protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Govender, Roganie; Smith, Christina H; Taylor, Stuart A; Grey, Daphne; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2015-06-20

    Dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) is a predictable consequence of head and neck cancer and its treatment. Loss of the ability to eat and drink normally has a devastating impact on quality of life for survivors of this type of cancer. Most rehabilitation programmes involve behavioural interventions that include swallowing exercises to help improve swallowing function. Such interventions are complex; consisting of multiple components that may influence outcomes. These interventions usually require patient adherence to recommended behaviour change advice. To date, reviews of this literature have explored whether variation in effectiveness can be attributed to the type of swallowing exercise, the use of devices to facilitate use of swallowing muscles, and the timing (before, during or after cancer treatment). This systematic review will use a behavioural science lens to examine the content of previous interventions in this field. It aims to identify (a) which behaviour change components are present, and (b) the frequency with which they occur in interventions deemed to be effective and non-effective. Clinical trials of behavioural interventions to improve swallowing outcomes in patients with head and neck cancers will be identified via a systematic and comprehensive search of relevant electronic health databases, trial registers, systematic review databases and Web of Science. To ascertain behaviour change intervention components, we will code the content for its theory basis, intervention functions and specific behaviour change techniques, using validated tools: the Theory Coding Scheme, Behaviour Change Wheel and Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1. Study quality will be assessed for descriptive purposes only. Given the specialisation and focus of this review, a small yield of studies with heterogeneous outcome measures is anticipated. Therefore, narrative synthesis is considered more appropriate than meta-analysis. We will also compare the frequency of

  14. Management of the neck in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaha, A R

    1998-10-01

    The incidence of nodal metastasis in differentiated thyroid cancer ranges between 40% to 75%. Elective neck dissection is generally not advised in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer; however, if clinically apparent nodal disease is noted in the tracheoesophageal groove during surgery, central compartment clearance is advised. If clinically apparent nodal disease is present in the lateral compartment of the neck, modified neck dissection preserving the sternomastoid, accessory nerve, and jugular vein is advised. The "berry picking procedure" is generally not recommended because of the higher incidence of regional recurrence. Due consideration should be given for parathyroidal transplantation if the blood supply to the parathyroids is damaged during central compartment clearance. The incidence of lymph node metastasis is highest in young patients, however, lymph node metastasis has no bearing on long-term survival. There seems to be a higher incidence of regional recurrence in elderly individuals. If patients present with bulky nodal disease, consideration may be given for postoperative radioactive iodine dosimetry and ablation if necessary. Differentiated thyroid cancer represents a unique disease in the human body, where lymph node metastasis has no prognostic implication. Aggressive surgical clearance is advised in patients with medullary thyroid cancer in the central compartment and the jugular chain lymph nodes.

  15. BNCT of 3 cases of spontaneous head and neck cancer in feline patients.

    PubMed

    Rao, Mónica; Trivillin, Verónica A; Heber, Elisa M; Cantarelli, María de los Angeles; Itoiz, María E; Nigg, David W; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Batistoni, Daniel; Schwint, Amanda E

    2004-11-01

    Having demonstrated BPA-BNCT induced control of experimental squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the hamster cheek pouch mucosa with no damage to normal tissue we explored the feasibility and safety of treating spontaneous head and neck tumors, with particular focus on SCC, of terminal feline patients with low dose BPA-BNCT employing the thermal beam of the RA-1 Reactor within a preclinical context. The biodistribution studies showed that, in all three cases evaluated, BPA delivered absolute boron values to tumor in the range that proved therapeutically useful in the experimental model of SCC. BPA-BNCT studies showed no radiotoxic effects, partial tumor control in terms of impaired growth and partial necrosis, an improvement in clinical condition and prolonged survival beyond the terminal condition of the feline patients at the time of recruitment.

  16. Relative Contributions of Radiation and Cisplatin-Based Chemotherapy to Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, Ying J. Tward, Jonathan D.; Szabo, Aniko; Bentz, Brandon G.; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To investigate the risk of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in patients with head-and-neck cancer and treated with radiation therapy (RT) or concomitant cisplatin-based chemoradiation, the relationship among SNHL and radiation dose to the cochlea, the use of two common cisplatin dose regimens. Methods and Materials: A total of 62 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with curative intent were included in this prospective study. Of the patients, 21 received RT alone, 27 received 40 mg/m{sup 2} weekly cisplatin, 13 received 100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks during RT, and 1 received RT with weekly epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor antibody. The effect of chemotherapy and RT dose on hearing was determined using a model that accounted for the age and variability between each ear for each patient. Results: We constructed a model to predict dose-dependent hearing loss for RT or cisplatin-based chemotherapy either alone or in combination. For patients only receiving RT, no significant hearing loss was found at doses to the cochlea of less than 40 Gy. Patients receiving 100 mg/m{sup 2} or 40 mg/m{sup 2} of cisplatin chemotherapy had an estimated +21.5 dB and +9.5 dB hearing loss at 8,000 Hz with low radiation doses (10 Gy), which rose to +38.4 dB and +18.9 dB for high radiation doses (40 Gy). Conclusions: Use of RT alone with doses of less than 40 Gy did not result in clinically significant hearing loss. High-frequency SNHL was profoundly damaged in patients who received concomitant cisplatin when doses of 100 mg/m{sup 2} were used. The threshold cochlear dose for hearing loss with cisplatin-based chemotherapy and RT was predicted to be 10 Gy. The inner ear radiation dose constraints and cisplatin dose intensity should be considered in the treatment of advanced head-and-neck cancer.

  17. Xerostomia Quality of Life Scale (XeQoLS) questionnaire: validation of Italian version in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lastrucci, Luciana; Bertocci, Silvia; Bini, Vittorio; Borghesi, Simona; De Majo, Roberta; Rampini, Andrea; Gennari, Pietro Giovanni; Pernici, Paola

    2017-08-31

    To translate the Xerostomia Quality-of-Life Scale (XeQoLS) into Italian language (XeQoLS-IT). Xerostomia is the most relevant acute and late toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT). Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are subjective report on patient perception of health status. The XeQoLS consists of 15 items and measures the impact of salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia on the four major domains of oral health-related QoL. The XeQoLS-IT was created through a linguistic validation multi-step process: forward translation (TF), backward translation (TB) and administration of the questionnaire to 35 Italian patients with head and neck cancer. Translation was independently carried out by two radiation oncologists who were Italian native speakers. The two versions were compared and adapted to obtain a reconciled version, version 1 (V1). V1 was translated back into English by an Italian pro skilled in teaching English. After review of discrepancies and choice of the most appropriate wording for clarity and similarity to the original, version 2 (V2) was reached by consensus. To evaluate version 2, patients completed the XeQoLS-IT questionnaire and also underwent a cognitive debriefing. The questionnaire was considered simple by the patients. The clarity of the instructions and the easiness to answer questions had a mean value of 4.5 (± 0.71) on a scale from 1 to 5. A valid multi-step process led to the creation of the final version of the XeQoLS-IT, a suitable instrument for the perception of xerostomia in patients treated with RT.

  18. Morphomic analysis as an aid for preoperative risk stratification in patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Rinkinen, Jacob; Agarwal, Shailesh; Beauregard, Jeff; Aliu, Oluseyi; Benedict, Matthew; Buchman, Steven R.; Wang, Stewart C.; Levi, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing major head and neck cancer surgery (MHNCS) may develop significant postoperative complications. To minimize the risk of complications, clinicians often assess multiple measures of preoperative health in terms of medical comorbidities. One emerging method to decrease surgical complications is preoperative assessment of patient frailty measured by specific tissue characteristics. We hypothesize that morphomic characteristics of the temporalis region serve as predictive markers for the development of complications after MHNCS. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 69 patients with available computed tomography (CT) imaging who underwent MHNCS from 2006–2012. To measure temporalis region characteristics, we used morphomic analysis of available preoperative CT scans to map out the region. All available CT scans had been performed as part of the patient’s routine work-up and were not ordered for morphomic analysis. We describe the correlation among temporalis fat pad volume (TFPV), mean zygomatic arch thickness, and incidence of postoperative complications. Results We noted significant difference in the zygomatic bone thickness and TFPV between patients who had medical complications, surgical complications, or total major complications and those who did not. Furthermore, by use of binary logistic regression, our data suggest decreased TFPV and zygomatic arch thickness are stronger predictors of developing postoperative complications than previously studies preoperative characteristics. Conclusions We describe morphomic analysis of the temporalis region in patients undergoing MHNCS to identify patients at risk for complications. Regional anatomic morphology may serve as a marker to objectively determine a patient’s overall health. Use of the temporalis region is appropriate in patients undergoing MHNCS because of the availability of preoperative scans as part of routine work up for head and/or neck cancer. PMID:25456114

  19. HPV Involvement in Head and Neck Cancers: Comprehensive Assessment of Biomarkers in 3680 Patients.

    PubMed

    Castellsagué, Xavier; Alemany, Laia; Quer, Miquel; Halec, Gordana; Quirós, Beatriz; Tous, Sara; Clavero, Omar; Alòs, Llúcia; Biegner, Thorsten; Szafarowski, Tomasz; Alejo, Maria; Holzinger, Dana; Cadena, Enrique; Claros, Edith; Hall, Gillian; Laco, Jan; Poljak, Mario; Benevolo, Maria; Kasamatsu, Elena; Mehanna, Hisham; Ndiaye, Cathy; Guimerà, Núria; Lloveras, Belen; León, Xavier; Ruiz-Cabezas, Juan C; Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Kang, Chang-Suk; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Garcia-Rojo, Marcial; Iljazovic, Ermina; Ajayi, Oluseyi F; Duarte, Flora; Nessa, Ashrafun; Tinoco, Leopoldo; Duran-Padilla, Marco A; Pirog, Edyta C; Viarheichyk, Halina; Morales, Hesler; Costes, Valérie; Félix, Ana; Germar, Maria Julieta V; Mena, Marisa; Ruacan, Arzu; Jain, Asha; Mehrotra, Ravi; Goodman, Marc T; Lombardi, Luis Estuardo; Ferrera, Annabelle; Malami, Sani; Albanesi, Estela I; Dabed, Pablo; Molina, Carla; López-Revilla, Rubén; Mandys, Václav; González, Manuel E; Velasco, Julio; Bravo, Ignacio G; Quint, Wim; Pawlita, Michael; Muñoz, Nubia; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Xavier Bosch, F

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a large international study to estimate fractions of head and neck cancers (HNCs) attributable to human papillomavirus (HPV-AFs) using six HPV-related biomarkers of viral detection, transcription, and cellular transformation. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissues of the oral cavity (OC), pharynx, and larynx were collected from pathology archives in 29 countries. All samples were subject to histopathological evaluation, DNA quality control, and HPV-DNA detection. Samples containing HPV-DNA were further subject to HPV E6*I mRNA detection and to p16(INK4a), pRb, p53, and Cyclin D1 immunohistochemistry. Final estimates of HPV-AFs were based on HPV-DNA, HPV E6*I mRNA, and/or p16(INK4a) results. A total of 3680 samples yielded valid results: 1374 pharyngeal, 1264 OC, and 1042 laryngeal cancers. HPV-AF estimates based on positivity for HPV-DNA, and for either HPV E6*I mRNA or p16(INK4a), were 22.4%, 4.4%, and 3.5% for cancers of the oropharynx, OC, and larynx, respectively, and 18.5%, 3.0%, and 1.5% when requiring simultaneous positivity for all three markers. HPV16 was largely the most common type. Estimates of HPV-AF in the oropharynx were highest in South America, Central and Eastern Europe, and Northern Europe, and lowest in Southern Europe. Women showed higher HPV-AFs than men for cancers of the oropharynx in Europe and for the larynx in Central-South America. HPV contribution to HNCs is substantial but highly heterogeneous by cancer site, region, and sex. This study, the largest exploring HPV attribution in HNCs, confirms the important role of HPVs in oropharyngeal cancer and drastically downplays the previously reported involvement of HPVs in the other HNCs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Malnutrition assessment in patients with cancers of the head and neck: a call to action and consensus.

    PubMed

    Dechaphunkul, Tanadech; Martin, Lisa; Alberda, Cathy; Olson, Karin; Baracos, Vickie; Gramlich, Leah

    2013-11-01

    A state of the science review to assess how nutritional status and malnutrition are defined by the community of researchers studying head & neck cancer (HNC) patients. In 117 publications, nutritional status was described diversely, ranging from merely one to all six of the following features: weight loss, body composition, quantity/type of food intake, symptoms impacting oral intake, inflammation and altered metabolism. Methods of assessment of each feature were inconsistent. Cancer- and treatment-related symptoms impacting oral intake were a prominent theme. Metabolic changes potentially related to weight loss and efficacy of nutritional therapy were rarely described (<15% of articles). There were 24 different explicit definitions for malnutrition. Consensus is needed regarding the criteria to adequately describe HNC-associated malnutrition. Standardization of assessments will permit aggregation of data, and integration into clinical practice-specifically, development of consensus criteria for implementation and termination of nutrition therapies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) polymorphisms and survival in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bandrés, Eva; Barricarte, Rubén; Cantero, Cristina; Honorato, Beatriz; Malumbres, Raquel; Zárate, Ruth; Alcalde, Juan; García-Foncillas, Jesús

    2007-08-01

    EGFR overexpression has been implicated in the development of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). This study evaluates the prognostic ability of four polymorphisms in EGFR gene for patients diagnosed with HNSCC and treated with chemoradiation. EGFR polymorphisms in the promoter region were not associated with clinical or pathological characteristics. In relation to R497K polymorphism, patients with the Arg/Arg genotype showed the highest risk of disease-specificity mortality and none of the patients with the Lys/Lys genotype died throughout the follow-up period of the study. Patients with (CA)(n) repeats <17 in both alleles tended toward inferior overall survival compared with those with (CA)(n) repeats > or = 17 in both alleles (p=0.07). Moreover, the distribution of patients with any (CA)(n) repeats > or = 17 and both alleles <17 was statistically different across patients who were recorded as having partial response or no response to therapy (p=0.034). Combination analysis of both polymorphisms, (CA)(n) repeats and R497K, suggests that these polymorphisms may be associated with clinical outcome in patients treated with chemoradiation.

  2. A phase II study using vinorelbine and continuous 5-fluorouracil in patients with advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Susanne; Serup-Hansen, Eva; Andersen, Lisbeth J; Lindeløv, Birgit; McCulloch, Tine; Adimi, Parvin; Bastholt, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Seventy patients with advanced head and neck cancer were treated with vinorelbine and continuous 5-FU administered in a central venous catheter. Over all response was 36% with 9% complete responses. The most common grade 3 and 4 toxicities were stomatitis (13), infection (5), pain related to vinorelbine infusion (4), skin toxicity (3). Thirty one patients had grade 3 or 4 leukopenia. Treatment was complicated by venous thrombosis in the central venous catheter in one case. A majority of patients experienced dose reduction of one or both drugs or treatment delays due to toxicity. Median time to progression was 4.7 months and overall median survival 6.6 months. We conclude that the regimen is feasible and tolerated with moderate toxicity. Response rates and time to progression are comparable to other studies with multi agent treatment.

  3. Psychosocial Issues in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: an Updated Review with a Focus on Clinical Interventions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua D; Shuman, Andrew G; Riba, Michelle B

    2017-09-01

    There are frequent and diverse psychosocial issues that afflict patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) across the illness trajectory, prompting a focus on clinical interventions to prevent and mitigate psychosocial distress. We sought to characterize current understanding on the cause, effects, and interplay of various psychosocial factors in HNC and summarize updated, evidence-based interventions. The psychosocial experience of patients with HNC is characterized by a disproportionately high incidence of depression, suicide, continued substance dependence/abuse, and distress related to relationship conflict, social isolation, disfigurement, and damage to self-image. As we move towards a more thorough understanding and greater appreciation of the relationship between HNC and patient quality of life (QoL), future research focuses on implementation of effective, accessible clinical interventions to alleviate psychosocial distress in this population.

  4. Impact of initial FDG PET/CT in the management plan of patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Arias, F; Chicata, V; García-Velloso, M J; Asín, G; Uzcanga, M; Eito, C; Quilez, I; Viudez, A; Saenz, J; Hernández, I; Caicedo, C; Errasti, M; Barrado, M; García-Bragado, F

    2015-02-01

    To determine the impact of initial FDG PET/CT staging on clinical stage and the management plan in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). We retrospectively reviewed the records of 72 consecutive patients (2007-2010) staged with PET/CT and conventional CT with tumours of hypopharynx/larynx (26 patients, 36 %), oral cavity (17 patients, 24 %), oropharynx (16 patients, 22 %), nasopharynx (12 patients, 17 %), and others (2 %). The impact of PET/CT on management plans was considered high when PET/CT changed the planned treatment modality or treatment intent, and intramodality changes were considered as minor changes with low impact. FDG PET/CT changed the stage in 27 patients and had high impact on the management plan in 12 % of patients (detection of distant metastases in 6 patients and stage II in 2 patients). Intramodality changes were more frequent: FDG PET/CT altered the TNM stage in 18/72 (25 %) of patients, upstaging N stage in 90 % of patients with low impact. Initial FDG PET/CT staging not only improves stage but also affects the management plan in LAHNC patients.

  5. Comparison of the pull and introducer percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy techniques in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Retes, Felipe A; Kawaguti, Fabio S; de Lima, Marcelo S; da Costa Martins, Bruno; Uemura, Ricardo S; de Paulo, Gustavo A; Pennacchi, Caterina Mp; Gusmon, Carla; Ribeiro, Adriana Vs; Baba, Elisa R; Geiger, Sebastian N; Sorbello, Mauricio P; Kulcsar, Marco A; Ribeiro, Ulysses; Maluf-Filho, Fauze

    2017-04-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients is associated with higher complication and mortality rates when compared to a general patient population. The pull technique is still the preferred technique worldwide but it has some limitations. The aim of this study is to compare the pull and introducer PEG techniques in patients with HNC. This study is based on a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database of 309 patients with HNC who underwent PEG in the Cancer Institute of São Paulo. The procedure was performed with the standard endoscope in 205 patients and the introducer technique was used in 137 patients. There was one procedure-related mortality. Age, sex and albumin level were similar in both groups. However in the introducer technique group, patients had a higher tumor stage, a lower Karnofsky status, and presented more frequently with tracheostomy and trismus. Overall, major, minor, immediate and late complications and 30-day mortality rates were similar but the introducer technique group presented more minor bleeding and tube dysfunctions. The push and introducer PEG techniques seem to be both safe and effective but present different complication profiles. The choice of PEG technique in patients with HNC should be made individually.

  6. Relationship of inflammatory markers and pain in patients with head and neck cancer prior to anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, K.G.; von Zeidler, S.V.; Lamas, A.Z.; de Podestá, J.R.V.; Sena, A.; Souza, E.D.; Lenzi, J.; Lemos, E.M.; Gouvea, S.A.; Bissoli, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a common symptom in patients with cancer, including those with head and neck cancer (HNC). While studies suggest an association between chronic inflammation and pain, levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), have not been correlated with pain in HNC patients who are not currently undergoing anticancer treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between these inflammatory markers and perceived pain in HNC patients prior to anticancer therapy. The study group consisted of 127 HNC patients and 9 healthy controls. Pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), and serum levels of CRP and TNF-α were determined using the particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and ELISA techniques, respectively. Patients experiencing pain had significantly higher levels of CRP (P<0.01) and TNF-α (P<0.05) compared with controls and with patients reporting no pain. There were significantly positive associations between pain, CRP level, and tumor stage. This is the first study to report a positive association between perceived pain and CRP in HNC patients at the time of diagnosis. The current findings suggest important associations between pain and inflammatory processes in HNC patients, with potential implications for future treatment strategies. PMID:25003634

  7. An investigation of the effect of tailored information on symptoms of anxiety and depression in Head and Neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, V; Blouin, E; Zeitouni, A; Muller, K; Allison, P J

    2013-05-01

    To investigate if tailored information provision decreases symptoms of anxiety and depression in late stage Head and Neck (H&N) cancer patients. This non-randomized, controlled trial was conducted with stage III or IV H&N cancer patients. Subjects were recruited at two academic health centers in Montreal. At the test center, subjects received the Multimode Comprehensive Tailored Information Package (MCTIP), while at the control center, they received normal information provision. Participants were evaluated using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at baseline and 3 and 6 month later. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics then T tests and chi square tests to compare group differences and finally mixed model analysis to test differences in outcome variables. A total of 103 subjects were recruited and of them 96 (47 tests and 49 controls) participants completed baseline, 3 and 6 month evaluations. The test group experienced lower levels of anxiety (p = 0.001) and depression (p = 0.089) than the control group. The subjects receiving tailored information had lower levels of anxiety than their counterparts. In addition, depression showed a reduction in the expected direction in the test group. Our results need to be further confirmed using a randomized approach in different samples but they suggest benefits for stage III and IV H&N cancer patients receiving tailored, multi-modal information concerning their cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Iatrogenic salivary duct injury in head and neck cancer patients: Report of four cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kulyapina, Alena; Ochandiano-Caicoya, Santiago; Navarro-Cuellar, Carlos; Navarro-Vila, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The lesions of the salivary ducts may be idiopathic, post- traumatic, or iatrogenic and lead to sialocele formation with persistent painful facial swelling or cutaneous fistula formation. No consensus on treatment of this condition exists: the options of treatment include needle aspiration, pressure dressings, antisialogogue therapy, radiotherapy, botulinum toxin and surgical approaches as duct repair, diversion, ligation, different drainage systems and even parotidectomy/submaxilectomy. The management and special features of iatrogenic salivary duct injury in patients with oral cancer who underwent head and neck reconstructive surgery has not been described yet. Material and Methods: We present four cases of iatrogenic lesions of salivary ducts and its management in patients with oral cancer. Conclusions: The iatrogenic lesions of salivary ducts are to be taken into account in patients with oral cancer as the distal ends of salivary ducts could be involved in the margins of surgical resection. Different options of treatment of this complication are described. Key words:Sialocele, oral cancer, salivary duct. PMID:25136433

  9. Comparison of the prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis in head and neck, gastrointestinal, and lung cancer patients by 3 classification methods.

    PubMed

    Platek, Mary E; Popp, Johann V; Possinger, Candi S; Denysschen, Carol A; Horvath, Peter; Brown, Jean K

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is prevalent among patients within certain cancer types. There is lack of universal standard of care for nutrition screening and a lack of agreement on an operational definition and on validity of malnutrition indicators. In a secondary data analysis, we investigated prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis with 3 classification methods using data from medical records of a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. Records of 227 patients hospitalized during 1998 with head and neck, gastrointestinal, or lung cancer were reviewed for malnutrition based on 3 methods: (1) physician-diagnosed malnutrition-related International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes; (2) in-hospital nutritional assessment summaries conducted by registered dietitians; and (3) body mass indexes (BMIs). For patients with multiple admissions, only data from the first hospitalization were included. Prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis ranged from 8.8% based on BMI to approximately 26% of all cases based on dietitian assessment. κ coefficients between any methods indicated a weak (κ = 0.23, BMI and dietitians; and κ = 0.28, dietitians and physicians)-to-fair strength of agreement (κ = 0.38, BMI and physicians). Available methods to identify patients with malnutrition in a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center resulted in varied prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis. A universal standard of care for nutrition screening that uses validated tools is needed. The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requires nutritional screening of patients within 24 hours of admission. For this purpose, implementation of a validated tool that can be used by various healthcare practitioners, including nurses, needs to be considered.

  10. Setup Uncertainties of Anatomical Sub-Regions in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients After Offline CBCT Guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Kranen, Simon van; Beek, Suzanne van; Rasch, Coen; Herk, Marcel van; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2009-04-01

    Purpose: To quantify local geometrical uncertainties in anatomical sub-regions during radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Local setup accuracy was analyzed for 38 patients, who had received intensity-modulated radiotherapy and were regularly scanned during treatment with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) for offline patient setup correction. In addition to the clinically used large region of interest (ROI), we defined eight ROIs in the planning CT that contained rigid bony structures: the mandible, larynx, jugular notch, occiput bone, vertebrae C1-C3, C3-C5, and C5-C7, and the vertebrae caudal of C7. By local rigid registration to successive CBCT scans, the local setup accuracy of each ROI was determined and compared with the overall setup error assessed with the large ROI. Deformations were distinguished from rigid body movements by expressing movement relative to a reference ROI (vertebrae C1-C3). Results: The offline patient setup correction protocol using the large ROI resulted in residual systematic errors (1 SD) within 1.2 mm and random errors within 1.5 mm for each direction. Local setup errors were larger, ranging from 1.1 to 3.4 mm (systematic) and 1.3 to 2.5 mm (random). Systematic deformations ranged from 0.4 mm near the reference C1-C3 to 3.8 mm for the larynx. Random deformations ranged from 0.5 to 3.6 mm. Conclusion: Head-and-neck cancer patients show considerable local setup variations, exceeding residual global patient setup uncertainty in an offline correction protocol. Current planning target volume margins may be inadequate to account for these uncertainties. We propose registration of multiple ROIs to drive correction protocols and adaptive radiotherapy to reduce the impact of local setup variations.

  11. How head and neck consultants manage patients' emotional distress during cancer follow-up consultations: a multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuefang; Humphris, Gerry; Ghazali, Naseem; Friderichs, Simon; Grosset, David; Rogers, Simon N

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients suffer substantial emotional problems. This study aimed to explore how utterance-level variables (source, type and timing of emotional cues) and patient-level variables (e.g. age, gender and emotional well-being) relate to consultants' responses (i.e. reducing or providing space) to patient expressions of emotional distress. Forty-three HNC outpatient follow-up consultations were audio recorded and coded, for patients' expressions of emotional distress and consultants' responses, using the Verona Coding Definitions of Emotional Sequence. Multilevel logistic regression modelled the probability of the occurrence of consultant-reduced space response as a function of patient distress cue expression, controlling for consultation and patient-related variables. An average of 3.5 cues/concerns (range 1-20) was identified per consultation where 84 out of 152 total cues/concerns were responded by reducing space. Cue type did not impact on response; likewise for the quality of patient emotional well-being. However, consultants were more likely to reduce space to cues elicited by patients, as opposed to those initiated by themselves. This reduced space response was more pronounced as the consultation continued. However, about 6 min into the consultation, this effect (i.e. tendency to block patients) started to weaken. Head and neck consultants' responses to negative emotions depended on source and timing of patient emotional expressions. The findings are useful for training programme development to encourage consultants to be more flexible and open in the early stages of the consultation.

  12. Hearing evaluation of patients with head and neck cancer: Comparison of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, Brock and Chang adverse event criteria in patients receiving cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Colevas, A Dimitrios; Lira, Ruth R; Colevas, Electra A; Lavori, Philip W; Chan, Cato; Shultz, David B; Chang, Kay W

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), Brock and Chang hearing loss grading in patients with head and neck cancer receiving cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (CDDP). Endpoints were baseline distribution of hearing loss, interobserver consistency, and sensitivity to hearing loss after CDDP treatment. Four hundred sixty single ear audiograms in 110 patients with head and neck cancer were graded. Hearing loss at baseline, interobserver agreement rates, and changes in hearing loss after CDDP were evaluated. The Chang and Brock tools' baseline hearing loss distribution was concentrated at grade 0 (57% and 41%, respectively), whereas 47%, per the CTCAE, had grade 3 baseline hearing loss. Interobserver agreement was highest for the Brock scale (≥90%) followed by the Chang (≥89%) and CTCAE (≥75%) scales. Detection of change after CDDP was highest for Chang (48%) followed by Brock (45%) and the CTCAE (32%). The Brock and Chang tools may be superior to the CTCAE in patients with head and neck cancer receiving CDDP using baseline hearing loss distribution, interobserver agreement, and detection of hearing loss grade change as performance indicators. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Assessment of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire for use in patients after neck dissection for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, David P; Ringash, Jolie; Irish, Jonathan C; Gilbert, Ralph; Gullane, Patrick; Brown, Dale; Xu, Wei; Del Bel, Ryan; Chepeha, Douglas; Davis, Aileen M

    2015-02-01

    In this cross-sectional study, the sensibility, test-retest reliability, and validity of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire were assessed in patients who underwent neck dissection. Sensibility was assessed with a questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was performed with completion of the DASH questionnaire 2 weeks after initial completion; validity, by evaluating differences in scores between patients undergoing different types of neck dissections and correlating DASH scores with Neck Dissection Impairment Index (NDII) scores. The DASH questionnaire met sensibility criteria. For test-retest reliability analysis, the intraclass coefficient was 0.91. The DASH questionnaire showed differences between patients who underwent accessory nerve-sacrifice and nerve-sparing neck dissection. DASH questionnaire scores strongly correlated with NDII scores (r = -0.86). Although this study provides preliminary data on some psychometric properties of the DASH questionnaire in patients who have undergone a neck dissection, further assessment of responsiveness and other properties are required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A Novel Dose Constraint to Reduce Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Strigari, Lidia; Benassi, Marcello; Arcangeli, Giorgio; Bruzzaniti, Vicente; Giovinazzo, Giuseppe; Marucci, Laura

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the predictors of incidence and duration of xerostomia (XT) based on parotid glands (PG), submandibular glands (SMG), and both glands taken as a whole organ (TG) in head-and-neck cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A prospective study was initiated in May 2003. Sixty-three head-and-neck patients (44 with nasopharynx cancer) were included in the analysis. Using the dose-volume histogram the PG, SMG, and TG mean doses were calculated. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow were measured and XT-related questionnaires were compiled before and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after radiotherapy. Salivary gland toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale, and Grade >=3 toxicity was used as the endpoint. The XT incidence was investigated according to descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate analysis. The Bonferroni method was used for multiple comparison adjustment. Results: After a reduced flow at 3 months after radiotherapy, recovery of salivary flow was observed over time. Primary site and salivary gland mean doses and volumes were identified in univariate analysis as prognostic factors. Multivariate analysis confirmed that TG mean dose (p = 0.00066) and pretreatment stimulated salivary flow (p = 0.00420) are independent factors for predicting XT. Conclusion: The TG mean dose correlates with XT as assessed by Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria, salivary output, and XT-related questionnaires. Our results suggest that TG mean dose is a candidate dose constraint for reducing XT, requiring considerably more validation in non-nasopharyngeal cancer patients.

  15. Impact of Time Factors on Outcome in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Treated with Definitive Radio(Chemo)Therapy.

    PubMed

    Dahlke, Sören; Steinmann, Diana; Christiansen, Hans; Durisin, Martin; Eckardt, Andre; Wegener, Gerd; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate treatment-related factors such as overall treatment time (OTT) and radiation treatment time (RTT) in head-and-neck cancer. A total of 216 patients with locoregionally advanced inoperable head and neck cancer were treated with definitive radio(chemo)therapy. Mean follow-up was 37 months. Median time from diagnosis to start of radiotherapy (total waiting time) was 34 days, and comprised of referral waiting time and time for preparatory work. Median RTT was 40 days, and median OTT was 91 days. At 6, 12 and 24 months local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) was 75%, 65% and 60%; metastasis-free survival (MFS) was 84%, 77% and 70%; overall survival (OS) was 72%, 58% and 40%. Tumor stage, boost and chemotherapy were significant for OS, waiting time for preparatory work and RTT were significant for MFS, and referral waiting time and total radiotherapy dose for LRFS. RTT ≤40 days was a prognostic factor for better MFS. Prolonged waiting time had a converse effect for radiotherapy with better outcome on MFS and LRFS. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for late radiation-associated tissue necroses: is it safe in patients with locoregionally recurrent and then successfully salvaged head-and-neck cancers?

    PubMed

    Lin, Hon-Yi; Ku, Chih-Hung; Liu, Dai-Wei; Chao, Hsing-Lung; Lin, Chun-Shu; Jen, Yee-Min

    2009-07-15

    To test, in a retrospective matched-pair study, whether necrosis-rescuing hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) increases the risk of cancer re-recurrence in patients with locoregionally recurrent and then successfully salvaged head-and-neck cancers. Between January 1995 and July 2004, we retrospectively identified 22 patients with locoregionally recurrent and then successfully salvaged head-and-neck cancers. We defined two groups: the HBOT group, 11 patients with HBOT for rescuing late radiation-associated tissue necroses; and the non-HBOT group, the other 11 matched-pair patients without HBOT. Between the two groups, the following four factors were matched for case pairing: primary cancer subsite, initial cancer stage, age, and gender. Three findings indicate that HBOT increases the risk of cancer re-recurrence. First, we observed more cancer re-recurrences in the HBOT group than in the non-HBOT group: 9 of 11 vs. 4 of 11, with 5-year disease-free survival rates after salvage of 32.7% vs. 70.0% (hazard ratio 3.2; 95% confidence interval 1.03-10.7; p = 0.048). Second, re-recurrences developed rapidly after HBOT in 6 patients. Third, 3 patients had unusual cancer re-recurrences after HBOT. Remarkably, of 9 patients with cancer re-recurrences in the HBOT group, 4 patients had cancer disease-free intervals of 9 months or less before HBOT. Necrosis-rescuing HBOT should be given with caution in patients with locoregionally recurrent and then successfully salvaged head-and-neck cancers; if it cannot be omitted entirely, deferring HBOT 9 months or longer after cancer re-treatment may be prudent.

  17. Free Flap Procedures for Reconstruction After Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kini, Erin

    2015-12-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer are seeking improved surgical procedures to avoid severe defects that result from head and neck cancer resection. Free flap reconstruction provides vascularized tissue that has been transferred from a distant donor site on a patient's body to a recipient site, markedly improving wound closure and protecting structures of the head and neck. This article discusses free flap procedures for reconstruction after head and neck cancer resection, including the following procedure phases: airway protection and neck dissections, tumor resection, flap harvest, microvascular anastomosis of the flap, and reconstruction and closure. The article also explains specific risk factors for patients undergoing free flap procedures that have been identified in the literature and include procedure length, hypothermia, and pressure injuries. Each of these factors is discussed regarding its specific effect on this patient population, and the nursing interventions to reduce these risks are identified.

  18. Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial: tongue strengthening exercises in head and neck cancer patients, does exercise load matter?

    PubMed

    Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Van den Steen, Leen; Vanderveken, Olivier; Specenier, Pol; Van Laer, Carl; Van Rompaey, Diane; Guns, Cindy; Mariën, Steven; Peeters, Marc; Van de Heyning, Paul; Vanderwegen, Jan; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-09-04

    Reduced tongue strength is an important factor contributing to early and late dysphagia in head and neck cancer patients previously treated with chemoradiotherapy. The evidence is growing that tongue strengthening exercises can improve tongue strength and swallowing function in both healthy and dysphagic subjects. However, little is known about the impact of specific features of an exercise protocol for tongue strength on the actual outcome (strength or swallowing function). Previous research originating in the fields of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation shows that the degree of exercise load is an influential factor for increasing muscle strength in the limb skeletal muscles. Since the tongue is considered a muscular hydrostat, it remains to be proven whether the same concepts will apply. This ongoing randomized controlled trial in chemoradiotherapy-treated patients with head and neck cancer investigates the effect of three tongue strengthening exercise protocols, with different degrees of exercise load, on tongue strength and swallowing. At enrollment, 51 patients whose dysphagia is primarily related to reduced tongue strength are randomly assigned to a training schedule of 60, 80, or 100% of their maximal tongue strength. Patients are treated three times a week for 8 weeks, executing 120 repetitions of the assigned exercise once per training day. Exercise load is progressively adjusted every 2 weeks. Patients are evaluated before, during and after treatment by means of tongue strength measurements, fiber-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and quality-of-life questionnaires. This randomized controlled trial is the first to systematically investigate the effect of different exercise loads in tongue strengthening exercise protocols. The results will allow the development of more efficacious protocols. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN14447678.

  19. Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in head and neck cancer patients: results of tertiary institute.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Jaakko; Rekola, Jami; Asanti, Mari; Grénman, Reidar

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the use and complications of a prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in head and cancer patients in our institute. A retrospective study of 194 consecutive patients with a newly diagnosed upper aero digestive tract malignancy who underwent mainly prophylactic PEG tube placement. The procedure is relatively safe: 15 (7.7%) of the complications were considered serious; no deaths occurred. Of the patients 23 (12.5%) did not use the PEG tube at all, but it was not possible to single out a group of patients in which this could be predicted. The majority of the patients were considered to benefit from the prophylactic PEG insertion.

  20. Timing of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Raynor, E M; Williams, M F; Martindale, R G; Porubsky, E S

    1999-04-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an effective method for providing alimentation in patients with upper aerodigestive tract carcinoma. Multiple complications of this procedure have been reported, ranging from leakage around the tube to tumor seeding of the abdominal cavity. This study was undertaken to determine whether the timing of PEG tube placement with respect to primary tumor extirpation led to a difference in the number and severity of observed complications. The medical records of 43 patients with head and neck carcinoma who had PEG tubes placed from 1995 to 1996 were retrospectively reviewed. Comparisons of timing of PEG tube placement, complication, location, and stage of the primary tumor were performed. In addition, the use of adjuvant therapy with respect to the time of PEG tube placement and complications was evaluated. Of these, 23% were done before and 30% during surgery at the time of primary tumor resection (9 of 13 were after primary removal). One patient had an intraabdominal abscess. Minor complications occurred in 15 of 43 patients (35%) and included granulation tissue at the PEG site, leakage, and tube displacement. Eight of the 9 patients who underwent intraoperative PEG after tumor resection had no complications. Patients who underwent PEG during or after surgery had significantly fewer complications than those who underwent preoperative PEG or had unresectable tumors (P = 0.038). The largest number of complications occurred in patients who underwent preoperative PEG (57%) followed by patients whose tumors were unresectable (31%). There was no statistical difference with regard to tumor location or postoperative x-ray therapy in PEG complications. This study demonstrates that PEG tube placement after tumor resection has the lowest incidence of postoperative complications. Performing PEGs intraoperatively after tumor resection can prevent the need for additional anesthesia to provide alimentation in patients with upper

  1. Comparison of the prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis in head and neck, gastrointestinal and lung cancer patients by three classification methods

    PubMed Central

    Platek, Mary E.; Popp KPf, Johann V.; Possinger, Candi S.; DeNysschen, Carol A.; Horvath, Peter; Brown, Jean K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malnutrition is prevalent among patients within certain cancer types. There is lack of universal standard of care for nutrition screening, lack of agreement on an operational definition and on validity of malnutrition indicators. Objective In a secondary data analysis, we investigated prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis by three classification methods using data from medical records of a National Cancer Institute (NCI)-designated comprehensive cancer center. Interventions/Methods Records of 227 patients hospitalized during 1998 with head and neck, gastrointestinal or lung cancer were reviewed for malnutrition based on three methods: 1) physician diagnosed malnutrition related ICD-9 codes; 2) in-hospital nutritional assessment summary conducted by Registered Dietitians; and 3) body mass index (BMI). For patients with multiple admissions, only data from the first hospitalization was included. Results Prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis ranged from 8.8% based on BMI to approximately 26% of all cases based on dietitian assessment. Kappa coefficients between any methods indicated a weak (kappa=0.23, BMI and Dietitians and kappa=0.28, Dietitians and Physicians) to fair strength of agreement (kappa=0.38, BMI and Physicians). Conclusions Available methods to identify patients with malnutrition in an NCI designated comprehensive cancer center resulted in varied prevalence of malnutrition diagnosis. Universal standard of care for nutrition screening that utilizes validated tools is needed. Implications for Practice The Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requires nutritional screening of patients within 24 hours of admission. For this purpose, implementation of a validated tool that can be used by various healthcare practitioners, including nurses, needs to be considered. PMID:21242767

  2. TAK1 mRNA expression in the tumor tissue of locally advanced head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Honorato, Beatriz; Alcalde, Juan; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Zabalegui, Natalia; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesús

    2008-02-14

    Resistance to radio and chemotherapy is one of the major drawbacks in the progression of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) patients, evidencing the importance of finding optimum molecular prognosis markers to develop personalized treatment schedules. TGF-beta effector TAK1 activity has been related to a greater aggressiveness in several types of cancer (Kondo et al. 1998; Edlund et al. 2003; Kaur et al. 2005) and, although there has been described no significant implication of TAK1 in HNSCC development, we have further examined the role of its mRNA expression as a marker of prognosis in HNSCC. Fifty-nine advanced HNSCC patients were recruited for the study. The tumor expression of TAK1 mRNA was analyzed with RT-PCR using Taqman technology and its relationship with the clinical outcome of the patients studied. TAK1 mRNA expression was lower in patients that relapsed than in those that did not, but the difference was only significant between the patients that showed response to treatment (p < 0.001). ROC curve analyses pointed a 0.5 expression ratio TAK1/B2M value as an optimum cut-off point for relapse and response. Our data suggest the TAK1 mRNA analysis by Taqman RT-PCR can predict the risk of relapse in HNSCC patients.

  3. TAK1 mRNA Expression in the Tumor Tissue of Locally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Honorato, Beatriz; Alcalde, Juan; Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Zabalegui, Natalia; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to radio and chemotherapy is one of the major drawbacks in the progression of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) patients, evidencing the importance of finding optimum molecular prognosis markers to develop personalized treatment schedules. TGF-β effector TAK1 activity has been related to a greater aggressiveness in several types of cancer (Kondo et al. 1998; Edlund et al. 2003; Kaur et al. 2005) and, although there has been described no significant implication of TAK1 in HNSCC development, we have further examined the role of its mRNA expression as a marker of prognosis in HNSCC. Fifty-nine advanced HNSCC patients were recruited for the study. The tumor expression of TAK1 mRNA was analyzed with RT-PCR using Taqman technology and its relationship with the clinical outcome of the patients studied. TAK1 mRNA expression was lower in patients that relapsed than in those that did not, but the difference was only significant between the patients that showed response to treatment (p < 0.001). ROC curve analyses pointed a 0.5 expression ratio TAK1/B2M value as an optimum cut-off point for relapse and response. Our data suggest the TAK1 mRNA analysis by Taqman RT-PCR can predict the risk of relapse in HNSCC patients. PMID:19787075

  4. SBRT for recurrent head and neck cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, M.; Kabarriti, R.; Baliga, S.; Guha, C.; Tome, W.; Kalnicki, S.

    2017-01-01

    The management of patients with recurrent head and neck cancers is complex. Concerns over toxicity with re-irradiation have limited its use in the clinical setting. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) has emerged as a highly conformal and precise type of radiotherapy and has the advantage of sparing normal tissue. Although SBRT is an attractive treatment modality, its use in the clinic is limited, given the technically challenging nature of the procedure. In this review, we attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of re-irradiation in patients with recurrent head and neck cancers, with particular attention to the advent of SBRT and its use with systemic therapies such as cetuximab.

  5. The Role of Computed Tomography in the Management of the Neck After Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Clavel, Sebastien; Charron, Marie-Pierre; Belair, Manon; Delouya, Guila; Fortin, Bernard; Despres, Philippe; Soulieres, Denis; Filion, Edith; Guertin, Louis; and others

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to describe the outcome in patients with head-and neck-squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) followed up without neck dissection (ND) after concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) based on computed tomography (CT) response. The second objective was to establish CT characteristics that can predict which patients can safely avoid ND. Methods and Materials: Between 1998 and 2007, 369 patients with node-positive HNSCC were treated with primary CRT at our institution. After a clinical and a radiologic evaluation based on CT done 6 to 8 weeks after CRT, patients were labeled with a complete neck response (CR) or with a partial neck response (PR). Results: The median follow-up was 44 months. The number of patients presenting with N3, N2, or N1 disease were 54 (15%), 268 (72%), and 47 (13%), respectively. After CRT, 263 (71%) patients reached a CR, and 253 of them did not undergo ND. Ninety-six patients reached a PR and underwent ND. Of those, 34 (35%) had residual disease on pathologic evaluation. A regression of the diameter of {>=}80% and a residual largest diameter of 15 mm of nodes had negative pathologic predictive values of 100% and 86%, respectively. The 3-year regional control and survival rates were not different between patients with CR who had no ND and patients with PR followed by ND. Conclusion: Node-positive patients presenting a CR as determined by CT evaluation 6 to 8 weeks after CRT had a low rate of regional recurrence without ND. This study also suggests that lymph node residual size and percentage of regression on CT after CRT may be useful criteria to guide clinical decisions regarding neck surgery. Those results can help diminish the number of ND procedures with negative results and their associated surgical complications.

  6. Dosimetric Comparison of Helical Tomotherapy and Linac-IMRT Treatment Plans for Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xin; Penagaricano, Jose; Moros, Eduardo G.; Corry, Peter M.; Yan Yulong; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat

    2010-01-01

    The rapid development and clinical implementation of external beam radiation treatment technologies continues. The existence of various commercially available technologies for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has stimulated interest in exploring the differential potential advantage one may have compared with another. Two such technologies, Hi-Art Helical Tomotherapy (HT) and conventional medical linear accelerator-based IMRT (LIMRT) have been shown to be particularly suitable for the treatment of head and neck cancers. In this study, 23 patients who were diagnosed with stages 3 or 4 head and neck cancers, without evidence of distance metastatic disease, were treated in our clinic. Treatment plans were developed for all patients simultaneously on the HT planning station and on the Pinnacle treatment planning system for step-and-shoot IMRT. Patients were treated only on the HT unit, with the LIMRT plan serving as a backup in case the HT system might not be available. All plans were approved for clinical use by a physician. The prescription was that patients receive at least 95% of the planning target volume (PTV), which is 66 Gy at 2.2 Gy per fraction. Several dosimetric parameters were computed: PTV dose coverage; PTV volume conformity index; the normalized total dose (NTD), where doses were converted to 2 Gy per fraction to organs at risk (OAR); and PTV dose homogeneity. Both planning systems satisfied our clinic's PTV prescription requirements. The results suggest that HT plans had, in general, slightly better dosimetric characteristics, especially regarding PTV dose homogeneity and normal tissue sparing. However, for both techniques, doses to OAR were well below the currently accepted normal tissue tolerances. Consequently, factors other than the dosimetric parameters studied here may have to be considered when making a choice between IMRT techniques.

  7. The impact of physical activity on health-related fitness and quality of life for patients with head and neck cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Lauren C; Nishimura, Kathryn C; McNeely, Margaret L; Lau, Harold; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2016-03-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer often face a plethora of cancer and treatment-related side effects, negatively impacting their lean body mass, physical functioning, quality of life and fatigue management. Physical activity is a potential mediator of many of these side effects. This is the first systematic review reporting on head and neck cancer and physical activity literature. A literature search was conducted up to January 2015. Two reviewers independently identified articles using the outlined inclusion criteria, assessing the study methodology, risk of bias and extracting the necessary data from studies evaluating the impact of full-body physical activity on patients with head and neck cancer. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement was used to guide this review. We identified 16 articles published from 2003 to 2014, the majority of which were published within the past 5 years. Physical activity interventions were feasible, safe and beneficial in mediating cancer and treatment-related side effects. Specifically, patients experienced improvements in lean body mass, muscular strength, physical functioning, quality of life and fatigue management. Owing to significant study heterogeneity, data were not pooled. Reflecting the early state of the literature, included studies were found to vary greatly in design, quality and reporting characteristics. There is early evidence that supports the benefit of physical activity interventions for patients with head and neck cancer, both during and following treatment. Future research is necessary to determine the benefits of different physical activity interventions, and their impact on patients with different head and neck cancers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Clinical challenges in the implementation of a tomotherapy service for head and neck cancer patients in a regional UK radiotherapy centre

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, S; Mott, J H; Smyth, G; Dickson, S; Dobrowsky, W; Kelly, C G

    2011-01-01

    Objective Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) is increasingly being used to treat head and neck cancer cases. Methods We discuss the clinical challenges associated with the setting up of an image guided intensity modulated radiotherapy service for a subset of head and neck cancer patients, using a recently commissioned helical tomotherapy (HT) Hi Art (Tomotherapy Inc, WI) machine in this article. We also discuss the clinical aspects of the tomotherapy planning process, treatment and image guidance experiences for the first 10 head and neck cancer cases. The concepts of geographical miss along with tomotherapy-specific effects, including that of field width and megavoltage CT (MVCT) imaging strategy, have been highlighted using the first 10 head and neck cases treated. Results There is a need for effective streamlining of all aspects of the service to ensure compliance with cancer waiting time targets. We discuss how patient toxicity audits are crucial to guide refinement of the newly set-up planning dose constraints. Conclusion This article highlights the important clinical issues one must consider when setting up a head and neck IMRT, image-guided radiotherapy service. It shares some of the clinical challenges we have faced during the setting up of a tomotherapy service. Implementation of a clinical tomotherapy service requires a multidisciplinary team approach and relies heavily on good team working and effective communication between different staff groups. PMID:21159810

  9. Measuring quality of life in patients with head and neck cancer: Update of the EORTC QLQ-H&N Module, Phase III.

    PubMed

    Singer, Susanne; Araújo, Cláudia; Arraras, Juan Ignacio; Baumann, Ingo; Boehm, Andreas; Brokstad Herlofson, Bente; Castro Silva, Joaquim; Chie, Wei-Chu; Fisher, Sheila; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Hammerlid, Eva; Irarrázaval, María Elisa; Jensen Hjermstad, Marianne; Jensen, Kenneth; Kiyota, Naomi; Licitra, Lisa; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Pinto, Monica; Santos, Marcos; Schmalz, Claudia; Sherman, Allen C; Tomaszewska, Iwona M; Verdonck de Leeuw, Irma; Yarom, Noam; Zotti, Paola; Hofmeister, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to pilot test an updated version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Head and Neck Module (EORTC QLQ-H&N60). Patients with head and neck cancer were asked to complete a list of 60 head and neck cancer-specific items comprising the updated EORTC head and neck module and the core questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30. Debriefing interviews were conducted to identify any irrelevant items and confusing or upsetting wording. Interviews were performed with 330 patients from 17 countries, representing different head and neck cancer sites and treatments. Forty-one of the 60 items were retained according to the predefined EORTC criteria for module development, for another 2 items the wording was refined, and 17 items were removed. The preliminary EORTC QLQ-H&N43 can now be used in academic research. Psychometrics will be tested in a larger field study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Drugs Approved for Head and Neck Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for head and neck cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. The role of dentistry in palliative care of the head and neck cancer patient.

    PubMed

    Paunovich, E D; Aubertin, M A; Saunders, M J; Prange, M

    2000-06-01

    Although palliative care for the terminally ill is based on a multidimensional philosophy to provide whole-person comfort care while maintaining optimal function, it does not usually include dentistry in its team approach. Dentists can have a significant role in the care of these patients by providing total, active comfort care of the oral cavity. The function of the oral cavity is essential to the patient's ability to thrive. Therefore, alleviation of pain and prevention of infection in the oral cavity should be a priority in providing total, active comfort for the patient. The oral problems experienced by the hospice head and neck patient clearly affect the quality of his or her remaining life. Through routine assessments and interventions by a dentist on the palliative care team (Figure 4), comfort care for the patient may be improved by the maintenance of oral hygiene and procedures to hydrate the oral mucosa. In addition, routine dental assessments may identify dental disease and facilitate dental interventions for caries, periodontal disease, oral mucosal problems or prosthetic needs. Attention to such detail may reduce not only the microbial load of the mouth but the risk for pain and oral infection as well. This multidisciplinary approach to palliative care, including a dentist, may reduce the oral debilities that influence the patient's ability to speak, eat or swallow. Not only does maintenance of oral health have impact on the quality of life, which is already challenged by the disease, but it also aids in the ability of patients to thrive for whatever precious time is left to them.

  12. Immunonutrition improves functional capacities in head and neck and esophageal cancer patients undergoing radiochemotherapy: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Vasson, M-P; Talvas, J; Perche, O; Dillies, A-F; Bachmann, P; Pezet, D; Achim, A-C; Pommier, P; Racadot, S; Weber, A; Ramdani, M; Kwiatkowski, F; Bouteloup, C

    2014-04-01

    Malnutrition is frequent in head and neck (HN) and esophageal cancer patients and aggravated by radiochemotherapy (RCT), increasing morbi-mortality and treatment toxicity. Our goal was to investigate the effect of immunonutrition consisting of an arginine, omega-3 fatty acid, nucleotides-enriched diet on nutritional status, and functional capacity in HN or esophageal cancer patients undergoing RCT. 37 patients were randomized in a double-blind clinical trial. 5 days before and until the end of RCT (5-7 weeks), they received either an Immunomodulating Enteral Nutrition (IEN) or an isonitrogenous, isoenergetic Standard Enteral Nutrition (SEN). Anthropometrical parameters, nutritional risk index (NRI), serum albumin, plasma antioxidant capacity, and functional capacity were recorded between the beginning and the end of RCT. A significant gain in total body weight (+2.1 ± 3.1 kg) was observed in IEN patients. Albuminemia and NRI were improved concomitantly in IEN malnourished patients. Plasma antioxidant capacity was improved (+100 ± 13 μM EqTrolox) in IEN patients. Functional capacity measured by WHO Performance Status and Karnofsky index was maintained in IEN patients but significantly reduced in SEN patients. These preliminary data show that immunonutrition could improve the nutritional status together with functional capacity in HN and esophageal cancer patients undergoing RCT. This clinical trial promoted by the University Hospital Center of Clermont-Ferrand has been registered at ClinicalTrial.gov website under the following reference: NCT00333099. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of an intensive nutritional treatment in nutritional status of head and neck cancer patients in stages III and IV].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, V; Barbosa, V; Mendoza, J; Vargas, A; Amancio, O; Hernández-Cuéllar, A; Arana-Rivera, E

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition and accelerated weight loss are frequent secondary diagnosis in patients with cancer. Head and neck cancer (H & N Cancer) affects nutritional status because of the tumor type and localization. The aim of the study was to assess the effect of an intensive nutritional treatment (INT) on nutritional status of H & N cancer patients, stages III and IV and to compare that with a historical control whose nutritional treatment was conventional (CT). All patients were nutritionally assessed before oncological treatment started (anthropometrical, biochemical, and dietetically). A nutritional feeding plan according to their nutritional personal need was calculated. In case it was impossible to cover all the nutritional requirements orally, a feeding tube was placed. Nutritional follow up was performed each 21 days, during their oncological treatment in four occasions. The results obtained were compared with those obtained from the patients who received the CT that consisted only in nutritional counseling by the attending physician; the statistical test used was Mann Whitney U test. The INT was associated with maintenance of the nutritional status along their oncological treatment. The statistical significant parameters were: weight 55 to 47 kg in the CT group vs 59 a 58 kg in the INT group (p < 0.0001), and hemoglobin: from 13 to 11 g/dl in the CT group vs 14 to 13 g/dl in the INT group (p < 0.002) as the most important ones. In the rest of the data we can observe a clear tendency of increasing the nutrition parameters in patients the INT group, while in the CT group, they showed a persistent decrease. We concluded that patients who received the INT as part of their oncological treatment deteriorated less their nutritional status than those who received a CT.

  14. Free flap reconstruction for head and neck cancer can be safely performed in both young and elderly patients after careful patient selection.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas T A; Post, Sophie F; van Dijk, Boukje A C; Roodenburg, Jan L N; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Werker, Paul M N; Halmos, Gyorgy B

    2015-10-01

    Surgical treatment of head and neck cancer often results in complex defects requiring reconstruction with microvascular free tissue transfer. However, in elderly patients, curative treatment with radical surgery and free flap reconstruction is often withheld. The objective of this study is to assess the outcomes of free flap surgery in elderly patients, using a standard surgical complication classification system. A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent primary free flap reconstruction following major surgery for head and neck cancer between 1995 and 2010. Complications were assessed using the Clavien Dindo classification system, and grades III-V were classified as major complications. Comorbidity was classified according to the adult comorbidity evaluation index 27. A comparison was done between patients <70 and ≥70 years. Two hundred-two patients were included in this study. Multivariate analysis showed that only disease stage was a significant predictor of recipient site complications, and comorbidity was the only significant predictor of medical complications. Age was not a predictor of complications. There were no significant differences in disease specific or overall survival between young and elderly patients. Optimal patient selection for free flap surgery is essential. This requires thorough pre-operative assessment, including analysis of comorbidity in both young and elderly patients. Patients' biological age, and not chronological age, should be individually determined to assess feasibility of major surgery. Patients should not be denied surgery based on age alone.

  15. The changed meaning of food: Physical, social and emotional loss for patients having received radiation treatment for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    McQuestion, Maurene; Fitch, Margaret; Howell, Doris

    2011-04-01

    Research has drawn attention to the challenges that patients receiving treatment for head and neck cancers experience, including the physical and emotional impact of diagnosis and treatment, the effects of weight loss, challenges related to eating and strategies used by patients to address nutritional problems. There is limited research in head and neck cancer populations about the impact associated with the disruptions and daily experience related to eating problems and the meaning and significance of these changes. This article describes research that is part of a larger study about patients' experiences of receiving radiation for head and neck cancer. The article reports an in-depth analysis of one of the subthemes from 17 participants, the changed meaning of food that emerged within the overarching theme of disrupted expectations and changes in life routines in the original study. This paper highlights participants' perspectives about their experiences and the disruptions caused by treatment, with a specific focus on the losses associated with the changed meaning of food. There are physical, emotional and social losses associated with a changed meaning of food for Head and Neck cancer patients. Acknowledging the significance of eating problems and the changed meaning of food is required in order to provide patients with the appropriate support, strategies and interventions to manage with the changes and losses. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validation and application of the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory in patients treated for head and neck cancer in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Renata Lígia Vieira; Angelis, Elisabete Carrara-de; Chen, Amy Y; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Vartanian, José Guilherme

    2013-03-01

    Analysis of quality of life (QOL) has revealed that preservation of swallowing, speech, and breathing functions has a direct impact on QOL and that these functions are important patient-reported outcomes. The purposes of this study were to adapt and culturally validate the M.D. Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) to the Brazilian Portuguese language and to evaluate QOL related to dysphagia in patients treated for head and neck cancer. This was a cross-sectional study that included 72 adult patients with a mean age of 63 years who were treated for head and neck cancer. Construct validity and reliability analyses were performed through the comparison of the MDADI with three other health-related QOL questionnaires administered at the time of enrollment and MDADI application 2 weeks thereafter, respectively. Reliability was established by assuring both internal consistency (Cronbach's α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC). Test-retest reliability for the total score in the MDADI had an ICC greater than 0.795 (p < 0.001). The MDADI had significant statistical correlations with the other questionnaires. Patients treated for head and neck cancer had a mean total score of 83 on the MDADI, which is indicative of minimal limitation in overall QOL. In conclusion, the present study validates the adaptation of the MDADI to the Brazilian Portuguese language and provides another tool to evaluate the impact of dysphagia on the QOL of head and neck cancer patients.

  17. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival.

  18. Using the patients concerns inventory for distress screening in post-treatment head and neck cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Ghazali, Naseem; Roe, Brenda; Lowe, Derek; Tandon, Sank; Jones, Terry; Shaw, Richard; Risk, Janet; Rogers, Simon N

    2017-10-01

    Cancer patients can experience significant distress during their cancer trajectory, which impacts upon clinical outcomes and quality of life. Screening for distress using holistic assessments can help identify and address unmet concerns/needs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between concerns and distress, and the impact of distress on clinic outcomes in post-treatment head and neck cancer patients. 170 patients attending routine follow-up clinics were prospectively recruited. All patients completed the Patient Concerns Inventory (PCI) and the Distress thermometer (DT) at preconsultation. The rate of significant distress (i.e. DT cut-off score ≥4) was 36% (62/170). Significantly distressed patients selected more items overall than patients without distress (mean, median (QR) of 5.40, 5 (2-8) vs 2.61, 2 (0-4), p < 0.001). Significant distress was most strongly associated with Physical and Functional well-being (p < 0.001) and Psychological and Emotional well-being domains (p = 0.001). On balance, very little difference was noted between cut-off points of either ≥4 or ≥5 PCI items of concern selected. Both cut-off points demonstrated an acceptable level of sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for significant distress. Consultations were longer with increasing numbers of concerns. Just over one-third of patients are significantly distressed. They were more likely to express a higher number of concerns. A cutoff score ≥4 or ≥5 PCI items selected can identify those at risk of significant distress. Concerns causing significant distress were related to emotional/psychological issues and physical function. Copyright © 2017 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility of robot-assisted neck dissections via a transaxillary and retroauricular ("TARA") approach in head and neck cancer: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Shik; Lee, Hyoung Shin; Kang, Sung Mi; Hong, Hyun Jun; Koh, Yoon Woo; Lee, Hye Yeon; Choi, Hong-Shik; Choi, Eun Chang

    2012-03-01

    Recently, robot-assisted neck dissection in thyroid cancer patients with lateral neck node metastasis has been demonstrated to be feasible. We realized the necessity of technical modification in order to apply robotic system to comprehensive neck dissection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. This study examined the feasibility and safety of transaxillary and retroauricular ("TARA") approach for robotic neck dissection in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer. Four human cadaveric dissections were followed by robotic neck dissections in seven patients with oral cavity or laryngopharyngeal cancer through TARA incision. In all cases, vital structures including major vessels and nerves were preserved. The numbers of retrieved lymph nodes in robotic neck dissections were comparable with those in conventional neck dissections. Robotic neck dissection via TARA approach is a feasible and useful method with excellent cosmetic results for treating nodal metastasis in selected cases of head and neck squamous cell cancer.

  20. The Carcinologic Handicap Index (CHI): A disability self-assessment questionnaire for head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Balaguer, M; Percodani, J; Woisard, V

    2017-08-18

    The present prospective study sought to draw up and validate a self-assessment questionnaire for disability following head and neck cancer treatment. The Carcinologic Handicap Index (CHI) was designed empirically based on the Voice Handicap Index. It comprises 9 dimensions, self-assessed by the patient: pain, swallowing, feeding, respiration, phonation, hearing, vision, olfaction-gustation, and psychosocial. For each dimension, 4 items are scored in terms of frequency, providing dimension and global scores. The CHI was tested on 86 head and neck cancer patients (pathologic group: male predominance; mean age, 59 years) and 18 control subjects, for validation. Global internal coherence was 0.905 (Cronbach alpha); content validity (r, between questionnaire scores and corresponding visual analog scales) ranged between 0.6 and 0.8 except for the vision dimension and for total score compared to general health rating on VAS (r≤0.5: i.e., the pathology did not directly impair vision and was only one factor among others affecting general health status); temporal validity was satisfactory (r>0.7; P<0.0001) except on the respiration dimension (r=0.624, probably due to fluctuation in pulmonary congestion). Impact on swallowing, feeding and respiration varied with lesion site. There were no significant differences between patients and controls on the pain, hearing and vision dimensions. The CHI showed acceptable psychometric qualities and can be considered as an authentic clinical tool for health professionals, assessing the impact of ENT pathology on quality of life, mainly in the functional domains directly affected by the pathology or treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Effects of honey on oral mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hye Kyung; Jeong, Yeon Min; Lee, Ho Seok; Lee, Yeon Ji; Hwang, Se Hwan

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of the efficacy of honey in the management of oral mucositis during radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. Meta-analysis using MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library as data sources. Two authors independently searched the databases for relevant studies from inception to June 2014. Included in the meta-analysis were randomized controlled studies published in English comparing the oral administration of honey (honey group) with placebo or no treatment (control group) in patients with head and neck cancer who were undergoing radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Excluded studies failed to report quantifiable outcome measures regarding oral mucositis. Outcomes of interest included the degree and incidence of mucositis, incidence of microbial colonization, and weight loss. Nine studies comprising 476 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The incidence of moderate to severe mucositis and the mean mucositis grade during the first 3 weeks of therapy were significantly lower in the honey group than the control group. Additionally, the onset of mucositis was significantly later in the honey group than the control. Although there were no significant differences in the incidences of microbial colonization and pain experienced between the two groups, the incidence of weight loss was significantly lower in the honey group than control group. Oral administration of honey after radiotherapy could prevent moderate to severe mucositis and associated weight loss. However, because our results were based on an analysis of a small number of trials, further trials are required to confirm these results. NA. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Weight loss in patients with head and neck cancer during and after conventional and accelerated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ottosson, Sandra; Zackrisson, Björn; Kjellén, Elisabeth; Nilsson, Per; Laurell, Göran

    2013-05-01

    Weight loss is common among patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and is mainly due to tumor and treatment related factors. The aim of the present study was to evaluate weight loss in patients with SCCHN undergoing two different radiotherapy (RT) schedules. Nutritional data were analyzed from the ARTSCAN study, a controlled randomized prospective Swedish multicenter study conducted with the aim of comparing conventional fractionation (2.0 Gy per day, total 68 Gy during 7 weeks) and accelerated fractionation (1.1 + 2.0 Gy per day, total 68 Gy during 4.5 weeks). Seven hundred and fifty patients were randomized and 712 patients were followed from the start of RT in the present nutritional study. The patients had a weight loss of 11.3% (± 8.6%) during the acute phase (start of RT up to five months after the termination of RT). No difference in weight loss was seen between the two RT fractionation schedules (p = 0.839). Three factors were significantly predictive for weight loss during the acute phase, i.e. tumor site, overweight/obesity or lack of tube feeding at the start of RT. Moreover, the nadir point of weight loss occurred at five months after the termination of RT. The results of the present study showed no difference in weight loss between the two RT fractionation schedules and also highlight that weight loss in SCCHN is a multifactorial problem. Moreover, the nadir of weight loss occurred at five months after the termination of treatment which calls for more intense nutritional interventions during the period after treatment.

  3. Effectiveness of Chemoradiation for Head and Neck Cancer in an Older Patient Population

    SciTech Connect

    VanderWalde, Noam A.; Meyer, Anne Marie; Deal, Allison M.; Layton, J. Bradley; Liu, Huan; Carpenter, William R.; Weissler, Mark C.; Fleming, Mary E.; and others

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare chemoradiation therapy (CRT) with radiation therapy (RT) only in an older patient population with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database (1992-2007), we identified a retrospective cohort of nonmetastatic HNSCC patients and divided them into treatment groups. Comparisons were made between CRT and RT cohorts. Propensity scores for CRT were estimated from covariates associated with receipt of treatment using multivariable logistic regression. Standardized mortality ratio weights (SMRW) were created from the propensity scores and used to balance groups on measured confounders. Multivariable and SMR-weighted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of death for receipt of CRT versus RT among the whole group and for separate patient and tumor categories. Results: The final cohort of 10,599 patients was 68% male and 89% white. Median age was 74 years. Seventy-four percent were treated with RT, 26% were treated with CRT. Median follow-up points for CRT and RT survivors were 4.6 and 6.3 years, respectively. On multivariable analysis, HR for death with CRT was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.20; P<.01). Using the SMRW model, the HR for death with CRT was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02-1.15; P=.01). Conclusions: Although the addition of chemotherapy to radiation has proven efficacious in many randomized controlled trials, it may be less effective in an older patient population treated outside of a controlled trial setting.

  4. Prediction model to predict critical weight loss in patients with head and neck cancer during (chemo)radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Langius, Jacqueline A E; Twisk, Jos; Kampman, Martine; Doornaert, Patricia; Kramer, Mark H H; Weijs, Peter J M; Leemans, C René

    2016-01-01

    Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) frequently encounter weight loss with multiple negative outcomes as a consequence. Adequate treatment is best achieved by early identification of patients at risk for critical weight loss. The objective of this study was to detect predictive factors for critical weight loss in patients with HNC receiving (chemo)radiotherapy ((C)RT). In this cohort study, 910 patients with HNC were included receiving RT (±surgery/concurrent chemotherapy) with curative intent. Body weight was measured at the start and end of (C)RT. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were used to analyse predictive factors for critical weight loss (defined as >5%) during (C)RT. Possible predictors included gender, age, WHO performance status, tumour location, TNM classification, treatment modality, RT technique (three-dimensional conformal RT (3D-RT) vs intensity-modulated RT (IMRT)), total dose on the primary tumour and RT on the elective or macroscopic lymph nodes. At the end of (C)RT, mean weight loss was 5.1±4.9%. Fifty percent of patients had critical weight loss during (C)RT. The main predictors for critical weight loss during (C)RT by both logistic and CART analyses were RT on the lymph nodes, higher RT dose on the primary tumour, receiving 3D-RT instead of IMRT, and younger age. Critical weight loss during (C)RT was prevalent in half of HNC patients. To predict critical weight loss, a practical prediction tree for adequate nutritional advice was developed, including the risk factors RT to the neck, higher RT dose, 3D-RT, and younger age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Extent of pathologic extracapsular extension and outcomes in patients with nonoropharyngeal head and neck cancer treated with initial surgical resection.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Roshan S; Hanasoge, Sheela; Magliocca, Kelly R; Moeller, Benjamin J; Milas, Zvonimir L; Hall, William A; El-Deiry, Mark; Wadsworth, J Trad; Higgins, Kristen A; Beitler, Jonathan J

    2014-05-15

    Lymph node extracapsular extension (ECE) is a known adverse prognostic factor in head and neck cancer and is an indication for adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT). However, the extent of ECE may provide additional prognostic information in the setting of adjuvant CRT. This study included 350 patients with oral cavity cancer (72.6%) or bulky/nonfunctional laryngeal cancer (27.4%) who underwent initial surgical resection. Extent of ECE was graded from 0 to 4 based on the scale established by Lewis and colleagues. Multivariable analyses (MVA) were adjusted for primary site, pathologic risk factors, and adjuvant therapy. In univariate failure-free survival (FFS) analysis, there was no significant difference in FFS for patients with lymph node-positive disease and no ECE (grade 0) versus patients with ECE grades 1 through 3. However, patients with ECE grade 4 had significantly worse FFS. In MVA for FFS, differences between ECE grades 0 through 3 and grade 4 did not remain significant. In MVA of overall survival, ECE grade 4 was significantly associated with higher risk of death compared with ECE grade 0 (hazard ratio, 0.46; P = .02) and ECE grades 1 through 3 (HR, 0.41; P = .01). Dichotomous evaluation of ECE is useful for determining appropriate adjuvant therapy but has limited additional prognostic value in the setting of adjuvant CRT. The detrimental effect of ECE grades 1 through 3 relative to no ECE is effectively mitigated with adjuvant CRT, but ECE grade 4 retains a poorer prognosis despite CRT with regard to overall survival. Patients with ECE grade 4 may be candidates for trials investigating novel methods of adjuvant therapy intensification. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  6. Outlier Analysis Defines Zinc Finger Gene Family DNA Methylation in Tumors and Saliva of Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gaykalova, Daria A.; Vatapalli, Rajita; Wei, Yingying; Tsai, Hua-Ling; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Chi; Hennessey, Patrick T.; Guo, Theresa;