Hammer, E; Lilienthal, E; Hofer, S E; Schulz, S; Bollow, E; Holl, R W
To compare the clinical and metabolic characteristics of patients with Type 1 diabetes and necrobiosis lipoidica with those of patients with Type 1 diabetes who do not have necrobiosis lipoidica. A multicentre analysis was performed. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained from 64 133 patients (aged 0-25 years) with Type 1 diabetes with and without necrobiosis lipoidica who were registered in the German/Austrian Diabetes Prospective Documentation Initiative registry. Data were analysed using multivariable regression modelling. Age, diabetes duration, treatment year and sex were considered as confounding factors. Results adjusted for demographic variables are presented. In patients with necrobiosis lipoidica, metabolic control was worse (HbA 1c 72 vs. 67 mmol/mol, 8.7% vs. 8.3%; P = 0.0065) and the duration of diabetes was longer [6.24 (3.28-9.97) vs. 5.11 (2.08-8.83) years; P = 0.014; not adjusted]. Patients with necrobiosis lipoidica required higher insulin doses than those without (1.02 vs. 0.92 U/kg/day; P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the frequency of microvascular complications (microalbuminuria and retinopathy) between the groups. Furthermore, 24.8% and 17.5% of patients with Type 1 diabetes with and without necrobiosis lipoidica, respectively, had elevated thyroid antibodies (P = 0.051). Necrobiosis lipoidica was correlated with coeliac disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes (3.4% vs. 1.0%; P = 0.0035). Our data indicate a strong correlation between hyperglycaemia and the development of necrobiosis lipoidica. We postulate that the underlying pathogenic processes differ from those leading to microalbuminuria and retinopathy, and additional immunological mechanisms may play a role. © 2016 Diabetes UK.
Marcoval, J; Gómez-Armayones, S; Valentí-Medina, F; Bonfill-Ortí, M; Martínez-Molina, L
Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a chronic idiopathic granulomatous disease considered to occur in association with diabetes mellitus. Data on the frequency of this association, however, are inconsistent. Our aim was to retrospectively analyze the clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with NL at our hospital and to investigate the association with diabetes mellitus and other diseases. We performed a chart review of all patients with a clinical and histologic diagnosis of NL treated and followed in the dermatology department of Hospital de Bellvitge in Barcelona, Spain between 1987 and 2013. Thirty-five patients (6 men and 29 women with a mean age of 47.20 years) were diagnosed with NL in the study period. At the time of diagnosis, 31 patients had pretibial lesions. Thirteen patients (37%) had a single lesion at diagnosis, and the mean number of lesions was 3.37. Twenty-three patients (65.71%) had diabetes mellitus (type 1 in 10 cases and type 2 in 13). In 20 patients, onset of diabetes preceded that of NL by a mean of 135.70 months. The 2 conditions were diagnosed simultaneously in 3 patients. None of the 35 patients developed diabetes mellitus during follow-up. Six patients had hypothyroidism, and 4 of these also had type 1 diabetes. NL is frequently associated with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Although diabetes tends to develop before NL, it can occur simultaneously. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Borgia, Francesco; Russo, Giuseppina T; Villari, Provvidenza; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cucinotta, Domenico; Cannavò, Serafinella P
Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) is a rare idiopathic cutaneous condition exceptionally associated with autoimmune thyroiditis. We describe the first case of NL, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and positive detection of autoantibodies. Appropriate screening for NL in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis may clarify its real incidence and the existence of a common pathogenetic pathway.
Pătraşcu, Virgil; Giurcă, Claudia; Ciurea, Raluca Niculina; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Ciurea, Marius Eugen
Many skin lesions are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 or 2, due to the use of antidiabetics or to metabolic and endocrine disorders caused by this disease. Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) occurs more frequently in patients with DM. Painful ulcerations may occur on NL areas in about 20-25% of the cases and usually they are related to trauma. We present the case of a teenager, male, 17-year-old, having NL with multiple plaques, some of them spontaneously ulcerated after about 33 months of onset. He is known with type 1 DM from 2.5 years and the NL preceding the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with about six months, presented erythematous-infiltrative skin plaques, some ulcerated for about three months, interesting both shins. Based on clinical, histopathological and paraclinical examinations, we established the following diagnoses: ulcerated NL, type 1 DM, moderate mixed dyslipidemia, class I obesity; commissural candidiasis, juvenile acne. Under treatment with Pentoxifyllinum, Sulodexidum, Ketotifenum and topical therapy with 0.2% Hyaluronic acid two months later, we have managed to heal two of the three ulcerated plaques and of the third has become superficial. We applied 0.5% Fluocortolonum on non-ulcerated plaques recording an improvement after two weeks of treatment. NL is a skin disease with a predilection for the shins, more frequent in patients with diabetes and is a part of palisading granulomatous dermatitis, which leads to skin atrophy. NL is found in the 0.3-1.2% of diabetic patients and is rare in children with diabetes (0.006%). It is more common in the patients with type 1 DM. The onset is in the third decade in diabetic patients and in the fourth decade in non-diabetics. There is no consensus concerning the treatment of NL, and the results are often modest. Antiplatelet agents, corticosteroids (local and general), immunomodulatory drugs, cyclins, wide synthetic antipaludics, heparin, Thalidomide are used. NL treatment is very difficult
Sehgal, V N; Bhattacharya, S N; Verma, P
Juvenile insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus type 1 (IDDM) is a well-recognized worldwide entity, the significance of which has increased because of its recent upsurging trends, warranting attention on variety of its clinical expressions, in particular, pertaining to skin, an aspect seldom taken cognizance of. Hence an endeavour to recap the related dermatoses, such as limited joint mobility syndrome including sclerodermoid (scleroderma-like) changes, xerosis, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, granuloma annulare, diabetic foot syndrome, has been made. Complexities relating to the recently explored issues of atopic dermatitis and drug hypersensitivity syndrome have also been covered adequately. In addition, the current concepts of the physiopathology of type 1 diabetes-related dermatoses are briefly recapitulated for clarity. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
Sonani, Hardik; Salim, Sohail Abdul; Garla, Vishnu V.; Wile, Anna; Palabindala, Venkataraman
Patient: Male, 42 Final Diagnosis: Bullosis diabeticorum Symptoms: Skin rash Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Debridement Specialty: Metabolic Disorders and Diabetics Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Bullosis diabeticorum (BD) is a condition characterized by recurrent, spontaneous, and non-inflammatory blistering in patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. While etiopathogenesis remains unclear, roles of neuropathy, vasculopathy and UV light are hypothesized. Most literature reports negative direct and indirect immunofluorescence findings in diabetics with bullous eruptions. Porphyria cutanea tarda, bullous pemphigoid, epidermolysis bullosa, and pseudoporphyria are other differential diagnoses of bullous lesions, and they must be excluded. Case Report: We present a 42-year-old African American male with long standing poorly controlled insulin dependent diabetes mellitus with blisters on his left hand and feet. The blisters were noticed three weeks prior to presentation and, thereafter, rapidly increased in size and spontaneously ruptured. Physical examination revealed a multitude of both roofed and unroofed bullous painless skin lesions. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining dramatized the dermal-epidermal blistering and re-epithelization process. Direct Immunofluorescence (DIF) was positive for 2 + IgG deposition in the already thickened basement membrane of the capillaries of the superficial vascular plexus. After debridement, his wounds greatly improved with over three months of aggressive wound care. Conclusions: Primary immunologic abnormality likely plays no role in the onset of BD. To date, only one article has reported nonspecific capillary-associated immunoglobulin M and C3. This is the first case of BD with IgG deposition in the superficial capillary basement membrane. Positive findings on DIF suggest vasculopathy. Dermal microangiopathy, secondary to immunologic abnormality, is a possible underlying
Bustan, Rewend Salman; Wasim, Daanyaal; Yderstræde, Knud Bonnet; Bygum, Anette
Diabetes mellitus and the prediabetic state are associated with a number of skin manifestations. This study is a systematic review of the following manifestations: acanthosis nigricans (AN), skin tags (ST), diabetic dermopathy (DD), rubeosis faciei (RF), pruritus (PR), granuloma annulare (GA), necrobiosis lipoidica (NL), scleroedema diabeticorum (SD) and bullosis diabeticorum (BD). These conditions possibly relate to underlying diabetogenic mechanisms. Our aim was to determine whether skin signs are feasible as cutaneous markers for the prediabetic or diabetic state. Data were collected from the databases PubMed, Embase and Cochrane. Articles were excluded if the populations presented with comorbidities or received treatment with drugs affecting the skin. Also, animal studies, studies with poor methodology and pilot studies were excluded. Among the 34 included original articles, an association with diabetes was shown as follows: in eight articles with AN, five articles with ST, three articles with GA, two articles with NL, PR and SD respectively and in one article with RF. Three papers indirectly showed an association of DD with diabetes. Association between bullous skin lesions and diabetes was only documented by case reports and case series. The results indicate a benefit of diabetes screening in individuals presenting with AN, ST or BD. Further studies are required to enlighten a possible association with RF, GA, SD or NL. Until such studies are available, it is advisable to screen individuals with the skin lesions presented by measuring their glycated haemoglobin.
Arsanjani Shirazi, Azam; Nasiri, Morteza; Yazdanpanah, Leila
Diabetic Foot Syndrome (DFS) is the most costly and devastating complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), which early effective assessment can reduce the severity of complications including ulceration and amputations. This study aimed to review dermatological and musculoskeletal assessment of diabetic foot. In this review article, we searched for articles published between March 1, 1980 and July 28, 2015 in PubMed, Science Direct, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus, for both English and non-English language articles with the following keywords: "Diabetic foot syndrome", "Ulceration", "Amputation", "Foot assessment", "Skin disorders" and "Musculoskeletal deformities". In dermatological dimension, most studies focused on elucidated changes in skin temperature, color, hardiness and turgor as well as common skin disorders such as Diabetic Dermopathy (DD), Necrobiosis Lipoidica Diabeticorum (NLD) and Diabetic Bullae (DB), which are common in diabetic patients and have high potential for leading to limb-threatening problems such as ulceration and infection. In musculoskeletal dimension, most studies focused on range of motion and muscle strength, gait patterns and as well as foot deformities especially Charcot osteoarthropathy (COA), which is the most destructive musculoskeletal complication of diabetes. DFS as a common condition in DM patients lead to ulceration and lower limb amputation frequently unless a prompt and comprehensive assessment was taken. So that dermatological and musculoskeletal assessments are usually neglected in primary health care, these assessments should be done frequently to reduce the high risk of serious complications. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shazzad, M N; Azad, A K; Abdal, S J; Afrose, R; Rahman, M M; Haq, S A
Buschke Scleredema is a rare connective tissue disorder of unknown aetiology and characterized by thickening of the dermis. It resembles systemic sclerosis, eosinophilic fasciitis and cutaneous amyloidosis. Scleredema may be associated with a history of an antecedent febrile illness, diabetes mellitus, or blood dyscrasia. It may be classified into three clinical groups, each has a different history, course, and prognosis. Histology of skin is characterized by thickened dermis and increased spaces between large collagen bundles due to increased deposition of mucopolysaccharide in the dermis. Differential diagnosis can be made considering the typical clinical features and the histological peculiarity. No therapy is effective. In this communication we have presented a 54 year old man with scleredema successfully treated by PUVA and methotrexate. We reviewed associated diseases, clinical and histopathological characteristics, evolution and response to treatment.
Lause, Michael; Kamboj, Alisha
The skin serves as a window for clinicians to understand, diagnose, and monitor endocrine disease. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrinopathies contribute significantly to an individual’s health and quality of life. In this review, we outline various disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and androgen axis as well as hereditary endocrine syndromes. In acromegaly, glycosaminoglycan deposition contributes to a thickening of skin and soft tissue, which manifests as coarsening and enlargement of facial and acral structures. Stimulation of the thyrotropin receptor in hyperthyroidism results in mesenchymal tissue proliferation and consequent pretibial myxedema; other associated cutaneous features include onycholysis, and hyperhidrosis. Individuals with hypothyroidism exhibit cold, dry skin and brittle hair as well as a jaundice-like appearance due to carotene excess. The cutaneous features of diabetes mellitus (DM), mediated to a large extent by hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, include necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum (NLD), diabetic dermopathy, and acanthosis nigricans. Pediatric patients with Cushing’s syndrome almost invariably present with truncal obesity and growth retardation; disruption of collagen formation and the catabolic effects of hypercortisolism result in skin atrophy and purple abdominal striae. In patients with Addison’s disease, generalized hyperpigmentation, secondary to elevated levels of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), is most prominent in sun-exposed areas. Due to hyperandrogenism, individuals with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) often exhibit hirsutism, acne vulgaris, and androgenetic alopecia. In multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) syndromes, specific gene mutations may lead to angiofibromas, lichen amyloidosis, and ganglioneuromas. Disruptions of immune regulation result in autoimmune polyglandular syndromes (APS) and associated clinical features including chronic mucocutaneous
Mendes, Adriana Lucia; Miot, Helio Amante; Haddad Junior, Vidal
Several dermatoses are routinely associated with diabetes mellitus, especially in patients with chronic disease. This relationship can be easily proven in some skin disorders, but it is not so clear in others. Dermatoses such necrobiosis lipoidica, granuloma annulare, acanthosis nigricans and others are discussed in this text, with an emphasis on proven link with the diabetes or not, disease identification and treatment strategy used to control those dermatoses and diabetes. PMID:28225950
Ahmed, Intekhab; Goldstein, Barry
Dermatologic problems are common in diabetes, with approximately 30% of patients experiencing some cutaneous involvement during the course of their illness. Skin manifestations generally appear during the course of the disease in patients known to have diabetes, but they may also be the first presenting sign of diabetes or even precede the diagnosis by many years. The skin involvement can be autoimmune in nature, such as acanthosis nigricans, necrobiosis lipoidica, diabetic dermopathy, scleredema, and granuloma annulare, or infectious in the form of erythrasma, necrotizing fasciitis, and mucormycosis. Pharmacologic management of diabetes, in addition, can also result in skin changes, such as lipoatrophy and lipohypertrophy, at the site of injection of insulin, and oral antidiabetic agents can cause multiple skin reactions as adverse effects. The management of these cutaneous manifestations is tailored according to the underlying pathophysiology, but a tight control of blood glucose is a prerequisite in all management strategies.
Lima, Ana Luiza; Illing, Tanja; Schliemann, Sibylle; Elsner, Peter
Diabetes mellitus is a widespread endocrine disease with severe impact on health systems worldwide. Increased serum glucose causes damage to a wide range of cell types, including endothelial cells, neurons, and renal cells, but also keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Skin disorders can be found in about one third of all people with diabetes and frequently occur before the diagnosis, thus playing an important role in the initial recognition of underlying disease. Noninfectious as well as infectious diseases have been described as dermatologic manifestations of diabetes mellitus. Moreover, diabetic neuropathy and angiopathy may also affect the skin. Pruritus, necrobiosis lipoidica, scleredema adultorum of Buschke, and granuloma annulare are examples of frequent noninfectious skin diseases. Bacterial and fungal skin infections are more frequent in people with diabetes. Diabetic neuropathy and angiopathy are responsible for diabetic foot syndrome and diabetic dermopathy. Furthermore, antidiabetic therapies may provoke dermatologic adverse events. Treatment with insulin may evoke local reactions like lipohypertrophy, lipoatrophy and both instant and delayed type allergy. Erythema multiforme, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, drug eruptions, and photosensitivity have been described as adverse reactions to oral antidiabetics. The identification of lesions may be crucial for the first diagnosis and for proper therapy of diabetes.
Durdu, Murat; Baba, Mete; Seçkin, Deniz
in 5 patients, a foreign body in 4 patients, necrobiosis lipoidica in 2 patients, and juvenile xanthogranuloma in 2 patients. In 17 of 20 patients (85%) with noninfectious granulomatous reactions, the cytologic findings were characteristic of the final diagnoses. The sensitivity and specificity of Leishman-Donovan bodies for cutaneous leishmaniasis were 76.9% and 100%, respectively. All of the samples were evaluated by the same dermatologist throughout the study; therefore no comment could be made regarding the reliability of the Tzanck smear test. In addition, the sensitivity and specificity of Tzanck smear test findings for diseases other than cutaneous leishmaniasis could not be calculated because of an insufficient number of patients. The Tzanck smear test may be a useful diagnostic tool for certain granulomatous skin diseases.
Cutaneous manifestations of Crohn's disease, its spectrum, and its pathogenesis: intracellular consensus bacterial 16S rRNA is associated with the gastrointestinal but not the cutaneous manifestations of Crohn's disease.
Crowson, A Neil; Nuovo, Gerard J; Mihm, Martin C; Magro, Cynthia
The classic pathology of skin disease discontinuous from the inflamed gastrointestinal (GI) tract in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) includes pyoderma gangrenosum (PG), erythema nodosum (EN), and so-called metastatic Crohn's disease. The purpose of this study was two-fold: First, we explored the full spectrum of cutaneous lesions associated with Crohn's disease, and second, we sought to explore a potential molecular basis of the skin lesions in patients with CD. In this regard, we analyzed skin and GI tract biopsies from affected patients for the consensus bacterial SrRNA to determine whether direct bacterial infection was associated with either condition. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections were studied and correlated to clinical presentation and histories from 33 patients with CD. Consensus bacterial RNA sequences were analyzed using an RT in situ PCR assay on both skin biopsy and GI biopsy material. The GI tract material included biopsies from 3 patients who had skin lesions and from 7 patients in whom there were no known skin manifestations. There were 8 cases of neutrophilic dominant dermal infiltrates, including pyoderma gangrenosum, 6 cases of granuloma annulare/necrobiosis lipoidica-like lesions, 5 cases of sterile neutrophilic folliculitis, 5 cases of panniculitis, 4 cases of vasculitis, 2 cases of psoriasis, 2 cases of lichenoid and granulomatous inflammation, and 1 case of classic metastatic CD. Intracellular bacterial 16S rRNA was detected in 8 of 10 tissues of active CD in the GI tract, of which 3 of the cases tested were from patients who also developed skin lesions at some point in their clinical course; in contrast, none of the skin biopsies had detectable bacterial RNA. The dermatopathological manifestations of CD discontiguous from the involved GI tract mucosa have in common a vascular injury syndrome, typically with a prominent extravascular neutrophilic and/or histiocytic dermal infiltrate. In addition, this study, the first to
... diabeticorum; Venous diseases, including the following: Prophylaxis of deep vein thrombophlebitis, edema (e.g..., edema (e.g., chronic lymphedema) and/or induration (e.g., stasis dermatitis) associated with chronic...
Azov, N A; Azova, E A
The use of an Amfit-0,2/10-01 apparatus generating low-intensity ultrahigh frequency (UHF) electromagnetic radiation improved efficiency of therapy of sick children. This treatment allowed to reduce the frequency of intake of anesthetics in the post-operative period, correct metabolic disorders in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, reduce severity of diabetic nephropathy and polyneuropathy, prevent formation of fresh foci of lipoid necrobiosis. The results of the study indicate that the use of low-intensity UHF electromagnetic radiation may be recommended for more extensive introduction into practical clinical work of pediatric endocrinologists and surgeons.
Manta, L; Suciu, N; Constantin, A; Toader, O; Popa, F
Introduction. Adenomyosis is a widespread disease usually affecting the late reproductive years of the women’s life, which has a great impact on their fertility. The most common form is diffuse adenomyosis, while focal adenomyosis, a cystic variant, is very rare, particularly in patients younger than 30 years old. Materials and methods. We reported a rare case of a 20-year-old Caucasian woman with cystic adenomyosis who was admitted in our service with severe chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and menorrhagia, who had received conservative surgical treatment to preserve fertility and improve her obstetrical prognosis. Results and Discussions. Although the necrobiosis of a uterine fibroid was suspected preoperatively, the extemporaneous histopathological exam revealed adenomyosis associated with fibroleiomyoma with hyaline dystrophy and multiple foci of endometriosis of cystic formation in the wall of a young woman without any risk factors. Conclusion. Although a rare lesion in young patients, cystic adenomyosis should be considered when chronic pelvic pain is exacerbated during menstruation and is associated with a uterine tumor. In young patients, the differential diagnosis should be made with uterine malformations (hematometra), necrobiosis of uterine fibroids, pelvic endometriosis. The surgical treatment should be conservative with the excision of the lesion, always taking into account fertility preservation in young patients. PMID:27453751
Kochet, K; Lytus, I; Svistunov, I; Sulaieva, O
Skin pathology is registered in vast majority of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Despite the abundance of publications on dermatological problems in DM, there is still a number of gaps to be discussed in terms of pathophysiological mechanisms. The goal of this review was to assess the mechanisms of development of different skin pathologies under DM. One of the key pathogenic mechanisms of skin lesions in diabetes is hyperglycemia and the effects of the advanced glycation end products, inducing oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation; that in its turn can accelerate the mechanisms of skin aging, the development of diabetic dermopathy and scleredema diabeticorum. Imbalance of growth factors, cytokines and hormones under insulin resistance, is associated with increased proliferation of keratinocytes, fibroblasts and sebocytes, mast cell dysfunction and melanogenesis disorders in acanthosis nigricans, acrochordons, acne and inflammatory dermatitis in diabetic patients. In addition, authors discuss the role of dendritic cells and macrophages dysfunction in impairment of peripheral tolerance and diabetic wounds pathogenesis in patients with DM.
Seastrom, Stacey; Bookout, Angela; Hogan, Daniel J
Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma (NXG) is an indolent non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by yellow xanthomatous plaques that tend to ulcerate. Necrobiotic xanthogranulomas have a predilection for the bilateral periorbital region and often present with consequential ophthalmic findings. Histopathology usually reveals a distinctive pattern of histiocytic xanthogranuloma with hyaline necrobiosis. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma has been documented to have a close association with paraproteinemia. We report the case of a 76-year-old man with periorbital NXG without development of a monoclonal gammopathy. Clinically, the patient presented with dry eyes and substantial periorbital edema with multiple yellow indurated plaques. He developed the condition 30 years prior to presentation at which time it was initially diagnosed as xanthelasma. He underwent surgical excision of the lesions 10 years prior to the current presentation and biopsy results revealed a diagnosis of NXG. The periorbital lesions recurred several years prior to presentation, prompting annual computed tomography scans to rule out ocular invasion. Periorbital edema and plaques improved during a 6-month regimen of acitretin but returned to baseline just months after discontinuation.
Haffor, A S; Abou-Tarboush, F M
It is clear that environmental heavy metals influence life systems and reproductive system. In the present study histological investigation revealed that cadmium was testicular toxicant in mice. Here we compared the fine-structure of spermatogenesis in two groups of mice (SWR), experimental and control. The experimental group underwent cadmium ingestion at 1 mg/kg daily for 4 weeks. The control group underwent ingestion of distilled water with equal dosages, using the same type of injectors, for 4-weeks. After cadmium exposure period both control and experimental groups were killed and samples of the testes were processed for microscopic examination. Ultra sections were examined and photographed by Transmission Electron Microscope (JEOL- 100SX) at 80KV. Ultrastructure examination revealed, vascular endothelial, interstitial, and sertoli cells damages. Early impairments of germinal cellular differentiation resulted in deformations in all parts of late spermatid. There were dislocation of accrosomal granules, nuclear damage associated with chromatin heterogeneity, detached spermatid from the apical process of sertoli cell, disarrangement of the mitochondria, abnormal oriented tail piece, and abnormal microtubules complex. These ultra morphological abnormalities relate to cell injury and to the resulting physiological abnormality, necrobiosis. Based on the results of this investigation it can be concluded that cadmium ingestion at 1000 microg/kg caused testicular toxicity and abnormalities in early sperm development.
Fugazza, G; Moroni, S; Bona, F
The authors present a plan for pharmacological treatment of pressure sores in patients affected by neurological pathologies: cerebrovascular accidents, head injuries, spinal cord injuries. This plan is easily applicable to all pressure sores included between first and third degree of the Reuler and Cooney classification. Authors identified some drugs specifically usefull in different cutaneous lesion degrees. Skin lesions and employed medicines are described as follows: Erythema: semi occlusive bandage with porous adsorbing membrane. This dressing must be left in for five days at least. Excoriation: bactericidal or bacteriostatic medicines if it's situated in a non pressed area while the same dressing utilized for erythema if it's localized in a pressed area. Pressure sores: if there is local infection cleanse the wound from bacterial defilement using topic antibiotics apply compresses with vitamin C if the cutaneous lesion is larger than deeper, Cadexomero lodico if it's deeper than larger. Fistulas: wadding with tablets of collagen. Necrobiosis: complete or partial surgical removal of eschar preceded by the use of enzymatic drugs when eschar is firmly adherent to subcutaneous tissues. The first group collects 9 patients with stroke and head injury: 8 with sacral and 1 with heel pressure sores. First degree pressure sores heal within 45 days and third degree lesions within 160 days. The second group collects 10 spinal cord injury patients mostly with complete lesion among which: 7 sacral, 1 heel, 1 ischiatic and 1 malleolar lesions. First degree pressure sores heal within 30 days, third degree pressure sores heal within 200 days. Healing time are considered acceptable. Pressure sores recovery swiftness can be related to different factors such as pressure sores sterness, neurological pathology and arising of clinical complication (hyperthermia, infections, low serum albumin values, etc).
Güler, Göknur; Ozgur, Elcin; Keles, Hikmet; Tomruk, Arin; Vural, Sevil Atalay; Seyhan, Nesrin
Adverse health effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the ongoing developmental stages of children from conception to childhood are scientifically anticipated subject. This study was performed to identify the effects of global system for mobile communications (GSM) modulated mobile phone like RFR in 1800MHz frequency on oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation beside the apoptotic cell formation, using histopathological and immunohistochemical methods in the brain tissue of 1-month-old male and female New Zealand White rabbits that were exposed to these fields at their mother's womb and after the birth. Oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation levels were investigated by measuring the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, respectively. Histopathological changes were observed using by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Apoptotic cells were detected in the examined organs by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining. For both male and female infants; 8-OHdG levels increased in the group exposed to RFR in both intrauterine and extrauterine periods compared to the infants that were never exposed to RFR and the ones were exposed when they reached one month of age (p<0.05). MDA results were different for male and female rabbits. There was no difference between all female infant groups (p>0.05), while only intrauterine exposure significantly causes MDA level increase for the male infants. HE staining revealed mild lessions in neuronal necrobiosis in brain tissues of female rabbits that had only intaruterine exposure and male rabbits had only extrauterine exposure. Gliosis were mildly positive in brain tissues of rabbits that are exposed only intrauterine period, also the group exposed both intrauterine and extrauterine periods. However, there was no apoptotic change detected by TUNEL staining in the brain tissues of all groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Zinoun, M; Hali, F; Marnissi, F; Lazaar, S; Benchikhi, H
Xanthogranulomas belong to non-Langerhans histiocytosis of the second group in the Histiocyte Society classification. They comprise a heterogeneous group of rare entities frequently involving cutaneous tropism. Xanthoma disseminatum belongs to this group of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. We report a case of xanthoma disseminatum (XD) in which localized skin and mucous impairment revealed multisystem involvement. A 28-year-old man presented with a two-year history of progressive yellow-orange and infiltrated xanthomatous papulonodular lesions of the face. Lesions of the oral mucosa and genital region were seen, with no functional repercussions. No ophthalmic or other complications were found. Histopathology showed a dense histiocytic infiltrate within the dermis with Touton giant cells, foamy multinucleated giant cells and inflammatory cells, without necrobiosis. Histiocytes were positive for CD68 but negative for CD1a. Gastric and lung involvement was seen and was confirmed at histology. Bone scintigraphy showed suspicious left ulnar hyperfixation suggesting bone involvement. No monoclonal gammopathy or diabetes insipidus was seen. Our patient was treated with corticosteroids 1mg/kg/day and thalidomide 100 mg/day. The outcome was marked by regression and exfiltration of the cutaneous lesions from the second week of treatment, with subsidence continuing at 3 months. This case involves a very rare form of xanthoma disseminatum. The localized facial skin lesions revealed multifocal non-Langerhans histiocytosis that was in fact asymptomatic. The diagnosis of XD was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical criteria. Xanthoma disseminatum is a non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferation first described by Montgomery in 1938. This rare entity is characterized by skin and mucous membrane xanthomatosis in which the facial involvement is common, together with diabetes insipidus and normal lipid metabolism. The prognosis is determined by the presence of mucosal