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Sample records for necropsy

  1. Feedlot Euthanasia and Necropsy.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee

    2015-11-01

    Timely euthanasia of feeder cattle can minimize suffering of cattle that have little hope of recovery or pain abatement. Euthanasia techniques are described, including primary and secondary steps to ensure humane death. Considerations are discussed to ensure rendered product from euthanized cattle will be safe. A necropsy technique that is time efficient and thorough is outlined. An important aspect is minimizing the number of detached body organs, thereby making it easier to remove the necropsied animal. A necropsy data collection system is discussed that uses check-boxes to record findings. A link to a database that can be downloaded is included.

  2. Interpreting bruises at necropsy

    PubMed Central

    Vanezis, P

    2001-01-01

    The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death PMID:11328832

  3. Performing the field necropsy examination.

    PubMed

    Mason, Gary L; Madden, Dennis J

    2007-11-01

    This article is designed to aid the practitioner by maximizing the effectiveness of field postmortem diagnostic investigations. Contents include an outline of the procedure for field necropsy of ruminants, recommended tools and supplies, and guidelines for sample collection and submission.

  4. Parasitology and necropsy of fish.

    PubMed

    Weber, E P Scott; Govett, Pam

    2009-02-01

    Parasitic diseases are common in fish. Diagnosis can be made through gill biopsy, skin cytology, fecal examination, or necropsy. Common parasites include protozoa, helminths, and crustaceans. Determining the cause of death in a fish is important for maintaining the health of other fish in the same environment. Due to rapid autolysis, fish necropsies should be performed promptly after death. Samples should be preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Squash preparations, tissue imprints, microbiology, and virology are also useful in obtaining a diagnosis.

  5. Spontaneous haematomyelia: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Leech, R W; Pitha, J V; Brumback, R A

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous haematomyelia (intramedullary spinal haematoma), is an uncommon event. Predisposing conditions have been reported including syringomyelia, pregnancy and delivery, angioma, spinal artery aneurysm, and haemophilia, but only rarely has a pathological evaluation been performed. Two such cases studied at necropsy are reported. In one case, the haematoma was restricted to the cervical spinal cord, while in the second case it extended from the medulla into the lowest thoracic cord segments. In both cases the haematomyelia was fatal. In the first case the clinical course was subacute, but in the other the course was more acute. Careful neuropathological examination showed no apparent cause for the haemorrhages. Images PMID:2019846

  6. NHETS − Necropsy Heart Transplantation Study

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Thiago Ninck; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Benvenuti, Luiz Alberto; Issa, Victor Sarli; Bacal, Fernando; Chizzola, Paulo Roberto; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; dos Santos, Ronaldo Honorato Barros; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2014-01-01

    Background Discrepancies between pre and post-mortem diagnoses are reported in the literature, ranging from 4.1 to 49.8 % in cases referred for necropsy, with important impact on patient treatment. Objective To analyze patients who died after cardiac transplantation and to compare the pre- and post-mortem diagnoses. Methods Perform a review of medical records and analyze clinical data, comorbidities, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory tests, clinical cause of death and cause of death at the necropsy. Then, the clinical and necroscopic causes of death of each patient were compared. Results 48 deaths undergoing necropsy were analyzed during 2000-2010; 29 (60.4 %) had concordant clinical and necroscopic diagnoses, 16 (33.3%) had discordant diagnoses and three (6.3%) had unclear diagnoses. Among the discordant ones, 15 (31.3%) had possible impact on survival and one (2.1%) had no impact on survival. The main clinical misdiagnosis was infection, with five cases (26.7 % of discordant), followed by hyperacute rejection, with four cases (20 % of the discordant ones), and pulmonary thromboembolism, with three cases (13.3% of discordant ones). Conclusion Discrepancies between clinical diagnosis and necroscopic findings are commonly found in cardiac transplantation. New strategies to improve clinical diagnosis should be made, considering the results of the necropsy, to improve the treatment of heart failure by heart transplantation. PMID:24759949

  7. Necropsy findings in neonatal asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Turkel, S B; Diehl, E J; Richmond, J A

    1985-01-01

    Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by an abnormally small thorax, variable shortening of the extremities, and pelvic anomalies. Renal and pancreatic symptoms are found in longer survivors, although most cases die in infancy of respiratory failure. Seven neonatal cases were studied at necropsy. These cases ranged in gestational age from 32 to 40 weeks. One was stillborn and the other six survived from 1 hour to 10 days. Two were sibs born to consanguineous parents. Dwarfing was not pronounced and the extremities were shortened in only one infant who also had polydactyly. All seven showed visceral changes in addition to abnormalities of bone. Endochondral ossification was irregular in sections of femur, vertebra, and rib. Pulmonary hypoplasia was associated with the small thorax typical of this disorder. Periportal fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were seen in sections of liver, and in one case cirrhosis was found. Pancreatic fibrosis was variable. These necropsy findings correlate with later clinical manifestations of the disease and emphasise the multisystem nature of this disorder. Images PMID:3989824

  8. Field necropsy of cattle and diagnostic sample submission.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee

    2012-11-01

    Field necropsies can provide a wealth of information that can help guide production management decisions. Techniques outlined can allow a veterinary practitioner to complete a thorough necropsy of a bovine, including examination of the brain when indicated, in less than 20 minutes. An observation and history collection system using form templates and photographs is outlined that improves efficiency of recording necropsy results. One key to necropsy efficiency, speed, and enjoyment is having sharp knives. The first part of the article includes tips for sharpening knives. The article also includes detailed information on appropriate diagnostic specimen handling, packaging, and shipping.

  9. The Veterinary Forensic Necropsy: A Review of Procedures and Protocols.

    PubMed

    Brownlie, H W Brooks; Munro, R

    2016-09-01

    Investigation of animal-related crime, and therefore submission of forensic cases to veterinary pathology facilities, is increasing, yet many veterinary pathologists are unfamiliar and often uncomfortable with involvement in the forensic necropsy. This article discusses various aspects of the forensic necropsy without specific attention to any particular species group or crime. General advice is given on procedures, documentation, and recording of the examination, and the article indicates how these features may differ from those used in investigation of natural disease. It also discusses evidence management, including recordkeeping, identification of evidence, labeling of photographs, and use of standard operating procedures and protocols. Various written and visual methods for documentation of the forensic necropsy are covered, and adjunctive topics such as sample collection, assessment, and description of wounds and taphonomy are included. Cause, mechanism, and manner of death are defined, and guidance to the use of these terms is given. The aim of this article is to offer guidance on procedural aspects of the forensic necropsy that will help those developing their forensic services, contribute to standardization of the provision of forensic veterinary pathology, and build the confidence of the "uncomfortable" forensic veterinary pathologist.

  10. Salmonella transmission through splash exposure during a bovine necropsy.

    PubMed

    Bemis, David A; Craig, Linden E; Dunn, John R

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from two adult cows and a veterinary pathologist who performed a necropsy examination on one of the cows. The isolates had indistinguishable phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. A splash exposure was the suspected means of transmission of the human infection. Veterinary practices and other at-risk occupations should establish site-specific infection control plans and review recommendations for use of facial protection measures during procedures that may produce splashes or aerosols.

  11. The use of computer imaging technology to facilitate the capture of feedlot necropsy information.

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, B K; Schunicht, O C; Jim, G K; Guichon, P T; Booker, C W; Tollens, R A

    2000-01-01

    The collection of necropsy information is an integral component of veterinary feedlot consulting. Computer imaging technology can be employed to facilitate the capture of feedlot necropsy data. A digital camera is used to capture necropsy images. Subsequently, the images are electronically transferred to a central site for veterinary interpretation and diagnosis. Images Figure 1. PMID:10723598

  12. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.40 Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy... captive cervid was classified, and who is trained in tuberculosis necropsy procedures. (2) If, upon necropsy, a captive cervid is found without evidence of M. bovis infection by histopathology and...

  13. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.40 Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy... captive cervid was classified, and who is trained in tuberculosis necropsy procedures. (2) If, upon necropsy, a captive cervid is found without evidence of M. bovis infection by histopathology and...

  14. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.40 Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy... captive cervid was classified, and who is trained in tuberculosis necropsy procedures. (2) If, upon necropsy, a captive cervid is found without evidence of M. bovis infection by histopathology and...

  15. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.40 Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy... captive cervid was classified, and who is trained in tuberculosis necropsy procedures. (2) If, upon necropsy, a captive cervid is found without evidence of M. bovis infection by histopathology and...

  16. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.40 Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy... captive cervid was classified, and who is trained in tuberculosis necropsy procedures. (2) If, upon necropsy, a captive cervid is found without evidence of M. bovis infection by histopathology and...

  17. Unsupervised clustering of wildlife necropsy data for syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of wildlife disease surveillance is increasing, because wild animals are playing a growing role as sources of emerging infectious disease events in humans. Syndromic surveillance methods have been developed as a complement to traditional health data analyses, to allow the early detection of unusual health events. Early detection of these events in wildlife could help to protect the health of domestic animals or humans. This paper aims to define syndromes that could be used for the syndromic surveillance of wildlife health data. Wildlife disease monitoring in France, from 1986 onward, has allowed numerous diagnostic data to be collected from wild animals found dead. The authors wanted to identify distinct pathological profiles from these historical data by a global analysis of the registered necropsy descriptions, and discuss how these profiles can be used to define syndromes. In view of the multiplicity and heterogeneity of the available information, the authors suggest constructing syndromic classes by a multivariate statistical analysis and classification procedure grouping cases that share similar pathological characteristics. Results A three-step procedure was applied: first, a multiple correspondence analysis was performed on necropsy data to reduce them to their principal components. Then hierarchical ascendant clustering was used to partition the data. Finally the k-means algorithm was applied to strengthen the partitioning. Nine clusters were identified: three were species- and disease-specific, three were suggestive of specific pathological conditions but not species-specific, two covered a broader pathological condition and one was miscellaneous. The clusters reflected the most distinct and most frequent disease entities on which the surveillance network focused. They could be used to define distinct syndromes characterised by specific post-mortem findings. Conclusions The chosen statistical clustering method was found to be a

  18. Cadmium concentrations in human renal cortex tissue (necropsies)

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Artiguez, M.; Repetto, M.; Camean, A.; Gonzalez, G.

    1995-06-01

    Cadmium is toxic to most living organisms. It occurs as part of different types of rocks, sedimentation sludges, coals and mineral oils; in minerals, cadmium (Cd) is frequently associated with zinc. Its world wide presence and considerable industrial use has given rise to an increase in its content in trophic food chains, which contribute mainly to human exposure. Oral absorption is relatively low and is influenced by the solubility of the compound, type of diet, and individual nutritional state. Interest in Cd contamination began after the outbreak of itai-itai disease in Japan. Evaluation of Cd contamination has been carried out in all the countries of the European Economic Community, and it has been estimated that in Spain emissions to the atmosphere and water are respectively 6.89 and 3.79% of total emissions in the European Communities. After exposure, the kidney is the organ which contains the highest concentrations of the Cd and retains it longest. When critical body concentration is reached, renal malfunction and damage are produced. Moreover, studies on humans not occupationally exposed to Cd show 50% of the body burden is found in the kidneys. Cd in the renal cortex increases with age, reaching a maximum between 40-60 years. Differences found among populations have been associated with daily intake in the diet and smoking habits. Taking into consideration the lack of studies on factors influencing the Cd burden in renal cortex in our country, the aim of the present paper was to find out the levels of Cd in renal cortex samples obtained from necropsies of inhabitants of Andalusia, Spain, and compare them with levels in other populations not occupationally exposed to the element; also to investigate the influence of individual factors, such as sex, age and drug addition on said Cd levels. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin; Turner, Malcolm; Lemm, Stephanie; Pears, Rachel; Bowater, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Data and specimens collected from dugong carcasses and live stranded individuals provide vital information for research and management agencies. The ability to assign a cause of death (natural and/or human induced) to a carcass assists managers to identify major threats to a population in certain areas and to evaluate and adapt management measures. Data collectedfrom dugong carcasses have contributed to research in areas such as life history, feeding biology, investigating the stock structure/genetics of dugongs, contaminants studies, heavy metal analyses, parasitology, and the effects of habitat change. Adapted from the 'Manual of Procedures for the Salvage and Necropsy of Carcasses of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus),' this manual provides a detailed guide for dugong (Dugong dugon) carcass handling and necropsy procedures. It is intended to be used as a resource and training guide for anyone involved in dugong incidents who may lack dugong expertise.

  20. Differentiation at necropsy between in vivo gas embolism and putrefaction using a gas score.

    PubMed

    Bernaldo de Quirós, Yara; Saavedra, Pedro; Møllerløkken, Andreas; Brubakk, Alf O; Jørgensen, Arve; González-Díaz, Oscar; Martín-Barrasa, Jose L; Fernández, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Gas bubble lesions consistent with decompression sickness in marine mammals were described for the first time in beaked whales stranded in temporal and spatial association with military exercises. Putrefaction gas is a post-mortem artifact, which hinders the interpretation of gas found at necropsy. Gas analyses have been proven to help differentiating putrefaction gases from gases formed after hyperbaric exposures. Unfortunately, chemical analysis cannot always be performed. Post-mortem computed tomography is used to study gas collections, but many different logistical obstacles and obvious challenges, like the size of the animal or the transport of the animal from the stranding location to the scanner, limit its use in stranded marine mammals. In this study, we tested the diagnostic value of an index-based method for characterizing the amount and topography of gas found grossly during necropsies. For this purpose, putrefaction gases, intravenously infused atmospheric air, and gases produced by decompression were evaluated at necropsy with increased post-mortem time in New Zealand White Rabbits using a gas score index. Statistical differences (P<0.001) were found between the three experimental models immediately after death. Differences in gas score between in vivo gas embolism and putrefaction gases were found significant (P<0.05) throughout the 67h post-mortem. The gas score-index is a new and simple method that can be used by all stranding networks, which has been shown through this study to be a valid diagnostic tool to distinguish between fatal decompression, iatrogenic air embolism and putrefaction gases at autopsies.

  1. Clinical and necropsy findings associated with increased mortality among American alligators of Lake Griffin, Florida.

    PubMed

    Schoeb, Trenton R; Heaton-Jones, Terrell G; Clemmons, Roger M; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Woodward, Allan R; Shelton, Diane; Poppenga, Robert H

    2002-04-01

    From December, 1997, through November, 2000, 306 deaths were documented among adult and subadult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) of Lake Griffin, Florida (USA). Some live alligators were lethargic and unresponsive to approach. To determine the cause, we examined ten alligators captured from Lake Griffin between December 1997 and June 1999. Initially, four alligators, three of which were clinically unresponsive, were sacrificed for routine diagnostic necropsy. The other six Lake Griffin alligators, and five control alligators captured from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, where mortality was negligible, were studied extensively by clinical neurologic examination, electromyography, hematology, serum chemical analyses, and blood culture, then sacrificed and necropsied. Samples of brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, skeletal muscle, and major internal organs were examined by light microscopy for abnormalities. Samples of nervous tissue also were examined by electron microscopy, and samples of various tissues were collected for toxicologic analyses. Clinical signs included swimming in circles, inability to submerge, lethargy, weakness, unresponsiveness, slow reflexes, dragging the dorsal surfaces of the hind feet, head tilt, and anisocoria. Lake Griffin alligators had significantly lower distal sciatic nerve conduction velocities than Lake Woodruff alligators, and the most severely affected alligators had the lowest velocities; but morphologic abnormalities in peripheral nerves were not evident in most cases. Three severely affected alligators had acute focal necrosis of the torus semicircularis in the midbrain, two had skeletal myofiber atrophy, another had diffuse nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, and one mildly affected alligator had skeletal myodegeneration. The cause or causes have not yet been identified.

  2. Electrocution of Raptors on Power Lines: A Review of Necropsy Methods and Findings.

    PubMed

    Kagan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Decades after the problem was first identified, power line electrocution continues to be a cause of avian mortality. Currently, several federal laws protect eagles and other migratory birds, meaning that utility companies may be liable for electrocution-related deaths. Veterinarians and veterinary pathologists called upon to diagnose and treat electrocuted birds should keep this in mind when conducting clinical and postmortem examinations. This review details necropsy findings and methods used to diagnose electrocution. A combination of gross, subgross, and radiographic examinations can aid in identification of subtle injury. Diagnosis is made based on the presence of skin and/or feather burns. Other necropsy findings may include skin lacerations, subcutaneous burns, bruising, limb avulsion, hemopericardium, and vascular rupture. At the US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Forensics Laboratory, from 2000 to 2015, 417 raptor deaths were determined to have been caused by electrocution. Bald eagles and golden eagles were the most commonly submitted species. In a retrospective review of 377 cases, for which whole bodies were submitted, 18% of the electrocuted birds had only a single, small (less than 3 cm in diameter) external burn. Small, isolated burns tended to occur on the undersides of the wings at and distal to the elbow and on the lower legs and feet. These areas should be most carefully examined in cases where electrocution injury is not immediately apparent.

  3. Accidental infection of veterinary personnel with Mycobacterium tuberculosis at necropsy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Posthaus, H; Bodmer, T; Alves, L; Oevermann, A; Schiller, I; Rhodes, S G; Zimmerli, S

    2011-05-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main cause of human tuberculosis. Infection in companion animals is mainly acquired from close contact to a diseased human patient and hence rarely diagnosed in countries with low tuberculosis incidence rates. Therefore the general awareness of the disease might be low. Here we report the potential risk of infection for veterinary personnel with M. tuberculosis during the clinical and pathological examination of a dog with unexpected disseminated tuberculosis. The dog had presented with symptoms of a central nervous system disease; rapid deterioration prevented a complete clinical workup, however. Post-mortem examination revealed systemic mycobacteriosis, and M. tuberculosis was identified by PCR amplification of DNA extracts from paraffin-embedded tissue sections and spoligotyping. Contact investigations among the owners and veterinary personnel using an IFN-γ release assay indicated that the index dog did not infect humans during its lifetime. Serological and IFN-γ release assay results of one of two cats in direct contact with the index dog, however, suggested that transmission of M. tuberculosis might have occurred. Importantly, all three pathologists performing the necropsy on the dog tested positive. Accidental infection was most likely due to inhalation of M. tuberculosis containing aerosols created by using an electric saw to open the brain cavity. As a consequence routine necropsy procedures have been adapted and a disease surveillance program, including tuberculosis, has been initiated. Our results highlight the importance of disease awareness and timely diagnosis of zoonotic infectious agents in optimizing work safety for veterinary personnel.

  4. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-08-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse.

  5. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:3170770

  6. Necropsy findings in dogs that died during grooming or other pet service procedures.

    PubMed

    Maria, Anna Carolina Barbosa Esteves; Rego, Alexandre Aparecido Mattos da Silva; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2013-09-01

    Procedures involved in grooming, bathing, and other pet services can often lead animals to death. Of the necropsies of 1391 animals carried out at a private diagnostic laboratory in Sao Paulo, Brazil from 2004 to 2009, 94 were dogs that died during the above-mentioned procedures. Young male dogs and small breeds like Poodle Miniature, Yorkshire Terrier, and Lhasa Apso were most frequently observed. Blunt-force trauma was responsible for the deaths of 31% of the animals, with a higher incidence of trauma to the head, characterized chiefly by fractures and nervous tissue lesions. In the other 69% of cases, the animals showed signs of stress, and died due to pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. As we cannot rule out the intentional character in some situations, this article provides veterinary forensic support for veterinarians and pet owners, especially in lawsuits, helping in finding the cause of animal's death in such pet services.

  7. Non-accidental injuries found in necropsies of domestic cats: a review of 191 cases.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Cassiano, Fabiana Cecília; de Albuquerque Landi, Marina Frota; Marlet, Elza Fernandes; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2012-10-01

    Animal cruelty is defined as a deliberate action that causes pain and suffering to an animal. In Brazil, legislation known as the Environmental Crimes Law states that cruelty toward all animal species is criminal in nature. From 644 domestic cats necropsied between January 1998 and December 2009, 191 (29.66%) presented lesions highly suggestive of animal cruelty. The main necroscopic finding was exogenous carbamate poisoning (75.39%) followed by blunt-force trauma (21.99%). Cats from 7 months to 2 years of age were the most affected (50.79%). In Brazil, violence is a public health problem and there is a high prevalence of domestic violence. Therefore, even if laws provide for animal welfare and protection, animals are common targets for violent acts. Within a context of social violence, cruelty toward animals is an important parameter to be considered, and the non-accidental lesions that were found are evidence of malicious actions.

  8. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  9. Clinical and necropsy observations early after simultaneous replacement of the mitral and aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W C; Sullivan, M F

    1986-11-15

    Clinical and necropsy findings are described in 54 patients, aged 25 to 83 years (mean 53), who died within 60 days of simultaneous replacements of both mitral and aortic valves. The patients were separated into 4 groups on the basis of the presence of stenosis (with or without associated regurgitation) or pure regurgitation of each valve: 30 patients (56%) had combined mitral and aortic valve stenosis; 12 patients (22%) had mitral stenosis and pure aortic regurgitation; 8 patients (15%) had pure regurgitation of both valves; and 4 patients (7%) had pure aortic regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Necropsy examination in the 54 patients disclosed a high frequency (48%) of anatomic evidence of interference to poppet or disc movement in either the mitral or aortic valve position or both. Anatomic evidence of interference to movement of a poppet or disc in the aortic valve position was twice as common as anatomic evidence of interference to poppet or disc movement in the mitral position. Interference to poppet movement is attributable to the prosthesis's being too large for the ascending aorta or left ventricular cavity in which it resided. The ascending aorta is infrequently enlarged in patients with combined mitral and aortic valve dysfunction irrespective of whether the aortic valve is stenotic or purely regurgitant. Likewise, the left ventricular cavity is usually not dilated in patients with combined mitral and aortic valve stenosis, the most common indication for replacement of both left-sided cardiac valves. Of the 54 patients, 12 (22%) had 1 mechanical and 1 bioprosthesis inserted. It is recommended that both substitute valves should be mechanical prostheses or both should be bioprostheses.

  10. Histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in thoroughbred mares in Japan: results from 50 necropsy cases.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Michiko; Maeda, Yousuke; Oikawa, Masa-Aki

    2014-01-01

    Uteri from 50 necropsied nonpregnant Japanese Thoroughbred brood mares (1-30 years of age) were investigated to clarify the histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in Japanese Thoroughbred mares and the distribution pattern of endometrosis lesions in the uterus as a whole. Endometrosis was observed in all animals over 6 years of age and in all of the 21 mares aged over 12 years of age. The affected mares showed elastofibrosis of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels in the uterine wall, atrophy of the uterine smooth muscle layers and hyperplasia of collagen fibers among the smooth muscle fascicles of the myometrium, in addition to pathomorphologic features of endometrosis such as stromal endometrial fibrosis accompanied by endometrial atrophy, periglandular fibrosis and reduction of uterine glands. The severity of the histopathological changes increased with advancing age. Lymphatic vessels with elastofibrosis showed marked lymph congestion, leading to lymphatic edema. With increasing age, the extent of the distribution of these lesions tended to expand from focal to diffuse involvement of the entire uterus. Based on these findings, we speculate that aging plays a role in the pathogenesis of endometrosis; circulatory disturbances due to intrauterine angiosis or angiopathy, particularly reduction of the arterial blood supply and disturbance of venous drainage, resulting in a reduction of lymphatic drainage (lymphatic edema), are closely related to the onset and progression of endometrial fibrosis and myometrial atrophy with fibroplasia may result in myometrial hypofunction during the peri-implantation or puerperal period.

  11. Survey of necropsy results in captive red wolves (Canis rufus), 1992-1996.

    PubMed

    Acton, A E; Munson, L; Waddell, W T

    2000-03-01

    Through the Red Wolf Species Survival Plan, the captive red wolf (Canis rufus) population was developed with the intent of reestablishing wild populations. One part of the plan was a survey for diseases that might occur as a result of population homogeneity or that might impede breeding success and reintroduction. For this survey, complete necropsies and histopathologic analyses were performed on 62 red wolves from 1992 to 1996. Major causes of 22 neonatal deaths were parental trauma, parasitic pneumonia, and septicemia. Common neonatal lesions included pododermatitis and systemic ascariasis. Cardiovascular anomalies and systemic parasitism were found in two juveniles. Causes of death in the 38 adults included conspecific trauma, neoplasia, or gastrointestinal diseases such as necrotizing enteritis, intestinal perforation, and gastric volvulus. Lymphosarcoma represented 50% of the fatal neoplasms. Three adults died from cardiovascular failure or hyperthermia during handling, and several adults were euthanized for suspected genetic diseases. Overall, the captive population had few significant health problems, but population fitness might be improved by continued removal of potentially deleterious genes from the breeding population and by modifying the husbandry of neonates and adults.

  12. Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

  13. Environmental pollutant and necropsy data for ospreys from the eastern United States, 1975-1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Schmeling, S.K.; Anderson, A.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-three ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) found dead or moribund in the eastern United States during 1975-1982 were necropsied and selected tissues were analyzed for organochlorines and metals. Major causes or factors contributing to death were trauma, impact injuries, and emaciation. DDE was detected in 96% of the osprey carcases, DDD in 65%, DDT and heptachlor epoxide in 13%, dieldrin, oxychlordane, and cis-nonachlor in 35%, cis-chlordane in 52%, trans-nonachlor in 45%, and PCB's in 83%. Carcasses of immature ospreys from the Chesapeake Bay had significantly lower concentrations of DDE, DDD + DDT, cis-chlordane, and PCB's than carcasses of adults from the same area. Concentrations of some organochlorines in ospreys from the Chesapeake Bay declined significantly from 1971-1973 to 1975-1982. Significant differences in concentrations of certain metals in the ospreys' livers were noted between time periods, and sex and age groups for birds from the Chesapeake Bay. During 1975-1982, adults had significantly lower concentrations of chromium, copper, and arsenic than immatures and nestlings, and adult males had higher mercury concentrations than adult females. Adult females had lower zinc concentrations in 1975-1982 than in 1971-1973. Immatures and nestlings had higher concentrations of chromium and lead in 1975-1982 than in 1971-1973. A slightly elevated concentration of chromium (1.7 ppm) or arsenic (3.2 ppm) was found in the livers of individual ospreys. Several ospreys had elevated concentrations of mercury in their livers; two ospreys had more than 20 ppm which may have contributed to their deaths.

  14. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi-Storm, N; Mejer, H; Al-Sabi, M N S; Olsen, C S; Thamsborg, S M; Enemark, H L

    2015-12-15

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n=92) and household cats with outdoor access (n=7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region, Denmark. The sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) was used to isolate helminths and coproscopy was done by concentration McMaster technique (c-McMaster). Overall, 90.1% of the cats were infected and a total of 10 species were recorded by SCT: 5 nematode species: Toxocara cati (84.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (13.1%), Aonchotheca putorii (7.1%), Paersonema spp. (3.0%), Strongyloides spp. (1.0%); 3 cestodes: Hydatigera taeniaeformis (36.4%), Mesocestoides sp. (3.0%), Dipylidium caninum (1.0%); and 2 trematodes: Cryptocotyle spp. (5.1%) and Pseudamphistomum truncatum (1.0%). O. tricuspis was the second most common gastrointestinal nematode of cats but had the highest intensity of infection. For T. cati, prevalence and worm burden were significantly higher in feral than household cats. No juvenile cats were infected with H. taeniaeformis, and age thus had a significant effect on prevalence and worm burdens of this species. Rural cats had a higher prevalence and worm burden of A. putorii than urban cats. By c-McMaster, ascarid, capillarid, strongylid or taeniid type eggs were found in 77.9% of the cats while Cystoisospora felis was found in 2.1%. The sensitivity of the c-McMaster was 82.5% for T. cati but 26.5% for taeniid eggs, using the SCT as gold standard. A positive correlation between faecal egg counts and worm burdens was seen for T. cati, but not for taeniid eggs (assumed to be H. taeniaeformis). Coprological examination also detected the eggs of extraintestinal Capillariidae species including Eucoleus aerophilus and Eucoleus boehmi, but further necropsy studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  15. Residues of environmental pollutants and necropsy data for eastern United States ospreys, 1964-1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Lamont, T.G.; Locke, L.N.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-three ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) that were found dead or moribund in the Eastern United States between 1964 and 1973 were necropsied. The brains and carcasses of 26 of these birds were analyzed for organochlorines. The livers of 18 and the kidneys of 7 were analyzed for selected metals. Most adults were recovered in April and May and most immatures were recovered in August through October. The adult sex ratio was highly unbalanced in favor of females. Major causes of mortality were impact injuries, emaciation, shooting, and respiratory infections. Of special interest were two birds with malignant tumors and one with steatitis. Many birds had undergone marked weight losses resulting in mobilization and redistribution of organochlorine residues. Organochlorines were detected in the birds at the following percentages: DDE l00%, PCB 96%, DDD 92%, dieldrin 88%, chlordanes (including nonachlors) 82%, DDT 65%, and heptachlor epoxide 38%. Organochlorine levels tended to be higher in adults than in immatures. One adult from South Carolina had a potentially dangerous level of dieldrin in its brain, which might have contributed to its death. Immature ospreys from Maryland had extremely elevated levels of copper in their livers compared with immatures from other areas and all adults. One immature from Maryland had an elevated level of arsenic in its liver, which might have contributed to its death. One adult from Florida that had died of impact injuries had potentially dangerous levels of mercury in both liver and kidney and slightly elevated levels of cadmium in these tissues. Additional birds appeared to have been exposed to contamination of the environment by arsenic and mercury. The levels of chromium, zinc, and lead in livers appeared normal.

  16. Predictors of presence, multiplicity, size and dysplasia of colorectal adenomas. A necropsy study in New Zealand.

    PubMed Central

    Jass, J R; Young, P J; Robinson, E M

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty six forensic necropsy specimens of large bowel were examined in order to identify subject related variables that independently predicted the following adenoma characteristics: presence, size (largest), multiplicity and high grade dysplasia. The variables were age, gender, body mass index, race (European origin versus Maori/Polynesian) and presence of hyperplastic (metaplastic) polyp(s). Subjects included 303 New Zealanders of European origin (M = 185, F = 118) yielding 149 adenomas and 251 hyperplastic polyps and 33 Maori/Polynesians (M = 25, F = 8) yielding five adenomas and one hyperplastic polyp. Independent predictors of adenoma presence as determined by regression analysis were age (p = 0.0001), presence of hyperplastic polyps (p = 0.0001) and male gender (p = 0.05). Models were poor at explaining variation in size, multiplicity, and dysplasia. Larger adenomas occurred more frequently in subjects with multiple adenomas (p = 0.03) and multiple adenomas were probably associated with hyperplastic polyps (p = 0.09) and male gender (p = 0.09) in Europeans. High grade dysplasia was more frequent in women (p = 0.05) and possibly in subjects with hyperplastic polyps (p = 0.2). Body mass index and ethnicity did not predict any adenoma characteristics, but hyperplastic polyp prevalence was influenced by European origin (p = 0.04) and to a lesser extent by body mass index (p = 0.08) as well as presence of adenoma (p = 0.0002) and age ( = 0.005). The association of hyperplastic polyp with presence, multiplicity but not size of adenoma and with a high risk group for colorectal cancer (New Zealanders of European origin) suggests that the hyperplastic polyp serves as a marker for a factor which influences neoplastic evolution at the stages of initiation/transformation but not promotion. Fifty nine per cent of individuals with adenoma(s) did not have hyperplastic polyp(s) emphasising that the last would serve only as a marker of populations and not

  17. Cardiac pathology after valve replacement by disc prosthesis. A study of 61 necropsy patients.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W C; Fishbein, M C; Golden, A

    1975-05-01

    Clinical and necropsy observations are described in 61 patients who had one or more cardiac valves replaced with a discoid prosthesis of the Hufnagel type. The most common (31 percent) cause of death among the 45 patients who died early (less than 65 days after operation) appeared to be prosthetic disproportion; that is, the prothesis was too big for the aorta or ventricular cavity into which it was inserted so that inadequate space was present between the margins of the disc and the endocardium of ventricle or intima of aorta. Prosthetic thrombosis occurred in only 3 of the 45 patients who died early, but poppet movement appeared considerably altered in each. In contrast, thrombi were observed on a prosthesis in 14 of the 16 patients who died late (4 to 47 months [average 21] postoperatively), but in none did the thrombi appear of sufficient size to alter poppet function. Escessive bleeding occurred in 11 (24 percent) of the 45 early deaths and was primarily related to the insertion of a patch in the root of the aorta. Uncorrected valvular disease either by itself or by its ability to alter function of the prosthesis appeared responsible for death in 6 (13 percent) of the 45 patients who died early and in 2 (6 percent) of the 16 who died late. Insertion of a mitral poppet disc in a patient with uncorrected aortic regurgitation, even of mild degree, may be hazardous because the aortic regurgitant jet stream may interfere with proper function of the mitral disc. Likewise, insertion of a poppet disc only in the aortic valve position in a patient with combined aortic and mitral regurgitation may considerably increase the degree of mitral incompetence because the aortic prosthesis is intrinsically obstructive. Disc wear or variance was observed in all but one prosthesis in place for more than 1 year. Although hemolytic anemia of significant degree was not observed in any of the 16 patients who died late, the occurrence of renal hemosiderosis in 13 of the 16 patients

  18. Importance and Repercussions of Renal and Cardiovascular Pathology on Stroke in Young Adults: An Anatomopathologic Study of 52 Clinical Necropsies

    PubMed Central

    Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Fernández-Abreu, Mary; Cardozo-Duran, José; Vilchez-Barrios, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Stroke in young adults has seldom been studied in a necropsy series. The objective of the present clinical necropsy-based investigation was to analyze stroke and its relationship with cardiovascular and renal pathology in young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS The protocols of 52 clinical necropsies with diagnoses of stroke in patients aged 18 – 49 years, performed between the years 1990–2006, were reviewed. RESULTS Hemorrhagic stroke was diagnosed in 36 patients (69.3%), whereas the remaining 16 (30.7%) had ischemic stroke. Hypertensive cardiopathy was evident in 88.4% of the cases. Chronic renal pathology, directly or indirectly related to hypertension, was observed in 55.7% of the patients. Ischemic stroke as a result of occlusive atherosclerotic disease was seen in 50% of cases. Cardiogenic emboli were found in 25% of the cadavers. Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with hypertension in 43% of the cases, with ruptured vascular malformations in 29%, and coagulopathies in 17% of the cases. Hypertensive cardiopathy was present in patients with either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (81.2% and 91.6%, respectively). The most frequently observed renal ailments were chronic pyelonephritis (23%) and nephrosclerosis (21.1%). These were associated with ischemic stroke in 43.7%, and 12.5% of the cases, respectively, and with 13.8% and 25% of the hemorrhagic stroke cases. DISCUSSION Hypertensive cardiopathy, occlusive atherosclerotic disease, chronic pyelonephritis and nephrosclerosis are among the pathophysiologycal mechanisms that apparently and eventually interact to induce a significant number of cases of stroke in young adults. A chronic systemic inflammatory state appears to be an important related condition because it possibly constitutes an accelerant of the pathophysiologycal process. PMID:18297202

  19. Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states - 1978-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Schmeling, S.K.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978–81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens contained high levels of dieldrin in their brains which may have contributed to their deaths. Seventeen eagles contained liver lead residues greater than 10 ppm and probably died of lead poisoning. Trauma and shooting are the most common causes of death.

  20. Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states, 1978-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Schmeling, S.K.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978a??81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens contained high levels of dieldrin in their brains which may have contributed to their deaths. Seventeen eagles contained liver lead residues greater than 10 ppm and probably died of lead poisoning. Trauma and shooting are the most common causes of death.

  1. Prevalence and comparison of serologic assays, necropsy, and tongue examination for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A E; Cama, V; Gilman, R H; Tsang, V C; Pilcher, J B; Chavera, A; Castro, M; Montenegro, T; Verastegui, M; Miranda, E

    1990-08-01

    Swine cysticercosis, a severe zoonotic disease which is part of the Taenia solium life cycle, causes major economic losses in pig husbandry. Throughout South America, farmers diagnose cysticercosis by examining the tongues of their pigs for cysticercus nodules. Farmers do not bring pigs believed to be infected to the slaughterhouse for fear of confiscation. Therefore, reliable statistics on porcine cysticercosis can only be acquired at the household level. We examined the utility of the tongue test as a diagnostic tool for porcine cysticercosis. The results of the tongue test was compared with 2 serologic methods for the detection of cysticercosis, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB), and with necropsy results. We examined 11 animals from an endemic area (Huancayo) and 42 animals from an area free of cysticercosis (Lima). The tongue test has a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 100%, the EITB a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, and the ELISA a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 75%. Thus, the tongue examination, being a test essentially without cost and having fair sensitivity and high specificity, can be useful in epidemiological surveys. Prevalence for porcine cysticercosis in Huancayo is 23.4% by tongue examination, 31.2% by necropsy, 37.7% by ELISA, and 51.9% by EITB.

  2. Methods used during gross necropsy to determine watercraft-related mortality in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Lightsey, Jessica D; Rommel, Sentiel A; Costidis, Alexander M; Pitchford, Thomas D

    2006-09-01

    Between 1993 and 2003, 713 (24%) of 2,940 dead Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) recovered from Florida waters and examined were killed by watercraft-induced trauma. It was determined that this mortality was the result of watercraft trauma because the external wound patterns and the internal lesions seen during gross necropsy are recognizable and diagnostic. This study documents the methods used in determining watercraft-related mortality during gross necropsy and explains why these findings are diagnostic. Watercraft can inflict sharp- and blunt-force trauma to manatees, and both types of trauma can lead to mortality. This mortality may be a direct result of the sharp and blunt forces or from the chronic effects resulting from either force. In cases in which death is caused by a chronic wound-related complication, the original incident is usually considered to be the cause of death. Once a cause of death is determined, it is recorded in an extensive database and is used by Federal and state managers in developing strategies for the conservation of the manatee. Common sequelae to watercraft-induced trauma include skin lesions, torn muscles, fractured and luxated bones, lacerated internal organs, hemothorax, pneumothorax, pyothorax, hydrothorax, abdominal hemorrhage and ascites, and pyoperitoneum.

  3. Cryptococcosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients Clinically Confirmed and/or Diagnosed at Necropsy in a Teaching Hospital in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rafael Garcia; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Micheletti, Adilha Rua; Ribeiro, Barbara de Melo; Silva, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade; Mora, Delio Jose; Paim, Kennio Ferreira; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2016-10-05

    Cryptococcosis occurs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with poor compliance to antiretroviral therapy or unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus status who present severe immunosuppression at admission. Consequently, high mortality rates are observed due to disseminated fungal infection. This report presents clinical and postmortem data of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis in a teaching hospital in Brazil. Retrospectively, medical and necropsy records of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis clinically confirmed and/or postmortem verified were reviewed. Clinical data were compared with those of patients presenting a good outcome to evaluate disseminated fungal infection and the agreement between clinical and postmortem diagnosis. At admission, most of the 45 patients with cryptococcal meningitis who died, presented more altered consciousness (P = 0.0047), intracranial increased pressure (P = 0.047), and severe malnutrition (P = 0.0006) than the survivors. Of 29 (64.4%) patients with cryptococcal meningitis, 23 died before week 2 on antifungal therapy, and the other six during the next 3 months. The remaining 16 (35.6%) cases had other diagnoses and died soon after. At necropsy, 31 (68.9%) presented disseminated infection involving two or more organs, whereas 14 (31.1%) cases had meningeal or pulmonary localized infection. The agreement of 64.4% between clinical and postmortem diagnosis was similar to some studies. However, other reports have shown figures ranging from 34% to 95%. Currently, a progressive worldwide decrease of autopsies is worrying because the role of postmortem examination is pivotal to verify or identify the death causes, which contributes to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis and medical training.

  4. Asbestos lung burden and asbestosis after occupational and environmental exposure in an asbestos cement manufacturing area: a necropsy study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C.; Mollo, F.; Paoletti, L.; Bellis, D.; Bernardi, P.; Betta, P.; Botta, M.; Falchi, M.; Ivaldi, C.; Pavesi, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The largest Italian asbestos cement factory had been active in Casale Monferrato until 1986: in previous studies a substantial increase in the incidence of pleural mesothelioma was found among residents without occupational exposure to asbestos. To estimate exposure to asbestos in the population, this study evaluated the presence of histological asbestosis and the lung burden of asbestos fibres (AFs) and asbestos bodies (ABs). METHODS: The study comprises the consecutive series of necropsies performed at the Hospital of Casale Monferrato between 1985 and 1988. A sample of lung parenchima was collected and stored for 48 out of 55 necropsies. The AF concentration was measured with a TEM electron microscope with x ray mineralogical analysis. The ABs were counted and fibrosis evaluated by optical microscopy. The nearest relative of each subject was interviewed on occupational and residential history. Mineralogical and histological analyses and interviews were conducted in 1993-4. RESULTS: Statistical analyses included 41 subjects with AF, AB count, and interview. Subjects without occupational exposure who ever lived in Casale Monferrato had an average concentration of 1500 AB/g dried weight (gdw); Seven of 18 presented with asbestosis or small airway lung disease (SAL). G2 asbestosis was diagnosed in two women with no occupational asbestos exposure. One of them had been teaching at a school close to the factory for 12 years. Ten subjects had experienced occupational asbestos exposure, seven in asbestos cement production: mean concentrations were 1.032 x 10(6) AF/gdw and 96,280 AB/gdw. Eight of the 10 had asbestosis or SAL. CONCLUSION: The high concentration of ABs and the new finding of environmental asbestosis confirm that high asbestos concentration was common in the proximity of the factory. Subjects not occupationally exposed and ever living in Casale Monferrato tended to have higher AB concentration than subjects never living in the town (difference not

  5. Prevalence of asbestos bodies in a necropsy series in East London: association with disease, occupation, and domiciliary address.

    PubMed

    Doniach, I; Swettenham, K V; Hathorn, M K

    1975-02-01

    The prevalence of asbestos bodies was measured in lung sections in a necropsy series carried out at the London Hospital (1965-66) after exclusion of all known asbestos factory workers and cases of asbestosis and of mesothelioma. Associations were sought between the presence and number of asbestos bodies with the patients' sex, domiciliary address, occupation, industry, and diseases recorded at necropsy. Asbestos bodies were present in 42% of the 216 men in the series and in 30% of the 178 women. The number of bodies in the positive cases was small in comparison with the numbers seen typically in asbestosis; thus there were less than 6 asbestos bodies per 6-75 mm-3 lung tissue in 107 of the total 145 positive cases in contrast to 1 000 or more in asbestosis. In comparison with the overall series, an increased number of asbestos body positives was present in males with carcinoma of stomach and females with carcinoma of breast. In view of this finding lung sections were counted in further post-mortem examples of these carcinomas making a total of 50 males with carcinoma stomach and 82 females with carcinoma breast. Thirty-five positive cases were found in the carcinoma stomach group as against 22-7 expected and 38 in the carcinoma breast group against 26-35 expected. There was no excess of observed over expected asbestos body positives in 51 males with carcinoma of bronchus. There was an excess of asbestos body positives (60-9%) in heavy manual workers and in both heavy and light manual male workers in the shipping (61%), electrical and engineering (56%), and transport (54%) industries. The incidence in male clerical workers was 12-8%. The incidence of asbestos body positives according to home address was highest (53% in males, 45% in females) in patients living in the industrial and cockland area due east of the hospital. The incidence fell in the less industrial areas north-east of the hospital. Consideration of possible environmental sources of the inhaled asbestos

  6. High prevalence of non-productive FeLV infection in necropsied cats and significant association with pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Suntz, M; Failing, K; Hecht, W; Schwartz, D; Reinacher, M

    2010-07-01

    Applying a combination of semi-nested PCR and immunohistology (IHC), the presence of exogenous feline leukemia virus infection was studied in 302 necropsied cats with various disorders. 9% showed the classical outcome of persistent productive FeLV infection which was represented by FeLV antigen expression in different organs. 152 cats (50%) harboured exogenous FeLV-specific proviral sequences in the bone marrow but did not express viral antigen. These cats were considered as horizontally but non-productively infected. Statistical evaluation showed a significant association of non-productive horizontal FeLV infection with a variety of parameters. Non-productively infected cats were statistically significantly older and more often originated from animal shelters than cats without exogenous FeLV infection. Furthermore, some pathological disorders like anemia, panleukopenia, and purulent inflammation showed significant association with non-productive FeLV infection. No significant association was found with lymphosarcoma, known for a long time to be induced by productive FeLV infection.

  7. Necropsy findings in American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings from northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with organochlorine pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Del, Piero F.; Wiebe, J.J.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increased American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryo and neonatal mortality has been reported from several northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with old-use organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, a clear relationship among these contaminants and egg viability has not been established, suggesting the involvement of additional factors in these mortalities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the ultimate cause of mortality of American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings through the conduction of detailed pathological examinations, and to evaluate better the role of OCPs in these mortalities. Between 2000 and 2001, 236 dead alligators were necropsied at or near hatching (after ???65 days of artificial incubation and up to 1 mo of age posthatch). Dead animals were collected from 18 clutches ranging in viability from 0% to 95%. Total OCP concentrations in yolk ranged from ???100 to 52,000 ??g/kg, wet weight. The most common gross findings were generalized edema (34%) and organ hyperemia (29%), followed by severe emaciation (14%) and gross deformities (3%). Histopathologic examination revealed lesions in 35% of the animals, with over half of the cases being pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. Within and across clutches, dead embryos and hatchlings compared with their live cohorts were significantly smaller and lighter. Although alterations in growth and development were not related to yolk OCPs, there was an increase in prevalence of histologic lesions in clutches with high OCPs. Overall, these results indicate that general growth retardation and respiratory abnormalities were a major contributing factor in observed mortalities and that contaminants may increase the susceptibility of animals to developing certain pathologic conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  8. [Morphological and electrophysiological changes of the heart atria in necropsy patients with atrial fibrillation - a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Matějková, Adéla; Steiner, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common supraventricular tachycardia, has a morphological base, so called remodelation of atrial myocardium, with its abnormal conduction pattern as a consequence. The remodelation regards electrical, contractile, and structural properties. In this pilot study we attempted to find relations between the myocardial morphological (scarring, amyloidosis, left atrial enlargement) and electrophysiological (ECG characteristics of the P-wave) changes in patients with AF. We examined 40 hearts of necropsy patients - 20 with a history of AF and 20 with no history of AF. Grossly, the heart weight and the size of the left atrium (LA) were evaluated. Histologically, 7 standard sites from the atria were examined. In each specimen, the degree of myocardial scarring and of deposition of isolated atrial amyloid (IAA) were assessed. We failed to show any significant difference in the P-wave pattern between patients with and without AF. Morphologically, however, there were several differences - the patients with AF had significantly heavier hearts, larger left atria, more severely scarred myocardium of the LA and the atrial septum, and more severe deposition of IAA in both atria in comparison to the control group of patients with sinus rhythm. The left atrial distribution of both fibrosis and amyloidosis was irregular. In patients with AF the former was most pronounced in the LA ceiling while the latter in the LA anterior wall. The entire series showed more marked amyloidosis in the left than in the right atrium. An interesting finding was the universal absence of IAA in the sinoatrial node. The knowledge of distribution of atrial myocardial structural changes could be utilized by pathologists in taking specimens for histology and also by cardiologists in targeting the radiofrequency ablation therapy.

  9. Assessing Fifty Years of General Health Surveillance of Roe Deer in Switzerland: A Retrospective Analysis of Necropsy Reports

    PubMed Central

    Pewsner, Mirjam; Origgi, Francesco Carlo; Frey, Joachim; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    General wildlife health surveillance is a valuable source of information on the causes of mortality, disease susceptibility and pathology of the investigated hosts and it is considered to be an essential component of early warning systems. However, the representativeness of data from such surveillance programs is known to be limited by numerous biases. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus) is the most abundant ungulate and a major game species all over Europe. Yet, internationally available literature on roe deer pathology is scarce. The aims of this study were (1) to provide an overview of the causes of mortality or morbidity observed in roe deer in Switzerland and to assess potential changes in the disease pattern over time; and (2) to evaluate the value and limitations of a long term dataset originating from general wildlife health surveillance. We compiled 1571 necropsy reports of free ranging roe deer examined at the Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health in Switzerland from 1958 to 2014. Descriptive data analysis was performed considering animal metadata, submitter, pathologist in charge, laboratory methods, morphological diagnoses and etiologies. Recurrent causes of mortality and disease pictures included pneumonia, diarrhea, meningoencephalitis, actinomycosis, blunt trauma, predation, neoplasms and anomalies. By contrast, other diagnoses such as fatal parasitic gastritis, suspected alimentary intoxication and reproductive disorders appeared only in earlier time periods. Diseases potentially relevant for other animals or humans such as caseous lymphadenitis (or pseudotuberculosis), salmonellosis, paratuberculosis and listeriosis were sporadically observed. The disease pattern in roe deer from Switzerland was largely in accordance with previous reports. The observed fluctuations were consistent with methodical and/or personnel changes and varying disease awareness. Nevertheless, despite such limitations, the compiled data provide a valuable baseline. To

  10. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  11. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality.

  12. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Brazil. Necropsy findings.

    PubMed

    Michalany, J; Mattos, A L; Michalany, N S; Filie, A C; Montezzo, L C

    1987-01-01

    According to the 15 autopsies performed at the Department of Pathological Anatomy, Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil, it was confirmed that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs preferably in young homosexual males, who die in a short period of time of the disease, which leads to a consumptive state verified by cachexia of the cadavers. The most affected organs of this series were the lungs and encephalum, exactly the ones responsible for the immediate cause of death. In this series of autopsies there were 9 types of microorganisms represented by virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans and two types of tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma of the central nervous system. From the microorganisms, the most frequent was the Cytomegalovirus and, from the tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma. The various types of microorganisms were frequently associated, principally in the central nervous and digestive systems. There was also association of microorganisms with tumors. Besides the lesions produced by microorganisms there were other associated alterations as brown atrophy of neuronia, which was related to the infiltration of cerebral lymphoma, and the lymphocytic depletion of lymphoid organs due to immunological exhaustion. Cellular reaction to microorganisms was practically none, principally with Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptococcus neoformans, the first one behaving as an inert mould in the pulmonary alveoli and the second proliferating freely in tissues. In two cases there was no granulomatous reaction to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The primary lymphoma of the central nervous system should be interpreted as a microglioma, i.e., a reticulosarcoma of this system according to Hortega's school.

  13. [Paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. A necropsy case].

    PubMed

    de Lima, M A; Silva-Vergara, M L; Demachki, S; dos Santos, J A

    1995-01-01

    This is a case report of the association of Paracoccidioidomycosis and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) occurring in a 43-year old male. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first detailed pathological account of that association. Also discussed are the low rates of that association, its natural history and treatment results. It is emphasised the importance of the associations of AIDS and tropical infectious diseases in this country.

  14. Principal neuropathological and general necropsy findings in 24 renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Morton, R; Graham, D I; Briggs, J D; Hamilton, D N

    1982-01-01

    The principal neuropathological and general pathological findings in a group of 24 patients with renal transplants who died in a nine-year period at the Western Infirmary, Glasgow, are described. Opportunistic infections--bacterial, protozoal, and fungal--were the commonest causes of death. Other causes included cardiac and vascular lesions, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and neoplasia.

  15. Beaked Whale Necropsy Findings for Strandings in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Madeira, 1999-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    contusion or hemorrhage. Both Eustachian tubes were partially occluded by ice crystals . Each is 10 to 13 mm in diameter and attaches to a sesamoid bone...there is a preliminary finding of in vivo auditory system pathology or trauma in the beaked whale specimens. This evidence consists of intra-cochlear ( IC ...the poorly preserved animals makes any conclusion from their tissues debatable. Therefore, the most significant findings to date are based on

  16. Beaked Whale Necropsy Findings for Strandings in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Madeira, 1999-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    contusion or hemorrhage. Both Eustachian tubes were partially occluded by ice crystals . Each is 10 to 13 mm in diameter and attaches to a sesamoid bone... IC ) and temporal region subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAH) with cerebral ventricular clots (LVH). In simpler terms, there are deposits of blood within some...the poorly preserved animals makes any conclusion from their tissues debatable. Therefore, the most significant findings to date are based on

  17. Necropsy and coprology in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Livorno Mountain Park (Tuscany, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Magi, M; Bertani, M; Dell'Omodarme, M; Prati, M C

    2004-09-01

    The present research analyses the reliability of coprological tests, both quantitative and qualitative, as indicators of the parasite burden of hosts, using data from wild boars (Sus scrofa) living in Livorno Mountain Park (Tuscany, Central Italy). In the case of intestinal strongyles, which turned out to be the dominant helminths of wild boars, the qualitative coprological test appears as a bad predictor of the real parasite situation of the herds, due to the high number of false negative results (34 animals out of 68). On the other hand, the positive predictive value of the test is high (90%). The quantitative test is significantly correlated with the individual parasite burden of wild boars.

  18. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy

    PubMed Central

    Lightowlers, M.W.; Assana, E.; Jayashi, C.M.; Gauci, C.G.; Donadeu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26385439

  19. Marine Mammal Necropsy: An Introductory Guide for Stranding Responders and Field Biologists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    can be taken for molecular analysis of microbial agents from carcasses of vary- ing condition. Target tissues for this analysis vary by microorganism...0.3cm oval shaped, raised, orange , and head. firm interdi ital la ues. Morphologic Diagnosis: *Fungal Dermatitis Morphologic Diagnosis: Fungal...the surface of the organ and remaining tissues with dark green to orange bile once punctured. Examine the gall bladder for stones and parasites

  20. An epizootic of common loons in coastal waters of North Carolina: Concentrations of elemental contaminants and results of necropsies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Tom; Franson, J. Christian; Converse, Kathryn A.; Spitzer, P.; Miller, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    A 1993 die-off of common loons (Gavia immer) in the coastal waters of North Carolina was investigated with emphasis on comparing mercury, selenium, arsenic, and lead between birds from the epizootic and reference specimens. Die-off specimens were emaciated but contained no ingested foreign bodies and no lesions suggestive of infectious disease. Results of bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and botulism testing were unremarkable. The geometric mean concentrations (wet weight) of liver mercury (10.9 ppm), and arsenic (0.96 ppm) did not differ between specimens from the die-off and reference loons from the same area that died of other causes. The geometric mean liver selenium concentration of die-off specimens (10.4 ppm) was significantly higher than that of reference loons. Liver lead concentrations were < 0.20 ppm in all but one sample (5.83 ppm). The geometric mean mercury concentration in the primary remiges of die-off specimens (5.44 ppm dry weight) was significantly lower than in reference birds. Liver mercury significantly correlated with liver selenium on a molar concentration basis. We interpret the range of liver mercury concentrations in birds from the epizootic, similar liver mercury concentrations in reference loons, and higher mercury concentrations in reference loon feathers as evidence that factors other than mercury were primarily responsible for the emaciation diagnosed as the cause of mortality.

  1. An epizootic of common loons in coastal waters of North Carolina: Concentrations of elemental contaminants and results of necropsies

    SciTech Connect

    Augspurger, T.; Franson, J.C.; Converse, K.A.; Spitzer, P.R.; Miller, E.A.

    1998-02-01

    A 1993 die-off of common loons (Gavia immer) in the coastal waters of North Carolina was investigated with emphasis on comparing mercury, selenium, arsenic, and lead between birds from the epizootic and reference specimens. Die-off specimens were emaciated but contained no ingested foreign bodies and no lesions suggestive of infectious disease. Results of bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and botulism testing were unremarkable. The geometric mean concentrations (wet weight) of liver mercury and arsenic did not differ between specimens from the die-off and reference loons from the same area that died of other causes. The geometric mean liver selenium concentration of die-off specimens was significantly higher than that of reference loons. Liver lead concentrations were < 0.20 ppm in all but one sample (5.83 ppm). The geometric mean mercury concentration in the primary remiges of die-off specimens was significantly lower than in reference birds. Liver mercury significantly correlated with liver selenium on a molar concentration basis. The authors interpret the range of liver mercury concentrations in birds from the epizootic, similar liver mercury concentrations in reference loons, and higher mercury concentrations in reference loon feathers as evidence that factors other than mercury were primarily responsible for the emaciation diagnosed as the cause of mortality.

  2. Necropsy findings in 62 opportunistically collected free-ranging moose (Alces alces) from Minnesota, USA (2003-13).

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Armien, Anibal G; Butler, Erika; Schrage, Mike; Stromberg, Bert; Bender, Jeff B; Firshman, Anna M; Carstensen, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Minnesota, US moose population has declined dramatically since the 1990s. All 54 carcasses of moose that died of unknown cause or were euthanized by gun shot by tribal or Department of Natural Resources personnel because of perceived signs of illness between 2003 and 2013 and eight carcasses of moose that died from vehicular accidents between 2009 and 2013 were submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and included in our study. The majority of the animals were underweight or cachectic (n = 53; 85%). Neural migration presumably by Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was a common finding (n = 28; 45%). Moderate to marked Dermacentor albipictus ("winter tick") ectoparasitism with widespread alopecia was the cause or a contributing cause of death in 14 (23%) cases in which grossly apparent anemia was associated with exhaustion of hepatic iron stores. Hepatic lesions associated with Fascioloides magna were common (n = 37; 60%) but were unlikely to be the cause of death. Environmental factors favoring winter tick survival, habitat expansion of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and the survival of terrestrial and aquatic snails (serving as intermediate hosts for P. tenuis and F. magna), might contribute to the seemingly severe parasitic burden in Minnesota's moose population.

  3. Organochlorine pesticide, PCB, and PBB residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 29 states--1975-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaiser, T.E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Cromartie, E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    During 1975-77, 168 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found moribund or dead in 29 states were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); 32 specimens from 13 states were analyzed for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). PCBs were present in 166 bald eagle carcasses and DDE was found in 165. TDE and dieldrin were identified in 137 samples, trans-nonachlor in 118, and oxychlordane in 90. Brains of five eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin, and two eagles possibly died of endrin poisoning. Nine eagle livers, analyzed because of suspected lead poisoning, contained high levels of lead. Twenty percent of the eagles died from shooting, the most common cause of death; this cause of death, however, has declined.

  4. Transcriptome of the dead: characterisation of immune genes and marker development from necropsy samples in a free-ranging marine mammal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcriptomes are powerful resources, providing a window on the expressed portion of the genome that can be generated rapidly and at low cost for virtually any organism. However, because many genes have tissue-specific expression patterns, developing a complete transcriptome usually requires a 'discovery pool' of individuals to be sacrificed in order to harvest mRNA from as many different types of tissue as possible. This hinders transcriptome development in large, charismatic and endangered species, many of which stand the most to gain from such approaches. To circumvent this problem in a model pinniped species, we 454 sequenced cDNA from testis, heart, spleen, intestine, kidney and lung tissues obtained from nine adult male Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) that died of natural causes at Bird Island, South Georgia. Results After applying stringent quality control criteria based on length and annotation, we obtained 12,397 contigs which, in combination with 454 data previously obtained from skin, gave a total of 23,096 unique contigs. Homology was found to 77.0% of dog (Canis lupus familiaris) transcripts, suggesting that the combined assembly represents a substantial proportion of this species' transcriptome. Moreover, only 0.5% of transcripts revealed sequence similarity to bacteria, implying minimal contamination, and the percentage of transcripts involved in cell death was low at 2.6%. Transcripts with immune-related annotations were almost five-fold enriched relative to skin and represented 13.2% of all spleen-specific contigs. By reference to the dog, we also identified transcripts revealing homology to five class I, ten class II and three class III genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex and derived the putative genomic distribution of 17,121 contigs, 2,119 in silico mined microsatellites and 9,382 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that transcriptome development based on samples collected post mortem may greatly facilitate genomic studies, not only of marine mammals but also more generally of species that are of conservation concern. PMID:23347513

  5. Characterization of an endovascular prosthesis using the 3Bs rule (biocompatibility, biofunctionality and biodurability): a recommended protocol to investigate a device harvested at necropsy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zaipin; Fan, Yubo; Geelkerken, Robert M; Deng, Xiaoyan; King, Martin; Traoré, Amidou; Ingle, Nilesh; Turgeon, Stéphane; McGregor, Robert; Dionne, Guy; Zhang, Ze; Marinov, Georgi R; Legrand, André-Pierre; Guzman, Randolph; Zhang, Hongbo; Yin, Tieying; Douville, Yvan; Nutley, Mark; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Guidoin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Numerous endovascular stent grafts to treat intrarenal aortic aneurysms are now commercially available, and many new concepts are currently in development worldwide. In order to objectively quantify their outcomes, we propose a detailed protocol to examine a reference device that was harvested from a patient who died a few hours after endovascular stent-graft deployment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm according to the 3Bs rule (biocompatibility, biofunctionality, and biodurability). Relevant patient history of this 63-year-old man included radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer. Following the patient's death, the device was harvested en bloc together with the aneurysmal sac. The analysis of the device was conducted using nondestructive testing (X-rays, CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and endoscopy) and destructive testing (dissection, histology, and fabric and wire component analyses). Results from the gross examination demonstrated that the outer layer of the aneurysm sac was white, stiff, and continuous without any disruption. The Xray analysis, CT scan, and MRI confirmed that the device together with its modular segments was properly deployed at implantation. Endoscopy showed that the device was deployed securely immediately distal to the renal arteries. As anticipated, thin scattered mural thrombi at the blood/foreign material interface were observed on the blood tight flow surface. There were no tears in the fabric, and the dimensions and textile structure were well preserved. The metallic wires were intact. This fatality had no association with the stent graft as the patient's death was caused by the rupture of the pulmonary artery following intensive radiotherapy. In conclusion, autopsy, nondestructive testing, and destructive testing are therefore the necessary steps to validate any explanted endovascular stent graft in terms of biocompatibility, biofunctionality, and biodurability. In this specific case, the endovascular device fulfills the 3Bs rule. The authors recommend this protocol to investigate explanted endovascular devices.

  6. Comparison at Necropsy of Heart Weight in Women Aged 20 to 29 Years With Fatal Trauma or Chemical Intoxication Versus Fatal Natural Cause (A Search for the Normal Adult Heart Weight).

    PubMed

    Blackbourne, Brian D; Vasudevan, Anupama; Roberts, William C

    2017-03-01

    The present obesity epidemic makes determining the normal heart weight in adults difficult. This study examines the heart weight at autopsy in 104 women aged 20 to 29 years who died in 1978 to 1980 before the overweight epidemic ensued. Of the 104 cases, the hearts weighed ≤300 g in 86 (83%) and >300 g in 18 (17%). Of the 67 cases dying from an unnatural cause (trauma or chemical intoxication), only 3 (4%) had hearts weighing >300 g; of the 37 patients dying from a variety of natural causes, 15 (41%) had hearts weighing >300 g (p <0.001). The body mass index (BMI) was ≤25 kg/m(2) in 82 cases (79%) and the hearts in them ranged from 120 to 400 g (mean 262 ± 51; median 257 g); of the 22 cases (21%) in whom the BMI was >25 kg/m(2), the hearts ranged from 230 to 850 g (mean 351 ± 142; median 300 g). In conclusion, the cases dying from an unnatural cause had smaller mean heart weights than those women dying from a natural cause and those with a normal BMI (≤25 kg/m(2)) had smaller mean heart weights than those with a BMI >25 kg/m(2). The normal heart weight in young women dying from an unnatural cause with few exceptions is <300 g.

  7. 21 CFR 600.12 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... factor by reason of which the distribution of the product would constitute a danger to health. (3... the particular manufacturing process to which the sterilization relates. (d) Animal necropsy records. A necropsy record shall be kept on each animal from which a biological product has been obtained...

  8. Autopsy imaging for cardiac tamponade in a Thoroughbred foal.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Higuchi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Sasaki, Naoki; Nambo, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other. The cause of death was determined to be traumatic cardiac tamponade. In conclusion, Ai is an additional option for determining cause of death.

  9. Autopsy imaging for cardiac tamponade in a Thoroughbred foal

    PubMed Central

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIGUCHI, Tohru; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other. The cause of death was determined to be traumatic cardiac tamponade. In conclusion, Ai is an additional option for determining cause of death. PMID:27703406

  10. A Survey of Disease Conditions in Adult and Feeder Sheep in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Moteane, M.; Middleton, D. M.; Polley, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was carried out to identify disease conditions occurring in adult and feeder sheep in Saskatchewan. Necropsies were performed on 50 adult sheep submitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine during the period July 1976 to June 1977 and data were assembled from necropsy records of sheep submitted between January 1975 to December 1976. The diseases encountered were briefly described. Conditions of the respiratory and digestive systems were the most significant as causes of mortality. Burdens of helminth endoparasites were generally low. In the flocks included in the necropsy survey, annual mortality among adult and feeder sheep was estimated to be three percent. PMID:761154

  11. SYNOPSIS OF HISTOTECHNIQUES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This synopsis provides an overview of the necropsy, fixation, trimming, and processing of tissues from aquatic organisms for examination using light microscopy. The handling of animals, their tissues, uses of knives, and processing chemicals will be covered. Understanding the his...

  12. A Mortality Event in Elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni) Calves Associated with Malnutrition, Pasteurellosis, and Deer Adenovirus in Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Fox, Karen A; Atwater, Levi; Hoon-Hanks, Laura; Miller, Myrna

    2017-03-22

    This report describes clinical, necropsy, and ancillary diagnostic findings for a mortality event in Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves attributed to malnutrition, pasteurellosis, and an alimentary presentation of adenovirus hemorrhagic disease.

  13. Assessment of Protocol Designed to Detect Endocine Disrupting Effects of Flutamide in Xenopus Tropicalis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    compound flutamide, which was expected to cause intersex reproductive system development and infertility. Under Congressional mandate, the USEPA is...the ability to identify intersex animals from gross necropsy observations as well as from histopathology; 5) determination of histopathological

  14. Cholangiocarcinoma with metastasis in a captive Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Renner, M S; Zaias, J; Bossart, G D

    2001-09-01

    A captive male Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), wild caught in 1976, died unexpectedly. Necropsy revealed cholangiocarcinoma with metastases to lung, pancreas, mesentery, and cloaca, the first known case of a penguin hepatic tumor.

  15. First Report of Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum (Echinostomatidae) in a Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) from Saskatchewan, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a new host record for Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum. These small trematode parasites were found in a debilitated, immature, male sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) during Autumn migration from the Canadian prairies. Necropsy examination identified fibrinonecrotizing and ulcerative jejuni...

  16. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  17. 77 FR 68692 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... during the study, and gross necropsy findings were limited to those rabbits that underwent abortion (Ref... stomach and/or intestines) and were likely related to the lack of eating prior to and during the...

  18. Purkinje cell heterotopy with cerebellar hypoplasia in two free-living American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two wild fledgling kestrels exhibited lack of motor coordination, postural reaction deficits, and abnormal propioception. At necropsy, the cerebellum and brainstem were markedly underdeveloped. Microscopically, there was Purkinje cells heterotopy, abnormal circuitry, and hypoplasia with defective fo...

  19. The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-23

    the 14-day survival period to calculate the composite physiologic model of recovery ( PMR ). Necropsy was performed for evaluation of nerve and...muscle histology. Results: In hemorrhage alone, according to the PMR the recovery was 94+/-28%, 63+/- 37% and 55+/-44% at 0, 3 and 6 hours of ischemia...hours. , , . v w and compared to baseline to create the Physiologic Model of Recovery ( PMR ). On day 14, necropsy was performed and

  20. Lack of postmortem digestion of tapeworms in Golden hamsters experimentally infected with Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Garza-Rodríguez, A; Maravilla, P; Mendlovic, F; Mata-Miranda, P; Robert, L; Flisser, A

    2007-04-10

    Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis, a public health problem in Mexico and other developing countries. Surprisingly, tapeworm carriers are very rarely found and in necropsy studies practically no tapeworms have been reported. In this paper we analyze the possibility that, after the death of the host, tapeworms could easily be destroyed in the intestine. Our experiments, performed in the hamster model, suggest that the absence of tapeworms in human intestine during necropsy is not due to postmortem digestion.

  1. Identification of Genes Regulating the Development of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Tumor Development Hua Wang, Douglas Teske , Alyssa Tess, Rebecca Kohlhepp, YounJeong Choi, Christina Kendziorski, and Amy Rapaich Moser Cancer Res...Tumor Development Hua Wang, 1,3 Douglas Teske , 1 Alyssa Tess, 1 Rebecca Kohlhepp, 1 YounJeong Choi, 2 Christina Kendziorski, 2 and Amy Rapaich Moser 1... Teske ), and palpable tumors were recorded when first noted and then confirmed at necropsy. The total tumor number was determined at necropsy by noting

  2. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  3. Determination of the Chronic Mammalian Toxicological Effects of TNT. Twenty-Six Week Subchronic Oral Toxicity Study of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) in the Beagle Dog.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    responsible for the overall conduct of the study. John M. Burns, DVM, Senior Veterinary Pathologist, was responsible for supervision of gross necropsies...and tabulation of gross necropsy data. John H. Rust, DVM, Ph.D., Consultant, Veterinary Pathology, was responsible for tabulation and evaluation of...Senior Veterinary Clinician, supervised animal care personnel. Robert Renaud, B.S. and David Schramm, B.S. were responsible for the collection of test data

  4. Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62-269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation.

  5. Bartonella spp. Exposure in Northern and Southern Sea Otters in Alaska and California

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62–269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

  6. Standardized method for the harvest of nonhuman primate tissue optimized for multiple modes of analyses.

    PubMed

    Davenport, April T; Grant, Kathleen A; Szeliga, Kendall T; Friedman, David P; Daunais, James B

    2014-03-01

    Appropriate animal models are critical to conduct translational studies of human disorders without variables that can confound clinical studies. Such analytic methods as patch-clamp electrophysiological and voltammetric recordings of neurons in brain slices require living brain tissue. In order to obtain viable tissue from nonhuman primate brains, tissue collection methods must be designed to preserve cardiovascular and respiratory functions for as long as possible. This paper describes a method of necropsy that has been used in three species of monkeys that satisfies this requirement. At necropsy, animals were maintained under a deep surgical plane of anesthesia while a craniotomy was conducted to expose the brain. Following the craniotomy, animals were perfused with ice-cold, oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid to displace blood and to reduce the temperature of the entire brain. The brain was removed within minutes of death and specific brain regions were immediately dissected for subsequent in vitro electrophysiology or voltammetry experiments. This necropsy method also provided for the collection of tissue blocks containing all brain regions that were immediately frozen and stored for subsequent genomic, proteomic, autoradiographic and histological studies. An added benefit from the design of this necropsy method is that all major peripheral tissues were also collected and are now being utilized in a wide range of genomic, biochemical and histological assays. This necropsy method has resulted in the establishment and growth of a nonhuman primate alcohol tissue bank designed to distribute central nervous system and peripheral tissues to the larger scientific community.

  7. Four Cases of Spontaneous Neoplasia in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), A Putative Cancer-Resistant Species.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kyle R; Milone, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015. One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma.

  8. DDT poisoning in a Cooper's hawk collected in 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Schmeling, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    In April 1980, a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found on the ground in Lakewood, Colorado, unable to fly and in convulsion. The bird died shortly thereafter. The hawk was packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, National Wildlife Health Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, for necropsy. Following necropsy, the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and remaining carcass except skin, feet, wings, liver, and kidney were packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, for chemical residue analysis. Because the bird's behavior before death suggested some form of poisoning, the kidney was assayed for thallium, the liver for lead, and the gastrointestinal tract for strychnine, sodium fluoroacetate, and arsenic. When these assays proved negative, the bird was analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Necropsy findings and pesticide residue analyses are reported here.

  9. Congenital multi-organ malformations in a Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Nazarizadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A 5-day-old female Holstein calf was necropsied because of lethargy, recumbency and anorexia. At necropsy, multiple gross defects were evident in several organs, including unclosed sutures of skull bones, asymmetrical orbits, doming of the skull bones, hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly, cleft palate, brachygnathia, ventricular septal defect, mitral valve dysplasia and rudimentary lungs. On microscopic examination, pulmonary hypoplasia was characterized by reduced number of alveoli, replacement of peri-bronchiolar smooth muscles with connective tissue and small masses of undeveloped cartilage around the small airways. The present report is the first description of the congenital pulmonary hypoplasia accompanied by numerous malformations in Holstein breed. PMID:26893818

  10. Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-06-02

    In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci.

  11. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pazzi, Paolo; Lim, Chee K; Steyl, Johan

    2014-03-04

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid-base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect.

  12. Forensic pathology of companion animal abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P

    2013-11-01

    Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached.

  13. Chronic renal disease in a captive two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) with concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salas, Elisa; Wolf, Tiffany; Harris, Seth

    2014-06-01

    A 13-yr-old female two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) with a prolonged history of worsening azotemia was necropsied shortly after euthanasia. On necropsy, the sloth had poor body condition, bilaterally shrunken kidneys, and a large neoplastic mass replacing the right liver lobe. Histologic examination demonstrated chronic renal disease with metastatic mineralization as the cause of morbidity. The liver mass was not associated with any known clinical signs and was diagnosed as a solitary and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed in a sloth and the first detailed description of chronic renal disease in this species.

  14. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in three cats.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, Mylène; Dunn, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Three 8-week-old kittens were presented with a history of acute, generalized weakness and severe fever. One cat was dead upon presentation, and necropsy findings were supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. During their clinical courses, two of the three kittens developed a progressive, marked swelling of one or more limbs. One moribund and severely hypothermic cat was euthanized a few hours after presentation, and necropsy was also supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. One kitten recovered. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome was suspected because of the fulminant progression of the septicemia.

  15. First Confirmation of Schmallenberg Virus in Cattle in Spain: Tissue Distribution and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, A; Royo, L J; Gómez Antona, A; García Marín, J F

    2015-10-01

    Between January and June 2013, nine stillborn bovine foetuses with congenital malformations from nine cattle herds located in Salamanca (central Spain) were detected. Necropsy was performed on two calves. Pathological lesions together with molecular genetics and serological results allowed a definitive diagnosis: first confirmation of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection in cattle in Spain. SBV was detected in different tissues and organic fluids in both animals including blood, suggesting a possible viraemia. The umbilical cord was also positive for the presence of SBV in both animals. The former tissue provides an easy to obtain sample and might be a sample of choice when necropsy is carried out in the field.

  16. Causes of mortality in the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, C D; Homer, B L; Spalding, M G

    2002-10-01

    Panthers necropsied at the University of Florida ranged between 2 weeks and 14 years of age; there were 38 males and 17 females in the cohort. Main categories of causes of death included trauma inflicted from either vehicular collisions (43%) or territorial fights (16%). Specific endogenous diseases involved the respiratory system in 13%, the urinary system in 4%, and the central nervous system in 2%. Ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) were diagnosed in 11% of the panthers necropsied. Seventeen (54%) of the 38 male panthers had either unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism. Cause of death remained undetermined in 11% of the total cohort.

  17. European brown hare syndrome in wild European brown hares from Greece.

    PubMed

    Billinis, Charalambos; Psychas, Vassilios; Tontis, Dimitrios K; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Birtsas, Periklis K; Sofia, Marina; Likotrafitis, Fotios; Maslarinou, Olga M; Kanteres, Dimitrios

    2005-10-01

    From 1999 to mid-2003, 97 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) found dead throughout Greece were examined by necropsy, histopathology, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) and EBHS virus (EBHSV), respectively. Hare losses were sporadic, starting in the cold season and lasting for many months (December to May). The most prominent gross lesions were observed in the liver and included swelling and discoloration; congestion and hemorrhages were present mainly in lungs and tracheal mucosa. Necropsy findings were suggestive of EBHS, which was confirmed by histopathology and RT-PCR. This study documents, for the first time, EBHS in Greece.

  18. 40 CFR 160.81 - Standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Test system care. (3) Receipt, identification, storage, handling, mixing, and method of sampling of the.... (6) Handling of test systems found moribund or dead during study. (7) Necropsy of test systems or postmortem examination of test systems. (8) Collection and identification of specimens. (9)...

  19. Detection and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum in a German badger (Meles meles) by ITS sequencing and multilocus sequencing analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wild badger (Meles meles) with a severe nodular dermatitis was presented for post mortem examination. Numerous cutaneous granulomas with superficial ulceration were present especially on head, dorsum, and forearms were found at necropsy. Histopathological examination of the skin revealed a severe ...

  20. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy. PMID:19436447

  1. Brain shrinkage in alcoholics is not caused by changes in hydration: a pathological study.

    PubMed

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J; Daly, J M

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the water content of the cerebral white matter in 26 control and 24 alcoholic cases supports in vivo MRI studies and previous necropsy studies which appeared to show an increase in the water content in the alcoholic group. This negates the hypothesis that reversible brain shrinkage in alcoholics is caused by changes in the state of hydration.

  2. Isolation of Haemophilus agni from Six Alberta Ram Lambs with Septicemia

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, M. Sharon

    1986-01-01

    Six ram lambs were submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for necropsy. Clinical signs included sudden illness or death with or without observed depression, reluctance to move, scours or fever. Gross findings and histopathology revealed evidence of bacterial septicemia. Haemophilus agni was isolated from brain, spleen, lung and lymph node. PMID:17422727

  3. Urolithiasis in a herd of beef cattle associated with oxalate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-02-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  4. Cutaneous metastases of a mammary carcinoma in a llama.

    PubMed Central

    Leichner, T L; Turner, O; Mason, G L; Barrington, G M

    2001-01-01

    An 8-year-old, female llama was evaluated for nonhealing, ulcerative, cutaneous lesions, which also involved the mammary gland. Biopsies of the lesions distant from and within the mammary gland area revealed an aggressive carcinoma. The tumor was confirmed at necropsy to be a mammary gland adenocarcinoma with cutaneous metastasis. Images Figure 1. PMID:11265189

  5. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L

    2013-09-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions.

  6. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in a Canadian cat

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Cameron G.; Davies, Jennifer L.; Joseph, Tomy; Ondrich, Sarah; Rosa, Brielle V.

    2016-01-01

    A cat was presented for necropsy after being found dead at home. Histologic findings suggested viral pneumonia. Polymerase chain reaction and viral typing revealed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. This is the first report of influenza in a Canadian cat and highlights the importance of considering influenza virus in the differential diagnosis for feline respiratory distress. PMID:27152036

  7. Cerebrovascular Injury Caused by a High Strain Rate Insult in the Thorax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-17

    weighed and necropsy was immediately performed (less than 2 hours to completion), including dissection of the skull and removal of the intact brain and...pericapillar brain hemorrhages caused by gunshot wounds.) Ph.D. Thesis, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University

  8. Enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in 9-month-old calves

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Bozidar; Prodanovic, Radisa; Ivetic, Vojin; Radanovic, Oliver; Bojkovski, Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Four 9-month-old Simmental male calves were presented with a history of sudden death. The necropsy and microscopic findings allowed a diagnosis of enteritis and severe intraluminal hemorrhage with blood clots in the jejunum, suggestive of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome. PMID:22851779

  9. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necropsies were conducted on four Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010-August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manat...

  10. Airsac nematode Monopetalonema alcedinis in the Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sporadic and geographically widespread reports of parasites affecting the Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) have been published but few have described details of pathology. A female, adult kingfisher was found dead in a heavily wooded area of a zoo in Maryland, USA. At necropsy, numerous sexua...

  11. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  12. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  13. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  14. 50 CFR 216.165 - Requirements for monitoring and reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... at least 2 days after each detonation, unless weather and/or sea conditions preclude surveillance, in... determined by the NMFS Assistant Administrator), an examination and recovery of any dead or injured marine... Response Program. Necropsies will be performed and tissue samples taken from any dead animals....

  15. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L.

    2013-01-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions. PMID:24155490

  16. Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. Methods This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. Results At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Conclusions Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection. PMID:23620834

  17. Diesel Exhaust Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Influenza Infection and Induces Dendritic Cell Migration and Maturation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mice were necropsied at day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection and lung tissue was assessed for virus titers by TCID50, lung injury and inflammation. Lung and lymph node DC populations (CD11c+, MHCII, CD45+, CD80+ and CD86+) were identified ...

  18. Cleft palate in a male water buffalo calf.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Y; Ranjbar, R; Ghadiri, A R; Afsahr, F Saberi; Nejad, S Goorani; Mahabady, M Khaksary; Afrough, M; Karampoor, R; Tavakoli, A

    2007-12-15

    Congenital palatal defects are common in animals but there is only one report of water buffalo has been recorded in Iran. One died male water buffalo calf was examined after hysterotomy operation. At necropsy findings, brachygnathia, palate cleft and small lungs were diagnosed. It is the second report of water buffalo cleft palate in Iran.

  19. Molecular Imaging with Quantum Dots Probing EMT and Prostate Cancer Metastasis in Live Animals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    consisting of T medium (Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD) and 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS) at 378C supplemented with 5% CO2. Limited dilution was...by radiography , necropsy, and histomorphology of the tumor speci- mens. Derivation of Cell Subclones FromTumorTissues Tumor tissue was freshly

  20. Primary pure choriocarcinoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Fernández Alonso, J; Sáez, C; Pérez, P; Montaño, A; Japón, M A

    1992-04-01

    We report a pure choriocarcinoma of the liver studied at necropsy. The tumour was diagnosed ante-mortem and treated by chemotherapy with no satisfactory response. Previous cases of hepatic choriocarcinoma are reviewed and criteria to diagnose this extragonadal neoplasm are recommended.

  1. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  2. Glanders in donkeys (Equus Asinus) in the state of pernambuco, Brazil: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andréa Alice; da Silva, Andréa Marques Vieira; Junior, José Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis

    2010-01-01

    The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test. PMID:24031474

  3. Neurotropic T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma in a 14-year-old Morgan gelding

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Trina L.; Poulsen, Keith P.; Schlipf, John W.; Valentine, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old Morgan gelding was presented for progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. The horse was initially diagnosed with equine protozoal myelitis based on history, physical examination, and laboratory diagnostics. Despite therapy, the horse declined clinically and was euthanized. Necropsy revealed a rare form of neurotropic lymphoma, described in this report. PMID:24688140

  4. Building Capacity and International Partnerships to Address Anthropogenic Impacts on Aquatic Animal Health: 44th Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Brucellosis , and the interpretation of gas bubbles in stranded cetaceans. Workshops provided training in oil spill preparedness, necropsy techniques to...ship strike diagnosis (M. Moore), oil spill preparedness (M. Ziccardi), pinniped sampling and handling (Gulland). IMPACT/APPLICATIONS The focus...and established collaborations for future research on this topic. Productive discussions on future directions in tag design for cetaceans, diagnosis

  5. Cardiac echinococcosis with fatal intracerebral embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Byard, R W; Bourne, A J

    1991-01-01

    A previously well 7 year old boy presented with sudden loss of consciousness and fitting. No evidence of trauma or space occupying lesion was identified. Death occurred the next day due to cerebral infarction caused by embolised fragments from a ruptured left ventricular hydatid cyst that was found at necropsy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1994846

  6. Direct demonstration of transsynaptic degeneration in the human visual system: a comparison of retrograde and anterograde changes

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, RM; Sadun, AA; Smith, LEH; Vonsattel, JP; Richardson, EP

    1982-01-01

    Transneuronal degeneration of retinal ganglion cells was directly demonstrated in a patient who had unilateral removal of the striate cortex forty years prior to necropsy. For comparison, another case is presented showing anterograde transneuronal atrophy forty years after enucleation of one eye. Images PMID:7069426

  7. Tuberculosis-like lesions arising from the use of Freund's complete adjuvant in an owl monkey (Aotus sp)

    SciTech Connect

    Malaga, Carlos A.; Weller, Richard E.; Broderson, J R.; Gozalo, Alfonso S.

    2004-04-01

    An apparently normal, non-tuberculin-reacting, splenectomized owl monkey presented tuberculosis-like lesions of the lung at necropsy. Histological and bacteriological examination failed to demonstrate the presence of acid-fast organisms. Retrospective inquiry showed the animal had been inoculated using complete Freund's Adjuvant during a malaria vaccine trial. Lesions observed were compatible with lipid embolism of the adjuvant in the lungs.

  8. Fast specific field detection of RHDVb.

    PubMed

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; Podadera, A; de Llano, D; Martin Alonso, J M; de Los Toyos, J R; García Ocaña, M; Vázquez-Villa, F; Velasco, B; Landeta, O; Parra, F

    2017-02-28

    This work describes a simple and rapid test for field detection of the emerging rabbit pathogen RHDVb. The assay is specific for RHDVb, showing no cross-reactivity with other RHDV types giving a specific result in under 10 min using rabbit liquid exudates or liver homogenate samples taken at necropsy.

  9. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not prevent disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain JXwn06 has been shown to produce high fevers, loss of body condition, respiratory distress and death in pigs. Necropsy reveals extensive interstitial pneumonia, multi-systemic pathology and a high occurrence of secondary bacterial infections. The ful...

  10. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2014-01-01

    Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.

  11. Azoospermia in an 8-month-old boar due to bilateral obstruction at the testis/epididymis interface

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Kristin M.; Shipley, Clifford F.; Coleman, David A.; Ehrhart, Eugene J.; Haschek, Wanda M.; Clark, Sherrie G.

    2010-01-01

    An 8-month-old Yorkshire boar was presented for apparent azoospermia. Two semen collections also revealed azoospermia. Ultrasonographic examination of the gonads revealed bilateral caput epididymal dilatation and anechoic fluid within the tubules. Because a testicular biopsy revealed normal spermatogenesis, an outflow tract obstruction was suspected. Multiple sperm granulomas were found within the parenchyma of both testes at necropsy. PMID:21197205

  12. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

    2013-01-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse. PMID:24155420

  13. Aberrant heartworm migration to the abdominal aorta and systemic arteriolitis in a dog presenting with vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Janet A.; Scott, Katherine D.; Edwards, John F.

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old Dachshund was presented for vomiting and diarrhea. Abdominal ultrasound revealed Dirofilaria immitis in the abdominal aorta and an avascular segment of small intestine. The dog was euthanized. Necropsy revealed D. immitis in the abdominal aorta and widespread necrotizing arteriolitis. This is a unique presentation of aberrant migration of D. immitis. PMID:26740703

  14. 76 FR 2408 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... activities of up to 200 wild northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni), and opportunistic salvage and necropsy of sea otter carcasses, for the purpose of scientific research. This notification covers... sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), that were obtained from the wild in Thailand for the purpose...

  15. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blastocystis subtype 5, a subtype known to infect humans, was detected by molecular methods in the feces of 36 naturally infected market age pigs. At necropsy, 6 heavily infected pigs were selected to determine the tropism of the infection within the gastrointestinal tract. Because so little is know...

  16. Relationship between Serum Antibodies and Taenia solium Larvae Burden in Pigs Raised in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ≤8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection. PMID:23658848

  17. Fatal septicemia caused by the zoonotic bacterium Streptococcus iniae during an outbreak in Caribbean reef fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of Streptococcus iniae occurred in the early months of 2008 among wild reef fish in the waters of the Federation of St.Kitts and Nevis, lasting almost 2 months. Moribund and dead fish were collected for gross, histological, bacteriological, and molecular analysis. Necropsy findings inclu...

  18. Meningoencephalitis associated with disseminated sarcocystosis in a free-ranging moose (Alces alces) calf

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Madhu; Patel, Jagdish; Pybus, Margo; Coleman, James K.; Childress, April L.; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2015-01-01

    A wild moose (Alces alces) calf was presented for necropsy due to severe neurologic signs. Histopathologic examination revealed multisystemic inflammation with intralesional mature and immature schizonts. Schizonts in the brain reacted positively to Sarcocystis spp. polyclonal antibodies. Gene sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA identified the species as Sarcocystis alceslatrans. PMID:26246636

  19. Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

  20. A case of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a Belgian blue cow

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Hugues; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old cow was presented with chronic respiratory disease and lameness. Chronic pleuritis, pneumonia, and bronchial carcinoma were found as well as periosteal proliferation on limb bones. Ancillary tests and necropsy confirmed a combined pathology of pulmonary inflammation and neoplasm, and hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy. PMID:22654134

  1. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique to diagnose white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) poisoning in a cow

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An 8-year-old, crossbred beef cow was referred to the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University for a complete necropsy in October 2009. The cow was the sixth to die in a 7-day period. Affected cows were reportedly stumbling and became weak, excitable, and recumbent. Histolog...

  2. Cardiopulmonary Aspects in Aerospace Medicine (Les Aspects Cardiopulmonaires en Medecine Aerospatiale)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    aviators from continued flying duties. Surgical, Necropsy, and Forensic Material", Br Heart J 40, p 468, 1978. The ultimate disposition for all aviators... Hypnosis , acupuncture and other measures are often tried but appear to have a low long-term success rate. 6. Eriksson S. Pulmonary emphysema and alpha-l

  3. Visceral mast cell tumor in a captive black jaguar (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    de Castro, Márcio Botelho; Werther, Karin; Godoy, Guilherme Sellera; Borges, Vivian Palmeira; Alessi, Antonio Carlos

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about neoplasia in the jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest American feline. A captive black jaguar was diagnosed at necropsy with a mastocytic form of visceral mast cell tumor similar to that which occurs in domestic cats. This animal had no previous clinical disease and died during anesthesia for a routine dental treatment.

  4. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  5. Central nervous system blastomycosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, M Casey; Taylor, Susan M; Kerr, Moira E

    2009-09-01

    An adult golden retriever was presented for progressive neurologic dysfunction. Clinical examination suggested brainstem disease. Blastomycosis was diagnosed based on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a normal sized lymph node and a positive blastomycosis urine antigen test. Systemic blastomycosis with neurologic involvement was confirmed at necropsy.

  6. Protothecosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Vince, Andrew R; Pinard, Chantale; Ogilvie, Adam T; Tan, Emmeline O; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G

    2014-10-01

    A case of a disseminated algal infection is reported in a young rough-coated collie dog with progressive neurologic deficits, blindness, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Prototheca zopfii organisms were cultured from feces, urine, and blood. At necropsy, granulomas containing typical organisms were identified within the proximal colon, heart, kidneys, and eyes.

  7. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma in proximal humerus of a dog

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Sarah; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Nykamp, Stephanie G.; Allavena, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was diagnosed in the proximal humerus of a dog that was presented with persistent right forelimb lameness with no clinical signs of urinary tract involvement. A diagnosis of TCC was made from surgical biopsy of the humeral lesion with subsequent necropsy revealing the prostatic urethra as the primary site of the tumor. PMID:22379204

  8. Hypomyelination Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Infection in a Longhorn Calf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Texas A&M University with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, gross central nervous system lesions were not observed. Histopathologic evaluation of the brain and spin...

  9. Effects of Acute and Subacute Oral Methylnitroguanidine (MeNQ) Exposure to Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-20

    Robert Sunderland, Dr. Valerie Adams, Dr. Michael Quinn, LTC Erica Carroll , Terry Hanna, Alicia Shiflett, Matt Bazar and Mark Way. 20-04-2016 Technical...September 2014 C-2 e. Necropsies: Erica E. Carroll , DVM, LTC VC, Alicia Shiflett, Histotechnician, Pathology Division, Toxicology. f. In

  10. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  11. Identification of an intra-cranial intra-axial porcupine quill foreign body with computed tomography in a canine patient.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Christopher P; Sereda, Nikki C; Sereda, Colin W

    2012-02-01

    An intra-cranial intra-axial foreign body was diagnosed in a golden retriever dog through the use of computed tomography (CT). Confirmed by necropsy, a porcupine quill had migrated to the patient's left cerebral hemisphere, likely through the oval foramen. This case study demonstrates the efficacy of CT in visualizing a quill in the canine brain.

  12. [Sonographic diagnosis of a case of type 1 achondrogenesis in the 2d trimester].

    PubMed

    Schramm, T; Nerlich, A

    1989-10-01

    The authors report on a prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of lethal osteochondrodysplasia achondrogenesis type I (Parenti-Fraccaro) in the 17th week of pregnancy. The prenatal findings were confirmed by necropsy after termination of the pregnancy. The possibility to recognize lethal skeletal disorders early in pregnancy is discussed as well as the patho-anatomical criteria and possible patho-physiological mechanisms of achondrogenesis.

  13. A retrospective study of etiological factors of abortion in the owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus.

    PubMed

    Rouse, R; Bronson, R T; Sehgal, P K

    1981-01-01

    Abortions in owl monkeys occurred in the late second and early third trimesters. Retrospective study of clinical records showed that handling, maternal anemia, karyotype, and season were unassociated with abortion. Most aborted infants had no gross lesions at necropsy. Some had renal tubular necorsis, probably a postmortem change.

  14. Demonstration of iron and thorium in autopsy tissues by x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Landas, S.; Turner, J.W.; Moore, K.C.; Mitros, F.A.

    1984-03-01

    We performed x-ray microanalysis of autopsy specimens using a scanning-transmission electron microscopy mode. Tissues were obtained at necropsy from a patient with history of angiography using thorium dioxide and from a patient with hemochromatosis. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the presence of thorium and iron in their respective tissues. Effects of staining reagents were examined.

  15. Disseminated blastomycosis in a German shepherd dog

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Beverley S.

    2002-01-01

    A 5-year-old German shepherd was evaluated after collapsing at home following a week of lethargy and anorexia. Systemic blastomycosis was diagnosed histologically at necropsy. Diagnosis and treatment were difficult due to unusual neurological symptoms, the absence of abnormalities on diagnostic tests, and the advanced stage of the disease at presentation. PMID:12125188

  16. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, A M

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology. PMID:10769770

  17. Bacterial sepsis resulting in severe systemic illness and euthanasia in a dog with cutaneous angiomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sluiter, Kristi L.; Randell, Susan C.; Ramirez, Jessica R.; Farina, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    A Labrador retriever dog was euthanized after unsuccessful treatment for severe, progressive, lethargy, gastroenteritis, icterus, and swelling of a previously diagnosed cutaneous angiomatosis lesion. The body was submitted for necropsy. This is the first report that suggests that cutaneous angiomatosis lesions may have caused life-threatening systemic complications in a dog. PMID:24082170

  18. Drug Targets in Infections With Ebola and Marburg Viruses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    been no clinical infections associated with this species. The ICEBOV species was identified in Cote d’Ivoire in chimpanzees . A single documented, non...fatal case occurred in an individual performing a necropsy on an infected chimpanzee . A second suspected case was identified based on the presence of

  19. Occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans).

    PubMed

    Jeyathilakan, N; Raman, M; Jayathangaraj, M G

    2015-03-01

    Camallanoids are spirurid round worms known to occur in stomach and intestine of lower vertebrate animals such as fishes and reptiles. This paper records the occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise of Guindy snake park, Chennai, India for the first time during necropsy and identified on the basis of morphology of male and female worms, including eggs.

  20. Idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis in a skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Elhensheri, Mohamed; Linke, Reinhold P; Blankenburg, Anja; Beineke, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a case of systemic amyloidosis in a captive striped skunk. At necropsy, bilateral alopecia, as well as reno-, hepato-, and splenomegaly were present. Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry revealed depositions of AA-amyloid in different organs. The lack of a predisposing disease is suggestive of idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis.

  1. Gastric trichobezoar in a banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis).

    PubMed

    Suckow, M A; Terril-Robb, L A; Grigdesby, C F

    1996-10-01

    A male, wild-caught kangaroo rat developed anorexia and wasting. The animal was euthanized and a gastric trichobezoar found at necropsy. The paucity of information regarding the clinical medicine of this species is a hindrance to those charged with the care of kangaroo rats. Gastric trichobezoar should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of anorexia in kangaroo rats.

  2. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  3. Glyco-Immune Diagnostic Signatures and Therapeutic Targets of Mesothelioma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    of the experiment with all blood process for serum and frozen away. 5 As seen in Table 1, 2/3 of the animals that received the asbestos...preserved and frozen after processing for cells and fluid. The final necropsy on these animals was October 23 2012. Eight days later the entire

  4. Presumed drowning of Aleutian Canada geese on the Pacific coast of California and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, P.F.; Lowe, R.W.; Stroud, R.K.; Gullett, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    Carcasses of 42 and 17 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia), a federally listed endangered species, were found on ocean beaches near Crescent City, California, and near Pacific City, Oregon, respectively, following severe storms. Necropsies and other information suggest that the birds were flushed during the storms and somehow entered the water where they were washed into the surf and drowned.

  5. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ensure that tuberculosis infection at a prevalence level of 2 percent or more will be detected with a... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.37 Interstate movement from monitored herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... found negative for tuberculosis at an approved slaughtering establishment or necropsied at an...

  6. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology and culture of M. bovis on specimens taken from the NGL... inspection or necropsy and no evidence of tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology or culture of M... and the State history of tuberculosis infection, by the DTE to determine whether the herd may...

  7. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology and culture of M. bovis on specimens taken from the NGL... inspection or necropsy and no evidence of tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology or culture of M... and the State history of tuberculosis infection, by the DTE to determine whether the herd may...

  8. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ensure that tuberculosis infection at a prevalence level of 2 percent or more will be detected with a... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.37 Interstate movement from monitored herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... found negative for tuberculosis at an approved slaughtering establishment or necropsied at an...

  9. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ensure that tuberculosis infection at a prevalence level of 2 percent or more will be detected with a... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.37 Interstate movement from monitored herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... found negative for tuberculosis at an approved slaughtering establishment or necropsied at an...

  10. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... all reactors exhibit no gross lesions (NGL) of tuberculosis and no evidence of tuberculosis infection... necropsy and no evidence of tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology or culture of M. bovis on... the State history of tuberculosis infection, by the DTE to determine whether the herd may be...

  11. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ensure that tuberculosis infection at a prevalence level of 2 percent or more will be detected with a... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.37 Interstate movement from monitored herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... found negative for tuberculosis at an approved slaughtering establishment or necropsied at an...

  12. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ensure that tuberculosis infection at a prevalence level of 2 percent or more will be detected with a... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.37 Interstate movement from monitored herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... found negative for tuberculosis at an approved slaughtering establishment or necropsied at an...

  13. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology and culture of M. bovis on specimens taken from the NGL... inspection or necropsy and no evidence of tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology or culture of M... and the State history of tuberculosis infection, by the DTE to determine whether the herd may...

  14. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology and culture of M. bovis on specimens taken from the NGL... inspection or necropsy and no evidence of tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology or culture of M... and the State history of tuberculosis infection, by the DTE to determine whether the herd may...

  15. BVDV2-induced hypomyelinogenesis in a longhorn calf

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented to the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia and nystagmus. In utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was suspected. The animal was euthanized and a necropsy was p...

  16. 77 FR 45498 - Pyrimethanil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... organs of repeated oral exposure were the liver and the thyroid. No reproductive toxicity was observed... observed only at maternally toxic doses. Special short-term exposure studies demonstrated increased liver..., increased relative liver/ body weight ratios, necropsy and histopathological findings in the liver...

  17. Metastatic anaplastic adenocarcinoma suspected to be of mammary origin in an intact male rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Summa, Noémie M.; Eshar, David; Snyman, Heindrich N.; Lillie, Brandon N.

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old, intact male, pet dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented for a ventral abdominal subcutaneous mass. Histolopathology of the resected mass was suggestive of a mammary adenocarcinoma. Six months later, the rabbit died from severe dyspnea. Necropsy showed recurrence of the original mass with hepatic and pulmonary metastasis of the anaplastic adenocarcinoma, suspected to be of mammary origin. PMID:24790235

  18. Multiple brain abscesses from isolated cerebral mucormycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, A; Del Brutto, O H

    1990-01-01

    A report is presented of a patient with cerebral mucormycosis without rhinosinusal or systemic evidence of the disease. The predisposing condition was drug-induced immunosuppression. Computed tomography (CT) showed focal areas of abnormal enhancement which correlated with necropsy findings of localised parenchymal brain damage; this represented encapsulated brain abscesses, a rare form of presentation of cerebral mucormycosis. Images PMID:2351973

  19. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid.

  20. Exertional myopathy in a pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe...

  1. Exertional myopathy in pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Noel, Brandon L; Bednarz, James C; Keel, M Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe coagulative necrosis, consistent with capture myopathy.

  2. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse.

    PubMed

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E C

    2013-10-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse.

  3. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis: clinico-pathological correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Bakheit, A M; Kennedy, P G; Behan, P O

    1990-01-01

    Three new cases of limbic encephalitis in association with malignancy are reported. The literature on this condition is reviewed and the clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of cases proven at necropsy are correlated. The possible pathogenic mechanism of this disorder is discussed. PMID:1963440

  4. Diagnostic sampling and gross pathology of New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Bildfell, Robert J; Löhr, Christiane V; Tornquist, Susan J

    2012-11-01

    This article provides an overview of tests and appropriate samples to send to a Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for the diagnosis of common diseases of New World Camelids (NWC) such as abortions, congenital anomalies, anemia, enteritis, endoparasitism, gastric ulcer, hepatic lipidosis, encephalitis, pneumonia, dermatosis, neoplasia and cryptococcosis. Unique anatomic features of NWC and common findings encountered during gross necropsy examination are briefly reviewed.

  5. Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus in a springer spaniel.

    PubMed

    Kahler, J S; Leach, M W; Jang, S; Wong, A

    1990-10-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus was diagnosed in a Springer Spaniel with lethargy, lameness, anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, hematuria, and urinary incontinence. Necropsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and numerous fungal hyphae in many organs. The conidial heads of the fungus have a characteristic briar-pipe appearance in culture.

  6. Mammary gland growth and vascularity at parturition and during lactation in primiparous ewes fed differing levels of selenium and nutritional plane during gestation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Objectives were to examine the effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on mammary gland growth, cellular proliferation, and vascularity at parturition and d 20 of lactation. Rambouillet primiparous ewes (n = 84) were allocated to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial. Factors were dietary Se (adequate Se [ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW] or high Se [HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW]) and nutritional plane (60% [RES], 100% [CON], or 140% [EXC]). At parturition, lambs were removed and 42 ewes (7/treatment) were necropsied. Remaining ewes were fed a common diet meeting requirements for lactation and mechanically milked twice daily until necropsy on d 20. At both necropsy periods, mammary glands were dissected and tissues harvested. Samples were analyzed for RNA, DNA, and protein content, cell proliferation, and vascularity. Where interactions were present (P ≤ 0.05), least squares means from the highest-order interaction are presented. Results Final body weight of ewes was least (P ≤ 0.002) in RES, intermediate for CON, and greatest for EXC, regardless of stage of the ewe at necropsy (parturition or d 20 of lactation). In ewes necropsied at parturition, mammary glands were heavier (P = 0.02) in EXC compared to RES, with CON intermediate. Concentration of RNA (mg/g) was decreased (P = 0.01) in EXC compared to CON at parturition. There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for a Se by nutrition interaction in percentage of cells proliferating where ASe-EXC ewes had greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of proliferating cells then all other treatments. Mammary vascular area tended (P = 0.08) to be affected by a Se by nutrition interaction where ASe-CON had less (P = 0.007) vascular area than HSe-CON ewes. In ewes necropsied at d 20 of lactation, the number of alveoli per area was decreased (P ≤ 0.05) in RES compared to CON and EXC-fed ewes. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that proper maternal nutritional plane

  7. Virtopsy in a red kangaroo with oral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Ja; Sasaki, Motoki; Miyauchi, Aki; Kishimoto, Miori; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) in a nondomestic species. Postmortem CT was performed on a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a diagnosis of oral osteomyelitis was made. CT examination revealed bony remodeling of the right mandible, an intraosseous lesion of the right temporal bone, muscle necrosis around the right mandible, and the absence of the right, first, upper molar tooth. Cardiac and intrahepatic gas and a distended intestine due to postmortem gas accumulation were also seen. All the lesions identified with CT were also identified by conventional necropsy, except the cardiac and intrahepatic gases. Virtopsy may be a useful procedure for the noninvasive identification of cause of death and as a guide for necropsy in animals.

  8. Myocardial toxicity in a group of greyhounds administered ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, M J; Mullin, K; Ensley, S M; Ware, W A; Slavin, R E

    2012-05-01

    Ractopamine, a synthetic β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, is widely used as a feed additive in the United States to promote a reduction in body fat and enhance muscle growth in cattle, pigs, and turkeys. It has the potential for illegal use in show and racing animals because it may affect performance via its β-adrenergic agonist properties or anabolic activities. Nine greyhounds were orally administered 1 mg/kg of ractopamine to investigate the ability to detect the drug in urine. Postdosing, 7 of 9 dogs developed cardiac arrhythmias and had elevated troponin levels indicating myocardial damage. One dog necropsied 4 days postdosing had massive myocardial necrosis, mild to focally moderate skeletal muscle necrosis, and widespread segmental arterial mediolysis. A second dog necropsied 17 days postdosing had mild myocardial necrosis and fibrosis. Scattered arteries exhibited segmental medial and perimedial fibromuscular dysplasia. This is the first reported case of arterial, cardiac, and skeletal muscle damage associated with ractopamine.

  9. Pathological findings in homocystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J. B.; Carson, Nina A. J.; Neill, D. W.

    1964-01-01

    Pathological findings are described in four cases of a new aminoaciduria in which homocystine is excreted in the urine. All the patients were mentally retarded children. Three of them presented diagnostic features of Marfan's syndrome. Necropsy on one case and biopsy findings in the others are described. Fatty change occurs in the liver. The most striking lesions are vascular. Metachromatic medial degeneration of the aorta and of the elastic arteries in the necropsied case are considered in relation to Marfan's syndrome. Other changes, particularly thrombosis which is prevalent in homocystinuria, suggest the possibility of a platelet defect. The findings are discussed in respect of an upset in the metabolism of sulphur-containing amino-acids and with particular reference to Marfan's syndrome. Images PMID:14195630

  10. Effects of dietary nickel on mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups and were fed breeder mash containing 0, 12.5, 50.0, 200.0, or 800.0 ppm Ni (as the sulfate) for 90 d. Ni ingestion had no effect on egg production, hatchability, or survival of ducklings. After 90 d birds were bled, sacrificed, and necropsied. There were no significant differences in hematocrit; concentrations of hemoglobin, plasma triglyceride, and cholesterol; of plasma activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase. A black tarry feces was noted in the high Ni dose group at necropsy, but no gross or histopathologic lesions were observed. Although absolute concentrations of Ni in tissues were low, there were significant accumulations in kidneys of birds fed Ni at all dietary levels and in feathers, blood, and livers of birds fed high doses of Ni compared with controls.

  11. Distemper: not a new disease in lions and tigers.

    PubMed

    Myers, D L; Zurbriggen, A; Lutz, H; Pospischil, A

    1997-03-01

    In light of recent canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemics, we set out to determine the historical significance of CDV infection in captive lions and tigers in Switzerland. The retrospective case material consisted of 42 lion and tiger necropsy cases from 1972 to 1992. Necropsy reports for all lions and tigers were reviewed. All existing paraffin tissues were immunohistochemically examined with a polyclonal antibody raised against CDV. The results for 19 of the 42 lions and tigers were classified as positive by immunohistochemistry; 23 results were negative or questionable. The results for four animals (three positive and one negative ) were further tested by in situ hybridization, and the results concurred with the immunohistochemistry findings. CDV infection of large cats is older and more widespread than previously thought. All large cats in captivity should be immunized even if canine distemper is not believed to be a problem for large cats in the area.

  12. Congenital glycogen storage disease in a South American coati (Nasua nasua).

    PubMed

    Chu, Peter D; Loynachan, Alan T

    2013-09-01

    A 14-mo-old South American coati (Nasua nasua) was submitted for necropsy to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The coati had a history of progressive neurologic signs beginning 3 mo prior to euthanasia. At necropsy, the coati was in thin body condition, but no other significant findings were evident. Histopathologic findings included moderate distension of neuronal cell bodies by finely vesiculated cytoplasm within the cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord, and intestinal ganglia. Hepatocytes and macrophages in the lung, spleen, and liver were similarly affected. Transmission electron microscopy showed numerous electrondense membranous cytoplasmic bodies, swirls, and vesicular profiles within neuronal lysosomes in the brain. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring congenital glycogen storage disease in a South American coati and the family Procyonidae.

  13. Distemper: not a new disease in lions and tigers.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, D L; Zurbriggen, A; Lutz, H; Pospischil, A

    1997-01-01

    In light of recent canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemics, we set out to determine the historical significance of CDV infection in captive lions and tigers in Switzerland. The retrospective case material consisted of 42 lion and tiger necropsy cases from 1972 to 1992. Necropsy reports for all lions and tigers were reviewed. All existing paraffin tissues were immunohistochemically examined with a polyclonal antibody raised against CDV. The results for 19 of the 42 lions and tigers were classified as positive by immunohistochemistry; 23 results were negative or questionable. The results for four animals (three positive and one negative ) were further tested by in situ hybridization, and the results concurred with the immunohistochemistry findings. CDV infection of large cats is older and more widespread than previously thought. All large cats in captivity should be immunized even if canine distemper is not believed to be a problem for large cats in the area. PMID:9067652

  14. Use of Avian Bornavirus Isolates to Induce Proventricular Dilatation Disease in Conures

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Patricia; Hoppes, Sharman; Suchodolski, Paulette; Mirhosseini, Negin; Payne, Susan; Villanueva, Itamar; Shivaprasad, H.L; Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Briese, Thomas; Reddy, Sanjay M.

    2010-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a newly discovered member of the family Bornaviridae that has been associated with the development of a lethal neurologic syndrome in birds, termed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). We successfully isolated and characterized ABV from the brains of 8 birds with confirmed PDD. One isolate was passed 6 times in duck embryo fibroblasts, and the infected cells were then injected intramuscularly into 2 healthy Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonis). Clinical PDD developed in both birds by 66 days postinfection. PDD was confirmed by necropsy and histopathologic examination. Reverse transcription–PCR showed that the inoculated ABV was in the brains of the 2 infected birds. A control bird that received uninfected tissue culture cells remained healthy until it was euthanized at 77 days. Necropsy and histopathologic examinations showed no abnormalities; PCR did not indicate ABV in its brain tissues. PMID:20202423

  15. A ruptured large aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, S; Hirose, K; Ohyagi, A

    1987-01-01

    A 60 year old man was admitted with acute back pain followed by hoarseness. An aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus Botalli was diagnosed and an operation was recommended because of the high risk of complications such as rupture, embolism, or infection. The patient and his family refused surgery, however. The patient died suddenly of a rupture of the aneurysm a year later; necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. Several diagnostic methods were used and enhanced computed tomography gave the best representation of the aneurysm as it was seen at necropsy. This case indicates that enhanced computed tomography is probably the most useful investigation in patients with this type of aneurysm and it confirms the importance of an aneurysmectomy. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3566989

  16. Kernicterus in a neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Loynachan, Alan T; Williams, N M; Freestone, J F

    2007-03-01

    A 5-day-old Thoroughbred foal was submitted to the necropsy service at the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center. The foal had a clinical history of seizure activity and severe icterus. A complete blood count and serum chemistry analysis indicated that the foal was anemic (hematocrit, 16%), hyperbilirubinemic (45 mg/dl), and hypoglycemic. At necropsy, all tissues were discolored various shades of yellow. Microscopically, there was degeneration and necrosis of cerebral neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells; severe hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis; and deposition of amorphous golden-yellow material in the cerebellar granular cell layer, pulmonary alveoli, renal tubular epithelium, splenic trabecula, and the lamina propria of the small and large intestine. The golden-yellow material in the brain, lung, spleen, and small intestine was identified as bilirubin by histochemistry. Based on the macroscopic and microscopic findings, a diagnosis of kernicterus (bilirubin encephalopathy) was made. This report describes a rare case of equine neonatal kernicterus.

  17. Detection of myocardial degeneration with point-of-care cardiac troponin assays and histopathology in lambs with white muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Vehbi; Ozcan, Kadir; Citil, Mehmet; Onmaz, Ali C; Erdogan, Hidayet M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of human cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) and cardiac troponin-T (cTn-T) kits for the determination of myocardial degeneration in lambs suffering from white muscle disease (WMD). Cardiac troponin (cTn) analyses and necropsy were performed on 12 lambs with acute WMD. Only cTn analyses were tested in six healthy lambs. cTn-I and cTn-T tests were positive for all lambs with WMD, but negative in healthy lambs. Necropsy revealed that the cardiac and skeletal muscles of lambs with WMD had chalky white lesions, which appeared as necrosis and calcification in histopathology. The histopathological findings of the heart muscle and increased cTn in lambs with WMD suggested that marked myocardial degeneration may be detected by point-of-care cTn assays in lambs.

  18. Hypomagnesemia among cows in a confinement-housed dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Donovan, G Arthur; Steenholdt, Christian; McGehee, Kerry; Lundquist, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Between January and March 2002, 55 cows in a 1,200-cow commercial dairy herd in south Florida died. Most of the cows that were found dead did not have any clinical signs of disease prior to death. Because of a history of a feed change, a bloom of blue-green algae in cow cooling ponds, and initial necropsy findings of moderate enteritis, the preliminary differential diagnosis included clostridial enteritis, blue-green algae toxicosis, and mycotoxicosis. Rumen acidosis, hypomagnesemia, and heavy metal toxicosis were included as secondary considerations. On the basis of physical examination and gross necropsy findings, results of clinicopathol ogic testing, and results of feed and water analyses, a diagnosis of hypomagnesemia was made. Control procedures that were implemented included changing the forage source and increasing the magnesium concentration in the diet.

  19. Clinical and Autopsy Diagnoses of Visceral Affections of Patients Who Died Because of Complicated Burns with Multi-organ Failure

    PubMed Central

    Taran, A.; Baciu, N.; Rafulea, V.; German, A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The anatomicopathological investigations carried out in a total number of 186 cadavers during the last decade were reviewed. In these retrospective studies of necropsy protocols related to different affections of visceral organ systems that evolved asymptomatically, 30.1% involved the neurological system, 36.0% the uropoiesis system, 34.4% the gastrointestinal system, 52.0% the hepatobiliary system, and 39.7% the cardiovascular system, with a prevalence in the pulmonary system of 64.2%. A comparative analysis of the incidence of affections detected in various visceral organs (on the basis of necropsy data in the 186 burn patients) and the incidence of their clinical manifestations showed that in 35% of patients with extensive and deep burns all of these conditions developed asymptomatically and were diagnosed only through autopsy. PMID:21991003

  20. Iniencephaly clausus: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Padmaja R.; Rao, Ravikala V.; Alur, Mohan B.; Joshi, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Iniencephaly is a rare neural tube defect characterized by extreme retroflexion of the head with the absence of neck due to spinal deformities. The important features that help us to diagnose a case of iniencephaly are occipital bone deficit leading to enlarged foramen magnum, fusion of malformed cervical and thoracic vertebrae, and upward turned face with chin continuous with chest because of the absence of neck. The differential diagnoses include anencephaly with spinal retroflexion, Klippel–Fiel syndrome, nuchal tumors such as teratoma, goiter, and lymphangioma and Jarcho–Levin syndrome. Previously many case reports on radiological features of iniencephaly are published, but there are very few articles on necropsy findings and differential diagnosis. In the present case we have discussed in detail the necropsy findings of iniencephaly clausus with special reference to differential diagnosis. PMID:22408660

  1. Necrotizing gastritis associated with Clostridium septicum in a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Janet; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of histotoxic infections, including malignant edema and braxy (necrotizing abomasitis) in several animal species. The carcass of a 2-year-old, female New Zealand white rabbit with a history of acute depression and obtundation followed by death was received at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (San Bernardino, California) for necropsy and diagnostic workup. No gross lesions were detected at necropsy. Microscopically, there was moderate to severe, multifocal fibrinonecrotizing, transmural gastritis with numerous intralesional Gram-positive, sporulated rods, and disseminated thrombosis of the brain, lungs, heart, and liver, with occasional intravascular rods. The rods observed within the gastric wall and thrombi in the stomach and lung were positive for C. septicum by immunohistochemical staining. However, this microorganism was not isolated from stomach content. Clostridium septicum should be included in the list of possible etiologies of gastritis in rabbits.

  2. Apical aneurysm of Chagas's heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, J S; Mello De Oliveira, J A; Frederigue, U; Lima Filho, E C

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective study of Chagas's heart disease was carried out by a review of necropsy reports with special reference to the lesion known as the apical aneurysm. It was concluded that this lesion was more frequent in men, was unrelated to age, and was unrelated to heart weight. Patients dying of the cardiac consequences of Chagas's cardiomyopathy were more likely to have an apical aneurysm than those whose death was unrelated to the disease but the mode of death (sudden, or with heart failure) was unconnected with its presence. Transillumination from within the ventricle at necropsy was not only useful in demonstrating the aneurysm but also showed areas of myocardial thinning elsewhere. Thrombosis within the lesion was frequent. The aetiology of the apical aneurysm is discussed and it is concluded that while ischaemia, inflammation, thrombosis, and mechanical factors may produce and localise this lesion, the underlying cause is the basic pathogenetic process-parasympathetic nerve cell destruction. Images PMID:7295439

  3. Scoliosis in a tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) associated with encysted digenetic trematodes of the genus Clinostomum.

    PubMed

    Perpiñán, David; Garner, Michael M; Trupkiewicz, John G; Malarchik, Jennifer; Armstrong, Douglas L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Bowman, Dwight D

    2010-04-01

    A group of 202 tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) was brought into captivity due to habitat destruction. Half of these animals died, over two mo, showing generalized hemorrhages compatible with an infectious disease, but an etiologic agent was not determined. Encysted metacercarial stages of trematodes within the skeletal musculature, coelomic cavity, and subcutaneous space were additional necropsy findings. One salamander had scoliosis and multiple skin nodules. A radiograph showed no skeletal abnormality to explain the scoliosis; however, numerous round nodules were more radiodense than the surrounding tissue. A presumptive diagnosis of generalized trematodiasis was made, yet the salamander did not improve after a course of praziquantel and subsequently died. Necropsy revealed massive, encysted trematode infection. Histologic examination revealed marked multifocal intramuscular, subcutaneous, and coelomic trematodiasis with associated necrosis and inflammation. Based on gross morphology, the trematode was identified as a member of the genus Clinostomum.

  4. The First Case of Capillaria hepatica Infection in a Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hak; Novilla, Meliton N.; Song, Juha; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Chang, Seo-Na; Han, Ju-Hee; Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Do-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Mac; Kim, Young-Ha; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Kil, Jihyon

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the first case of Capillaria hepatica infection in a nutria in Korea. Ten nutrias, captured near the Nakdong River, were submitted to our laboratory for necropsy. White-yellowish nodules were found in the liver of 1 of the nutrias at necropsy. Histologically, the lesions were granulomatous, and infiltrations of lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and several multinucleated giant cells were observed. The lesions consisted of numerous eggs and necrotic hepatocytes. The eggs were lemon-shaped and had polar plugs at the ends of both long sides. The eggs were morphologically identified as those of C. hepatica. Worldwide, C. hepatica infection in nutrias is very rare. Nutrias are a kind of livestock, as well as wildlife; therefore, an epidemiological study for parasitic infections needs to be conducted. PMID:25352702

  5. An outbreak of equine botulism type A associated with feeding grass clippings.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephanie R; Kubiski, Steven V; Palmero, Joanie; Reilly, Christopher M; Higgins, Jamie K; Cook-Cronin, Sheri; Tawde, Snehal N; Crossley, Beate M; Yant, Paula; Cazarez, Ray; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    In September 2010, an outbreak of type A botulism involved 4 horses in northern California that were fed grass clippings obtained from a nearby park. All 4 animals developed a progressive flaccid paralysis syndrome clinically consistent with exposure to preformed Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Within 48 hr of consuming the grass clippings, all 4 horses showed marked cervical weakness (inability to raise their heads to a normal position) and died or were euthanized within 96 hr. One horse was submitted for diagnostic examination and subsequent necropsy. At necropsy, extensive edema was observed in areas of the nuchal ligament and inguinal fascia. A sample of the grass clippings tested positive for preformed BoNT type A by the mouse bioassay test. Emphasis should be placed on early case recognition, rapid initiation of treatment with the trivalent antitoxin product, and preventing exposure to BoNT in spoiled forages.

  6. [Radiographic diagnosis of abdominal diseases in foals and ponys. II. Pathologic findings in 60 cases].

    PubMed

    Gerhards, H; Klein, H J; Offeney, F

    1990-08-01

    A diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic examinations for evaluation of young foals and small ponies with acute abdominal discomfort is presented. Standing right to left lateral abdominal radiographs were taken of 54 foals and 6 ponies using a previously described technique. Interpretation of the radiographs was in conjunction with all clinical and laboratory findings and patient management. Using this approach, the site and cause of acute abdominal discomfort could be diagnosed accurately in 55 of 60 (91%) patients as confirmed by clinical, surgical or necropsy findings. Typical radiographs and photographs taken at surgery or at necropsy are presented. Typical radiographic findings, their interpretation and possible underlying gastrointestinal diseases are listed. The incorporation of standing lateral abdominal radiography in the clinical evaluation of foals and ponies with acute abdominal diseases gives findings of high diagnostic significance and should contribute to clinical decision-making. Abdominal radiography can replace data from rectal palpation in foals and ponies.

  7. A method for detecting therapeutic activity against Schistosoma mansoni in mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W C; Bartels, E; Cuckler, A C

    1978-02-01

    A simple and rapid assay, suitable for routine screening against Schistosoma mansoni in mice, can be achieved by using a reduction in the severity of hepatic lesions as the chief criterion of efficacy. Previous attempts to use this criterion were largely hampered by the use of inappropriate time schedules. Provided the timing of treatment and necropsy is restricted to a certain schedule, a mere glance at the opened abdomen of an infected mouse is sufficient to determine whether schistosome reproduction has been suppressed (by chemosterilization or by broader anthelmintic effects). The essence of the necessary schedule is treatment beginning at 4 weeks after infection and prolonged (continuously or intermittently) for 2 weeks, followed by necropsy at 8 weeks after infection. Using the methods described, two persons can easily examine mice for therapeutic response at the rate of 300 per hour. The assay has been shown to detect both schistosomaticidal and chemosterilizing compounds.

  8. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in round gobies in New York State (USA) waters of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River.

    PubMed

    Groocock, G H; Getchell, R G; Wooster, G A; Britt, K L; Batts, W N; Winton, J R; Casey, R N; Casey, J W; Bowser, P R

    2007-07-16

    In May 2006 a large mortality of several thousand round gobies Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) occurred in New York waters of the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Necropsies of sampled fish from these areas showed pallor of the liver and gills, and hemorrhagic areas in many organs. Histopathologic examination of affected tissues revealed areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Inoculations of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820) cell cultures with dilutions of tissue samples from the necropsied gobies produced a cytopathic effect within 5 d post-inoculation. Samples of cell culture supernatant were tested using RT-PCR and confirmed the presence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Sequence analysis of the VHSV isolate resulted in its assignment to the type-IVb subgroup. The detection of VHSV in a relatively recent invasive fish species in the Great Lakes and the potential impact of VHSV on the ecology and economy of the area will require further investigation and careful management considerations.

  9. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  10. Pathology in Continuous Infusion Studies in Rodents and Non-Rodents and ITO (Infusion Technology Organisation)-Recommended Protocol for Tissue Sampling and Terminology for Procedure-Related Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Klaus; Mowat, Vasanthi; Hartmann, Elke; Razinger, Tanja; Chevalier, Hans-Jörg; Blumbach, Kai; Green, Owen P.; Kaiser, Stefan; Corney, Stephen; Jackson, Ailsa; Casadesus, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    Many variables may affect the outcome of continuous infusion studies. The results largely depend on the experience of the laboratory performing these studies, the technical equipment used, the choice of blood vessels and hence the surgical technique as well the quality of pathological evaluation. The latter is of major interest due to the fact that the pathologist is not involved until necropsy in most cases, i.e. not dealing with the complicated surgical or in-life procedures of this study type. The technique of tissue sampling during necropsy and the histology processing procedures may influence the tissues presented for evaluation, hence the pathologist may be a source of misinterpretation. Therefore, ITO proposes a tissue sampling procedure and a standard nomenclature for pathological lesions for all sites and tissues in contact with the port-access and/or catheter system. PMID:22272050

  11. Disseminated toxoplasmosis presenting as sepsis in two AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carlos José Dornas Gonçalves; Molina, Rodrigo Juliano; de Souza, Murilo Barcelos; Silva, Ana Cristina A; Micheletti, Adilha Rua; dos Reis, Marlene Antonia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2007-01-01

    This report describes two patients who presented acute disseminated and severe toxoplasmosis as the first opportunistic disease related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At admission, clinical and laboratory findings were similar to sepsis or septic shock and a fast evolutive course to death occurred in both cases. At necropsy, an inflammatory reaction and presence of a great number of Toxoplasma gondii cysts and tachyzoites were observed in most organs examined.

  12. Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-15

    The upper two parts of the implant (post and core and crown) are conventional dental materials, usually gold. EX) 1473 MrION Of" I POV GS IS O&SOLETE...10 Clinical Examples of Baboon Dental Implants . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Histologic Analysis of the Bone-Implant Interface . . . . . . . . 16...Aluminum Oxide Dental Implant . . . . . . . . . . 2 Figure 2. Clinical Photograph of A29 and A30 in Baboon 469 at Necropsy

  13. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Kartch, F.X.; Stroud, R.K.; Smith, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  14. Radiation myelopathy of cervical spinal cord simulating intramedullary neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R.; Haltia, M.; Andersson, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy is a well-known complication of irradiation therapy of neoplasms in the vicinity of the spinal cord. Most earlier authors have stressed the association of a normal myelogram and normal CSF protein level with this condition. One case of radiation myelopathy with a myelogram simulating intramedullary neoplasm and with extremely high CSF protein concentration is presented. Six months after myelography necropsy revealed severe atrophy of the previously thickened lower cervical spinal cord. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. Images PMID:4443812

  15. Johne's Disease (Paratuberculosis) in a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Cara L.

    1982-01-01

    Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) was diagnosed as the cause of chronic weight loss and intermittent diarrhea in a five year old Saanen doe. Confirmatory necropsy findings included granulomatous enteritis, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis and the demonstration of abundant acid fast organisms within macrophages in impression smears of intestinal mucosa. Some of the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and controlling Johne's disease are discussed with emphasis given to the disease in small ruminants. PMID:17422113

  16. Xanthine nephrolithiasis in a galician blond beef calf.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marta; Rigueira, Lucas; Suárez, María L; Carbajales, Paloma; Moure, Pablo; Fidalgo, Luis E; Failde, Daniel; Vázquez, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    A six-month-old female Galician Blond beef calf presented signs of apathy, anorexia and weight loss. The analysis of a blood sample confirmed renal failure. Bilateral nephrolithiasis was diagnosed at necropsy. Quantitative analysis revealed the nephroliths to be composed of 100 per cent xanthine. In cattle, xanthinuria has only been described in the Japanese Black breed, but never before in other breeds. Clinical history suggested a naturally occurring xanthinuria.

  17. Multiple congenital malformation in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Noh, D H; Jeong, W I; Lee, C S; Jung, C Y; Chung, J Y; Jee, Y H; Do, S H; An, M Y; Kwon, O D; Williams, B H; Jeong, K S

    2003-11-01

    A 10-day-old male Holstein dairy calf with orthopaedic abnormalities was unable to stand but was alert with a suckle reflex. At necropsy, the calf showed multiple defects, including partial agenesis of the left rib plate, deformed left scapula, shortened left humerus, agenesis of the left kidney, atresia ani and scoliosis. The cause of these anomalies could not be determined. This report is the first to describe partial agenesis of ribs in a calf.

  18. Animal Models of Mycobacteria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, Diane J.; Orme, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the infection of mice and guinea pigs with mycobacteria via various routes, as well as necropsy methods for the determination of mycobacterial loads within target organs. Additionally, methods for cultivating mycobacteria and preparing stocks are described. The protocols outlined are primarily used for M. tuberculosis, but can also be used for the study of other non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species. PMID:18432756

  19. The occurance of Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) in a captive slow loris, Nycticebus coucang

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.; Beehler, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Adult and immature rictulariid nematodes were recovered at necropsy from the small intestine of an adult slow loris, Nycticebus coucang, from the Milwaukee County Zoo in Wisconsin. The lumen of the entire small intestine was packed with more than 100 nematodes, the intestinal wall appeared thickened and the mucosal surface contained numerous petechial hemorrhagic foci. The cause of death was diagnosed as a septicemia and possible lupus erythematosis.

  20. Diagnosis of enteric disease in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, D C; Tyler, J W; Stehman, S M

    2000-03-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in small ruminants requires integration of information obtained in the signalment, history, physical or necropsy examination, and ancillary diagnostic tests. The purpose of this article is to provide the practitioner with a review of the clinical features of several common gastrointestinal diseases of sheep and goats. Rumen acidosis, enterotoxemia, gastrointestinal parasitism, neonatal diarrhea, and salmonellosis are discussed, and where appropriate, reviews of the pathophysiology, prevention, and control of these diseases are cited for further reading.

  1. First record in South Asia of deer throat bot fly larvae Pharyngomyia picta (Meigen, 1824) (Diptera: Oesteridae) from Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), a new host record.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Radhakrishnan; Ajithkumar, K G; Reghu, Ravindran; Kavitha, Rajagopal

    2012-06-01

    The Bot fly larvae, identified to be the third instars of the deer throat bot fly Pharyngomyia picta were recovered from the lumen of trachea and secondary bronchi during the necropsy of a female sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, India. This forms the first report of P. picta from India and the whole of South Asia. Sambar deer is a new host record for the larvae of this fly. Morphological description of the third stage larvae with supporting figures are presented.

  2. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis and myositis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Allender, M C; McCain, S L; Ramsay, E C; Schumacher, J; Ilha, M R S

    2009-06-01

    A 39-yr-old wild-caught, female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) died during an immobilization to assess swelling and apparent pain of the cervical region. Necropsy revealed a fistulous tract containing plant material in the oropharynx, above the soft palate, communicating with a left-sided cervical necrotizing fasciitis and myositis. Alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus and Prevotella sp. were isolated from the cervical lesion. This is a report of cervical necrotizing fasciitis in a western lowland gorilla.

  3. Annual Report on Long-Term Dose-Response Studies of Inhaled or Injected Radionuclides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    hyperbilirubinemia, hypocalcemia, and elevated liver enzym’es. At necropsy, the dog had myeloproliferative disease with involvement of the liver, spleen...slowly progressive heart murmur was attributed to moderate endocardiosis of the left atrioventncular valve. Incidental neoplasms included a thyroid...months before death, was persistent. The terminal illness began with the notation of a lung tumor about 8 months before death. The pulmonary neoplasm

  4. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  5. Causes of death in marine mammals stranded along the Oregon coast.

    PubMed

    Stroud, R K; Roffe, T J

    1979-01-01

    Sixty-eight marine mammals stranded on the Oregon beaches were examined at necropsy. Gunshot was the primary cause of death in 30% of the pinnipeds examined. Bacterial infections (27%) and parasitism (27%) were also of major importance in the death and debilitation of Oregon marine mammals. Traumatic death or debilitation other than gunshot was observed in 11 animals (16%). Predation, starvation due to neonatal abandonment, viral encephalitis (presumptive diagnosis), dystocia and neoplasia were diagnosed as primary or contributory causes of stranding.

  6. Degenerative myelopathy in an adult miniature poodle.

    PubMed

    Matthews, N S; de Lahunta, A

    1985-06-01

    Degenerative myelopathy was diagnosed at necropsy of an adult Miniature Poodle with a 33-month history of progressive pelvic limb ataxia and proprioceptive deficit. Microscopic examination of the cord revealed diffuse degenerative myelopathy. Degenerative myelopathy is usually seen in adult, large-breed dogs and progresses over a period of months. In this case, the myelopathy progressed slowly and the degree of paralysis became more extensive than usually seen.

  7. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1.

  8. Use of a commercial serologic test for Angiostrongylus vasorum for the detection of A. chabaudi in wildcats and A. daskalovi in badgers.

    PubMed

    Deak, Georgiana; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Ionică, Angela Monica; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Domşa, Cristian; Pantchev, Nikola; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Cozma, Vasile

    2017-01-15

    Three species of the genus Angiostrongylus are known to infect European carnivores: A. vasorum (mainly in canids but also in other carnivores), A. chabaudi (in felids) and A. daskalovi (in mustelids). A. vasorum is responsible for clinically severe disease in domestic dogs, most commonly diagnosed based on fecal examination and serological detection of circulating antigens. Considering the poorly known host range and the challenging larval differentiation in the feces between the three species of Angiostrongylus infecting European carnivores, our aim was to evaluate the cross-reactivity of A. chabaudi and A. daskalovi with A. vasorum using a commercial serologic test developed for domestic dogs. Badgers (Meles meles) (n=10) and wildcats (Felis silvestris) (n=8) were examined between 2015 and 2016 by full parasitological necropsy with subsequent morphological and molecular identification of nematodes and by serology, using IDEXX Angio Detect™ tests. Five out of the ten badgers and two out of the eight wildcats were harboring nematodes in the pulmonary arteries. All nematodes were identified morphologically as A. daskalovi in badgers and A. chabaudi in wildcats, respectively. Serological examination of the plasma samples revealed the positivity of the same animals as found in necropsy. None of the animals negative at necropsy was positive at serology. The 100% correlation between the necropsy results and the serologic positivity to IDEXX Angio Detect™ in badgers infected with A. daskalovi and wildcats infected with A. chabaudi suggest that these rapid tests are able to identify circulating antigens of all species of Angiostrongylus found in European carnivores: A. vasorum, A. daskalovi and A. chabaudi. The possibility for future in-clinic use of this test in domestic cats should be further investigated.

  9. Developmental Toxicity Potential of Nitroguanidine in Rabbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    hunched posture, hypertonia, convulsions, cyanosis, and ataxia. Necropsy of this pregnant animal revealed mild vasculitis of the cerebral choroid ... plexus . 86F286, euthanized on Day 9, lost 599 g body weight from Day 6 to Day 9, moved stiffly, and had thick, foamy urine, red material in urine, red...groups. Cysts on fallopian tubes or dark red fallopian tubes were observed most frequently. Cesarean/Fetal Data The individual gestational data are listed

  10. Mycobacterium infection in a captive-reared capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus).

    PubMed

    Marco, I; Domingo, M; Lavin, S

    2000-01-01

    One captive male capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) was found dead on December 1993 at the breeding center of capercaillie in Catalonia, Spain. The bird was emaciated and, at necropsy, had numerous nodules of various sizes subcutaneously in the cervical region, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen, and mesentery. Microscopic examination revealed granulomatous lesions with central caseous necrosis, epithelioid cells, giant cells, and few lymphocytes in all affected organs. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in the tubercles with Ziehl-Nielsen stain.

  11. The prune belly anomaly: heterogeneity and superficial X-linkage mimicry.

    PubMed Central

    Riccardi, V M; Grum, C M

    1977-01-01

    The genetic, clinical, and necropsy findings of 2 brothers with the prune belly anomaly are presented and the literature reviewed. The combined data emphasise the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder and show that in at least some instances a heritable component may be the primary insult. The most likely heritable explanation involves a two-step autosomal dominant mutation with sex-limited expression that partially mimics X-linkage. PMID:144797

  12. Renal subcapsular hematoma associated with brodifacoum toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Thompson, Larry J

    2004-04-01

    A 5-y-old female dog died acutely and was presented for postmortem examination. Hemorrhage in the thoracic and peritoneal cavities and a large subcapsular renal hematoma were present at necropsy. Brodifacoum, a second-generation coumarin anticoagulant, was detected in the liver by HPLC analysis. Renal subcapsular hematoma is a well known, but uncommon condition in man. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a brodifacoum-associated renal subcapsular hematoma in a non-human species.

  13. Evaluation of Neurophysiologic and Systematic Changes during Aeromedical Evacuation and en Route Care of Combat Casualties in a Swine Polytrauma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    During the third year of this project, experiments in swine with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) and with Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) have...KEY RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS: 1. Complete animal experiments with Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) ARDS was induced in...intubated and ventilated with 40% O2. At 6 hours, animals were euthanized and a full necropsy was performed. Systemic physiology data (vital signs

  14. A case of chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Schwabenlander, Marc D; Culhane, Marie R; Hall, S Mark; Goyal, Sagar M; Anderson, Paul L; Carstensen, Michelle; Wells, Scott J; Slade, William B; Armién, Aníbal G

    2013-09-01

    A 22-month-old, female red deer (Cervus elaphus) was submitted to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy and chronic wasting disease (CWD) testing. The deer was found positive for the abnormal prion protein in the obex and the retropharyngeal lymph node by immunohistochemical staining. Microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy and immunohistochemical staining patterns and intensity were similar to those in CWD-positive elk and experimentally infected red deer.

  15. Mesenteric thrombus associated with pulmonary, splenic, portal, and caval thrombi in a dog that was presented for an acute abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Rudinsky, Adam Joseph; Parker, Valerie Jill; Guillaumin, Julien

    2016-01-01

    A 6-year-old Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute abdominal pain. A tentative diagnosis of mesenteric thrombosis was established antemortem. The dog was treated with supportive care and anti-coagulation but was ultimately euthanized due to disease-related complications. Necropsy examination confirmed an acute mesenteric thrombus along with widespread thromboembolic disease. Potential causes were protein-losing nephropathy, hepatopathy, and/or corticosteroid administration. PMID:27708446

  16. Dose (and Time Dependent) Blockade of Pregnancy in Sprague-Dawley Rats Administered Ammonium Dinitramide in the Drinking Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    Body Weight Ratios of Female Rats Treated with Ammonium Dinitramide through Gestation Days 10 and 20 19 5.Mean Values of Clinical Chemistry Parameters...for Female Rats Treated with Ammonium Dinitramide through Gestation Day 10 20 6.Mean Values of Clinical Chemistry Parameters for Female Rats...examination. Blood was sampled via the vena cava for clinical chemistry evaluations and whole livers were weighed at necropsy. STUDY II Group

  17. Baseline Serum Clinical Chemistry Values in African Green Monkeys Before and After Sulfur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    COVERED (From - To) March 2001 to June 2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Baseline Serum Clinical Chemistry Values in African...models and can serve as an index for future HD AGM studies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Sulfur mustard, African Green monkey, clinical chemistry , serum 16...Pathology Branch for necropsy histopathology review and clinical chemistry assistance. We also thank Steve Tucker and Dr. John McDonough, Ph.D., for

  18. Acute Dermal Toxicity of Guanidine Hydrochloride in Rabbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    with electric clippers (Oster®b Model A5, Size 40 blade, Sunbeam Corp, Milwaukee, WI) 24 hours before applying the test compound. The animals were...1984 2. Animals were close-clipped and examined 24 hours before dosing Justification: The laboratory rabbit is a proven mammalian model for dermal...died were necropsied within 16 hours after death. The remaining animls were killed by exsanguination while under pentobarbital anesthesia after a 14

  19. Nonhunting mortality in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Records of 170 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) necropsied at the National Wildlife Health Research Center, Wisconsin, from 1976 through 1985 were reviewed as representative samples to determine causes of nonhunting mortality in the mid-continent and Rocky Mountain populations of sandhill cranes. Avian cholera, avian botulism, and ingestion of mycotoxins were leading causes of nonhunting mortality. Hailstorms, lightning, lead poisoning, predation, avian tuberculosis, and collisions with power lines also killed cranes.

  20. Lead poisoning and other mortality factors in trumpeter swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Stroud, R.K.; Reiswig, B.; McEneaney, T.

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning and other causes of mortality of trumpeter swans were investigated. Necropsies or Pb concentrations in livers were available for 72 trumpeter swans found dead in seven western states from 1976 to 1987; data from other published and unpublished sources also are summarized. Ingestion of lead artifacts accounted for about 20% of the known mortality of trumpeter swans in the tri-state area of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, where the population has been declining for several decades.

  1. Vaccination of High-Risk Breast Cancer Patients with Carbohydrate Mimicking Peptides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    these sessions two technicians practiced cardiac puncture, necropsy and gross pathology under the supervision of our veterinary pathologist...According to the veterinary pathologist, both technicians are competent and able to perform each technique with dexterity. These sessions also allow us to...bonds with GD2 in binding to ME36.1. Docking calculations indicate that the topographical binding mode of the P10s peptide overlaps that of GD2 in the

  2. Verminous myelitis in a pit bull puppy.

    PubMed

    Snook, Eric R; Baker, David G; Bauer, Rudy W

    2009-05-01

    A 10-week-old, male pit bull dog presented to the referring veterinarian with hind limb paresis and epaxial muscle atrophy. No spinal lesions were identified at gross necropsy; however, histologically there was marked granulomatous myelitis in the spinal cord between T13 and L2 with occasional, intralesional nematode larvae. Based on morphologic characteristics, the nematode larvae were identified as Strongyloides spp., possibly Strongyloides stercoralis.

  3. Cowpox virus infection associated with a streptococcal septicaemia in a foal.

    PubMed

    Ellenberger, C; Schüppel, K-F; Möhring, M; Reischauer, A; Alex, M; Czerny, C-P; Fercho, A; Schoon, H-A

    2005-01-01

    Cowpox virus infection associated with a streptococcal septicaemia was diagnosed in a weak German Warmblood filly, born 29 days prematurely, and humanely destroyed on the sixth day of life. At necropsy, ulcerative lesions in the alimentary tract, colitis, polyarthritis and nephritis were observed. Transmission electron microscopical examination of specimens from ulcerative lesions revealed typical orthopox virions. Cowpox virus was unequivocally identified by virological and molecular-biological methods.

  4. Clinical and pathologic findings of blue-green algae (Microcystis aeruginosa) intoxication in a dog.

    PubMed

    DeVries, S E; Galey, F D; Namikoshi, M; Woo, J C

    1993-07-01

    A healthy dog developed signs of lethargy and vomiting after ingesting water from a tide pool containing blue-green algae. Fulminant hepatic failure occurred, and the dog was euthanized 52 hours later. At necropsy, the liver was large, friable, and discolored a dark red. Histopathology showed hepatocyte dissociation, degeneration, and necrosis. The alga was identified as Microcystis aeruginosa, a known hepatotoxin. The intraperitoneal administration of lyophilized cell material from the bloom caused hepatic necrosis in mice.

  5. Salmonella Persistence within the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle following Experimental Inoculation.

    PubMed

    Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Genovese, K J; Hanson, D L; Nisbet, D J

    2016-06-01

    Utilizing a transdermal method of inoculation developed in our laboratory, the duration of infection of Salmonella in the peripheral lymph nodes of steers was examined. Thirty-six Holstein steers (mean body weight of 137 kg) were inoculated with Salmonella Montevideo (day 0) on each lower leg and both sides of the back and abdomen. Calves were euthanized beginning at 6 h and subsequently on each of days 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, and 21 postinoculation (four animals each time). The subiliac, popliteal, and superficial cervical (prescapular) lymph nodes were collected and cultured (quantitatively and qualitatively) for the challenge strain of Salmonella. The challenge strain was detected via direct culture within the lymph nodes at 6 h postinoculation and on each subsequent necropsy date. Salmonella levels in lymph node were 0.8 to 1.8 log CFU/g. Lymph nodes were generally positive after enrichment culture throughout the experiment. Salmonella elimination appeared to begin approximately 14 days postinoculation. However, elimination was not completed by day 21; therefore, a second experiment was conducted identical to the first except that the time from inoculation to necropsy was extended. Salmonella was recovered via direct culture on each of the necropsy days, and results in general were similar to those of experiment I, except that on days 20, 24, and 28 isolates from serogroups C2 and E1 were identified in addition to the inoculation strain C1 in multiple animals. The data from both experiments indicate that after a single inoculation event, Salmonella would be completely cleared by approximately 28 days. Further research with expanded times between inoculation and necropsy is required for verification.

  6. Wilson's disease: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed Central

    Nazer, H; Larcher, V F; Ede, R J; Mowat, A P; Williams, R

    1983-01-01

    A 13 year old boy presented with headache, sore throat, myalgia, and fever and subsequently developed haemolytic anaemia and acute liver failure. Wilson's disease, a rare cause of acute liver failure, was diagnosed at necropsy. In such cases Wilson's disease must be diagnosed at an early stage for treatment to be effective. The most reliable indications are increased urinary and hepatic copper concentrations. PMID:6409288

  7. Oxalosis in wild desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Elliott R.; Berry, Kristin H.; Stacy, Brian; Huzella, Louis M.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Fleetwood, Michelle L.; Mense, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    We necropsied a moribund, wild adult male desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) with clinical signs of respiratory disease and elevated plasma biochemical analytes indicative of renal disease (blood urea nitrogen [415 mg/dl], uric acid [11.8 mg/dl], sodium >180 mmol/l] and chloride [139 mmol/l]). Moderate numbers of birefringent oxalate crystals, based on infrared and electron microscopy, were present within renal tubules; small numbers were seen in colloid within thyroid follicles. A retrospective analysis of 66 additional cases of wild desert tortoises was conducted to determine whether similar crystals were present in thyroid and kidney. The tortoises, from the Mojave and Sonoran deserts, were necropsied between 1992 and 2003 and included juveniles and adults. Tortoises were classified as healthy (those that died due to trauma and where no disease was identified after necropsy and evaluation by standard laboratory tests used for other tortoises) or not healthy (having one or more diseases or lesions). For all 67 necropsied tortoises, small numbers of crystals of similar appearance were present in thyroid glands from 44 of 54 cases (81%) and in kidneys from three of 65 cases (5%). Presence of oxalates did not differ significantly between healthy and unhealthy tortoises, between age classes, or between desert region, and their presence was considered an incidental finding. Small numbers of oxalate crystals seen within the kidney of two additional tortoises also were considered an incidental finding. Although the source of the calcium oxalate could not be determined, desert tortoises are herbivores, and a plant origin seems most likely. Studies are needed to evaluate the oxalate content of plants consumed by desert tortoises, and particularly those in the area where the tortoise in renal failure was found.

  8. Mortality causes of owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae and Aotus vociferans) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Gozalo, A; Montoya, E

    1990-01-01

    To determine the main causes of death in "owl monkeys" (Aotus nancymae and A. vociferans) in captivity, 115 necropsies were performed. According to the macroscopic findings and clinical data, results are as follow: acute lobular pneumonia (25.2%), chronic nephropathy (10.4%), acute catarrhal enteritis (8.7%), acute hemorrhagic enteritis (7%), acute toxic hepatitis (5.2%), trauma (5.2%), and others.

  9. Necrotizing hepatitis in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C

    2014-11-01

    An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection.

  10. Abortion caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in a free-ranging bison (Bison bison) from Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Rhyan, J C; Quinn, W J; Stackhouse, L S; Henderson, J J; Ewalt, D R; Payeur, J B; Johnson, M; Meagher, M

    1994-07-01

    A near-term aborted bison (Bison bison) fetus was collected near Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). On necropsy, the fetus liver had a small capsular tear, and there was a small quantity of blood in the peritoneal cavity. Microscopic lesions included mild, purulent bronchopneumonia and mild, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from fetal abomasal contents, lung, and heart blood.

  11. Kyphosis in Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, M; Hopper, S A; Bradley, R

    1985-12-07

    A condition of Jersey calves involving kyphosis and lordosis is described. Four calves originating from three farms, all the progeny of one bull, were necropsied. The only significant finding was a myopathy mainly affecting sublumbar muscles. The lesions were not consistent with white muscle disease or of any known myopathy affecting Jersey calves. It is likely that this condition represents a primary muscular dystrophy of genetic origin.

  12. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Douay, Guillaume; Drut, Amandine; Ribas, Thibault; Gomis, David; Graille, Mélanie; Lemberger, Karin; Bublot, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    A clinically healthy 16-yr-old female leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) was diagnosed with a patent ductus arteriosus on echocardiography and later confirmed on necropsy A murmur was heard on auscultation during a routine examination, and the congenital defect was an incidental finding. The animal had been asymptomatic its entire life. This deformity is rarely observed in nondomestic felids and may be asymptomatic, as has been described in domestic cats.

  13. Isolated angiitis of the brain in a young female on the contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Nagaratnam, N; James, W E

    1987-12-01

    The case of a 15 year old girl with a rapidly progressing right sided hemiparesis is reported. The history and clinical manifestations were suggestive of either herpes simplex encephalitis or occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At necropsy an occlusive thrombosis of the left middle cerebral artery due to a segmental necrotizing granulomatous panarteritis was found. The cause was obscure. A plausible incriminating factor was the contraceptive pill.

  14. Prevention of Lactogenic Toxocara cati Infections in Kittens by Application of an Emodepside/Praziquantel Spot-on (Profender®) to the Pregnant Queen.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Claudia; Petry, Gabriele; Schaper, Roland; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emodepside 2.1 % (w/v)/praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) topical solution (Profender® spot-on for cats) in the prevention of lactogenic Toxocara cati infections. A controlled test was performed with two groups of 8 cats with confirmed pregnancy. All cats were infected with daily doses of 2000 T. cati eggs for 10 consecutive days starting 50 days post conception to produce an acute infection. Treatment was performed 60 days post conception. Queens in the treatment group received the emodepside/praziquantel solution at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), while the control group was treated with a placebo spot-on. Efficacy was evaluated 56 days post partum by necropsy of one randomly selected kitten of each litter and comparison of the worm burdens between the study groups. Additionally the necropsy results were supported by quantification of worms expelled with the faeces after deworming of the remaining kittens and all queens. The treatment in late pregnancy resulted in an efficacy of 98.7 % (p < 0.0001). All necropsied control kittens were infected (geometric mean 30.6). Seven of 8 kittens from treated mothers were free of T. cati (geometric mean 0.4). Worm counts after deworming reflected the results obtained at necropsy. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that treatment with an emodepside/praziquantel spot-on solution during late pregnancy effectively prevents lactogenic transmission of T. cati to the offspring. The study design facilitated the generation of reliable data, while at the same time a minimum number of animals was sacrificed.

  15. Atherosclerosis associated with pericardial effusion in a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Lemberger, Karin; Chai, Norin; Bourgeois, Aude; Charpentier, Maud

    2010-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common disease in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and is frequently found when performing postmortem examinations on adult and old dogs, in which it is mainly associated with endocrine diseases, such as hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. However, atherosclerosis is poorly documented in reptiles and consequently poorly understood. In the current case report, atherosclerosis and pericardial effusion were diagnosed in a 2-year-old male central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) based on ultrasound visualization, necropsy, and histologic examination.

  16. Isolation of Clostridium difficile from human jejunum: identification of a reservoir for disease?

    PubMed Central

    Testore, G P; Nardi, F; Babudieri, S; Giuliano, M; Di Rosa, R; Panichi, G

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that the small intestine may represent a reservoir for Clostridium difficile was studied, using segments of human jejunum collected at necropsy. Our results (three of 100 specimens positive for C difficile culture) support the hypothesis that C difficile can be found in human jejunum and that it adheres to the normal mucosa as a resident bacterium. These findings suggest that gastrointestinal disease caused by C difficile has an endogenous origin. PMID:3745477

  17. Occurrence of fruiting structures allows determination of Purpureocillium lilacinum as an inciting agent of pleuritis and pneumonia in a loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) by histopathologic correlation to culture

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, V.L.; Mangold, B.; Lenzycki, J.; Hinckley, L.; Sutton, D.A.; Frasca, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum and Beauveria bassiana were isolated from lung sampled at necropsy of a 12 year-old female loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) that had displayed abnormal buoyancy. Histopathologic evaluation revealed pleuritis and pneumonia with non-melanized, septate hyphae and fruiting structures identical to those of P. lilacinum. This case emphasizes the importance of a histological correlate to fungal culture when environmental fungi are isolated and demonstrates the infrequent phenomenon of fruiting or conidial production in tissue. PMID:25379399

  18. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity.

  19. Cerebral infarction and myocardial fibrosis in a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    PubMed

    Borkowski, R; Taylor, T G; Rush, J

    2000-03-01

    A white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) lost the use of its right hand. Complete blood count, serum chemistry profile, electrocardiographic findings, blood pressure, and radiographic work-up were normal, but the gibbon died 2 days later. The gibbon was serologically positive for herpes simplex I and Epstein-Barr virus. Necropsy and histopathology showed acute infarction of the right cerebrum and multifocal to coalescing severe myocardial fibrosis.

  20. Weber-Christian panniculitis and auto-immune disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Allen-Mersh, T G

    1976-02-01

    A case is described of Weber-Christian panniculitis accompanied by a gammaglobulin disturbance which preceded by five years the diagnosis of an autoimmune hepatitis and pancytopenia. Also associated was the onset of diabetes mellitus, found at necropsy to be related to pancreatic islet amyloid deposition. This case reinforces the view that Weber-Christian panniculitis may be an adipose response to a variety of immunological stimuli.

  1. Pericardial mesothelioma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William A; Case, Allison L; Decker, Joshua; Roberts, John

    2008-03-01

    A 17-year-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with dyspnea and tachypnea. Radiographs revealed severe pleural and pericardial effusion, but no obvious mass. During attempts to remove the fluid under anesthesia, the cat developed cardiac tamponade and died. At necropsy, a nodular mass was found at the heart base and was identified as a pericardial mesothelioma. This is the first report of this tumor in any large cat.

  2. Isolation of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus from a Florida panther.

    PubMed

    Glass, C M; McLean, R G; Katz, J B; Maehr, D S; Cropp, C B; Kirk, L J; McKeirnan, A J; Evermann, J F

    1994-04-01

    Pseudorabies virus was isolated in cell culture from the brain tissue of a 3.5-year-old male Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi). The virus was not isolated from other tissues collected at necropsy. Based upon a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the virus was determined to have the classical wild-type virulent genotype, glycoprotein I+ (gI+) and thymidine kinase+ (TK+).

  3. Genetic Markers of Host Resistance and/or Susceptibility to the Lethal Effects of Radiation and Combined Radiation-Burn Injuries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Proteus vulgaris (Pv), which occurred in 100% of all cultured animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) could be identified, however, where present, by...necropsy and microbiological studies in each animal succumbing to the effects of ionizing radiation. 0 % .- % S- V Z _ .-- SECTION 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS...from commercial breeding sources, including Microbiological Associates (Walkersville, Md.), Camm Research (Wayne, N.J.), the Charles River Labora

  4. Mammalian Toxicological Evaluation of RDX

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    all sur- viving animalb were killed using ether anesthesia and necropsied. The follow- ing tissues were obtained: adrenals, pituitary, thyroids ...Trachea Testicle Thyroid Lung Epididymis Adrenal Abdominal Aorta Prostate Rib Heart Seminal Vesicle Diaphragm Spleen Salivary Gland Skeletal. Muscle...deep i-,gh ( rfa ), which is a mutation in which the cell wall is de- ficient in lipopolysaccharide components, making it more permeable to large

  5. Inbred Rat Strains Mimic the Disparate Human Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Norway rats were exquisitely susceptible to the virus and died with extensive hepatic necrosis 3 to I 5 days after inoculation of only 5 plaque...many of the animals necropsied (Table 11). Rats dying of hepatic necrosis uniformly had large quantities of virus in the liver and blood. Their brain...at least a 100-fold difference between the lethality of RVF virus for rats susceptible to hepatic necrosis and more resistant strains. Ten-fold in

  6. Septicemic pasteurellosis in elk (Cervus elaphus) on the United States National Elk Refuge, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Smith, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Septicemic pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella multocida is believed responsible for the deaths of 48 elk (Cervus elaphus) on the National Elk Refuge near Jackson, Wyoming (USA) during 1986 and 1987. Clinical signs included depression and salivation; necropsy findings included congestion and petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages in lymph nodes, diaphragm, lungs and endocardium. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from femur marrow of eight carcasses and a variety of tissues from eight others.

  7. Gross and microscopic lesions of polioencephalomalacia in a llama (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Kiupel, Matti; VanAlstine, William; Chilcoat, Clayton

    2003-09-01

    A 14-wk-old female llama (Lama glama) developed progressive neurologic disease characterized by stiff gait, circling, decreased mentation, and seizures. At necropsy, lesions were limited to the brain and consisted of bilateral necrosis of the cortical gray matter of the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex. The primary microscopic alteration was bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis, affecting mainly the deep laminae. Clinical disease, and gross and microscopic lesions were consistent with those of polioencephalomalacia.

  8. Dual infection with Pythium insidiosum and Blastomyces dermatitidis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Sara L; Frank, Chad; Thompson, Craig A; Van Alstine, William G; Gelb, Hylton; Heng, Hock Gan; Klosterman, Emily; Kiupel, Matti; Grooters, Amy M

    2012-09-01

    A 4-year-old male neutered Labrador Retriever with severe gastrointestinal signs, but no respiratory signs, was diagnosed with multifocal pyogranulomatous gastritis, enteritis, and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae and multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia with intralesional yeast. Based on cytologic evaluation, histologic examination with special stains, and immunohistochemical analysis of tissues collected antemortem or at necropsy, dual infections with Pythium insidiosum and Blastomyces dermatitidis were detected and are reported for the first time.

  9. Acute Oral and Intraperitoneal Toxicity Study of WR242511 and WR269410 in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-14

    survivors were also necropsied. The acute oral LD50 of WR242511 tartrate in male rats, administered in 1% Methylcellulose/O.4% Tween 80 by gavage, was...administered orally. The acute oral LDS0 of WR269410 in male rats, administered in 1% Methylcellulose/O.4% Tween 80 by gavage, was approximately four-fold...formulations in 0.1% Methylcellulose/O.4% Tween 80 at high enough concentrations to produce lethality, WR269410 was administered intraperitoneally as a

  10. Ileocecocolic strictures in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    PubMed

    Travis, Erika K; Duncan, Mary; Weber, Martha; Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal strictures were diagnosed in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). The cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The first cheetah had a stricture of the ileocecocolic junction diagnosed at necropsy. The second had an ileocecocolic stricture causing obstruction that was diagnosed at surgery. After resection and anastomosis, the cheetah recovered well. The etiology of the strictures remains undetermined. Intestinal stricture, particularly of the ileocecocolic junction, should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cheetahs with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs.

  11. First report of parasitism by Hexametra boddaertii (Nematoda: Ascaridae) in Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Peichoto, María E; Sánchez, Matías N; López, Ariel; Salas, Martín; Rivero, María R; Teibler, Pamela; Toledo, Gislayne de Melo; Tavares, Flávio L

    2016-07-15

    The current study summarizes the postmortem examination of a specimen of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in Iguazu National Park (Argentina), and found deceased a week following arrival to the serpentarium of the National Institute of Tropical Medicine (Argentina). Although the snake appeared to be in good health, a necropsy performed following its death identified the presence of a large number of roundworms in the coelomic cavity, with indications of peritonitis and serosal adherence. Additional observations from the necropsy revealed small calcifications in the mesothelium of the coelomic cavity; solid and expressive content in the gallbladder; massive gastrointestinal obstruction due to nematodes; and lung edema and congestion. Histopathological analyses of lung sections also showed proliferative heterophilic and histiocytic pneumonia. Parasites isolated from both the intestine and coelomic cavity were identified as Hexametra boddaertii by a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic examination. Results from this necropsy identify O. guibei as a new host for H. boddaertii, and is the first report of a natural infection by Hexametra in Argentina. Since Hexametra parasites may contribute to several pathological conditions in humans, and with the recent availability of O. guibei specimens through the illegal pet trade, it is necessary to consider the possibility of zoonotic helminth transmission of Hexametra from snake to human.

  12. Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Canfield, P J; Hartley, W J; Dubey, J P

    1990-08-01

    This report describes toxoplasmosis lesions in Australian marsupials. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histopathological changes are summarized for 43 macropods, two common wombats, two koalas, six possums, 15 dasyurids, two numbats, eight bandicoots and one bilby. Animals either died suddenly without clinical signs or exhibited signs associated with respiratory, neurological or enteric disease. At necropsy, many marsupials had no visible lesions. Where present, common necropsy findings included pulmonary congestion, oedema and consolidation, adrenal enlargement and reddening, haemorrhage and ulceration of stomach and small intestine, and lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly. Microscopically, affected lungs showed interstitial pneumonia and macrophage accumulation. Myocardial, skeletal and smooth muscle necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation were common. Organs had focal necrosis and/or fibrosis and lymphoid infiltrates. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts were common in muscle and nervous tissue. Free tachyzoites were commonly present in areas of necrosis. Selected sections from four macropods, two koalas, two dasyurids, one wombat and one possum stained specifically with avidin-biotin complex and anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum.

  13. Unusual causes of fatal upper aerodigestive tract obstruction in wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops aduncus).

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Gibbs, Susan E; Bossley, Mike; Machado, Aaron; Hill, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Necropsy examination of dolphins living in Gulf St Vincent, Australia is routinely undertaken to enable the evaluation of disease processes and to provide rapid medicolegal assessment of any inflicted and/or accidental injuries. Two Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) are reported to demonstrate conditions that may result in unexpected death involving upper airway compromise by quite unusual mechanisms. In the first case an adult male was found with extensive soft tissue trauma suggesting human interaction. At necropsy, death was due instead to upper airway obstruction from an impacted Slender-spined Porcupine Fish (Diodon nichthemerus) in the posterior pharynx and upper esophagus. In the second case, an adult male dolphin was found to have died, following several weeks' illness, from upper airway obstruction due to extensive respiratory tract papillomatosis within the blowhole. Given the infectious etiology of this condition the local population will be monitored for similar lesions. These cases demonstrate rare causes of upper airway obstruction in wild dolphins that were identifiable only after detailed necropsy examination. The possibility of human involvement in the deaths could be excluded.

  14. Experimental induction of abdominal tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration by intraruminal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens type A in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G; Avery, T B; Kennedy, G A

    1988-02-01

    The etiologic role of Clostridum perfringens type A in the acute abdominal syndrome characterized by abomasal and rumen tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration was investigated in neonatal calves. Eight calves, 4 to 12 days old, were inoculated intraruminally with toxigenic C perfringens type A. Before and after C perfringens inoculation, blood samples were collected from all calves for blood gas and serum biochemical analysis and for determination of serum copper concentration; ruminal fluid was obtained for isolation of C perfringens. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of the syndrome and, depending on the severity of clinical signs, they were either euthanatized or redosed within 4 to 7 days. After necropsy, specimens obtained from the abomasum and rumen for macroscopic and microscopic examination and for anaerobic bacteriologic culture were processed in routine manner. Intraruminal inoculation of C perfringens type A into healthy calves induced anorexia, depression, bloat, diarrhea, and in some calves, death. Serum copper concentration was within normal range. Necropsy revealed variable degrees of abomasitis, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, and ulcers (ranging from pinpoint to nearly perforate) in the abomasum. Seven of those calves also had multiple trichobezoars in the rumen. These necropsy findings were not seen in calves (controls) given distilled H2O only. In affected calves, acute abdominal syndrome was unrelated to copper deficiency, and C perfringens type A given intraruminally was able to induce clinical signs similar to those of the naturally acquired disease.

  15. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis Is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Garcia, Hector H.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1–3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  16. Peracute vanadium toxicity in cattle grazing near a vanadium mine.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, C M; Mokantla, E; Duncan, N

    2001-12-01

    Animals may act as bioindicators for potential human health problems associated with mining and refining. Eight cattle died after a vanadium mine dam collapsed close to the area in which they were grazing. Necropsies were conducted on five cattle. Affected animals had shown a watery bloody diarrhea, red urine and listlessness before collapsing. On necropsy (n = 5) there was a moderate bilateral multifocal granulomatous-like conjunctivitis. The most prominent lesions were eosinophillic granulomatous-like inflammation of the thymus, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, oesophagus, abomasum and colon. There was also marked hyperaemia of the abomasal mucosa with petechiation. Pulmonary and tracheal haemorrhage was also present. Histopathology showed severe inflammatory cell infiltration (mainly eosinophils with lesser numbers of neutrophils and macrophages) of lymphoid tissue associated with the thymus, lymph nodes, esophagus, abomasum, colon and conjunctiva. There were also areas of tissue necrosis, congested blood vessels and haemorrhage. Conjunctival lesions point to a systemic rather than a local effect as the cattle in this case died following ingestion rather than inhalation of vanadium. The causal relationship between intoxication and death is conventionally based on the level of that toxin present in tissues at necropsy. The variability in demonstrating vanadium in biological samples may have been due to the rapid excretion of vanadium by the living animal, or the solubility of the salts, which results in the substance leaching into the fluid portion of the samples. Cross-reactions with colorimetric tests for arsenic should also be noted.

  17. Postmortem bacteriology: a re‐evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J A; Harrison, L M; Partridge, S M

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess the value of postmortem bacteriology in necropsy practice, with specific emphasis on bacterial invasion of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods A review of published articles on postmortem bacteriology. Studies were selected to cover the full range of necropsy practice including adults, the perinatal period, and infancy. The review covers over 5000 necropsies, mainly in adults, but including 1108 perinatal cases and 468 cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy. Data are available on 4992 blood cultures, 1168 specimens of CSF, and 743 cultures of spleen. Results Studies in which careful precautions have been taken to reduce contamination show that approximately two thirds of blood cultures are negative, two in nine yield a single isolate, and one in nine have a mixed growth. The postmortem interval has only a small effect on the isolation rate. A pure growth of a known pathogen has a more than 50% likelihood of being found in association with genuine infection in adults and in the perinatal period. Conclusions The main postmortem artefact is contamination, but this can be considerably reduced by careful technique. Agonal spread is less common than is often assumed. Postmortem translocation is not a problem if the body is appropriately stored. A pure growth of a pathogen in blood or CSF should be regarded as a possible contributing factor to death at all ages. PMID:16394274

  18. Decompression vs. Decomposition: Distribution, Amount, and Gas Composition of Bubbles in Stranded Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    de Quirós, Yara Bernaldo; González-Diaz, Oscar; Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Sacchini, Simona; Fernández, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Gas embolic lesions linked to military sonar have been described in stranded cetaceans including beaked whales. These descriptions suggest that gas bubbles in marine mammal tissues may be more common than previously thought. In this study we have analyzed gas amount (by gas score) and gas composition within different decomposition codes using a standardized methodology. This broad study has allowed us to explore species-specific variability in bubble prevalence, amount, distribution, and composition, as well as masking of bubble content by putrefaction gases. Bubbles detected within the cardiovascular system and other tissues related to both pre- and port-mortem processes are a common finding on necropsy of stranded cetaceans. To minimize masking by putrefaction gases, necropsy, and gas sampling must be performed as soon as possible. Before 24 h post mortem is recommended but preferably within 12 h post mortem. At necropsy, amount of bubbles (gas score) in decomposition code 2 in stranded cetaceans was found to be more important than merely presence vs. absence of bubbles from a pathological point of view. Deep divers presented higher abundance of gas bubbles, mainly composed of 70% nitrogen and 30% CO2, suggesting a higher predisposition of these species to suffer from decompression-related gas embolism. PMID:22675306

  19. Retrospective study of canine heartworm disease with caval syndrome in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Chikweto, A; Bhaiyat, M I; Lanza-Perea, M; Veytsman, S; Tiwari, K; De Allie, C; Sharma, R N

    2014-10-15

    Canine heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis is an important disease of dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of canine heartworm disease and evaluate cases of caval syndrome in dogs submitted for necropsy in Grenada. Out of 1617 dogs necropsied over a period of 13 years (2001-2013), 249 were found to be infected with D. immitis; giving an overall prevalence of 15.4% (95% confidence interval, 13.6% to 17.1%). There was no significant difference between male and female dogs with respect to canine heartworm infection (p = 0.3). During this period, the annual prevalence of canine heartworm disease was 22% in 2001 before slightly declining to an average of 18% in 2002-2003 and peaking at 26.8% in 2004-2005. From 2006 onwards, annual prevalence rates have steadily been decreasing; reaching the lowest (9%) in 2013. Among the 249 positive cases, 33 (13.2%) of the dogs had caval syndrome. Caval syndrome cases presented with concurrent clinical signs and were associated with cardio-pulmonary and hepatic gross lesions at necropsy. Aberrant migration of D. immitis was also noted in 2 dogs with caval syndrome. This is the first report which presents the findings of canine heartworm disease with caval syndrome in Grenada.

  20. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs: a retrospective study of clinical, clinicopathological, and histopathological findings in 61 cases.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, Brier M; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Newman, Shelley J; Pool, Roy R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical, clinicopathological, and histopathological findings of dogs with chronic pancreatitis. The necropsy database at Texas A&M University was searched for reports of dogs with histological evidence of chronic pancreatitis defined as irreversible histologic changes of the pancreas (i.e. fibrosis or atrophy). A reference necropsy population of 100 randomly selected dogs was used for signalment and concurrent disease comparisons. Cases were categorized as clinical or incidental chronic pancreatitis based on the presence of vomiting, decreased appetite, or both vs. neither of these signs. All archived pancreas samples were scored histologically using a published scoring system. Sixty-one dogs with chronic pancreatitis were included. The most frequent clinical signs were lethargy, decreased appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea. Compared to the reference necropsy population, chronic pancreatitis cases were more likely to be older, neutered, of the non-sporting/toy breed group, and to have concurrent endocrine, hepatobiliary, or neurological disease. Clinical cases had significantly higher histological scores for pancreatic necrosis and peripancreatic fat necrosis, and were significantly more likely to have hepatobiliary or endocrine disease as well as increased liver enzyme activities, or elevated cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations. In conclusion, clinical disease resulting from chronic pancreatitis might be related to the presence of pancreatic necrosis and pancreatic fat necrosis. The signalment, presentation, and concurrent diseases of dogs with chronic pancreatitis are similar to those previously reported for dogs with acute pancreatitis.

  1. Retrospective analysis of mortalities in elephant shrews (Macroscelididae) and tree shrews (Tupaiidae) at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park, USA.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Meredith M; Woc-Colburn, Margarita; Viner, Tabitha; Sanchez, Carlos; Murray, Suzan

    2013-06-01

    Investigations into the cause of mortality and other important findings at necropsy were made into two families of small mammals at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park (SNZP; USA). Necropsy reports from 1976 through 2008 were reviewed for all elephant shrews in family Macroscelididae (n = 118) and all tree shrews in family Tupaiidae (n = 90) that lived for greater than 30 days at the SNZP. Causes of mortality were classified by body system and etiology to identify prevalent diseases and trends across demographics for each family. In elephant shrews, gastrointestinal disease (n = 18) and respiratory disease (n = 22) were important causes of mortality with an increased prevalence of pneumonia in adult males. Trauma was a common cause of mortality in tree shrews (n = 22). Cryptococcosis was an important cause of mortality in both families (n = 8 elephant shrews; n = 13 tree shrews). Bacterial infections, often systemic at time of mortality, were also common (n = 16 elephant shrews; n = 17 tree shrews). Arteriosclerosis was a common comorbid pathology noted at necropsy in certain populations, seen only in Elephantulus rufescens in the family Macroscelididae (n = 22) and in only males in the family Tupaiidae (n = 11). Gongylonemiasis was seen commonly in tree shrews (n = 15), as a comorbid finding, or in 5 cases directly leading to mortality. Awareness of the prevalence of these diseases can help guide prevention and intervention strategies.

  2. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis.

  3. The practical aspects of quality assurance in Good Laboratory Practice studies in an emergency situation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Takahashi, T

    1995-12-01

    In this report, the damage and countermeasures taken in relation to the Great Hanshin Earthquake are described. We report on the measures taken to counter damage in affected Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) studies by citing concrete examples. Case A: the testing facility was not affected, but a regulatory inspection had been scheduled for this day. Fortunately, official inspectors had reached the facility on schedule. Case B: The building for toxicology experiments was destroyed. Fortunately, most of the GLP-compliant experiments had been completed except one, the preparation of histological samples that was the last stage of the experiment. We asked the regulatory authority for appropriate countermeasures. The answer was that an inspection of the study could be conducted if an inspection is judged to be necessary. Case C: A necropsy was scheduled on this day. The study director decided that the necropsy should be postponed at least 1 week until he could secure the number of researchers needed to conduct the necropsy. Case D: The facility in Itami was destroyed. The facility was closed and the animals were moved to Kobe. The animal facility in Kobe was not affected, but because water supply stopped for 3 days, stocked water was used. Case E: Damage to computer systems in Kinki area was reported. Numerous computers fell from desks or were damaged from the impact shock. With the exception of a few, most of the damaged computers were repaired.

  4. Lesions caused by cardiovascular flukes (Digenea: Spirorchidae) in stranded green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Gordon, A N; Kelly, W R; Cribb, T H

    1998-01-01

    Evidence of infection with spirorchid flukes (Digenea: Spirorchidae) was sought at necropsy of 96 stranded green turtles, Chelonia mydas, that were examined during the course of a survey of marine turtle mortality in southeastern Queensland, Australia. Three species of spirorchid (Hapalotrema mehrai, H. postorchis, and Neospirorchis schistosomatoides) were identified. Severe disease due to spirorchid fluke infection (spirorchidiasis) was implicated as the principal cause of mortality in 10 turtles (10%), and appeared to be one of multiple severe problems in an additional 29 turtles (30%). Although flukes were observed in only 45% of stranded C. mydas in this study, presumed spirorchid fluke infection was diagnosed in an additional 53% of turtles, based principally on characteristic necropsy lesions and to a lesser extent on the histopathological detection of spirorchid eggs. Characteristic necropsy lesions included miliary spirorchid egg granulomas, which were observed most readily on serosal surfaces, particularly of the small intestine. Cardiovascular lesions included mural endocarditis, arteritis, and thrombosis, frequently accompanied by aneurysm formation. Resolution of thrombi was observed to occur via a combination of granuloma formation about indigestible components (spirorchid fluke egg shells) and exteriorization through the vessel wall, which resulted in granulomatous nodules on the adventitial surface. Septic aortic thrombosis complicated by disseminated bacterial infection, observed in five turtles, was recorded for the first time. Egg granulomas were ubiquitous in turtle tissues throughout this study. Although they generally appeared to be mild or incidental lesions, they were occasionally associated with severe multifocal granulomatous pneumonia or meningitis.

  5. Helminth and protozoan parasites in dogs and cats in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanparijs, O; Hermans, L; van der Flaes, L

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the level of helminthic and protozoal infestation over the last 10 years in strays, well-cared-for dogs and cats. Determination of the prevalence of infections was based either on faecal examination or on worm counts at necropsy. Of 2324 faecal flotations (NaCl sp.gr. 1.20) of stray dogs, 34.2% had eggs or proglottids of one or more worm species consisting of Toxocara canis (17.4%), Toxascaris leonina (10.1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (11.4%), Trichuris vulpis (7.0%) and cestodes (2.1%). Isospora oocysts were observed in 5.2% of the dogs. The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that T. canis eggs were by far the most common (50.9%). Necropsy data from 212 infected dogs indicate that 38.9% were infected with T. canis and 33.7% with T. leonina. The overall prevalence of worm infestation of 246 well-cared-for kennel dogs, based on worm egg counts by the McMaster technique, was 36.1%. Of 30 feline faecal samples examined by flotation, 83.3% were positive for parasites, including Toxocara cati (60%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (36.6%), Taenia (Hydatigera) taeniaeformis (20%) and coccidia (30%). Toxocara cati was the most frequently found worm species at the necropsy of 25 cats (52%). Toxoplasma was not observed.

  6. Intestinal lesions caused by two swine chlamydial isolates in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D G; Andersen, A A

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 2 distinct chlamydial isolates recovered from the intestines and feces of diarrheic nursery pigs could cause intestinal lesions in gnotobiotic pigs. Both isolates share biological characteristics with Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydial isolates R27 and R19 were propagated in Vero cells or embryonated eggs, respectively, and suspended in sucrose-phosphate-glutamine buffer with 10% fetal bovine serum for inoculation. Sham inocula were prepared from uninfected cell culture lysates and from uninfected eggs. Each piglet was fed 1 ml of inoculum or sham inoculum at 3-4 days of age. Ten piglets were each fed 10(9) inclusion-forming-units (IFU) and 14 piglets were each fed 10(6) IFU of isolate R27; 5 control piglets were fed sham inoculum. Twenty piglets were each fed 10(5) IFU R19; 5 control piglets were fed sham inoculum. All infected piglets developed diarrhea 4-5 days postinfection (DPI). Most piglets fed 10(9) IFU R27 became anorexic, dehydrated, and weak and were necropsied 4-7 DPI. Piglets fed 10(6) IFU R27 or 10(5) IFU R19 were necropsied 4, 7, 10, 14, and 18 DPI. Diarrhea, although never profuse, persisted in the piglets fed 10(6) IFU R27 or 10(5) IFU R19 through 12 DPI. At necropsy, all diarrheic piglets had watery colonic contents with flecks of undigested curd. In small intestine, histologic lesions were seen most consistently in distal jejunum and ileum. Distal jejunum and ileum from piglets fed 10(9) IFU R27 and necropsied 4-5 DPI were characterized by villus atrophy and multifocal necrosis of villi; necrosis was limited to the tips or apical one half of villi. Mild to severe villus atrophy, lymphangitis, and perilymphangitis were seen in the distal jejunum and ileum from all infected piglets 7 and 10 DPI. Colon from 1 infected piglet necropsied 10 DPI had mild focal serositis; significant colonic lesions were not seen in the other infected piglets. Immunostaining done on sections of distal jejunum and ileum

  7. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep managed under traditional husbandry system in Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Tariq, K A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F; Shawl, A S

    2008-11-25

    The present study was conducted with the objective to investigate the seasonal epidemiological prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) nematodes in different age groups, sexes and breeds (genotypes) of sheep through necropsy and faecal analysis over a period of 2 years in Kashmir valley, India. A total of 1533 sheep were examined [faecal examination: 1035 (year 1: 561, year 2: 474); necropsy: 498 (year 1: 232, year 2: 266)]. Out of these, 945 (61.64%) were found infected [faecal examination: 697 (67.34%, year 1: 390 (69.51%), year 2: 307 (46.99%); necropsy: 248 (49.79%, year 1: 123 (53.01%), year 2: 125 (64.69%)] with GIT nematodes. The over all prevalence of GIT nematodes in sheep in year 1 was 64.76 and 58.37% in year 2 (P=0.04). The parasites in decreasing order of prevalence (%) in sheep were Haemonchus contortus (59.6); Ostertagia circumcincta (38.0); Bunostomum trigonocephalum (37.7); Chabertia ovina (37.7); Trichostrongylus spp. (33.9); Nematodirus spathiger (29.4); Oesophagostomum columbianum (28.4); Trichuris ovis (23.5) and Marshallagia marshalli (22.1). Season, sex, age, and genotype were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT nematodes in sheep in the present study. The maximum nematode infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P=0.0005). Local Kashmiri breed was less infected as compared to other genotypes (P>0.05). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P>/=0.05). Prevalence was higher in rams (males) than eves (females) (P>0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to the existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT nematodes of small ruminants and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT nematodiasis of sheep reared under the temperate agro-climatic conditions.

  8. Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003.

    PubMed

    Owston, Michael A; Ramsay, Edward C; Rotstein, David S

    2008-12-01

    A review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (Panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (Panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (Panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (Panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (Panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (Felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (Felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, female). Animals that had not reached 3 yr of age or had been housed in the collection less than 3 yrs were not included in the study. Neoplasia rate at necropsy was 51% (24/47), and overall incidence of felid neoplasia during the study period was 25% (26/103). Neoplasia was identified as the cause of death or reason for euthanasia in 28% (13/47) of those necropsied. Neoplasms were observed in the integumentary-mammary (n=11), endocrine (n=10), reproductive (n=8), hematopoietic-lymphoreticular (n=5), digestive (n=3), and hepatobiliary (n=2) systems. One neoplasm was unclassified by system. Multiple neoplasms were observed in 11 animals. Both benign and malignant neoplasms were observed in all systems except for the hematopoietic-lymphoreticular systems where all processes were malignant. Of the endocrine neoplasms, those involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands predominated (n=8) over other endocrine organs and included adenomas and carcinomas. In the integumentary system, 63% (7/11) of neoplasms involved the mammary gland, with mammary carcinoma representing 83% (6/7) of the neoplasms. The rates of neoplasia at this institution, during the given time period, appears to be greater than rates found in the one other published survey of captive felids.

  9. Septicemic pasteurellosis in free-ranging neonatal pronghorn in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M R; Wolcott, M J; Rimler, R B; Berlowski, B M

    2000-04-01

    As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings included widely scattered petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages found over a large portion of the subcutaneous tissue, meninges of the brain, epicardium, skeletal muscle, and serosal surface of the thorasic and abdominal cavities. Histological examination of lung tissues revealed diffuse congestion and edema and moderate to marked multifocal infiltrate of macrophages, neutrophils, and numerous bacteria within many terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:3,4, and B:1 were isolated from several tissues including lung, intestinal, thorasic fluid, and heart blood. Each B:1 isolate had DNA restriction endonuclease fingerprint profiles distinct from isolates previously characterized from domestic cattle, swan (Olor spp.), moose (Alces alces), and pronghorn from Montana (USA). This is the first report of pasteurellosis in pronghorn from Oregon and the B:1 isolates appear to be unique in comparison to DNA fingerprint profiles from selected domestic and wild species.

  10. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk), ruminal disorders (0.7%), idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%), enterotoxaemia (0.5%) and enteritis (0.4%). Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols. PMID:22414223

  11. Use of computed tomographic scanning and aortography in the diagnosis of acute dissection of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, J M; Oldershaw, P J; Gray, H H

    1990-01-01

    Before the introduction of computed tomographic (CT) scanning, aortography was the investigation of choice for acute aortic dissection. Between 1978 and 1982, 24 patients were referred to the Brompton Hospital with suspected acute thoracic aortic dissection; all had aortography with diagnosis confirmed at surgery (n = 12) or necropsy (n = 2) or supported by clinical outcome (n = 8). One patient in whom aortography was negative had type B dissection at necropsy and another patient was lost to follow up. CT scanning became available in this unit in 1983 and between 1983 and 1987 was used as the only imaging investigation in 32 patients with suspected acute dissection of the thoracic aorta while in a further 22 patients aortography was used alone. Results were confirmed at surgery (n = 18), necropsy (n = 3), or supported by clinical outcome (n = 31). Two patients were lost to follow up. In an additional 16 patients both aortography and CT scanning were performed with concordant findings in 10. In six in whom the results were discordant, aortography was normal in three in whom subsequent CT scanning showed type B dissection and CT scanning was normal in three patients in whom aortography showed type A dissection. Both CT scanning and aortography are reliable techniques for assessment of suspected acute dissection of the thoracic aorta. Both techniques misdiagnose occasionally and the frequency of misdiagnosis will be minimised by performing both investigations in patients where the level of clinical suspicion is high and the initial investigation negative. CT scanning tends to miss type A dissection and in view of the success of surgery in this condition this failing has the more serious clinical consequences. PMID:2223304

  12. Septicemic pasteurellosis in free-ranging neonatal pronghorn in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunbar, Michael R.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Rimler, R.B.; Berlowski, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings included widely scattered petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages found over a large portion of the subcutaneous tissue, meninges of the brain, epicardium, skeletal muscle, and serosal surface of the thorasic and abdominal cavities. Histological examination of lung tissues revealed diffuse congestion and edema and moderate to marked multifocal infiltrate of macrophages, neutrophils, and numerous bacteria within many terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:3,4, and B:1 were isolated from several tissues including lung, intestinal, thorasic fluid, and heart blood. Each B:1 isolate had DNA restriction endonuclease fingerprint profiles distinct from isolates previously characterized from domestic cattle, swan (Olor spp.), moose (Alces alces), and pronghorn from Montana (USA). This is the first report of pasteurellosis in pronghorn from Oregon and the B:1 isolates appear to be unique in comparison to DNA fingerprint profiles from selected domestic and wild species.

  13. MRI as a Novel In Vivo Approach for Assessing Structural Changes of Chlamydia Pathology in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shubing; Meng, Xiangjun; Skinner, Julie M.; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Boddicker, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent of sexually transmitted diseases. While Chlamydia infection is a reportable event and screening has increased over time, enhanced surveillance has not resulted in a reduction in the rate of infections, and Chlamydia infections frequently recur. The development of a preventative vaccine for Chlamydia may be the only effective approach for reducing infection and the frequency of pathological outcomes. Current vaccine research efforts involve time consuming and/or invasive approaches for assessment of disease state, and MRI presents a clinically translatable method for assessing infection and related pathology both quickly and non-invasively. Longitudinal T2-weighted MRI was performed over 63 days on both control or Chlamydia muridarum challenged mice, either with or without elementary body (EB) immunization, and gross necropsy was performed on day 65. A scoring system was developed to assess the number of regions affected by Chlamydia pathology and was used to document pathology over time and at necropsy. The scoring system documented increasing incidence of pathology in the unimmunized and challenged mice (significantly greater compared to the control and EB immunized-challenged groups) by 21 days post-challenge. No differences between the unchallenged and EB immunized-challenged mice were observed. MRI scores at Day 63 were consistently higher than gross necropsy scores at Day 65, although two of the three groups of mice showed no significant differences between the two techniques. In this work we describe the application of MRI in mice for the potential evaluation of disease pathology and sequelae caused by C. muridarum infection and this technique’s potential for evaluation of vaccines for Chlamydia. PMID:27467585

  14. Extra-intestinal coccidiosis in the kiwi (Apteryx spp.).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kerri J; Alley, Maurice R; Pomroy, William E; Gartrell, Brett D; Castro, Isabel; Howe, Laryssa

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant conservation intervention, the kiwi (Apteryx spp.) is in serious population decline. To increase survival in the wild, conservation management includes rearing of young birds in captivity, safe from introduced mammalian predators. However, an increase in density of immunologically naïve kiwi increases the risk of exposure to disease, including coccidia. Intestinal coccidiosis has recently been described in the kiwi, and although extra-intestinal coccidiosis was first recognized in kiwi in 1978, very little is known about this disease entity. This study used archived histological tissues and reports from routine necropsies to describe the pathology of naturally occurring extra-intestinal coccidiosis. At least 4.5% of all kiwi necropsied during 1991 to 2011 (n=558) were affected by extra-intestinal coccidiosis, and it is estimated that it caused death in 0.9 to 1.2% of kiwi in the study group. Four forms were recognized: renal, hepatic, and, less commonly, splenic and pulmonary. At necropsy, renal coccidiosis was associated with miliary white streaks and foci through the kidneys, renomegaly, and renal pallor or congestion. Renal meronts and gametocytes were confined to the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, and were associated with renal tubular necrosis and tubular obstruction. Hepatic miliary pinpoint foci were present throughout the hepatic parenchyma associated microscopically with macromeronts measuring 304×227 µm. In two cases, clusters of splenic meronts were identified, and a similar lesion was identified in the pulmonary interstitium of another case. Juvenile, captive kiwi were most often affected with extra-intestinal coccidiosis, illustrating an increased expression of disease with population manipulation for conservation purposes.

  15. Efficacy of dart or booster vaccination with strain RB51 in protecting bison against experimental Brucella abortus challenge.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; Johnson, C S

    2012-06-01

    This study characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (hand RB51), by single pneumatic dart delivery (dart RB51), or as two vaccinations approximately 13 months apart (booster RB51) in comparison to control bison. All bison were challenged intraconjunctivally in midgestation with 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 (S2308). Bison were necropsied and sampled within 72 h of abortion or delivery of a live calf. Compared to nonvaccinated bison, bison in the booster RB51 treatment had a reduced (P < 0.05) incidence of abortion, uterine infection, or infection in maternal tissues other than the mammary gland at necropsy. Bison in single-vaccination treatment groups (hand RB51 and dart RB51) did not differ (P > 0.05) from the control group in the incidence of abortion or recovery of S2308 from uterine, mammary, fetal, or maternal tissues at necropsy. Compared to nonvaccinated animals, all RB51 vaccination groups had reduced (P < 0.05) mean colonization or incidence of infection in at least 2 of 4 target tissues, with the booster RB51 group having reduced (P < 0.05) colonization and incidence of infection in all target tissues. Our data suggest that booster vaccination of bison with RB51 enhances protective immunity against Brucella challenge compared to single vaccination with RB51 by hand or by pneumatic dart. Our study also suggests that an initial vaccination of calves followed by booster vaccination as yearlings should be an effective strategy for brucellosis control in bison.

  16. Reptile neoplasia at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden, 1901-2002.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2006-03-01

    A retrospective study of neoplasia in reptiles held at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden was conducted. A total of 3,684 original necropsy reports for the period 1901-2002 were reviewed and revealed 86 cases of neoplasia. Original glass slides or re-cuts from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were examined for confirmation of the original diagnosis. At necropsy, a total of six neoplasms were identified in six of 490 chelonians (1.2%), 22 neoplasms in 19 of 736 lizards (3.0%), and 58 neoplasms in 53 of 1,835 snakes (2.9%). An additional 12 neoplasms were found in biopsies of one turtle and 10 snakes. In the chelonians, all the neoplasms were seen in turtles, four of six tumors were malignant (66%) and no organ predilection was noted. For lizards, the liver was the most commonly affected organ, with 7 of 22 primary neoplasms (31%). Multiple tumor types were identified in three lizards (15%), metastasis occurred in five cases (25%), and malignant tumors were identified in 16 cases (73%). In snakes, the liver was most frequently affected by neoplasia at necropsy, with 13 of 58 primary neoplasms (22%); multiple types of neoplasm were identified in five cases (10%) and metastasis in six (9%); and 42 tumors (80%) were diagnosed as malignant. When biopsies were included for snakes, however, the skin was the most commonly affected organ, with 17 of 69 neoplasms (24%). One of five lizards (20%) and four of six snakes (66%) with metastasis also had a second primary neoplasm. Since 1967, the incidence of lizard neoplasia has increased from 0.7% to 5.9%, and snake neoplasia has increased from 2.6% to 9.3%.

  17. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type II) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    A two-phase Dose Range findng study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type II, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75micron GBII/Kg/day), and a vehicle control . Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11 -1 2 weeks of age into four treatment groups (1 2 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rat/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  18. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type I) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Crowell, J.A.; Thurman, J.D.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    A two-phase Dose Range finding study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type I, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150, micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75 micron GBI/Kg/day), and a vehicle control (O micron /Kg/day). Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11-12 weeks of age into four treatment groups (12 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rats/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals, and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four of the eight cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  19. Congenital portosystemic shunts and hepatic encephalopathy in goat kids in California: 11 cases (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Kinde, Hailu; Pesavento, Patricia A; Loretti, Alexandre P; Adaska, John M; Barr, Bradd C; Moore, Janet D; Anderson, Mark L; Rimoldi, Guillermo; Hill, Ashley E; Jones, Megan E B

    2014-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2012, 11 cases of congenital portosystemic shunts (cPSS) resulting in hepatic encephalopathy were diagnosed in goat kids necropsied at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System and at the Department of Pathology, Immunology & Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis. Affected animals included 6 females and 5 males of various breeds including Boer (5/11), Nigerian Dwarf (1/11), Saanen (1/11), Toggenburg (1/11), and mixed-breed (3/11) aged between 1.5 months and 11 months, submitted live (2/11) or dead (9/11) for necropsy. The most frequent clinical signs in these goats were ataxia, blindness, tremors, head bobbing, head pressing, seizures, circling, weakness, and ill thrift. Bile acids were measured in 2 animals, and were elevated in both cases (134 and 209 µmol/l, reference interval = 0-50 µmol/l). Necropsy findings were poor to fair body condition. Grossly, the livers of 4 animals were subjectively small. Microscopic lesions included portal spaces with increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplastic or absent portal veins, diffuse atrophy of the hepatic parenchyma with the presence of small hepatocytes and, in some cases, multifocal hepatocellular macrovesicular vacuolation. In the brain and spinal cord of all animals, there was bilateral and symmetric spongy degeneration affecting the cerebrum, mesencephalon, cerebellum, brainstem, and cervical spinal cord. In all cases, the brain lesions were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Congenital portosystemic shunts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young goats with a history of ill thrift, and nonspecific neurological signs.

  20. Supplemental oxygen attenuates the increase in wound bacterial growth during simulated aeromedical evacuation in goats

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Ryan E.; Sonnier, Dennis I.; Makley, Amy T.; Campion, Eric M.; Wenke, Joseph C.; Bailey, Stephanie R.; Dorlac, Warren C.; Lentsch, Alex B.; Pritts, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial growth in soft tissue and open fractures is a known risk factor for tissue loss and complications in contaminated musculoskeletal wounds. Current care for battlefield casualties with soft tissue and musculoskeletal wounds includes tactical and strategic aeromedical evacuation (AE). This exposes patients to a hypobaric, hypoxic environment. In the present study, we sought to determine whether exposure to AE alters bacterial growth in contaminated complex musculoskeletal wounds and whether supplemental oxygen had any effect on wound infections during simulated AE. Methods A caprine model of a contaminated complex musculoskeletal wound was employed. Complex musculoskeletal wounds were created and inoculated with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Goats were divided into three experimental groups: ground control, simulated aeromedical evacuation (AE), and simulated AE with supplemental oxygen (AE+O2). Simulated AE was induced in a hypobaric chamber pressurized to 8800 feet for 7 hours. Bacterial luminescence was measured using a photon counting camera at three timepoints: preflight (20 hours post surgery), postflight (7 hours from preflight and 27 hours post-surgery), and necropsy (24 hours from preflight and 44 hours post surgery). Results There was a significant increase in bacterial growth in the AE group compared to the ground control group measured postflight and at necropsy. Simulated AE induced hypoxia with oxygen saturation less than 93%. Supplemental oxygen corrected the hypoxia and significantly reduced bacterial growth in wounds at necropsy. Conclusions Hypoxia induced during simulated AE enhances bacterial growth in complex musculoskeletal wounds which can be prevented with the application of supplemental oxygen to the host. PMID:22743376

  1. Echinococcus in the wild carnivores and stray dogs of northern Tunisia: the results of a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, S; Boufana, B S; Lahmar, S; Inoubli, S; Guadraoui, M; Dhibi, M; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

    2009-06-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is endemic throughout Tunisia and E. multilocularis has previously been reported as the cause of two cases of human alveolar echinococcosis in the north-west of the country. The aim of the present study was to screen wild carnivores from the north-western Jendouba governorate and semi-stray dogs from the Siliana and Sejnane regions of northern Tunisia for these two zoonotic cestodes. The results of the coproscopy, coproELISA and coproPCR that were undertaken were compared with those of necropsy, where possible. Overall, 111 faecal samples (51 from wild carnivores and 60 from stray dogs) were tested by coproELISA for Echinococcus antigen and by coproPCR for E. granulosus and E. multilocularis species-specific DNA. All 60 dogs and seven of the wild carnivores were necropsied. Eleven (18.4%) of the dogs and one golden jackal (Canis aureus) were found positive for E. granulosus at necropsy. The jackal was found to be carrying 72 E. granulosus tapeworms, which were confirmed to be of the common sheep-dog (G1) genotype. Faecal samples from 10 (19.6%) of the wild carnivores--putatively, four golden jackals, two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes atlantica), one hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) and three genets (Genetta genetta)--gave a positive result in the Echinococcus coproELISA. In the coproPCR-based follow-up, E. granulosus DNA was detected in faecal samples from five jackals, two foxes and six stray dogs. The DNA of E. multilocularis was not, however, detected in any of the faecal samples investigated. This is the first report from Tunisia of (coproPCR-)confirmed E. granulosus infections in golden jackals and red foxes. The possible role of such wild hosts in the transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia should be investigated further. The possibility of the active transmission of E. multilocularis in Tunisia still remains an open question.

  2. Coccidioidomycosis and other systemic mycoses of marine mammals stranding along the central California, USA coast: 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Huckabone, Sara E; Gulland, Frances M D; Johnson, Suzanne M; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Dodd, Erin M; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Dunkin, Robin C; Casper, David; Carlson, Erin L; Sykes, Jane E; Meyer, Weiland; Miller, Melissa A

    2015-04-01

    A wide range of systemic mycoses have been reported from captive and wild marine mammals from North America. Examples include regionally endemic pathogens such as Coccidioides and Blastomyces spp., and novel pathogens like Cryptococcus gattii, which appear may have been introduced to North America by humans. Stranding and necropsy data were analyzed from three marine mammal stranding and response facilities on the central California coast to assess the prevalence, host demographics, and lesion distribution of systemic mycoses affecting locally endemic marine mammals. Between 1 January 1998 and 30 June 2012, >7,000 stranded marine mammals were necropsied at the three facilities. Necropsy and histopathology records were reviewed to identify cases of locally invasive or systemic mycoses and determine the nature and distribution of fungal lesions. Forty-one animals (0.6%) exhibited cytological, culture- or histologically confirmed locally invasive or systemic mycoses: 36 had coccidioidomycosis, two had zygomycosis, two had cryptococcosis, and one was systemically infected with Scedosporium apiospermum (an Ascomycota). Infected animals included 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 20 southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), two Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), one Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), and one northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Coccidioidomycosis was reported from 15 sea lions, 20 sea otters, and one harbor seal, confirming that Coccidioides spp. is the most common pathogen causing systemic mycosis in marine mammals stranding along the central California coast. We also report the first confirmation of C. gattii infection in a wild marine mammal from California and the first report of coccidioidomycosis in a wild harbor seal. Awareness of these pathogenic fungi during clinical care and postmortem examination is an important part of marine mammal population health surveillance and human health protection

  3. White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Smith, Jodi D; Kunkle, Robert A

    2011-10-11

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Deer (n = 5) were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. A non-inoculated deer was maintained as a negative control. Deer were observed daily for clinical signs of disease and euthanized and necropsied when unequivocal signs of scrapie were noted. One animal died 7 months post inoculation (pi) due to intercurrent disease. Examinations of brain tissue for the presence of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were negative whereas IHC of lymphoid tissues was positive. Deer necropsied at 15-22 months pi were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Deer necropsied after 20 months pi had clinical signs of depression and progressive weight loss. Tissues with PrP(Sc) immunoreactivity included brain (at levels of cerebrum, hippocampus, colliculus, cerebellum, and brainstem), trigeminal ganglion, neurohypophysis, retina, spinal cord, and various lymphoid tissues including tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation.

  4. Relationship between thoracic auscultation and lung pathology detected by ultrasonography in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scott, Phil; Collie, Dave; McGorum, Bruce; Sargison, Neil

    2010-10-01

    The utility of routine auscultation to detect and characterise the nature of a range of superficial lung and pleural pathologies in domestic sheep was assessed using ultrasonographic examination to indicate and localise pathologies pre-mortem. Necropsy examination was then used to fully characterise the nature and extent of the lesions. Auscultation recordings were made from 10 normal sheep with no clinical evidence of respiratory disease and with absence of significant superficial lung pathology, which was confirmed initially by ultrasound examination and subsequently at necropsy examination. A further two sheep with endotoxaemia and 30 sheep with well-defined lung lesions were also examined. Increased audibility of normal lung sounds in 4/10 normal sheep was associated with tachypnoea as a consequence of handling and transport during hot weather and was also observed in the two sheep with endotoxaemia. Moderate to severe coarse crackles detected in all advanced cases of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (n=16) were audible over an area larger than the lesion distribution identified during ultrasound examination, and confirmed later at necropsy. Auscultation did not detect abnormal sounds in any of the five sheep with focal pleural abscesses (up to 10 cm diameter). Unilateral pyothorax caused attenuation of sounds relative to the contra-lateral normal lung in all three sheep with this condition. Marked fibrinous pleurisy caused attenuation of sounds relative to normal areas of lung in six sheep. No sounds resembling the description of pleural frictions rubs were heard in the sheep with marked fibrinous pleurisy (n=6) or associated with focal pleural abscesses (n=5). Routine interpretation of auscultated sound did not allow the presence of superficial lung pathology or its distribution to be accurately defined in the respiratory diseases represented in this study.

  5. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies.

  6. Animal serial killing: The first criminal conviction for animal cruelty in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salvagni, Fernanda Auciello; de Siqueira, Adriana; Fukushima, Andre Rinaldi; Landi, Marina Frota de Albuquerque; Ponge-Ferreira, Heidi; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar

    2016-10-01

    Animal cruelty is a known behavior of psychopaths, and although the serial killing of humans is widely acknowledged worldwide, this type of crime against animals is seldom discussed. This report describes the necropsy and toxicological findings of 37 dogs and cats, which were found dead in plastic bags in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The animals had all been in the care of an alleged animal rescuer and were to be referred for adoption before being found dead. In the necropsy, the animals showed varying degrees of putrefaction, indicating different periods of death, as well as single or multiple perforations on the thorax. The perforations reached the heart, lungs or large thoracic vessels, culminating in hemopericardium and hemothorax that led to death by circulatory failure and cardiac tamponade. Blood from the heart and thoracic cavity was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested positive for ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic. The suspect declared that she had killed only five of the animals and that they had all been fatally sick. The necropsy proved that all 37 animals were killed in the same way, that none of the animals had any terminal diseases and that a restricted drug was used. The suspect was sentenced to 12 years, 6 months and 14days of prison for the killing of the 37 animals. This was the first conviction for the crime of animal cruelty in Brazil. The combined role of police, forensic veterinary pathologists and prosecutors were essential to the conviction, which was a great historical occasion in the fight against animal cruelty.

  7. Early infection dynamics after experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in calves reveal limited calf-to-calf transmission and no impact of Hsp70 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Santema, Wiebren J; Poot, Jacqueline; Segers, Ruud P A M; Van den Hoff, Daniëlle J P; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P

    2012-11-19

    Efficient control of bovine paratuberculosis is hampered by lack of a vaccine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy of a candidate vaccine, consisting of recombinant Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) Hsp70 with DDA adjuvant, in calves experimentally infected with MAP. Four groups of 14 animals each were used. Animals in group 1 and 2 were all vaccinated with Hsp70/DDA at day 0, 84, 168 and 357, and those in group 3 and 4 were non-vaccinated controls. In each group half (n=7) of the animals were challenged and the remaining half served as contacts. Blood and fecal samples were collected at three week intervals until day 588, and subsequently all animals were subjected to necropsy. The primary outcomes assessed were fecal culture (FC) of MAP, tissue colonization of MAP, and transmission of infection to contact animals. The kinetics of MAP shedding in feces of challenged animals showed a peak around 130 days post-challenge, irrespective of vaccination status. At necropsy no differences in the level of tissue colonization between vaccinated animals and controls were observed in the challenged groups. Only one contact animal (non-vaccinated) was positive at necropsy, indicating limited to no transmission within groups. These findings indicate that Hsp70/DDA vaccination does not influence early infection dynamics after experimental infection. However, early shedding of MAP in calves did not result in efficient transmission of infection to contact animals. The latter implies that introduction of an infected calf in a cohort of susceptibles has limited consequences for spread of infection.

  8. EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TREATMENT WITH EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI LATEX ON THE SURVIVAL AND INTESTINAL ADHESIONS IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL PERITONITIS

    PubMed Central

    de ARAÚJO, Lilhian Alves; MRUÉ, Fátima; NEVES, Roberpaulo Anacleto; ALVES, Maxley Martins; da SILVA-JÚNIOR, Nelson Jorge; SILVA, Marcelo Seixo de Brito; de MELO-REIS, Paulo Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of plants of the family Euphorbiaceae, particularly Euphorbia tirucalli (avelós) has been popularly widespread for treating a variety of diseases of infectious, tumoral, and inflammatory. Aim: To demonstrated antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects of these extracts, evaluating the effect of a topical treatment with an aqueous solution of avelós latex on the survival and on intestinal adhesions in rats with experimental peritonitis. Methods: Peritonitis was induced in 24 Wistar rats, that were randomized into four groups of six as follows: (1) Control group (n=6), no treatment; (2) Antibiotic group (n=6), treatment with a single intramuscular dose of antibiotic Unasyn; (3) Saline group (n=6), the abdominal cavity was washed with 0.9% saline; and (4) E.tirucalli group (n=6), the abdominal cavity was washed with E. tirucalli at a concentration of 12 mg/ml. The animals that died were necropsied, and the time of death was recorded. The survivors were killed on postoperative day 11, and necropsy was subsequently performed for evaluation of the intestinal adhesions. Results: Significant differences were observed in the control and antibiotic groups (p<0.01) with respect to the survival hours when compared with the saline and E. tirucalli groups. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the survival of animals in the saline andE. tirucalli groups; however, one animal died in the saline group. Necropsy of the animals in the saline and E. tirucalligroups showed strong adhesions resistant to manipulation, between the intestinal loops and abdominal wall. The remaining groups did not show any adhesions. Conclusions: Topical treatment with E. tirucalli latex stimulated an increased formation of intestinal adhesions and prevented the death of all animals with peritonitis. PMID:26734792

  9. Role of Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza-3 virus in bighorn sheep pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Evermann, James F; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2013-02-22

    Pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS) have been found to be culture- and/or sero-positive for Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3). The objective of this study was to determine whether these pathogens can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the first study, two groups of four BHS each were intra-tracheally administered with leukotoxin-positive (Group I) or leukotoxin-negative (Group II) B. trehalosi. All four animals in Group I developed severe pneumonia, and two of them died within 3 days. The other two animals showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. Animals in Group II neither died nor showed gross pneumonic lesions on necropsy, suggesting that leukotoxin-positive, but not leukotoxin-negative, B. trehalosi can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the second study, two other groups of four BHS (Groups III and IV) were intra-nasally administered with a mixture of RSV and PI-3. Four days later, RSV/PI-3-inoculated Group IV and another group of four BHS (Group V, positive control) were intra-nasally administered with Mannheimia haemolytica, the pathogen that consistently causes fatal pneumonia in BHS. All four animals in group III developed pneumonia, but did not die during the study period. However all four animals in Group IV, and three animals in Group V developed severe pneumonia and died within two days of M. haemolytica inoculation. The fourth animal in Group V showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. These findings suggest that RSV/PI-3 can cause non-fatal pneumonia, but are not necessary predisposing agents for M. haemolytica-caused pneumonia of BHS.

  10. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Fahrion, Anna; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Pete; Webster, Pia; Kranjc, Asja; Glaus, Tony; Deplazes, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n=3) or 500 (n=3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two dogs were treated with moxidectin/imidacloprid spot-on solution and two further dogs with an oral experimental compound 92 days post infection (dpi), and were necropsied 166 dpi. Two untreated control dogs were necropsied 97 dpi. Prepatency was 47-49 days. Dogs inoculated with 500 L3 exhibited earlier (from 42 dpi) and more severe respiratory signs. Clinical signs resolved 12 days after treatment and larval excretion stopped within 20 days in all four treated dogs. Upon necropsy, 10 and 170 adult worms were recovered from the untreated dogs inoculated with 50 and 500 L3, respectively. Adult worms were also found in two treated dogs, in the absence of L1 or eggs. Despite heavy A. vasorum infection load and severe pulmonary changes including vascular thrombosis, only mild haematological changes were observed. Eosinophilia was absent but the presence of plasma cells was observed. Neutrophilic leucocytes showed a transient increase but only after treatment. Signs for coagulopathies were slight; nevertheless coagulation parameters were inoculation dose dependent. Ten weeks after treatment pulmonary fibrosis was still present. Infections starting from 50 L3 of A. vasorum had a massive impact on lung tissues and therefore on the health of affected dogs, particularly after prepatency, although only mild haematological abnormalities were evident.

  11. Naturally occurring melioidosis in a colonized rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Fritz, P E; Miller, J G; Slayter, M; Smith, T J

    1986-10-01

    An aged wild-caught male rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), maintained in a research facility for 10 years, developed bilateral pelvic limb paralysis without other signs of disease. Unresponsive to therapy, the monkey was killed and necropsied. Chronic inflammation with osteolysis of thoracic vertebrae 10-13 was observed. Pseudomonas pseudomallei was cultured and identified from cerebrospinal fluid obtained at the site of the thoracic lesion. This Gram-negative bacterium can cause infection in animals and man and may remain latent for years before the appearance of clinical signs.

  12. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  13. Experimental infection of nontarget species of rodents and birds with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Januszewski, M.C.; Olsen, S.C.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2001-01-01

    The Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 (SRB51) is being considered for use in the management of bnucellosis in wild bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in the Greater Yellowstone Area (USA). Evaluation of the vaccines safety in non-target species was considered necessary prior to field use. Between June 1998 and December 1999, ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii, n = 21), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, n = 14), prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster, n = 21), and ravens (Corvus corax, n = 13) were orally inoculated with SRB51 or physiologic saline. Oral and rectal swabs and blood samples were collected for bacteriologic evaluation. Rodents were necropsied at 8 to 10 wk and 12 to 21 wk post inoculation (PI), and ravens at 7 and 11 wk PI. Spleen, liver and reproductive tissues were collected for bacteriologic and histopathologic evaluation. No differences in clinical signs, appetite, weight loss or gain, or activity were observed between saline- and SRB51-inoculated animals in all four species. Oral and rectal swabs from all species were negative throughout the study. In tissues obtained from SRB51-inoculated animals, the organism was isolated from six of seven (86%) ground squirrels, one of six (17%) deer mice, none of seven voles, and one of five (20%) ravens necropsied at 8, 8, 10, and 7 wk PI, respectively. Tissues from four of seven (57%) SRB51-inoculated ground squirrels were culture positive for the organism 12 wk PI; SRB51 was not recovered from deer mice, voles. or ravens necropsied 12, 21, or 11 wk, respectively, PI. SRB51 was not recovered from saline-inoculated ground squirrels, deer mice, or voles at any time but was recovered from one saline-inoculated raven at necropsy, 7 wk PI, likely attributable to contact with SRB51-inoculated ravens in an adjacent aviary room. Spleen was time primary tissue site of colonization in ground squirrels, followed by the liver and reproductive organs. The results indicate oral exposure to

  14. Fatal disseminated blastomycosis in a free-ranging American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Dykstra, Jaclyn A; Rogers, Lynn L; Mansfield, Susan A; Wünschmann, Arno

    2012-11-01

    An aged, free-ranging, female, radio-collared American black bear (Ursus americanus) died after an approximately 5 month long period of weight loss. Gross necropsy findings included severe diffuse pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia, marked granulomatous lymphadenitis of tracheobronchial lymph nodes and multiple intra-abdominal lymph nodes, chronic focal jejunal ulceration, and widespread alopecia. Histopathologic examination revealed abundant fungal organisms morphologically compatible with Blastomyces sp. within pyogranulomatous inflammatory lesions in the lungs, multiple lymph nodes, liver, kidneys, jejunum, and right adrenal gland. In addition, the haircoat had a mild infestation of chewing lice (Trichodectes pinguis euarctidos), and large numbers of rhabditid nematodes consistent with Pelodera sp. were histologically observed within hair follicles.

  15. Haemoproteus balearicae and other blood parasites of free-ranging Florida sandhill crane chicks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusek, R.J.; Spalding, M.G.; Forrester, Donald J.; Greiner, E.C.

    2004-01-01

    We obtained blood smears from 114 Florida sandhill crane (Grus canadensis pratensis) chicks in Osceola and Lake Counties, Florida, USA, during 1998-2000. Leucocytozoon grusi was observed in 11 (10%) chicks; Haemoproteus antigonis was observed in eight (7%) chicks; and three (3%) chicks were infected with Haemoproteus balearicae. One chick infected with H. balearicae suffered from severe anemia (packed cell volume=13%) and was later found moribund. At necropsy this bird also had severe anemia and damage to the heart possibly due to hypoxia. This is the first report of H. balearicae in free-ranging North American cranes. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2004.

  16. Upregulation of growth signaling and nutrient transporters in cotyledons of early to mid-gestational nutrient restricted ewes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Zhu, Mei J.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Nijland, Mark J.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Hess, Bret W.; Ford, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiparous ewes received 100% (control, C, n=13) or 50% (nutrient restricted, NR, n=14) of NRC dietary requirements from d28-d78 of gestation. On d78, 5 C and 6 NR ewes were necropsied. The remaining 8 C and 8 NR ewes were fed to 100% of NRC from d78-d135 and necropsied. Maternal blood was collected at both necropsies and at weekly intervals for assay of glucose, insulin and leptin. Fetal blood was collected at d78 and d135 necropsies for assay of glucose and lipids. Cotyledonary (COT) tissue was evaluated for protein and mRNA expression [fatty acid transporter (FATP)1, FATP4, CD36, glucose transporter (GLUT)1 and GLUT3], mRNA expression only [placenta fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL)], or expression of phosphorylated and total protein forms [AMP kinase (AMPK)α, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and protein kinase B (Akt)]. On d78, but not d135, placental and fetal weights were reduced (P < 0.05) in NR vs. C ewes. Maternal circulating glucose, insulin and leptin levels were decreased in NR vs. C ewes on d78 (P < 0.05) but similar at d135. Fetal blood glucose and triglyceride levels were lower in NR vs. C ewes (P < 0.05) on d78, but similar on d135. On d78, GLUT1, FATP4, CD36 mRNA and protein expression levels, FABPpm mRNA level, and leptin protein level were all increased (P < 0.05) in COT of NR vs. C ewes. AMPK, ACC, and Erk1/2 activities were also increased (P < 0.05) in NR vs. C COT on d78. In contrast, only FATP4 was increased (P < 0.05) at both the mRNA and protein levels in COT of NR realimented vs. C ewes on d135. These data demonstrate placental adaptation to maternal NR through increasing nutrient transporter production and growth signaling activity. PMID:21292322

  17. Transection of Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Stanford T.; Madden, John D.; Esterly, John R.; Shanklin, Douglas R.

    1971-01-01

    A newborn infant, delivered following mid-forceps rotation, presented with apnoea, anaesthesia below the level of the mid-neck, and flaccid quadriplegia. At necropsy there was transection of the cord, and atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial dislocations. Cord injury usually follows breech presentation, the lesion is in the lower cervical or upper thoracic segments, and results from excessive traction. By contrast, in the rare cases following cephalic delivery, the lesion is most often in the upper cervical cord and probably results from rotational forces. PMID:5104538

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris)

    PubMed Central

    HAMANO, Takahisa; TERASAWA, Fumio; TACHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; MURAI, Atsuko; MORI, Takashi; EL-DAKHLY, Khaled; SAKAI, Hiroki; YANAI, Tokuma

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara. PMID:24909968

  19. Brain shrinkage in chronic alcoholics: a pathological study.

    PubMed

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J; Holloway, R L

    1985-02-16

    A quantitative neuropathological necropsy study of 22 control and 22 chronic alcoholic subjects showed a statistically significant loss of brain tissue in the chronic alcoholic group. The loss of tissue appeared to be from the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres rather than the cerebral cortex. This may reflect a primary alteration in the composition or structure of the white matter or it may be secondary to loss of nerve cells from the cortex with subsequent degeneration of the axons in the white matter. Further morphometric analyses including cortical neuronal counts will be necessary to clarify this issue.

  20. A case of yellow fever in a brown howler (Alouatta fusca) in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sallis, Eliza Simone Viégas; de Barros, Vera Lúcia Reis Souza; Garmatz, Shana Letícia; Fighera, Rafael Almeida; Graça, Dominguita Lühers

    2003-11-01

    Many brown howlers (Alouatta fusca) have died in a 3-month period in a subtropical forest in Southern Brazil. One was examined after a systemic illness. According to clinical signs, and necropsy and histopathology findings, yellow fever virus (YFV) infection was suspected. Tissue sections from liver, kidney, and lymphoid organs were screened by immunohistochemistry for YFV antigens. Cells within those tissues stained positively with a polyclonal antibody against YFV antigens (1:1,600 dilution), and yellow fever was diagnosed for the first time in the brown howler in the area.

  1. [Sudden death of outdoor housed pigs caused by Clostridium novyi. A case report].

    PubMed

    Jandowsky, A; Bodenthin, A; Seyboldt, C; Frölich, K

    2013-01-01

    In an outdoor pig-breeding unit of the Tierpark Arche Warder e. V. (Germany), 16 pigs of different age and sex died in October 2011. Necropsy findings revealed tympany, liver emphysema, subcutaneous oedema, haemopericardium, haemothorax, and intense gas bubble infiltrations in muscles. The stomachs were filled. The initial anaerobic bacteriological investigations gave negative results. In further analyses of tissue samples, the flagellin gene of C. novyi types A and B was detected using PCR. Based on the anatomical-pathological and bacteriological findings as well as PCR testing, a C. novyi infection was assumed to be the cause of the pig mortality.

  2. Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

    2007-07-01

    Abstract – A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

  3. Persistent right aortic arch and cribiform plate aplasia in a northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris).

    PubMed

    Maclean, Robert A; Imai, Denise; Dold, Christopher; Haulena, Martin; Gulland, Frances M D

    2008-04-01

    A female weanling northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) presented to The Marine Mammal Center in Sausalito, California, USA, in poor body condition. An esophageal obstruction was diagnosed by contrast radiography and esophagoscopy, but despite extensive diagnostics and supportive care, the seal died 6 days later. On postmortem examination, the right aortic arch was persistent, forming a vascular ring anomaly with a patent ductus arteriosus that compressed the distal esophagus. Aplasia of the right cribiform plate and hypoplasia of the right olfactory nerve was also identified. A review of necropsy reports from January 1988 to December 2003 revealed 16 severe congenital anomalies in 454 juvenile northern elephant seals that stranded in northern California.

  4. Histopathological findings of the kidney Trematoda Paratanaisia spp. (Digenea: Eucotylidae) in cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis).

    PubMed

    Abdo, Walied; Sultan, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    Paratanaisia spp. was recorded from the right kidney of a cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) in Kafr Elsheikh governorate, Nile Delta, Egypt. The bird showed marked emaciation and dissipation. Necropsy findings revealed marked enlargement and brownish discoloration of the kidney. Microscopic examination demonstrated marked dilatation of renal tubules with hyperplasia of lining epithelium due to presence of a trematode consistent with Paratanaisia spp. Eggs of this parasite were also noticed deeply within the interstitial tissue, surrounded with mononuclear cell infiltration, thus indicating their pathogenic potential. This result is the first report of trematodes of this genus parasitizing the kidneys of cattle egrets.

  5. Chronic partial obstructive urolithiasis causing hydronephrosis and chronic renal failure in a steer.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, B M; Garry, F B

    1992-07-01

    A 13-month-old Angus steer was examined with a 6-week history of lethargy, malaise and dribbling urine. Laboratory exam revealed crystalluria and poor renal function. Ultrasound revealed hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Euthanasia was chosen because of a poor prognosis for economic recovery. Necropsy demonstrated numerous calculi causing partial urethral obstruction approximately 25 cm from the end of the penis. Secondary renal changes were confirmed. Urolithiasis occurs commonly in ruminants. Secondary obstruction is usually complete with severe consequences. This is the first report of chronic partial obstructive urolithiasis resulting in endstage renal disease.

  6. Discospondylitis in a yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes).

    PubMed

    Bergen, David J; Gartrell, Brett D

    2010-03-01

    A 1-year-old female yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) was diagnosed with chronic discospondylitis on the basis of clinical signs and results of hematologic tests, radiography, and computed tomography. Despite significant destruction of the affected vertebral bodies and gross malformation of the spine, neurologic function was unaffected. Treatment with antibiotics, antifungals, and swimming physiotherapy was attempted, but the bird died after 40 days of hospitalization. Histopathologic lesions observed at necropsy were severe chronic discospondylitis, chronic granulomatous tracheitis, proventricular ulceration, and adrenal hemorrhage. The suspected inciting cause of the discospondylitis was a reported population-wide oral stomatitis that affects yellow-eyed penguin chicks.

  7. Patent ductus arteriosus in a lamb: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Dehkordi, Afshin; Hoseini, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a persistent patency of a vessel normally present in the fetus that connects the pulmonary arterial system to the aorta. The ductus arteriosus fails to close at birth when breathing commences and placental blood circulation is removed. Closure of the ductus arteriosus arises in response to decline pulmonary vascular resistance and increased systemic vascular resistance. This report describes a case of PDA in a two-month-old male lamb with clinical signs of machinery murmur, tachycardia, increase respiratory rate, weakness and ill thrift. Echocardiographic examination and necropsy finding confirmed PDA. PMID:27226893

  8. Congenital multifocal increase of Purkinje fibres in a calf with cardiac conduction delay.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, M; Kuninaga, N; Takeuchi, T; Tsuka, T; Morita, T

    2014-01-01

    A female 4-month-old Holstein-Friesian calf was presented in heart failure. Microscopical examination of samples of the cardiac wall taken at necropsy examination revealed numerous aggregates of Purkinje fibres, particularly in the perivascular areas. Some Purkinje fibres were stained strongly with phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin and immunohistochemically were shown to express alpha smooth muscle actin, indicating an embryonic-like Purkinje fibre phenotype. A diagnosis of congenital multifocal increase of Purkinje fibres was made. The histological features of this case resemble multifocal cardiac Purkinje cell tumour of the heart in man.

  9. Detection of mediastinitis after heart transplantation by gallium-67 scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Quirce, R.; Serano, J.; Arnal, C.; Banzo, I.; Carril, J.M. )

    1991-05-01

    We report the findings of a patient with post-cardiac transplant mediastinitis detected by {sup 67}Ga-citrate imaging. Fever and leukocytosis were the first clinical signs suggesting infection. The usual diagnostic modalities, including CT and ultrasound, failed to identify the site of infection. A {sup 67}Ga scan showed intense abnormal uptake behind the sternum. The site of uptake was shown by necropsy to be necrotic tissue involving cardiac sutures, pulmonary arteries, and the aorta due to infection with Haemophilus aphrophilus.

  10. Diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm of the ascending aorta by pulsed Doppler cross sectional echocardiography.

    PubMed Central

    Wendel, C H; Cornman, C R; Dianzumba, S B

    1985-01-01

    Pseudoaneurysms of the ascending aorta are relatively uncommon compared with those evolving from the left ventricle. In a young man with endocarditis of the aortic valve who developed a pseudoaneurysm arising from the ascending aorta, the diagnosis was established with the pulsed Doppler technique and cross sectional echocardiography by passing the Doppler sample from the aorta through the neck of the false aneurysm into the large pseudoaneurysm. Aortic root angiography showed this connexion to be a small fistula between the aorta and right atrium. Necropsy findings confirmed the diagnosis. Images PMID:3994873

  11. Alien hand sign in association with Alzheimer's histopathology.

    PubMed Central

    Ball, J A; Lantos, P L; Jackson, M; Marsden, C D; Scadding, J W; Rossor, M N

    1993-01-01

    A 68 year old man is described with an alien left hand, cortical myoclonus, bilateral parietal lobe dysfunction and memory impairment but preserved language skills. The clinical diagnosis was of corticobasal degeneration but at necropsy, four years after the onset of symptoms, the pathology was of Alzheimer's disease together with some scattered chromatolytic pale neurons in the cerebral cortex. The alien hand sign has not previously been described in Alzheimer's dementia and is an illustration of the clinical heterogeneity that may occur in association with Alzheimer histopathology. Images PMID:8410026

  12. Lower-zone emphysema in young patients without α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Nestor A.; Goldman, Ernesto; Roncoroni, Aquiles J.

    1974-01-01

    Martelli, N. A., Goldman, E., and Roncoroni, A. J. (1974).Thorax, 29, 237-244. Lowerzone emphysema in young patients without α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Three young patients with radiographic pulmonary emphysema predominantly in the lower zones are reported. The clinical and physiological features were those observed in severe pulmonary emphysema. Predominance of the main lesions in the lower zones was confirmed in two cases by selective pulmonary angiography. One of the patients died and extensive panlobular emphysema was found at necropsy. Although the similarities between our patients and those with emphysema and α1-antitrypsin deficiency were remarkable, the latter condition was ruled out. Images PMID:4545502

  13. Squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris).

    PubMed

    Hamano, Takahisa; Terasawa, Fumio; Tachikawa, Yoshiharu; Murai, Atsuko; Mori, Takashi; El-Dakhly, Khaled; Sakai, Hiroki; Yanai, Tokuma

    2014-09-01

    A 4-year and 2-month-old male capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) was diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma on the buttocks after chronic recurrent dermatosis. The capybara was euthanized, examined by computed tomography and necropsied; the tumor was examined histologically. Computed tomography showed a dense soft tissue mass with indistinct borders at the buttocks. Histological examination of the tumor revealed islands of invasive squamous epithelial tumor cells with a severe desmoplastic reaction. Based on the pathological findings, the mass was diagnosed as a squamous cell carcinoma. This is the first study to report squamous cell carcinoma in a capybara.

  14. [Marburg, Lassa and Ebola viral hemorrhagic fevers (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ardouin, C; Chevalier, J M; Algayres, J P

    1981-01-01

    For each of these three fevers recently described, the authors report the history of their identification. The features of the three viruses, and the clinical aspects of the diseases they induce, are also indicated. The laboratory diagnosis is described. Practical indications are given for the transportation of the specimens to the only three high security laboratories in the world. The laboratory diagnosis is described. Some cautions are indicated handling and treating patients. It must be envisaged also to organize a four degrees quarantive cautions; compulsory for necropsies, burials, and occasionally for long distant transportations of patients are indicated.

  15. Fatal Ichthyocotylurus erraticus infestation in Inca terns (Larosterna inca) in a zoological collection.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Wouter; Hoyer, Mark; Verstappen, Frank; Wolters, Marno; Ijzer, Jooske; de Jong, Sara; Cremers, Herman; Kik, Marja

    2014-06-01

    In a breeding group of Inca terns (Larosterna inca), 14 birds died without antemortem signs of illness. Other than a poor body condition and a bloody cloaca, no symptoms were observed. Gross necropsy revealed severe segmental hemorrhagic enteritis with intralesional trematodes in most birds. Histopathologic examination revealed infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells, and granulocytes in the lamina propria of the duodenum and cross-sections of trematodes in the lumen. The parasites were identified as Ichthyocotylurus erraticus, a trematode of fish-eating birds. The cause of the infestation most likely was the feeding of unfrozen fresh fish. We describe the first case of a lethal I. erraticus infestation in Inca terns.

  16. Costal Mesenchymal Chondrosarcoma with Diffuse Pleural and Pericardial Explantation in a Pygmy Goat

    PubMed Central

    Lombardini, Eric D.; de la Concha, Andres; Pierce, Virginia; Pool, Roy R.

    2014-01-01

    A 3 year old intact male pygmy goat developed progressive weakness and eventual recumbancy over the course of 1 week, while maintaining its ability to eat and drink. The animal died and at necropsy, the parietal pleural surfaces and the pericardial surface were noted to be covered with firm, white, variably sized nodules that often formed linear arrays or coalesced into larger clumped aggregates. The visceral pleural surfaces of the ventral lung lobes were also covered with similar nodules. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the submitted tissues revealed a diagnosis of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with extensive seeding throughout the thoracic cavity. PMID:24791071

  17. Sacral sparing with cauda equina compression from central lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse.

    PubMed Central

    Lafuente, D J; Andrew, J; Joy, A

    1985-01-01

    Sparing of sensation in sacral dermatomes and of sphincter control was found in eight out of fourteen cases of severe cauda equina compression from massive central lumbar disc prolapse. Although the triangular shape of the lumbar spinal canal may be one factor for this it was found from a necropsy model that the increase in linear strain on the stretched roots of the cauda equina is least in the more centrally placed lower sacral roots. It is argued that the lower tension in these roots is determined by Young's Modulus. PMID:4009195

  18. Congenital heart block and maternal systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Esscher, E; Scott, J S

    1979-01-01

    The association between infants with congenital heart block (CHB) and the presence or later development of maternal systemic lupus erythematosus or other connective-tissue disease (CTD) was reviewed in 67 cases. In 24 cases CHB was diagnosed at or before birth. Of nine necropsies on affected infants, seven showed endomyocardial fibrosis. The results suggest that one in three mothers who deliver babies with CHB have or will develop CTD. The association is probably explained by placental transfer of a maternal antibody. Awareness of the association may lead to prevention of the birth of children with CHB and better neonatal care of affected children. PMID:455010

  19. Diphtheroid colitis in a Boa constrictor infected with amphibian Entamoeba sp.

    PubMed

    Richter, Barbara; Kübber-Heiss, Anna; Weissenböck, Herbert

    2008-05-06

    A female boa (Boa constrictor) from a zoological collection was submitted for necropsy after sudden death. Prominent pathological findings included a diphtheroid colitis, endoparasitism, focal pneumonia and inclusion bodies typical for inclusion body disease (IBD). In the colon entamoebae were identified, which differed in size and distribution from Entamoeba invadens. Gene sequence analysis of the 18S ribosomal RNA revealed 100% similarity with an Entamoeba species from the African bullfrog (Pyxicephalus adspersus), probably Entamoeba ranarum. The snake was possibly immunosuppressed, and the source of infection remains unclear. This is the first report of an infection with an amphibian Entamoeba species associated with colitis in a snake.

  20. [Disseminated histoplasmosis in a dorcas gazelle (Gazella dorcas neglecta) kept in captivity conditions in Spain].

    PubMed

    Fariñas, Fernando; Flores, Luis; Rodríguez, Pablo; Sabalete, Trinidad; Quevedo, Miguel Angel

    2009-06-30

    A 17 month old female gazelle dorca (Gazella dorcas neglecta), kept in captivity in a Spanish zoo, showed several symptoms of illness including fever, lethargy and behavioural changes. (X)-ray revealed ruminal "foreign bodies" and pneumonia with a nodular pattern. After surgical intervention, the animal died. At necropsy, histopathologic and microbiological findings were consistent with the diagnosis of disseminated histoplasmosis, with an inflammatory histological pattern associated with immunodepression in the animal, similar to those observed in patients with severe immunodeficiency (AIDS and others).

  1. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the Ixtoc I oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-04-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  2. First record of a digenean from invasive lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans, (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Bullard, S A; Barse, A M; Curran, S S; Morris, J A

    2011-10-01

    Adults of Lecithochirium floridense (Digenea: Hemiuridae) parasitized the stomach in each of 22 necropsied lionfish, Pterois cf. volitans (Scorpaeniformes: Scorpaenidae) (prevalence  =  100%, mean intensity  =  11), captured in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean off Beaufort, North Carolina (34°14.83'N, 76°35.25'W). This is the first report of a digenean from the invasive lionfish and that of L. floridense from a species of Pterois. The leech specimen previously identified as Myzobdella lugubris from P. volitans in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean is re-identified as Trachelobdella lubrica based on a study of the original voucher specimen.

  3. Abdominal miliary tuberculosis in a patient with AIDS: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pop, Monica; Pop, Cezar; Homorodean, Daniela; Itu, Corina; Man, Milena; Goron, Monica; Gherasim, Ruxandra; Coroiu, Georgiana

    2003-09-01

    We present a 34 year old patient, intravenous drug user, hospitalized with fever, distortion of general status, dry irritating cough, abdominal colicative pains, and we established the diagnosis of HIV infection advanced stage/AIDS; his antecedents revealed (August 2000) abdominal tuberculosis not treated during the last 3 months. He presented a pneumonia with Pneumocystis carinii during hospitalization. Death was due to a colon perforation with secundary peritonitis. Miliary tuberculous lesions in liver, spleen and colon were revealed at necropsy and cytomegalovirus was identified in necrotic samples also.

  4. Imaging diagnosis--seminoma causing liver compression in a spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca).

    PubMed

    Pees, Michael; Ludewig, Eberhard; Plenz, Bastian; Schmidt, Volker

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old male spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) was presented with anorexia, apathy, and prolapse of penile tissue. Ultrasonography revealed a large heterogeneous mass in the coelomic cavity, and fine-needle aspiration demonstrated sperm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a sharply defined mass originating from the left testis. Appearance and signal intensities were similar to those reported in testicular neoplasms in humans, in particular sharing similarities with seminomas. Necropsy results and histopathological findings were consistent with a seminoma. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of the diagnosis of testicular neoplasia in a reptile using imaging techniques.

  5. Thyroid adenocarcinoma in a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leukocephalus).

    PubMed

    Bates, G; Tucker, R L; Ford, S; Mattix, M E

    1999-09-01

    Thyroid adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in an adult bald eagle (Haliaeetus leukocephalus) with clinical signs of weakness manifested by inability to fly. Physical examination at the time of admission revealed dried blood in the pharynx and glottis and the presence of pharyngeal trichomonads. Radiographs revealed a large soft tissue mass in the area of the left coracoid and clavicular bones. One month following successful treatment for trichomoniasis, the bird suffered an acute episode of tracheal hemorrhage and died. Necropsy revealed a large mass within the interclavicular air sac. The histologic features were consistent with thyroid adenocarcinoma. This is the first report of thyroid neoplasia in a member of the order Falconiformes.

  6. Gross lesions of alimentary disease in adult cattle.

    PubMed

    Njaa, Bradley L; Panciera, Roger J; Clark, Edward G; Lamm, Catherine G

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the gross necropsy examination of the gastrointestinal tract is to recognize the presence of lesions, thus requiring a basic understanding of its normal appearance and anatomy. This article highlights gross changes to the gastrointestinal tract of adult cattle that help place the disease processes into broad categories. Although few gross lesions reach the zenith of pathognomonic, there are numerous lesions that, when considered in aggregate with history (eg, number of animals affected, environment, duration of signs, time of onset relative to management changes, previous management) and clinical signs, can help narrow the spectrum of causes, provide a basis for a strong presumptive diagnosis, and focus diagnostic test selection.

  7. First report of parasitism by Ophidascaris robertsi (Nematoda) in a sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps, Marsupialia).

    PubMed

    Gallego Agúndez, Miguel; Villaluenga Rodríguez, Jose Enrique; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Spratt, David M

    2014-12-01

    Third-stage larvae of Ophidascarsis robertsi (Nematoda: Ascaridoidea) were found on necropsy in a female sugar glider, Petaurus breviceps (Marsupialia: Petauridae), two in heart chambers and one free in the peritoneal cavity. The animal was bred in captivity and had previous contact with Australian pythons captured in nature, which could be the source of the infection. The histopathologic diagnosis was intraluminal and perivascular pulmonary hemorrhage possibly due to the parasitosis. It is the first report of parasitism by O. robertsi in a sugar glider.

  8. Endocarditis associated with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a fat-tailed ram

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, M. R; Ebrahimi Kahrisangi, A; Baghban, F; Kazemi, A; Heidari, M; Salehi, N

    2015-01-01

    Endocarditis is rarely reported in sheep and information presented for ovine endocarditis is based mostly on comparative findings in the cattle. Infective vegetative endocarditis of the right heart was diagnosed in a 3-year-old fat-tailed ram. Clinical findings included tachycardia, marked brisket edema, jugular veins distention and pulsation and pale mucous membranes. Hematologic abnormality included neutrophilic leukocytosis. Necropsy confirmed severe right atrioventricular and pulmonary valves vegetative endocarditis with evidence of right heart failure. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae was isolated from those vegetative lisions. PMID:27175196

  9. T-cell primary leptomeningeal lymphoma in cerebellopontine angle

    PubMed Central

    Briongos-Figuero, Laisa Socorro; Gómez-Traveso, Tamara; Pérez-Castrillon, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Primary meningeal lymphomas are very rare and those derived from T cells are even more infrequent (less than 5% of primary central nervous system lymphomas). Cerebellopontine angle involvement in the primary T-cell lymphoma is exceptional. Clinical presentation depends on the type of lesions, and histological diagnosis is needed. We present a rare case of a 50-year-old woman who presented with clinical cerebellar syndrome with posterior opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. Necropsy evaluation revealed primary diffuse leptomeningeal non-Hodgkin's T-cell lymphoma. PMID:25750225

  10. Morphological study of the relation between accidental hypothermia and acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Foulis, A K

    1982-01-01

    There is a recognised but poorly understood association between hypothermia and acute pancreatitis. A histological study of the pancreas was made in eight patients with accidental hypothermia who had evidence of pancreatitis at necropsy. From an analysis of the patterns of parenchymal necrosis in the pancreas it was thought that there were at least three possible mechanisms for the relation between hypothermia and pancreatitis. Firstly, that ischaemic pancreatitis may result from the "microcirculatory shock" of hypothermia. Secondly, that both hypothermia and pancreatitis may be secondary to alcohol abuse: and finally, that severe pancreatitis may be the primary disease and that hypothermia results from the patients' social circumstances. Images PMID:7142433

  11. SMALL INTESTINAL ADENOCARCINOMA WITH CARCINOMATOSIS IN A SWIFT FOX (VULPES VELOX).

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Shambhunath; Andrews, Gordon A; Carpenter, James W

    2015-09-01

    A 7-yr-old, intact, female swift fox (Vulpes velox) presented to the Veterinary Health Center at Kansas State University with a history of chronic weight loss, lethargy, inappetence, and myiasis. On physical examination, a firm mass was palpated in the mid- to cranial abdomen. The fox was euthanatized as a result of the grave prognosis. Gross necropsy and histologic findings included a small intestinal adenocarcinoma with diffuse transperitoneal spread throughout the abdominal cavity (carcinomatosis). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of intestinal adenocarcinoma with carcinomatosis in a swift fox.

  12. New data on the internal organs of a frozen Yukagir bison mummy (Bison priscus Bojanus, 1827), Yakutia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Serdyuk, N V; Potapova, O R; Kharlamova, A S; Maschenko, E N; Kirikov, K S; Pavlov, I S; Protopopov, A V; Plotnikov, V V; Kolesov, S D; Klimovskii, A I

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the first morphological description of the internal organs of a frozen corpse of the steppe bison Bison priscus (Bojanus, 1827) from the Holocene of northern Yakutia. Necropsy revealed that most of the internal organs, including the brain, heart with the main vessels, and reproductive system were well preserved. It demonstrated that the anatomy of this bison was close to that of the genera Bos and Bison. Trauma or pathological changes in the organs were not detected. The cause of death of the bison remains unknown.

  13. Spotted black snake (Pseudechis guttatus) envenomation in a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Portas, Timothy J; Montali, Richard J

    2007-09-01

    Envenomation by a spotted black snake (Pseudechis guttatus), following multiple bites on the buccal mucosa of a captive maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), caused the animal's collapse, hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis, local tissue necrosis, hepatic and renal failure, and subsequent death. The wolf died despite intensive supportive care including antivenom administration, fluid support, and a blood transfusion. Gross necropsy findings included myocardial and intestinal hemorrhage, pulmonary congestion, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly. Microscopic examination of formalin-fixed tissues demonstrated pulmonary and abdominal visceral hemorrhage, acute nephrosis with casts, multifocal hepatic necrosis, and splenic congestion.

  14. Treatment of fibrosarcoma in a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) by rostral maxillectomy.

    PubMed

    McNulty, E E; Gilson, S D; Houser, B S; Ouse, A

    2000-09-01

    A 12-yr-old captive intact male maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) was diagnosed with a fibrosarcoma of the incisive bones. The mass was excised by rostral maxillectomy, and the wolf remained normal and on display with good function and cosmetics for 7 mo. Subsequently, it became weak, ataxic, and dyspneic and was euthanatized. At necropsy, there was a small regrowth of the maxillary tumor, a metastatic mediastinal mass, and multiple metastatic lung masses, suggesting that oral fibrosarcoma in maned wolves behaves similarly to oral fibrosarcoma in domestic canines. Aggressive surgical treatment of oral fibrosarcoma in this species can achieve good functional and cosmetic results.

  15. Stereotaxic Surgical Targeting of the Nonhuman Primate Caudate and Putamen: Gene Therapy for Huntington's Disease.

    PubMed

    McBride, Jodi L; Clark, Randall L

    2016-01-01

    Stereotaxic surgery is an invaluable tool to deliver a variety of gene therapy constructs to the nonhuman primate caudate and putamen in preclinical studies for the genetic, neurodegenerative disorder, Huntington's disease (HD). Here we describe in detail how to perform this technique beginning with a pre-surgical magnetic resonance imaging scan to determine surgical coordinates followed by the stereotaxic surgical injection technique. In addition, we include methodology of a full necropsy including brain and peripheral tissue removal and a standard immunohistochemical technique to visualize the injected gene therapy agent.

  16. Role of platelets in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock.

    PubMed Central

    From, A H; Fong, J S; Chiu, T; Good, R A

    1976-01-01

    Endotoxin-platelet interactions are thought to be of major importance in the response of dogs and other species to bacterial endotoxin; the mechanisms postulated are: (i) the release of vasoactive substances, (ii) the formation of occlusive platelet aggregates, and (iii) induction of intravascular coagulation. The role of platelets in canine endotoxin shock was examined in animals with thrombocytopenia induced by estrogen pretreatment (less than 10,000 platelets/mm3) and in controls. After intravenously administered endotoxin, the hemodynamic responses, mortality, and gross necropsy findings were similar in both groups. These data indicate that endotoxin-platelet interactions are not determinative in the pathogenesis of canine endotoxin shock. PMID:786877

  17. Report of a case of bronchopneumonia associated with Moraxella bovis isolation in a chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

    PubMed

    Lavin, S; Lastras, M E; Marco, I; Cabañes, F X

    2000-04-01

    A case of fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia associated with Moraxella bovis infection in a chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) is described. The animal, a 4-month-old female, was referred by the staff warden of the National Game Reserve of Freser-Setcases (Catalonia, north-eastern Spain). The animal was in good general condition and was found 4 h before death. On necropsy the lungs were congested and oedematous, with haemorrhagic areas in the cranial and middle lobes. The microscopic lesions were those of a fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia. Microbiological study of the samples obtained showed numerous small beta-haemolytic colonies in pure culture, identified as Moraxella (Moraxella) bovis.

  18. Causes of Mississippi sandhill crane mortality in captivity 1984-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Gee, G.F.; Urbanek, R.P.; Stahlecker, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    During 1984-95, 111 deaths were documented in the captive flock of Mississippi sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis pulla) housed at the Paluxent Wildlife Research Center. Trauma was the leading cause of death (37%), followed by infectious/parasitic diseases (25%), anatomic abnormalities (15%), and miscellaneous (8%). No positive diagnosis of cause of death was found in 19% of the necropsies. Chicks < 2 months old suffered 76% of captive deaths. Trauma, the greatest cause of deaths of captive juveniles anti adults, is likely Iimited to collisions in the wild. lnfectious/parasitic diseases and anatomic abnormalities could affect wild chick survival at similar rates to those of captive chicks.

  19. Pylorogastric intussusception in a Chihuahua puppy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Lideo, L; Mutinelli, F; Milan, R

    2010-12-01

    A three-month-old Chihuahua dog was presented with acute abdominal pain, vomiting and cardiovascular shock. Abdominal ultrasound (US) and iodated contrast gastrogram revealed suspected pylorogastric intussusception. Because of the poor prognosis the dog was euthanatized. Diagnosis of pylorogastric intussusception was confirmed at necropsy. Parasitological, virological, serological and histological examinations were also performed. This report documents the sixth case of pylorogastric (i.e. duodenogastric, gastrogastric) intussusception in the veterinary medical literature and it is the first report on a puppy dog in which US and radiographic diagnosis were confirmed post mortem.

  20. Klossiella equi in a donkey--a first case report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, A; Bahrami, S; Ansari, M

    2013-09-01

    Klossiella equi is the only known and rarely reported coccidian parasite of the renal paranchyma of equids. An aged male donkey (Equus asinus asinus) was submitted to necropsy department of veterinary hospital. In histopathological study of renal sections different developmental stages of parasite were observed. These stages were as follow: Trophozoites, microgametes, macrogametes, sporont, budding sporont, sporoblasts, free sporoblasts, mature sporoblast and sporocyst. Parasitic infection with K. equi was encountered in the donkey. According to literature review this is the first report of donkey klossiellosis in Iran.

  1. Pulmonary vascular lesions in the toxic oil syndrome in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Segoviano, P; Esteban, A; Martínez-Cabruja, R

    1983-01-01

    A histological study was made of pulmonary arteries at the necropsies of nine patients who died after the ingestion of denatured rapeseed oil during the epidemic which occurred in Spain in May 1981. Lesions found in the elastic pulmonary arteries were characterised by pronounced intimal proliferation of an oedematous nature, accumulation of large vacuolated cells within the media, and loss of vascular smooth muscle. In muscular pulmonary arteries there was pronounced medial hypertrophy and intimal proliferation, which was so severe in one case that it completely occluded the arterial lumen. Foamy cells were found in the intima. Muscularisation was seen in the walls of pulmonary arterioles. Images PMID:6648850

  2. Surface ultrastructure of silicone rubber aortic valve poppetts after long-term implantation. A scanning electron microscope study of four poppets.

    PubMed Central

    Allwork, S P; Norton, R

    1976-01-01

    The surface ultrastructure, demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, is described in four implanted Silastic aortic valve poppets. Ball variance was discovered at necropsy in two patients and clinically in one in whom the poppet was replaced. The fourth patient underwent reoperation, but ball variance was neither suspected nor found. All four poppets were densely coated with biological debris and microthrombi. The 'coat' was soluble in a weak solution of sodium hydroxide. The true Silastic surface beneath the coat was little altered compared with unimplanted poppets, even after 10 years' implantation. Images PMID:1013945

  3. Surface ultrastructure of silicone rubber aortic valve poppetts after long-term implantation. A scanning electron microscope study of four poppets.

    PubMed

    Allwork, S P; Norton, R

    1976-12-01

    The surface ultrastructure, demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, is described in four implanted Silastic aortic valve poppets. Ball variance was discovered at necropsy in two patients and clinically in one in whom the poppet was replaced. The fourth patient underwent reoperation, but ball variance was neither suspected nor found. All four poppets were densely coated with biological debris and microthrombi. The 'coat' was soluble in a weak solution of sodium hydroxide. The true Silastic surface beneath the coat was little altered compared with unimplanted poppets, even after 10 years' implantation.

  4. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Miller, G; Cullity, G; Walpole, I; O'Connor, J; Masters, P

    1982-04-17

    This paper describes the findings in three fatal cases of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. Two children developed the infection in January, 1980, in widely separated wheat-belt towns. The third child's infection, diagnosed by retrospective examination of necropsy material, developed in February, 1963, in the town where the second child lived. Infection with Naegleria fowleri was demonstrated by histological examination supplemented by specific immunofluorescence in all three cases, and by culture in the second case. For early diagnosis it is important to search for amoebae both on wet preparations and on stained films of cerebrospinal fluid when primary amoebic meningoencephalitis is suspected on epidemiological grounds of from cerebrospinal fluid findings.

  5. Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis in a goat.

    PubMed

    do Carmo, P M S; Portela, R A; de Oliveira-Filho, J C; Dantas, A F M; Simões, S V D; Garino, F; Riet-Correa, F

    2014-01-01

    Nasal and cutaneous aspergillosis is reported in an adult goat. The clinical signs were severe respiratory distress due to partial nasal obstruction, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, skin nodules on the ears and dorsal nasal region and focal depigmentation of the ventral commissure of the right nostril. At necropsy examination, sagittal sectioning of the head revealed a yellow irregular mass extending from the nasal vestibule to the frontal portion of the nasal cavity. Microscopically, there was pyogranulomatous rhinitis and dermatitis, with numerous intralesional periodic acid-Schiff-positive fungal hyphae morphologically suggestive of Aspergillus spp. Aspergillus niger was isolated by microbiological examination.

  6. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    PubMed Central

    Fossum, Oddvar; Jansson, Désirée S; Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Vågsholm, Ivar

    2009-01-01

    Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA) in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P < 0.001). The study showed a significantly higher occurrence of bacterial and parasitic diseases and cannibalism in laying hens kept in litter-based housing systems and free-range systems than in hens kept in cages (P < 0.001). The occurrence of viral diseases was significantly higher in indoor litter-based housing systems than in cages (P < 0.001). Conclusion The results

  7. Hepatic lesions in patients treated with synthetic anabolic steriods.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, E C; Evans, D J

    1976-07-01

    Hepatic abnormalities are described in three patients who received synthetic anabolic steroids. A child with Franconi's anaemia was treated for four years and at necropsy the liver showed generalized hyperplasia, hyperplastic nodules, and a benign hepatoma. Two adults received only three months' therapy with synthetic androgens; in one there was generalized hepatic hyperplasia and in the other widespread nodular hyperplasia. It is suggested that anabolic steroids may induce tumours through intermediate hyperplastic lesions, a sequence similar to that seen during tumour induction by carcinogens in experimental animals.

  8. Citrobacter koseri septicaemia in a holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Komine, M; Massa, A; Moon, L; Mullaney, T

    2014-11-01

    A 4-day-old male Holstein calf with dull mentation, nystagmus and blindness was humanely destroyed and subject to necropsy examination. Gross lesions included severe suppurative meningitis characterized by diffuse cloudy thickening of the meninges, bilateral hypopyon and fibrinosuppurative polyarthritis affecting the hocks. Citrobacter koseri was isolated from the meninges, ocular fluid, synovial fluid, spleen and small intestine. Microscopically, there was neutrophilic and histiocytic meningitis with intralesional bacilli, endophthalmitis, neutrophilic splenitis and multiple renal microabscesses. Failure of passive transfer of colostrum was confirmed. This appears to be the first characterization of septicaemia in a calf caused by C. koseri, with lesions comparable with those described in human neonates.

  9. Brain shrinkage in chronic alcoholics: a pathological study.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J; Holloway, R L

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative neuropathological necropsy study of 22 control and 22 chronic alcoholic subjects showed a statistically significant loss of brain tissue in the chronic alcoholic group. The loss of tissue appeared to be from the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres rather than the cerebral cortex. This may reflect a primary alteration in the composition or structure of the white matter or it may be secondary to loss of nerve cells from the cortex with subsequent degeneration of the axons in the white matter. Further morphometric analyses including cortical neuronal counts will be necessary to clarify this issue. PMID:3918649

  10. Liver granulomas due to Eubacterium tortuosum in a seven-week-old Bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan M; Hafner, Scott; Sundram, Yoga

    2007-09-01

    Three 7-wk-old Bobwhite quail were submitted for necropsy to the Douglas branch of the Georgia Poultry Laboratory Network. Grossly, one bird had multiple white foci in the liver and a mild airsacculitis. In this quail there were multiple hepatic granulomas that contained mats of filamentous bacteria easily seen in hematoxylin- and eosin-stained histologic sections. These bacteria were negative with period acid-Schiff and were not acid fast. Bacteria were gram-positive but were most evident on Warthin-Starry silver-stained sections. The appearance and histochemical characteristics of these bacteria are most consistent with Eubacterium tortuosum.

  11. Central nervous system mucormycosis caused by Cunninghamella bertholletiae in a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Isidoro-Ayza, Marcos; Pérez, Lola; Cabañes, F Javier; Castellà, Gemma; Andrés, Marina; Vidal, Enric; Domingo, Mariano

    2014-07-01

    In May 2012, an adult, male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) was found stranded and dead on the Spanish Mediterranean coast. At necropsy, several areas of malacia were macroscopically observed in the periventricular parenchyma of the cerebrum. Microscopically a severe, diffuse, pyogranulomatous, and necrotizing meningoencephalomyelitis was associated with numerous intralesional highly pleomorphic fungal structures. After culture, the fungus, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, was identified by culture and PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of central nervous system mucormycosis due to Cunninghamella bertholletiae in a cetacean.

  12. Atherosclerosis with multifocal myocardial infarction in a Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger).

    PubMed

    Gruber, Achim D; Peters, Martin; Knieriem, Andreas; Wohlsein, Peter

    2002-06-01

    A 25-yr-old male captive walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens Illiger) died after suffering from periods of inactivity, anorexia, and weight loss for 8 wk. Necropsy revealed prominent, generalized atherosclerosis of cardiac arteries with widespread chronic myocardial infarction. Severe disseminated myocardial fibrosis most likely resulted in insidious cardiac failure that was ultimately the cause of death. Bouts of abdominal pain and disseminated cutaneous ulcers that had been observed 3 and 4 days before death, respectively, were attributed to circulatory failure and thrombosis. The cause of the vascular lesions remains unknown. When compared with humans, atherosclerosis is rare in animals and has not been described in a walrus.

  13. Validation of ultrasonography in detecting structural disease of the urogenital tract of the koala, Phascolarctos cinereus.

    PubMed

    Marschner, C; Flanagan, C; Higgins, D P; Krockenberger, M B

    2014-05-01

    A retrospective review of case records of ultrasonography and necropsy outcomes of 62 koalas was used to investigate the accuracy of ultrasonography in assessing koala urogenital tract structural disease at the Port Macquarie Koala Hospital. The results showed high concordance, supporting ultrasonography as an effective tool for evaluating structural disease of the koala urogenital tract, most commonly seen with chlamydiosis. The study also illustrates the advances benefiting animal welfare that can be made by wildlife carer groups through using a scientific, evidence-based approach.

  14. Perivertebral B-cell lymphoma in a Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) with paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Edamura, Kazuya; Inoue, Naomi; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Kondo, Masako; Shindo, Izumi

    2012-08-01

    A male Queensland koala (Phascolarctos cinereus adustus) at Kanazawa Zoological Gardens (Kanagawa, Japan) exhibited paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass on the left ventral side of the 11th to 13th thoracic vertebrae, and the presence of myelitis or edema in the spinal cord. The koala was under anesthesia during the examination and suddenly developed ventricular fibrillation and died. Necropsy revealed a firm flat ovoid hemorrhagic mass on the vertebrae. Following a microscopic examination including immunohistochemistry, the perivertebral mass was diagnosed as B cell lymphoma. Therefore, neoplastic cell infiltration into the spinal cord may cause paralytic symptoms in the hind limbs.

  15. Non-tuberculous Mycobacteriosis with T-cell Lymphoma in a Red Panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    PubMed

    Fuke, N; Hirai, T; Makimura, N; Goto, Y; Habibi, W A; Ito, S; Trang, N T; Koshino, K; Takeda, M; Yamaguchi, R

    2016-01-01

    A 9-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) became emaciated and died. Necropsy examination revealed systemic lymphadenomegaly. The liver, lungs and left kidney contained multifocal yellow nodules. Microscopical examination revealed granulomatous inflammation in the liver, lungs, kidney, spleen and lymph nodes, with numerous acid-fast bacilli. Sequencing of genetic material isolated from the tissues classified the pathogen as Mycobacterium gastri. Lymphoma was found in the liver, lungs, kidney and lymph nodes. The neoplastic cells were strongly labelled for expression of CD3, Ki67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen by immunohistochemistry. This is the first report of M. gastri infection with T-cell lymphoma in a red panda.

  16. T-cell lymphoma in a wild Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae).

    PubMed

    Neagari, Yasuko; Nagamine, Takashi; Nakaya, Yumiko; Onuma, Manabu; Murata, Koichi; Kuwana, Takashi

    2011-03-01

    The Okinawa rail (Gallirallus okinawae) is an endangered species that inhabits the northern part of Okinawa Main Island in southern Japan. A wild Okinawa rail was rescued from a road in Kunigami Village in Okinawa in October 2009. The bird subsequently died and underwent necropsy. Tumors were found in the liver, spleen and part of the small intestine. Microscopically, lymphoid neoplasm was confirmed in these tissues. The tumor cells were mainly positive for CD3 and CD8α by immunohistochemistry. No Marek's disease virus genes were detected by PCR of a liver tumor. This is the first report of T-cell lymphoma in the Okinawa rail.

  17. Purkinje cell heterotopy with cerebellar hypoplasia in two free-living American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    PubMed

    Armién, A G; McRuer, D L; Ruder, M G; Wünschmann, A

    2013-01-01

    Two wild fledgling kestrels exhibited lack of motor coordination, postural reaction deficits, and abnormal propioception. At necropsy, the cerebellum and brainstem were markedly underdeveloped. Microscopically, there was Purkinje cells heterotopy, abnormal circuitry, and hypoplasia with defective foliation. Heterotopic neurons were identified as immature Purkinje cells by their size, location, immunoreactivity for calbindin D-28 K, and ultrastructural features. The authors suggest that this cerebellar abnormality was likely due to a disruption of molecular mechanisms that dictate Purkinje cell migration, placement, and maturation in early embryonic development. The etiology of this condition remains undetermined. Congenital central nervous system disorders have rarely been reported in birds.

  18. Respiratory tract infection caused by Mycobacterium bovis in a black swan (Cygnus atratus).

    PubMed

    Sánchez, F D; Yela, I J; Alfonseca, E; Campuzano, J; Morales, E; Aguilar, C

    2016-01-01

    A 3-year-old male black swan (Cygnus atratus), belonging to a private collection, died suddenly and was subjected to post mortem examination. At necropsy, caseous exudate was observed in the lungs and air sacs; granulomatous lesions characterized by epithelioid macrophages and abundant mycobacteria were observed microscopically. Avian tuberculosis associated with Mycobacterium bovis was confirmed by bacteriologic isolation, biochemical tests and molecular methods. The organism was identified as spoligotype SB0140, which is frequently found in cattle and people in North America. In this case, interspecies transmission could have been the source of infection because the swan cohabited with cattle.

  19. Increase in Cardiac Troponin I in a Lamb with Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    NEUWALD, Elisa Barp; SOARES, Frederico Aécio Carvalho; DREYER, Cristina Terres; CARNESELLA, Samuel; WOUTERS, Angelica Terezinha Barth; GONZÁLEZ, Félix Hilario Diaz; DRIEMEIER, David

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study describes a case of tetralogy of Fallot in a lamb showing failure to thrive and signs of respiratory distress. Physical examination, electrocardiography, thoracic radiographies, echocardiography and cardiac troponin I evaluation were performed. The value of cardiac troponin I was compared with the values of 10 healthy lambs of the same age and breed, and the affected animal demonstrated an increase in cardiac troponin I. Due to the poor prognosis, euthanasia was indicated, and necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. This is the first report of an increase in cardiac troponin I in a lamb with tetralogy of Fallot. PMID:23685750

  20. Infection of spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) with Ichthyophonus-like organisms in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Ware, Joy L; Viverette, Cathy; Kleopfer, John D; Pletcher, Leeanna; Massey, Davis; Wright, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Ichthyophonus-like organisms were found in two free-ranging adult spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) captured within two different vernal ponds in the Virginia Commonwealth University Rice Center for Environmental Life Sciences in Charles City County, Virginia. Histopathologic examination of necropsied specimens revealed large spores, often enclosed by granulomas. These enclosed spores resembled those caused by the fish pathogen Ichthyophonus hoeferi. One salamander displayed an externally visible large swelling beneath the jaws. The other lacked macroscopic abnormalities, but histologic sections of ventral muscle revealed early-stage Ichthyophonus-like organisms and minimal granulomatous reactions. This is the first report of Ichthyophonus-like infection of Ambystoma maculatum in Virginia.

  1. Histoplasmosis of the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Tan, V; Wilkins, P; Badve, S; Coppen, M; Lucas, S; Hay, R; Schon, F

    1992-01-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum infection of the central nervous system is extremely rare in the United Kingdom partly because the organism is not endemic. However, because the organism can remain quiescent in the lungs or the adrenal glands for over 40 years before dissemination, it increasingly needs to be considered in unexplained neurological disease particularly in people who lived in endemic areas as children. In this paper a rapidly progressive fatal myelopathy in an English man brought up in India was shown at necropsy to be due to histoplasmosis. The neurological features of this infection are reviewed. Images PMID:1640242

  2. Hepatic lesions in patients treated with synthetic anabolic steriods.

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, E C; Evans, D J

    1976-01-01

    Hepatic abnormalities are described in three patients who received synthetic anabolic steroids. A child with Franconi's anaemia was treated for four years and at necropsy the liver showed generalized hyperplasia, hyperplastic nodules, and a benign hepatoma. Two adults received only three months' therapy with synthetic androgens; in one there was generalized hepatic hyperplasia and in the other widespread nodular hyperplasia. It is suggested that anabolic steroids may induce tumours through intermediate hyperplastic lesions, a sequence similar to that seen during tumour induction by carcinogens in experimental animals. Images PMID:185239

  3. Heart failure caused by toxoplasmosis in a fennec fox (Fennecus zerda).

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Jack J; Preziosi, Diane E; Miller, Margaret A; Ramos-Vara, Jose A; Maggs, David J; Bonagura, John D

    2004-01-01

    A male fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) kit was examined for lethargy, inappetence, and weight loss. Clinical findings included respiratory distress, a gallop rhythm, and retinochoroiditis. Radiography indicated pleural effusion and cardiomegaly. Echocardiographic findings included left ventricular dilatation, low left ventricular ejection fraction, and atrioventricular valvular regurgitation. Necropsy findings were compatible with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure caused by myocarditis. Histopathology showed a disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii causing myocarditis, skeletal polymyositis, gastrointestinal myositis, and panuveitis. Toxoplasma-induced myocarditis should be included in the differential diagnosis of heart failure and retinochoroiditis in the fennec fox.

  4. Conservative removal of small pituitary tumours: is it justified by the pathological findings?

    PubMed Central

    Wrightson, P

    1978-01-01

    Operation by the trans-sphenoidal route allows removal of small pituitary adenomata with conservation of normal gland. Histological examination of tissue obtained at operation and necropsy in 73 cases showed that surgical methods at present in use are likely to leave tumour behind in the pituitary gland and in the dura mater of the pituitary fossa. The clinical significance of these findings will only become evident after following patients for an extended period, but there appears to be a strong indication for routine postoperative radiotherapy. Images PMID:632827

  5. Pathological and molecular diagnosis of the 2013 African swine fever outbreak in Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Yabe, John; Hamambulu, Pharaoh; Simulundu, Edgar; Ogawa, Hirohito; Kajihara, Masahiro; Mori-Kajihara, Akina; Changula-Chitanga, Katendi; Mwase, Max; Mweemba-Muwowo, Mutinta; Chambaro, Herman Moses; Mataa, Liywalii; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Namangala, Bonniface; Fandamu, Paul; Sawa, Hirofumi; Takada, Ayato; Higashi, Hideaki; Mweene, Aaron Simanyengwe

    2015-02-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious and fatal hemorrhagic viral disease of domestic pigs. The disease is widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and has repeatedly been introduced into other continents. The current study describes the diagnostic investigations of a hemorrhagic disease that was reported in pigs in Lusaka (October 2013), Zambia. Necropsy, histopathology, and molecular diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction and sequence analysis confirmed the disease to be ASF. The sequences obtained showed high similarity to previously isolated ASF viruses. Consistent surveillance and rapid diagnosis of the disease is recommended to prevent future outbreaks and economic losses as there is currently no vaccine against the disease.

  6. Eustrongylidiasis in eastern great blue herons (Ardea herodias).

    PubMed

    Ziegler, A F; Welte, S C; Miller, E A; Nolan, T J

    2000-01-01

    The nematode Eustrongylides ignotus was found in peritoneal lesions of several great blue herons (Ardea herodias) submitted for necropsy from a wildlife rehabilitation center in northern Delaware. Prior to death, signs of disease included ataxia, emaciation, weakness, and anemia. Blood collection was not uniformly performed, but in cases where it was performed, affected birds demonstrated abnormal clinical hematology. Postmortem findings included numerous lesions associated with verminous peritonitis. Significant histologic granulomatous response to the presence of these organisms was noted, particularly in the proventricular specimens. Other organs involved included intestine, spleen, pancreas, and liver.

  7. Whooping crane preyed upon by golden eagle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Stiles, H.E.; Drewien, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    The Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is the largest predatory bird in North America and is well known for its predatory abilities. Attacks have been reported on mammals such as whitetail jackrabbits (Lepus townsendi) (McGahan 1967, J. Wildl. Mgmt. 31: 496), pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) (Bruhns 1970, Can. Field-Natur. 84: 301), Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) (Kelleher and O'Malia 1971, Auk 88: 186), and Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) (Carnie 1954, Condor 56: 3). This communication describes an attack on an immature Whooping Crane (Grus americana) by a Golden Eagle and the subsequent necropsy findings.

  8. Range Finding 14-Day and 90-Day Subchronic Feeding Studies with N,N-Dipropylcyclohexanecarboxamide in Rats. Phase 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    clinical chemistry values. Significant increases occurred in male rat liver organ-to-body weight ratios in all three dose levels at the 45 and 90 day necropsies during the 90-day feeding study. A no effect dose was not achieved during this study. Additional testing would be required to confirm a no effect dose level. It is concluded that a toxic hazard may exist from a prolonged significant oral exposure to N,N-Dopropylcyclohexanecarboxamide. It is recommended that further evaluation of this compound as a candidate insect repellent be discontinued due to the deleterious

  9. A fatal case of oak poisoning in a double-wattled cassowary (Casuarius casuarius).

    PubMed

    Kinde, H

    1988-01-01

    A double-wattled cassowary died following a clinical course of severe diarrhea, anorexia, and polydypsia. At necropsy, prolapse of the penis, severe enteritis, and swelling of the kidneys with subcapsular heavy deposits of urates were noted. Histologic lesions comprised nephrosis, interstitial edemia of the muscle, and sloughing of the intestinal villi. Leaves collected from the gizzard were identified as coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia). Diagnosis of oak poisoning was made based on the renal lesions and the finding of a high content of tannins in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Oak poisoning has not been reported previously in avian species.

  10. Short communication: Survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in tissues of cows following low-dose exposure to electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bode, John F; Thoen, Charles O

    2016-08-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the effects of low-dose electron beam irradiation on the survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples collected at necropsy from clinically affected cows. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the ileum and ileocecal valve of one cow and from the ileum of another cow irradiated at 4.0 kGy, but was not isolated from the ileum, ileocecal valve, or mesenteric lymph node of 11 other cows irradiated at 4 kGy.

  11. DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcelon, D.K.; Thomas, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain.

  12. Suspected fusariomycotoxicosis in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis): clinical and pathological findings.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Stroud, Richard K.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 and 1986, large-scale natural die-offs of sandhill cranes in Texas were attributed to fusariomycotoxicosis. These birds demonstrated a progressive loss of motor control to the neck, wings, and legs. Based on necropsy and/or histopathology of 31 cranes, the most common lesions involved skeletal muscle and included hemorrhages, granulomatous myositis, thrombosis, and vascular degeneration. Serum chemistry results revealed that levels of creatinine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were above published normals. However, only alanine aminotransferase was higher in clinically affected cranes than in normal cranes collected from the same area.

  13. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  14. Hypoadrenocorticism in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism, known as Addison`s disease in humans, was diagnosed in six beagles after inhalation of at least 1.7 kBq/g lung of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Histological examination of adrenal gland specimens obtained at necropsy revealed marked adrenal cortical atrophy in all cases. Autoadiographs showed only slight {alpha}-particle activity. Although the pathogenesis of adrenal cortical atrophy in these dogs is unclear, there is evidence to suggest an automimmune disorder linked to damage resulting from {alpha}-particle irradiation to the lymphatic system.

  15. West Nile virus in the British Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Anthony, S J; Garner, M M; Palminteri, L; Navarrete-Macias, I; Sanchez-Leon, M D; Briese, T; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W I

    2014-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in the US in 1999 and has since spread across the Americas. Here, we report the continued expansion of WNV to the British Virgin Islands following its emergence in a flock of free-roaming flamingos. Histologic review of a single chick revealed lesions consistent with WNV infection, subsequently confirmed with PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Full genome analysis revealed 99% sequence homology to strains circulating in the US over the past decade. This study highlights the need for rapid necropsy of wild bird carcasses to fully understand the impact of WNV on wild populations.

  16. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  17. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  18. Disseminated T-cell lymphoma in a Brazilian porcupine (Coendou prehensilis).

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Marina Rios; Luppi, Marcela Miranda; Malta, Marcelo de Campos Cordeiro; Assumpção, Anna Luiza Facchetti Vinhaes; Langohr, Ingeborg Maria; Ecco, Roselene

    2011-01-01

    The current study describes the clinical, gross, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical findings of a T-cell lymphoma in a captive porcupine (Coendou prehensilis), a species typically seen in the tropical forests of Brazil. At necropsy, extensive neoplastic involvement was observed in the cervical lymph nodes, with extension into the salivary gland. The spleen was mildly enlarged, and neoplastic nodules were grossly evident in the liver and right kidney. Histologically, sheets of large and markedly pleomorphic round cells were observed in the cervical lymph nodes, lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. The neoplastic cells were positive for cluster of differentiation (CD)3 and negative for CD79a by immunohistochemistry.

  19. Pasteurella multocida meningitis in an adult: case report

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, G; Sen, R; Wilkinson, J

    2000-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is known to form part of the normal flora in the nasopharynx or gastrointestinal tract in many domestic and wild animals. Most human P multocida infections are soft tissue infections caused by dog or cat bites. Less commonly this bacterium is associated with infections affecting other organ systems of man. A case of fatal P multocida meningitis discovered at the necropsy of a 52 year old man is described. P multocida is an unusual causative agent of meningitis which tends to affect those at the extremes of age. Key Words: Pasteurella multocida • meningitis PMID:10823146

  20. Molecular survey of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from central Italy.

    PubMed

    Ebani, Valentina Virginia; Verin, Ranieri; Fratini, Filippo; Poli, Alessandro; Cerri, Domenico

    2011-07-01

    During the 2007-2008 hunting season, 150 spleen samples were collected from free-ranging red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in central Italy. The specimens were tested by two nested PCR assays to detect DNA of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, etiologic agent of granulocytic ehrlichiosis of animals and humans, and DNA of Ehrlichia canis, which causes the monocytic ehrlichiosis in canids. None of the foxes were PCR-positive for E. canis; 25 (16.6%) were positive for A. phagocytophilum. No specific gross alterations were detected at necropsy, and no histopathologic lesions found on PCR-positive spleen samples.

  1. Preclinical toxicology studies for new drugs and vaccines. Annual report, 15 November 1991-14 November 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, B.S.

    1992-12-07

    The purpose of this study is to determine specific target organ toxicity, dose-response relationships, and a no adverse effect level of WR6026 in Beagle dogs following thirteen weeks of daily oral administration. In addition, the reversibility of these toxic effects over a 90-day recovery period will be assessed. Treatment was initiated on 5/7/92. Necropsies were conducted on 8/6-7/92 and 11/5-6/92 after the three month treatment period and a three month recovery period, respectively.

  2. TERATOMA OF THE OVARY IN A FREE-RANGING JAPANESE RACCOON DOG (NYCTEREUTES PROCYONOIDES VIVERRINUS).

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Hisashi; Yamamoto, Masami; Moriya, Maiko; Endo, Tomohiko; Sugiura, Natsuko; Kato, Takuya; Matsuda, Yoko; Ishiwata, Toshiyuki; Kajigaya, Hiroshi; Kamiya, Shinji

    2017-03-01

    A young adult, female, free-ranging Japanese raccoon dog ( Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus) with scabies infection was found dead as a result of traumatic injuries presumed to reflect vehicular trauma. Necropsy showed a large solid mass located on the left ovarian region, occupying a third of the abdominal cavity. Histologically, the mass contained complex tissues derived from three germinal layers, with areas of cuboidal or columnar epithelium, keratinized squamous epithelium, bone, cartilage, and adipose tissue. This paper presents the first morphologic description of ovarian teratoma in a raccoon dog.

  3. Endogenous lipid (cholesterol) pneumonia in three captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Bollo, Enrico; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Chiappino, Laura; Sereno, Alessandra; Triberti, Orfeo; Schröder, Cathrin

    2012-05-01

    During the years 2009-2011, 7 Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica), aged between 2 and 14 years, from the Safaripark of Pombia were referred for necropsy to the Department of Animal Pathology of the University of Turin (Italy). Three tigers, aged 10 (2 animals) and 14 years, had multifocal, irregularly distributed, white, soft, subpleural, 3-mm nodules scattered throughout the lungs. Histologically, there was a marked infiltration of macrophages, with foamy cytoplasm, and multinucleate giant cells interspersed with numerous clusters of cholesterol clefts. A mild lymphocytic infiltration was localized around the lesion. The findings were consistent with endogenous lipid pneumonia, which was considered an incidental finding of no clinical significance.

  4. Cervical spinal chordoma with chondromatous component in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gruber, A; Kneissl, S; Vidoni, B; Url, A

    2008-09-01

    A 7-year-old male Belgian Shepherd dog was presented with sudden onset of lateral recumbency and tetraparesis. At the level of the third cervical vertebra, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intrameningeal and intramedullary mass lesion. The animal was subsequently euthanatized. A necropsy revealed a semitranslucent solid mass infiltrating dorsal and ventral dura mater and the spinal cord. Histologic examination revealed a lobulated pleomorphic mass, mainly resembling undifferentiated cartilage interspersed by spindle-shaped and polygonal cells with highly vacuolated cytoplasm (physaliphorous cells). Immunohistochemistry of the tumor cells demonstrated dual expression of vimentin and cytokeratin. Based on the histologic and immunohistochemical results, the diagnosis of a chordoma with chondromatous component was made.

  5. Intractable diarrhoea of infancy and latent otomastoiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Salazar de Sousa, J; da Silva, A; da Costa Ribeiro, V

    1980-01-01

    In 16 infants with intractable diarrhoea, latent otomastoiditis was found in 9 (3 at necropsy and 6 at myringotomy-antrotomy). In 5 of the 6 operated group, surgery was followed by a striking cessation of the diarrhoea and with weight gain. It is concluded that (1) latent otomastoiditis may be a perpetuating factor in intractable diarrhoea; (2) myringotomy-antrotomy should be considered if other forms of treatment have failed, and especially if there is leucocytosis; (3) mastoiditis with diffuse osteitis seems to be associated with a poor prognosis. PMID:7458392

  6. Necrotising ventriculitis due to combined infection with Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Candida krusei in an eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus).

    PubMed

    Muir, M; Raidal, S R

    2012-07-01

    Acute necrosis of the ventriculus is a very uncommon lesion in birds. We describe a fatal case of acute necrotising ventriculitis caused by Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis in a mature female eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). The bird presented acutely dull and lethargic, was vomiting and had bright green droppings, suggestive of acute heavy metal poisoning. It was treated with fluids and chelation therapy, but died within 12 h. Necropsy, cytology, histopathology and culture results demonstrated fungal invasion of the ventriculus associated with transmural necrosis, haemorrhage, acute inflammation and abundant R. microsporus var. chinensis and lesser numbers of Candida krusei.

  7. Reproduction of raccoons (Procyon lotor) in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritzell, E.K.

    1978-01-01

    Necropsies and observations of captive and radio-equipped individuals provided reproductive data from a raccoon population in the northern prairies. The mean parturition date of adult females was 8 May and the mean litter size was 4.8. Only two of the 14 yearling females examined prior to 1 July were pregnant; they had estimated parturition dates of 20 May and 22 June. Penes of most yearling males became extrusible in July or August. Testes weights and sperm smears suggest that yearling males in North Dakota are not reproductively active. Reproductive patterns of raccoons near the northern periphery of their range and those at lower latitudes are compared and discussed.

  8. MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

    PubMed

    Sladakovic, Izidora; Burnum, Anne; Blas-Machado, Uriel; Kelly, Lisa S; Garner, Bridget C; Holmes, Shannon P; Divers, Stephen J

    2016-03-01

    A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat.

  9. Clinical and pathologic features of thymoma in 15 dogs.

    PubMed

    Aronsohn, M G; Schunk, K L; Carpenter, J L; King, N W

    1984-06-01

    Thymoma was diagnosed in 15 dogs at Angell Memorial Animal Hospital between 1972 and 1983. All thymomas developed in the cranial portion of the mediastinum. An autoimmune paraneoplastic syndrome was observed in 10 (67%) of the dogs and included myasthenia gravis, nonthymic neoplasms, and polymyositis. Clinical signs were variable and inconsistent, depending on whether they were attributable to the cranial mediastinal mass or to the paraneoplastic syndrome. Eleven dogs were necropsied. Two thymomas had gross characteristics of malignancy. In 3 cases, a cell consistent with a subclass of mast cell was found and in 1 thymoma, melanocytes were observed.

  10. Dissecting aneurysms of the vertebral arteries following cervical manipulation: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, J W; Conacher, G N; Khangure, M; Harper, C G

    1987-01-01

    Neck manipulation may uncommonly be associated with serious and even fatal vascular complications. Although well recognised, the nature of the vascular injury has only rarely been directly established by pathological examination. The case is reported of a 43-year-old man who died following neck manipulation, and in whom multiple dissecting aneurysms within both vertebral arteries were demonstrated radiologically and found at necropsy. Bilateral dissecting aneurysms were found both at the level of atlanto-axial articulation and close to the origins of the vertebral arteries. No predisposition was found, other than early atheroma consistent with the patient's age. Images PMID:3559616

  11. Peritoneal mesothelioma in a jaguar (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    Souza, Francisco de Assis Leite; de Carvalho, Ciro José Sousa; de Almeida, Hatawa M; Pires, Lidiany Viana; Silva, Lucilene dos Santos; Costa, Francisco Assis Lima; Silva, Silvana M Medeiros de Sousa

    2013-09-01

    A 21-yr-old female jaguar (Panthera onca) died in a zoo in Teresina, Piaui, Brazil, following a history of abdominal distension, ascites, anorexia, and dyspnea. At necropsy, a dark red, watery, blood-tinged serous fluid was present in the abdominal cavity. The peritoneum was thick with firm, yellow, villous projections. Histologically, the tumors were composed of a biphasic population of cells, which reacted to anti-cytokeratin and anti-vimentin antibodies, consistent with a biphasic benign mesothelioma of peritoneal origin. This is the first reported case of mesothelioma in a captive jaguar.

  12. Primary diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Min; Oh, Yeonsu; Oh, Suk-Hun; Han, Jeong-Hee

    2016-03-01

    A 10-year-old female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was admitted with severe abdominal distension and lethargy. Cytological examination of the peritoneal fluid revealed activated mesothelial cells. At necropsy, numerous growing together, projecting, 2 to 20 mm in diameter tawny to white masses were scattered throughout the peritoneum including the mesentery, omentum and intestinal serosa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of prominent papillo-tubular structures, and immunohistochemically, the spindle to polygonal-shaped tumor cells with nuclear polymorphism were strongly reactive for calretinin. Based on those diagnostic features, the neoplasia was diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma. This is the first case report of mesothelioma in the skunk.

  13. Primary diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma in a striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis)

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Su-Min; OH, Yeonsu; OH, Suk-Hun; HAN, Jeong-Hee

    2015-01-01

    A 10-year-old female striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) was admitted with severe abdominal distension and lethargy. Cytological examination of the peritoneal fluid revealed activated mesothelial cells. At necropsy, numerous growing together, projecting, 2 to 20 mm in diameter tawny to white masses were scattered throughout the peritoneum including the mesentery, omentum and intestinal serosa. Microscopically, the tumor was composed of prominent papillo-tubular structures, and immunohistochemically, the spindle to polygonal-shaped tumor cells with nuclear polymorphism were strongly reactive for calretinin. Based on those diagnostic features, the neoplasia was diagnosed as malignant mesothelioma. This is the first case report of mesothelioma in the skunk. PMID:26568187

  14. An outbreak of leptospirosis in seals (Phoca vitulina) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kik, M J L; Goris, M G; Bos, J H; Hartskeerl, R A; Dorrestein, G M

    2006-03-01

    An outbreak of leptospirosis in seals (Phoca vitulina) in captivity is described. In a zoo in The Netherlands 5 adult seals died within 12 days. At necropsy all animals showed signs of acute septicaemia, consistent with acute leptospirosis. Serological examination of one animal was positive for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and the serologically closely related serovar Copenhageni. Polymerase chain reaction was positive in one other animal. 8 nutria (Myocastor coypus) were examined, serologically, through bacteriological culture and PCR. 81,8% (9/11) were serologically positive for Leptospira. The seals and nutria were housed in the same water system.

  15. Bulling among yearling feedlot steers.

    PubMed

    Pierson, R E; Jensen, R; Braddy, P M; Horton, D P; Christie, R M

    1976-09-01

    In a survey to determine the cause of illness and deaths among yearling feedlot cattle, bulling was found to be one of the major problems. During the years 1971-1974, 54,913 (2.88%) steers became bullers and represented an annual loss of around +325,000. Some of the causes of bulling were found to be hormones, either as implants or in the feed. In 1974, from 1,988 necropsies, it was determined that 83 steers died from riding injuries.

  16. Industrial halide wastes cause acute mortality of snow geese in Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andreasen, J.K.; Stroud, Richard K.

    1987-01-01

    An examination of 97 dead migratory waterfowl collected at an industrial facility showed that the birds had had severe gastric and intestinal hemorrhaging. Water samples taken at on-site waste lagoons contained 6,750 mg/L fluoride, 4,500 mg/L bromine and 1,500 mg/L boron. Brain and liver tissues contained high levels of fluoride, as compared with tissues of birds collected at a control site. From the necropsy results, the high concentration of fluoride in the water samples and the elevated tissue residues, we conclude that the birds died from acute fluoride poisoning.

  17. Phenotypical and Genotypical Properties of an Arcanobacterium pluranimalium Strain Isolated from a Juvenile Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)

    PubMed Central

    Risse, Karin; Schlez, Karen; Eisenberg, Tobias; Geiger, Christina; Balbutskaya, Anna; Sammra, Osama; Lämmler, Christoph; Abdulmawjood, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to characterize phenotypically and genotypically an Arcanobacterium pluranimalium strain (A. pluranimalium 4868) following necropsy from a juvenile giraffe. The species identity could be confirmed by phenotypical investigations and by MALDI-TOF MS analysis, by sequencing the 16S rDNA, pluranimaliumlysin encoding gene pla, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoding gene gap with sequence similarities to A. pluranimalium reference strain DSM 13483T of 99.2%, 89.9%, and 99.1%, respectively. To our knowledge, the present study is the first phenotypic and genotypic characterization of an A. pluranimalium strain isolated from a giraffe. PMID:26464930

  18. PHOTORECEPTOR DEGENERATION IN A MOUNTAIN LION CUB (PUMA CONCOLOR).

    PubMed

    DiSalvo, Andrew R; Reilly, Christopher M; Wiggans, K Tomo; Woods, Leslie W; Wack, Ray F; Clifford, Deana L

    2016-12-01

    An orphaned 4-mo-old female mountain lion cub ( Puma concolor ) was captured along the coastline in Montaña de Oro State Park in Los Osos, California, USA. Following suspicion that the cub was visually impaired, ophthalmic examination revealed diffuse bilateral retinal atrophy. Due to a poor prognosis, humane euthanasia was elected. Necropsy and histopathological findings were consistent with photoreceptor degeneration. Based on the cub's signalment, history, and histopathology, a genetic or nutritional etiology was suspected, with the former etiology more strongly supported. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of photoreceptor degeneration in a wild felid and should be considered in cases of blindness.

  19. Herpes simplex infection in a juvenile orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Kik, Maria J L; Bos, Jan H; Groen, Jan; Dorrestein, Gerry M

    2005-03-01

    A juvenile orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) died after 8 days of diarrhea and vomiting. Necropsy showed petechial hemorrhages in the skin, the myocardium, and the peritoneal membranes. The lungs were hyperemic and edematous, and the liver and spleen were enlarged. Histologic changes consisted of interstitial pneumonia, hepatitis, and splenic hyperplasia. Numerous eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies were visible in pulmonary epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and splenic endothelial cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed herpesvirus in hepatocyte nuclei. Polymerase chain reaction of liver tissue demonstrated the presence of a herpes simplex virus-1.

  20. Ulcerative cheilitis in a rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C C; Miller, A D

    2012-03-01

    A 2-year-old, female, simian immunodeficiency virus E543-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia due to a history of diarrhea, weight loss, and a small, round ulcer along the left labial commissure. Histopathologic examination of the ulcer revealed infiltration by large numbers of degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils and macrophages admixed with syncytial epithelial cells. Rare epithelial cells contained herpetic inclusion bodies. These cells stained positive for Human herpesvirus 1 via immunohistochemistry, and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of closely related Macacine herpesvirus 1 (B virus).

  1. Trace element analysis by PIXE in liver samples from dogs with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Marianne; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Sevelius, Ewa

    1990-04-01

    Trace element levels of liver samples obtained from necropsied dogs suffering from hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis were determined by PIXE. Two different techniques for preparation of the samples were compared: the pellet press method and wet digestion. Both methods gave similar results, but the pellet press method was chosen for the subsequent routine analyses because of its simplicity due to few preparation steps and little risk of contamination. Preliminary results indicate elevated levels of Cu in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. In hereditary copper-induced hepatitis (Bedlington hepatitis) Fe and Br levels were increased as well.

  2. Bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in five painted storks.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martha A; Terrell, Scott P; Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Mangold, Barbara J

    2002-08-01

    Five painted storks were treated with fenbendazole for 5 days for internal parasitism. Four birds died following treatment. Profound heteropenia was a consistent finding in all samples evaluated; additionally, the 1 surviving bird had progressive anemia. Consistent necropsy findings in the 4 birds that died were small intestinal crypt cell necrosis and severe bone marrow depletion and necrosis. Fenbendazole has been associated with bone marrow hypoplasia and enteric damage in mammals and other species of birds. The dosages of fenbendazole used in birds are often substantially higher than those recommended for mammals, which may contribute to bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in birds.

  3. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy simulating an infiltrative myocardial disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frustaci, A; Loperfido, F; Pennestrì, F

    1985-01-01

    Congestive heart failure developed in a patient with low electrocardiographic QRS voltages, diffuse thickening of the septum and free cardiac wall, and a reduction in left ventricular internal diameter, which suggested an infiltrative heart muscle disease. Histological examination at necropsy showed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with symmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial disarray of type 1A disorganisation was extensive and equally distributed in the ventricular septum and the left anterior and left posterior ventricular free walls. Severe fibrosis (40%) was also present and may have been a possible cause of the electrocardiographic abnormalities as well as of the lack of ventricular dilatation. Images PMID:4041302

  4. Semilobar Holoprosencephaly Associated with Multiple Malformations in a Foal.

    PubMed

    Pintore, M D; Cantile, C

    2016-04-01

    A full-term male foal born in a farm holidays in Maremma (Tuscany, Italy) was euthanized shortly after birth due to the presence of several malformations. The rostral maxilla and the nasal septum were deviated to the right (wry nose), and a severe cervico-thoracic scoliosis and anus atresia were evident. Necropsy revealed ileum atresia and agenesis of the right kidney. The brain showed an incomplete separation of the hemispheres of the rostral third of the forebrain and the olfactory bulbs and tracts were absent (olfactory aplasia). A diagnosis of semilobar holoprosencephaly (HPE) was achieved. This is the first case of semilobar HPE associated with other organ anomalies in horses.

  5. Clostridium perfringens type A enteritis in blue and yellow macaw (Ara ararauna).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Marta Brito; Torres, Luciana Neves; Mesquita, Ramon Gomes; Ampuero, Fernanda; Cunha, Marcos Paulo Vieira; Ferreira, Thais Sebastiana Porfida; Ferreira, Antonio José Piantino; Catão-Dias, José Luiz; Moreno, Andrea Micke; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2014-12-01

    This study describes an outbreak of necrotic enteritis caused by Clostridium perfringens type A in captive macaws (Ara ararauna). Two psittacine birds presented a history of prostration and died 18 hr after manifestation of clinical signs. The necropsy findings and histopathologic lesions were indicative of necrotic enteritis. Microbiologic assays resulted in the growth of large gram-positive bacilli that were identified as C. perfringens. PCR was used to identify clostridium toxinotypes and confirmed the identification of isolated strains as C pefringens type A, positive to gene codifying beta 2 toxin. The infection source and predisposing factors could not be ascertained.

  6. Imaging diagnosis-pulmonary-tracheobronchial prolapse in a new Caledonian giant gecko (Rhacodactylus leachianus).

    PubMed

    Hoey, Seamus; Keller, Dominique; Chamberlin, Tamara; Pinkerton, Marie; Waller, Kenneth; Drees, Randi

    2013-01-01

    A 3-year-old male New Caledonian giant gecko, or Leach's gecko (Rhacodactylus leachianus) presented with acute lethargy and coelomic distention. Findings from survey radiographs and an upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study were consistent with severe aerophagia, a collapsed left lung, and hyperinflation of the right lung due to suspected bronchial obstruction. The gecko was treated with conservative medical management, but was found dead 5 days after presentation. Necropsy findings showed intussusception of the proximal left lung into the left mainstem bronchus and trachea.

  7. Oronasal fistula in a 53-year-old hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).

    PubMed

    Wittschen, P; Ochs, A; Gruber, A D

    2007-11-01

    An oronasal fistula is described in a 53-year-old captive hippopotamus, the animal having shown a nasal discharge, consisting mainly of food particles, during and after feeding for at least 15 years. Necropsy of the emaciated animal revealed an oronasal fistula, measuring 4.5 x 3.5 cm, adjacent to the third left molar tooth, the first and second molars being missing. The fistula was thought to have been caused by an earlier necrotizing alveolitis and osteitis. There was no evidence of rhinitis or aspiration pneumonia. Unrelated findings consisted of a follicular thyroid adenoma and generalized muscle atrophy.

  8. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts in a kitten and a dog.

    PubMed

    Reed, Scott; Cho, Doo Youn; Paulsen, Dan

    2009-09-01

    Two quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts with different pathogenesis are described in 2 different species. A 10-week-old male Persian kitten with a progressively decreasing level of consciousness died spontaneously. At necropsy, mild internal hydrocephalus, caudal cerebellar coning, and cerebellar herniation through the foramen magnum were associated with a congenital quadrigeminal arachnoid cyst compressing the rostral cerebellum and shifting the entire cerebellum caudally. In contrast, a possibly acquired quadrigeminal cyst was observed in a 2-year-old male neutered Yorkshire Terrier in association with necrotizing encephalitis. Quadrigeminal arachnoid cysts have been rarely reported in dogs and humans.

  9. Latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. PMID:21851746

  10. Localisation and characterisation of dystrophin in the central nervous system of controls and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, M; Teramoto, H; Naoe, H; Yoshioka, K; Miike, T; Ando, M

    1994-01-01

    The aim was to localise and characterise dystrophin in various human tissues, especially in the CNS. Immunoblotting and immunostaining studies were carried out with eight region-specific dystrophin antibodies. In necropsy tissue from controls, dystrophin was noted as a doublet in immunoblots of striated muscle, and as a single band in those of smooth muscle and the CNS. With immunostaining, punctate immunoreactivity was seen on the cell bodies and dendrites of the cerebral cortical neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. By contrast, dystrophin was not detected in any tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum, of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who had an intellectual disturbance. Images PMID:8163990

  11. EAR AND TAIL LESIONS ON CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER FAWNS (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS): A CASE STUDY.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Treena L; Demarais, Stephen; Cooley, Jim; Fleming, Sherrill; Michel, Eric S; Flinn, Emily

    2016-06-01

    During the 2008-2011 time period, undiagnosed lesions were observed in 21 of 150 white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus) that were part of a captive deer herd at Mississippi State University. Clinical findings in healthy and diseased fawns from 0 to 90 days of age included bite and scratch marks followed by moderate to severe ear and tail necrosis. Gross necropsy findings of necrotizing ulcerative dermatitis correlated with histopathologic findings that included focally severe multifocal vasculitis, vascular necrosis, and thrombosis. This article is a clinical description of these previously unreported lesions associated with tissue necrosis in young captive white-tailed deer.

  12. Medullary cystic disease of the kidney: its occurrence in two siblings

    PubMed Central

    Handa, Satya Paul; Tennant, Robert

    1968-01-01

    Two cases of medullary cystic disease of the kidney in two siblings are presented. In both siblings there was an insidious onset of azotaemia and anaemia at an early age. The urinalyses were normal except for a trace of proteinuria and persistent low specific gravity. The kidneys were small by radiological studies and this was proved at necropsy. The gross microscopic appearances of the kidneys were consistent with medullary cystic disease. The literature on this subject and current views on the similarities between familial juvenile nephronophthisis and this condition are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:5705387

  13. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, F.; Brandt, J.; Brantegem, L. Van; Bosseler, L.; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. PMID:26623366

  14. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting.

  15. Carbofuran affects wildlife on Virginia corn fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stinson, E.R.; Hayes, L.E.; Bush, P.B.; White, D.H.

    1994-01-01

    Forty-four Virginia corn fields on 11 farms were searched for evidence of dead or debilitated wildlife following in-furrow application of granular carbofuran (Furadan 15G) during April and May 1991. Evidence of pesticide poisoned wildlife, including dead animals, debilitated animals, feather spots, and fur spots was found on 33 fields on 10 farms. Carcasses of 61 birds, 4 mammals, and 1 reptile were recovered. Anticholinesterase poisoning was confirmed or suspected as the cause of most wildlife deaths based on the circumstances surrounding kills, necropsies of Carcasses, residue analyses, and brain ChE assays.

  16. Holoprosencephaly and Pure Red Cell Aplasia in a Feline Leukaemia Virus-Positive Kitten.

    PubMed

    Southard, T L; Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, J; Priest, H; Stokol, T

    2016-01-01

    A 9-month-old, female, domestic longhair cat with severe anaemia tested positive for feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) and was humanely destroyed and submitted for necropsy examination. Gross findings included a non-divided rostral telencephalon, consistent with semilobar holoprosencephaly. Histological examination of the bone marrow revealed an almost complete absence of erythroid precursor cells, consistent with pure red cell aplasia, and mild to moderate myelofibrosis. This case demonstrates a very unusual central nervous system defect, as well as an atypical presentation of pure red cell aplasia, in a FeLV-positive kitten.

  17. Familial opsonization defect associated with fatal infantile dermatitis, infections, and histiocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H; Moynahan, E J; Risdon, R A; Harvey, B A; Soothill, J F

    1975-01-01

    Members of four generations of a family had a defect of serum opsonization for yeast phagocytosis consistent with dominant inheritance. 2 were healthy, one had chronic osteomyelitis, and the fourth developed a fatal illness in infancy characterized by exfoliative dermatitis, diarrhoea, multiple bacterial infections, and failure to thrive, which resembled the two prevously reported cases with this opsonization defect. At necropsy the infant also had lymphoid depletion, which was possibly secondary, and massive histiocytic infiltration. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 PMID:1096830

  18. Thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis in a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Florizoone, Koenraad

    2005-08-01

    A 5-year-old rabbit with generalized scaling is presented. Multiple skin scrapings and acetate tape impressions were negative for mites and Malassezia. Culture for dermatophytes was also negative. Skin biopsies showed similarities with sebaceous adenitis described in rabbits (absence of sebaceous glands, perifollicular lymphocytic infiltrate at the level of the absent sebaceous glands, lymphocytic mural folliculitis, interface dermatitis). The owners refused any treatment and 2 months later the rabbit was euthanized due to anorexia. At necropsy a mass was found in the anterior mediastinum. Histopathology confirmed a diagnosis of thymoma. A possible paraneoplastic skin disease was suspected, based on similarities with thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis in cats.

  19. Mucinous gastric hyperplasia in a colony of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) induced by polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)

    SciTech Connect

    Geistfeld, J.G.; Bond, M.G.; Bullock, B.C.; Varian, M.C.

    1982-02-01

    Since 1971, 45 of 259 male rhesus monkeys housed in a primate building have died of a chronic and progressive disease characterized by diarrhea, dehydration, weakness, gingivitis, emaciation, and alopecia. The principal necropsy finding in these monkeys, and in eight others killed for experimental purposes, was hypertrophic and hyperplastic mucinous gastropathy involving both the mucosa and submucosa. The toxic agent involved was identified as the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), Aroclor 1254. The suspected source of the toxic agent was a concrete sealer used during building construction.

  20. Case report: epizootic of coccidiosis in free-flying lesser scaup (Aythya affinis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; McDonald, M.E.; Locke, L.N.; Kerr, S.M.; Sinn, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    A coccidiosis epizootic has occurred in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) at Bluestem Reservoir in eastern Nebraska during the spring in each of three recent years: 1976-1978. Losses peaked during the period from mid-March through April. As much as 29% of the peak population of scaup using the reservoir died. Necropsies of 72 of the nearly 1390 scaup that died revealed destruction and sloughing of the intestinal mucosa and associated hemorrhaging. Fibrinonecrotic cores were frequently found in the intestinal lumens. Scrapings from the intestinal mucosal contained massive numbers of oocysts of the coccidian Eimeria aythyae. This is the first report of recurrent epizootics of coccidiosis in freeflying waterfowl.

  1. Lead poisoning in woodpeckers in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Mörner, T; Petersson, L

    1999-10-01

    Lead poisoning was demonstrated in two gray-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and one white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopus leucotos) in Sweden; they had liver lead levels between 9.4 and 26.2 mg(-1) wet weight. At necropsy one gray-headed woodpecker showed signs of emaciation and the other one had severe traumatic injuries, caused by a cat. The white-backed woodpecker died in the transportation box during a translocation program. The source of the lead could not be determined, but it was suspected that it may have originated from lead pellets shot into trees and picked out by the woodpeckers during food search.

  2. Urinary cystic calculi in a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis): a case report.

    PubMed

    Stephens, E C; Middleton, C C; Thompson, L J

    1979-12-01

    An adult female Macaca fascicularis monkey became acutely anorexic and depressed and was found dead approximately 24 hours later. Necropsy revealed three hard brownish-yellow stones within the urinary bladder and urethra, a moderately shrunken left kidney, hemorrhage of the medulla of the left adrenal gland and a yellow liver. The stones, one of which was lodged in the urethra, were 1-2.5 cm in diameter, and their surfaces were rough and covered with spines. Chemical analysis of the stones revealed oxalates, phosphates, carbonates, ammonium salts, magnesium and calcium. Microscopic examination revealed chronic interstitial and glomerular nephritis and papillary hyperplasia of the transitional epithelium of the bladder.

  3. A Case Report of Human Infection with Dioctophyma Renale from Iran.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Roghayeh; Manochehri, Arman; Hanifi, Mustafa

    2017-03-16

    A 75-year-old man from Kurdistan province, western part of Iran was diagnosed with a mass in the right kidney by ultrasound and computed tomography. In operation, a parasitic helminth, 30 cm long and 1.2 cm in diameter consistent with D. renale was found in the right kidney. Microscopic examination revealed that the male Dioctophyma renale. Following removal of worm, the symptoms completely resolved within a few hours. Generally, parasitism by D. renale in human is a necropsy finding, nevertheless imaging techniques as ultrasound and computed tomography have been proven to be important tool to achieve diagnosis.

  4. Mortality of passerines adjacent to a North Carolina corn field treated with granular carbofuran.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Tom; Smith, Milton R.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.

  5. Acrania-anencephaly associated with hypospadias. Prenatal ultrasound and MRI diagnosis and molecular folate metabolism pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Centini, Giovanni; Bonasoni, Maria Paola; Ventura, Alessandro; Pattacini, Pierpaolo; Cavalli, Pietro

    2012-12-01

    Acrania may occur as a single isolated malformation or associated with extracranial defects. Hypospadias is one of the most common congenital abnormalities of the genitalia frequently missed on prenatal sonograms. Second trimester two- and three-dimensional ultrasound and MRI diagnosis with necropsy and folate metabolism pathway analysis. The mechanisms leading to closure of both neural and urethral tubes, are far from being demonstrated, and molecular studies of this very rare association are lacking although it might be based on a common genetic mechanism, leading to a disturbed development pathway at the molecular level.

  6. Plasmodium spp. In a captive raptor collection of a Safaripark in northwest Italy.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Cannizzo, F T; Chiappino, L; Sereno, A; Ripepi, M; Salamida, S; Manuali, E; Bollo, E

    2016-02-01

    Blood parasites infect all vertebrates (Clayton and Moore 1997). Avian malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp., Plasmodiidae) are cosmopolitan in their distribution and are responsible for severe diseases in domestic and wild birds.In September 2009, nine raptorial birds that either arrived recently or were maintained as permanent residents at the Safaripark Pombia (northwest Italy) showed loss of stamina, developing listlessness, anorexia and regurgitation. Within one month three animals died and were necropsied.Following the diagnosis of Plasmodium infection all other raptorial birds were treated: clinical improvement was observed in all birds, and blood smears made after one month resulted negative for parasites.

  7. Systemic infection with Mortierella wolfii following abortion in a cow

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jennifer L.; Ngeleka, Musangu; Wobeser, Gary A.

    2010-01-01

    Severe meningoencephalitis and endometritis associated with necrotizing vasculitis, thrombosis, and infarction were found at necropsy of a 4-year-old Aberdeen Angus cow with a history of abortion and neurological signs. Focal pyogranulomatous pneumonia and nephritis were also present. Fungal hyphae typical of zygomycetes were abundant within lesions, and Mortierella wolfii was cultured from multiple tissues. This is believed to be the first report of systemic mortierellosis following abortion in North America, and the second reported instance of encephalitis caused by M. wolfii in a cow. PMID:21358934

  8. Equine histoplasmosis presenting as a tumor in the abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Jairo; Mackie, John T; Kiupel, Matti

    2006-09-01

    A 3.5-year-old Thoroughbred mare presented at necropsy with a large mass at the root of the mesentery and multiple smaller mesenteric masses. The mucosa of the small intestine contained numerous raised nodules. Histologic examination revealed severe granulomatous mesenteric lymphadenitis and enteritis. Epithelioid macrophages and multinucleated giant cells frequently contained numerous intracytoplasmic yeast organisms, which were strongly positive on immunohistochemical staining when using a polyclonal antibody against Histoplasma spp. A diagnosis of abdominal histoplasmosis was made based on the gross, microscopic, and immunohistochemical findings.

  9. Intestinal coccidioidomycosis in a red coachwhip snake (Masticophis flagellum piceus).

    PubMed

    Churgin, Sarah M; Garner, Michael M; Swenson, Julie; Bradway, Daniel S; French, Stephanie; Kiupel, Matti; West, Gary

    2013-12-01

    An adult female, wild-caught red coachwhip snake (Masticophis flagellum piceus) was euthanized at the Phoenix Zoo due to severe neurologic signs. Necropsy and histopathology revealed an invasive liposarcoma of the vertebral column, which likely caused the neurologic signs. Histology of the small intestine revealed a granuloma with intralesional yeasts morphologically compatible with the genus Coccidioides. The diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry staining. Coccidioides posadasii is endemic to Arizona and is an important cause of disseminated fungal infections in mammals in this region. This is the first known report of intestinal coccidioidomycosis in a veterinary species and the second report of coccidioidomycosis in a reptile.

  10. Disseminated Mycobacterium genavense infection in a chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M; Pingret, J-L; Nicolier, A

    2014-07-01

    A 1-year-old neutered male chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) was presented with emaciation and a 1-month history of progressive weight loss. The animal was bright and responsive on clinical examination, but had poor body condition. Serum biochemical analysis revealed elevated alanine amino transferase and alkaline phosphatase. Ultrasound examination was unremarkable. Thoracic radiography showed changes consistent with bullous emphysema and severe pneumonia. Antibiotic therapy was initiated, but the chinchilla died 6 weeks later. Necropsy examination revealed granulomatous lesions in the lungs and liver. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were present in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Sequencing of genetic material isolated from fixed tissue classified the pathogen as Mycobacterium genavense.

  11. A fatal case of salmonellosis in a dugong.

    PubMed

    Elliott, H; Thomas, A; Ladds, P W; Heinsohn, G E

    1981-04-01

    Salmonella lohbruegge was isolated from the kidney and the liver of a captive dugong calf (Dugong dugon) which died after an illness of at least several weeks. Clinical signs included diarrhoea and anorexia and were apparent for a week before death. Necropsy and histopathologic examination revealed thickening of the intestinal mucosa, epithelial degeneration, and epithelioid cell infiltration of mucosa, submucosa and contiguous smooth muscle. Enlargement of intestinal lymphoid tissue was apparent, and occasional focal granulomas were found in the liver. The source of the Salmonella infection was not ascertained.

  12. Tetrameres grusi (Nemotoda: Tetrameridae) from foster-raised whooping cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.

    1983-01-01

    A juvenile whooping crane (Grus americana) that had been raised by greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida) foster parents was attacked and killed by a golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) southwest of Rangely, Colorado (Windingstad et al., 1981, Auk 98:393-394). Since 1975, whooping crane eggs have been placed in the nests of sandhill cranes in an effort to increase the population of this endangered species. This bird was hatched at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho and was attacked while migrating to wintering grounds in New Mexico. The bird was sent to the National Wildlife Health Laboratory for a detailed necropsy.

  13. Brainstem and Cranial Nerve Disorders of Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Gilliam, John

    2017-03-01

    Asymmetrical signs of brainstem disease occur relatively infrequently in ruminants. The most common differential diagnoses include listeriosis, otitis media/interna, and pituitary abscess syndrome. Although these conditions produce signs of brainstem dysfunction, the diseases can usually be differentiated based on historical findings and subtle clinical differences. Basic laboratory diagnostic tests are often not specific in the definitive diagnosis but may be supportive. Advanced imaging techniques have proven to be useful in the diagnosis of otitis media/interna. Presumptive clinical diagnosis is confirmed at necropsy. Treatment involves a prolonged course of antibiotic therapy but is unrewarding in cases of pituitary abscess syndrome.

  14. Suspected lead toxicosis in a bald eagle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Novilla, M.

    1977-01-01

    An immature bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was submitted to the University of Maryland, College Park, for clinical examination. The bird was thin, had green watery feces, and was unable to maintain itself in upright posture. Following radiography, the bird went into respiratory distress and died. Numerous lead shot were recovered from the gizzard, and chemical analysis of liver and kidney tissue revealed 22.9 and 11.3 ppm lead, respectively. The clinical signs, necropsy findings, and chemical analysis of the eagle were compatible with lead toxicosis.

  15. Disseminated granulomas caused by an unidentified protozoan in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Spraker, T.R.; Gardiner, C.H.; Novilla, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Oral granulomas were observed in 31 (33%) of 95 captive sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Necropsy of six of the afflicted cranes revealed granulomatous nodules throughout many of their organ systems. Intracellular protozoan organisms morphologically resembling schizogonic stages were observed within the granulomas by light and electron microscopy. Sexual and asexual stages of coccidia were seen in sections of the intestines of 4 of 5 cranes examined microscopically, and Eimerian oocysts were seen in fecal flotation specimens from 3 of 4 birds.

  16. Biological and molecular characterizations of Toxoplasma gondii strains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, R.A.; Lindsay, D.S.; Howe, D.K.; Roderick, Constance L.; Dubey, J.P.; Thomas, N.J.; Baeten, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from brain or heart tissue from 15 southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) in cell cultures. These strains were used to infect mice that developed antibodies to T. gondii as detected in the modified direct agglutination test and had T. gondii tissue cysts in their brains at necropsy. Mouse brains containing tissue cysts from 4 of the strains were fed to 4 cats. Two of the cats excreted T. gondii oocysts in their feces that were infectious for mice. Molecular analyses of 13 strains indicated that they were all type II strains, but that they were genetically distinct from one another.

  17. Oncology of Reptiles: Diseases, Diagnosis, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Christman, Jane; Devau, Michael; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Hoppes, Sharman; Rech, Raquel; Russell, Karen E; Heatley, J Jill

    2017-01-01

    Based on necropsy review, neoplasia in reptiles has a comparable frequency to that of mammals and birds. Reptile neoplasia is now more frequently diagnosed in clinical practice based on increased use of advanced diagnostic techniques and improvements in reptilian husbandry allowing greater longevity of these species. This article reviews the current literature on neoplasia in reptiles, and focuses on advanced diagnostics and therapeutic options for reptilian patientssuffering neoplastic disease. Although most applied clinical reptile oncology is translated from dog and cat oncology, considerations specific to reptilian patients commonly encountered in clinical practice (turtles, tortoises, snakes, and lizards) are presented.

  18. Multiple congenital malformations in a dicephalic spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca ibera).

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Selleri, P; Di Girolamo, N; Montani, A; Della Salda, L

    2013-01-01

    A 22-day-old dicephalic spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca ibera) died following a history of lethargy, anorexia and absence of defecation. The two heads were anatomically similar with independent reaction to external stimuli. The carapace showed doubled first and extra second vertebral scutes. Radiography and transplastronal ultrasonography, performed when the animal was alive, revealed two symmetrical stomachs and two asynchronous hearts. These findings were confirmed by necropsy examination. Oesophagus, liver, gallbladder and trachea were also duplicated. Other malformations included pyloric valve atresia of the left stomach, focal stenosis of the transverse colon and liver hypoplasia. Dicephalism rarely occurs in Testudinidae and its pathogenesis, still unclear, is discussed.

  19. Practical pathology of aging mice

    PubMed Central

    Pettan-Brewer, Christina; Treuting, Piper M.

    2011-01-01

    Old mice will have a subset of lesions as part of the progressive decline in organ function that defines aging. External and palpable lesions will be noted by the research, husbandry, or veterinary staff during testing, cage changing, or physical exams. While these readily observable lesions may cause alarm, not all cause undue distress or are life-threatening. In aging research, mice are maintained until near end of life that, depending on strain and genetic manipulation, can be upwards of 33 months. Aging research has unique welfare issues related to age-related decline, debilitation, fragility, and associated pain of chronic diseases. An effective aging research program includes the collaboration and education of the research, husbandry, and veterinary staff, and of the members of the institution animal care and use committee. This collaborative effort is critical to humanely maintaining older mice and preventing excessive censorship due to non-lethal diseases. Part of the educational process is becoming familiar with how old mice appear clinically, at necropsy and histopathologically. This baseline knowledge is important in making the determination of humane end points, defining health span, contributing causes of death and effects of interventions. The goal of this paper is to introduce investigators to age-associated diseases and lesion patterns in mice from clinical presentation to pathologic assessment. To do so, we present and illustrate the common clinical appearances, necropsy and histopathological lesions seen in subsets of the aging colonies maintained at the University of Washington. PMID:22953032

  20. Lesions and behavior associated with forced copulation of juvenile Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) by southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, H.S.; Oates, S.C.; Staedler, M.M.; Tinker, M.T.; Jessup, David A.; Harvey, J.T.; Miller, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen occurrences of interspecific sexual behavior between male southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and juvenile Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) were reported in Monterey Bay, California, between 2000 and 2002. At least three different male sea otters were observed harassing, dragging, guarding, and copulating with harbor seals for up to 7 d postmortem. Carcasses of 15 juvenile harbor seals were recovered, and seven were necropsied in detail by a veterinary pathologist. Necropsy findings from two female sea otters that were recovered dead from male sea otters exhibiting similar behavior are also presented to facilitate a comparison of lesions. The most frequent lesions included superficial skin lacerations; hemorrhage around the nose, eyes, flippers, and perineum; and traumatic corneal erosions or ulcers. The harbor seals sustained severe genital trauma, ranging from vaginal perforation to vagino-cervical transection, and colorectal perforations as a result of penile penetration. One harbor seal developed severe pneumoperitoneum subsequent to vaginal perforation, which was also observed in both female sea otters and has been reported as a postcoital lesion in humans. This study represents the first description of lesions resulting from forced copulation of harbor seals by sea otters and is also the first report of pneumoperitoneum secondary to forced copulation in a nonhuman animal. Possible explanations for this behavior are discussed in the context of sea otter biology and population demographics.

  1. An unusual pedestrian road trauma: from forensic pathology to forensic veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Aquila, Isabella; Di Nunzio, Ciro; Paciello, Orlando; Britti, Domenico; Pepe, Francesca; De Luca, Ester; Ricci, Pietrantonio

    2014-01-01

    Traffic accidents have increased in the last decade, pedestrians being the most affected group. At autopsy, it is evident that the most common cause of pedestrian death is central nervous system injury, followed by skull base fractures, internal bleeding, lower limb haemorrhage, skull vault fractures, cervical spinal cord injury and airway compromise. The attribution of accident responsibility can be realised through reconstruction of road accident dynamics, investigation of the scene, survey of the vehicle involved and examination of the victim(s). A case study concerning a car accident where both humans and pets were involved is reported here. Investigation and reconstruction of the crime scene were conducted by a team consisting of forensic pathologists and forensic veterinarians. At the scene investigation, the pedestrian and his dog were recovered on the side of the road. An autopsy and a necropsy were conducted on the man and the dog, respectively. In addition, a complete inspection of the sports utility vehicle (SUV) implicated in the road accident was conducted. The results of the autopsy and necropsy were compared and the information was used to reconstruct the collision. This unusual case was solved through the collaboration between forensic pathology and veterinary forensic medicine, emphasising the importance of this kind of co-operation to solve a crime scene concerning both humans and animals.

  2. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    PubMed

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science.

  3. Behavior associated with forced copulation of juvenile Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) by southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Heather S.; Oates, Stori C.; Staedler, Michelle M.; Tinker, M. Tim; Jessup, David A.; Harvey, James T.; Miller, Melissa A.

    2010-01-01

    Nineteen occurrences of interspecific sexual behavior between male southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) and juvenile Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi) were reported in Monterey Bay, California, between 2000 and 2002. At least three different male sea otters were observed harassing, dragging, guarding, and copulating with harbor seals for up to 7 d postmortem. Carcasses of 15 juvenile harbor seals were recovered, and seven were necropsied in detail by a veterinary pathologist. Necropsy findings from two female sea otters that were recovered dead from male sea otters exhibiting similar behavior are also presented to facilitate a comparison of lesions. The most frequent lesions included superficial skin lacerations; hemorrhage around the nose, eyes, flippers, and perineum; and traumatic corneal erosions or ulcers. The harbor seals sustained severe genital trauma, ranging from vaginal perforation to vagino-cervical transection, and colorectal perforations as a result of penile penetration. One harbor seal developed severe pneumoperitoneum subsequent to vaginal perforation, which was also observed in both female sea otters and has been reported as a postcoital lesion in humans. This study represents the first description of lesions resulting from forced copulation of harbor seals by sea otters and is also the first report of pneu-moperitoneum secondary to forced copulation in a nonhuman animal. Possible explanations for this behavior are discussed in the context of sea otter biology and population demographics.

  4. Chronological study of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection, seroconversion and associated lung lesions in vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs.

    PubMed

    Sibila, M; Nofrarías, M; López-Soria, S; Segalés, J; Valero, O; Espinal, A; Calsamiglia, M

    2007-05-16

    A field trial was conducted to study Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) infection dynamics by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) and serology in pigs of a farm affected by enzootic pneumonia (EP). Moreover, correlation of Mh detection at different respiratory tract sites with presence of EP gross and microscopic lung lesions was assessed. These parameters were studied and compared between vaccinated (two doses at 1 and 3 weeks of age versus one dose at 6 weeks of age) and non-vaccinated pigs. Animals were monitored from birth to slaughter by nPCR from nasal swabs and by serology. From 3 to 22 weeks of age, an average of three pigs per treatment and per batch were necropsied (n = 302). The remaining pigs were sent to the slaughter (n = 103). Nasal, bronchial and tonsillar swabs were taken from the necropsied/slaughtered pigs; gross and microscopic EP-suggestive lung lesions were also assessed. Single and double vaccination resulted in earlier seroconversion and higher percentage of Mh seropositive pigs compared to control group. At slaughter, double vaccinated pigs showed lower percentage of EP-compatible gross lung lesions and lower Mh prevalence at upper respiratory tract sites (nasal cavity and tonsil) than control pigs.

  5. Ectopic pregnancy with associated gestational choriocarcinoma in a California sea lion (Zalophus californianus).

    PubMed

    Fravel, Vanessa A; Lowenstine, Linda J; Koehne, Amanda

    2016-07-07

    A wild-born, captive-reared, 14 yr old, primiparous female California sea lion Zalophus californianus presented for anorexia of 14 d duration and abdominal distention. Routine complete blood cell count revealed leukocytosis with a neutrophilia, and serum chemistry revealed hypoalbumenemia and hyponatremia. Treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories were started, but the animal continued to decline. Abdominal radiographs revealed a mature mineralized fetal skull and spine in the caudal abdomen and abdominal ultrasound revealed ascites but could not confirm the fetus. The patient was taken to surgery where a full term fetus was found outside of the uterus but within the fetal membranes, representing a secondary ectopic pregnancy. The patient passed away during surgery and was taken to necropsy. Gross necropsy revealed a diffuse peritonitis with yellow deposits over the serosal surfaces of the abdominal organs. The uterus appeared intact grossly and the ovaries appeared abnormal. The mesenteric, renal, and sub-lumbar nodes were enlarged and edematous. Histopathology revealed choriocarcinoma in the right uterine horn with evidence of chronic uterine rupture and protrusion of the placental tissue into the abdomen. The choriocarcinoma had metastasized locally as well as to the liver, spleen and lung. Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant trophoblastic neoplasm that is rare in domestic animals. This case represents, to the authors' knowledge, the first report of gestational choriocarcinoma causing secondary ectopic pregnancy in a California sea lion and presents questions regarding pregnancy monitoring and management in a population of captive, minimally trained California sea lions.

  6. The pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica for piglets.

    PubMed Central

    Schiemann, D A

    1988-01-01

    The pathogenicity of Yersinia enterocolitica, a bacterium that has been isolated frequently from healthy swine, was studied in piglets by oral challenge of two litters, one derived by cesarean section and deprived of colostrum, and the other delivered at full-term. Eight cesarean-derived piglets were divided into groups of two and challenged with four serotypes of Y. enterocolitica (O:8, O:21, O:3, O:13). Two deaths occurred and two piglets were killed because of severe illness before termination of the experiment eight days after challenge. Surviving piglets showed no clinical signs of illness. Rectal cultures were consistently positive and all cesarean-derived piglets were colonized in the small intestine and throat at necropsy. Full-term piglets were allowed access for 36 hours to sow colostrum containing low levels of antibody against the challenge strains. Six full-term piglets challenged with three serotypes of Y. enterocolitica (O:8, O:21, O:13) survived for 15 days without any signs of illness. These piglets had fewer positive rectal cultures and showed less extensive colonization of internal organs at necropsy than did cesarean-derived piglets. It is uncertain whether this increased resistance to infection with Y. enterocolitica resulted from colostrum-derived antibody, intestinal colonization with other bacteria, or an improved physical condition which accompanied full-term development. Nevertheless, the results of this challenge experiment suggest that piglets are capable of restricting colonization by Y. enterocolitica to the throat and intestinal tract without development of serious illness. PMID:3167717

  7. Forensic Entomology in Animal Cruelty Cases.

    PubMed

    Brundage, A; Byrd, J H

    2016-09-01

    Forensic entomology can be useful to the veterinary professional in cases of animal cruelty. A main application of forensic entomology is to determine the minimum postmortem interval by estimating the time of insect colonization, based on knowledge of the rate of development of pioneer colonizers and on insect species succession during decomposition of animal remains. Since insect development is temperature dependent, these estimates require documentation of the environmental conditions, including ambient temperature. It can also aid in the detection and recognition of wounds, as well as estimate the timing of periods of neglect. Knowledge of the geographic distribution of insects that colonize animal remains may suggest that there has been movement or concealment of the carcass or can create associations between a suspect, a victim, and a crime scene. In some instances, it can aid in the detection of drugs or toxins within decomposed or skeletonized remains. During animal cruelty investigations, it may become the responsibility of the veterinary professional to document and collect entomological evidence from live animals or during the necropsy. The applications of forensic entomology are discussed. A protocol is described for documenting and collecting entomological evidence at the scene and during the necropsy, with additional emphasis on recording geographic location, meteorological data, and collection and preservation of insect specimens.

  8. Farm history and breeding management influences on the intensity and specific diversity of nematode infection of dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Cabaret, J; Gasnier, N

    1994-06-01

    Sixteen dairy-goat farms were investigated in the centre-west of France for nematode infection. The intensity of infection was assessed by means of faecal egg counts and nematode counts at necropsy for digestive-tract nematodes and faecal larval counts for Muellerius capillaris. The specific diversity and prevalence were estimated by worm counts of 28 necropsied culled goats. The history and breeding management were recorded by means of a questionnaire. Specific diversity was estimated on two culled goats. Specific diversity and prevalence were related to the area of permanent pasture, age of farm, and to the number of goats introduced at the establishment of the farm. The most common species were Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Teladorsagia trifurcata was absent from zero-grazing farms. Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Oesophagostomum venulosum were present in significant numbers on only one farm out of 16. The importance of Haemonchus contortus varied from farm to farm. The historical and breeding management factors that influenced the proportions of the most common species were the age of farm, size of flock, percentage of Alpine breed, duration of kidding period, age of goats and number of farms of origin. Age of farm and size of flock exerted opposing effects on the proportions of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Trichostrongylus colubriformis, respectively. The historical and breeding management factors were confounded and their respective effects on infection and the proportions of species was difficult to assess.

  9. Toxicological assessment of enzyme-treated asparagus extract in rat acute and subchronic oral toxicity studies and genotoxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tomohiro; Ono, Tomoko; Sato, Atsuya; Goto, Kazunori; Miura, Takehito; Wakame, Koji; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    The safety of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) developed as a novel anti-stress functional material was assessed in acute and subchronic studies and genotoxicity assays. In the acute oral dose toxicity study, all rats survived during the test period and ETAS did not influence clinical appearance, body weight gain and necropsy findings at a dosage of 2000mg/kg body weight. Thus, the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of ETAS was determined to be greater than 2000mg/kg. The 90-day subchronic study (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg body weight, delivered by gavage) in rats reported no significant adverse effects in food consumption, body weight, mortality, urinalysis, hematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. In the micronucleus test of mice, the incidence of micronuclei in ETAS-administered groups (500, 1000 and 2000mg/kg/day, injected twice) was equivalent to that of the negative control group, while the positive control group receiving mitomycin C showed a high incidence. The potential of ETAS to induce gene mutation was tested using four Salmonella typhimurium strains and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA. The test sample was not mutagenic to the test strains. These results support the safety of ETAS as food and dietary supplement.

  10. Hepatotoxicity associated with pyrrolizidine alkaloid (Crotalaria spp) ingestion in a horse on Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Arzt, J; Mount, M E

    1999-04-01

    Since 1984, a significant number of privately owned and feral horses on Easter Island have died of a syndrome consisting of progressive anorexia, weight loss, obtundation, and other central nervous system abnormalities. A single horse experiencing clinical signs of the reported syndrome was identified, examined and necropsied. Clinical signs included inappetence, emaciation, ataxia and icterus. Gross necropsy findings included hepatic enlargement and mottling, ascites and gastric impaction. Histopathological lesions included hepatic hemorrhage and necrosis, periportal megalocytosis, portal fibrosis, bile duct hyperplasia and multinucleate hepatocytes. Crotalaria grahamiana and C pallida, were identified in the pasture of the presenting horse, and found to be widespread on the island. Alkaloid fingerprinting identified grahamine, monocrotalin, and a grahamine analog in C grahamiana. A retrorsine analog and a senecionine analog were identified in C pallida. The highly characteristic lesions and the identification of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in the 2 plants strongly suggest that ingestion of 1 or both of the Crotalaria species led to chronic liver damage and hepatic encephalopathy in the presenting horse. Widespread distribution of C grahamiana on the island and reported temporal and seasonal trends in incidence among horses and cattle suggest that C grahamiana may be responsible for extensive morbidity and mortality among horses and cattle on Easter Island.

  11. Pathology of experimental mycoplasmosis in American alligators.

    PubMed

    Brown, D R; Nogueira, M F; Schoeb, T R; Vliet, K A; Bennett, R A; Pye, G W; Jacobson, E R

    2001-10-01

    Mycoplasma alligatoris was the suspected etiology of an epidemic of acute multisystemic inflammatory disease which emerged in captive American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) in Florida (USA) in 1995. In an experimental inoculation study conducted from April through October 1999, 18 alligators were inoculated with 10(2), 10(4), or 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) of M. alligatoris by instillation into the glottis. As early as 1 wk post-inoculation (PI), mycoplasma were cultured from blood of three of six alligators inoculated with 10(6) CFU. Two of those died and the third was euthanatized within 4 wk PI. Necropsy gross findings included fibrinous polyserositis and polyarthritis. Histopathologic changes in affected individuals included pulmonary edema, interstitial pneumonia, pericarditis, myocarditis, meningitis, and synovitis. Mycoplasma were cultured quantitatively in high numbers from trachea, lung, coelomic cavity, liver, spleen, interior of pericardial sac, heart, blood, brain, and limb joints. In alligators inoculated with 10(6) CFU, heterophilia and moderate hyperglycemia peaked about 4 wk PI, and seroconversion occurred by 6 to 8 wk PI. Necropsy gross and histologic findings were generally unremarkable for the surviving alligators inoculated with 10(6) CFU, alligators inoculated with 10(2) or 10(4) CFU, and four uninoculated control alligators. Mycoplasma were not cultured at any time point from those alligators. The findings confirm that M. alligatoris can cause fulminant inflammatory disease and rapid death of alligators.

  12. Pathologic and physiologic effects associated with long-term intracoelomic transmitters in captive Siberian sturgeon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boone, S. Shaun; Divers, Stephen J.; Camus, Alvin C.; Peterson, Douglas C.; Jennings, Cecil A.; Shelton, James L.; Hernandez, Sonia M.

    2015-01-01

    Intracoelomic transmitters are commonly used to evaluate migratory patterns, distribution, and habitat use of many species of fish. Currently, transmitter implantation relies mostly on the assumption that transmitters do not cause any adverse physiological or pathological effects on the animal. To investigate these effects, we surgically implanted 60 Siberian Sturgeon Acipenser baeri with transmitters that weighed less than 2% of their body weight. Postoperative assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 8, 12, 26, and 55 weeks to evaluate surgical healing and transmitter retention. Blood samples were collected before and after the 55-week study for serum cortisol analysis. Overall transmitter loss was 32%. Minor to moderate adhesions were noted at necropsy but did not appear to affect organ function. One fish was noted to have an intraintestinal transmitter at necropsy, but the fish was in overall good health. Long-term transmitter presence does not appear to increase serum cortisol levels or affect overall growth more than nontransmitter fish. Although long-term telemetry studies can be undertaken with minimal concern for negative physiological or pathological effects from transmitters, researchers should be aware that transmitter loss rates may be higher than previously thought. Mechanisms for transmitter loss may include expulsion through the surgical incision, expulsion through the mucocutaneous junction between the large intestine and the vent, or intraintestinal capture and expulsion through the vent. Received February 10, 2013; accepted June 10, 2013

  13. Extensive myenteric ganglionitis in a case of equine chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction associated with EHV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Pavone, S; Sforna, M; Gialletti, R; Prato, S; Marenzoni, M L; Mandara, M T

    2013-05-01

    A 7-year-old male trotter horse with a history of recurrent colic displayed clinical findings consistent with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP). At laparotomy, an impaction of the descending colon associated with marked atrophy of the right dorsal colon was found. The horse was humanely destroyed and tissues collected at necropsy examination revealed diffuse enteric ganglionitis comprising an infiltrate of CD3(+) T lymphocytes and plasma cells. At all levels of the intestinal tract the number of myenteric ganglia and of normal ganglion cells was decreased significantly. There were chromatolytic or necrotic neurons and the amount of connective tissue surrounding ganglia was increased. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated slightly reduced expression of neuron-specific enolase and a moderate increase in expression of S100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein in a sample of right dorsal colon taken during the necropsy examination compared with a biopsy sample taken from the same location. Immunolabelling and semi-nested polymerase chain reaction for equine herpesvirus (EHV)-1 performed on the gut were positive, supporting an aetiological relationship between EHV-1 infection and the enteric ganglionitis.

  14. Single port laparoscopic long-term tube gastrostomy in Göttingen minipigs.

    PubMed

    Birck, M M; Vegge, A; Moesgaard, S G; Eriksen, T

    2015-07-01

    Oral dosing by gavage is often used to test compounds in minipigs. This method is also used for certain nutritional studies that require exact dosing. This procedure may be stressful for the animal and requires the assistance of more than one technician. We investigated whether a gastrostomy tube could be placed and maintained in Göttingen minipigs using a single port laparoscopic technique. As part of another study, laparoscopic gastrostomy tube placement was performed in 12 Göttingen minipigs (32 ± 2 kg) under general anesthesia. The procedure involved single port laparoscopic visualization of the stomach and placement of a locking pigtail catheter into the fundus region of the stomach. The minipigs were followed for three weeks after surgery and macroscopic and microscopic tissue reactions were evaluated at necropsy. All catheters were successfully placed and were easy to use. At necropsy it was evident that the catheter had entered the stomach in the fundus region in 11/12 of the animals. In one animal the catheter had entered the antrum region. None of the animals developed leakage or clinically detectable reactions to the gastrostomy tube. Histopathologically, only discrete changes were observed. Single port laparoscopic tube gastrostomy with a locking pigtail catheter is safe, simple and reliable and is an appropriate alternative to, for example, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, when long-term enteral delivery of pharmacological or nutritional compounds is needed. The use of the gastrostomy tube was easy and, based on subjective assessment, feeding was minimally stressful to the animals.

  15. Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia in captive crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus).

    PubMed

    Roh, Yoon-Seok; Park, Heejin; Cho, Hyun-Ung; Cho, Ara; Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul; Cho, Ho-Seong; Lim, Chae Woong; Kim, Bumseok

    2011-12-01

    Five 25-yr-old crocodiles (Crocodylus johnstoni and Crocodylus porosus) were diagnosed with Aeromonas hydrophila-associated septicemia accelerated by improper thermoregulation. At necropsy, pulmonary congestion and pleural effusion were the main lesions in the thorax. Necrotizing enteritis, intestinal hemorrhage, fibrinous serositis, hepatitis, and pancreatitis were observed in the abdominal cavities of all five crocodiles. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified in the pleural effusions and abdominal ascites of all necropsied crocodiles by using an API system 20NE. Aeromonas hydrophila infection and evaluation of virulence were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA and extracellular hemolysin gene. The crocodiles in the present case were housed in an indoor facility at a private zoo that failed to optimize land and water portions of the enclosure, exposing the animals to impeded thermoregulation, and it is suggested that the pathogenesis was accelerated by the improper thermoregulation-induced stress. This is the first description of A. hydrophila pathogenicity associated with impeded thermoregulation in reptiles.

  16. Pathology and causes of death of stranded cetaceans in the Canary Islands (1999-2005).

    PubMed

    Arbelo, Manuel; Los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa de; Herráez, Pedro; Andrada, Marisa; Sierra, Eva; Rodríguez, Francisco; Jepson, Paul D; Fernández, Antonio

    2013-03-26

    Between 1999 and 2005, 233 stranded cetaceans (comprising 19 species) were reported in the waters of the Canary Islands. Of these, 138/233 (59.2%) were subjected to a complete or partial standardized necropsy, including 4 Balaenopteridae, 9 Physeteridae, 8 Kogiidae, 27 Ziphiidae and 90 Delphinidae. Of these, 46/138 (33.3%) cetaceans were diagnosed with anthropogenic pathological categories (i.e. the cause of death was anthropogenic). These included fishing interaction (bycatch) (19 individuals), 'atypical' mass stranding events linked to naval exercises (13), ship collisions (8) and other anthropogenic-related pathology (6). 'Natural' (i.e. non-anthropogenic) causes of death accounted for another 82/138 (59.4%) cases, including infectious and non-infectious diseases (63), neonatal pathology (8), intra- and interspecific interactions (6) and mass strandings (5). The cause(s) of death could not be determined in 10/138 (7.3%) necropsied animals. The most common causes of death were ship collisions in 6/9 (66.6%) Physeteridae, 'atypical' mass stranding linked to naval exercises in 13/27 (48.1%) Ziphiidae, and 'natural' infectious and non-infectious diseases in 55/90 (61.1%) Delphinidae. Interaction with fishing activities was established as cause of death in 15/90 (16.7%) Delphinidae. These data show that a range of anthropogenic and natural single and mass mortality events occur in multiple cetacean species stranded in the Canary Islands.

  17. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (Equine Cushing's disease) in an onager (Equus hemionus onager).

    PubMed

    Peel, Alison J; Bouts, Tim; Flach, Edmund; Rivers, Sonja; Routh, Andrew

    2009-12-01

    Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), also known as Equine Cushing's disease, is most often diagnosed in older horses and ponies. To the authors' knowledge, there have been no reports of its diagnosis in captive nondomestic equids. A 13-yr old onager (Equus hemionus onager) at the Zoological Society of London (ZSL) Whipsnade Zoo showed clinical signs suggestive of PPID, including hirsutism, fat redistribution, weight loss, laminitis, and chronic infections. A dexamethasone suppression test was performed to confirm PPID. Subsequently, adenomatous hyperplasia and microadenoma of the pars intermedia were identified postmortem. Four months later, this onager's dam died suddenly, and adenomatous hyperplasia of the pars intermedia was diagnosed following necropsy. The dam had shown no clinical signs of PPID. Examination of archives identified eight other adult onagers that died or were euthanized between 1993 and 2007. The brain was not examined in four of these, but pituitary glands were described as enlarged during necropsy in three animals based on the subjective assessment of an experienced zoo and wildlife pathologist, making an overall prevalence of enlargement of 83.3%. Hyperplastic pituitary changes are positively correlated with age in domestic equids, and this may also be the case in onagers. Alternative etiologies are also discussed.

  18. Perosomus elumbis in a Holstein calf infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, E; Alpay, G; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Alasonyalilar-Demirer, A; Akgül, B; Inan-Ozturkoglu, S; Ozyigit, M O; Seyrek-Intas, D; Seyrek-Intas, K; Yesilbag, K; Gumen, A; Keskin, A

    2013-01-01

    The detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a female Holstein calf presented with perosomus elumbis, a congenital anomaly, is reported here. A cow with dystocia was evaluated and an abnormal dead calf was detected during vaginal examination. The calf was retrieved via caesarean section and exhibited abnormalities characteristic of PE, such as vertebral and pelvic malformations. These abnormalities were further confirmed using radiographic and necropsy examinations. At necropsy cerebellar hypoplasia was an additional finding, which is a typical lesion associated with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD). Several tissue samples from the calf were tested for the presence of antigens of BVDV and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) by ELISA. In addition, sera samples from the dam and calf were tested for the presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and bluetongue disease virus (BTV) using a virus neutralization assay. Results indicated that the calf was congenitally infected with BVDV, whereas there was no evidence for the presence of BHV-1 and BTV. In the dam's serum no antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and BTV were detected. Even though the etiology of perosomus elumbis is unknown, BVDV, which causes fetal anomalies at early gestation in cows, may have been a contributing factor in this case.

  19. Histopathologic and immunocytochemical studies of distemper in harbor porpoises.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, S; Smyth, J A; Cush, P F; McAliskey, M; McCullough, S J; Rima, B K

    1991-01-01

    During 1988 thousands of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) died in European seas as a result of morbillivirus infection. Six harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) found stranded on the coast of Northern Ireland in late 1988 were submitted to our laboratory for necropsy. Pneumonia was the main necropsy finding in three of these animals. Microscopic lung lesions characterized by necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and infiltration of alveoli with leukocytes, lymphoid cells, macrophages, and multinucleate syncytia were seen in all six porpoises. Cytoplasmic and nuclear acidophilic inclusions characteristic of morbillivirus infection were common in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells and in alveolar macrophages and syncytia. Brain alterations included degeneration and necrosis of neurons, microglial infiltration, and perivascular cuffing. There were cytoplasmic and nuclear acidophilic inclusions in many neurons. Immunoperoxidase staining of morbillivirus antigen was seen in many tissues including lung, brain, spleen, and urinary bladder. Alterations in our porpoises were similar to those seen in distemper in seals and many species of terrestrial mammals. Systemic viral disease has not previously been documented in Cetacea.

  20. Tissue sequestration of 'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis'.

    PubMed

    Novacco, Marilisa; Riond, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Grest, Paula; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2013-12-27

    'Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis' ('Candidatus M. turicensis') is a hemoplasma species that infects felids. It differs from other feline hemoplasma species due to its particular infection kinetics and phylogenetic similarity to rodent hemoplasma species. The lower and shorter bacteremia produced by 'Candidatus M. turicensis' suggests a possible tissue sequestration of the organism. The aim of this study was to explore this possibility. Five specified-pathogen free cats were subcutaneously inoculated with 'Candidatus M. turicensis' and sacrificed 86 days after inoculation. Thirty-one selected organs were collected upon necropsy, and samples were analyzed by real-time Taqman(®) PCR. The humoral immune response was monitored by DnaK ELISA. All five cats had detectable 'Candidatus M. turicensis' loads in the majority (52-100%) of the tested tissues. High 'Candidatus M. turicensis' tissue loads (average 3.46×10(4) copies/10 mg) were detected in the samples. The presence of the organisms in the tissues could not be explained by the blood burdens because the blood of four out of five cats tested PCR-negative at the time of necropsy. This is the first study to describe the distribution of 'Candidatus M. turicensis' in various organs; it also demonstrates that, in contrast to other feline hemoplasma species, significant sequestration of 'Candidatus M. turicensis' occurs in many tissues. These results represent an important step toward the understanding of the pathogenesis of 'Candidatus M. turicensis'.

  1. Dolphin Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii coinfection in a Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii have emerged as important pathogens for several cetaceans populations over the last 20 years, they have never been identified together in a Mysticete. In particular, morbilliviral infection has been never described in the Mediterranean fin whale population. Case presentation On January 2011 an adult male of fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) stranded along the Tyrrhenian coastline of Italy. During necropsy, tissue samples from heart, skeletal muscle, mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney were collected and subsequently analyzed for Morbillivirus and Toxoplasma gondii by microscopic and molecular methods. Following the detailed necropsy carried out on this whale, molecular analysis revealed, for the first time, the simultaneous presence of a Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) and T. gondii infection coexisting with each other, along with high organochlorine pollutant concentrations, with special reference to DDT. Conclusion This report, besides confirming the possibility for Mysticetes to be infected with DMV, highlights the risk of toxoplasmosis in sea water for mammals, already immunodepressed by concurrent factors as infections and environmental contaminants. PMID:22397492

  2. Clinical signs, treatment, and postmortem lesions in dairy goats with enterotoxemia: 13 cases (1979-1982).

    PubMed

    Blackwell, T E; Butler, D G

    1992-01-15

    Enterotoxemia attributable to Clostridium perfringens type D in goats is difficult to diagnose because of a lack of specific clinical signs or postmortem lesions, on which to base the diagnosis. This report describes the clinical signs, postmortem lesions, and clinical responses to treatment and vaccination in 4 goat herds, in which a diagnosis of enterotoxemia was confirmed. Four clinical cases had the diagnosis confirmed on the basis of signs of diarrhea or sudden death and the isolation of C perfringens and epsilon toxin from the feces at the time of admission. The 10 necropsy cases were diagnosed on the basis of the isolation of C perfringens (not typed) or epsilon toxin from the intestinal contents of goats that died with clinical signs compatible with enterotoxemia and without lesions associated with a second serious disease. Enterocolitis was the most consistent lesion reported at necropsy in the 10 goats with enterotoxemia. Ovine enterotoxemia vaccines were of limited value in preventing enterotoxemia. These observations imply that naturally induced enterotoxemia in goats involves a different pathophysiologic mechanism than that associated with enterotoxemia in sheep.

  3. PATHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RABIES VIRUS IN FERRET BADGERS ASSOCIATED WITH A RABIES OUTBREAK IN TAIWAN.

    PubMed

    Chiou, Hue-Ying; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Wang, Hurng-Yi; Inoue, Satoshi; Chan, Fang-Tse; Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Pang, Victor Fei

    2016-01-01

    Until Rabies virus (RABV) infection in Taiwan ferret badgers (TWFB; Melogale moschata subaurantiaca) was diagnosed in mid-June 2013, Taiwan had been considered rabies free for >50 yr. Although rabies has also been reported in ferret badgers in China, the pathologic changes and distribution of viral antigens of ferret badger-associated rabies have not been described. We performed a comprehensive pathologic study and molecular detection of rabies virus in three necropsied rabid TWFBs and evaluated archival paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of six other TWFBs necropsied during 2004 and 2012. As in other RABV-infected species, the characteristic pathologic changes in TWFBs were nonsuppurative meningoencephalomyelitis, ganglionitis, and the formation of typical intracytoplasmic Negri bodies, with the brain stem most affected. There was also variable spongiform degeneration, primarily in the perikaryon of neurons and neuropil, in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, and brain stem. In nonnervous system tissues, representative lesions included adrenal necrosis and lymphocytic interstitial sialadenitis. Immunohistochemical staining and fluorescent antibody test demonstrated viral antigens in the perikaryon of the neurons and axonal or dendritic processes throughout the nervous tissue and in the macrophages in various tissues. Similar to raccoons (Procyon lotor) and skunks (Mephitidae), the nervous tissue of rabid TWFBs displayed widely dispersed lesions, RABV antigens, and large numbers of Negri bodies. We traced the earliest rabid TWFB case back to 2004.

  4. Spatial relationships between Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) and cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis in Northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, Ana; González-Quirós, Pablo; Rodríguez, Óscar; Francisca Copano, M; Merediz, Isabel; de Juan, Lucía; Chambers, Mark A; Delahay, Richard J; Marreros, Nelson; Royo, Luis J; Bezos, Javier; Prieto, José M; Gortázar, Christian

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that badgers may be a potential reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis infection for cattle in Northern Spain. The objective of this study was to investigate potential epidemiological links between cattle and badgers. Culture and molecular typing data were available for cattle culled during the national tuberculosis (TB) eradication campaigns between 2008 and 2012, as well as from 171 necropsied badgers and 60 live animals trapped and examined over the same time period. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains were isolated from pooled tissues of 14 (8.2%) necropsied badgers, of which 11 were identified as M. bovis: six different spoligotypes of M. bovis were subsequently identified. In two geographical locations where these isolates were shared between cattle and badgers, infected cattle herds and badgers lived in close contact. Although it remains unclear if badgers are a maintenance or spill-over host of M. bovis in this setting, it would appear prudent to have precautionary measures in place to reduce contact between cattle and badgers.

  5. Interstitial pneumonia in neonatal canine pups with evidence of canine distemper virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pandher, Karamjeet; Podell, Brendan; Gould, Daniel H; Johnson, Bill J; Thompson, Sheri

    2006-03-01

    Four dead canine pups (5-12 days old) from 3 litters in Douglas County of north central Colorado were submitted to the Colorado State University Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. Pups were originally presented to the referring clinics for respiratory tract illness, with or without diarrhea. At necropsy, the lungs from all pups had similar lesions, including random foci of hemorrhage and failure to collapse on opening of the thoracic cavity. The lungs were histologically characterized by subacute interstitial pneumonia, with alveolar septa expanded by a histiocyte-rich infiltrate with a few lymphocytes and neutrophils. The alveolar spaces were filled with moderate amounts of proteinaceous fluid, foamy macrophages, and a few neutrophils. Lungs from 3 of the 4 pups were test positive for canine distemper virus (CDV) by use of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Immunohistochemically stained lungs, including those from the pup that were CDV negative, by use of RT-PCR analysis, were test positive for CDV antigen in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelial cells and in a few alveolar macrophages. Central nervous system lesions were not observed in any of the 4 pups. These cases represent an unusual presentation of canine distemper in neonatal pups marked by respiratory tract lesions without central nervous system involvement. Canine distemper should be considered in the differential diagnosis of neonatal canine respiratory tract illness.

  6. Inherited pelvic organ prolapse in the mouse: preliminary evaluation of a new murine model

    PubMed Central

    MCNANLEY, Anna R.; JOHNSON, Aimee M.; FLYNN, Michael K.; WOOD, Ronald W.; KENNEDY, Scott D.; REEDER, Jay E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives/Introduction To report the initial anatomic, radiographic, and genetic evaluations of a novel form of spontaneous pelvic organ prolapse (S-POP) in mice. Methods We observed S-POP in a colony of UPII-SV40T transgenic mice developed for studies on bladder cancer. We utilized magnetic resonance imaging and necropsy to characterize this finding. We have established a breeding colony to identify inheritance patterns and for future studies. Results Selective breeding isolated the S-POP phenotype from the transgene. In contrast to other animal models, the S-POP mouse does not require an obligatory antecedent event to manifest pelvic organ prolapse. Necropsy and imaging demonstrate significant displacement of the pelvic organs distal to the pelvic floor in both sexes. The appearance of the POP is similar to that seen in the human female phenotype. Preliminary breeding studies indicate an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. Conclusions This mouse may be an effective animal model for the study of POP in humans. PMID:18802654

  7. Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) at the California National Primate Research Center (1992–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Reader, J Rachel; Canfield, Don R; Lane, Jennifer F; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Ardeshir, Amir; Allen, A Mark; Tarara, Ross P

    2016-01-01

    Necropsy records and associated clinical histories from the rhesus macaque colony at the California National Primate Research Center were reviewed to identify mortality related to cardiac abnormalities involving left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Over a 21-y period, 162 cases (female, 90; male, 72) of idiopathic LVH were identified. Macaques presented to necropsy with prominent concentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle associated with striking reduction of the ventricular lumen. Among all LVH cases, 74 macaques (female, 39; male, 35), mostly young adults, presented for spontaneous (sudden) death; more than 50% of these 74 cases were associated with a recent history of sedation or intraspecific aggression. The risk of sudden death in the 6- to 9-y-old age group was significantly higher in male macaques. Subtle histologic cardiac lesions included karyomegaly and increased cardiac myocyte diameter. Pedigree analyses based on rhesus macaque LVH probands suggested a strong genetic predisposition for the condition. In humans, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is defined by the presence of unexplained left ventricular hypertrophy, associated with diverse clinical outcomes ranging from asymptomatic disease to sudden death. Although the overall risk of disease complications such as sudden death, end-stage heart failure, and stroke is low (1% to 2%) in patients with HCM, the absolute risk can vary dramatically. Prima facie comparison of HCM and LVH suggest that further study may allow the development of spontaneously occurring LVH in rhesus macaques as a useful model of HCM, to better understand the pathogenesis of this remarkably heterogeneous disease. PMID:27053572

  8. LESSONS FROM A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF A 5-YR PERIOD OF PRESHIPMENT TESTING AT SAN DIEGO ZOO: A RISK-BASED APPROACH TO PRESHIPMENT TESTING MAY BENEFIT ANIMAL WELFARE.

    PubMed

    Marinkovich, Matt; Wallace, Chelsea; Morris, Pat J; Rideout, Bruce; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The preshipment examination, with associated transmissible disease testing, has become standard practice in the movement of animals between zoos. An alternative disease risk-based approach, based on a comprehensive surveillance program including necropsy and preventive medicine examination testing and data, has been in practice since 2006 between the San Diego Zoo and San Diego Zoo Safari Park. A retrospective analysis, evaluating comprehensive necropsy data and preshipment testing over a 5-yr study period, was performed to determine the viability of this model for use with sending animals to other institutions. Animals (607 birds, 704 reptiles and amphibians, and 341 mammals) were shipped to 116 Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA)-accredited and 29 non-AZA-accredited institutions. The evaluation showed no evidence of the specific transmissible diseases tested for during the preshipment exam being present within the San Diego Zoo collection. We suggest that a risk-based animal and institution-specific approach to transmissible disease preshipment testing is more cost effective and is in the better interest of animal welfare than the current industry standard of dogmatic preshipment testing.

  9. One season of pasture exposure fails to induce a protective resistance to cyathostomes but increases numbers of hypobiotic third-stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M R; French, D D; Taylor, H W; Klei, T R

    2002-08-01

    The development of acquired resistance to cyathostome challenge after 1 season's exposure to a cyathostome-contaminated pasture was investigated using 17 parasite-naive ponies, which were 2-3 yr of age. These were divided into 3 groups: 1 to graze a cyathostome-contaminated pasture for 4 mo (exposed ponies), 1 to graze a "clean" pasture not previously grazed by parasitized animals (nonexposed ponies), and 1 group to remain in the barn under helminth-free conditions (parasite-free ponies). After pasture exposure all ponies were housed in stalls in the barn dewormed with ivermectin (200 micrograms/kg) and oxibendazole (100 mg/kg), a treatment that eliminated most cyathostomes encysted in the mucosa as well as all luminal parasites, on the basis of necropsies of 5 animals, after 17 days. Remaining ponies were challenged with 100,000 cyathostome-infective third-stage larvae (L3) per os 3 wk after anthelmintic treatment. Necropsies were performed 7 wk after the challenge. Total cyathostome burdens (luminal plus encysted stages) were not significantly different among any of the groups. However, a significantly higher percentage of hypobiotic early L3 (EL3) and a lower percentage of adults were found in exposed ponies. This observation supports the hypothesis that resistance acquired through exposure promotes cyathostome hypobiosis. This increase in EL3 in exposed ponies was associated with a significant increase in weight of cecum and ventral colon biopsies.

  10. Effect of feeding green onions (Allium ascalonicum) to White Chinese geese (Threskiornis spinicollis).

    PubMed

    Crespo, Rocio; Chin, R P

    2004-07-01

    Sudden increase in mortality was observed in 2 different flocks of mature breeder geese fed green onions. At necropsy, birds had pale epicardium with random petechiation, sanguinous fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac, and mild swelling of the liver and spleen. Histologically, there was accumulation of hemosiderin in hepatocytes, Kupffer cells of the liver, macrophages, and renal tubules. There was also moderate to severe hepatic necrosis, vacuolation of hepatocytes, splenitis, and renal tubular nephrosis. To assess the effects of green onion ingestion, 2 feeding trials were carried out in 3 mature White Chinese geese. In the first trial, onions were thoroughly mixed with pellet maintenance ration. In the second trial, onions were offered in a separate trough from the pelleted diet. During the 21 days of experiments, the red blood cell count and hematocrit decreased, whereas the polychromasia and reticulocyte estimate increased. The blood changes were more marked in birds from the second feeding trial. Gross and histologic changes were similar in both trials. Mild swelling and severe darkening of the liver were the only significant findings at necropsy. Histologically, the liver looked similar to that seen from the field outbreak. The liver contained moderate amounts of hemosiderin in the hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, and had centrolobular necrosis and vacuolation of hepatocytes. This experimental study demonstrated that anemia and liver pathology could be caused by ingestion of onions. Furthermore, Heinz bodies are not a consistent finding in the blood of geese fed onions.

  11. RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF MORTALITY IN THE NORTH AMERICAN CAPTIVE RED PANDA (AILURUS FULGENS) POPULATION, 1992-2012.

    PubMed

    Delaski, Kristina M; Ramsay, Edward; Gamble, Kathryn C

    2015-12-01

    Red pandas ( Ailurus fulgens ) are managed as captive populations in both North America and Europe. Regular review of pathology reports is a useful tool for developing veterinary care and husbandry strategies for such populations. Though thorough pathology reviews have been conducted for the European studbook, the North American population has not been reviewed similarly until now. Complete gross and histopathology reports were requested from institutions holding red pandas that died during 1992 through 2012 (n = 530), and reports were received for 95.8% of the individuals, including full necropsy records for 366 red pandas. These reports were classified by subspecies, gender, and age, then reviewed for primary cause of death and secondary pathological findings. A substantial portion of the deaths (40.2%) were neonates (<30 days of age). In both neonatal and juvenile (age = 31-365 days) animals, pneumonia was the most common cause of death. In adult (age = 366 days-10 yr) and geriatric red pandas (age >10 yr), cardiovascular disease was the most common cause of death. Renal disease and gastrointestinal disease also were common pathologic findings in adult and geriatric animals. These findings suggest that stress associated with captivity and husbandry practices, including those associated with social, environmental, and nutritional conditions, may contribute to immune and cardiovascular pathologies, and other common necropsy findings.

  12. Hepatic Lipidosis in a Research Colony of Big Brown Bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Jessica M; Treuting, Piper M; Brabb, Thea; Miller, Kimberly E; Covey, Ellen; Lencioni, Karen L

    2015-01-01

    During a nearby construction project, a sudden decrease in food intake and guano production occurred in an outdoor colony of big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus), and one animal was found dead. Investigation revealed that the project was generating a large amount of noise and vibration, which disturbed the bats’ feeding. Consequently the bats were moved into an indoor enclosure away from the construction noises, and the colony resumed eating. Over the next 3 wk, additional animals presented with clinical signs of lethargy, weight loss, ecchymoses, and icterus and were necropsied. Gross necropsy of the affected bats revealed large, pale yellow to tan, friable livers with rounded edges that floated when placed in 10% neutral-buffered formalin. Some bats had ecchymoses on the webbing and skin and gross perirenal hemorrhage. Histologic examination showed hepatic and renal tubular lipidosis. The clinical and pathologic signs of hemorrhage and icterus were suggestive of hepatic failure. Hepatic lipidosis was attributed to stress and inappetence associated with environmental perturbations. Once the environmental stressor was removed, the colony morbidity and mortality decreased. However, 2 y later, a series of new environmental stressors triggered additional deaths associated with hepatic lipidosis. Over a 9-y period, 21 cases of hepatic lipidosis were diagnosed in this bat colony. PMID:25926399

  13. Avian mycobacteriosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies avium in four ornamental birds and in vitro drug sensitivity testing of isolates.

    PubMed

    Stepień-Pyśniak, Dagmara; Puk, Krzysztof; Guz, Leszek; Wawrzyniak, Agata; Marek, Agnieszka; Kosikowska, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    Avian tuberculosis, one of the most important diseases affecting various species of birds, is most often caused by Mycobacterium (M.) avium. This report describes cases of M. avium subsp. avium (MAA) infection in a white-crested Holland dwarf rooster, a male and a female golden pheasant and a male peacock. We also investigated the prevalence of mycobacteria in 60 other birds and 40 alpacas. Tissue samples of necropsied birds were cultured for mycobacteria. From non-necropsied 60 other birds and alpacas only faecal samples were collected. Clinical signs in the affected white-crested Holland cock included gradual loss of body weight and hoarse attempts at crowing during its last 3 weeks, with a dramatic loss of body condition and depression over the final week. Only slight weakening was observed in the peacock just before its death, and the golden pheasants died suddenly. Diagnosis was confirmed by microbiological, molecular and pathological results. Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium strains were isolated from the internal organs of the affected birds. Only one faecal sample from 60 other birds was culture- and PCR-positive for M. avium subsp. avium, while another one was only PCR-positive for M. chelonae. We did not isolate any Mycobacterium spp. from faecal samples of alpacas and all of them were PCR-negative. All 18 isolated M. avium strains were resistant to rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, ethionamide, capreomycin and ofloxacin, and susceptible to cycloserine and streptomycin.

  14. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in round gobies in New York State (USA) waters of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groocock, G.H.; Getchell, R.G.; Wooster, G.A.; Britt, K.L.; Batts, W.N.; Winton, J.R.; Casey, R.N.; Casey, J.W.; Bowser, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    In May 2006 a large mortality of several thousand round gobies Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) occurred in New York waters of the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Necropsies of sampled fish from these areas showed pallor of the liver and gills, and hemorrhagic areas in many organs. Histopathologic examination of affected tissues revealed areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Inoculations of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820) cell cultures with dilutions of tissue samples from the necropsied gobies produced a cytopathic effect within 5 d post-inoculation. Samples of cell culture supernatant were tested using RT-PCR and confirmed the presence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Sequence analysis of the VHSV isolate resulted in its assignment to the type-IVb subgroup. The detection of VHSV in a relatively recent invasive fish species in the Great Lakes and the potential impact of VHSV on the ecology and economy of the area will require further investigation and careful management considerations. ?? Inter-Research 2007.

  15. Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia outbreak in captive wild ungulates at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation, State of Qatar.

    PubMed

    Arif, Abdi; Schulz, Julia; Thiaucourt, François; Taha, Abid; Hammer, Sven

    2007-03-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae is a highly contagious and serious respiratory disease of domestic goats, characterized by coughing, severe respiratory distress, and high mortality rates. The lesions at necropsy are mainly a fibrinous pleuropneumonia with increased straw-colored pleural fluid. An outbreak of CCPP in wild goat (Capra aegagrus), Nubian ibex (Capra ibex nubiana), Laristan mouflon (Ovis orientalis laristanica), and gerenuk (Litocranius walleri) occurred at Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation in the State of Qatar. The disease was suspected because of the clinical symptoms and the necropsy findings and was confirmed by the isolation and identification of the causative organism. This new finding indicates that CCPP should be considered a potential threat to wildlife and the conservation of endangered ruminant species, especially in the Middle East, where it is enzootic because of its presence in chronic carriers. Susceptible imported animals should be quarantined and vaccinated. The preferred samples for diagnosis are the pleural fluid, which contains high numbers of Mycoplasma, and sections of hepatized lung, preferably at the interface of normal and diseased tissues. Samples must be shipped to diagnostic laboratories rapidly, and appropriate cool conditions must be maintained during shipping.

  16. A rapid postmortem screening test for lead toxicosis in common loons (Gavia immer) and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus).

    PubMed

    Kornetsky, Rachel; Rock, Meagan; Pokras, Mark

    2013-07-01

    In live animals, lead poisoning can be diagnosed by analyzing blood samples. For postmortem testing, blood samples are not available and analysis of liver or kidney is often used for diagnosis. Liver and kidney analysis is relatively expensive and results might not be quickly available. We examined an inexpensive, rapid method to screen animals for lead toxicosis postmortem by testing the mixture of body fluids (termed "tissue fluids") that pool in the body cavity at necropsy for lead. At necropsy we collected body fluid and liver samples from Common Loon (Gavia immer) and Bald Eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) carcasses and determined concentrations of lead in tissue fluid using a desk-top blood lead analyzer. Concentrations of lead in liver were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. There was strong correlation between tissue fluid and liver tissue lead concentrations, and receiver-operating characteristic analysis gave an area under the curve of 0.91, indicating that postmortem measurements of lead in tissue fluids can be utilized as a screening method for lead toxicosis.

  17. Reproductive effects of alternative disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, B.D.; Barlett, P.; Basaran, A.; Colling, K.; Osis, I.; Smith, M.K.

    1986-11-01

    Organohalides formed through the reaction of chlorine and organic compounds in natural and waste waters pose potential health hazards. For this reason, alternative water disinfectants that do not form organohalides are being investigated with great interest. In this laboratory, the authors have examined the reproductive effects of chloramine and chlorine administered by gavage in Long-Evans rats. Animals were treated for a total of 66 to 76 days. Males were treated for 56 days and females for 14 days prior to breeding and throughout the 10-day breeding period. Females were treated throughout gestation and lactation. Following breeding, the males were necropsied and evaluated for sperm parameters and reproductive tract histopathology. Adult females and some pups were necropsied at weaning on postnatal day 21. Other pups were treated postweaning until 28 or 40 days of age. These pups were evaluated for the day of vaginal patency and thyroid hormone levels. No differences were observed between control rats and those rats exposed to up to 5 mg/kg/day chlorine or 10 mg/kg/day chloramine when fertility, viability, litter size, day of eye opening, or day of vaginal patency were evaluated. No alterations in sperm count, sperm direct progressive movement percent motility, or sperm morphology were observed among adult male rats. In addition, male and female reproductive organ weights were comparable to their respective control groups, and no significant histopathologic changes were observed among chlorine- or chloramine-treated male and female rats.

  18. Apparent tolerance of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) to the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Rattner, Barnett A; Whitehead, Maria A; Gasper, Grace; Meteyer, Carol U; Link, William A; Taggart, Mark A; Meharg, Andrew A; Pattee, Oliver H; Pain, Deborah J

    2008-11-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is extremely toxic to Old World Gyps vultures (median lethal dose -0.1-0.2 mg/kg), evoking visceral gout, renal necrosis, and mortality within a few days of exposure. Unintentional secondary poisoning of vultures that fed upon carcasses of diclofenac-treated livestock decimated populations in the Indian subcontinent. Because of the widespread use of diclofenac and other cyclooxygenase-2 inhibiting drugs, a toxicological study was undertaken in turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) as an initial step in examining sensitivity of New World scavenging birds. Two trials were conducted entailing oral gavage of diclofenac at doses ranging from 0.08 to 25 mg/kg body weight. Birds were observed for 7 d, blood samples were collected for plasma chemistry (predose and 12, 24, and 48 h and 7 d postdose), and select individuals were necropsied. Diclofenac failed to evoke overt signs of toxicity, visceral gout, renal necrosis, or elevate plasma uric acid at concentrations greater than 100 times the estimated median lethal dose reported for Gyps vultures. For turkey vultures receiving 8 or 25 mg/kg, the plasma half-life of diclofenac was estimated to be 6 h, and it was apparently cleared after several days as no residues were detectable in liver or kidney at necropsy. Differential sensitivity among avian species is a hallmark of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and despite the tolerance of turkey vultures to diclofenac, additional studies in related scavenging species seem warranted.

  19. Fatal hemoprotozoal infections in multiple avian species in a zoological park.

    PubMed

    Ferrell, Shannon T; Snowden, Karen; Marlar, Annajane B; Garner, Michael; Lung, Nancy P

    2007-06-01

    Over a 3-yr span, two juvenile lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor), two green jays (Cyanocorax yncas glaucescens), and two Montezuma oropendolas (Psarocolius montezuma) died peracutely with no premonitory signs at a zoological park in the southern United States. At necropsy, the birds were in excellent body condition. Except for one green jay, the coelomic cavities were filled with a dark serosanguineous fluid. Splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were present. The livers were tan to purple with numerous, randomly distributed red-to-black foci, ranging in size from 1 to 4 mm. The predominant histopathologic finding, except in one green jay, was large protozoal cysts in the hepatic parenchyma. Histologically, the protozoal cysts were restricted to the liver, and none were identified in the skeletal muscle, spleen, or other tissues. Frozen tissue samples harvested at necropsy had a nested polymerase chain reaction assay performed to amplify the mitochondrial cytochrome B gene of the protozoa. The amplified gene sequences were compared with reference cytochrome B gene sequences for avian Plasmodium spp., Haemoproteus spp., and Leucocytozoon spp. The protozoal parasite within the hepatic parenchyma from the Montezuma oropendolas and the lesser flamingos was identified as Haemoproteus spp. Both green jays had Plasmodium spp. isolated from the submitted tissue samples. The peracute nature of the infections precluded any successful medical intervention, making prevention by exclusion the principal means to control hemoprotozoal transmission. There are no reports in the literature documenting identified fatal hemoprotozoal infections in oropendolas, green jays, or lesser flamingos.

  20. Retrobulbar adenocarcinoma in an Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis).

    PubMed

    Watson, Victoria E; Murdock, Jessica H; Cazzini, Paola; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Divers, Stephen J; Sakamoto, Kaori

    2013-03-01

    Retrobulbar neoplasms are not common in mammals and are even more infrequently seen in nonmammalian species. The current report describes a retrobulbar mass creating exophthalmia and neurologic signs in a red-lored Amazon parrot (Amazona autumnalis). A 27-year-old female parrot presented for a 3-day history of anorexia and a 2-week history of periocular soft tissue swelling and exophthalmia of the right eye. Physical examination revealed 9% dehydration and right eye exophthalmia with inability to retropulse the globe. A fine-needle aspirate was performed, and cytologic evaluation revealed necrotic debris with scattered clusters of epithelial cells, moderate numbers of macrophages, and few heterophils. Given the possibility of neoplasia and paucity of treatment options, the owners elected euthanasia and submitted the body for necropsy. A large, fluctuant, friable, red, retrobulbar mass with multiple areas of hemorrhage, on cut surface, was noted at necropsy. Histologically, the mass was composed of neoplastic, cuboidal to columnar epithelial cells, forming rosette-like glandular structures, admixed with abundant necrotic debris. The neoplastic cells were strongly positive for cytokeratin (AE1/AE3) by immunohistochemistry. Based on histopathology and immunohistochemistry, the mass was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma.