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Sample records for necropsy

  1. Feedlot Euthanasia and Necropsy.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee

    2015-11-01

    Timely euthanasia of feeder cattle can minimize suffering of cattle that have little hope of recovery or pain abatement. Euthanasia techniques are described, including primary and secondary steps to ensure humane death. Considerations are discussed to ensure rendered product from euthanized cattle will be safe. A necropsy technique that is time efficient and thorough is outlined. An important aspect is minimizing the number of detached body organs, thereby making it easier to remove the necropsied animal. A necropsy data collection system is discussed that uses check-boxes to record findings. A link to a database that can be downloaded is included.

  2. Interpreting bruises at necropsy

    PubMed Central

    Vanezis, P

    2001-01-01

    The accurate interpretation of bruising at necropsy is essential to understanding how a victim has been injured and assists the pathologist in a reliable reconstruction of the events leading to death. It is essential not only to assess the mechanism of production of a bruise, taking into account the type of impacting surface and the magnitude of force used, but also to estimate when the injury was caused. An account is given of the various methods used in the examination of bruises, particularly with respect to aging, as well as the factors that may affect their appearance. Differentiation from artefacts resulting from postmortem changes is also discussed in some detail. Key Words: bruising • necropsy • time of death • cause of death PMID:11328832

  3. Performing the field necropsy examination.

    PubMed

    Mason, Gary L; Madden, Dennis J

    2007-11-01

    This article is designed to aid the practitioner by maximizing the effectiveness of field postmortem diagnostic investigations. Contents include an outline of the procedure for field necropsy of ruminants, recommended tools and supplies, and guidelines for sample collection and submission.

  4. Parasitology and necropsy of fish.

    PubMed

    Weber, E P Scott; Govett, Pam

    2009-02-01

    Parasitic diseases are common in fish. Diagnosis can be made through gill biopsy, skin cytology, fecal examination, or necropsy. Common parasites include protozoa, helminths, and crustaceans. Determining the cause of death in a fish is important for maintaining the health of other fish in the same environment. Due to rapid autolysis, fish necropsies should be performed promptly after death. Samples should be preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin. Squash preparations, tissue imprints, microbiology, and virology are also useful in obtaining a diagnosis.

  5. Spontaneous haematomyelia: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Leech, R W; Pitha, J V; Brumback, R A

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous haematomyelia (intramedullary spinal haematoma), is an uncommon event. Predisposing conditions have been reported including syringomyelia, pregnancy and delivery, angioma, spinal artery aneurysm, and haemophilia, but only rarely has a pathological evaluation been performed. Two such cases studied at necropsy are reported. In one case, the haematoma was restricted to the cervical spinal cord, while in the second case it extended from the medulla into the lowest thoracic cord segments. In both cases the haematomyelia was fatal. In the first case the clinical course was subacute, but in the other the course was more acute. Careful neuropathological examination showed no apparent cause for the haemorrhages. Images PMID:2019846

  6. NHETS − Necropsy Heart Transplantation Study

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Thiago Ninck; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Benvenuti, Luiz Alberto; Issa, Victor Sarli; Bacal, Fernando; Chizzola, Paulo Roberto; Souza, Germano Emilio Conceição; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; dos Santos, Ronaldo Honorato Barros; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2014-01-01

    Background Discrepancies between pre and post-mortem diagnoses are reported in the literature, ranging from 4.1 to 49.8 % in cases referred for necropsy, with important impact on patient treatment. Objective To analyze patients who died after cardiac transplantation and to compare the pre- and post-mortem diagnoses. Methods Perform a review of medical records and analyze clinical data, comorbidities, immunosuppression regimen, laboratory tests, clinical cause of death and cause of death at the necropsy. Then, the clinical and necroscopic causes of death of each patient were compared. Results 48 deaths undergoing necropsy were analyzed during 2000-2010; 29 (60.4 %) had concordant clinical and necroscopic diagnoses, 16 (33.3%) had discordant diagnoses and three (6.3%) had unclear diagnoses. Among the discordant ones, 15 (31.3%) had possible impact on survival and one (2.1%) had no impact on survival. The main clinical misdiagnosis was infection, with five cases (26.7 % of discordant), followed by hyperacute rejection, with four cases (20 % of the discordant ones), and pulmonary thromboembolism, with three cases (13.3% of discordant ones). Conclusion Discrepancies between clinical diagnosis and necroscopic findings are commonly found in cardiac transplantation. New strategies to improve clinical diagnosis should be made, considering the results of the necropsy, to improve the treatment of heart failure by heart transplantation. PMID:24759949

  7. Optimizing research animal necropsy and histology practices.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, Victoria; Rippy, Marian

    2015-05-01

    Reduction in animal numbers is an important tenet of laboratory animal research. Research animals should undergo complete necropsy at the close of a study to yield valuable information about the effects and safety of experimental manipulations. Proper and thorough tissue collection, storage and assessment are paramount in attaining the most efficient use of animals in research.

  8. Necropsy incidence of emphysema in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Aled W.; Madda, P. J.

    1974-01-01

    Jones, A. W. and Madda, P. J. (1974).Thorax, 29, 195-198. Necropsy incidence of emphysema in Uganda. The incidence and types of pulmonary emphysema and the degree of dust pigmentation of the lungs were investigated in a series of 183 necropsies in Uganda. Emphysema was present in 43 (23·5%) lungs. Panlobular or centrilobular emphysema was found in 17 cases, an overall incidence of 9·3% (10·4% of the 135 males and 6·3% of the 48 females). It was generally of mild degree and the mean lung involvement, as assessed by a point counting method, was 9·2% in the 17 cases described above. Panlobular and centrilobular emphysema occurred in the older age groups; 13 of the 17 cases were 50 years old or more. The remaining 26 cases consisted of irregular (scar) emphysema which occurred in trace amounts (less than 1%). Dust pigmentation was present in all 17 cases of emphysematous lungs and was generally more severe than in the non-emphysematous lungs. The incidence of emphysema in this predominantly rural population is low and is similar to that found in Ibadan, Nigeria. PMID:4831525

  9. Necropsy findings in neonatal asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Turkel, S B; Diehl, E J; Richmond, J A

    1985-01-01

    Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy is an autosomal recessive disorder characterised by an abnormally small thorax, variable shortening of the extremities, and pelvic anomalies. Renal and pancreatic symptoms are found in longer survivors, although most cases die in infancy of respiratory failure. Seven neonatal cases were studied at necropsy. These cases ranged in gestational age from 32 to 40 weeks. One was stillborn and the other six survived from 1 hour to 10 days. Two were sibs born to consanguineous parents. Dwarfing was not pronounced and the extremities were shortened in only one infant who also had polydactyly. All seven showed visceral changes in addition to abnormalities of bone. Endochondral ossification was irregular in sections of femur, vertebra, and rib. Pulmonary hypoplasia was associated with the small thorax typical of this disorder. Periportal fibrosis and bile duct proliferation were seen in sections of liver, and in one case cirrhosis was found. Pancreatic fibrosis was variable. These necropsy findings correlate with later clinical manifestations of the disease and emphasise the multisystem nature of this disorder. Images PMID:3989824

  10. Field necropsy of cattle and diagnostic sample submission.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Dee

    2012-11-01

    Field necropsies can provide a wealth of information that can help guide production management decisions. Techniques outlined can allow a veterinary practitioner to complete a thorough necropsy of a bovine, including examination of the brain when indicated, in less than 20 minutes. An observation and history collection system using form templates and photographs is outlined that improves efficiency of recording necropsy results. One key to necropsy efficiency, speed, and enjoyment is having sharp knives. The first part of the article includes tips for sharpening knives. The article also includes detailed information on appropriate diagnostic specimen handling, packaging, and shipping.

  11. Videos have a role in postgraduate necropsy education

    PubMed Central

    Burton, J L; Diercks-O’Brien, G; Rutty, G N

    2004-01-01

    Aims: This is the first study to investigate the usefulness of structured, scripted videos as an adjunct to the mortuary based training of histopathology trainees in necropsy techniques. Methods: Four structured and scripted videos describing aspects of necropsy health and safety, evisceration, general dissection techniques, specialist dissection techniques, and reconstruction were shown to histopathology trainees attending the 2001 University of Sheffield short course on the autopsy. Delegates who agreed to participate in the study were asked to complete a short questionnaire seeking Likert-type and free text responses concerning the usefulness of the videos in postgraduate necropsy training. Free text responses were analysed using a themed content analysis. Results: All 38 delegates who viewed the videos agreed to participate in the study. Of these, 35 found the videos enjoyable and 34 found them interesting. Thirty one felt the videos enhanced their learning experience. Advantages of the videos included the ability to learn about specialist techniques rarely encountered in the mortuary, the ability to teach large numbers of students at once, allowing students to learn at their own pace, and as a tool for revision. Repetition between the videos, a lack of interactivity, and a lack of sufficient detail on general necropsy techniques were felt by participants to be the principal disadvantages of this teaching tool. Conclusions: Videos are an acceptable teaching tool for students. They have a valuable role to play as an adjunct to dissection in teaching junior histopathology trainees about specialist necropsy dissection techniques. PMID:15280412

  12. The Veterinary Forensic Necropsy: A Review of Procedures and Protocols.

    PubMed

    Brownlie, H W Brooks; Munro, R

    2016-09-01

    Investigation of animal-related crime, and therefore submission of forensic cases to veterinary pathology facilities, is increasing, yet many veterinary pathologists are unfamiliar and often uncomfortable with involvement in the forensic necropsy. This article discusses various aspects of the forensic necropsy without specific attention to any particular species group or crime. General advice is given on procedures, documentation, and recording of the examination, and the article indicates how these features may differ from those used in investigation of natural disease. It also discusses evidence management, including recordkeeping, identification of evidence, labeling of photographs, and use of standard operating procedures and protocols. Various written and visual methods for documentation of the forensic necropsy are covered, and adjunctive topics such as sample collection, assessment, and description of wounds and taphonomy are included. Cause, mechanism, and manner of death are defined, and guidance to the use of these terms is given. The aim of this article is to offer guidance on procedural aspects of the forensic necropsy that will help those developing their forensic services, contribute to standardization of the provision of forensic veterinary pathology, and build the confidence of the "uncomfortable" forensic veterinary pathologist. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Salmonella transmission through splash exposure during a bovine necropsy.

    PubMed

    Bemis, David A; Craig, Linden E; Dunn, John R

    2007-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from two adult cows and a veterinary pathologist who performed a necropsy examination on one of the cows. The isolates had indistinguishable phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. A splash exposure was the suspected means of transmission of the human infection. Veterinary practices and other at-risk occupations should establish site-specific infection control plans and review recommendations for use of facial protection measures during procedures that may produce splashes or aerosols.

  14. Seasonal variation in the necropsy incidence of massive pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Green, J; Edwards, C

    1994-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the seasonal incidence of massive pulmonary embolism at necropsy. METHODS--Massive pulmonary embolism was defined as a recent thromboembolus occluding the pulmonary trunk or one or both main pulmonary arteries and constituting the main cause of death. A total of 4289 necropsies carried out at East Birmingham Hospital from 1979 to 1988 was reviewed. The number of subjects with massive pulmonary embolism was noted and the accumulated percentage for each calendar month was calculated. RESULTS--Massive pulmonary embolism was found in 13.02% of necropsies carried out in April; in September and October the percentage rose to 14.29 and 14.19, respectively, after falling to 8.04 and 7.80 in June and July. In January and February the incidence fell again to about 9%. CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of massive pulmonary embolism at East Birmingham Hospital is highest in the spring and autumn. Investigation of the seasonal incidence in arctic and tropical areas would be of interest. PMID:8132811

  15. Marine Mammal Necropsy: An Introductory Guide for Stranding Responders and Field Biologists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    may establish the cause for stranding or other mortalities. The necropsy generates a series of gross observations that establishes a differential...the gross necropsy is primarily about making detailed, descriptive observations without bias as to possible etiology. The necropsy should establish a...The morphologic diagnosis reflects subsequent histological 13 observations where available which are designated with an asterisk. Where histology is not

  16. The use of computer imaging technology to facilitate the capture of feedlot necropsy information.

    PubMed Central

    Wildman, B K; Schunicht, O C; Jim, G K; Guichon, P T; Booker, C W; Tollens, R A

    2000-01-01

    The collection of necropsy information is an integral component of veterinary feedlot consulting. Computer imaging technology can be employed to facilitate the capture of feedlot necropsy data. A digital camera is used to capture necropsy images. Subsequently, the images are electronically transferred to a central site for veterinary interpretation and diagnosis. Images Figure 1. PMID:10723598

  17. The Incidence of Chronic Peptic Ulcer Found at Necropsy

    PubMed Central

    Watkinson, Geoffrey

    1960-01-01

    In this study the frequency of gastric, duodenal, and stomal ulcer has been determined in a survey at necropsy. This survey is likely to be much more accurate than those previously reported, as it has been a “forward planned” one and conducted by a group of men interested in this subject. In retrospective studies it is always impossible to know how carefully a particular point has been checked. It has been concluded from this study that the best estimate of the incidence of ulcer in the population as a whole can be made from the frequency of ulcers found in patients dying from causes other than peptic ulcer. The incidence of such active ulcers accords closely with clinical experience in life. PMID:13843102

  18. Unsupervised clustering of wildlife necropsy data for syndromic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of wildlife disease surveillance is increasing, because wild animals are playing a growing role as sources of emerging infectious disease events in humans. Syndromic surveillance methods have been developed as a complement to traditional health data analyses, to allow the early detection of unusual health events. Early detection of these events in wildlife could help to protect the health of domestic animals or humans. This paper aims to define syndromes that could be used for the syndromic surveillance of wildlife health data. Wildlife disease monitoring in France, from 1986 onward, has allowed numerous diagnostic data to be collected from wild animals found dead. The authors wanted to identify distinct pathological profiles from these historical data by a global analysis of the registered necropsy descriptions, and discuss how these profiles can be used to define syndromes. In view of the multiplicity and heterogeneity of the available information, the authors suggest constructing syndromic classes by a multivariate statistical analysis and classification procedure grouping cases that share similar pathological characteristics. Results A three-step procedure was applied: first, a multiple correspondence analysis was performed on necropsy data to reduce them to their principal components. Then hierarchical ascendant clustering was used to partition the data. Finally the k-means algorithm was applied to strengthen the partitioning. Nine clusters were identified: three were species- and disease-specific, three were suggestive of specific pathological conditions but not species-specific, two covered a broader pathological condition and one was miscellaneous. The clusters reflected the most distinct and most frequent disease entities on which the surveillance network focused. They could be used to define distinct syndromes characterised by specific post-mortem findings. Conclusions The chosen statistical clustering method was found to be a

  19. Cadmium concentrations in human renal cortex tissue (necropsies)

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Artiguez, M.; Repetto, M.; Camean, A.; Gonzalez, G.

    1995-06-01

    Cadmium is toxic to most living organisms. It occurs as part of different types of rocks, sedimentation sludges, coals and mineral oils; in minerals, cadmium (Cd) is frequently associated with zinc. Its world wide presence and considerable industrial use has given rise to an increase in its content in trophic food chains, which contribute mainly to human exposure. Oral absorption is relatively low and is influenced by the solubility of the compound, type of diet, and individual nutritional state. Interest in Cd contamination began after the outbreak of itai-itai disease in Japan. Evaluation of Cd contamination has been carried out in all the countries of the European Economic Community, and it has been estimated that in Spain emissions to the atmosphere and water are respectively 6.89 and 3.79% of total emissions in the European Communities. After exposure, the kidney is the organ which contains the highest concentrations of the Cd and retains it longest. When critical body concentration is reached, renal malfunction and damage are produced. Moreover, studies on humans not occupationally exposed to Cd show 50% of the body burden is found in the kidneys. Cd in the renal cortex increases with age, reaching a maximum between 40-60 years. Differences found among populations have been associated with daily intake in the diet and smoking habits. Taking into consideration the lack of studies on factors influencing the Cd burden in renal cortex in our country, the aim of the present paper was to find out the levels of Cd in renal cortex samples obtained from necropsies of inhabitants of Andalusia, Spain, and compare them with levels in other populations not occupationally exposed to the element; also to investigate the influence of individual factors, such as sex, age and drug addition on said Cd levels. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.40 Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy... captive cervid was classified, and who is trained in tuberculosis necropsy procedures. (2) If, upon..., the captive cervid will be considered negative for tuberculosis. (3) Reactors, suspects, and exposed...

  1. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANIMAL PRODUCTS TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.40 Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy... captive cervid was classified, and who is trained in tuberculosis necropsy procedures. (2) If, upon..., the captive cervid will be considered negative for tuberculosis. (3) Reactors, suspects, and exposed...

  2. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of risk factors for a primary necropsy diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Murray, G M; Cassidy, J P; Clegg, T A; Tratalos, J A; McClure, J; O'Neill, R G; Sammin, D J; Casey, M J; McElroy, M; Earley, B; Bourke, N; More, S J

    2016-09-15

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a multifactorial disease and the primary cause of both bovine morbidity and mortality in Ireland. The risk factors associated with a primary necropsy diagnosis of BRD among cattle in the traditional (non-feedlot) husbandry systems prevalent in Ireland have not been investigated previously. The aim of this case-control study was to investigate those risk factors among cattle of all ages over an 8 year period. A total of 3,090 BRD cases and 5,236 controls were matched by submitting veterinary practitioner. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to examine the association of selected animallevel, herd-level and environmental risk factors with case or control status using a conditional logistical regression model. Male cattle aged more than 31 days were significantly more likely to record a primary necropsy diagnosis of BRD than female cattle. Older cattle of both sexes were at increased odds of a BRD necropsy diagnosis than younger calves with the exception of female cattle aged greater than 165 days. The risk of a primary necropsy diagnosis of BRD increased with increasing herd size and decreased with increasing time in days since the last animal movement into the submitting herd. There were significantly reduced odds of a primary necropsy diagnosis of BRD in the summer (June to August) when compared with the autumn (September to November). These findings identify significant risk factors for a necropsy diagnosis of BRD under non-feedlot-type husbandry conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Branded with the letter “T” high on the left hip near the tailhead and at least 5 by 5 centimeters (2 by 2..., sprayed on the left ear with yellow paint, and either accompanied directly to necropsy or slaughter by an... left hip near the tailhead and at least 5 by 5 centimeters (2 by 2 inches) in size; or (ii)...

  4. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Branded with the letter “T” high on the left hip near the tailhead and at least 5 by 5 centimeters (2 by 2..., sprayed on the left ear with yellow paint, and either accompanied directly to necropsy or slaughter by an... left hip near the tailhead and at least 5 by 5 centimeters (2 by 2 inches) in size; or (ii)...

  5. Procedures for the salvage and necropsy of the dugong (Dugong dugon)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eros, Carole; Marsh, Helene; Bonde, Robert K.; O'Shea, Thomas A.; Beck, Cathy A.; Recchia, Cheri; Dobbs, Kirstin; Turner, Malcolm; Lemm, Stephanie; Pears, Rachel; Bowater, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Data and specimens collected from dugong carcasses and live stranded individuals provide vital information for research and management agencies. The ability to assign a cause of death (natural and/or human induced) to a carcass assists managers to identify major threats to a population in certain areas and to evaluate and adapt management measures. Data collectedfrom dugong carcasses have contributed to research in areas such as life history, feeding biology, investigating the stock structure/genetics of dugongs, contaminants studies, heavy metal analyses, parasitology, and the effects of habitat change. Adapted from the 'Manual of Procedures for the Salvage and Necropsy of Carcasses of the West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus),' this manual provides a detailed guide for dugong (Dugong dugon) carcass handling and necropsy procedures. It is intended to be used as a resource and training guide for anyone involved in dugong incidents who may lack dugong expertise.

  6. Chronic brainstem encephalitis with mental symptoms and ataxia: report of three cases with necropsy.

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, T; Takahata, N

    1978-01-01

    Three necropsied cases of chronic, sporadic brainstem encephalitis of unknown aetiology are presented. Since their outstanding symptoms were dementia and ataxia of a progressive nature, a noninflammatory disease of the central nervous system was suspected. Neuropathological studies showed chronic inflammatory changes mainly in the brainstem without the presence of inclusion bodies or viral particles. Compared to cases previously reported as brainstem encephalitis, the clinical and pathological findings observed in these cases have rather peculiar characteristics. Images PMID:671063

  7. Quantitative scintigraphy: Relation to unperfused volume at necropsy, immediately and 1 week after coronary occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Goodenday, L.S.; Wilkerson, R.D.; Leighton, R.F.; Muswick, G.J.; Hire, N.E.; Nelson, A.D.; Brewster, P.; Yasnoff, W.A.

    1985-05-01

    Interventions such as thrombolytic therapy, designed to preserve jeopardized myocardium after coronary thrombosis, suffer from inadequate scientific validation because of present limitations in the ability to measure the cardiac volume at risk initially, or to predict the eventual volume of unperfused tissue in the absence of intervention. To determine whether the unimpeded change in perfused myocardial volume over time could be predicted accurately in vivo, Tl-201 quantitative scintigraphy was performed in 10 dogs at 5 minutes and at 1 week after closed-chest coronary artery occlusion (CAO). Initial and final ischemic cardiac volumes (ICV) were measured at necropsy by autoradiography: Initial ICV from Ce-141 microspheres injected into the left ventricle 5 minutes after CAO and final ICV from autoradiography of Tl-201 given 1 week after CAO. Planar scintigrams were computer-analyzed with a quantitative anatomically-referenced technique. Early scintigraphic perfusion defect (SPD) size was closely related to initial ICV measured at necropsy, r=.93. SPD size decreased predictably by 50% during 1 week. Late SPD size correlated with final ICV at necropsy, r=.92. Size of the SPD 5 minutes after CAO predicted both size of the SPD 1 week later, r=.87, and also final ICV, r=.92. These data demonstrate that: 1) after acute canine CAO without therapeutic intervention, SPD size becomes predictably smaller with time; 2) this change reflects a change in the volume of ischemic myocardium; 3) quantitative scintigraphy accurately predicts both early and late ischemic cardiac volume as confirmed at autopsy.

  8. A necropsy-based descriptive study of dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C S; Garry, F B; Lombard, J E; Kidd, J A; Hill, A E; Gould, D H

    2009-05-01

    Increasing levels of dairy cow mortality pose a challenge to the US dairy industry. The industry's current understanding of dairy cow mortality is reliant upon descriptions largely based on producer or veterinary assumptions regarding cause of death without the benefit of detailed postmortem evaluations. A thorough necropsy is a superior tool for establishing a cause of death, except for cases involving euthanasia for traumatic accidents or severe locomotor disorders. Information provided from a necropsy examination would be most valuable if it were categorized and combined with cow health information in a complete postmortem evaluation designed to guide future management decisions. The objective of this study was to describe dairy cow deaths on a Colorado dairy over a 1-yr period and explore classification systems for necropsy findings that might inform management actions aimed at reducing dairy cow mortality. Throughout the study period a thorough necropsy examination was performed on every cow that died. Based upon this examination each death was characterized by a proximate cause (i.e., the most likely immediate cause of the death). Each proximate cause of death was then categorized using 3 alternate schemes founded on generalized etiologic principles and influenced by previous clinical history and treatments. These schemes included the broad categories commonly used for classifying findings within a review of literature related to dairy cow mortality, a diagnostic scheme used within the problem-oriented veterinary medical record, and an analysis focusing on the primary physiologic system derangement for each death. A total of 2,067 cows were enrolled during the study period of which 1,468 cows freshened, 507 cows were sold, and 94 cows died, resulting in a mortality risk of 6.4 deaths per 100 lactations at risk. The distribution of deaths by parity was significantly different from the herd distribution at the end of study with the largest percentage of death

  9. Differentiation at necropsy between in vivo gas embolism and putrefaction using a gas score.

    PubMed

    Bernaldo de Quirós, Yara; Saavedra, Pedro; Møllerløkken, Andreas; Brubakk, Alf O; Jørgensen, Arve; González-Díaz, Oscar; Martín-Barrasa, Jose L; Fernández, Antonio

    2016-06-01

    Gas bubble lesions consistent with decompression sickness in marine mammals were described for the first time in beaked whales stranded in temporal and spatial association with military exercises. Putrefaction gas is a post-mortem artifact, which hinders the interpretation of gas found at necropsy. Gas analyses have been proven to help differentiating putrefaction gases from gases formed after hyperbaric exposures. Unfortunately, chemical analysis cannot always be performed. Post-mortem computed tomography is used to study gas collections, but many different logistical obstacles and obvious challenges, like the size of the animal or the transport of the animal from the stranding location to the scanner, limit its use in stranded marine mammals. In this study, we tested the diagnostic value of an index-based method for characterizing the amount and topography of gas found grossly during necropsies. For this purpose, putrefaction gases, intravenously infused atmospheric air, and gases produced by decompression were evaluated at necropsy with increased post-mortem time in New Zealand White Rabbits using a gas score index. Statistical differences (P<0.001) were found between the three experimental models immediately after death. Differences in gas score between in vivo gas embolism and putrefaction gases were found significant (P<0.05) throughout the 67h post-mortem. The gas score-index is a new and simple method that can be used by all stranding networks, which has been shown through this study to be a valid diagnostic tool to distinguish between fatal decompression, iatrogenic air embolism and putrefaction gases at autopsies.

  10. The prevalence of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome in Sydney, Australia: a prospective necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, C; Gold, J; Rodriguez, M; Perdices, M

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective necropsy study, the prevalence of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) in Sydney, Australia was 2.1% of adults over the age of 15 years. The population studied encompassed a wide spectrum of socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. Abuse of alcohol appeared to be the major predisposing factor to the development of the WKS in cases which were adequately documented. This high prevalence rate is in line with other clinical and pathological Australian studies and provides additional support for the idea of prevention of the WKS by the use of thiamin supplements in the Australian diet in flour, bread and perhaps alcoholic beverages. PMID:2784828

  11. Simple method for necropsy dissection of the abdominal organs after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Culora, G A; Roche, W R

    1996-01-01

    This paper illustrates a simple method of necropsy dissection of the abdominal organs after abdominal surgery. The organs are removed in one block as per the method described by Letulle. A retroperitoneal approach is then used. Structures are dissected away in a series of layers using the vasculature for guidance. This technique permits the examination of important structures in the postoperative abdomen which would otherwise be extremely difficult and time consuming using conventional methods. The anatomy is demonstrated without being obscured by the contents of the peritoneal cavity. Images PMID:9038770

  12. The floating heart or the heart too fat to sink: analysis of 55 necropsy patients.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W C; Roberts, J D

    1983-12-01

    Certain clinical and morphologic findings are described in 55 patients whose hearts at necropsy contained so much fat that they floated in water. The patients were 47 to 89 years old (mean 67). Symptomatic coronary heart disease was present in 28 (51%) and valvular heart disease (mitral stenosis) in 3 (5%). The heart at necropsy was enlarged (greater than 350 g for women and greater than 400 g for men) in 45 patients (82%). The mean heart weight for the 31 women was 470 g and for the 24 men, 515 g. In addition to the severe increase in fat in the atrioventricular sulci and over both ventricles, the amount of fat in the atrial septum was increased in all patients. In 14 patients (25%), the thickness of the atrial septum cephaled to the fossa ovale was greater than or equal to 2 cm. Excessive fat in this location is called "lipomatous hypertrophy of the atrial septum." Of the 16 patients (29%) with fatal acute myocardial infarction, 7 (44%) had rupture of either the left ventricular free wall or ventricular septum. The high frequency of cardiac rupture in these patients supports the contention that rupture during acute myocardial infarction is more common in the fatty than in the non-fatty heart.

  13. Accidental infection of veterinary personnel with Mycobacterium tuberculosis at necropsy: a case study.

    PubMed

    Posthaus, H; Bodmer, T; Alves, L; Oevermann, A; Schiller, I; Rhodes, S G; Zimmerli, S

    2011-05-05

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the main cause of human tuberculosis. Infection in companion animals is mainly acquired from close contact to a diseased human patient and hence rarely diagnosed in countries with low tuberculosis incidence rates. Therefore the general awareness of the disease might be low. Here we report the potential risk of infection for veterinary personnel with M. tuberculosis during the clinical and pathological examination of a dog with unexpected disseminated tuberculosis. The dog had presented with symptoms of a central nervous system disease; rapid deterioration prevented a complete clinical workup, however. Post-mortem examination revealed systemic mycobacteriosis, and M. tuberculosis was identified by PCR amplification of DNA extracts from paraffin-embedded tissue sections and spoligotyping. Contact investigations among the owners and veterinary personnel using an IFN-γ release assay indicated that the index dog did not infect humans during its lifetime. Serological and IFN-γ release assay results of one of two cats in direct contact with the index dog, however, suggested that transmission of M. tuberculosis might have occurred. Importantly, all three pathologists performing the necropsy on the dog tested positive. Accidental infection was most likely due to inhalation of M. tuberculosis containing aerosols created by using an electric saw to open the brain cavity. As a consequence routine necropsy procedures have been adapted and a disease surveillance program, including tuberculosis, has been initiated. Our results highlight the importance of disease awareness and timely diagnosis of zoonotic infectious agents in optimizing work safety for veterinary personnel.

  14. Electrocution of Raptors on Power Lines: A Review of Necropsy Methods and Findings.

    PubMed

    Kagan, R A

    2016-09-01

    Decades after the problem was first identified, power line electrocution continues to be a cause of avian mortality. Currently, several federal laws protect eagles and other migratory birds, meaning that utility companies may be liable for electrocution-related deaths. Veterinarians and veterinary pathologists called upon to diagnose and treat electrocuted birds should keep this in mind when conducting clinical and postmortem examinations. This review details necropsy findings and methods used to diagnose electrocution. A combination of gross, subgross, and radiographic examinations can aid in identification of subtle injury. Diagnosis is made based on the presence of skin and/or feather burns. Other necropsy findings may include skin lacerations, subcutaneous burns, bruising, limb avulsion, hemopericardium, and vascular rupture. At the US Fish and Wildlife Service's National Forensics Laboratory, from 2000 to 2015, 417 raptor deaths were determined to have been caused by electrocution. Bald eagles and golden eagles were the most commonly submitted species. In a retrospective review of 377 cases, for which whole bodies were submitted, 18% of the electrocuted birds had only a single, small (less than 3 cm in diameter) external burn. Small, isolated burns tended to occur on the undersides of the wings at and distal to the elbow and on the lower legs and feet. These areas should be most carefully examined in cases where electrocution injury is not immediately apparent.

  15. Clinical and necropsy findings associated with increased mortality among American alligators of Lake Griffin, Florida.

    PubMed

    Schoeb, Trenton R; Heaton-Jones, Terrell G; Clemmons, Roger M; Carbonneau, Dwayne A; Woodward, Allan R; Shelton, Diane; Poppenga, Robert H

    2002-04-01

    From December, 1997, through November, 2000, 306 deaths were documented among adult and subadult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) of Lake Griffin, Florida (USA). Some live alligators were lethargic and unresponsive to approach. To determine the cause, we examined ten alligators captured from Lake Griffin between December 1997 and June 1999. Initially, four alligators, three of which were clinically unresponsive, were sacrificed for routine diagnostic necropsy. The other six Lake Griffin alligators, and five control alligators captured from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge, Florida, where mortality was negligible, were studied extensively by clinical neurologic examination, electromyography, hematology, serum chemical analyses, and blood culture, then sacrificed and necropsied. Samples of brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, skeletal muscle, and major internal organs were examined by light microscopy for abnormalities. Samples of nervous tissue also were examined by electron microscopy, and samples of various tissues were collected for toxicologic analyses. Clinical signs included swimming in circles, inability to submerge, lethargy, weakness, unresponsiveness, slow reflexes, dragging the dorsal surfaces of the hind feet, head tilt, and anisocoria. Lake Griffin alligators had significantly lower distal sciatic nerve conduction velocities than Lake Woodruff alligators, and the most severely affected alligators had the lowest velocities; but morphologic abnormalities in peripheral nerves were not evident in most cases. Three severely affected alligators had acute focal necrosis of the torus semicircularis in the midbrain, two had skeletal myofiber atrophy, another had diffuse nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis, and one mildly affected alligator had skeletal myodegeneration. The cause or causes have not yet been identified.

  16. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-01-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse. PMID:3170770

  17. Dipentyl Phthalate F1 Male rat necropsy data, requested by a ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a dataset, and it has no abstract. See the manuscript for additional information. Gray LE Jr, Furr J, Tatum-Gibbs KR, Lambright C, Sampson H, Hannas BR, Wilson VS, Hotchkiss A, Foster PM. Establishing the "Biological Relevance" of DipentylPhthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels. Toxicol Sci. 2016 Jan;149(1):178-91. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfv224. Epub 2015 Oct 9. PubMed PMID: 26454885; PubMed CentralPMCID: PMC4715258. Dipentyl Phthalate F1 Male rat necropsy data from our 2016 publication. These data were requested by a mathematical statistician in NCEA that is using the data for nested BMD calculations for their ongoing assessment of this phthalate. We continue to provide NCEA and other regulatory groups data on the phthalates for their assessments.

  18. Histological analysis of parotid and submandibular glands in chronic alcohol abuse: a necropsy study.

    PubMed

    Scott, J; Burns, J; Flower, E A

    1988-08-01

    A quantitative histological analysis of the major salivary glands was carried out at necropsy in 28 alcoholics and in a series of age and sex matched controls. The findings were related to the different types of histologically diagnosed liver disease present. Significant quantitative changes of salivary gland structure were noted in cirrhosis but not in other forms of alcoholic liver disease. In cirrhotic subjects the parotid contained proportionally more adipose but less acinar tissues than in controls. The submandibular gland showed a proportional increase in adiposity and reduction in fibrovascular tissues but no noticeable reduction in its acinar proportional volume. Neither grossly detectable parotid enlargement nor acinar hypertrophy, a feature which has previously been noted as characteristic of alcoholic sialadenosis, were evident in this series. These findings provide little structural support for the reportedly increased secretory capacity of salivary glands in chronic alcohol abuse.

  19. Non-accidental injuries found in necropsies of domestic cats: a review of 191 cases.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Adriana; Cassiano, Fabiana Cecília; de Albuquerque Landi, Marina Frota; Marlet, Elza Fernandes; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2012-10-01

    Animal cruelty is defined as a deliberate action that causes pain and suffering to an animal. In Brazil, legislation known as the Environmental Crimes Law states that cruelty toward all animal species is criminal in nature. From 644 domestic cats necropsied between January 1998 and December 2009, 191 (29.66%) presented lesions highly suggestive of animal cruelty. The main necroscopic finding was exogenous carbamate poisoning (75.39%) followed by blunt-force trauma (21.99%). Cats from 7 months to 2 years of age were the most affected (50.79%). In Brazil, violence is a public health problem and there is a high prevalence of domestic violence. Therefore, even if laws provide for animal welfare and protection, animals are common targets for violent acts. Within a context of social violence, cruelty toward animals is an important parameter to be considered, and the non-accidental lesions that were found are evidence of malicious actions.

  20. Necropsy findings in dogs that died during grooming or other pet service procedures.

    PubMed

    Maria, Anna Carolina Barbosa Esteves; Rego, Alexandre Aparecido Mattos da Silva; Maiorka, Paulo César

    2013-09-01

    Procedures involved in grooming, bathing, and other pet services can often lead animals to death. Of the necropsies of 1391 animals carried out at a private diagnostic laboratory in Sao Paulo, Brazil from 2004 to 2009, 94 were dogs that died during the above-mentioned procedures. Young male dogs and small breeds like Poodle Miniature, Yorkshire Terrier, and Lhasa Apso were most frequently observed. Blunt-force trauma was responsible for the deaths of 31% of the animals, with a higher incidence of trauma to the head, characterized chiefly by fractures and nervous tissue lesions. In the other 69% of cases, the animals showed signs of stress, and died due to pulmonary edema and hemorrhage. As we cannot rule out the intentional character in some situations, this article provides veterinary forensic support for veterinarians and pet owners, especially in lawsuits, helping in finding the cause of animal's death in such pet services. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Incidence of BVDV1 and BVDV2 infections in cattle submitted for necropsy in Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Liebler-Tenorio, E M; Kenklies, S; Greiser-Wilke, I; Makoschey, B; Pohlenz, J F

    2006-10-01

    The incidence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) 1 and 2 infections was determined in calves, young cattle and older cattle with signs of mucosal disease (MD) submitted for necropsy to three laboratories in Northern Germany between June 2000 and May 2001. At necropsy, tonsils, retropharyngeal lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph nodes, ileal Peyer's patch and spleen were collected and examined by immunohistochemistry and virus isolation. From 311 animals examined, 30 (9.6%) were positive for BVDV. All viral isolates were typed by polymerase chain reaction after reverse transcription using species-specific primers and determined to be BVDV1. Based on the distribution of lesions and viral antigen, animals with MD, persistent infection (PI) and acute, transient infection could be distinguished. Twelve of the positive animals had characteristic signs of MD: severe diarrhoea, erosive to ulcerative lesions throughout the digestive tract and severe depletion of all lymphoid tissues. Viral antigen was present in all tissues and cell types, but particularly in depleted lymphoid follicles and altered epithelium. In seven calves, viral antigen was detectable in all tissues and cell types, but lesions were mild or missing. This is typical for PI. The remaining 11 calves most likely represent animals with acute, transient infection. Distribution of antigen was more variable, predominantly restricted to lymphoid follicles and often not seen in all tissues examined. Clinical findings were combined bronchopneumonia and enteritis. The detection of BVDV1 in young calves with pneumonia and enteritis emphasizes the importance of BVDV1 and not only BVDV2 for severe respiratory and enteric diseases of calves.

  2. Clinical and necropsy observations early after simultaneous replacement of the mitral and aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W C; Sullivan, M F

    1986-11-15

    Clinical and necropsy findings are described in 54 patients, aged 25 to 83 years (mean 53), who died within 60 days of simultaneous replacements of both mitral and aortic valves. The patients were separated into 4 groups on the basis of the presence of stenosis (with or without associated regurgitation) or pure regurgitation of each valve: 30 patients (56%) had combined mitral and aortic valve stenosis; 12 patients (22%) had mitral stenosis and pure aortic regurgitation; 8 patients (15%) had pure regurgitation of both valves; and 4 patients (7%) had pure aortic regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Necropsy examination in the 54 patients disclosed a high frequency (48%) of anatomic evidence of interference to poppet or disc movement in either the mitral or aortic valve position or both. Anatomic evidence of interference to movement of a poppet or disc in the aortic valve position was twice as common as anatomic evidence of interference to poppet or disc movement in the mitral position. Interference to poppet movement is attributable to the prosthesis's being too large for the ascending aorta or left ventricular cavity in which it resided. The ascending aorta is infrequently enlarged in patients with combined mitral and aortic valve dysfunction irrespective of whether the aortic valve is stenotic or purely regurgitant. Likewise, the left ventricular cavity is usually not dilated in patients with combined mitral and aortic valve stenosis, the most common indication for replacement of both left-sided cardiac valves. Of the 54 patients, 12 (22%) had 1 mechanical and 1 bioprosthesis inserted. It is recommended that both substitute valves should be mechanical prostheses or both should be bioprostheses.

  3. Incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis in middle aged finnish men, 1981-91: two necropsy series.

    PubMed Central

    Pajarinen, J.; Laippala, P.; Penttila, A.; Karhunen, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and testicular tissue morphology have changed in middle aged Finnish men over 10 years. DESIGN: Two necropsy series completed in 1981 and in 1991. SETTING: Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland. SUBJECTS: 528 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Scoring of spermatogenesis and morphometric analysis of testicular tissue components. Individual risk factors for testicular disorders obtained by postmortem blind interviews with acquaintances. RESULTS: Normal spermatogenesis was found in 41.7% of the men (mean age 53.1 years). Between 1981 and 1991, the ratio of normal spermatogenesis decreased significantly (odds ratio 3.5; 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 5.1) from 56.4% to 26.9%, with a parallel increase in the incidence of partial and complete spermatogenic arrest (2.1; 1.4 to 2.9 and 2.9; 1.7 to 5.0, respectively). During this period, the size of seminiferous tubules decreased, the amount of fibrotic tissue increased, and the weight of testicles decreased significantly. Alterations in testicular characteristics over time could not be explained by changes in body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, or exposure to drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of normal spermatogenesis decreased among middle aged Finnish men from 1981 to 1991, and the incidence of disorders of spermatogenesis and pathological alterations in testicles increased. Deteriorating spermatogenesis may thus be one important factor in the explanation of declining sperm counts observed worldwide. PMID:9001473

  4. Disinfection protocols for necropsy equipment in rabies laboratories: Safety of personnel and diagnostic outcome.

    PubMed

    Aiello, Roberta; Zecchin, Barbara; Tiozzo Caenazzo, Silvia; Cattoli, Giovanni; De Benedictis, Paola

    2016-08-01

    In the last decades, molecular techniques have gradually been adopted for the rapid confirmation of results obtained through gold standard methods. However, international organisations discourage their use in routine laboratory investigations for rabies post-mortem diagnosis, as they may lead to false positive results due to cross-contamination. Cleaning and disinfection are essential to prevent cross-contamination of samples in the laboratory environment. The present study evaluated the efficacy of selected disinfectants on rabies-contaminated necropsy equipment under organic challenge using a carrier-based test. The occurrence of detectable Rabies virus (RABV) antigen, viable virus and RNA was assessed through the gold standard Fluorescent Antibody Test, the Rabies Tissue Culture Infection Test and molecular techniques, respectively. None of the tested disinfectants proved to be effective under label conditions. Off label disinfection protocols were found effective for oxidizing agents and phenolic, only. Biguanide and quaternary ammonium compound were both ineffective under all tested conditions. Overall, discordant results were obtained when different diagnostic tests were compared, which means that in the presence of organic contamination common disinfectants may not be effective enough on viable RABV or RNA. Our results indicate that an effective disinfection protocol should be carefully validated to guarantee staff safety and reliability of results. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Causes of mortality in sea ducks (Mergini) necropsied at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skerratt, L.F.; Franson, J.C.; Meteyer, C.U.; Hollmén, Tuula E.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors were identified as causes of mortality in 254 (59%) of 431 sea ducks submitted for necropsy at the USGS-National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin from 1975 until 2003. Bacteria causing large outbreaks of mortality were Pasteurella multocida and Clostridium botulinum Type E. Starvation was responsible for large mortality events as well as sporadic deaths of individuals. Lead toxicity, gunshot and exposure to petroleum were important anthropogenic factors. Other factors that caused mortality were avian pox virus, bacteria (Clostridium botulinum Type C, Riemerella anatipestifer and Clostridium perfringens), fungi (Aspergillus fumigatus and an unidentified fungus), protozoans (unidentified coccidia), nematodes (Eustrongylides spp.), trematodes (Sphaeridiotrema globulus and Schistosoma spp.), acanthocephalans (Polymorphus spp.), predation, cyanide and trauma (probably due to collisions). There were also a number of novel infectious organisms in free-living sea ducks in North America, which were incidental to the death, including avipoxvirus and reovirus, bacteria Mycobacterium avium, protozoans Sarcocystis sp. and nematodes Streptocara sp. Apart from anthropogenic factors, the other important mortality factors listed here have not been studied as possible causes for the decline of sea ducks in North America.

  6. Histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in thoroughbred mares in Japan: results from 50 necropsy cases.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Michiko; Maeda, Yousuke; Oikawa, Masa-Aki

    2014-01-01

    Uteri from 50 necropsied nonpregnant Japanese Thoroughbred brood mares (1-30 years of age) were investigated to clarify the histopathological characteristics of endometrosis in Japanese Thoroughbred mares and the distribution pattern of endometrosis lesions in the uterus as a whole. Endometrosis was observed in all animals over 6 years of age and in all of the 21 mares aged over 12 years of age. The affected mares showed elastofibrosis of arteries, veins and lymphatic vessels in the uterine wall, atrophy of the uterine smooth muscle layers and hyperplasia of collagen fibers among the smooth muscle fascicles of the myometrium, in addition to pathomorphologic features of endometrosis such as stromal endometrial fibrosis accompanied by endometrial atrophy, periglandular fibrosis and reduction of uterine glands. The severity of the histopathological changes increased with advancing age. Lymphatic vessels with elastofibrosis showed marked lymph congestion, leading to lymphatic edema. With increasing age, the extent of the distribution of these lesions tended to expand from focal to diffuse involvement of the entire uterus. Based on these findings, we speculate that aging plays a role in the pathogenesis of endometrosis; circulatory disturbances due to intrauterine angiosis or angiopathy, particularly reduction of the arterial blood supply and disturbance of venous drainage, resulting in a reduction of lymphatic drainage (lymphatic edema), are closely related to the onset and progression of endometrial fibrosis and myometrial atrophy with fibroplasia may result in myometrial hypofunction during the peri-implantation or puerperal period.

  7. Psychological Autopsy and Necropsy of an Unusual Case of Suicide by Intravenous Toluene

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ranganath R.; Hemanth Kumar, RG; Kulkarni, Pratibha R.; Kotabagi, Raghavendra B.

    2015-01-01

    Toluene (methylbenzene; volatile hydrocarbon) is an industrial solvent that causes major injury to the lungs; the organ being the first capillary bed encountered. We report an unusual case of suicide by a 24-year-old male, paramedical professional, with fatal outcome within 16 h of intentional, intravenous self-administration of toluene, with clinical presentation of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Psychological autopsy revealed severe depressive disorder and solvent (inhalant) abuse, with marital disharmony as the precipitating stressor for suicide. Necropsy revealed diffuse congestion of internal organs like lungs and liver, epicardial petechial hemorrhages, and gastric hemorrhages. Treatment of toluene poisoning includes supportive care as no specific antidote is available. Early and aggressive management may be conducive to a favorable outcome with minimal residual pulmonary sequelae. Relevant literature of toluene poisoning was identified via PubMed, PubChem, ToxNet, Hazardous Substances Data Bank (HSDB), Embase, and PsycINFO. To our knowledge, this is the first case of suicide by intravenous administration of toluene in the literature. PMID:25969615

  8. Survey of necropsy results in captive red wolves (Canis rufus), 1992-1996.

    PubMed

    Acton, A E; Munson, L; Waddell, W T

    2000-03-01

    Through the Red Wolf Species Survival Plan, the captive red wolf (Canis rufus) population was developed with the intent of reestablishing wild populations. One part of the plan was a survey for diseases that might occur as a result of population homogeneity or that might impede breeding success and reintroduction. For this survey, complete necropsies and histopathologic analyses were performed on 62 red wolves from 1992 to 1996. Major causes of 22 neonatal deaths were parental trauma, parasitic pneumonia, and septicemia. Common neonatal lesions included pododermatitis and systemic ascariasis. Cardiovascular anomalies and systemic parasitism were found in two juveniles. Causes of death in the 38 adults included conspecific trauma, neoplasia, or gastrointestinal diseases such as necrotizing enteritis, intestinal perforation, and gastric volvulus. Lymphosarcoma represented 50% of the fatal neoplasms. Three adults died from cardiovascular failure or hyperthermia during handling, and several adults were euthanized for suspected genetic diseases. Overall, the captive population had few significant health problems, but population fitness might be improved by continued removal of potentially deleterious genes from the breeding population and by modifying the husbandry of neonates and adults.

  9. Residues of environmental pollutants and necropsy data for Eastern United States ospreys, 1964-1973

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemeyer, S.N.; Lamont, T.G.; Locke, L.N.

    1980-09-01

    Thirty-three ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) that were found dead or moribund in the Eastern United States between 1964 and 1973 were necropsied. The brains and carcasses of 26 of these birds were analyzed for organochlorines. The livers of 18 and the kidneys of 7 were analyzed for selected metals. Most adults were recovered in April and May and most immatures were recovered in August through October. The adult sex ratio was highly unbalanced in favor of females. Major causes of mortality were impact injuries, emaciation, shooting, and respiratory infections. Of special interest were two birds with malignant tumors and one with steatitis. Many birds had undergone marked weight losses resulting in mobilization and redistribution of organochlorine residues. Organochlorines were detected in the birds at the following percentages: DDE 100%, PCB 96%, DDD 92%, dieldrin 88%, chlordanes (including nonachlors) 82%, DDT 65%, and heptachlor epoxide 38%. Organochlorine levels tended to be higher in adults than in immatures. One adult from South Carolina had a potentially dangerous level of dieldrin in its brain, which might have contributed to its death. Immature ospreys from Maryland had extremely elevated levels of copper in their livers compared with immatures from other areas and all adults. One immature from Maryland had an elevated level of arsenic in its liver, which might have contributed to its death. One adult from Florida that had died of impact injuries had potentially dangerous levels of mercury in both liver and kidney and slightly elevated levels of cadmium in these tissues. Additional birds appeared to have been exposed to contamination of the environment by arsenic and mercury. The levels of chromium, zinc, and lead in livers appeared normal.

  10. Environmental pollutant and necropsy data for ospreys from the eastern United States, 1975-1982

    SciTech Connect

    Wiemeyer, S.N.; Schmeling, S.K.; Anderson, A.

    1987-04-01

    Twenty-three ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) found dead or moribund in the eastern United States during 1975-1982 were necropsied and selected tissues were analyzed for organochlorines and metals. Major causes or factors contributing to death were trauma, impact injuries, and emaciation. DDE was detected in 96% of the osprey carcases, DDD in 65%, DDT and heptachlor epoxide in 13%, dieldrin, oxychlordane, and cis-nonachlor in 35%, cis-chlordane in 52%, trans-nonachlor in 45%, and PCB's in 83%. Carcasses of immature ospreys from the Chesapeake Bay had significantly lower concentrations of DDE, DDD + DDT, cis-chlordane, and PCB's than carcasses of adults from the same area. Concentrations of some organochlorines in ospreys from the Chesapeake Bay declined significantly from 1971-1973 to 1975-1982. Significant differences in concentrations of certain metals in the ospreys' livers were noted between time periods, and sex and age groups for birds from the Chesapeake Bay. During 1975-1982, adults had significantly lower concentrations of chromium, copper, and arsenic than immatures and nestlings, and adult males had higher mercury concentrations than adult females. Adult females had lower zinc concentrations in 1975-1982 than in 1971-1973. Immatures and nestlings had higher concentrations of chromium and lead in 1975-1982 than in 1971-1973. A slightly elevated concentration of chromium (1.7 ppm) or arsenic (3.2 ppm) was found in the livers of individual ospreys. Several ospreys had elevated concentrations of mercury in their livers; two ospreys had more than 20 ppm which may have contributed to their deaths.

  11. Residues of environmental pollutants and necropsy data for eastern United States ospreys, 1964-1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Lamont, T.G.; Locke, L.N.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-three ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) that were found dead or moribund in the Eastern United States between 1964 and 1973 were necropsied. The brains and carcasses of 26 of these birds were analyzed for organochlorines. The livers of 18 and the kidneys of 7 were analyzed for selected metals. Most adults were recovered in April and May and most immatures were recovered in August through October. The adult sex ratio was highly unbalanced in favor of females. Major causes of mortality were impact injuries, emaciation, shooting, and respiratory infections. Of special interest were two birds with malignant tumors and one with steatitis. Many birds had undergone marked weight losses resulting in mobilization and redistribution of organochlorine residues. Organochlorines were detected in the birds at the following percentages: DDE l00%, PCB 96%, DDD 92%, dieldrin 88%, chlordanes (including nonachlors) 82%, DDT 65%, and heptachlor epoxide 38%. Organochlorine levels tended to be higher in adults than in immatures. One adult from South Carolina had a potentially dangerous level of dieldrin in its brain, which might have contributed to its death. Immature ospreys from Maryland had extremely elevated levels of copper in their livers compared with immatures from other areas and all adults. One immature from Maryland had an elevated level of arsenic in its liver, which might have contributed to its death. One adult from Florida that had died of impact injuries had potentially dangerous levels of mercury in both liver and kidney and slightly elevated levels of cadmium in these tissues. Additional birds appeared to have been exposed to contamination of the environment by arsenic and mercury. The levels of chromium, zinc, and lead in livers appeared normal.

  12. Environmental pollutant and necropsy data for ospreys from the eastern United States, 1975-1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Schmeling, S.K.; Anderson, A.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-three ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) found dead or moribund in the eastern United States during 1975-1982 were necropsied and selected tissues were analyzed for organochlorines and metals. Major causes or factors contributing to death were trauma, impact injuries, and emaciation. DDE was detected in 96% of the osprey carcases, DDD in 65%, DDT and heptachlor epoxide in 13%, dieldrin, oxychlordane, and cis-nonachlor in 35%, cis-chlordane in 52%, trans-nonachlor in 45%, and PCB's in 83%. Carcasses of immature ospreys from the Chesapeake Bay had significantly lower concentrations of DDE, DDD + DDT, cis-chlordane, and PCB's than carcasses of adults from the same area. Concentrations of some organochlorines in ospreys from the Chesapeake Bay declined significantly from 1971-1973 to 1975-1982. Significant differences in concentrations of certain metals in the ospreys' livers were noted between time periods, and sex and age groups for birds from the Chesapeake Bay. During 1975-1982, adults had significantly lower concentrations of chromium, copper, and arsenic than immatures and nestlings, and adult males had higher mercury concentrations than adult females. Adult females had lower zinc concentrations in 1975-1982 than in 1971-1973. Immatures and nestlings had higher concentrations of chromium and lead in 1975-1982 than in 1971-1973. A slightly elevated concentration of chromium (1.7 ppm) or arsenic (3.2 ppm) was found in the livers of individual ospreys. Several ospreys had elevated concentrations of mercury in their livers; two ospreys had more than 20 ppm which may have contributed to their deaths.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of cats in Denmark assessed by necropsy and concentration McMaster technique.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi-Storm, N; Mejer, H; Al-Sabi, M N S; Olsen, C S; Thamsborg, S M; Enemark, H L

    2015-12-15

    The large population of feral cats in Denmark may potentially transmit pathogens to household cats and zoonotic parasites to humans. A total of 99 euthanized cats; feral cats (n=92) and household cats with outdoor access (n=7), were collected from March to May 2014 from the Zealand region, Denmark. The sedimentation and counting technique (SCT) was used to isolate helminths and coproscopy was done by concentration McMaster technique (c-McMaster). Overall, 90.1% of the cats were infected and a total of 10 species were recorded by SCT: 5 nematode species: Toxocara cati (84.8%), Ollulanus tricuspis (13.1%), Aonchotheca putorii (7.1%), Paersonema spp. (3.0%), Strongyloides spp. (1.0%); 3 cestodes: Hydatigera taeniaeformis (36.4%), Mesocestoides sp. (3.0%), Dipylidium caninum (1.0%); and 2 trematodes: Cryptocotyle spp. (5.1%) and Pseudamphistomum truncatum (1.0%). O. tricuspis was the second most common gastrointestinal nematode of cats but had the highest intensity of infection. For T. cati, prevalence and worm burden were significantly higher in feral than household cats. No juvenile cats were infected with H. taeniaeformis, and age thus had a significant effect on prevalence and worm burdens of this species. Rural cats had a higher prevalence and worm burden of A. putorii than urban cats. By c-McMaster, ascarid, capillarid, strongylid or taeniid type eggs were found in 77.9% of the cats while Cystoisospora felis was found in 2.1%. The sensitivity of the c-McMaster was 82.5% for T. cati but 26.5% for taeniid eggs, using the SCT as gold standard. A positive correlation between faecal egg counts and worm burdens was seen for T. cati, but not for taeniid eggs (assumed to be H. taeniaeformis). Coprological examination also detected the eggs of extraintestinal Capillariidae species including Eucoleus aerophilus and Eucoleus boehmi, but further necropsy studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  14. Environmental pollutant and necropsy data for ospreys from the eastern United States, 1975-1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Schmeling, S.K.; Anderson, A.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-three ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) found dead or moribund in the eastern United States during 1975-1982 were necropsied and selected tissues were analyzed for organochlorines and metals. Major causes or factors contributing to death were trauma, impact injuries, and emaciation. DDE was detected in 96% of the osprey carcases, DDD in 65%, DDT and heptachlor epoxide in 13%, dieldrin, oxychlordane, and cis-nonachlor in 35%, cis-chlordane in 52%, trans-nonachlor in 45%, and PCB's in 83%. Carcasses of immature ospreys from the Chesapeake Bay had significantly lower concentrations of DDE, DDD + DDT, cis-chlordane, and PCB's than carcasses of adults from the same area. Concentrations of some organochlorines in ospreys from the Chesapeake Bay declined significantly from 1971-1973 to 1975-1982. Significant differences in concentrations of certain metals in the ospreys' livers were noted between time periods, and sex and age groups for birds from the Chesapeake Bay. During 1975-1982, adults had significantly lower concentrations of chromium, copper, and arsenic than immatures and nestlings, and adult males had higher mercury concentrations than adult females. Adult females had lower zinc concentrations in 1975-1982 than in 1971-1973. Immatures and nestlings had higher concentrations of chromium and lead in 1975-1982 than in 1971-1973. A slightly elevated concentration of chromium (1.7 ppm) or arsenic (3.2 ppm) was found in the livers of individual ospreys. Several ospreys had elevated concentrations of mercury in their livers; two ospreys had more than 20 ppm which may have contributed to their deaths.

  15. Necropsy findings and arbovirus surveillance in mourning doves from the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Gerhold, Richard W; Tate, Cynthia M; Gibbs, Samantha E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Fischer, John R

    2007-01-01

    Mourning doves (Zenaida macroura) are the most abundant and widespread native member of the columbid family, as well as a major migratory game species, in the United States. However, there is little information on mortality factors in mourning doves. Records of necropsy accessions at the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study (SCWDS) from 15 southeastern states, from 1971 through 2005, were reviewed. One hundred thirty-five mourning doves were submitted from nine states during the 35-yr period. Trichomonosis constituted 40% (n = 54) of all diagnoses and was the most frequent diagnosis. Toxicoses and avian pox constituted 18.5% (n = 25) and 14.8% (n = 20) of all diagnoses, respectively. Remaining diagnoses included trauma, suspected toxicosis, Ascaridia columbae infection, suspected tick paralysis, and undetermined. Adults were observed more frequently with trichomonosis (94.1%) and toxicoses (68%) as compared to juveniles, but a gender predisposition was not apparent for either disease. Age and gender predilections were not apparent for cases of avian pox. The majority of the trichomonosis and avian pox cases were observed in the spring-summer, whereas the majority of the toxicosis cases were observed in the winter-spring. Additionally, the Georgia Department of Human Resources-Division of Public Health and West Virginia Department of Health and Human Resources submitted 809 mourning doves to SCWDS from 2001 through 2005 for West Nile virus surveillance efforts. West Nile virus was isolated from 2.1% (n = 17) and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) was isolated from 0.2% (n = 2) of the submitted birds.

  16. Cardiac pathology after valve replacement by disc prosthesis. A study of 61 necropsy patients.

    PubMed

    Roberts, W C; Fishbein, M C; Golden, A

    1975-05-01

    Clinical and necropsy observations are described in 61 patients who had one or more cardiac valves replaced with a discoid prosthesis of the Hufnagel type. The most common (31 percent) cause of death among the 45 patients who died early (less than 65 days after operation) appeared to be prosthetic disproportion; that is, the prothesis was too big for the aorta or ventricular cavity into which it was inserted so that inadequate space was present between the margins of the disc and the endocardium of ventricle or intima of aorta. Prosthetic thrombosis occurred in only 3 of the 45 patients who died early, but poppet movement appeared considerably altered in each. In contrast, thrombi were observed on a prosthesis in 14 of the 16 patients who died late (4 to 47 months [average 21] postoperatively), but in none did the thrombi appear of sufficient size to alter poppet function. Escessive bleeding occurred in 11 (24 percent) of the 45 early deaths and was primarily related to the insertion of a patch in the root of the aorta. Uncorrected valvular disease either by itself or by its ability to alter function of the prosthesis appeared responsible for death in 6 (13 percent) of the 45 patients who died early and in 2 (6 percent) of the 16 who died late. Insertion of a mitral poppet disc in a patient with uncorrected aortic regurgitation, even of mild degree, may be hazardous because the aortic regurgitant jet stream may interfere with proper function of the mitral disc. Likewise, insertion of a poppet disc only in the aortic valve position in a patient with combined aortic and mitral regurgitation may considerably increase the degree of mitral incompetence because the aortic prosthesis is intrinsically obstructive. Disc wear or variance was observed in all but one prosthesis in place for more than 1 year. Although hemolytic anemia of significant degree was not observed in any of the 16 patients who died late, the occurrence of renal hemosiderosis in 13 of the 16 patients

  17. Predictors of presence, multiplicity, size and dysplasia of colorectal adenomas. A necropsy study in New Zealand.

    PubMed Central

    Jass, J R; Young, P J; Robinson, E M

    1992-01-01

    Three hundred and thirty six forensic necropsy specimens of large bowel were examined in order to identify subject related variables that independently predicted the following adenoma characteristics: presence, size (largest), multiplicity and high grade dysplasia. The variables were age, gender, body mass index, race (European origin versus Maori/Polynesian) and presence of hyperplastic (metaplastic) polyp(s). Subjects included 303 New Zealanders of European origin (M = 185, F = 118) yielding 149 adenomas and 251 hyperplastic polyps and 33 Maori/Polynesians (M = 25, F = 8) yielding five adenomas and one hyperplastic polyp. Independent predictors of adenoma presence as determined by regression analysis were age (p = 0.0001), presence of hyperplastic polyps (p = 0.0001) and male gender (p = 0.05). Models were poor at explaining variation in size, multiplicity, and dysplasia. Larger adenomas occurred more frequently in subjects with multiple adenomas (p = 0.03) and multiple adenomas were probably associated with hyperplastic polyps (p = 0.09) and male gender (p = 0.09) in Europeans. High grade dysplasia was more frequent in women (p = 0.05) and possibly in subjects with hyperplastic polyps (p = 0.2). Body mass index and ethnicity did not predict any adenoma characteristics, but hyperplastic polyp prevalence was influenced by European origin (p = 0.04) and to a lesser extent by body mass index (p = 0.08) as well as presence of adenoma (p = 0.0002) and age ( = 0.005). The association of hyperplastic polyp with presence, multiplicity but not size of adenoma and with a high risk group for colorectal cancer (New Zealanders of European origin) suggests that the hyperplastic polyp serves as a marker for a factor which influences neoplastic evolution at the stages of initiation/transformation but not promotion. Fifty nine per cent of individuals with adenoma(s) did not have hyperplastic polyp(s) emphasising that the last would serve only as a marker of populations and not

  18. Importance and Repercussions of Renal and Cardiovascular Pathology on Stroke in Young Adults: An Anatomopathologic Study of 52 Clinical Necropsies

    PubMed Central

    Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Fernández-Abreu, Mary; Cardozo-Duran, José; Vilchez-Barrios, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Stroke in young adults has seldom been studied in a necropsy series. The objective of the present clinical necropsy-based investigation was to analyze stroke and its relationship with cardiovascular and renal pathology in young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS The protocols of 52 clinical necropsies with diagnoses of stroke in patients aged 18 – 49 years, performed between the years 1990–2006, were reviewed. RESULTS Hemorrhagic stroke was diagnosed in 36 patients (69.3%), whereas the remaining 16 (30.7%) had ischemic stroke. Hypertensive cardiopathy was evident in 88.4% of the cases. Chronic renal pathology, directly or indirectly related to hypertension, was observed in 55.7% of the patients. Ischemic stroke as a result of occlusive atherosclerotic disease was seen in 50% of cases. Cardiogenic emboli were found in 25% of the cadavers. Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with hypertension in 43% of the cases, with ruptured vascular malformations in 29%, and coagulopathies in 17% of the cases. Hypertensive cardiopathy was present in patients with either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (81.2% and 91.6%, respectively). The most frequently observed renal ailments were chronic pyelonephritis (23%) and nephrosclerosis (21.1%). These were associated with ischemic stroke in 43.7%, and 12.5% of the cases, respectively, and with 13.8% and 25% of the hemorrhagic stroke cases. DISCUSSION Hypertensive cardiopathy, occlusive atherosclerotic disease, chronic pyelonephritis and nephrosclerosis are among the pathophysiologycal mechanisms that apparently and eventually interact to induce a significant number of cases of stroke in young adults. A chronic systemic inflammatory state appears to be an important related condition because it possibly constitutes an accelerant of the pathophysiologycal process. PMID:18297202

  19. Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states - 1978-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Schmeling, S.K.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978–81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens contained high levels of dieldrin in their brains which may have contributed to their deaths. Seventeen eagles contained liver lead residues greater than 10 ppm and probably died of lead poisoning. Trauma and shooting are the most common causes of death.

  20. Pesticide, PCB, and lead residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 32 states, 1978-81

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichel, W.L.; Schmeling, S.K.; Cromartie, E.; Kaiser, T.E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    In 1978a??81, 293 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from 32 states were necropsied and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and lead residues. DDE was found in all carcasses; PCB, DDD, trans-nonachlor, dieldrin and oxychlordane were next in order of percent frequency of detection. The median levels of DDE and PCB have declined when compared with previous collections. Five specimens contained high levels of dieldrin in their brains which may have contributed to their deaths. Seventeen eagles contained liver lead residues greater than 10 ppm and probably died of lead poisoning. Trauma and shooting are the most common causes of death.

  1. Serological and necropsy findings for rams infected with Brucella ovis which were not identified by the complement fixation test.

    PubMed

    West, D M; Stafford, K J; Alley, M R; Badcoe, L M; Hilbink, F; Compton, C W

    1993-06-01

    The eradication of Brucella ovis from a commercial flock of 36 Romney rams was complicated by four infected rams remaining undetected despite four successive flock examinations using the complement fixation test. These four rams were subsequently tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a gel diffusion test and shown to be infected by semen culture. All four rams could have been identified as infected at the initial test if the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay had been used in addition to the complement fixation test. Although gross evidence of epididymitis was found in only one ram at necropsy, three had histological lesions of epididymitis and all four had a seminal vesiculitis.

  2. Prevalence and comparison of serologic assays, necropsy, and tongue examination for the diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, A E; Cama, V; Gilman, R H; Tsang, V C; Pilcher, J B; Chavera, A; Castro, M; Montenegro, T; Verastegui, M; Miranda, E

    1990-08-01

    Swine cysticercosis, a severe zoonotic disease which is part of the Taenia solium life cycle, causes major economic losses in pig husbandry. Throughout South America, farmers diagnose cysticercosis by examining the tongues of their pigs for cysticercus nodules. Farmers do not bring pigs believed to be infected to the slaughterhouse for fear of confiscation. Therefore, reliable statistics on porcine cysticercosis can only be acquired at the household level. We examined the utility of the tongue test as a diagnostic tool for porcine cysticercosis. The results of the tongue test was compared with 2 serologic methods for the detection of cysticercosis, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot assay (EITB), and with necropsy results. We examined 11 animals from an endemic area (Huancayo) and 42 animals from an area free of cysticercosis (Lima). The tongue test has a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 100%, the EITB a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, and the ELISA a sensitivity of 79% and a specificity of 75%. Thus, the tongue examination, being a test essentially without cost and having fair sensitivity and high specificity, can be useful in epidemiological surveys. Prevalence for porcine cysticercosis in Huancayo is 23.4% by tongue examination, 31.2% by necropsy, 37.7% by ELISA, and 51.9% by EITB.

  3. Methods used during gross necropsy to determine watercraft-related mortality in the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Lightsey, Jessica D; Rommel, Sentiel A; Costidis, Alexander M; Pitchford, Thomas D

    2006-09-01

    Between 1993 and 2003, 713 (24%) of 2,940 dead Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) recovered from Florida waters and examined were killed by watercraft-induced trauma. It was determined that this mortality was the result of watercraft trauma because the external wound patterns and the internal lesions seen during gross necropsy are recognizable and diagnostic. This study documents the methods used in determining watercraft-related mortality during gross necropsy and explains why these findings are diagnostic. Watercraft can inflict sharp- and blunt-force trauma to manatees, and both types of trauma can lead to mortality. This mortality may be a direct result of the sharp and blunt forces or from the chronic effects resulting from either force. In cases in which death is caused by a chronic wound-related complication, the original incident is usually considered to be the cause of death. Once a cause of death is determined, it is recorded in an extensive database and is used by Federal and state managers in developing strategies for the conservation of the manatee. Common sequelae to watercraft-induced trauma include skin lesions, torn muscles, fractured and luxated bones, lacerated internal organs, hemothorax, pneumothorax, pyothorax, hydrothorax, abdominal hemorrhage and ascites, and pyoperitoneum.

  4. Clinical signs in the Wernicke-Korsakoff complex: a retrospective analysis of 131 cases diagnosed at necropsy.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, C G; Giles, M; Finlay-Jones, R

    1986-01-01

    A recent necropsy study has shown that 80% of patients with the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome were not diagnosed as such during life. Review of the clinical signs of these cases revealed that only 16% had the classical clinical triad and 19% had no documented clinical signs. The incidence of clinical signs in this and other retrospective pathological studies is very different from that of prospective clinical studies. This discrepancy may relate to "missed" clinical signs but the magnitude of the difference suggests that at least some cases of the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome may be the end result of repeated subclinical episodes of vitamin B1 deficiency. In order to make the diagnosis, clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion in the "at risk" group of patients, particularly alcoholics. Investigations of thiamine status may be helpful and if the diagnosis is suspected, parenteral thiamine should be given. PMID:3701343

  5. Identification of group B streptococci in tissue sections using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method: a retrospective necropsy study.

    PubMed Central

    Andres, T; MacPherson, B

    1980-01-01

    The peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method was used to demonstrate group B streptococci in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections using commercial group specific streptococcal antiserum. Sections from neonatal necropsies in which postmortem lung cultures were positive for group B streptococci showed positively stained intra- and extra-cellular cocci in the alveolar exudate. Many hyaline membranes contained intact organisms whereas some membranes showed only diffuse positive staining. One case of neonatal death was evaluated in which there was a clinical diagnosis of group B streptococcal infection, but postmortem cultures were not obtained. Group B streptococci were identified in the lung by the PAP method. This method may be of assistance in the postmortem evaluation of certain infectious diseases such as those due to group B streptococci. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7005267

  6. Cryptococcosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients Clinically Confirmed and/or Diagnosed at Necropsy in a Teaching Hospital in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rafael Garcia; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Micheletti, Adilha Rua; Ribeiro, Barbara de Melo; Silva, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade; Mora, Delio Jose; Paim, Kennio Ferreira; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2016-10-05

    Cryptococcosis occurs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with poor compliance to antiretroviral therapy or unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus status who present severe immunosuppression at admission. Consequently, high mortality rates are observed due to disseminated fungal infection. This report presents clinical and postmortem data of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis in a teaching hospital in Brazil. Retrospectively, medical and necropsy records of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis clinically confirmed and/or postmortem verified were reviewed. Clinical data were compared with those of patients presenting a good outcome to evaluate disseminated fungal infection and the agreement between clinical and postmortem diagnosis. At admission, most of the 45 patients with cryptococcal meningitis who died, presented more altered consciousness (P = 0.0047), intracranial increased pressure (P = 0.047), and severe malnutrition (P = 0.0006) than the survivors. Of 29 (64.4%) patients with cryptococcal meningitis, 23 died before week 2 on antifungal therapy, and the other six during the next 3 months. The remaining 16 (35.6%) cases had other diagnoses and died soon after. At necropsy, 31 (68.9%) presented disseminated infection involving two or more organs, whereas 14 (31.1%) cases had meningeal or pulmonary localized infection. The agreement of 64.4% between clinical and postmortem diagnosis was similar to some studies. However, other reports have shown figures ranging from 34% to 95%. Currently, a progressive worldwide decrease of autopsies is worrying because the role of postmortem examination is pivotal to verify or identify the death causes, which contributes to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis and medical training. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. Asbestos lung burden and asbestosis after occupational and environmental exposure in an asbestos cement manufacturing area: a necropsy study

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, C.; Mollo, F.; Paoletti, L.; Bellis, D.; Bernardi, P.; Betta, P.; Botta, M.; Falchi, M.; Ivaldi, C.; Pavesi, M.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The largest Italian asbestos cement factory had been active in Casale Monferrato until 1986: in previous studies a substantial increase in the incidence of pleural mesothelioma was found among residents without occupational exposure to asbestos. To estimate exposure to asbestos in the population, this study evaluated the presence of histological asbestosis and the lung burden of asbestos fibres (AFs) and asbestos bodies (ABs). METHODS: The study comprises the consecutive series of necropsies performed at the Hospital of Casale Monferrato between 1985 and 1988. A sample of lung parenchima was collected and stored for 48 out of 55 necropsies. The AF concentration was measured with a TEM electron microscope with x ray mineralogical analysis. The ABs were counted and fibrosis evaluated by optical microscopy. The nearest relative of each subject was interviewed on occupational and residential history. Mineralogical and histological analyses and interviews were conducted in 1993-4. RESULTS: Statistical analyses included 41 subjects with AF, AB count, and interview. Subjects without occupational exposure who ever lived in Casale Monferrato had an average concentration of 1500 AB/g dried weight (gdw); Seven of 18 presented with asbestosis or small airway lung disease (SAL). G2 asbestosis was diagnosed in two women with no occupational asbestos exposure. One of them had been teaching at a school close to the factory for 12 years. Ten subjects had experienced occupational asbestos exposure, seven in asbestos cement production: mean concentrations were 1.032 x 10(6) AF/gdw and 96,280 AB/gdw. Eight of the 10 had asbestosis or SAL. CONCLUSION: The high concentration of ABs and the new finding of environmental asbestosis confirm that high asbestos concentration was common in the proximity of the factory. Subjects not occupationally exposed and ever living in Casale Monferrato tended to have higher AB concentration than subjects never living in the town (difference not

  8. Prevalence of asbestos bodies in a necropsy series in East London: association with disease, occupation, and domiciliary address.

    PubMed

    Doniach, I; Swettenham, K V; Hathorn, M K

    1975-02-01

    The prevalence of asbestos bodies was measured in lung sections in a necropsy series carried out at the London Hospital (1965-66) after exclusion of all known asbestos factory workers and cases of asbestosis and of mesothelioma. Associations were sought between the presence and number of asbestos bodies with the patients' sex, domiciliary address, occupation, industry, and diseases recorded at necropsy. Asbestos bodies were present in 42% of the 216 men in the series and in 30% of the 178 women. The number of bodies in the positive cases was small in comparison with the numbers seen typically in asbestosis; thus there were less than 6 asbestos bodies per 6-75 mm-3 lung tissue in 107 of the total 145 positive cases in contrast to 1 000 or more in asbestosis. In comparison with the overall series, an increased number of asbestos body positives was present in males with carcinoma of stomach and females with carcinoma of breast. In view of this finding lung sections were counted in further post-mortem examples of these carcinomas making a total of 50 males with carcinoma stomach and 82 females with carcinoma breast. Thirty-five positive cases were found in the carcinoma stomach group as against 22-7 expected and 38 in the carcinoma breast group against 26-35 expected. There was no excess of observed over expected asbestos body positives in 51 males with carcinoma of bronchus. There was an excess of asbestos body positives (60-9%) in heavy manual workers and in both heavy and light manual male workers in the shipping (61%), electrical and engineering (56%), and transport (54%) industries. The incidence in male clerical workers was 12-8%. The incidence of asbestos body positives according to home address was highest (53% in males, 45% in females) in patients living in the industrial and cockland area due east of the hospital. The incidence fell in the less industrial areas north-east of the hospital. Consideration of possible environmental sources of the inhaled asbestos

  9. High prevalence of non-productive FeLV infection in necropsied cats and significant association with pathological findings.

    PubMed

    Suntz, M; Failing, K; Hecht, W; Schwartz, D; Reinacher, M

    2010-07-01

    Applying a combination of semi-nested PCR and immunohistology (IHC), the presence of exogenous feline leukemia virus infection was studied in 302 necropsied cats with various disorders. 9% showed the classical outcome of persistent productive FeLV infection which was represented by FeLV antigen expression in different organs. 152 cats (50%) harboured exogenous FeLV-specific proviral sequences in the bone marrow but did not express viral antigen. These cats were considered as horizontally but non-productively infected. Statistical evaluation showed a significant association of non-productive horizontal FeLV infection with a variety of parameters. Non-productively infected cats were statistically significantly older and more often originated from animal shelters than cats without exogenous FeLV infection. Furthermore, some pathological disorders like anemia, panleukopenia, and purulent inflammation showed significant association with non-productive FeLV infection. No significant association was found with lymphosarcoma, known for a long time to be induced by productive FeLV infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Fifty Years of General Health Surveillance of Roe Deer in Switzerland: A Retrospective Analysis of Necropsy Reports.

    PubMed

    Pewsner, Mirjam; Origgi, Francesco Carlo; Frey, Joachim; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    General wildlife health surveillance is a valuable source of information on the causes of mortality, disease susceptibility and pathology of the investigated hosts and it is considered to be an essential component of early warning systems. However, the representativeness of data from such surveillance programs is known to be limited by numerous biases. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus) is the most abundant ungulate and a major game species all over Europe. Yet, internationally available literature on roe deer pathology is scarce. The aims of this study were (1) to provide an overview of the causes of mortality or morbidity observed in roe deer in Switzerland and to assess potential changes in the disease pattern over time; and (2) to evaluate the value and limitations of a long term dataset originating from general wildlife health surveillance. We compiled 1571 necropsy reports of free ranging roe deer examined at the Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health in Switzerland from 1958 to 2014. Descriptive data analysis was performed considering animal metadata, submitter, pathologist in charge, laboratory methods, morphological diagnoses and etiologies. Recurrent causes of mortality and disease pictures included pneumonia, diarrhea, meningoencephalitis, actinomycosis, blunt trauma, predation, neoplasms and anomalies. By contrast, other diagnoses such as fatal parasitic gastritis, suspected alimentary intoxication and reproductive disorders appeared only in earlier time periods. Diseases potentially relevant for other animals or humans such as caseous lymphadenitis (or pseudotuberculosis), salmonellosis, paratuberculosis and listeriosis were sporadically observed. The disease pattern in roe deer from Switzerland was largely in accordance with previous reports. The observed fluctuations were consistent with methodical and/or personnel changes and varying disease awareness. Nevertheless, despite such limitations, the compiled data provide a valuable baseline. To

  11. [Pathology of South American Camelids: a retrospective study of necropsies at the Institute of Veterinary Pathology, University of Leipzig, Germany].

    PubMed

    Theuß, T; Goerigk, D; Rasenberger, S; Starke, A; Schoon, H-A

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American Camelids (New World Camelids) housed in Germany has increased in the recent years. While these species were formerly kept solely in zoological gardens, ever more private and commercial livestock is being established. Compared to indigenous livestock animals, they bear some distinctive differences, particularly in terms of digestive tract anatomy and physiology. Therefore, it is of considerable interest for veterinarians working with South American Camelids to obtain knowledge about the distinguishing features of these animals and the typical diseases affecting them in Germany. For this purpose, the necropsy reports, including the anamnestic data, and their diagnostic usefulness, from 1995 to 2012 were studied retrospectively. Du- ring this period, a total of 233 New World Camelids were examined (195 alpacas and 38 llamas). Anamnestic data of diagnostic usefulness regarding the cause of disease were only submitted in a limited number of cases, because most of the animals died without specific symptoms. The following were the most frequent pathological findings: enteritis (n = 91), gastritis (n = 76), cachexia (n = 73), pneumonia (n = 30), stomatitis (n = 27), azotaemia (n = 22) and anaemia (n = 9). An endoparasitosis occurred in 107 cases and was considered the predominant cause of enteritis. As with indigenous ruminants, llamas and alpacas primarily suffered from diseases of the digestive and respiratory tracts. Other organ systems were affected to a lesser extent. Even in cases with severe alterations in the affected organs, South American Camelids do not show or show too late diagnostically indicative clinical symptoms. Therefore, a detailed clinical examination of these animals is important.

  12. [Morphological and electrophysiological changes of the heart atria in necropsy patients with atrial fibrillation - a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Matějková, Adéla; Steiner, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most common supraventricular tachycardia, has a morphological base, so called remodelation of atrial myocardium, with its abnormal conduction pattern as a consequence. The remodelation regards electrical, contractile, and structural properties. In this pilot study we attempted to find relations between the myocardial morphological (scarring, amyloidosis, left atrial enlargement) and electrophysiological (ECG characteristics of the P-wave) changes in patients with AF. We examined 40 hearts of necropsy patients - 20 with a history of AF and 20 with no history of AF. Grossly, the heart weight and the size of the left atrium (LA) were evaluated. Histologically, 7 standard sites from the atria were examined. In each specimen, the degree of myocardial scarring and of deposition of isolated atrial amyloid (IAA) were assessed. We failed to show any significant difference in the P-wave pattern between patients with and without AF. Morphologically, however, there were several differences - the patients with AF had significantly heavier hearts, larger left atria, more severely scarred myocardium of the LA and the atrial septum, and more severe deposition of IAA in both atria in comparison to the control group of patients with sinus rhythm. The left atrial distribution of both fibrosis and amyloidosis was irregular. In patients with AF the former was most pronounced in the LA ceiling while the latter in the LA anterior wall. The entire series showed more marked amyloidosis in the left than in the right atrium. An interesting finding was the universal absence of IAA in the sinoatrial node. The knowledge of distribution of atrial myocardial structural changes could be utilized by pathologists in taking specimens for histology and also by cardiologists in targeting the radiofrequency ablation therapy.

  13. Necropsy findings in American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings from northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with organochlorine pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Del, Piero F.; Wiebe, J.J.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increased American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryo and neonatal mortality has been reported from several northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with old-use organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, a clear relationship among these contaminants and egg viability has not been established, suggesting the involvement of additional factors in these mortalities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the ultimate cause of mortality of American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings through the conduction of detailed pathological examinations, and to evaluate better the role of OCPs in these mortalities. Between 2000 and 2001, 236 dead alligators were necropsied at or near hatching (after ???65 days of artificial incubation and up to 1 mo of age posthatch). Dead animals were collected from 18 clutches ranging in viability from 0% to 95%. Total OCP concentrations in yolk ranged from ???100 to 52,000 ??g/kg, wet weight. The most common gross findings were generalized edema (34%) and organ hyperemia (29%), followed by severe emaciation (14%) and gross deformities (3%). Histopathologic examination revealed lesions in 35% of the animals, with over half of the cases being pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. Within and across clutches, dead embryos and hatchlings compared with their live cohorts were significantly smaller and lighter. Although alterations in growth and development were not related to yolk OCPs, there was an increase in prevalence of histologic lesions in clutches with high OCPs. Overall, these results indicate that general growth retardation and respiratory abnormalities were a major contributing factor in observed mortalities and that contaminants may increase the susceptibility of animals to developing certain pathologic conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  14. Assessing Fifty Years of General Health Surveillance of Roe Deer in Switzerland: A Retrospective Analysis of Necropsy Reports

    PubMed Central

    Pewsner, Mirjam; Origgi, Francesco Carlo; Frey, Joachim; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    General wildlife health surveillance is a valuable source of information on the causes of mortality, disease susceptibility and pathology of the investigated hosts and it is considered to be an essential component of early warning systems. However, the representativeness of data from such surveillance programs is known to be limited by numerous biases. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus capreolus) is the most abundant ungulate and a major game species all over Europe. Yet, internationally available literature on roe deer pathology is scarce. The aims of this study were (1) to provide an overview of the causes of mortality or morbidity observed in roe deer in Switzerland and to assess potential changes in the disease pattern over time; and (2) to evaluate the value and limitations of a long term dataset originating from general wildlife health surveillance. We compiled 1571 necropsy reports of free ranging roe deer examined at the Centre for Fish and Wildlife Health in Switzerland from 1958 to 2014. Descriptive data analysis was performed considering animal metadata, submitter, pathologist in charge, laboratory methods, morphological diagnoses and etiologies. Recurrent causes of mortality and disease pictures included pneumonia, diarrhea, meningoencephalitis, actinomycosis, blunt trauma, predation, neoplasms and anomalies. By contrast, other diagnoses such as fatal parasitic gastritis, suspected alimentary intoxication and reproductive disorders appeared only in earlier time periods. Diseases potentially relevant for other animals or humans such as caseous lymphadenitis (or pseudotuberculosis), salmonellosis, paratuberculosis and listeriosis were sporadically observed. The disease pattern in roe deer from Switzerland was largely in accordance with previous reports. The observed fluctuations were consistent with methodical and/or personnel changes and varying disease awareness. Nevertheless, despite such limitations, the compiled data provide a valuable baseline. To

  15. Follow-up study comparing necropsy rates and discrepancies between clinical and pathologic diagnoses at a veterinary teaching hospital: 2009 versus 1989 and 1999.

    PubMed

    Dank, G; Segev, G; Moshe, D; Kent, M S

    2012-12-01

    A follow-up, retrospective study to determine whether the proportion of discrepancies between clinical and pathological diagnoses made during 2009, 1999 and 1989 and the proportion of dogs necropsied have changed. Medical records of 148 hospitalised dogs that died or were euthanased in a veterinary medical teaching hospital during 2009 were reviewed. Clinical and pathological diagnoses were recorded, categorised and compared to historical controls using a data set of 623 dogs from a previous study. The proportion of discrepancies was significantly (P<0·001) lower in 2009 (14·9%), compared to both 1999 (37%) and 1989 (39·8%). There was also a significant (P<0·001) decrease in the number of necropsies performed during 2009 (21·4%) compared to both 1999 (48·4%) and 1989 (58·9%). There was a marked improvement in the ante-mortem diagnosis of patients in 2009 compared with both 1989 and 1999 as evidenced by the decrease in the proportion of discrepancies between the clinical and pathological diagnoses. Necropsies should still be regarded as a vital tool for teaching, determining the pathological basis of disease, identification of new and emerging diseases, and for an individual animal determining the cause of death. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. The early development of medial coronoid disease in growing Labrador retrievers: radiographic, computed tomographic, necropsy and micro-computed tomographic findings.

    PubMed

    Lau, S F; Wolschrijn, C F; Hazewinkel, H A W; Siebelt, M; Voorhout, G

    2013-09-01

    Medial coronoid disease (MCD) encompasses lesions of the entire medial coronoid process (MCP), both of the articular cartilage and the subchondral bone. To detect the earliest signs of MCD, radiography and computed tomography were used to monitor the development of MCD in 14 Labrador retrievers, from 6 to 7 weeks of age until euthanasia. The definitive diagnosis of MCD was based on necropsy and micro-computed tomography findings. The frequency of MCD in the dogs studied was 50%. Radiographic findings did not provide evidence of MCD, ulnar subtrochlear sclerosis or blunting of the cranial edge of the MCP. Computed tomography was more sensitive (30.8%) than radiography (0%) in detecting early MCD, with the earliest signs detectable at 14 weeks of age. A combination of the necropsy and micro-computed tomography findings of the MCP showed that MCD was manifested as a lesion of only the subchondral bone in dogs <18 weeks of age. In all dogs (affected and unaffected), there was close contact between the base of the MCP and the proximal radial head in the congruent joints. Computed tomography and micro-computed tomography findings indicated that the lesions of MCD probably originated at the base of the MCP. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality. PMID:24155449

  18. Proportional mortality: A study of 152 goats submitted for necropsy from 13 goat herds in Quebec, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenitis.

    PubMed

    Debien, Elaine; Hélie, Pierre; Buczinski, Sébastien; Lebœuf, Anne; Bélanger, Denise; Drolet, Richard

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the main causes of mortality, with a special focus on caseous lymphadenits as a cause of death or wasting in caprine herds from Quebec. Goats (n = 152) from 13 herds were submitted for necropsy; the cause of mortality, and the presence, location, and cause of abscesses (if present) were recorded. Proportional mortalities were distributed as: Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia (17.1%), pneumonia (13.8%), paratuberculosis (10.5%), listeriosis (6.6%), pregnancy toxemia (5.3%), caprine arthritis-encephalitis (4.6%), and caseous lymphadenitis (3.9%). Caseous lymphadenitis was diagnosed in 24.3% of the submitted goats, but was not a major cause of wasting or mortality. Abscesses were localized internally in 54.1% of the cases. Paratuberculosis was diagnosed in 29 goats (16 as cause of death) and was considered a major cause of wasting and/or mortality.

  19. Onset and distribution of tissue prp accumulation in scrapie-affected suffolk sheep as demonstrated by sequential necropsies and tonsillar biopsies.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, M; Martin, S; Thomson, J R; Dingwall, W S; Begara-McGorum, I; González, L

    2001-07-01

    Tonsillar biopsies (single or multiple) or necropsies, or both, were performed on sheep taken from a Suffolk flock in which frequent cases of scrapie had occurred over a period of several years. Clinically affected sheep of the susceptible PrP(AQ/AQ)genotype had widespread disease-specific PrP accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system and peripheral ganglia. In nine healthy PrP(AQ/AQ)Suffolk sheep between 4 and 7 years of age, PrP could not be demonstrated post mortem in any of the lymphoreticular tissues, or in the peripheral ganglia or CNS. Tonsillar biopsies taken from animals of the resistant PrP(AR/AR)and PrP(AR/AQ)genotypes at age 3, 8, 14, 20 or 26 months did not show PrP accumulation. Disease- specific PrP accumulation in tonsillar biopsies from PrP(AQ/AQ)sheep was not seen in 20 animals aged 3 months, but was found in two of 10 animals at age 8 months and in eight of 10 animals at age 20 months. The numbers of PrP-positive tonsillar biopsies obtained from sheep previously biopsied on more than one occasion was greater than the number of positive tonsils obtained from other susceptible sheep of comparable ages. The earliest disease-specific PrP accumulation seen was in tingible body macrophages within germinal centres and only later was it detected in cells resembling follicular dendritic cells. Fourteen PrP(AQ/AQ)sheep examined post mortem at up to 17 months of age and which had not previously been biopsied or were biopsied only once had no CNS or tonsillar PrP accumulations. Two of these sheep subjected to necropsy at 14 months had PrP accumulation in lymphoreticular tissue, where it was confined to the mesenteric lymph nodes. In susceptible sheep, only low levels of immunohistochemically detectable PrP were present in a minority of follicles from tonsillar biopsies of young lambs, but by 14 months of age widespread PrP accumulation, affecting many or even all follicles, was present. Although clinical cases had widespread Pr

  20. Morphological changes in the digestive system of 322 necropsies of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: comparison of findings pre- and post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Lucinda Calheiros; da Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Moura, Everton Nunes Melo; Silva-Vergara, Mario Léon; Tostes, Sebastião; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Involvement of the digestive system in AIDS pathologies or injuries is frequent. Aiming at comparing the frequency, the importance that these lesions have for death and the survival time in patients using or not using HAART, we studied 322 necropsies classified as follows: Group A - without antiretroviral drugs (185 cases); B - one or two antiretroviral drugs or HAART for less than six months (83 cases); C - HAART for six months or longer (54 cases). In the overall analysis of the digestive system, changes were present in 73.6% of cases. The most frequent was Candida infection (22.7%), followed by cytomegalovirus (19.2%), Histoplasma capsulatum (6.5%), mycobacteria (5.6%), and Toxoplasma gondii (4.3%). T. gondii infection was more frequent in group A compared with group C, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was more frequent in group A compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05); 2.2% of the deaths were due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Regarding the segments, only in the large intestine, and only cytomegalovirus, were more frequent in group A compared with group C. We conclude that digestive system infections are still frequent, even with the use of HAART. However, the average survival time in group C was more than three times greater than the one in group A and nearly double that of group B, demonstrating the clear benefit of this therapy. PMID:28380114

  1. Morphological changes in the digestive system of 322 necropsies of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: comparison of findings pre- and post-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy).

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Lucinda Calheiros; Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos da; Micheletti, Adilha Misson Rua; Moura, Everton Nunes Melo; Silva-Vergara, Mario Léon; Tostes, Sebastião; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2017-04-03

    Involvement of the digestive system in AIDS pathologies or injuries is frequent. Aiming at comparing the frequency, the importance that these lesions have for death and the survival time in patients using or not using HAART, we studied 322 necropsies classified as follows: Group A - without antiretroviral drugs (185 cases); B - one or two antiretroviral drugs or HAART for less than six months (83 cases); C - HAART for six months or longer (54 cases). In the overall analysis of the digestive system, changes were present in 73.6% of cases. The most frequent was Candida infection (22.7%), followed by cytomegalovirus (19.2%), Histoplasma capsulatum (6.5%), mycobacteria (5.6%), and Toxoplasma gondii (4.3%). T. gondii infection was more frequent in group A compared with group C, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was more frequent in group A compared with groups B and C (p < 0.05); 2.2% of the deaths were due to gastrointestinal bleeding. Regarding the segments, only in the large intestine, and only cytomegalovirus, were more frequent in group A compared with group C. We conclude that digestive system infections are still frequent, even with the use of HAART. However, the average survival time in group C was more than three times greater than the one in group A and nearly double that of group B, demonstrating the clear benefit of this therapy.

  2. Frequency of Massive Cardiac Adiposity (Floating Heart) at Necropsy and Comparison of Clinical and Morphologic Variables With Cases With Nonmassive Cardiac Adiposity at a Single Texas Hospital, 2013 to 2014.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William C; Won, Vera S; Vasudevan, Anupama; Ko, Jong Mi; Guileyardo, Joseph M

    2016-03-15

    Body weight continues to increase worldwide primarily because of the increase in body fat. This study analyzes the frequency of massive adiposity at autopsy determined by the ability of the heart to float in a container of 10% formaldehyde (because adipose tissue is lighter than myocardium) and compares certain findings in the patients with floating to those with nonfloating hearts. The hearts studied at necropsy during a 2-year period (2013 to 2014) at Baylor University Medical Center were carefully "cleaned" and weighed by the same person and tested as to their ability to float in a container of formaldehyde, an indication of severe cardiac adiposity. Of the 146 hearts studied, 76 (52%) floated in a container of formaldehyde and 70 (48%) did not. Comparison of the 76 patients with floating hearts with the 70 with nonfloating hearts showed significant differences in ages (62 ± 13 vs 58 ± 14 years). No significant differences between the 2 groups were found in gender, body mass index, frequency of systemic hypertension or diabetes mellitus, either acute or healed myocardial infarction, or whether death was due to a coronary or a noncoronary condition. A weak correlation was found between body mass index and heart weight in both men and women and in both floating and nonfloating hearts. The massive quantity of cardiac adipose tissue (floating heart) appears to have increased enormously in recent decades in the United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Brazil. Necropsy findings.

    PubMed

    Michalany, J; Mattos, A L; Michalany, N S; Filie, A C; Montezzo, L C

    1987-01-01

    According to the 15 autopsies performed at the Department of Pathological Anatomy, Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil, it was confirmed that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs preferably in young homosexual males, who die in a short period of time of the disease, which leads to a consumptive state verified by cachexia of the cadavers. The most affected organs of this series were the lungs and encephalum, exactly the ones responsible for the immediate cause of death. In this series of autopsies there were 9 types of microorganisms represented by virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans and two types of tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma of the central nervous system. From the microorganisms, the most frequent was the Cytomegalovirus and, from the tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma. The various types of microorganisms were frequently associated, principally in the central nervous and digestive systems. There was also association of microorganisms with tumors. Besides the lesions produced by microorganisms there were other associated alterations as brown atrophy of neuronia, which was related to the infiltration of cerebral lymphoma, and the lymphocytic depletion of lymphoid organs due to immunological exhaustion. Cellular reaction to microorganisms was practically none, principally with Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptococcus neoformans, the first one behaving as an inert mould in the pulmonary alveoli and the second proliferating freely in tissues. In two cases there was no granulomatous reaction to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The primary lymphoma of the central nervous system should be interpreted as a microglioma, i.e., a reticulosarcoma of this system according to Hortega's school.

  4. Necropsy and coprology in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Livorno Mountain Park (Tuscany, Central Italy).

    PubMed

    Magi, M; Bertani, M; Dell'Omodarme, M; Prati, M C

    2004-09-01

    The present research analyses the reliability of coprological tests, both quantitative and qualitative, as indicators of the parasite burden of hosts, using data from wild boars (Sus scrofa) living in Livorno Mountain Park (Tuscany, Central Italy). In the case of intestinal strongyles, which turned out to be the dominant helminths of wild boars, the qualitative coprological test appears as a bad predictor of the real parasite situation of the herds, due to the high number of false negative results (34 animals out of 68). On the other hand, the positive predictive value of the test is high (90%). The quantitative test is significantly correlated with the individual parasite burden of wild boars.

  5. Beaked Whale Necropsy Findings for Strandings in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Madeira, 1999-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    contusion or hemorrhage. Both Eustachian tubes were partially occluded by ice crystals . Each is 10 to 13 mm in diameter and attaches to a sesamoid bone...there is a preliminary finding of in vivo auditory system pathology or trauma in the beaked whale specimens. This evidence consists of intra-cochlear ( IC ...the poorly preserved animals makes any conclusion from their tissues debatable. Therefore, the most significant findings to date are based on

  6. Beaked Whale Necropsy Findings for Strandings in the Bahamas, Puerto Rico, and Madeira, 1999-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    narial passages showed normal configuration and pigmentation. There were no contusions or blood deposits, and the airways appeared patent . The mouth...internal auditory meatus and the facial nerve foramen . There is a similar deposition of blood in the left round window niche. The cochlear aqueduct...blood but the membranous compartments and super structure are intact. The round and oval windows are also intact. In combination with relatively limited

  7. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the supervision of a veterinarian who is employed by USDA or employed by the State in which the... representative of APHIS, a State representative, or an accredited veterinarian. The captive cervid must remain on... State or Federal animal health official or an accredited veterinarian before the interstate movement...

  8. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Assana, E; Jayashi, C M; Gauci, C G; Donadeu, M

    2015-11-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. [Paracoccidioidomycosis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus infection. A necropsy case].

    PubMed

    de Lima, M A; Silva-Vergara, M L; Demachki, S; dos Santos, J A

    1995-01-01

    This is a case report of the association of Paracoccidioidomycosis and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) occurring in a 43-year old male. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first detailed pathological account of that association. Also discussed are the low rates of that association, its natural history and treatment results. It is emphasised the importance of the associations of AIDS and tropical infectious diseases in this country.

  10. Principal neuropathological and general necropsy findings in 24 renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Morton, R; Graham, D I; Briggs, J D; Hamilton, D N

    1982-01-01

    The principal neuropathological and general pathological findings in a group of 24 patients with renal transplants who died in a nine-year period at the Western Infirmary, Glasgow, are described. Opportunistic infections--bacterial, protozoal, and fungal--were the commonest causes of death. Other causes included cardiac and vascular lesions, upper gastrointestinal bleeding and neoplasia.

  11. Sensitivity of partial carcass dissection for assessment of porcine cysticercosis at necropsy

    PubMed Central

    Lightowlers, M.W.; Assana, E.; Jayashi, C.M.; Gauci, C.G.; Donadeu, M.

    2015-01-01

    Many interventions against Taenia solium are evaluated by assessing changes in the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis ascertained by carcass dissection. Financial and logistical difficulties often prohibit dissection of entire pig carcasses. We assessed 209 pigs from rural areas of Cameroon and Peru for the presence of T. solium cysticerci and determined the distribution of parasites within the musculature of infected animals. Considering the presence of cysts in the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart, 31 of the 38 (81%) naturally infected animals were identified as having cysts. Dissection of only the tongue, masticatory muscles and heart provides a relatively sensitive and highly specific method for diagnosis of porcine cysticercosis. PMID:26385439

  12. Spatial relationship between Taenia solium tapeworm carriers and necropsy cyst burden in pigs.

    PubMed

    Pray, Ian W; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Muro, Claudio; Moyano, Luz M; Benavides, Victor; Flecker, Robert H; Garcia, Hector H; O'Neal, Seth E

    2017-04-01

    Taenia solium, a parasite that affects humans and pigs, is the leading cause of preventable epilepsy in the developing world. Geographic hotspots of pigs testing positive for serologic markers of T. solium exposure have been observed surrounding the locations of human tapeworm carriers. This clustered pattern of seropositivity in endemic areas formed the basis for geographically targeted control interventions, which have been effective at reducing transmission. In this study, we further explore the spatial relationship between human tapeworm carriers and infected pigs using necroscopic examination as a quantitative gold-standard diagnostic to detect viable T. solium cyst infection in pigs. We performed necroscopic examinations on pigs from 7 villages in northern Peru to determine the number of viable T. solium cysts in each pig. Participating humans in the study villages were tested for T. solium tapeworm infection (i.e., taeniasis) with an ELISA coproantigen assay, and the distances from each pig to its nearest human tapeworm carrier were calculated. We assessed the relationship between proximity to a tapeworm carrier and the prevalence of light, moderate, and heavy cyst burden in pigs. The prevalence of pig infection was greatest within 50 meters of a tapeworm carrier and decreased monotonically as distance increased. Pigs living less than 50 meters from a human tapeworm carrier were 4.6 times more likely to be infected with at least one cyst than more distant pigs. Heavier cyst burdens, however, were not more strongly associated with proximity to tapeworm carriers than light cyst burdens. Our study shows that human tapeworm carriers and pigs with viable T. solium cyst infection are geographically correlated in endemic areas. This finding supports control strategies that treat humans and pigs based on their proximity to other infected individuals. We did not, however, find sufficient evidence that heavier cyst burdens in pigs would serve as improved targets for geographically focused control interventions.

  13. Dipentyl Phthalate F1 Male rat necropsy data, requested by a mathematical statistician in NCEA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is a dataset, and it has no abstract. See the manuscript for additional information. Gray LE Jr, Furr J, Tatum-Gibbs KR, Lambright C, Sampson H, Hannas BR, Wilson VS, Hotchkiss A, Foster PM. Establishing the "Biological Relevance" of DipentylPhthalate Reductions ...

  14. Necropsy of a cadaver containing 50 mmCi of Na-/sup 131/I

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, K.L.; Komerek, M.; Quain, B.; Bakshi, S.P.; Qureshi, F.; Shimaoka, K.; Rao, U.; Adamski, J.S.; Bender, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    A patient who received an oral dose of /sup 131/I for the treatment of metastatic thyroid carcinoma unexpectedly died with a large total-body retention of the radioiodine. An autopsy was required and the family requested the body to be transported out of state to their home town. Since the radiation intensity near the surface of the cadaver was above 200 mR/hr, advanced planning and special precautions were necessary in order for the autopsy to proceed safely. This required the immediate cooperation of the pathologists, nuclear medicine physicians, health physicists, an endocrine oncologist, and other hospital staff. As a result of team efforts, personnel radiation exposures were kept as low as reasonably achievable, contamination of the autopsy room was minimal, and the radiation level of the cadaver was adequately reduced for safe transport and burial.

  15. Benign and malignant neoplasias in 261 necropsies for HIV-positive patients in the period of 1989 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Micheletti, Adilha Rua; Macedo, Ana Carolina Sandoval; Silva, Gisele Barbosa E; Silva, Ana Cristina Araújo Lemos da; Silva-Vergara, Mário Leon; Murta, Eddie Fernando Cândido; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Considering that there are some studies with autopsies from AIDS describing only malignant neoplasias and that changes can occur after the introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART), our objectives were to analyze the frequency of benign and malignant neoplasms in AIDS patients in the periods of both pre- and post-HAART. This is a retrospective study with 261 autopsies of HIV-positive patients between 1989 and 2008 in Uberaba, Brazil. Sixty-six neoplasms were found (39 benign, 21 malignant and six premalignant) in 58 patients. The most frequent malignant neoplasms were lymphoid, in 2.7% (four Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, one Hodgkin, one multiple myeloma and one plasmablastic plasmacytoma), and Kaposi's Sarcoma, in 2.3% (six cases). The most frequent benign neoplasms were hepatic hemangiomas in 11 (4.2%) of 261 cases and uterine leiomyoma in 11 (15.7%) of 70 woman. In the pre-HAART period eight (9.8%) benign neoplasias and four (4.9%) malignant occurred in 82 patients; in the post-HAART period, 29 (16.2%) benign and 17 (9.5%) malignant were present; however, the differences were not significant. We conclude that the introduction of HAART in our region doesn't look to have modified the frequency of neoplasms occurring in patients with HIV.

  16. Organochlorine pesticide, PCB, and PBB residues and necropsy data for bald eagles from 29 states--1975-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaiser, T.E.; Reichel, W.L.; Locke, L.N.; Cromartie, E.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Lamont, T.G.; Mulhern, B.M.; Prouty, R.M.; Stafford, C.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    During 1975-77, 168 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) found moribund or dead in 29 states were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); 32 specimens from 13 states were analyzed for polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). PCBs were present in 166 bald eagle carcasses and DDE was found in 165. TDE and dieldrin were identified in 137 samples, trans-nonachlor in 118, and oxychlordane in 90. Brains of five eagles contained possible lethal levels of dieldrin, and two eagles possibly died of endrin poisoning. Nine eagle livers, analyzed because of suspected lead poisoning, contained high levels of lead. Twenty percent of the eagles died from shooting, the most common cause of death; this cause of death, however, has declined.

  17. Necropsy findings in 62 opportunistically collected free-ranging moose (Alces alces) from Minnesota, USA (2003-13).

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Armien, Anibal G; Butler, Erika; Schrage, Mike; Stromberg, Bert; Bender, Jeff B; Firshman, Anna M; Carstensen, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The Minnesota, US moose population has declined dramatically since the 1990s. All 54 carcasses of moose that died of unknown cause or were euthanized by gun shot by tribal or Department of Natural Resources personnel because of perceived signs of illness between 2003 and 2013 and eight carcasses of moose that died from vehicular accidents between 2009 and 2013 were submitted to the Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory and included in our study. The majority of the animals were underweight or cachectic (n = 53; 85%). Neural migration presumably by Parelaphostrongylus tenuis was a common finding (n = 28; 45%). Moderate to marked Dermacentor albipictus ("winter tick") ectoparasitism with widespread alopecia was the cause or a contributing cause of death in 14 (23%) cases in which grossly apparent anemia was associated with exhaustion of hepatic iron stores. Hepatic lesions associated with Fascioloides magna were common (n = 37; 60%) but were unlikely to be the cause of death. Environmental factors favoring winter tick survival, habitat expansion of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and the survival of terrestrial and aquatic snails (serving as intermediate hosts for P. tenuis and F. magna), might contribute to the seemingly severe parasitic burden in Minnesota's moose population.

  18. An epizootic of common loons in coastal waters of North Carolina: Concentrations of elemental contaminants and results of necropsies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Tom; Franson, J. Christian; Converse, Kathryn A.; Spitzer, P.; Miller, E.A.

    1998-01-01

    A 1993 die-off of common loons (Gavia immer) in the coastal waters of North Carolina was investigated with emphasis on comparing mercury, selenium, arsenic, and lead between birds from the epizootic and reference specimens. Die-off specimens were emaciated but contained no ingested foreign bodies and no lesions suggestive of infectious disease. Results of bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and botulism testing were unremarkable. The geometric mean concentrations (wet weight) of liver mercury (10.9 ppm), and arsenic (0.96 ppm) did not differ between specimens from the die-off and reference loons from the same area that died of other causes. The geometric mean liver selenium concentration of die-off specimens (10.4 ppm) was significantly higher than that of reference loons. Liver lead concentrations were < 0.20 ppm in all but one sample (5.83 ppm). The geometric mean mercury concentration in the primary remiges of die-off specimens (5.44 ppm dry weight) was significantly lower than in reference birds. Liver mercury significantly correlated with liver selenium on a molar concentration basis. We interpret the range of liver mercury concentrations in birds from the epizootic, similar liver mercury concentrations in reference loons, and higher mercury concentrations in reference loon feathers as evidence that factors other than mercury were primarily responsible for the emaciation diagnosed as the cause of mortality.

  19. An epizootic of common loons in coastal waters of North Carolina: Concentrations of elemental contaminants and results of necropsies

    SciTech Connect

    Augspurger, T.; Franson, J.C.; Converse, K.A.; Spitzer, P.R.; Miller, E.A.

    1998-02-01

    A 1993 die-off of common loons (Gavia immer) in the coastal waters of North Carolina was investigated with emphasis on comparing mercury, selenium, arsenic, and lead between birds from the epizootic and reference specimens. Die-off specimens were emaciated but contained no ingested foreign bodies and no lesions suggestive of infectious disease. Results of bacteriology, virology, parasitology, and botulism testing were unremarkable. The geometric mean concentrations (wet weight) of liver mercury and arsenic did not differ between specimens from the die-off and reference loons from the same area that died of other causes. The geometric mean liver selenium concentration of die-off specimens was significantly higher than that of reference loons. Liver lead concentrations were < 0.20 ppm in all but one sample (5.83 ppm). The geometric mean mercury concentration in the primary remiges of die-off specimens was significantly lower than in reference birds. Liver mercury significantly correlated with liver selenium on a molar concentration basis. The authors interpret the range of liver mercury concentrations in birds from the epizootic, similar liver mercury concentrations in reference loons, and higher mercury concentrations in reference loon feathers as evidence that factors other than mercury were primarily responsible for the emaciation diagnosed as the cause of mortality.

  20. Characterization of an endovascular prosthesis using the 3Bs rule (biocompatibility, biofunctionality and biodurability): a recommended protocol to investigate a device harvested at necropsy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zaipin; Fan, Yubo; Geelkerken, Robert M; Deng, Xiaoyan; King, Martin; Traoré, Amidou; Ingle, Nilesh; Turgeon, Stéphane; McGregor, Robert; Dionne, Guy; Zhang, Ze; Marinov, Georgi R; Legrand, André-Pierre; Guzman, Randolph; Zhang, Hongbo; Yin, Tieying; Douville, Yvan; Nutley, Mark; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Guidoin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Numerous endovascular stent grafts to treat intrarenal aortic aneurysms are now commercially available, and many new concepts are currently in development worldwide. In order to objectively quantify their outcomes, we propose a detailed protocol to examine a reference device that was harvested from a patient who died a few hours after endovascular stent-graft deployment for an abdominal aortic aneurysm according to the 3Bs rule (biocompatibility, biofunctionality, and biodurability). Relevant patient history of this 63-year-old man included radiotherapy treatment for lung cancer. Following the patient's death, the device was harvested en bloc together with the aneurysmal sac. The analysis of the device was conducted using nondestructive testing (X-rays, CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI], and endoscopy) and destructive testing (dissection, histology, and fabric and wire component analyses). Results from the gross examination demonstrated that the outer layer of the aneurysm sac was white, stiff, and continuous without any disruption. The Xray analysis, CT scan, and MRI confirmed that the device together with its modular segments was properly deployed at implantation. Endoscopy showed that the device was deployed securely immediately distal to the renal arteries. As anticipated, thin scattered mural thrombi at the blood/foreign material interface were observed on the blood tight flow surface. There were no tears in the fabric, and the dimensions and textile structure were well preserved. The metallic wires were intact. This fatality had no association with the stent graft as the patient's death was caused by the rupture of the pulmonary artery following intensive radiotherapy. In conclusion, autopsy, nondestructive testing, and destructive testing are therefore the necessary steps to validate any explanted endovascular stent graft in terms of biocompatibility, biofunctionality, and biodurability. In this specific case, the endovascular device fulfills the 3Bs rule. The authors recommend this protocol to investigate explanted endovascular devices.

  1. Transcriptome of the dead: characterisation of immune genes and marker development from necropsy samples in a free-ranging marine mammal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcriptomes are powerful resources, providing a window on the expressed portion of the genome that can be generated rapidly and at low cost for virtually any organism. However, because many genes have tissue-specific expression patterns, developing a complete transcriptome usually requires a 'discovery pool' of individuals to be sacrificed in order to harvest mRNA from as many different types of tissue as possible. This hinders transcriptome development in large, charismatic and endangered species, many of which stand the most to gain from such approaches. To circumvent this problem in a model pinniped species, we 454 sequenced cDNA from testis, heart, spleen, intestine, kidney and lung tissues obtained from nine adult male Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) that died of natural causes at Bird Island, South Georgia. Results After applying stringent quality control criteria based on length and annotation, we obtained 12,397 contigs which, in combination with 454 data previously obtained from skin, gave a total of 23,096 unique contigs. Homology was found to 77.0% of dog (Canis lupus familiaris) transcripts, suggesting that the combined assembly represents a substantial proportion of this species' transcriptome. Moreover, only 0.5% of transcripts revealed sequence similarity to bacteria, implying minimal contamination, and the percentage of transcripts involved in cell death was low at 2.6%. Transcripts with immune-related annotations were almost five-fold enriched relative to skin and represented 13.2% of all spleen-specific contigs. By reference to the dog, we also identified transcripts revealing homology to five class I, ten class II and three class III genes of the Major Histocompatibility Complex and derived the putative genomic distribution of 17,121 contigs, 2,119 in silico mined microsatellites and 9,382 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Conclusions Our findings suggest that transcriptome development based on samples collected post mortem may greatly facilitate genomic studies, not only of marine mammals but also more generally of species that are of conservation concern. PMID:23347513

  2. Comparison at Necropsy of Heart Weight in Women Aged 20 to 29 Years With Fatal Trauma or Chemical Intoxication Versus Fatal Natural Cause (A Search for the Normal Adult Heart Weight).

    PubMed

    Blackbourne, Brian D; Vasudevan, Anupama; Roberts, William C

    2017-03-01

    The present obesity epidemic makes determining the normal heart weight in adults difficult. This study examines the heart weight at autopsy in 104 women aged 20 to 29 years who died in 1978 to 1980 before the overweight epidemic ensued. Of the 104 cases, the hearts weighed ≤300 g in 86 (83%) and >300 g in 18 (17%). Of the 67 cases dying from an unnatural cause (trauma or chemical intoxication), only 3 (4%) had hearts weighing >300 g; of the 37 patients dying from a variety of natural causes, 15 (41%) had hearts weighing >300 g (p <0.001). The body mass index (BMI) was ≤25 kg/m(2) in 82 cases (79%) and the hearts in them ranged from 120 to 400 g (mean 262 ± 51; median 257 g); of the 22 cases (21%) in whom the BMI was >25 kg/m(2), the hearts ranged from 230 to 850 g (mean 351 ± 142; median 300 g). In conclusion, the cases dying from an unnatural cause had smaller mean heart weights than those women dying from a natural cause and those with a normal BMI (≤25 kg/m(2)) had smaller mean heart weights than those with a BMI >25 kg/m(2). The normal heart weight in young women dying from an unnatural cause with few exceptions is <300 g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute and Subacute Inhalation Toxicity Study in Rats Exposed to Pyrotechnically-Disseminated M18 Red Smoke

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-12

    atmospheric concentration of the test material targeted to at least 2 mg/L for the second exposure. Three rats per sex were euthanized and...necropsied on the day after exposure and 2 rats per sex were held for a 14-day recovery period prior to being euthanized and necropsied. Body mass...third exposure such that 3 rats per sex were euthanized and necropsied on the day after exposure and 2 rats per sex were held for a 14-day recovery

  4. Thrombosis of the cranial vena cava in a cow with bronchopneumonia and traumatic reticuloperitonitis

    PubMed Central

    Gerspach, Christian; Wirz, Mirjam; Schweizer-Knubben, Gabriela; Braun, Ueli

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the clinical findings, surgical and medical management, and necropsy of a 6-year-old cow with thrombosis of the cranial vena cava and thrombo-embolic pneumonia following traumatic reticuloperitonitis. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed by necropsy. PMID:22547845

  5. Autopsy imaging for cardiac tamponade in a Thoroughbred foal.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kazutaka; Sato, Fumio; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Higuchi, Tohru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Sasaki, Naoki; Nambo, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other. The cause of death was determined to be traumatic cardiac tamponade. In conclusion, Ai is an additional option for determining cause of death.

  6. A Survey of Disease Conditions in Adult and Feeder Sheep in Saskatchewan

    PubMed Central

    Moteane, M.; Middleton, D. M.; Polley, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    A survey was carried out to identify disease conditions occurring in adult and feeder sheep in Saskatchewan. Necropsies were performed on 50 adult sheep submitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine during the period July 1976 to June 1977 and data were assembled from necropsy records of sheep submitted between January 1975 to December 1976. The diseases encountered were briefly described. Conditions of the respiratory and digestive systems were the most significant as causes of mortality. Burdens of helminth endoparasites were generally low. In the flocks included in the necropsy survey, annual mortality among adult and feeder sheep was estimated to be three percent. PMID:761154

  7. Autopsy imaging for cardiac tamponade in a Thoroughbred foal

    PubMed Central

    YAMADA, Kazutaka; SATO, Fumio; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIGUCHI, Tohru; KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyasu; SASAKI, Naoki; NAMBO, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autopsy imaging (Ai), postmortem imaging before necropsy, is used in human forensic medicine. Ai was performed using computed tomography (CT) for a 1-month-old Thoroughbred foal cadaver found in a pasture. CT revealed pericardial effusion, collapse of the aorta, bleeding in the lung lobe, gas in the ventricles and liver parenchyma, and distension of the digestive tract. Rupture in the left auricle was confirmed by necropsy; however, it was not depicted on CT. Therefore, Ai and conventional necropsy are considered to complement each other. The cause of death was determined to be traumatic cardiac tamponade. In conclusion, Ai is an additional option for determining cause of death. PMID:27703406

  8. SYNOPSIS OF HISTOTECHNIQUES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This synopsis provides an overview of the necropsy, fixation, trimming, and processing of tissues from aquatic organisms for examination using light microscopy. The handling of animals, their tissues, uses of knives, and processing chemicals will be covered. Understanding the his...

  9. First Report of Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum (Echinostomatidae) in a Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) from Saskatchewan, Canada

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report a new host record for Protechinostoma mucronisertulatum. These small trematode parasites were found in a debilitated, immature, male sandhill crane (Grus canadensis) during Autumn migration from the Canadian prairies. Necropsy examination identified fibrinonecrotizing and ulcerative jejuni...

  10. Purkinje cell heterotopy with cerebellar hypoplasia in two free-living American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two wild fledgling kestrels exhibited lack of motor coordination, postural reaction deficits, and abnormal propioception. At necropsy, the cerebellum and brainstem were markedly underdeveloped. Microscopically, there was Purkinje cells heterotopy, abnormal circuitry, and hypoplasia with defective fo...

  11. 77 FR 68692 - 1,4-Dimethylnaphthalene; Amendment to an Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... during the study, and gross necropsy findings were limited to those rabbits that underwent abortion (Ref... stomach and/or intestines) and were likely related to the lack of eating prior to and during the abortion...

  12. Cholangiocarcinoma with metastasis in a captive Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    PubMed

    Renner, M S; Zaias, J; Bossart, G D

    2001-09-01

    A captive male Adelie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), wild caught in 1976, died unexpectedly. Necropsy revealed cholangiocarcinoma with metastases to lung, pancreas, mesentery, and cloaca, the first known case of a penguin hepatic tumor.

  13. Acute, fatal Sarcocystis calchasi-associated hepatitis in Roller pigeons (Columbia livia f. dom.) at Philadelphia Zoo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Four Roller pigeons (Columba livia f. dom.) at the Philadelphia Zoo died suddenly. Necropsy examination revealed macroscopic hepatitis. Microscopically, the predominant lesions were in liver, characterized with necrosis and mixed cell inflammatory response. Sarcocystis calchasi-like schizonts and fr...

  14. A Mortality Event in Elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni) Calves Associated with Malnutrition, Pasteurellosis, and Deer Adenovirus in Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Fox, Karen A; Atwater, Levi; Hoon-Hanks, Laura; Miller, Myrna

    2017-03-22

    This report describes clinical, necropsy, and ancillary diagnostic findings for a mortality event in Rocky Mountain elk ( Cervus elaphus nelsoni) calves attributed to malnutrition, pasteurellosis, and an alimentary presentation of adenovirus hemorrhagic disease.

  15. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-02-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca.

  16. SYNOPSIS OF HISTOTECHNIQUES FOR AQUATIC ANIMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This synopsis provides an overview of the necropsy, fixation, trimming, and processing of tissues from aquatic organisms for examination using light microscopy. The handling of animals, their tissues, uses of knives, and processing chemicals will be covered. Understanding the his...

  17. Identification of Genes Regulating the Development of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Tumor Development Hua Wang, Douglas Teske , Alyssa Tess, Rebecca Kohlhepp, YounJeong Choi, Christina Kendziorski, and Amy Rapaich Moser Cancer Res...Tumor Development Hua Wang, 1,3 Douglas Teske , 1 Alyssa Tess, 1 Rebecca Kohlhepp, 1 YounJeong Choi, 2 Christina Kendziorski, 2 and Amy Rapaich Moser 1... Teske ), and palpable tumors were recorded when first noted and then confirmed at necropsy. The total tumor number was determined at necropsy by noting

  18. Causes of mortality of wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz, Galapagos, Ecuador from 2002-2004.

    PubMed

    Gottdenker, Nicole L; Walsh, Timothy; Jiménez-Uzcátegui, Gustavo; Betancourt, Franklin; Cruz, Marilyn; Soos, Catherine; Miller, R Eric; Parker, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Necropsy findings were reviewed from wild birds submitted to the Charles Darwin Research Station, Santa Cruz Island, Galápagos Archipelago between 2004 and 2006. One hundred and ninety cases from 27 different species were submitted, and 178 of these cases were evaluated grossly or histologically. Trauma and trauma-related deaths (n=141) dominated necropsy submissions. Infectious causes of avian mortality included myiasis due to Philornis sp. (n=6), avian pox (n=1), and schistosomosis (n=1).

  19. Aeromonas hydrophila fulminant pneumonia in a fit young man.

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, J R; Brum, G; Fernandes, A; Biscaia, I; Correia, M J; Bastardo, J

    1992-01-01

    A previously healthy 24 year old athletic man became ill suddenly with pneumonia the day after swimming in the sea. Despite intensive support measures in the intensive care unit he died three hours after admission and 21 hours after his first symptom. Necropsy showed bilateral haemorrhagic necrotising pneumonia. Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from a blood culture taken at admission and from the lungs at necropsy. The infection may have come from contaminated sea water. PMID:1496512

  20. Lack of postmortem digestion of tapeworms in Golden hamsters experimentally infected with Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Garza-Rodríguez, A; Maravilla, P; Mendlovic, F; Mata-Miranda, P; Robert, L; Flisser, A

    2007-04-10

    Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis, a public health problem in Mexico and other developing countries. Surprisingly, tapeworm carriers are very rarely found and in necropsy studies practically no tapeworms have been reported. In this paper we analyze the possibility that, after the death of the host, tapeworms could easily be destroyed in the intestine. Our experiments, performed in the hamster model, suggest that the absence of tapeworms in human intestine during necropsy is not due to postmortem digestion.

  1. The Impact of Prophylactic Fasciotomy Following Porcine (Sus scrofa) Hind Limb Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-23

    the 14-day survival period to calculate the composite physiologic model of recovery ( PMR ). Necropsy was performed for evaluation of nerve and...muscle histology. Results: In hemorrhage alone, according to the PMR the recovery was 94+/-28%, 63+/- 37% and 55+/-44% at 0, 3 and 6 hours of ischemia...hours. , , . v w and compared to baseline to create the Physiologic Model of Recovery ( PMR ). On day 14, necropsy was performed and

  2. Bartonella spp. exposure in northern and southern sea otters in Alaska and California.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Sebastian E; Chomel, Bruno B; Gill, Verena A; Doroff, Angela M; Miller, Melissa A; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A; Kasten, Rickie W; Byrne, Barbara A; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2014-12-01

    Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62-269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation.

  3. Bartonella spp. Exposure in Northern and Southern Sea Otters in Alaska and California

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Gill, Verena A.; Doroff, Angela M.; Miller, Melissa A.; Burek-Huntington, Kathleen A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Byrne, Barbara A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Since 2002, an increased number of northern sea otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) from southcentral Alaska have been reported to be dying due to endocarditis and/or septicemia with infection by Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. Bartonella spp. DNA was also detected in northern sea otters as part of mortality investigations during this unusual mortality event (UME) in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. To evaluate the extent of exposure to Bartonella spp. in sea otters, sera collected from necropsied and live-captured northern sea otters, as well as necropsied southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) unaffected by the UME, were analyzed using an immunofluorescent antibody assay. Antibodies against Bartonella spp. were detected in sera from 50% of necropsied and 34% of presumed healthy, live-captured northern sea otters and in 16% of necropsied southern sea otters. The majority of sea otters with reactive sera were seropositive for B. washoensis, with antibody titers ranging from 1:64 to 1:256. Bartonella spp. antibodies were especially common in adult northern sea otters, both free-living (49%) and necropsied (62%). Adult stranded northern sea otters that died from infectious causes, such as opportunistic bacterial infections, were 27 times more likely to be Bartonella seropositive than adult stranded northern sea otters that died from noninfectious causes (p<0.001; 95% confidence interval 2.62–269.4). Because Bartonella spp. antibodies were detected in necropsied northern sea otters from southcentral (44%) and southwestern (86%) stocks of Alaska, as well as in necropsied southern sea otters (16%) in southcentral California, we concluded that Bartonella spp. exposure is widely distributed among sea otter populations in the Eastern Pacific, providing context for investigating future disease outbreaks and monitoring of Bartonella infections for sea otter management and conservation. PMID:25514118

  4. A comparison of liver sampling techniques in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kemp, S D; Zimmerman, K L; Panciera, D L; Monroe, W E; Leib, M S; Lanz, O I

    2015-01-01

    The liver sampling technique in dogs that consistently provides samples adequate for accurate histopathologic interpretation is not known. To compare histopathologic results of liver samples obtained by punch, cup, and 14 gauge needle to large wedge samples collected at necropsy. Seventy dogs undergoing necropsy. Prospective study. Liver specimens were obtained from the left lateral liver lobe with an 8 mm punch, a 5 mm cup, and a 14 gauge needle. After sample acquisition, two larger tissue samples were collected near the center of the left lateral lobe to be used as a histologic standard for comparison. Histopathologic features and numbers of portal triads in each sample were recorded. The mean number of portal triads obtained by each sampling method were 2.9 in needle samples, 3.4 in cup samples, 12 in punch samples, and 30.7 in the necropsy samples. The diagnoses in 66% of needle samples, 60% of cup samples, and 69% of punch samples were in agreement with the necropsy samples, and these proportions were not significantly different from each other. The corresponding kappa coefficients were 0.59 for needle biopsies, 0.52 for cup biopsies, and 0.62 for punch biopsies. The histopathologic interpretation of a liver sample in the dog is unlikely to vary if the liver biopsy specimen contains at least 3-12 portal triads. However, in comparison large necropsy samples, the accuracy of all tested methods was relatively low. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Standardized method for the harvest of nonhuman primate tissue optimized for multiple modes of analyses.

    PubMed

    Davenport, April T; Grant, Kathleen A; Szeliga, Kendall T; Friedman, David P; Daunais, James B

    2014-03-01

    Appropriate animal models are critical to conduct translational studies of human disorders without variables that can confound clinical studies. Such analytic methods as patch-clamp electrophysiological and voltammetric recordings of neurons in brain slices require living brain tissue. In order to obtain viable tissue from nonhuman primate brains, tissue collection methods must be designed to preserve cardiovascular and respiratory functions for as long as possible. This paper describes a method of necropsy that has been used in three species of monkeys that satisfies this requirement. At necropsy, animals were maintained under a deep surgical plane of anesthesia while a craniotomy was conducted to expose the brain. Following the craniotomy, animals were perfused with ice-cold, oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid to displace blood and to reduce the temperature of the entire brain. The brain was removed within minutes of death and specific brain regions were immediately dissected for subsequent in vitro electrophysiology or voltammetry experiments. This necropsy method also provided for the collection of tissue blocks containing all brain regions that were immediately frozen and stored for subsequent genomic, proteomic, autoradiographic and histological studies. An added benefit from the design of this necropsy method is that all major peripheral tissues were also collected and are now being utilized in a wide range of genomic, biochemical and histological assays. This necropsy method has resulted in the establishment and growth of a nonhuman primate alcohol tissue bank designed to distribute central nervous system and peripheral tissues to the larger scientific community.

  6. Standardized Method for the Harvest of Nonhuman Primate Tissue Optimized for Multiple Modes of Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, April T; Grant, Kathleen A; Szeliga, Kendall T; Friedman, David P; Daunais, James B

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate animal models are critical to conduct translational studies of human disorders without variables that can confound clinical studies. Such analytic methods as patch-clamp electrophysiological and voltammetric recordings of neurons in brain slices require living brain tissue. In order to obtain viable tissue from nonhuman primate brains, tissue collection methods must be designed to preserve cardiovascular and respiratory functions for as long as possible. This paper describes a method of necropsy in three species of monkeys that satisfies this requirement. At necropsy, animals were maintained under a deep surgical plane of anesthesia while a craniotomy was conducted to expose the brain. Following the craniotomy, animals were perfused with ice-cold, oxygenated artificial cerebrospinal fluid to displace blood and to reduce the temperature of the entire brain. The brain was removed within minutes of death and specific brain regions were immediately dissected for subsequent in vitro electrophysiology or voltammetry experiments. This necropsy method also provided for the collection of tissue blocks containing all brain regions that were immediately frozen and stored for subsequent genomic, proteomic, autoradiographic and histological studies. An added benefit from the design of this necropsy method is that all major peripheral tissues were also collected and are now being utilized in a wide range of genomic, biochemical and histological assays. This necropsy method has resulted in the establishment and growth of a nonhuman primate alcohol tissue bank designed to distribute central nervous system and peripheral tissues to the larger scientific community. PMID:23709130

  7. DDT poisoning in a Cooper's hawk collected in 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, R.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Schmeling, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    In April 1980, a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) was found on the ground in Lakewood, Colorado, unable to fly and in convulsion. The bird died shortly thereafter. The hawk was packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Fish and Wildlife Service, U. S. Department of the Interior, National Wildlife Health Laboratory, Madison, Wisconsin, for necropsy. Following necropsy, the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and remaining carcass except skin, feet, wings, liver, and kidney were packed in dry ice and shipped air express to the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland, for chemical residue analysis. Because the bird's behavior before death suggested some form of poisoning, the kidney was assayed for thallium, the liver for lead, and the gastrointestinal tract for strychnine, sodium fluoroacetate, and arsenic. When these assays proved negative, the bird was analyzed for organochlorine pesticides. Necropsy findings and pesticide residue analyses are reported here.

  8. NEOPLASIA IN SNAKES AT ZOO ATLANTA DURING 1992-2012.

    PubMed

    Page-Karjian, Annie; Hahne, Megan; Leach, Kate; Murphy, Hayley; Lock, Brad; Rivera, Samuel

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to review neoplasia of captive snakes in the Zoo Atlanta collection from 1992 to 2012. Of 255 snakes that underwent necropsy and histopathologic examination at Zoo Atlanta during the study period, 37 were observed with neoplasia at necropsy. In those 37 snakes, 42 neoplastic lesions of 18 primary cell types were diagnosed. Thirty-five of those neoplasms (83.3%) were malignant, and of those, 19 were of mesenchymal origin, whereas 14 were of epithelial origin. The median annual rate of neoplasia at necropsy was 12.5% (interquartile range = 2.8-19.5%) over the 21-yr study period. The mean estimated age at death for snakes with neoplasia was 13.2 yr (range, 1-24 yr). Investigating the incidence and clinical significance of neoplasia in captive snakes is vital for developing effective preventative and treatment regimes.

  9. Four Cases of Spontaneous Neoplasia in the Naked Mole-Rat (Heterocephalus glaber), A Putative Cancer-Resistant Species.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kyle R; Milone, Nicholas A; Rodriguez, Carlos E

    2017-01-01

    The naked mole-rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is widely acclaimed to be cancer-resistant and of considerable research interest based on a paucity of reports of neoplasia in this species. We have, however, encountered four spontaneous cases of neoplasia and one presumptive case of neoplasia through routine necropsy and biopsy of individuals in a zoo collection of nonhybrid naked mole-rats bred from a single pair. One case each of metastasizing hepatocellular carcinoma, nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor), and multicentric lymphosarcoma, as well as presumptive esophageal adenocarcinoma (Barrett's esophagus-like) was identified postmortem among 37 nonautolyzed necropsy submissions of naked mole-rats over 1-year-old that were submitted for necropsy between 1998 and August 2015. One incidental case of cutaneous hemangioma was also identified antemortem by skin biopsy from one naked mole-rat examined for trauma.

  10. First Confirmation of Schmallenberg Virus in Cattle in Spain: Tissue Distribution and Pathology.

    PubMed

    Balseiro, A; Royo, L J; Gómez Antona, A; García Marín, J F

    2015-10-01

    Between January and June 2013, nine stillborn bovine foetuses with congenital malformations from nine cattle herds located in Salamanca (central Spain) were detected. Necropsy was performed on two calves. Pathological lesions together with molecular genetics and serological results allowed a definitive diagnosis: first confirmation of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) infection in cattle in Spain. SBV was detected in different tissues and organic fluids in both animals including blood, suggesting a possible viraemia. The umbilical cord was also positive for the presence of SBV in both animals. The former tissue provides an easy to obtain sample and might be a sample of choice when necropsy is carried out in the field.

  11. Causes of mortality in the Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, C D; Homer, B L; Spalding, M G

    2002-10-01

    Panthers necropsied at the University of Florida ranged between 2 weeks and 14 years of age; there were 38 males and 17 females in the cohort. Main categories of causes of death included trauma inflicted from either vehicular collisions (43%) or territorial fights (16%). Specific endogenous diseases involved the respiratory system in 13%, the urinary system in 4%, and the central nervous system in 2%. Ostium secundum atrial septal defects (ASD) were diagnosed in 11% of the panthers necropsied. Seventeen (54%) of the 38 male panthers had either unilateral or bilateral cryptorchidism. Cause of death remained undetermined in 11% of the total cohort.

  12. Chronic renal disease in a captive two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) with concurrent hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Salas, Elisa; Wolf, Tiffany; Harris, Seth

    2014-06-01

    A 13-yr-old female two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus) with a prolonged history of worsening azotemia was necropsied shortly after euthanasia. On necropsy, the sloth had poor body condition, bilaterally shrunken kidneys, and a large neoplastic mass replacing the right liver lobe. Histologic examination demonstrated chronic renal disease with metastatic mineralization as the cause of morbidity. The liver mass was not associated with any known clinical signs and was diagnosed as a solitary and well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed in a sloth and the first detailed description of chronic renal disease in this species.

  13. An outbreak of blackhead disease (Histomonas meleagridis) in farm-reared bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

    PubMed

    McDougald, L R; Abraham, M; Beckstead, R B

    2012-12-01

    An outbreak of blackhead disease (Histomonas meleagridis) in farm-reared flock of 13,500 bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) resulted in mortality totaling approximately 1500 in 4 wk. Necropsy of 56 dead birds at midoutbreak (from a total that day of 131) revealed that 55 had severe cecal lesions typical of blackhead, and only 3 had visible lesions in the liver. Necropsy of apparently healthy birds failed to detect any signs of infection. Presence of H. meleagridis in affected ceca was proved by culture in vitro and PCR tests.

  14. [Evaluation of 100 autopsies performed in the maternity service of the Hôtel-Dieu in Lyon during an 18 month period].

    PubMed

    Cordier, M P; Sournies, G; Domenichini, Y; Coicaud, C; Guillaud, M; Thoulon, J M; Charvet, F; Boschetti, R; Robert, J M

    1985-09-01

    100 Necropsies have been performed from January 1983 to June 1984, on 53 abortus and stillborn and 47 therapeutic terminations of pregnancy. All fetuses came from the same obstetric unit. Half spontaneous fetal deaths remained of unknown aetiology; in 18 cases (34%) placental, maternal or pregnancy pathology existed; fetal abnormalities were discovered in 10 (18%). As for therapeutic interruptions of pregnancy (the indications of which are detailed) the importance of ultrasonography emphasized since this technique allowed 25 of the 47 prenatal diagnosis. The importance of necropsy to help precise diagnosis and subsequent counselling is also recalled.

  15. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Pazzi, Paolo; Lim, Chee K; Steyl, Johan

    2014-03-04

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid-base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect.

  16. Inexpensive anti-cysticercosis vaccine: S3Pvac expressed in heat inactivated M13 filamentous phage proves effective against naturally acquired Taenia solium porcine cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Morales, Julio; Martínez, José Juan; Manoutcharian, Karen; Hernández, Marisela; Fleury, Agnes; Gevorkian, Goar; Acero, Gonzalo; Blancas, Abel; Toledo, Andrea; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Maza, Victor; Quet, Fabrice; Bonnabau, Henri; de Aluja, Aline S; Fragoso, Gladis; Larralde, Carlos; Sciutto, Edda

    2008-06-02

    In search of reducing vaccine production costs', a recombinant M13 phage version of the anti-cysticercosis tripeptide vaccine (S3Pvac) was developed. The efficacy of S3Pvac-Phage vs. placebo was evaluated in a randomized trial that included 1,047 rural pigs in 16 villages of Central Mexico. Three to five months after vaccination 530 pigs were examined by tongue inspection. At 5-27 months of age, 331 pigs (197 vaccinated/134 controls) were inspected at necropsy. Vaccination reduced 70% the frequency of tongue cysticercosis and, based on necropsy, 54% of muscle-cysticercosis and by 87% the number of cysticerci.

  17. Cyanide toxicosis in Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinereus) secondary to ingestion of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica).

    PubMed

    Weber, Martha A; Garner, Michael

    2002-06-01

    Two Asian small-clawed otters (Amblonyx cinereus) died acutely in their exhibit within a 4-day period. Neither animal had significant gross lesions at necropsy. Histologic findings were consistent with acute vascular shock and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and a toxic etiology was suspected. The animals' exhibit contained opened, uneaten loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) fruit with the seeds removed and large quantities of undigested loquat seed material in the feces of the remaining animals. Cyanide was detected in the stomach contents collected at necropsy and in fresh loquat seeds from the exhibit. Loquat is related to other cyanide-containing fruit trees, including cherries, peaches, and almonds.

  18. Congenital multi-organ malformations in a Holstein calf

    PubMed Central

    Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Nazarizadeh, Ali

    2015-01-01

    A 5-day-old female Holstein calf was necropsied because of lethargy, recumbency and anorexia. At necropsy, multiple gross defects were evident in several organs, including unclosed sutures of skull bones, asymmetrical orbits, doming of the skull bones, hydrocephalus, hydranencephaly, cleft palate, brachygnathia, ventricular septal defect, mitral valve dysplasia and rudimentary lungs. On microscopic examination, pulmonary hypoplasia was characterized by reduced number of alveoli, replacement of peri-bronchiolar smooth muscles with connective tissue and small masses of undeveloped cartilage around the small airways. The present report is the first description of the congenital pulmonary hypoplasia accompanied by numerous malformations in Holstein breed. PMID:26893818

  19. Diabetes mellitus in a red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Wallner-Pendleton, E A; Rogers, D; Epple, A

    1993-09-01

    An adult, free-living female red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) with clinical signs of generalized weakness, polyuria, and polydipsia, was killed and necropsied. An ante mortem serum sample taken from the bird contained 54.3 mmole/1 glucose, and large amounts of glucose were found in the urine. At necropsy, the pancreas was small, pale pink with multiple, round, approximately 0.5 mm white foci. Light and electron microscopic examination of the pancreas revealed markedly vacuolated islet cells. Histochemical examination of the tissue showed that the vacuolated cells were beta-cells. This is the first report of spontaneously occurring diabetes mellitus in a raptor.

  20. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome in three cats.

    PubMed

    Taillefer, Mylène; Dunn, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Three 8-week-old kittens were presented with a history of acute, generalized weakness and severe fever. One cat was dead upon presentation, and necropsy findings were supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. During their clinical courses, two of the three kittens developed a progressive, marked swelling of one or more limbs. One moribund and severely hypothermic cat was euthanized a few hours after presentation, and necropsy was also supportive of a group G Streptococcus spp. septicemia. One kitten recovered. Group G streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome was suspected because of the fulminant progression of the septicemia.

  1. Forensic pathology of companion animal abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, J A; McDonough, S P

    2013-11-01

    Submission of cases of suspected animal abuse and neglect (AAN) to veterinary pathologists is increasingly frequent. These cases require modification of postmortem procedures and written reports, as the questions asked by courts typically differ from those asked in routine diagnostic cases. Here we review the practice of veterinary forensic pathology as it applies to cases of companion AAN, as well as the fundamental principles of forensic pathology, the components of a forensic necropsy, and the goals of the necropsy in cases of blunt-force trauma, projectile wounds, and starvation. Future directions and endeavors in veterinary forensic pathology are broached.

  2. Natural infection by Paramphistomoidea Stiles and Goldberger, 1910 trematodes in wild Marsh Deer (Blastocerus dichotomus Illiger, 1815) from Sérgio Mottas's hydroelectric power station flooding area.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Cristiano G; do Nascimento, Adjair A; Mapeli, Elaine B; Tebaldi, José H; Duarte, José M B; Hoppe, Estevam G Lux

    2006-01-01

    Studies on helminthfauna of marsh deer Blastocerus dichotomus Illiger, 1815 are rare, although helminthic diseases are an important cause of mortality in these animals. Fifteen male and female adult marsh deer from Sergio Motta's hydroelectric power station flooding area at Paraná River which died during the capture and quarantine procedures, between 1998 and 1999, were necropsied. Three trematodes species, Paramphistomum cervi, Balanorchis anastrofus and Zygocotyle lunatum, all belonging to superfamily Paramphistomoidea, were identified. The obtained trematodes were identified, counted and their respectives descriptors of infection were determined. All necropsied animals were infected by helminths. Paramphistomum cervi was the most prevalent species, while Zygocotyle lunatum was found in only one animal.

  3. Presumed mycobacteriosis in laboratory zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Asfaw, Yohannes G; Sun, Francis J

    2010-09-01

    Husbandry staff noticed a research-naïve, young-adult, female finch tossing its head back intermittently. A second finch exhibiting similar signs was reported a few days later. Postmortem necropsy and histopathology with hematoxylin and eosin and acid-fast staining on the first finch revealed the presence of acid-fast organisms in several organs. After presumptive diagnosis of mycobacteriosis, all remaining finches housed in the same room as the first underwent necropsy and histology. Three additional finches were positive for Mycobacterium-like acid-fast organisms. Incidental findings of megabacteriosis were noted histopathologically on 2 other finches.

  4. European brown hare syndrome in wild European brown hares from Greece.

    PubMed

    Billinis, Charalambos; Psychas, Vassilios; Tontis, Dimitrios K; Spyrou, Vassiliki; Birtsas, Periklis K; Sofia, Marina; Likotrafitis, Fotios; Maslarinou, Olga M; Kanteres, Dimitrios

    2005-10-01

    From 1999 to mid-2003, 97 European brown hares (Lepus europaeus) found dead throughout Greece were examined by necropsy, histopathology, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of European brown hare syndrome (EBHS) and EBHS virus (EBHSV), respectively. Hare losses were sporadic, starting in the cold season and lasting for many months (December to May). The most prominent gross lesions were observed in the liver and included swelling and discoloration; congestion and hemorrhages were present mainly in lungs and tracheal mucosa. Necropsy findings were suggestive of EBHS, which was confirmed by histopathology and RT-PCR. This study documents, for the first time, EBHS in Greece.

  5. Acute Oral and Intraperitoneal Toxicity Study of WR242511 and WR269410 in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-30

    14-day observation period. 4.2B.1.4 Necropsy Necropsy observations are shown in Table 9. A subcutaneous cyst was seen in one 0 mg/kg (10 ml/kg...male and one 800 mg/kg WR269410-treated male. An enlarged mesenteric lymph node was seen in a vehicle-treated male (10 ml/kg). Also, a 1000 mg/kg...lesions No gross lesions WR269410 (Gavage; Set 2) Dose Level (mg/base/kg) Males ,u_. = Females Vehicle (10 ml/kg) Enlarged mesenteric lymph node and

  6. Progression of Pathogenic Events in Cynomolgus Macaques Infected with Variola Virus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    suggesting potential targets for therapeutic intervention in humans. Results Comparative Pathology of VARV Infection Gross Necropsy Findings. 108 pfu...first became apparent on day 3 and were limited to peripheral and visceral lymphadenopathy and prominent splenic lymphoid follicles in one animal only...Epitheliocentric lesions were commonly found in haired skin and oronasal mucosa. Cutaneous lesions became apparent histologically at day 3, and

  7. Pubertal Development and Thyroid Function in Intact Juvenile Rats Exposed to 3-Nitro-1,2,4-Trazol-5-One (NTO), February-June 2012

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    5.8 Observations, Body Mass, Food Consumption..................................................... 6 5.9 Sexual Maturation Evaluation – Vaginal...Opening (VO) and Estrous Cyclicity ...... 6 5.10 Sexual Maturation Evaluation – Preputial Separation (PPS) .............................. 7 5.11 Necropsy... Sexual Maturation Evaluation – Female ............................................................. 12 6.5 Sexual Maturation Evaluation – Male

  8. Meningoencephalitis associated with disseminated sarcocystosis in a free-ranging moose (Alces alces) calf

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, Madhu; Patel, Jagdish; Pybus, Margo; Coleman, James K.; Childress, April L.; Wellehan, James F.X.

    2015-01-01

    A wild moose (Alces alces) calf was presented for necropsy due to severe neurologic signs. Histopathologic examination revealed multisystemic inflammation with intralesional mature and immature schizonts. Schizonts in the brain reacted positively to Sarcocystis spp. polyclonal antibodies. Gene sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA identified the species as Sarcocystis alceslatrans. PMID:26246636

  9. Lead poisoning of a marbled godwit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Windingstad, R.M.; Martin, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A thin adult female marbled godwit (Limosa fedoa) found dead at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Montana, was found to have 17 ingested lead shot in its gizzard. Its liver contained 51.7 ppm lead (wet weight). Based on these necropsy findings a diagnosis of lead poisoning was made.

  10. Microenvironment-Programmed Metastatic Prostate Cancer Stem Cells (mPCSCs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    micrometastases, which may evade detection by necropsy and regular histologic (HE) analysis. We first carried out ‘positive’ control experiments by...phosphoprotein 1 (osteopontin) 9.4-11.0 (10x) 0.02-0.03 IGFBP5 NM000599 insulin -like growth factor binding protein 5 2.2-4.9 (3x

  11. Isolation of Clostridium perfringens type A from wild bharals (Pseudois nayaur) following sudden death in Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lingwei; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Tiecheng; Xiang, Haiyang; Ji, Xue; Han, Yixiao; Tian, Yuan; Sun, Yang; Liu, Jun; Guo, Xuejun

    2017-04-01

    Dozens of wild bharals died suddenly in Tibet. Necropsy showed severe congestion and hemorrhage in multiple organs, with large numbers of Gram-positive bacilli. Strains of Clostridium perfringens type A were isolated from the different organs and the intestinal contents. The other possible pathogens were ruled out by PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. BVDV2-induced hypomyelinogenesis in a longhorn calf

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented to the Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia and nystagmus. In utero infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was suspected. The animal was euthanized and a necropsy was p...

  13. Metastatic transitional cell carcinoma in proximal humerus of a dog

    PubMed Central

    Malek, Sarah; Murphy, Kimberly A.; Nykamp, Stephanie G.; Allavena, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) was diagnosed in the proximal humerus of a dog that was presented with persistent right forelimb lameness with no clinical signs of urinary tract involvement. A diagnosis of TCC was made from surgical biopsy of the humeral lesion with subsequent necropsy revealing the prostatic urethra as the primary site of the tumor. PMID:22379204

  14. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Blastocystis subtype 5, a subtype known to infect humans, was detected by molecular methods in the feces of 36 naturally infected market age pigs. At necropsy, 6 heavily infected pigs were selected to determine the tropism of the infection within the gastrointestinal tract. Because so little is know...

  15. Contagious ecthyma in mountain goat of coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Hebert, D M; Samuel, W M; Smith, G W

    1977-04-01

    Contagious ecthyma has been reported previously from mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) in one restricted area of eastern British Columbia. A second focus of infection is reported for mountain goat from western British Columbia. Diagnosis was based on appearance of lesions at necropsy, histopathology and demonstration of poxvirus with the electron microscope. The epizootiology of this infection in mountain goat is discussed briefly.

  16. Impacts of rodenticide and insecticide toxicants from marijuana cultivation on fisher survival rates in the Sierra National Forest, California.

    Treesearch

    Craig Thompson; Kathryn Purcell

    2013-01-01

    Secondary exposure of wildlife to pesticides has been well documented, yet exposure is typically associated with agricultural or wildland-urban interface areas. Wildlife in undeveloped areas is generally presumed free from risk. In 2009, a male fisher was found dead in the Sierra National Forest and subsequent necropsy revealed that the animal died of acute rodenticide...

  17. A thymic carcinoid in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Powe, Joshua; Castleman, William; Fiorello, Christine

    2005-09-01

    An 18-yr-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with acute onset hind limb paresis. Radiographic and ultrasonographic imaging revealed a caudal abdominal aortic thrombus and a cranial mediastinal mass. Necropsy confirmed aortic thrombosis. Necrotizing enteritis and multifocal renal thrombosis were also noted. The cranial mediastinum contained a bilobed mass that histologically and ultrastructurally was consistent with a carcinoid.

  18. Glyco-Immune Diagnostic Signatures and Therapeutic Targets of Mesothelioma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    of the experiment with all blood process for serum and frozen away. 5 As seen in Table 1, 2/3 of the animals that received the asbestos...preserved and frozen after processing for cells and fluid. The final necropsy on these animals was October 23 2012. Eight days later the entire

  19. 21 CFR 600.12 - Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records. 600.12 Section 600.12 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS BIOLOGICAL.... A necropsy record shall be kept on each animal from which a biological product has been obtained and...

  20. Tuberculosis in greater kudu.

    PubMed

    Himes, E M; LyVere, D B; Thoen, C O; Essey, M A; Lebel, J L; Freiheit, C F

    1976-11-01

    Four greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) died while maintained in captivity at a zoo. Necropsy revealed tuberculous lesions in the lungs, spleen, and thoracic lymph nodes. Histopathologic findings included granulomas with Langhans' giant cells, necrosis, and mineralization. Acid-fast organisms isolated from tissues of each kudu were identified as Mycobacterium bovis.

  1. Glanders in donkeys (Equus Asinus) in the state of pernambuco, Brazil: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; da Fonseca Oliveira, Andréa Alice; da Silva, Andréa Marques Vieira; Junior, José Wilton Pinheiro; da Silva, Leonildo Bento Galiza; de Farias Brito, Marilene; Rabelo, Silvana Suely Assis

    2010-01-01

    The clinical, anatomical and histopatological findings of glanders diagnosis in donkeys in the state of Pernambuco-Brazil are reported. The animals were euthanized and necropsied, and evaluated for lesions in respiratory and lymphatic systems, confirming the disease by isolation of Burkholderia mallei and Strauss test. PMID:24031474

  2. Exertional myopathy in a pileated woodpecker (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe...

  3. Exertional myopathy in pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) subsequent to capture.

    PubMed

    Ruder, Mark G; Noel, Brandon L; Bednarz, James C; Keel, M Kevin

    2012-04-01

    Out of 33 Pileated Woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) captured and fitted with radio-transmitters, 12 were later found dead. Three carcasses were recovered and submitted for necropsy. One bird had large pale foci in multiple muscles. Microscopically, skeletal muscle in all three had evidence of severe coagulative necrosis, consistent with capture myopathy.

  4. Multiple brain abscesses from isolated cerebral mucormycosis.

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, A; Del Brutto, O H

    1990-01-01

    A report is presented of a patient with cerebral mucormycosis without rhinosinusal or systemic evidence of the disease. The predisposing condition was drug-induced immunosuppression. Computed tomography (CT) showed focal areas of abnormal enhancement which correlated with necropsy findings of localised parenchymal brain damage; this represented encapsulated brain abscesses, a rare form of presentation of cerebral mucormycosis. Images PMID:2351973

  5. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  6. Blastomycosis in Man after Kinkajou Bite

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, David D.; Lindsley, Mark D.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Drew, Clifton P.; Johnson, April J.; Landau, Douglas; Vanderbush, Joel; Baker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We report transmission of Blastomyces dermatitidis fungal infection from a pet kinkajou to a man. When treating a patient with a recalcitrant infection and a history of an animal bite, early and complete animal necropsy and consideration of nonbacterial etiologies are needed. PMID:21291603

  7. Central nervous system blastomycosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, M Casey; Taylor, Susan M; Kerr, Moira E

    2009-09-01

    An adult golden retriever was presented for progressive neurologic dysfunction. Clinical examination suggested brainstem disease. Blastomycosis was diagnosed based on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a normal sized lymph node and a positive blastomycosis urine antigen test. Systemic blastomycosis with neurologic involvement was confirmed at necropsy.

  8. Central nervous system blastomycosis in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Gaunt, M. Casey; Taylor, Susan M.; Kerr, Moira E.

    2009-01-01

    An adult golden retriever was presented for progressive neurologic dysfunction. Clinical examination suggested brainstem disease. Blastomycosis was diagnosed based on fine-needle aspiration cytology of a normal sized lymph node and a positive blastomycosis urine antigen test. Systemic blastomycosis with neurologic involvement was confirmed at necropsy. PMID:19949557

  9. Cervical leiomyoma in an aged goat leading to massive hemorrhage and death

    PubMed Central

    Uzal, Francisco A.; Puschner, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    An adult female Toggenburg goat with a history of acute vaginal bleeding and death was presented for postmortem examination. Necropsy, histologic examination, and immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of a leiomyoma that originated from the uterine cervix, occupied most of the vaginal lumen, and had a bleeding, frayed artery in the caudal end. PMID:18309748

  10. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) fetus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A near full term alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was stillborn two days before expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within six hours of delivery. Gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. On histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta,...

  11. Using Death Certificate Reports to Find Severe Leptospirosis Cases, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Spichler, Anne; Athanazio, Daniel; Buzzar, Marcia; Castro, Bronislawa; Chapolla, Erica; Seguro, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Severe leptospirosis with pulmonary hemorrhage is emerging globally. Measures to control leptospirosis through sanitation depend on accurate case finding and reporting. Rapid death certificate reporting, plus necropsy of persons who died of leptospirosis, facilitates public health intervention and could provide an important tool in assessing the global burden of leptospirosis. PMID:18258007

  12. Using death certificate reports to find severe leptospirosis cases, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Spichler, Anne; Athanazio, Daniel; Buzzar, Marcia; Castro, Bronislawa; Chapolla, Erica; Seguro, Antonio; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2007-10-01

    Severe leptospirosis with pulmonary hemorrhage is emerging globally. Measures to control leptospirosis through sanitation depend on accurate case finding and reporting. Rapid death certificate reporting, plus necropsy of persons who died of leptospirosis, facilitates public health intervention and could provide an important tool in assessing the global burden of leptospirosis.

  13. Anatomo-pathologic observations on epidemic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Serban, A; Manasia, M; Matei, M; Gădăleanu, V; Olteanu, L

    1976-01-01

    Two cases of necropsy and 5 cases of renal biopuncture were studied on the occassion of an epidemic of "hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome" identified in mountainous areas of Transylvania. The prevalent pathogenic process was capillary toxicosis which injured the renal tubules and vessels. The severity of the disease was determined by the phenomena of tubular failure, by the hemorrhagic syndrome and shock.

  14. Toxocara cati (Nematoda: Ascarididae) in Didelphis albiventris (Marsupialia: Didelphidae) from Brazil: a case of pseudoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2014-01-01

    Eggs of Toxocara cati were found in the feces of Didelphis albiventris from a peridomestic urban environment in Brazil. Negative fecal tests following short-term captivity of the opossums, as well as the absence of ascaridids during necropsy, suggest the occurrence of pseudoparasitism. Implications of the findings for the epidemiology of toxocariasis are discussed.

  15. Enhancement of innate immunity with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor did not prevent disease in pigs infected with a highly pathogenic Chinese PRRSV strain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain JXwn06 has been shown to produce high fevers, loss of body condition, respiratory distress and death in pigs. Necropsy reveals extensive interstitial pneumonia, multi-systemic pathology and a high occurrence of secondary bacterial infections. The ful...

  16. Lymphosarcoma in an alpaca.

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, J A

    2001-01-01

    A 16-month-old, female alpaca presented with a 24-hour history of anorexia and depression. On necropsy, it was found that the liver was grossly enlarged and the cortices of both kidneys contained multifocal lesions. Histologic examination of these lesions and other tissues revealed infiltration with lymphocytic cells, a finding consistent with lymphosarcoma. PMID:11665431

  17. Bovine leukemia virus infection in a juvenile alpaca with multicentric lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Laura C.; Scarratt, William K.; Buehring, Gertrude C.; Saunders, Geoffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    A 13-month-old alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was presented for mandibular masses and weight loss. Histopathology of biopsy tissue was consistent with lymphoma. The alpaca was euthanized and necropsy revealed lymphoma masses in multiple organs. Immunohistochemistry for T- and B-cell typing was inconclusive. Serology and in-situ polymerase chain reaction hybridization were positive for bovine leukemia virus. PMID:22942445

  18. Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries.

    PubMed

    Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi

    2013-03-01

    To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection.

  19. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.37 Interstate movement from monitored herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... found negative for tuberculosis at an approved slaughtering establishment or necropsied at an approved... negative for tuberculosis in accordance with requirements for interstate movement. No less than one-half of...

  20. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.37 Interstate movement from monitored herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... found negative for tuberculosis at an approved slaughtering establishment or necropsied at an approved... negative for tuberculosis in accordance with requirements for interstate movement. No less than one-half of...

  1. 9 CFR 77.37 - Interstate movement from monitored herds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TUBERCULOSIS Captive Cervids § 77.37 Interstate movement from monitored herds. (a) Qualifications. To be... found negative for tuberculosis at an approved slaughtering establishment or necropsied at an approved... negative for tuberculosis in accordance with requirements for interstate movement. No less than one-half of...

  2. Acute Dermal Toxicity of Ballpowder in Rabbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    well as its insolubility in the saline vehicle utilized. Ballpowder is insoluble in water, slightly soluble in DMSO, and soluble in acetone , ethyl...inflammatory cell foci may have been due to clipper abrasion. Nematode parasites (pin worms) were observed in 7 of 10 animals at necropsy. These are

  3. Disseminated toxoplasmosis in Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) from Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Necropsies were conducted on four Antillean manatees (Trichechus manatus manatus) that were stranded in single events on the coastal beaches of Puerto Rico from August 2010-August 2011. Three manatees were emaciated and the gastrointestinal tracts were devoid of digesta. Microscopically, all manat...

  4. Anthrax vaccine associated deaths in miniature horses.

    PubMed

    Wobeser, Bruce K

    2015-04-01

    During a widespread anthrax outbreak in Canada, miniature horses were vaccinated using a live spore anthrax vaccine. Several of these horses died from an apparent immune-mediated vasculitis temporally associated with this vaccination. During the course of the outbreak, other miniature horses from different regions with a similar vaccination history, clinical signs, and necropsy findings were found.

  5. Azoospermia in an 8-month-old boar due to bilateral obstruction at the testis/epididymis interface

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Kristin M.; Shipley, Clifford F.; Coleman, David A.; Ehrhart, Eugene J.; Haschek, Wanda M.; Clark, Sherrie G.

    2010-01-01

    An 8-month-old Yorkshire boar was presented for apparent azoospermia. Two semen collections also revealed azoospermia. Ultrasonographic examination of the gonads revealed bilateral caput epididymal dilatation and anechoic fluid within the tubules. Because a testicular biopsy revealed normal spermatogenesis, an outflow tract obstruction was suspected. Multiple sperm granulomas were found within the parenchyma of both testes at necropsy. PMID:21197205

  6. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse

    PubMed Central

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E.C.

    2013-01-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse. PMID:24155420

  7. Aberrant heartworm migration to the abdominal aorta and systemic arteriolitis in a dog presenting with vomiting and hemorrhagic diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Grimes, Janet A.; Scott, Katherine D.; Edwards, John F.

    2016-01-01

    A 2-year-old Dachshund was presented for vomiting and diarrhea. Abdominal ultrasound revealed Dirofilaria immitis in the abdominal aorta and an avascular segment of small intestine. The dog was euthanized. Necropsy revealed D. immitis in the abdominal aorta and widespread necrotizing arteriolitis. This is a unique presentation of aberrant migration of D. immitis. PMID:26740703

  8. Relationship between Serum Antibodies and Taenia solium Larvae Burden in Pigs Raised in Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gavidia, Cesar M.; Verastegui, Manuela R.; Garcia, Hector H.; Lopez-Urbina, Teresa; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Pan, William; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of Taenia solium infection in pigs. However, those serological results do not necessarily correlate with the actual infection burden after performing pig necropsy. This study aimed to evaluate the Electro Immuno Transfer Blot (EITB) seropositivity with infection burden in naturally infected pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings In an endemic area of Peru, 476 pigs were sampled. Seroprevalence was 60.5±4.5% with a statistically higher proportion of positive older pigs (>8 months) than young pigs. The logistic model showed that pigs >8 month of age were 2.5 times more likely to be EITB-positive than ≤8 months. A subset of 84 seropositive pigs were necropsied, with 45.2% (38/84) positive to 1–2 bands, 46.4% (39/84) to 3 bands, and 8.3% (7/84) to 4+ bands. 41 out of 84 positive pigs were negative to necropsy (48.8%) and 43 (51%) had one or more cysts (positive predictive value). Older pigs showed more moderate and heavy infection burdens compared to younger pigs. In general, regardless of the age of the pig, the probability of having more cysts (parasite burden) increases proportionally with the number of EITB bands. Conclusions/Significance The probability of being necropsy-positive increased with the number of bands, and age. Therefore, the EITB is a measure of exposure rather than a test to determine the real prevalence of cysticercosis infection. PMID:23658848

  9. Diesel Exhaust Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Influenza Infection and Induces Dendritic Cell Migration and Maturation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mice were necropsied at day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection and lung tissue was assessed for virus titers by TCID50, lung injury and inflammation. Lung and lymph node DC populations (CD11c+, MHCII, CD45+, CD80+ and CD86+) were identified ...

  10. The Johns Hopkins RTR Consortium: A Collaborative Approach to Advance Translational Science and Standardize Clinical Monitoring of Restorative Transplantation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    for maintenance immunosuppression devoid of the toxicities associated with CNIs. In this study we propose to use the second- generation , FDA...sudden respiratory arrest and was found to have an airway obstruction from a hyperplastic pharyngeal lymph node. On necropsy, generalized ...Partnering Organization i. Organization Name: Massachusetts General Hospital ii. Location of Organization: Boston, MA Massachusetts General Hospital

  11. Disseminated blastomycosis in a German shepherd dog

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Beverley S.

    2002-01-01

    A 5-year-old German shepherd was evaluated after collapsing at home following a week of lethargy and anorexia. Systemic blastomycosis was diagnosed histologically at necropsy. Diagnosis and treatment were difficult due to unusual neurological symptoms, the absence of abnormalities on diagnostic tests, and the advanced stage of the disease at presentation. PMID:12125188

  12. Fatal septicemia caused by the zoonotic bacterium Streptococcus iniae during an outbreak in Caribbean reef fish

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An outbreak of Streptococcus iniae occurred in the early months of 2008 among wild reef fish in the waters of the Federation of St.Kitts and Nevis, lasting almost 2 months. Moribund and dead fish were collected for gross, histological, bacteriological, and molecular analysis. Necropsy findings inclu...

  13. Fast specific field detection of RHDVb.

    PubMed

    Dalton, K P; Nicieza, I; Podadera, A; de Llano, D; Martin Alonso, J M; de Los Toyos, J R; García Ocaña, M; Vázquez-Villa, F; Velasco, B; Landeta, O; Parra, F

    2017-02-28

    This work describes a simple and rapid test for field detection of the emerging rabbit pathogen RHDVb. The assay is specific for RHDVb, showing no cross-reactivity with other RHDV types giving a specific result in under 10 min using rabbit liquid exudates or liver homogenate samples taken at necropsy.

  14. Detection and characterization of Histoplasma capsulatum in a German badger (Meles meles) by ITS sequencing and multilocus sequencing analysis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A wild badger (Meles meles) with a severe nodular dermatitis was presented for post mortem examination. Numerous cutaneous granulomas with superficial ulceration were present especially on head, dorsum, and forearms were found at necropsy. Histopathological examination of the skin revealed a severe ...

  15. 9 CFR 93.308 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., medicines, inspections, testing, laboratory procedures, and necropsy examinations; and all APHIS charges for... still be sufficient space within the stalls for the horses to move freely once the equipment is... be deposited in a receptacle prior to entering the shower. (K) APHIS space. The facility must...

  16. Malignant hypertension and retinopathy in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Niemuth, Jennifer N; De Voe, Ryan S; Jennings, Samuel H; Loomis, Michael R; Troan, Brigid V

    2014-08-01

    A 34-year-old western lowland gorilla presented with peracute blindness. Clinical evaluation, diagnostic imaging, laboratory analyses, blood pressure measurements, and necropsy were performed. The clinical and postmortem findings supported malignant hypertension. We describe a case of naturally occurring hypertensive encephalopathy and retinopathy in a gorilla. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Protothecosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Vince, Andrew R; Pinard, Chantale; Ogilvie, Adam T; Tan, Emmeline O; Abrams-Ogg, Anthony C G

    2014-10-01

    A case of a disseminated algal infection is reported in a young rough-coated collie dog with progressive neurologic deficits, blindness, and hemorrhagic diarrhea. Prototheca zopfii organisms were cultured from feces, urine, and blood. At necropsy, granulomas containing typical organisms were identified within the proximal colon, heart, kidneys, and eyes.

  18. Presumed drowning of Aleutian Canada geese on the Pacific coast of California and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, P.F.; Lowe, R.W.; Stroud, R.K.; Gullett, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    Carcasses of 42 and 17 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia), a federally listed endangered species, were found on ocean beaches near Crescent City, California, and near Pacific City, Oregon, respectively, following severe storms. Necropsies and other information suggest that the birds were flushed during the storms and somehow entered the water where they were washed into the surf and drowned.

  19. Fatal Systemic Salmonellosis in a Florida Manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris).

    PubMed

    Vorbach, Bryan S; Rotstein, David S; Stacy, Nicole I; Mavian, Carla; Salemi, Marco; Waltzek, Thomas B; de Wit, Martine

    2017-05-02

    A subadult male Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris) stranded dead on Florida's Atlantic coast in January 2015. Necropsy and histopathologic findings confirmed chronic systemic bacterial infection caused by Salmonella enterica serotype IV 50:z4,z23,:- involving renal, respiratory, lymphatic, and skeletal systems. This was a unique case of systemic salmonellosis in a Florida manatee.

  20. Multicentric lymphosarcoma with ovarian involvement in a Nubian goat.

    PubMed Central

    DiGrassie, W A; Wallace, M A; Sponenberg, D P

    1997-01-01

    Multiple lymph node enlargement and an intra-abdominal mass were diagnosed in a 6-year-old doe. Necropsy revealed lymphosarcoma involving multiple organs, including the ovaries. Lymphosarcoma is rare in goats; ovarian involvement has not previously been reported. Images Figure 1. PMID:9187807

  1. An unusual presentation of enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed Central

    Sparling, A M

    2000-01-01

    A 6-year-old, Holstein x Simmental cow diagnosed with pyelonephritis had increasing difficulty rising and became recumbent, despite treatment with antibiotics. A serological test for the bovine leukemia virus was positive; at necropsy, the left kidney and ureter and the myocardium showed lesions of lymphosarcoma, confirmed by histology. PMID:10769770

  2. Primary pure choriocarcinoma of the liver.

    PubMed

    Fernández Alonso, J; Sáez, C; Pérez, P; Montaño, A; Japón, M A

    1992-04-01

    We report a pure choriocarcinoma of the liver studied at necropsy. The tumour was diagnosed ante-mortem and treated by chemotherapy with no satisfactory response. Previous cases of hepatic choriocarcinoma are reviewed and criteria to diagnose this extragonadal neoplasm are recommended.

  3. Meningoencephalitis associated with disseminated sarcocystosis in a free-ranging moose (Alces alces) calf.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Madhu; Patel, Jagdish; Pybus, Margo; Coleman, James K; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-08-01

    A wild moose (Alces alces) calf was presented for necropsy due to severe neurologic signs. Histopathologic examination revealed multisystemic inflammation with intralesional mature and immature schizonts. Schizonts in the brain reacted positively to Sarcocystis spp. polyclonal antibodies. Gene sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA identified the species as Sarcocystis alceslatrans.

  4. Bacterial sepsis resulting in severe systemic illness and euthanasia in a dog with cutaneous angiomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Sluiter, Kristi L.; Randell, Susan C.; Ramirez, Jessica R.; Farina, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    A Labrador retriever dog was euthanized after unsuccessful treatment for severe, progressive, lethargy, gastroenteritis, icterus, and swelling of a previously diagnosed cutaneous angiomatosis lesion. The body was submitted for necropsy. This is the first report that suggests that cutaneous angiomatosis lesions may have caused life-threatening systemic complications in a dog. PMID:24082170

  5. Cleft palate in a male water buffalo calf.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Y; Ranjbar, R; Ghadiri, A R; Afsahr, F Saberi; Nejad, S Goorani; Mahabady, M Khaksary; Afrough, M; Karampoor, R; Tavakoli, A

    2007-12-15

    Congenital palatal defects are common in animals but there is only one report of water buffalo has been recorded in Iran. One died male water buffalo calf was examined after hysterotomy operation. At necropsy findings, brachygnathia, palate cleft and small lungs were diagnosed. It is the second report of water buffalo cleft palate in Iran.

  6. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. associated endocarditis with myocardial necrosis in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos) in Manitoba in 2011

    PubMed Central

    Tomczyk, Krzysztof M.; Copeland, Shelagh; Postey, Rosemary; Ngeleka, Musangu

    2015-01-01

    Severe endocarditis with myonecrosis, moderate to severe pleural and pericardial effusions, and mild ascites were found on necropsy in 3 alpacas. Mycoplasma hominis ssp. was detected on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of fresh affected endocardial tissue in 1 alpaca. PMID:25694661

  7. Idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis in a skunk (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Elhensheri, Mohamed; Linke, Reinhold P; Blankenburg, Anja; Beineke, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a case of systemic amyloidosis in a captive striped skunk. At necropsy, bilateral alopecia, as well as reno-, hepato-, and splenomegaly were present. Congo red staining and immunohistochemistry revealed depositions of AA-amyloid in different organs. The lack of a predisposing disease is suggestive of idiopathic systemic AA-amyloidosis.

  8. Clinical Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in prepubertal heifers on 2 dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Lawrence K.; Muller, Fredrick J.; Wedam, Michael L.; Schneider, Christopher S.; Biddle, Mary Kate

    2008-01-01

    Findings of herd investigations of heifers with prepubertal mastitis are presented. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from lacteal secretions and tissue samples of necropsied heifers; the same strain infected dams and herd mates. Vertical transmission is suggested in this first report of intramammary infections of M. bovis in peripubertal heifers. PMID:19183734

  9. Pathology in practice: pituitary adenoma in a sheep

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 5-year-old Suffolk ewe maintained as breeding stock in the scrapie-free flock at the USDA National Animal Disease Center was euthanized and presented for necropsy because of poor reproductive performance. The ewe produced 5 lambs in 3 prior lambings, but failed to carry lambs to term in her 4th se...

  10. Enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A in 9-month-old calves

    PubMed Central

    Savic, Bozidar; Prodanovic, Radisa; Ivetic, Vojin; Radanovic, Oliver; Bojkovski, Jovan

    2012-01-01

    Four 9-month-old Simmental male calves were presented with a history of sudden death. The necropsy and microscopic findings allowed a diagnosis of enteritis and severe intraluminal hemorrhage with blood clots in the jejunum, suggestive of jejunal hemorrhage syndrome. PMID:22851779

  11. 40 CFR 160.81 - Standard operating procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Test system care. (3) Receipt, identification, storage, handling, mixing, and method of sampling of the.... (6) Handling of test systems found moribund or dead during study. (7) Necropsy of test systems or postmortem examination of test systems. (8) Collection and identification of specimens. (9)...

  12. Occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans).

    PubMed

    Jeyathilakan, N; Raman, M; Jayathangaraj, M G

    2015-03-01

    Camallanoids are spirurid round worms known to occur in stomach and intestine of lower vertebrate animals such as fishes and reptiles. This paper records the occurrence of Camallanus trispinosus in a captive Indian star tortoise of Guindy snake park, Chennai, India for the first time during necropsy and identified on the basis of morphology of male and female worms, including eggs.

  13. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L.

    2013-01-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions. PMID:24155490

  14. Omasal dilation and displacement in 4 Holstein dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bicalho, Rodrigo C.; Mayers, Heather M.; Cheong, Soon Hon; Rosa, Brielle V.; Guard, Charles L.

    2009-01-01

    Cases of omasal dilation and displacement in 4 dairy cows are described. The disease was initially diagnosed by a combination of history and clinical signs that included right-sided abdominal distension, rectal palpation, and decreased milk production. The condition was confirmed by laparotomy or necropsy. PMID:19436447

  15. Temporal arteritis: a form of systemic panarteritis.

    PubMed Central

    Sendino, A; Barbado, F J; González-Anglada, I; Antón, E; López-Barea, F; Vázquez, J J

    1992-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient with giant cell arteritis affecting several organs. The triggering cause of death was a brainstem infarction due to basilar artery thrombosis. The necropsy showed the systemic character of the disease affecting the coronary, bronchial, and ovarian arteries. Images PMID:1417143

  16. Granulomatous peritonitis in a European brown bear caused by Baylisascaris transfuga.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniak, Klaudiusz; Listos, Piotr; Lopuszynski, Wojciech; Skrzypek, Tomasz; Kazimierczak, Waldemar

    2012-04-01

    We report a case of granulomatous peritonitis due to Baylisascaris transfuga in a young male European brown bear (Ursus arctus). At necropsy, there were extensive abdominal adhesions and extensive granulomatous tissue on the peritoneum and liver capsule. In the gastrointestinal tract, there were 58 nematodes that were identified as Baylisascaris transfuga using light and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Examining the Effects of Exercise Training on Tumor Response to Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Histopathology of necropsy specimens will be performed by Dr. Chiu, University of Alberta Hospital, Department of Pathology. Suspected infection -associated...H, Galipeau J, Belliveau DJ, Wang T, et al. (2002) Retroviral delivery of connexin genes to human breast tumor cells inhibits in vivo tumor growth by

  18. Mixed systemic amyloidosis in a patient receiving long term haemodialysis.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Alonso, J; Rios-Camacho, C; Valenzuela-Castaño, A; Hernanz-Mediano, W

    1994-01-01

    A 64 year old woman had been receiving haemodialysis for 11 years. She had a history of chronic renal failure, caused by probable chronic pyelonephritis, and dialysis arthropathy. She died of acute pulmonary oedema and haemorrhage. At necropsy, histological, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural studies showed widespread visceral deposits of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-M) and AA amyloid. Images PMID:8063944

  19. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology and culture of M. bovis on specimens taken from the NGL... inspection or necropsy and no evidence of tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology or culture of M... and the State history of tuberculosis infection, by the DTE to determine whether the herd may be...

  20. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology and culture of M. bovis on specimens taken from the NGL... inspection or necropsy and no evidence of tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology or culture of M... and the State history of tuberculosis infection, by the DTE to determine whether the herd may be...

  1. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... all reactors exhibit no gross lesions (NGL) of tuberculosis and no evidence of tuberculosis infection... necropsy and no evidence of tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology or culture of M. bovis on... the State history of tuberculosis infection, by the DTE to determine whether the herd may be released...

  2. 9 CFR 77.39 - Other interstate movements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology and culture of M. bovis on specimens taken from the NGL... inspection or necropsy and no evidence of tuberculosis infection is found by histopathology or culture of M... and the State history of tuberculosis infection, by the DTE to determine whether the herd may be...

  3. A degenerative encephalomyelopathy in 7 Kuvasz puppies

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Seven Kuvasz puppies from 2 same-parentage litters developed weakness and ataxia. Six necropsied dogs had lesions in caudate nucleus, cerebellar nuclei and folia, and spinal cord. Lesions seen were felt to be familial or due to the effects of an amprolium-induced thiamine deficiency on the developing brains of these puppies. PMID:16018562

  4. A degenerative encephalomyelopathy in 7 Kuvasz puppies.

    PubMed

    Hazlett, Murray J; Smith-Maxie, Laura L; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    Seven Kuvasz puppies from 2 same-parentage litters developed weakness and ataxia. Six necropsied dogs had lesions in caudate nucleus, cerebellar nuclei and folia, and spinal cord. Lesions seen were felt to be familial or due to the effects of an amprolium-induced thiamine deficiency on the developing brains of these puppies.

  5. [Sonographic diagnosis of a case of type 1 achondrogenesis in the 2d trimester].

    PubMed

    Schramm, T; Nerlich, A

    1989-10-01

    The authors report on a prenatal ultrasonic diagnosis of lethal osteochondrodysplasia achondrogenesis type I (Parenti-Fraccaro) in the 17th week of pregnancy. The prenatal findings were confirmed by necropsy after termination of the pregnancy. The possibility to recognize lethal skeletal disorders early in pregnancy is discussed as well as the patho-anatomical criteria and possible patho-physiological mechanisms of achondrogenesis.

  6. Pulmonary asbestos and dust content in East Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Stovin, P G; Partridge, P

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the asbestos fibre and dust content of samples from 96 surgically excised lungs; 42 necropsies on patients with lung cancer, 11 necropsies on patients with non-pulmonary malignancies, and 59 necropsies on patients without any malignant disease. The patients' ages ranged from 45 to 74 years at the time of study. None of the patients had asbestosis. The distribution of fibres and dust content of the lungs showed a log-normal distribution. There was no significant difference in fibre counts or dust content between men and women, and between lung cancer and non-cancer patients. The only group with an association with a high asbestos fibre count was four necropsy cases of pleural mesothelioma. There was no significant relationship between asbestos fibre count and dust content of the lung. The present data suggest that asbestos fibre counts below 100,000 per gram of dried lung are not related to specific asbestos disease, although in the surgical cases who were closely questioned on their residential and occupational histories most of those with fibre counts above 30,000 per gram dried lung had had occasions of definite or very likely asbestos exposure. PMID:7101223

  7. Identification of an intra-cranial intra-axial porcupine quill foreign body with computed tomography in a canine patient.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Christopher P; Sereda, Nikki C; Sereda, Colin W

    2012-02-01

    An intra-cranial intra-axial foreign body was diagnosed in a golden retriever dog through the use of computed tomography (CT). Confirmed by necropsy, a porcupine quill had migrated to the patient's left cerebral hemisphere, likely through the oval foramen. This case study demonstrates the efficacy of CT in visualizing a quill in the canine brain.

  8. Primary pulmonary osteosarcoma treated by thoracoscopy-assisted lung resection in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Dhumeaux, Marc P.; Haudiquet, Philippe. R.

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old female, intact boxer presented with acute respiratory distress due to a mass in the left cranial thorax. The tumor, which originated in the left lung and was shown by histology to be an osteosarcoma, was removed by lateral thoracotomy. The dog died from unrelated disease 7 mo later and no tumor was evident at necropsy. PMID:19794873

  9. Parvovirus associated cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus in day-old broiler chickens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and hydrocephalus were detected in day-old broiler chickens. Brains of chickens evaluated at necropsy appeared to be abnormal; some were disfigured and cerebellae appeared to be smaller than normal. Histopathologic examination of brains revealed cerebellar folia that were sho...

  10. Visceral mast cell tumor in a captive black jaguar (Panthera onca).

    PubMed

    de Castro, Márcio Botelho; Werther, Karin; Godoy, Guilherme Sellera; Borges, Vivian Palmeira; Alessi, Antonio Carlos

    2003-03-01

    Little is known about neoplasia in the jaguar (Panthera onca), the largest American feline. A captive black jaguar was diagnosed at necropsy with a mastocytic form of visceral mast cell tumor similar to that which occurs in domestic cats. This animal had no previous clinical disease and died during anesthesia for a routine dental treatment.

  11. 40 CFR 799.9365 - TSCA combined repeated dose toxicity study with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... biochemistry. (i) Clinical biochemistry determinations to investigate major toxic effects in tissues and... hematological and clinical biochemistry variables before dosing commences. (11) Pathology—(i) Gross necropsy. (A... assessments. (F) Hematological tests with relevant baseline values, (G) Clinical biochemistry tests with...

  12. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Biochemistry. (i) Clinical biochemistry determinations to investigate major toxic effects in tissues and... hematological and clinical biochemistry variables before dosing commences. (9) Pathology—(i)Gross necropsy. (A...) Hematological tests with relevant base-line values. (G) Clinical biochemistry tests with relevant base-line...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Biochemistry. (i) Clinical biochemistry determinations to investigate major toxic effects in tissues and... hematological and clinical biochemistry variables before dosing commences. (9) Pathology—(i)Gross necropsy. (A...) Hematological tests with relevant base-line values. (G) Clinical biochemistry tests with relevant base-line...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9365 - TSCA combined repeated dose toxicity study with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... biochemistry. (i) Clinical biochemistry determinations to investigate major toxic effects in tissues and... hematological and clinical biochemistry variables before dosing commences. (11) Pathology—(i) Gross necropsy. (A... assessments. (F) Hematological tests with relevant baseline values, (G) Clinical biochemistry tests with...

  15. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Biochemistry. (i) Clinical biochemistry determinations to investigate major toxic effects in tissues and... hematological and clinical biochemistry variables before dosing commences. (9) Pathology—(i)Gross necropsy. (A...) Hematological tests with relevant base-line values. (G) Clinical biochemistry tests with relevant base-line...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Biochemistry. (i) Clinical biochemistry determinations to investigate major toxic effects in tissues and... hematological and clinical biochemistry variables before dosing commences. (9) Pathology—(i)Gross necropsy. (A...) Hematological tests with relevant base-line values. (G) Clinical biochemistry tests with relevant base-line...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9305 - TSCA Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Biochemistry. (i) Clinical biochemistry determinations to investigate major toxic effects in tissues and... hematological and clinical biochemistry variables before dosing commences. (9) Pathology—(i)Gross necropsy. (A...) Hematological tests with relevant base-line values. (G) Clinical biochemistry tests with relevant base-line...

  18. 40 CFR 799.9365 - TSCA combined repeated dose toxicity study with the reproduction/developmental toxicity screening...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... biochemistry. (i) Clinical biochemistry determinations to investigate major toxic effects in tissues and... hematological and clinical biochemistry variables before dosing commences. (11) Pathology—(i) Gross necropsy. (A... assessments. (F) Hematological tests with relevant baseline values, (G) Clinical biochemistry tests with...

  19. 40 CFR 79.61 - Vehicle emissions inhalation exposure guideline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...., necropsy or refrigeration of animals found dead and isolation or sacrifice of weak or moribund animals... in the chamber near the breathing zone of the animals. Gas samples shall be taken daily to determine... of air; (iii) Chamber concentrations in the chamber breathing zone; (iv) Concentration of...

  20. Gastric trichobezoar in a banner-tailed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys spectabilis).

    PubMed

    Suckow, M A; Terril-Robb, L A; Grigdesby, C F

    1996-10-01

    A male, wild-caught kangaroo rat developed anorexia and wasting. The animal was euthanized and a gastric trichobezoar found at necropsy. The paucity of information regarding the clinical medicine of this species is a hindrance to those charged with the care of kangaroo rats. Gastric trichobezoar should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of anorexia in kangaroo rats.

  1. Hypomyelination Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Infection in a Longhorn Calf

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Texas A&M University with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, gross central nervous system lesions were not observed. Histopathologic evaluation of the brain and spin...

  2. Myocardial Necrosis Associated with Clostridium novyi Infection in a Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ).

    PubMed

    Redford, Tony; Cubberley, J Clint; Hengeveld, Pamela; Zabek, Erin; Britton, Ann P

    2017-07-01

    We describe a case of myocardial emphysema and necrosis in a bighorn sheep ( Ovis canadensis ), associated with infection by Clostridium novyi , diagnosed through necropsy, histopathology, and fluorescent antibody testing. We documented rapid onset of disease in an apparently healthy wild sheep and discuss our findings in the context of reported clostridial infections in humans, domestic animals, and wildlife.

  3. Gastrolobium spp. poisoning in sheep: A case report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This report describes the history and investigation of a suspected plant poisoning event in Western Australia where fifteen sheep died. One of the poisoned sheep was necropsied and gross and microscopic pathology of the poisoned sheep is described. Monofluoroacetate was detected in rumen contents ...

  4. Cutaneous metastases of a mammary carcinoma in a llama.

    PubMed Central

    Leichner, T L; Turner, O; Mason, G L; Barrington, G M

    2001-01-01

    An 8-year-old, female llama was evaluated for nonhealing, ulcerative, cutaneous lesions, which also involved the mammary gland. Biopsies of the lesions distant from and within the mammary gland area revealed an aggressive carcinoma. The tumor was confirmed at necropsy to be a mammary gland adenocarcinoma with cutaneous metastasis. Images Figure 1. PMID:11265189

  5. A retrospective study of etiological factors of abortion in the owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus.

    PubMed

    Rouse, R; Bronson, R T; Sehgal, P K

    1981-01-01

    Abortions in owl monkeys occurred in the late second and early third trimesters. Retrospective study of clinical records showed that handling, maternal anemia, karyotype, and season were unassociated with abortion. Most aborted infants had no gross lesions at necropsy. Some had renal tubular necorsis, probably a postmortem change.

  6. Clinical and pathological findings of concurrent poxvirus lesions and aspergillosis infection in canaries

    PubMed Central

    Reza, Kheirandish; Nasrin, Askari; Mahmoud, Salehi

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate clinical, pathological and mycological findings in canaries, in which pox lesions and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection were observed simultaneously. Methods This study was performed on a breeding colony (about 100 canaries) affected by fatal wasting disease. Necropsy was undertaken on 10 severely affected canaries, and gross lesions were recorded. Samples from internal organs displaying lesions were obtained for histopathological evaluation. Tracheal swap samples of internal organs of the all infected animals with lesions at necropsy were cultured in Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for mycological examination. Results At necropsy, caseous foci were determined in the lungs, on the air sacs, liver, spleen, heart. Swelling of the eyelids, diffuse hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue with small papular lesions of the skin were other typical necropsy findings. Histopathologically, pathognomonic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, which called Bollinger bodies, in both skin cells and vacuolated air way epithelial cells confirmed canary pox infection. Moreover, histopathological examination of the white-yellowish caseous foci revealed necrotic granulomatous reaction consisting of macrophages, heterophil leukocytes and giant cells encapsulated with a fibrous tissue. After the culture of the tissue samples, the formation of bluish green colonies confirmed A. fumigatus infection. Conclusions Canary pox has been known as the disease that can result in high losses in a short time, as a re-emerging disease that has not been present during recent years in canary flocks in Iran. So, the current paper provides useful information to prevent misdiagnosed of canary pox disease which can cause secondary mycotic infection. PMID:23620834

  7. Development of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique to diagnose white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima) poisoning in a cow

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An 8-year-old, crossbred beef cow was referred to the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory at Purdue University for a complete necropsy in October 2009. The cow was the sixth to die in a 7-day period. Affected cows were reportedly stumbling and became weak, excitable, and recumbent. Histolog...

  8. Myocarditis as a component of psittacine proventricular dilatation syndrome in a Patagonian conure.

    PubMed

    Vice, C A

    1992-01-01

    Psittacine proventricular dilatation syndrome was diagnosed at necropsy in a Patagonian conure. Gross and histopathological lesions in the proventriculus, ventriculus, and brain were similar to those previously reported. In addition, severe myocarditis was a prominent feature of this case, a finding not previously defined as a significant component of the condition.

  9. Bacterial diskospondylitis in juvenile mink from 2 Ontario mink farms.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jorge; Vidaña, Beatriz; Cruz-Arambulo, Robert; Slavic, Durda; Tapscott, Brian; Brash, Marina L

    2013-09-01

    Nine juvenile mink with hind-limb paresis/paralysis from 2 Ontario farms were submitted for necropsy. Diagnostic tests revealed spinal compression and severe thoracic diskospondylitis with intralesional Gram-positive coccoid bacterial colonies. Streptococcus canis, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, and hemolytic Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from vertebral lesions.

  10. Pandemic H1N1 influenza virus infection in a Canadian cat

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Cameron G.; Davies, Jennifer L.; Joseph, Tomy; Ondrich, Sarah; Rosa, Brielle V.

    2016-01-01

    A cat was presented for necropsy after being found dead at home. Histologic findings suggested viral pneumonia. Polymerase chain reaction and viral typing revealed influenza A(H1N1)pdm09. This is the first report of influenza in a Canadian cat and highlights the importance of considering influenza virus in the differential diagnosis for feline respiratory distress. PMID:27152036

  11. Lumbosacral agenesis in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Hybki, Gabrielle C; Murphy, Lisa A; Marchi, Joseph P; Patlogar, Jeffrey E; Brisson, Jennifer O; Nakamura, Reid K

    2016-01-01

    Case summary Lumbosacral agenesis is a rare congenital condition reported in children. We report a 17-week-old female domestic shorthair cat with lumbosacral agenesis on whole-body radiographs. The cat was euthanized shortly thereafter presentation. A necropsy was not permitted. Relevance and novel information This is the first reported feline case of lumbosacral agenesis. PMID:28491410

  12. Caudal vena caval thrombosis following treatment of deep digital sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Katharine M.; Streeter, Robert N.; Cramer, Sarah; Lamm, Catherine G.; Love, Brenda C.

    2012-01-01

    A diagnosis of caudal vena caval thrombosis was made by ultrasonography of a Holstein cow presented for lethargy and poor milk production. Medical treatment was unsuccessful and the cow was euthanized. The diagnosis was confirmed at necropsy and Fusobacterium necrophorum was isolated from the thrombus. This paper discusses potential novel sources of caval thrombosis in this case. PMID:22851781

  13. Building Capacity and International Partnerships to Address Anthropogenic Impacts on Aquatic Animal Health: 44th Annual Conference of the International Association of Aquatic Animal Medicine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Brucellosis , and the interpretation of gas bubbles in stranded cetaceans. Workshops provided training in oil spill preparedness, necropsy techniques to...ship strike diagnosis (M. Moore), oil spill preparedness (M. Ziccardi), pinniped sampling and handling (Gulland). IMPACT/APPLICATIONS The focus...and established collaborations for future research on this topic. Productive discussions on future directions in tag design for cetaceans, diagnosis

  14. Cardiac echinococcosis with fatal intracerebral embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Byard, R W; Bourne, A J

    1991-01-01

    A previously well 7 year old boy presented with sudden loss of consciousness and fitting. No evidence of trauma or space occupying lesion was identified. Death occurred the next day due to cerebral infarction caused by embolised fragments from a ruptured left ventricular hydatid cyst that was found at necropsy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1994846

  15. Direct demonstration of transsynaptic degeneration in the human visual system: a comparison of retrograde and anterograde changes

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, RM; Sadun, AA; Smith, LEH; Vonsattel, JP; Richardson, EP

    1982-01-01

    Transneuronal degeneration of retinal ganglion cells was directly demonstrated in a patient who had unilateral removal of the striate cortex forty years prior to necropsy. For comparison, another case is presented showing anterograde transneuronal atrophy forty years after enucleation of one eye. Images PMID:7069426

  16. A spontaneous bronchogenic carcinoma in a Sykes monkey (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmani).

    PubMed

    Suleman, M A; Tarara, R; Mandalia, K M; Weiss, M

    1984-01-01

    A male blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis stuhlmani), a subspecies of the Sykes group, was purchased from a commercial trapper as an adult in July 1978 and kept at the Institute of Primate Research, Kenya, for 2 years. The animal developed acute respiratory distress and died. Small nodular foci were found in the lung at necropsy and diagnosed as bronchogenic carcinoma on histopathology.

  17. Urolithiasis in a herd of beef cattle associated with oxalate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Waltner-Toews, D; Meadows, D H

    1980-02-01

    An unusually high incidence of urinary calculi in a group of feeder cattle is described. Necropsy findings in one affected animal suggested that oxalates in the feed, specifically in fescue (Festuca spp.) seed screenings, may have been the cause. Low dietary calcium and decreased water intake by the cattle appear to have been predisposing factors. Control measures are discussed.

  18. Fatal anaphylaxis from hymenoptera stings.

    PubMed

    Kanchan, Tanuj; Atreya, Alok; Shekhawat, Raghvendra Singh

    2016-12-01

    Venomous insect stings are a cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The sting reactions are unpredictable and vary among individuals. A case of fatal insect sting in an elderly female is presented to discuss the associated challenges during necropsy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Brain shrinkage in alcoholics is not caused by changes in hydration: a pathological study.

    PubMed

    Harper, C G; Kril, J J; Daly, J M

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of the water content of the cerebral white matter in 26 control and 24 alcoholic cases supports in vivo MRI studies and previous necropsy studies which appeared to show an increase in the water content in the alcoholic group. This negates the hypothesis that reversible brain shrinkage in alcoholics is caused by changes in the state of hydration.

  20. Diesel Exhaust Exposure Increases Susceptibility to Influenza Infection and Induces Dendritic Cell Migration and Maturation.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mice were necropsied at day 1, 4, 8 and 14 post-infection and lung tissue was assessed for virus titers by TCID50, lung injury and inflammation. Lung and lymph node DC populations (CD11c+, MHCII, CD45+, CD80+ and CD86+) were identified ...

  1. Neurotropic T-cell-rich B-cell lymphoma in a 14-year-old Morgan gelding

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Trina L.; Poulsen, Keith P.; Schlipf, John W.; Valentine, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    A 14-year-old Morgan gelding was presented for progressive weakness and muscle atrophy. The horse was initially diagnosed with equine protozoal myelitis based on history, physical examination, and laboratory diagnostics. Despite therapy, the horse declined clinically and was euthanized. Necropsy revealed a rare form of neurotropic lymphoma, described in this report. PMID:24688140

  2. Isolation of Haemophilus agni from Six Alberta Ram Lambs with Septicemia

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, M. Sharon

    1986-01-01

    Six ram lambs were submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory for necropsy. Clinical signs included sudden illness or death with or without observed depression, reluctance to move, scours or fever. Gross findings and histopathology revealed evidence of bacterial septicemia. Haemophilus agni was isolated from brain, spleen, lung and lymph node. PMID:17422727

  3. Demonstration of iron and thorium in autopsy tissues by x-ray microanalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Landas, S.; Turner, J.W.; Moore, K.C.; Mitros, F.A.

    1984-03-01

    We performed x-ray microanalysis of autopsy specimens using a scanning-transmission electron microscopy mode. Tissues were obtained at necropsy from a patient with history of angiography using thorium dioxide and from a patient with hemochromatosis. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the presence of thorium and iron in their respective tissues. Effects of staining reagents were examined.

  4. Atlanto-axial malformation in an adult Quarter horse gelding.

    PubMed

    Cole, Robert; Taintor, Jennifer; Hanson, Reid

    2017-09-01

    An adult gelding was evaluated for bilateral intermittent forelimb lameness of approximately 2 years duration. The horse was found to have grade 2/5 upper motor neuron-general proprioception ataxia with no cranial nerve deficits. During radiographic and gross necropsy examinations a novel atlanto-axial malformation of possible congenital etiology was found.

  5. Anthrax

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-21

    p) or vegetative (continued on back)L UO~ 173 EO9Iow or v ov asis omsOLETz UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASISFICATION OF THIS PAGE (Whn aa nerd % %* :%N...with pronounced splenomegaly a characteristic necropsy finding . Rapidly dividing organisms quickly overwhelm the mononu’clear phagocytic system however

  6. Paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis: clinico-pathological correlations.

    PubMed Central

    Bakheit, A M; Kennedy, P G; Behan, P O

    1990-01-01

    Three new cases of limbic encephalitis in association with malignancy are reported. The literature on this condition is reviewed and the clinical, laboratory and histopathological features of cases proven at necropsy are correlated. The possible pathogenic mechanism of this disorder is discussed. PMID:1963440

  7. Severe gastric impaction secondary to a gastric polyp in a horse.

    PubMed

    Furness, Mary Catherine; Snyman, Heindrich Nicolaas; Abrahams, Miranda; Moore, Alison; Vince, Andrew; Anderson, Maureen E C

    2013-10-01

    A 13-year-old Percheron gelding was presented for refractory gastric impaction. At necropsy a pedunculated 10 cm × 11 cm × 14 cm mass, histologically identified as an inflammatory polyp, was suspected to have been partly obstructing the pylorus. This is the first report of a polyp resulting in gastric outflow obstruction in a horse.

  8. Demonstration of systemic infection of BVDV Vaccine virus after vaccination in presence of PI calves

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was detected during routine necropsy of calves, from a well vaccinated, large Jersey/Holstein dairy herd (n=10,000) in California, that succumbed to ill thrift. According to herd management, BVDV has not been considered a problem in the past. The herd had been exte...

  9. Tuberculosis-like lesions arising from the use of Freund's complete adjuvant in an owl monkey (Aotus sp)

    SciTech Connect

    Malaga, Carlos A.; Weller, Richard E.; Broderson, J R.; Gozalo, Alfonso S.

    2004-04-01

    An apparently normal, non-tuberculin-reacting, splenectomized owl monkey presented tuberculosis-like lesions of the lung at necropsy. Histological and bacteriological examination failed to demonstrate the presence of acid-fast organisms. Retrospective inquiry showed the animal had been inoculated using complete Freund's Adjuvant during a malaria vaccine trial. Lesions observed were compatible with lipid embolism of the adjuvant in the lungs.

  10. Fatal variceal haemorrhage after paracetamol overdose.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J R; Losowsky, M S

    1989-01-01

    A patient is described where oesophageal varices developed and bled 13 days after a paracetamol overdose. The bleeding was unresponsive to medical management and proved fatal. There was no evidence that the patient had pre-existing liver disease. At necropsy the liver showed severe acute parenchymal necrosis but chronic lesions were absent. The portal vein and hepatic veins were patent. PMID:2583571

  11. Airsac nematode Monopetalonema alcedinis in the Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sporadic and geographically widespread reports of parasites affecting the Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) have been published but few have described details of pathology. A female, adult kingfisher was found dead in a heavily wooded area of a zoo in Maryland, USA. At necropsy, numerous sexua...

  12. A case of hypertrophic osteoarthropathy in a Belgian blue cow

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, Hugues; Sandersen, Charlotte; Rollin, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    A 12-year-old cow was presented with chronic respiratory disease and lameness. Chronic pleuritis, pneumonia, and bronchial carcinoma were found as well as periosteal proliferation on limb bones. Ancillary tests and necropsy confirmed a combined pathology of pulmonary inflammation and neoplasm, and hypertrophic pulmonary osteopathy. PMID:22654134

  13. Metastatic anaplastic adenocarcinoma suspected to be of mammary origin in an intact male rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)

    PubMed Central

    Summa, Noémie M.; Eshar, David; Snyman, Heindrich N.; Lillie, Brandon N.

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old, intact male, pet dwarf rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) was presented for a ventral abdominal subcutaneous mass. Histolopathology of the resected mass was suggestive of a mammary adenocarcinoma. Six months later, the rabbit died from severe dyspnea. Necropsy showed recurrence of the original mass with hepatic and pulmonary metastasis of the anaplastic adenocarcinoma, suspected to be of mammary origin. PMID:24790235

  14. Detecting West Nile virus in owls and raptors by an antigen-capture assay.

    PubMed

    Gancz, Ady Y; Campbell, Douglas G; Barker, Ian K; Lindsay, Robbin; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-12-01

    We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%-95.2% for northern owl species but <42.9% for all other species. Specificity was 100% for owls and 85.7% for raptors.

  15. Patent ductus arteriosus in a 9-day-old Grant’s zebra

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract A 9-day old Grant’s zebra with a 3-day history of lethargy, weight loss, inappetance, and diarrhea was treated with ampicillin, vitamin E and selenium, and tetanus antitoxin without effect in 24 h. On transfer to the local veterinary clinic, a grade IV/VI continuous heart murmur was detected and a patent ductus arteriosus found at necropsy. PMID:16152724

  16. Diagnostic sampling and gross pathology of New World camelids.

    PubMed

    Bildfell, Robert J; Löhr, Christiane V; Tornquist, Susan J

    2012-11-01

    This article provides an overview of tests and appropriate samples to send to a Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for the diagnosis of common diseases of New World Camelids (NWC) such as abortions, congenital anomalies, anemia, enteritis, endoparasitism, gastric ulcer, hepatic lipidosis, encephalitis, pneumonia, dermatosis, neoplasia and cryptococcosis. Unique anatomic features of NWC and common findings encountered during gross necropsy examination are briefly reviewed.

  17. Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus in a springer spaniel.

    PubMed

    Kahler, J S; Leach, M W; Jang, S; Wong, A

    1990-10-01

    Disseminated aspergillosis attributable to Aspergillus deflectus was diagnosed in a Springer Spaniel with lethargy, lameness, anorexia, weight loss, pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, hematuria, and urinary incontinence. Necropsy revealed granulomatous inflammation and numerous fungal hyphae in many organs. The conidial heads of the fungus have a characteristic briar-pipe appearance in culture.

  18. Canine testicular tumors: two types of seminomas can be differentiated by immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Hohšteter, Marko; Artuković, Branka; Severin, Krešimir; Kurilj, Andrea Gudan; Beck, Ana; Šoštarić-Zuckermann, Ivan-Conrado; Grabarević, Željko

    2014-08-06

    Testicular tumors are the most common genital neoplasms in male dogs, with Leydig cell tumors (LCT), seminomas (SEM), and Sertoli cell tumors (SCT) the most common forms. Human SEM are classified as classical (CSEM) or spermatocytic (SSEM). Intratubular germ cell neoplasia of undifferentiated origin (IGCNU) is another form of human testicular tumor. The aim of this study was to verify that CSEM/SSEM classification is valid in dogs and confirm the existence of canine IGCNU. Testicular tumors were found in 46% of dogs at necropsy and accounted for 7% of tumors biopsied. The median age of dogs with tumors at necropsy was 10.16 years; median age at positive biopsy was 10.24 years. The most common tumors, in decreasing order, were LCT, mixed tumors, SEM and SCT at necropsy, and SEM, SCT, mixed tumors, LCT, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and teratoma in the biopsy group. IGCNU was found in 3% of testicles at necropsy and in 3% of biopsy samples. Two dogs had testicular tumor metastasis. Expression of c-KIT was most common in SEM and seminomatous components of mixed tumors. PLAP was mostly expressed in IGCNU, SEM, teratoma, and some mixed tumors. Cytokeratin was mainly expressed in SCT. CD30 expression was low in both groups. The high tumor incidence at necropsy can be attributed to older age. Tumor incidence in biopsy samples, dog age, and histological classification were consistent with previous studies. The higher incidence of SEM and SCT in the biopsy group probably resulted from the obvious clinical expression of these tumor types. The low incidence of metastasis confirmed the predominance of benign tumors. Low CD30 expression confirmed the low incidence of testicular embryonal carcinoma. Cytokeratin helps differentiate stromal tumors, especially SCT, from germ cell tumors. Histology and c-KIT and PLAP expression indicate that IGCNU exists in dogs. Expression of c-KIT and PLAP confirmed that CSEM and SSEM classification is valid in dogs.

  19. Experimental reproduction of respiratory tract disease with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.

    PubMed

    Ciszewski, D K; Baker, J C; Slocombe, R F; Reindel, J F; Haines, D M; Clark, E G

    1991-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to reproduce respiratory tract disease with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) in one-month-old, colostrum-fed calves. The hypothesized role of viral hypersensitivity and persistent infection in the pathogenesis of BRSV pneumonia was also investigated. For BRSV inoculation a field isolate of BRSV, at the fifth passage level in cell culture, was administered by a combined respiratory tract route (intranasal and intratracheal) for four consecutive days. Four groups of calves were utilized as follows: Group I, 6 calves sham inoculated with uninfected tissue culture fluid and necropsied 21 days after the last inoculation; Group II, 6 calves inoculated with BRSV and necropsied at the time of maximal clinical response (4-6 days after the last inoculation); Group III, 6 calves inoculated with BRSV and necropsied at 21 days after the last inoculation; Group IV, 6 calves inoculated with BRSV, rechallenged with BRSV 10 days after initial exposure, and necropsied at 21 days after the initial inoculation. Clinical response was evaluated by daily monitoring of body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood gas tensions, hematocrit, total protein, white blood cell count, and fibrinogen. Calves were necropsied and pulmonary surface lesions were quantitated by computer digitization. Viral pneumonia was reporduced in each principal group. Lesions were most extensive in Group II. Disease was not apparent in Group I (controls). Significant differences (p less than 0.05) in body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial oxygen tension, and pneumonic surface area were demonstrated between control and infected calves. Results indicate that severe disease and lesions can be induced by BRSV in one-month-old calves that were colostrum-fed and seropositive to BRSV. BRSV rechallenge had minimal effect on disease progression. Based on clinical and pathological response, results did not support viral hypersensitivity or persistent

  20. Mammary gland growth and vascularity at parturition and during lactation in primiparous ewes fed differing levels of selenium and nutritional plane during gestation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Objectives were to examine the effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on mammary gland growth, cellular proliferation, and vascularity at parturition and d 20 of lactation. Rambouillet primiparous ewes (n = 84) were allocated to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial. Factors were dietary Se (adequate Se [ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW] or high Se [HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW]) and nutritional plane (60% [RES], 100% [CON], or 140% [EXC]). At parturition, lambs were removed and 42 ewes (7/treatment) were necropsied. Remaining ewes were fed a common diet meeting requirements for lactation and mechanically milked twice daily until necropsy on d 20. At both necropsy periods, mammary glands were dissected and tissues harvested. Samples were analyzed for RNA, DNA, and protein content, cell proliferation, and vascularity. Where interactions were present (P ≤ 0.05), least squares means from the highest-order interaction are presented. Results Final body weight of ewes was least (P ≤ 0.002) in RES, intermediate for CON, and greatest for EXC, regardless of stage of the ewe at necropsy (parturition or d 20 of lactation). In ewes necropsied at parturition, mammary glands were heavier (P = 0.02) in EXC compared to RES, with CON intermediate. Concentration of RNA (mg/g) was decreased (P = 0.01) in EXC compared to CON at parturition. There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for a Se by nutrition interaction in percentage of cells proliferating where ASe-EXC ewes had greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of proliferating cells then all other treatments. Mammary vascular area tended (P = 0.08) to be affected by a Se by nutrition interaction where ASe-CON had less (P = 0.007) vascular area than HSe-CON ewes. In ewes necropsied at d 20 of lactation, the number of alveoli per area was decreased (P ≤ 0.05) in RES compared to CON and EXC-fed ewes. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that proper maternal nutritional plane

  1. Mammary gland growth and vascularity at parturition and during lactation in primiparous ewes fed differing levels of selenium and nutritional plane during gestation.

    PubMed

    Neville, Tammi L; Meyer, Allison M; Reyaz, Arshi; Borowicz, Pawel B; Redmer, Dale A; Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S; Vonnahme, Kimberly A

    2013-02-26

    Objectives were to examine the effects of selenium (Se) supply and maternal nutritional plane during gestation on mammary gland growth, cellular proliferation, and vascularity at parturition and d 20 of lactation. Rambouillet primiparous ewes (n = 84) were allocated to treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial. Factors were dietary Se (adequate Se [ASe, 11.5 μg/kg BW] or high Se [HSe, 77.0 μg/kg BW]) and nutritional plane (60% [RES], 100% [CON], or 140% [EXC]). At parturition, lambs were removed and 42 ewes (7/treatment) were necropsied. Remaining ewes were fed a common diet meeting requirements for lactation and mechanically milked twice daily until necropsy on d 20. At both necropsy periods, mammary glands were dissected and tissues harvested. Samples were analyzed for RNA, DNA, and protein content, cell proliferation, and vascularity. Where interactions were present (P ≤ 0.05), least squares means from the highest-order interaction are presented. Final body weight of ewes was least (P ≤ 0.002) in RES, intermediate for CON, and greatest for EXC, regardless of stage of the ewe at necropsy (parturition or d 20 of lactation). In ewes necropsied at parturition, mammary glands were heavier (P = 0.02) in EXC compared to RES, with CON intermediate. Concentration of RNA (mg/g) was decreased (P = 0.01) in EXC compared to CON at parturition. There was a tendency (P = 0.07) for a Se by nutrition interaction in percentage of cells proliferating where ASe-EXC ewes had greater (P ≤ 0.02) number of proliferating cells then all other treatments. Mammary vascular area tended (P = 0.08) to be affected by a Se by nutrition interaction where ASe-CON had less (P = 0.007) vascular area than HSe-CON ewes. In ewes necropsied at d 20 of lactation, the number of alveoli per area was decreased (P ≤ 0.05) in RES compared to CON and EXC-fed ewes. Results of this study indicate that proper maternal nutritional plane during gestation is important for

  2. Pathological findings in homocystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, J. B.; Carson, Nina A. J.; Neill, D. W.

    1964-01-01

    Pathological findings are described in four cases of a new aminoaciduria in which homocystine is excreted in the urine. All the patients were mentally retarded children. Three of them presented diagnostic features of Marfan's syndrome. Necropsy on one case and biopsy findings in the others are described. Fatty change occurs in the liver. The most striking lesions are vascular. Metachromatic medial degeneration of the aorta and of the elastic arteries in the necropsied case are considered in relation to Marfan's syndrome. Other changes, particularly thrombosis which is prevalent in homocystinuria, suggest the possibility of a platelet defect. The findings are discussed in respect of an upset in the metabolism of sulphur-containing amino-acids and with particular reference to Marfan's syndrome. Images PMID:14195630

  3. Use of Avian Bornavirus Isolates to Induce Proventricular Dilatation Disease in Conures

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Patricia; Hoppes, Sharman; Suchodolski, Paulette; Mirhosseini, Negin; Payne, Susan; Villanueva, Itamar; Shivaprasad, H.L; Honkavuori, Kirsi S.; Briese, Thomas; Reddy, Sanjay M.

    2010-01-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a newly discovered member of the family Bornaviridae that has been associated with the development of a lethal neurologic syndrome in birds, termed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). We successfully isolated and characterized ABV from the brains of 8 birds with confirmed PDD. One isolate was passed 6 times in duck embryo fibroblasts, and the infected cells were then injected intramuscularly into 2 healthy Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonis). Clinical PDD developed in both birds by 66 days postinfection. PDD was confirmed by necropsy and histopathologic examination. Reverse transcription–PCR showed that the inoculated ABV was in the brains of the 2 infected birds. A control bird that received uninfected tissue culture cells remained healthy until it was euthanized at 77 days. Necropsy and histopathologic examinations showed no abnormalities; PCR did not indicate ABV in its brain tissues. PMID:20202423

  4. Recurrent pulmonary embolism due to hydatid disease of heart. Study of 3 cases, one with intermittent tricuspid valve obstruction (atrial pseudomyxoma).

    PubMed Central

    Gilsanz, V; Campo, C; Cue, R; Estella, J; Estrada, R V; Perez-oteiza, C; Rabago, G; Rebollar, J L; Zarco, P

    1977-01-01

    Three cases of pulmonary hypertension caused by hydatid emboli from the right side of the heart are described; cardiac catheterisation was performed in 2. One case was confirmed at operation and 2 at necropsy. The pulmonary emboli were caused by hydatid vesicles in all 3 cases and in none was there pulmonary thrombosis; free scolices were found in the pulmonary alveoli in 2. In 1 patient with repeated syncopal attacks there was a pedunculated cyst in the right atrium which was though to have intermittently obstructed the tricuspid valve. Gamma radiography, angiocardiography, and necropsy suggested a mechanical cause for the pulmonary hypertenion with no vasoconstrictive element. The surgical patient was alive and well 18 months later. Images PMID:861098

  5. Cephenemyia stimulator (Diptera) infection in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from Kraków area, southern Poland.

    PubMed

    Kornaś, Sławomir; Kowal, Jerzy; Wajdzik, Marek; Nosal, Paweł; Wojtaszek, Magdalena; Basiaga, Marta

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of botfly (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae infection in roe deer populations (Capreolus capreolus) in the Kraków area on the basis of necropsy and questionnaire surveys. Hunters were surveyed about the age and sex of hunted animals, and the origin of their habitat. All parasite specimens were identified to species in the laboratory. The parasites were found in the nasal cavities, esophagus, and larynx of male roe deer aged 3-8 years, living in forest habitats. The level of infection was relatively low (13%), with the intensity ranging from 1 to 10 larvae per host. Although no fly larvae were found during the dissection of roe deer carcasses, the parasites received from the hunters were identified as Cephenemyia stimulator botflies. These findings are supported by the evidence drawn from the questionnaires completed by the hunters. parasites, Cephenemyia stimulator, Capreolus capreolus, necropsy, questionnaire study, Poland.

  6. Effects of dietary nickel on mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eastin, W.C.; O'Shea, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty breeding pairs of mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups and were fed breeder mash containing 0, 12.5, 50.0, 200.0, or 800.0 ppm Ni (as the sulfate) for 90 d. Ni ingestion had no effect on egg production, hatchability, or survival of ducklings. After 90 d birds were bled, sacrificed, and necropsied. There were no significant differences in hematocrit; concentrations of hemoglobin, plasma triglyceride, and cholesterol; of plasma activities of ornithine carbamoyltransferase and alanine aminotransferase. A black tarry feces was noted in the high Ni dose group at necropsy, but no gross or histopathologic lesions were observed. Although absolute concentrations of Ni in tissues were low, there were significant accumulations in kidneys of birds fed Ni at all dietary levels and in feathers, blood, and livers of birds fed high doses of Ni compared with controls.

  7. Iniencephaly clausus: A case report with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Padmaja R.; Rao, Ravikala V.; Alur, Mohan B.; Joshi, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Iniencephaly is a rare neural tube defect characterized by extreme retroflexion of the head with the absence of neck due to spinal deformities. The important features that help us to diagnose a case of iniencephaly are occipital bone deficit leading to enlarged foramen magnum, fusion of malformed cervical and thoracic vertebrae, and upward turned face with chin continuous with chest because of the absence of neck. The differential diagnoses include anencephaly with spinal retroflexion, Klippel–Fiel syndrome, nuchal tumors such as teratoma, goiter, and lymphangioma and Jarcho–Levin syndrome. Previously many case reports on radiological features of iniencephaly are published, but there are very few articles on necropsy findings and differential diagnosis. In the present case we have discussed in detail the necropsy findings of iniencephaly clausus with special reference to differential diagnosis. PMID:22408660

  8. Necrotizing gastritis associated with Clostridium septicum in a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Janet; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of histotoxic infections, including malignant edema and braxy (necrotizing abomasitis) in several animal species. The carcass of a 2-year-old, female New Zealand white rabbit with a history of acute depression and obtundation followed by death was received at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (San Bernardino, California) for necropsy and diagnostic workup. No gross lesions were detected at necropsy. Microscopically, there was moderate to severe, multifocal fibrinonecrotizing, transmural gastritis with numerous intralesional Gram-positive, sporulated rods, and disseminated thrombosis of the brain, lungs, heart, and liver, with occasional intravascular rods. The rods observed within the gastric wall and thrombi in the stomach and lung were positive for C. septicum by immunohistochemical staining. However, this microorganism was not isolated from stomach content. Clostridium septicum should be included in the list of possible etiologies of gastritis in rabbits.

  9. An outbreak of equine botulism type A associated with feeding grass clippings.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, Stephanie R; Kubiski, Steven V; Palmero, Joanie; Reilly, Christopher M; Higgins, Jamie K; Cook-Cronin, Sheri; Tawde, Snehal N; Crossley, Beate M; Yant, Paula; Cazarez, Ray; Uzal, Francisco A

    2012-05-01

    In September 2010, an outbreak of type A botulism involved 4 horses in northern California that were fed grass clippings obtained from a nearby park. All 4 animals developed a progressive flaccid paralysis syndrome clinically consistent with exposure to preformed Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT). Within 48 hr of consuming the grass clippings, all 4 horses showed marked cervical weakness (inability to raise their heads to a normal position) and died or were euthanized within 96 hr. One horse was submitted for diagnostic examination and subsequent necropsy. At necropsy, extensive edema was observed in areas of the nuchal ligament and inguinal fascia. A sample of the grass clippings tested positive for preformed BoNT type A by the mouse bioassay test. Emphasis should be placed on early case recognition, rapid initiation of treatment with the trivalent antitoxin product, and preventing exposure to BoNT in spoiled forages.

  10. Scoliosis in a tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) associated with encysted digenetic trematodes of the genus Clinostomum.

    PubMed

    Perpiñán, David; Garner, Michael M; Trupkiewicz, John G; Malarchik, Jennifer; Armstrong, Douglas L; Lucio-Forster, Araceli; Bowman, Dwight D

    2010-04-01

    A group of 202 tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) was brought into captivity due to habitat destruction. Half of these animals died, over two mo, showing generalized hemorrhages compatible with an infectious disease, but an etiologic agent was not determined. Encysted metacercarial stages of trematodes within the skeletal musculature, coelomic cavity, and subcutaneous space were additional necropsy findings. One salamander had scoliosis and multiple skin nodules. A radiograph showed no skeletal abnormality to explain the scoliosis; however, numerous round nodules were more radiodense than the surrounding tissue. A presumptive diagnosis of generalized trematodiasis was made, yet the salamander did not improve after a course of praziquantel and subsequently died. Necropsy revealed massive, encysted trematode infection. Histologic examination revealed marked multifocal intramuscular, subcutaneous, and coelomic trematodiasis with associated necrosis and inflammation. Based on gross morphology, the trematode was identified as a member of the genus Clinostomum.

  11. Unsuccessful cyclosporine plus prednisolone therapy for autoimmune meningoencephalitis in three dogs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dong-In; Lee, Hee-Chun; Ha, Jeongim; Jung, Hae-Won; Jeon, Joon-Hyeok; Moon, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Na-Hyun; Sur, Jung-Hyang; Kang, Byeong-Teck; Cho, Kyu-Woan

    2013-12-30

    A 4-year-old female Maltese (case 1), a 9-year-old castrated male shih tzu (case 2) and 2-year-old female Pomeranian (case 3) presented with neurological signs, such as head tilt, ataxia, circling and paresis. The three cases were tentatively diagnosed as having meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology based on computed tomography scan and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. All patients were managed with cyclosporine plus prednisolone therapy. The survival times of the three patients were 170, 70 and 21 days, respectively. After the cases died, we performed necropsy and histopathological examination for definitive diagnosis. Based on the necropsy, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations, cases 1, 2 and 3 were definitely diagnosed as having necrotizing meningoencephalitis, necrotizing leukoencephalitis and granulomatous meningoencephalitis, respectively. This case report demonstrated the clinical findings, brain CT characteristics and histopathological and immunohistochemical features of NME, NLE and GME in dogs and discussed the reason for the relatively short survival times under cyclosporine plus prednisolone therapy.

  12. Tetralogy of Fallot and atrial septal defect in a white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 3-week-old female white Bengal Tiger cub (Panthera tigris tigris) presented with acute onset tachypnoea, cyanosis and hypothermia. The cub was severely hypoxaemic with a mixed acid–base disturbance. Echocardiography revealed severe pulmonic stenosis, right ventricular hypertrophy, high membranous ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. Additionally, an atrial septal defect was found on necropsy, resulting in the final diagnosis of Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect (a subclass of Pentalogy of Fallot). This report is the first to encompass arterial blood gas analysis, thoracic radiographs, echocardiography and necropsy findings in a white Bengal Tiger cub diagnosed with Tetralogy of Fallot with an atrial septal defect. PMID:24594084

  13. Clinical and Autopsy Diagnoses of Visceral Affections of Patients Who Died Because of Complicated Burns with Multi-organ Failure

    PubMed Central

    Taran, A.; Baciu, N.; Rafulea, V.; German, A.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The anatomicopathological investigations carried out in a total number of 186 cadavers during the last decade were reviewed. In these retrospective studies of necropsy protocols related to different affections of visceral organ systems that evolved asymptomatically, 30.1% involved the neurological system, 36.0% the uropoiesis system, 34.4% the gastrointestinal system, 52.0% the hepatobiliary system, and 39.7% the cardiovascular system, with a prevalence in the pulmonary system of 64.2%. A comparative analysis of the incidence of affections detected in various visceral organs (on the basis of necropsy data in the 186 burn patients) and the incidence of their clinical manifestations showed that in 35% of patients with extensive and deep burns all of these conditions developed asymptomatically and were diagnosed only through autopsy. PMID:21991003

  14. Evaluation of a ceftiofur-washed whole cell Streptococcus suis bacterin in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The efficacy of currently available washed whole cell Streptococcus suis bacterins is generally poor. We developed and tested the efficacy of a novel ceftiofur-washed whole cell bacterin. Sixty-six, 2-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) pigs were randomly divided into 5 groups. Three groups were vaccinated 28 and 14 d prior to challenge. The 3 ceftiofur-washed whole cell bacterins each contained 1 of 3 different adjuvants (Montanide ISA 25, Montanide ISA 50, and Saponin). Pigs exhibiting severe central nervous system disease or severe joint swelling and lameness were euthanized immediately and necropsied. All remaining pigs were necropsied at 14 d post inoculation. The ceftiofur-washed whole cell S. suis bacterin with Montanide ISA 50 adjuvant significantly (P < 0.05) reduced bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, and mortality associated with S. suis challenge. Further work on this novel approach to bacterin production is warranted. PMID:15352553

  15. Detection of myocardial degeneration with point-of-care cardiac troponin assays and histopathology in lambs with white muscle disease.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Vehbi; Ozcan, Kadir; Citil, Mehmet; Onmaz, Ali C; Erdogan, Hidayet M

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of human cardiac troponin-I (cTn-I) and cardiac troponin-T (cTn-T) kits for the determination of myocardial degeneration in lambs suffering from white muscle disease (WMD). Cardiac troponin (cTn) analyses and necropsy were performed on 12 lambs with acute WMD. Only cTn analyses were tested in six healthy lambs. cTn-I and cTn-T tests were positive for all lambs with WMD, but negative in healthy lambs. Necropsy revealed that the cardiac and skeletal muscles of lambs with WMD had chalky white lesions, which appeared as necrosis and calcification in histopathology. The histopathological findings of the heart muscle and increased cTn in lambs with WMD suggested that marked myocardial degeneration may be detected by point-of-care cTn assays in lambs.

  16. A retrospective study of dystocia-related vertebral fractures in neonatal calves

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, JoAnn C.L.; Killeen, J. Randy

    1988-01-01

    Forty-seven cases of neonatal vertebral fractures/luxations occurred in a 21 year period (1967-1987). All of the fractures were located between the 11th thoracic vertebra and the fourth lumbar vertebra; 77% occurred at the thoracolumbar junction. All but one case was associated with a forced extraction, either unspecified (53%), mechanical (28%), or manual (17%). A weak calf or continuous recumbency since birth was the major clinical sign. Hemorrhage around the kidneys, adrenal glands, and in perivertebral muscles was a consistent necropsy finding and a useful indicator that a thoracolumbar fracture was present. In addition to the vertebral fracture, the prominent necropsy findings were subdural and epidural hemorrhage, myelomalacia, spinal cord compression or severed spinal cord, and fractured ribs. All of the calves died or were euthanized without regaining locomotory function. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:17423143

  17. The first case of Capillaria hepatica infection in a nutria (Myocastor coypus) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Hak; Novilla, Meliton N; Song, Juha; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Chang, Seo-Na; Han, Ju-Hee; Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Do-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Mac; Kim, Young-Ha; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Kil, Jihyon

    2014-10-01

    This study reports the first case of Capillaria hepatica infection in a nutria in Korea. Ten nutrias, captured near the Nakdong River, were submitted to our laboratory for necropsy. White-yellowish nodules were found in the liver of 1 of the nutrias at necropsy. Histologically, the lesions were granulomatous, and infiltrations of lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and several multinucleated giant cells were observed. The lesions consisted of numerous eggs and necrotic hepatocytes. The eggs were lemon-shaped and had polar plugs at the ends of both long sides. The eggs were morphologically identified as those of C. hepatica. Worldwide, C. hepatica infection in nutrias is very rare. Nutrias are a kind of livestock, as well as wildlife; therefore, an epidemiological study for parasitic infections needs to be conducted.

  18. The First Case of Capillaria hepatica Infection in a Nutria (Myocastor coypus) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jae-Hak; Novilla, Meliton N.; Song, Juha; Kim, Kyung-Sul; Chang, Seo-Na; Han, Ju-Hee; Lee, Byung Hee; Lee, Do-Hun; Kim, Hyun-Mac; Kim, Young-Ha; Youn, Hee-Jeong; Kil, Jihyon

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the first case of Capillaria hepatica infection in a nutria in Korea. Ten nutrias, captured near the Nakdong River, were submitted to our laboratory for necropsy. White-yellowish nodules were found in the liver of 1 of the nutrias at necropsy. Histologically, the lesions were granulomatous, and infiltrations of lipid-laden macrophages, eosinophils, and several multinucleated giant cells were observed. The lesions consisted of numerous eggs and necrotic hepatocytes. The eggs were lemon-shaped and had polar plugs at the ends of both long sides. The eggs were morphologically identified as those of C. hepatica. Worldwide, C. hepatica infection in nutrias is very rare. Nutrias are a kind of livestock, as well as wildlife; therefore, an epidemiological study for parasitic infections needs to be conducted. PMID:25352702

  19. Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia and endocarditis associated with a removable infected intravenous device.

    PubMed

    Watanakunakorn, C; Baird, I M

    1977-08-01

    Records of 21 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia associated with a removable infected intravenous device were reviewed. Sixteen patients had a peripheral intravenous catheter, four had a central venous catheter and one had a transvenous cardiac pacer. The duration of the indwelling intravenous device in situ prior to the detection of infection ranged from two to 11 (mean 5.2) days. The infected intravenous device was promptly removed as soon as bacteremia was suspected. Endocarditis was diagnosed in eight patients: in two patients an aortic murmur developed; in two the diagnosis was made clinically and was confirmed at necropsy (one mitral and one aortic); in four the diagnosis was made at necropsy (two tricuspid and two atrial wall). In patients with Staph. aureus bacteremia associated with a removable infected intravenous device, the risk of endocarditis developing was significant.

  20. Myocardial toxicity in a group of greyhounds administered ractopamine.

    PubMed

    Yaeger, M J; Mullin, K; Ensley, S M; Ware, W A; Slavin, R E

    2012-05-01

    Ractopamine, a synthetic β(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, is widely used as a feed additive in the United States to promote a reduction in body fat and enhance muscle growth in cattle, pigs, and turkeys. It has the potential for illegal use in show and racing animals because it may affect performance via its β-adrenergic agonist properties or anabolic activities. Nine greyhounds were orally administered 1 mg/kg of ractopamine to investigate the ability to detect the drug in urine. Postdosing, 7 of 9 dogs developed cardiac arrhythmias and had elevated troponin levels indicating myocardial damage. One dog necropsied 4 days postdosing had massive myocardial necrosis, mild to focally moderate skeletal muscle necrosis, and widespread segmental arterial mediolysis. A second dog necropsied 17 days postdosing had mild myocardial necrosis and fibrosis. Scattered arteries exhibited segmental medial and perimedial fibromuscular dysplasia. This is the first reported case of arterial, cardiac, and skeletal muscle damage associated with ractopamine.

  1. Distemper: not a new disease in lions and tigers.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, D L; Zurbriggen, A; Lutz, H; Pospischil, A

    1997-01-01

    In light of recent canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemics, we set out to determine the historical significance of CDV infection in captive lions and tigers in Switzerland. The retrospective case material consisted of 42 lion and tiger necropsy cases from 1972 to 1992. Necropsy reports for all lions and tigers were reviewed. All existing paraffin tissues were immunohistochemically examined with a polyclonal antibody raised against CDV. The results for 19 of the 42 lions and tigers were classified as positive by immunohistochemistry; 23 results were negative or questionable. The results for four animals (three positive and one negative ) were further tested by in situ hybridization, and the results concurred with the immunohistochemistry findings. CDV infection of large cats is older and more widespread than previously thought. All large cats in captivity should be immunized even if canine distemper is not believed to be a problem for large cats in the area. PMID:9067652

  2. Pneumoconiosis of shale miners.

    PubMed Central

    Seaton, A; Lamb, D; Brown, W R; Sclare, G; Middleton, W G

    1981-01-01

    Four patients are described in whom pneumoconiosis was diagnosed towards the end of a lifetime's work in shale mines. All developed complicated pneumoconiosis, diagnosed in two cases at necropsy, in one by lobectomy, and in one radiologically. Two of the patients were found at necropsy also to have peripheral squamous lung cancer.The clinical and histological features of the disease resembled the pneumoconioses of coalminers and kaolin workers and the lungs of three of the patients were shown to contain dust composed predominantly of kaolinite, mica, and silica. Shale miners' complicated pneumoconiosis has not previously been described. Although the British shale industry is now defunct, oil production from shale is expanding in other countries, notably the USA. It is suggested that control should be exercised over dust exposure levels in this industry and that epidemiological studies should be carried out to quantify the risks of both pneumoconiosis and bronchial carcinoma. Images PMID:7314011

  3. Kernicterus in a neonatal foal.

    PubMed

    Loynachan, Alan T; Williams, N M; Freestone, J F

    2007-03-01

    A 5-day-old Thoroughbred foal was submitted to the necropsy service at the University of Kentucky Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center. The foal had a clinical history of seizure activity and severe icterus. A complete blood count and serum chemistry analysis indicated that the foal was anemic (hematocrit, 16%), hyperbilirubinemic (45 mg/dl), and hypoglycemic. At necropsy, all tissues were discolored various shades of yellow. Microscopically, there was degeneration and necrosis of cerebral neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells; severe hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis; and deposition of amorphous golden-yellow material in the cerebellar granular cell layer, pulmonary alveoli, renal tubular epithelium, splenic trabecula, and the lamina propria of the small and large intestine. The golden-yellow material in the brain, lung, spleen, and small intestine was identified as bilirubin by histochemistry. Based on the macroscopic and microscopic findings, a diagnosis of kernicterus (bilirubin encephalopathy) was made. This report describes a rare case of equine neonatal kernicterus.

  4. Peripheral neuritis in psittacine birds with proventricular dilatation disease.

    PubMed

    Berhane, Y; Smith, D A; Newman, S; Taylor, M; Nagy, E; Binnington, B; Hunter, B

    2001-10-01

    Necropsies were performed on 14 psittacine birds of various species suspected to have proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). Eight of the birds exhibited neurological signs (seizures, ataxia, tremors and uncoordinated movements) and digestive tract signs (crop stasis, regurgitation, inappetance and presence of undigested food in the faeces). At necropsy, the birds had pectoral muscle atrophy, proventricular and ventricular distention, thinning of the gizzard wall, and duodenal dilation. In addition, five birds had a transparent fluid (0.2 to 1.0 ml) in the subarachnoidal space of the brain, and one bird had dilatation of the right ventricle of the heart. The histological lesions differed from earlier reports of PDD in that peripheral (sciatic, brachial and vagal) neuritis was seen in addition to myenteric ganglioneuritis, myocarditis, adrenalitis, myelitis and encephalitis.

  5. Use of avian bornavirus isolates to induce proventricular dilatation disease in conures.

    PubMed

    Gray, Patricia; Hoppes, Sharman; Suchodolski, Paulette; Mirhosseini, Negin; Payne, Susan; Villanueva, Itamar; Shivaprasad, H L; Honkavuori, Kirsi S; Lipkin, W Ian; Briese, Thomas; Reddy, Sanjay M; Tizard, Ian

    2010-03-01

    Avian bornavirus (ABV) is a newly discovered member of the family Bornaviridae that has been associated with the development of a lethal neurologic syndrome in birds, termed proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). We successfully isolated and characterized ABV from the brains of 8 birds with confirmed PDD. One isolate was passed 6 times in duck embryo fibroblasts, and the infected cells were then injected intramuscularly into 2 healthy Patagonian conures (Cyanoliseus patagonis). Clinical PDD developed in both birds by 66 days postinfection. PDD was confirmed by necropsy and histopathologic examination. Reverse transcription-PCR showed that the inoculated ABV was in the brains of the 2 infected birds. A control bird that received uninfected tissue culture cells remained healthy until it was euthanized at 77 days. Necropsy and histopathologic examinations showed no abnormalities; PCR did not indicate ABV in its brain tissues.

  6. Congenital glycogen storage disease in a South American coati (Nasua nasua).

    PubMed

    Chu, Peter D; Loynachan, Alan T

    2013-09-01

    A 14-mo-old South American coati (Nasua nasua) was submitted for necropsy to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. The coati had a history of progressive neurologic signs beginning 3 mo prior to euthanasia. At necropsy, the coati was in thin body condition, but no other significant findings were evident. Histopathologic findings included moderate distension of neuronal cell bodies by finely vesiculated cytoplasm within the cerebrum, cerebellum, spinal cord, and intestinal ganglia. Hepatocytes and macrophages in the lung, spleen, and liver were similarly affected. Transmission electron microscopy showed numerous electrondense membranous cytoplasmic bodies, swirls, and vesicular profiles within neuronal lysosomes in the brain. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring congenital glycogen storage disease in a South American coati and the family Procyonidae.

  7. A ruptured large aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus.

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, S; Hirose, K; Ohyagi, A

    1987-01-01

    A 60 year old man was admitted with acute back pain followed by hoarseness. An aneurysm of the ductus arteriosus Botalli was diagnosed and an operation was recommended because of the high risk of complications such as rupture, embolism, or infection. The patient and his family refused surgery, however. The patient died suddenly of a rupture of the aneurysm a year later; necropsy confirmed the diagnosis. Several diagnostic methods were used and enhanced computed tomography gave the best representation of the aneurysm as it was seen at necropsy. This case indicates that enhanced computed tomography is probably the most useful investigation in patients with this type of aneurysm and it confirms the importance of an aneurysmectomy. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 PMID:3566989

  8. Beak necrosis in Hungarian partridges (Perdix perdix) associated with beak-bits and avian poxvirus infection.

    PubMed

    Brower, Alexandra I; Cigel, Francine; Radi, Craig; Toohey-Kurth, Kathy

    2010-06-01

    Proliferative growth, consistent with poxvirus infection, encapsulated plastic beak-bits and covered the dorsal portion of the upper beak and nares of adult male and female captive-raised Hungarian partridges. Three representative birds were submitted to the Wisconsin Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. Lesions in the necropsied birds extended through the nares, where the plastic bit ends are designed to rest. The lesions also variably extended caudally into the oropharynx and cranially within the beak epithelium, and included palate deformity and beak necrosis. Poxvirus was diagnosed in all of the birds examined based on histopathology, electron microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. This report is the first to describe avian pox lesions associated with the application of beak-bits and the resulting beak and oral pathology.

  9. Distemper: not a new disease in lions and tigers.

    PubMed

    Myers, D L; Zurbriggen, A; Lutz, H; Pospischil, A

    1997-03-01

    In light of recent canine distemper virus (CDV) epidemics, we set out to determine the historical significance of CDV infection in captive lions and tigers in Switzerland. The retrospective case material consisted of 42 lion and tiger necropsy cases from 1972 to 1992. Necropsy reports for all lions and tigers were reviewed. All existing paraffin tissues were immunohistochemically examined with a polyclonal antibody raised against CDV. The results for 19 of the 42 lions and tigers were classified as positive by immunohistochemistry; 23 results were negative or questionable. The results for four animals (three positive and one negative ) were further tested by in situ hybridization, and the results concurred with the immunohistochemistry findings. CDV infection of large cats is older and more widespread than previously thought. All large cats in captivity should be immunized even if canine distemper is not believed to be a problem for large cats in the area.

  10. Hypomagnesemia among cows in a confinement-housed dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Donovan, G Arthur; Steenholdt, Christian; McGehee, Kerry; Lundquist, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Between January and March 2002, 55 cows in a 1,200-cow commercial dairy herd in south Florida died. Most of the cows that were found dead did not have any clinical signs of disease prior to death. Because of a history of a feed change, a bloom of blue-green algae in cow cooling ponds, and initial necropsy findings of moderate enteritis, the preliminary differential diagnosis included clostridial enteritis, blue-green algae toxicosis, and mycotoxicosis. Rumen acidosis, hypomagnesemia, and heavy metal toxicosis were included as secondary considerations. On the basis of physical examination and gross necropsy findings, results of clinicopathol ogic testing, and results of feed and water analyses, a diagnosis of hypomagnesemia was made. Control procedures that were implemented included changing the forage source and increasing the magnesium concentration in the diet.

  11. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  12. A method for detecting therapeutic activity against Schistosoma mansoni in mice.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W C; Bartels, E; Cuckler, A C

    1978-02-01

    A simple and rapid assay, suitable for routine screening against Schistosoma mansoni in mice, can be achieved by using a reduction in the severity of hepatic lesions as the chief criterion of efficacy. Previous attempts to use this criterion were largely hampered by the use of inappropriate time schedules. Provided the timing of treatment and necropsy is restricted to a certain schedule, a mere glance at the opened abdomen of an infected mouse is sufficient to determine whether schistosome reproduction has been suppressed (by chemosterilization or by broader anthelmintic effects). The essence of the necessary schedule is treatment beginning at 4 weeks after infection and prolonged (continuously or intermittently) for 2 weeks, followed by necropsy at 8 weeks after infection. Using the methods described, two persons can easily examine mice for therapeutic response at the rate of 300 per hour. The assay has been shown to detect both schistosomaticidal and chemosterilizing compounds.

  13. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in round gobies in New York State (USA) waters of Lake Ontario and the St. Lawrence River.

    PubMed

    Groocock, G H; Getchell, R G; Wooster, G A; Britt, K L; Batts, W N; Winton, J R; Casey, R N; Casey, J W; Bowser, P R

    2007-07-16

    In May 2006 a large mortality of several thousand round gobies Neogobius melanostomus (Pallas, 1814) occurred in New York waters of the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario. Necropsies of sampled fish from these areas showed pallor of the liver and gills, and hemorrhagic areas in many organs. Histopathologic examination of affected tissues revealed areas of necrosis and hemorrhage. Inoculations of fathead minnow Pimephales promelas (Rafinesque, 1820) cell cultures with dilutions of tissue samples from the necropsied gobies produced a cytopathic effect within 5 d post-inoculation. Samples of cell culture supernatant were tested using RT-PCR and confirmed the presence of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). Sequence analysis of the VHSV isolate resulted in its assignment to the type-IVb subgroup. The detection of VHSV in a relatively recent invasive fish species in the Great Lakes and the potential impact of VHSV on the ecology and economy of the area will require further investigation and careful management considerations.

  14. [Radiographic diagnosis of abdominal diseases in foals and ponys. II. Pathologic findings in 60 cases].

    PubMed

    Gerhards, H; Klein, H J; Offeney, F

    1990-08-01

    A diagnostic approach based on clinical and radiographic examinations for evaluation of young foals and small ponies with acute abdominal discomfort is presented. Standing right to left lateral abdominal radiographs were taken of 54 foals and 6 ponies using a previously described technique. Interpretation of the radiographs was in conjunction with all clinical and laboratory findings and patient management. Using this approach, the site and cause of acute abdominal discomfort could be diagnosed accurately in 55 of 60 (91%) patients as confirmed by clinical, surgical or necropsy findings. Typical radiographs and photographs taken at surgery or at necropsy are presented. Typical radiographic findings, their interpretation and possible underlying gastrointestinal diseases are listed. The incorporation of standing lateral abdominal radiography in the clinical evaluation of foals and ponies with acute abdominal diseases gives findings of high diagnostic significance and should contribute to clinical decision-making. Abdominal radiography can replace data from rectal palpation in foals and ponies.

  15. Apical aneurysm of Chagas's heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, J S; Mello De Oliveira, J A; Frederigue, U; Lima Filho, E C

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective study of Chagas's heart disease was carried out by a review of necropsy reports with special reference to the lesion known as the apical aneurysm. It was concluded that this lesion was more frequent in men, was unrelated to age, and was unrelated to heart weight. Patients dying of the cardiac consequences of Chagas's cardiomyopathy were more likely to have an apical aneurysm than those whose death was unrelated to the disease but the mode of death (sudden, or with heart failure) was unconnected with its presence. Transillumination from within the ventricle at necropsy was not only useful in demonstrating the aneurysm but also showed areas of myocardial thinning elsewhere. Thrombosis within the lesion was frequent. The aetiology of the apical aneurysm is discussed and it is concluded that while ischaemia, inflammation, thrombosis, and mechanical factors may produce and localise this lesion, the underlying cause is the basic pathogenetic process-parasympathetic nerve cell destruction. Images PMID:7295439

  16. Pathology in Continuous Infusion Studies in Rodents and Non-Rodents and ITO (Infusion Technology Organisation)-Recommended Protocol for Tissue Sampling and Terminology for Procedure-Related Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Klaus; Mowat, Vasanthi; Hartmann, Elke; Razinger, Tanja; Chevalier, Hans-Jörg; Blumbach, Kai; Green, Owen P.; Kaiser, Stefan; Corney, Stephen; Jackson, Ailsa; Casadesus, Agustin

    2011-01-01

    Many variables may affect the outcome of continuous infusion studies. The results largely depend on the experience of the laboratory performing these studies, the technical equipment used, the choice of blood vessels and hence the surgical technique as well the quality of pathological evaluation. The latter is of major interest due to the fact that the pathologist is not involved until necropsy in most cases, i.e. not dealing with the complicated surgical or in-life procedures of this study type. The technique of tissue sampling during necropsy and the histology processing procedures may influence the tissues presented for evaluation, hence the pathologist may be a source of misinterpretation. Therefore, ITO proposes a tissue sampling procedure and a standard nomenclature for pathological lesions for all sites and tissues in contact with the port-access and/or catheter system. PMID:22272050

  17. Virtopsy in a red kangaroo with oral osteomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ki-Ja; Sasaki, Motoki; Miyauchi, Aki; Kishimoto, Miori; Shimizu, Junichiro; Iwasaki, Toshiroh; Miyake, Yoh-Ichi; Yamada, Kazutaka

    2011-03-01

    This report describes the use of computed tomography (CT) in a nondomestic species. Postmortem CT was performed on a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) and a diagnosis of oral osteomyelitis was made. CT examination revealed bony remodeling of the right mandible, an intraosseous lesion of the right temporal bone, muscle necrosis around the right mandible, and the absence of the right, first, upper molar tooth. Cardiac and intrahepatic gas and a distended intestine due to postmortem gas accumulation were also seen. All the lesions identified with CT were also identified by conventional necropsy, except the cardiac and intrahepatic gases. Virtopsy may be a useful procedure for the noninvasive identification of cause of death and as a guide for necropsy in animals.

  18. Multifocal sporotrichosis with meningeal involvement in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Silva-Vergara, Mario León; Maneira, Frederico Ricardo Zago; De Oliveira, Renata Mônica; Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Adad, Sheila Jorge

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a 29-year-old man with AIDS and disseminated lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis diagnosis presenting a poor therapeutic adhesion to itraconazole therapy that later evolved to neurological impairment and death. Necropsy showed granulomatous reaction and yeast-like forms similar to Sporothrix schenckii in meninges, lymph nodes, marrow bone, skin, testicles, epididymides and pancreas. Meningeal sporotrichosis cases associated to AIDS are reviewed in brief.

  19. Radiation myelopathy of cervical spinal cord simulating intramedullary neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Fogelholm, R.; Haltia, M.; Andersson, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    Radiation myelopathy is a well-known complication of irradiation therapy of neoplasms in the vicinity of the spinal cord. Most earlier authors have stressed the association of a normal myelogram and normal CSF protein level with this condition. One case of radiation myelopathy with a myelogram simulating intramedullary neoplasm and with extremely high CSF protein concentration is presented. Six months after myelography necropsy revealed severe atrophy of the previously thickened lower cervical spinal cord. The pathogenetic mechanisms are discussed. Images PMID:4443812

  20. Isolated angiitis of the brain in a young female on the contraceptive pill.

    PubMed

    Nagaratnam, N; James, W E

    1987-12-01

    The case of a 15 year old girl with a rapidly progressing right sided hemiparesis is reported. The history and clinical manifestations were suggestive of either herpes simplex encephalitis or occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. At necropsy an occlusive thrombosis of the left middle cerebral artery due to a segmental necrotizing granulomatous panarteritis was found. The cause was obscure. A plausible incriminating factor was the contraceptive pill.

  1. Handbook on Gopher Tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus): Health Evaluation Procedures for Use by Land Managers and Researchers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to...orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) in Sabah, Malaysia .” J Wildl Dis 39(1): 73-83. Klingenberg, R.J. 1993. Understanding Reptile Parasites. Advanced...description of the lesion and sometimes the underlying cause. (3) Expensive to collect and analyze. b. Euthanasia and necropsy (1) Provide critical

  2. Tularemia: Current Diagnosis and Treatment Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    patients with documented tularemia infections are often nega- tive. It is possible that the yield of cultures is improved by bed- side or rapid...improved yield was observed by rapid plate inoculation of necropsy samples from infected prairie dogs [37]. In addition, this study reported that...utilizing media with antibiotics also improved the yield of cul- tures. In a study that involved obtaining swabs of the inocula- tion after LVS tularemia

  3. Characterization and Amino Acid Sequences of Two Lethal Peptides Isolated from Venom of Wagler’s Pit Viper, Trimeresurus wagleri

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    dosages were necropsied and any gross tissue pathology examined and noted. The LD, was calculated by the Spearman - Karber method (WHO, 1981). The 95...sequences of two lethal toxins from the venom of T. wagleri. MATERIALS AND METHODS Chemicals Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), "sequenal grade", was...from Yuma, AZ) according to the method of WEINSTEIN et al. (1985). Toxin II from Androctonus australis venom (AaH II) was purified by successive

  4. Observations on a Venom Neutralizing Albumin Enriched Fraction Isolated from Serum of the Northern Copperhead Agkistrodon Contortrix Mokasen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-31

    venom dosages were necropsied and any gross tissue pathology examined. The LD5 0 was calculated by the Spearman - Karber method (World Health Organization...according to the method of Laemmli (1970). Electrophoresis was carried out at 100V, 25 mA for 55-65 min. The gel was then fixed in methanol-acetic...Murata, R., and Oksaka, A. (1960). Studies on the quantitative method for determination of hemorrhagic activity of habu snake venom. Jap. J. Med. Sci

  5. Disseminated toxoplasmosis presenting as sepsis in two AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carlos José Dornas Gonçalves; Molina, Rodrigo Juliano; de Souza, Murilo Barcelos; Silva, Ana Cristina A; Micheletti, Adilha Rua; dos Reis, Marlene Antonia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2007-01-01

    This report describes two patients who presented acute disseminated and severe toxoplasmosis as the first opportunistic disease related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At admission, clinical and laboratory findings were similar to sepsis or septic shock and a fast evolutive course to death occurred in both cases. At necropsy, an inflammatory reaction and presence of a great number of Toxoplasma gondii cysts and tachyzoites were observed in most organs examined.

  6. Acute Inhalation Toxicity and Blood Absorption of 2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-17

    necropsy findings. A secondary objective was to determine the effect that two di ITerent routes of administration (inhalation and oral) had on the...A secondary objective was to determine the effect that two different routes of administration (inhalation and oral) had on the absorption of the...blood and determine the degree of effect that the exposure route had on the absorption of DNAN into the blood. In addition to blood absorption, rats

  7. Case report: epithelial intracytoplasmic herpes viral inclusions associated with an outbreak of duck virus enteritis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barr, B.C.; Jessup, David A.; Docherty, Douglas E.; Lownestine, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    Several muscovy ducks from a free-roaming flock of 65 muscovy and mallard ducks died over a 3-week period. Three muscovy ducks were necropsied. Gross and microscopic changes were compatible with duck virus enteritis, and the virus was isolated. In addition to intranuclear viral inclusion bodies in several tissues, intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were present in esophageal and cloacal epithelium, By electron microscopy, the membrane-bound intracytoplasmic inclusions were found to contain enveloped herpesvirus, and nuclei contained herpes viral nucleocapsids.

  8. Acute Dermal Toxicity of Guanidine Hydrochloride in Rabbits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    with electric clippers (Oster®b Model A5, Size 40 blade, Sunbeam Corp, Milwaukee, WI) 24 hours before applying the test compound. The animals were...1984 2. Animals were close-clipped and examined 24 hours before dosing Justification: The laboratory rabbit is a proven mammalian model for dermal...died were necropsied within 16 hours after death. The remaining animls were killed by exsanguination while under pentobarbital anesthesia after a 14

  9. Exploring the Hypersensitivity of PTEN Deleted Prostate Cancer Stem Cells to WEE1 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    by sorting cells following staining with the CD44-PE antibodies. About 500- 5000 cells could be sorted from 5 million cells. 6  (Figure 4). CD44...Individual colonies were counted after staining cells with crystal violet. An average of 3 counts is plotted for each concentration and each cell line...from 5 of 6 normal mice in each group (Figure 12). b. Immunohistochemical staining of resected tumors for necropsy of the tumor tissue. Ki67

  10. Animal Models of Mycobacteria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ordway, Diane J.; Orme, Ian M.

    2011-01-01

    This unit describes the infection of mice and guinea pigs with mycobacteria via various routes, as well as necropsy methods for the determination of mycobacterial loads within target organs. Additionally, methods for cultivating mycobacteria and preparing stocks are described. The protocols outlined are primarily used for M. tuberculosis, but can also be used for the study of other non-tuberculosis mycobacterial species. PMID:18432756

  11. Gastro-intestinal helminths in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) of Illinois.

    PubMed

    Cook, T W; Ridgeway, B T; Andrews, R; Hodge, J

    1979-07-01

    Two deer populations, one in northern Illinois the other in southern Illinois, were examined by necropsy (n = 44 and 40 respectively) for helminth parasites of the gastro-intestinal tract and abdominal cavity. Both herds were parasitized by Apteragia odocoilei, Haemonchus contortus, Gongylonema pulchrum, Setaria yehi, Trichuris ovis, and Moniezia benedeni. Nematodirus sp. was found only in deer of northern Illinois. Ostertagia mossi, Capillaria sp., Cooperia sp., and Oesophagostomum sp. were found only in deer of southern Illinois.

  12. Isolation of Clostridium difficile from human jejunum: identification of a reservoir for disease?

    PubMed Central

    Testore, G P; Nardi, F; Babudieri, S; Giuliano, M; Di Rosa, R; Panichi, G

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that the small intestine may represent a reservoir for Clostridium difficile was studied, using segments of human jejunum collected at necropsy. Our results (three of 100 specimens positive for C difficile culture) support the hypothesis that C difficile can be found in human jejunum and that it adheres to the normal mucosa as a resident bacterium. These findings suggest that gastrointestinal disease caused by C difficile has an endogenous origin. PMID:3745477

  13. Atherosclerosis associated with pericardial effusion in a central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Schilliger, Lionel; Lemberger, Karin; Chai, Norin; Bourgeois, Aude; Charpentier, Maud

    2010-09-01

    Atherosclerosis is a common disease in pet birds, particularly in psittacines, and is frequently found when performing postmortem examinations on adult and old dogs, in which it is mainly associated with endocrine diseases, such as hypothyroidism and diabetes mellitus. However, atherosclerosis is poorly documented in reptiles and consequently poorly understood. In the current case report, atherosclerosis and pericardial effusion were diagnosed in a 2-year-old male central bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps) based on ultrasound visualization, necropsy, and histologic examination.

  14. Lead poisoning and other mortality factors in trumpeter swans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Stroud, R.K.; Reiswig, B.; McEneaney, T.

    1989-01-01

    Lead poisoning and other causes of mortality of trumpeter swans were investigated. Necropsies or Pb concentrations in livers were available for 72 trumpeter swans found dead in seven western states from 1976 to 1987; data from other published and unpublished sources also are summarized. Ingestion of lead artifacts accounted for about 20% of the known mortality of trumpeter swans in the tri-state area of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, where the population has been declining for several decades.

  15. Weber-Christian panniculitis and auto-immune disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Allen-Mersh, T G

    1976-02-01

    A case is described of Weber-Christian panniculitis accompanied by a gammaglobulin disturbance which preceded by five years the diagnosis of an autoimmune hepatitis and pancytopenia. Also associated was the onset of diabetes mellitus, found at necropsy to be related to pancreatic islet amyloid deposition. This case reinforces the view that Weber-Christian panniculitis may be an adipose response to a variety of immunological stimuli.

  16. Pericardial mesothelioma in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Wiedner, Ellen B; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William A; Case, Allison L; Decker, Joshua; Roberts, John

    2008-03-01

    A 17-year-old Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris) presented with dyspnea and tachypnea. Radiographs revealed severe pleural and pericardial effusion, but no obvious mass. During attempts to remove the fluid under anesthesia, the cat developed cardiac tamponade and died. At necropsy, a nodular mass was found at the heart base and was identified as a pericardial mesothelioma. This is the first report of this tumor in any large cat.

  17. Isolation of pseudorabies (Aujeszky's disease) virus from a Florida panther.

    PubMed

    Glass, C M; McLean, R G; Katz, J B; Maehr, D S; Cropp, C B; Kirk, L J; McKeirnan, A J; Evermann, J F

    1994-04-01

    Pseudorabies virus was isolated in cell culture from the brain tissue of a 3.5-year-old male Florida panther (Felis concolor coryi). The virus was not isolated from other tissues collected at necropsy. Based upon a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the virus was determined to have the classical wild-type virulent genotype, glycoprotein I+ (gI+) and thymidine kinase+ (TK+).

  18. Genetic Markers of Host Resistance and/or Susceptibility to the Lethal Effects of Radiation and Combined Radiation-Burn Injuries.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    Proteus vulgaris (Pv), which occurred in 100% of all cultured animals. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) could be identified, however, where present, by...necropsy and microbiological studies in each animal succumbing to the effects of ionizing radiation. 0 % .- % S- V Z _ .-- SECTION 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS...from commercial breeding sources, including Microbiological Associates (Walkersville, Md.), Camm Research (Wayne, N.J.), the Charles River Labora

  19. Molecular Imaging Approaches to the Evaluation of Infectious Diseases- A Prospective Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-25

    pathologic process is amenable to evaluation by molecular imaging [3]. Post-intraperitoneal or subcutaneous (sc) infection, virus appears in draining lymph... pathology leading to death or incapacitation of the animal. Classical approaches to the study of BSL3/4 infections involve serial necropsies...used to correlate brain pathology with measures of cognitive decline [22] and to track the progression of disease in genetically engineered mice [23

  20. Protective action of calcium phytate against acute lead toxicity in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, A.

    1981-12-01

    Forty female MF1 mice were fed diets with and without calcium phytate. Addition of lead acetate resulted in toxic effects. After necropsy liver and kidneys were removed and analyzed for lead by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy. Calcium phytate did not affect the nutritional status of the mice. It was concluded from the study that calcium phytate might be employed as a natural protective factor against lead toxicity. (JMT)

  1. Inbred Rat Strains Mimic the Disparate Human Response to Rift Valley Fever Virus Infection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-01

    Norway rats were exquisitely susceptible to the virus and died with extensive hepatic necrosis 3 to I 5 days after inoculation of only 5 plaque...many of the animals necropsied (Table 11). Rats dying of hepatic necrosis uniformly had large quantities of virus in the liver and blood. Their brain...at least a 100-fold difference between the lethality of RVF virus for rats susceptible to hepatic necrosis and more resistant strains. Ten-fold in

  2. Oxalosis in wild desert tortoises, Gopherus agassizii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Elliott R.; Berry, Kristin H.; Stacy, Brian; Huzella, Louis M.; Kalasinsky, Victor F.; Fleetwood, Michelle L.; Mense, Mark G.

    2009-01-01

    We necropsied a moribund, wild adult male desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) with clinical signs of respiratory disease and elevated plasma biochemical analytes indicative of renal disease (blood urea nitrogen [415 mg/dl], uric acid [11.8 mg/dl], sodium >180 mmol/l] and chloride [139 mmol/l]). Moderate numbers of birefringent oxalate crystals, based on infrared and electron microscopy, were present within renal tubules; small numbers were seen in colloid within thyroid follicles. A retrospective analysis of 66 additional cases of wild desert tortoises was conducted to determine whether similar crystals were present in thyroid and kidney. The tortoises, from the Mojave and Sonoran deserts, were necropsied between 1992 and 2003 and included juveniles and adults. Tortoises were classified as healthy (those that died due to trauma and where no disease was identified after necropsy and evaluation by standard laboratory tests used for other tortoises) or not healthy (having one or more diseases or lesions). For all 67 necropsied tortoises, small numbers of crystals of similar appearance were present in thyroid glands from 44 of 54 cases (81%) and in kidneys from three of 65 cases (5%). Presence of oxalates did not differ significantly between healthy and unhealthy tortoises, between age classes, or between desert region, and their presence was considered an incidental finding. Small numbers of oxalate crystals seen within the kidney of two additional tortoises also were considered an incidental finding. Although the source of the calcium oxalate could not be determined, desert tortoises are herbivores, and a plant origin seems most likely. Studies are needed to evaluate the oxalate content of plants consumed by desert tortoises, and particularly those in the area where the tortoise in renal failure was found.

  3. Degenerative myelopathy in an adult miniature poodle.

    PubMed

    Matthews, N S; de Lahunta, A

    1985-06-01

    Degenerative myelopathy was diagnosed at necropsy of an adult Miniature Poodle with a 33-month history of progressive pelvic limb ataxia and proprioceptive deficit. Microscopic examination of the cord revealed diffuse degenerative myelopathy. Degenerative myelopathy is usually seen in adult, large-breed dogs and progresses over a period of months. In this case, the myelopathy progressed slowly and the degree of paralysis became more extensive than usually seen.

  4. Occurrence of fruiting structures allows determination of Purpureocillium lilacinum as an inciting agent of pleuritis and pneumonia in a loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) by histopathologic correlation to culture

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, V.L.; Mangold, B.; Lenzycki, J.; Hinckley, L.; Sutton, D.A.; Frasca, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpureocillium lilacinum and Beauveria bassiana were isolated from lung sampled at necropsy of a 12 year-old female loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) that had displayed abnormal buoyancy. Histopathologic evaluation revealed pleuritis and pneumonia with non-melanized, septate hyphae and fruiting structures identical to those of P. lilacinum. This case emphasizes the importance of a histological correlate to fungal culture when environmental fungi are isolated and demonstrates the infrequent phenomenon of fruiting or conidial production in tissue. PMID:25379399

  5. Convulsion of the lung: an historical analysis of the cause of Dr Johnson's fatal emphysema.

    PubMed Central

    Reich, J M

    1994-01-01

    Of Johnson's fatal emphysema, it appears probable, on available historical and anatomic evidence, that it resulted from bronchiectasis, a diagnosis favoured by the pattern of illness: a protracted and severe respiratory infection succeeded by annual episodes of severe winter bronchitis, remitting in summer, and culminating in respiratory insufficiency; and by the findings of pleural adhesion and cor pulmonale at necropsy. That is resulted from chronic bronchitis is a proposition both plausible and irrefutable without the specimen. PMID:7853296

  6. Use of a commercial serologic test for Angiostrongylus vasorum for the detection of A. chabaudi in wildcats and A. daskalovi in badgers.

    PubMed

    Deak, Georgiana; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Ionică, Angela Monica; Daskalaki, Aikaterini Alexandra; Matei, Ioana Adriana; D'Amico, Gianluca; Domşa, Cristian; Pantchev, Nikola; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel; Cozma, Vasile

    2017-01-15

    Three species of the genus Angiostrongylus are known to infect European carnivores: A. vasorum (mainly in canids but also in other carnivores), A. chabaudi (in felids) and A. daskalovi (in mustelids). A. vasorum is responsible for clinically severe disease in domestic dogs, most commonly diagnosed based on fecal examination and serological detection of circulating antigens. Considering the poorly known host range and the challenging larval differentiation in the feces between the three species of Angiostrongylus infecting European carnivores, our aim was to evaluate the cross-reactivity of A. chabaudi and A. daskalovi with A. vasorum using a commercial serologic test developed for domestic dogs. Badgers (Meles meles) (n=10) and wildcats (Felis silvestris) (n=8) were examined between 2015 and 2016 by full parasitological necropsy with subsequent morphological and molecular identification of nematodes and by serology, using IDEXX Angio Detect™ tests. Five out of the ten badgers and two out of the eight wildcats were harboring nematodes in the pulmonary arteries. All nematodes were identified morphologically as A. daskalovi in badgers and A. chabaudi in wildcats, respectively. Serological examination of the plasma samples revealed the positivity of the same animals as found in necropsy. None of the animals negative at necropsy was positive at serology. The 100% correlation between the necropsy results and the serologic positivity to IDEXX Angio Detect™ in badgers infected with A. daskalovi and wildcats infected with A. chabaudi suggest that these rapid tests are able to identify circulating antigens of all species of Angiostrongylus found in European carnivores: A. vasorum, A. daskalovi and A. chabaudi. The possibility for future in-clinic use of this test in domestic cats should be further investigated.

  7. First record in South Asia of deer throat bot fly larvae Pharyngomyia picta (Meigen, 1824) (Diptera: Oesteridae) from Sambar deer (Rusa unicolor), a new host record.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Radhakrishnan; Ajithkumar, K G; Reghu, Ravindran; Kavitha, Rajagopal

    2012-06-01

    The Bot fly larvae, identified to be the third instars of the deer throat bot fly Pharyngomyia picta were recovered from the lumen of trachea and secondary bronchi during the necropsy of a female sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) in Kerala, India. This forms the first report of P. picta from India and the whole of South Asia. Sambar deer is a new host record for the larvae of this fly. Morphological description of the third stage larvae with supporting figures are presented.

  8. [Disseminated mycosis fungoides].

    PubMed

    Trope, B M; Schmidt, J M; de Oliveira Neto, A A; Pereira Júnior, A C; Marques, A de S; Ishida, C E; Azulay, R D

    1985-01-01

    A case of mycosis fungoides (MF) that began with cutaneous eritemato-papular lesions leading to death with neurological symptoms is reported. Cutaneous histophatology was typical to MF and the liquoric citology showed Sézary cells. Necropsy evidenced extra-cutaneous dissemination of the tumor involving lymphnodes, heart, digestive system, bladder, liver, bone marrow and leptomeninges. The uncommon clinical manifestations and evolution are discussed.

  9. The occurance of Pterygodermatites nycticebi (Nematoda: Rictulariidae) in a captive slow loris, Nycticebus coucang

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuggle, B.N.; Beehler, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Adult and immature rictulariid nematodes were recovered at necropsy from the small intestine of an adult slow loris, Nycticebus coucang, from the Milwaukee County Zoo in Wisconsin. The lumen of the entire small intestine was packed with more than 100 nematodes, the intestinal wall appeared thickened and the mucosal surface contained numerous petechial hemorrhagic foci. The cause of death was diagnosed as a septicemia and possible lupus erythematosis.

  10. Using the HmL1 strain of Histomonas meleagridis in evaluating chemotherapeutants in chicks.

    PubMed

    Chappel, L R

    1975-01-01

    Ten-day-old White Leghorn cockerels were inoculated per cloaca with 500,000 culture forms of the HmL1 strain of Histomonas meleagridis. Birds dying on the 6th and 7th days and birds necropsied 7 days postinoculation had prominent cecal and liver lesions indicative of severe histomoniasis. Dose responses were obtained with three 1,2-disubstituted 5-nitroimidazoles blended into the feed at various concentrations, demonstrating the utility of this virulent strain in chemotherapy studies.

  11. Renal subcapsular hematoma associated with brodifacoum toxicosis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Radi, Zaher A; Thompson, Larry J

    2004-04-01

    A 5-y-old female dog died acutely and was presented for postmortem examination. Hemorrhage in the thoracic and peritoneal cavities and a large subcapsular renal hematoma were present at necropsy. Brodifacoum, a second-generation coumarin anticoagulant, was detected in the liver by HPLC analysis. Renal subcapsular hematoma is a well known, but uncommon condition in man. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a brodifacoum-associated renal subcapsular hematoma in a non-human species.

  12. Pathogenesis of Cell Injury by Rickettsia conorii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-15

    case 2); and gangrenous fingers ( case 3). Positive control tissues for R. conorii immunofluorescence included eschar from guinea pig inoculated...PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC 27514 IS. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12...and the plaque model. Biopsies of 17 taches noires and 4 liver biopsies from patients with boutonneuse fever and necropsy tissues from two fatal cases

  13. Acute Inhalation of Explosively Disseminated Carbon Fibers in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    aerosol is respirable and if it adversely affects rodents. Groups of 344 male Fischer rats were exposed to one of the three concentrations of carbon...inhalation XM81 grenade Aerosol 113 Respirable diameter Carbon fibers IF PRICE CODE Explosive dissemination Fischer 344 rats 17. SECURITY CLASSVICATION 11...description of the grenade components is in Appendix A. 2.2 Animal Utilization/Husbandry/Necropsy. Male Fischer 344 rats were purchased from Charles River

  14. The Post-mortem Examination in Ruminants and its Possible Benefit to Ruminant Clinical Medicine.

    PubMed

    Wäsle, K; Pospischil, A; Hässig, M; Gerspach, C; Hilbe, M

    To highlight the important role of post-mortem examination of ruminants and to identify possible benefits for modern ruminant medicine, a comparison of clinical and pathological diagnoses was conducted and influencing factors were identified. For this purpose, results from 2,000 ruminants that had undergone necropsy examination at the University of Zurich, Switzerland, were analysed retrospectively. Both clinical and pathological diagnoses were available for 81.40% of cattle, 80.22% of sheep and 66.66% of goats; no diagnoses were available for 3.86% of cattle, 3.30% of sheep and 7.41% of goats. In the remaining cases, either the pathological diagnosis or the clinical diagnosis was unavailable. The greatest influences on the presence of diagnoses were the way in which the animal died, the type of necropsy examination and the age of the animal. The majority of diagnoses were attributed to digestive and respiratory disorders in cattle and digestive, neurological and urinary disorders in small ruminants. The main clinical diagnoses was confirmed pathologically in 86.20% of cattle, 85.51% of sheep and 82.00% of goats, while 7.03% of diagnoses in cattle, 12.26% in sheep and 11.00% in goats could not be confirmed by post-mortem or histopathological examinations. Relevant additional information or specification of diagnoses was given in 70.87% of cattle, 45.21% of sheep and 56.66% of goats. The concurrence of diagnoses and diagnosis specification was most influenced by the way in which the animal died, the type of necropsy examination that was conducted, the performance of histopathology following the necropsy examination and whether the animal was submitted in connection with a livestock health problem. This study highlighted the abiding importance of the post-mortem examination in modern ruminant medicine, despite technical advances in clinical technologies, both as a diagnostic tool and for quality control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Human Exposure following Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Multiple Animal Species in a Metropolitan Zoo

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Peter; Granich, Reuben; Scott, Jim; Sun, Ben; Joseph, Michael; Stringfield, Cynthia; Thisdell, Susan; Staley, Jothan; Workman-Malcolm, Donna; Borenstein, Lee; Lehnkering, Eleanor; Ryan, Patrick; Soukup, Jeanne; Nitta, Annette

    2002-01-01

    From 1997 to 2000, Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed in two Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), three Rocky Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus), and one black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in the Los Angeles Zoo. DNA fingerprint patterns suggested recent transmission. An investigation found no active cases of tuberculosis in humans; however, tuberculin skin-test conversions in humans were associated with training elephants and attending an elephant necropsy. PMID:12453358

  16. Prevention of Lactogenic Toxocara cati Infections in Kittens by Application of an Emodepside/Praziquantel Spot-on (Profender®) to the Pregnant Queen.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Claudia; Petry, Gabriele; Schaper, Roland; Wolken, Sonja; Strube, Christina

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an emodepside 2.1 % (w/v)/praziquantel 8.6 % (w/v) topical solution (Profender® spot-on for cats) in the prevention of lactogenic Toxocara cati infections. A controlled test was performed with two groups of 8 cats with confirmed pregnancy. All cats were infected with daily doses of 2000 T. cati eggs for 10 consecutive days starting 50 days post conception to produce an acute infection. Treatment was performed 60 days post conception. Queens in the treatment group received the emodepside/praziquantel solution at the minimum therapeutic dose (3 mg/kg emodepside and 12 mg/kg praziquantel), while the control group was treated with a placebo spot-on. Efficacy was evaluated 56 days post partum by necropsy of one randomly selected kitten of each litter and comparison of the worm burdens between the study groups. Additionally the necropsy results were supported by quantification of worms expelled with the faeces after deworming of the remaining kittens and all queens. The treatment in late pregnancy resulted in an efficacy of 98.7 % (p < 0.0001). All necropsied control kittens were infected (geometric mean 30.6). Seven of 8 kittens from treated mothers were free of T. cati (geometric mean 0.4). Worm counts after deworming reflected the results obtained at necropsy. No side effects of the treatment were observed. It is concluded that treatment with an emodepside/praziquantel spot-on solution during late pregnancy effectively prevents lactogenic transmission of T. cati to the offspring. The study design facilitated the generation of reliable data, while at the same time a minimum number of animals was sacrificed.

  17. Mycobacterium infection in a captive-reared capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus).

    PubMed

    Marco, I; Domingo, M; Lavin, S

    2000-01-01

    One captive male capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) was found dead on December 1993 at the breeding center of capercaillie in Catalonia, Spain. The bird was emaciated and, at necropsy, had numerous nodules of various sizes subcutaneously in the cervical region, pleura, lungs, liver, spleen, and mesentery. Microscopic examination revealed granulomatous lesions with central caseous necrosis, epithelioid cells, giant cells, and few lymphocytes in all affected organs. Numerous acid-fast bacilli were demonstrated in the tubercles with Ziehl-Nielsen stain.

  18. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus).

    PubMed

    Vercammen, Francis; Bosseler, Leslie; Tignon, Marylène; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir.

  19. Encephalomyocarditis virus in a captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus)

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, Francis; Bosseler, Leslie; Tignon, Marylène; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    A 5-month-old female captive Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) died suddenly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed numerous white circular and linear foci in the myocard. Differential diagnosis all turned out negative, except for encephalomyocarditis virus. Histopathology revealed mineralisation of myocardial cells and interstitial infiltration of lymphocytes, plasma cells and less neutrophils. Encephalomyocarditis virus was detected by PCR. Although encephalomyocarditis virus occurs in many mammals, this is the first published description of this virus in a Malayan tapir. PMID:28616390

  20. The prune belly anomaly: heterogeneity and superficial X-linkage mimicry.

    PubMed Central

    Riccardi, V M; Grum, C M

    1977-01-01

    The genetic, clinical, and necropsy findings of 2 brothers with the prune belly anomaly are presented and the literature reviewed. The combined data emphasise the clinical and genetic heterogeneity of the disorder and show that in at least some instances a heritable component may be the primary insult. The most likely heritable explanation involves a two-step autosomal dominant mutation with sex-limited expression that partially mimics X-linkage. PMID:144797

  1. A case of chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus).

    PubMed

    Schwabenlander, Marc D; Culhane, Marie R; Hall, S Mark; Goyal, Sagar M; Anderson, Paul L; Carstensen, Michelle; Wells, Scott J; Slade, William B; Armién, Aníbal G

    2013-09-01

    A 22-month-old, female red deer (Cervus elaphus) was submitted to the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy and chronic wasting disease (CWD) testing. The deer was found positive for the abnormal prion protein in the obex and the retropharyngeal lymph node by immunohistochemical staining. Microscopic lesions of spongiform encephalopathy and immunohistochemical staining patterns and intensity were similar to those in CWD-positive elk and experimentally infected red deer.

  2. Mesenteric thrombus associated with pulmonary, splenic, portal, and caval thrombi in a dog that was presented for an acute abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Rudinsky, Adam Joseph; Parker, Valerie Jill; Guillaumin, Julien

    2016-01-01

    A 6-year-old Labrador retriever dog was presented for acute abdominal pain. A tentative diagnosis of mesenteric thrombosis was established antemortem. The dog was treated with supportive care and anti-coagulation but was ultimately euthanized due to disease-related complications. Necropsy examination confirmed an acute mesenteric thrombus along with widespread thromboembolic disease. Potential causes were protein-losing nephropathy, hepatopathy, and/or corticosteroid administration. PMID:27708446

  3. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis and myositis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Allender, M C; McCain, S L; Ramsay, E C; Schumacher, J; Ilha, M R S

    2009-06-01

    A 39-yr-old wild-caught, female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) died during an immobilization to assess swelling and apparent pain of the cervical region. Necropsy revealed a fistulous tract containing plant material in the oropharynx, above the soft palate, communicating with a left-sided cervical necrotizing fasciitis and myositis. Alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus and Prevotella sp. were isolated from the cervical lesion. This is a report of cervical necrotizing fasciitis in a western lowland gorilla.

  4. Reye's or Reye's-like syndrome in western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Minter, Larry J; Cullen, John M; Loomis, Michael R

    2012-10-01

    A 15-year-old western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) died shortly after transfer to the North Carolina Zoo. Complete blood count, serum biochemical analysis, and necropsy were performed. Combination of compatible clinical signs, biochemical and histopathological findings fulfilled all of the CDC definition criteria of Reye's or a Reye's like syndrome. This report describes a case of Reye's syndrome or Reye's-like syndrome in a non-human primate. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Wilson's disease: a diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed Central

    Nazer, H; Larcher, V F; Ede, R J; Mowat, A P; Williams, R

    1983-01-01

    A 13 year old boy presented with headache, sore throat, myalgia, and fever and subsequently developed haemolytic anaemia and acute liver failure. Wilson's disease, a rare cause of acute liver failure, was diagnosed at necropsy. In such cases Wilson's disease must be diagnosed at an early stage for treatment to be effective. The most reliable indications are increased urinary and hepatic copper concentrations. PMID:6409288

  6. Salmonella Persistence within the Peripheral Lymph Nodes of Cattle following Experimental Inoculation.

    PubMed

    Edrington, T S; Loneragan, G H; Genovese, K J; Hanson, D L; Nisbet, D J

    2016-06-01

    Utilizing a transdermal method of inoculation developed in our laboratory, the duration of infection of Salmonella in the peripheral lymph nodes of steers was examined. Thirty-six Holstein steers (mean body weight of 137 kg) were inoculated with Salmonella Montevideo (day 0) on each lower leg and both sides of the back and abdomen. Calves were euthanized beginning at 6 h and subsequently on each of days 1, 2, 4, 7, 9, 11, 14, and 21 postinoculation (four animals each time). The subiliac, popliteal, and superficial cervical (prescapular) lymph nodes were collected and cultured (quantitatively and qualitatively) for the challenge strain of Salmonella. The challenge strain was detected via direct culture within the lymph nodes at 6 h postinoculation and on each subsequent necropsy date. Salmonella levels in lymph node were 0.8 to 1.8 log CFU/g. Lymph nodes were generally positive after enrichment culture throughout the experiment. Salmonella elimination appeared to begin approximately 14 days postinoculation. However, elimination was not completed by day 21; therefore, a second experiment was conducted identical to the first except that the time from inoculation to necropsy was extended. Salmonella was recovered via direct culture on each of the necropsy days, and results in general were similar to those of experiment I, except that on days 20, 24, and 28 isolates from serogroups C2 and E1 were identified in addition to the inoculation strain C1 in multiple animals. The data from both experiments indicate that after a single inoculation event, Salmonella would be completely cleared by approximately 28 days. Further research with expanded times between inoculation and necropsy is required for verification.

  7. Abortion caused by Brucella abortus biovar 1 in a free-ranging bison (Bison bison) from Yellowstone National Park.

    PubMed

    Rhyan, J C; Quinn, W J; Stackhouse, L S; Henderson, J J; Ewalt, D R; Payeur, J B; Johnson, M; Meagher, M

    1994-07-01

    A near-term aborted bison (Bison bison) fetus was collected near Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming (USA). On necropsy, the fetus liver had a small capsular tear, and there was a small quantity of blood in the peritoneal cavity. Microscopic lesions included mild, purulent bronchopneumonia and mild, multifocal, interstitial pneumonia. Brucella abortus biovar 1 was isolated from fetal abomasal contents, lung, and heart blood.

  8. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris).

    PubMed

    Keller, Dominique L; Steinberg, Howard; Sladky, Kurt K

    2011-12-01

    Disseminated infection with Histoplasma capsulatum was diagnosed in a 7-yr-old female Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris). Clinical signs were nonspecific with the exception of brief periods of tachypnea for 5 days prior to death. H. capsulatum organisms were found in the lungs, tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and liver. Diagnosis was confirmed by tracheal wash, urine H. capsulatum enzyme immunoassay, and necropsy results. This report represents the first published account of disseminated histoplasmosis in a tiger.

  9. Patent ductus arteriosus in an adult amur leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis).

    PubMed

    Douay, Guillaume; Drut, Amandine; Ribas, Thibault; Gomis, David; Graille, Mélanie; Lemberger, Karin; Bublot, Isabelle

    2013-03-01

    A clinically healthy 16-yr-old female leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis) was diagnosed with a patent ductus arteriosus on echocardiography and later confirmed on necropsy A murmur was heard on auscultation during a routine examination, and the congenital defect was an incidental finding. The animal had been asymptomatic its entire life. This deformity is rarely observed in nondomestic felids and may be asymptomatic, as has been described in domestic cats.

  10. Frequency and potential consequences of origin of the left vertebral artery (or the arteria thryoidea ima) directly from the aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junlin; Guileyardo, Joseph M; Roberts, William C

    2016-10-01

    Described herein are findings in a 58-year-old man in whom necropsy disclosed origin of the left vertebral artery (or the arteria thryoidea ima) directly from the aortic arch. No functional consequences resulted. Study of previous publications disclosed the frequency of this anomaly in adults to be approximately 3.5%. Dissection has been reported to be more frequent in the left vertebral artery when it arises directly from the aorta than when it arises from the left subclavian artery.

  11. Annual Report on Long-Term Dose-Response Studies of Inhaled or Injected Radionuclides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    hyperbilirubinemia, hypocalcemia, and elevated liver enzym’es. At necropsy, the dog had myeloproliferative disease with involvement of the liver, spleen...slowly progressive heart murmur was attributed to moderate endocardiosis of the left atrioventncular valve. Incidental neoplasms included a thyroid...months before death, was persistent. The terminal illness began with the notation of a lung tumor about 8 months before death. The pulmonary neoplasm

  12. A novel gel provides durable submucosal cushion for endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekhara, Vinay; Sigmon, John C; Surti, Vihar C; Kochman, Michael L

    2013-08-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have transformed the ability to endoscopically remove superficial lesions throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this study was to determine the properties and safety of a novel gel designed for the purpose of submucosal injection for EMR and ESD. Upper endoscopy was performed in six Yorkshire pigs with 5-8 submucosal injections of varying amounts of Cook Medical (Bloomington, IN) gel were delivered in the stomach of each animal. A submucosal bleb of 1-2 ml normal saline was created followed by subsequent injection of 1-5 ml of the gel. Four animals were immediately euthanized and necropsy was performed after gel delivery and in two pigs; repeat endoscopy was performed after 4 weeks followed by necropsy. Thirty-nine submucosal injections were performed in six pigs. Every injection resulted in adequate mucosal lifting with a shoulder and defined margin and no cases of gel extravasation. Twenty-seven injections were performed in four pigs followed by immediate necropsy. The submucosal cushion was still present at the time of organ extraction without evidence of perforation, bleeding or tissue damage. Unroofing of the mucosal layer demonstrated a clean submucosal tissue dissection without bleeding or tissue damage. Twelve submucosal injections were performed in two pigs, and repeat endoscopy at 4 weeks demonstrated persistent submucosal cushion without evidence of mucosal ischemia or ulceration. Necropsy demonstrated no evidence of perforation, bleeding, or gel extravasation. Unroofing the mucosa confirmed a clean submucosal dissection. The injectate did not result in mesenteric fibroinflammatory reaction, tissue damage, or adhesion formation after 4 weeks. The gel appears to be a safe injectate that provides a submucosal cushion with a duration that is longer than other available injectates for EMR and ESD. The clean submucosal dissection may decrease the length of these

  13. Diagnosis of enteric disease in small ruminants.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, D C; Tyler, J W; Stehman, S M

    2000-03-01

    Diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease in small ruminants requires integration of information obtained in the signalment, history, physical or necropsy examination, and ancillary diagnostic tests. The purpose of this article is to provide the practitioner with a review of the clinical features of several common gastrointestinal diseases of sheep and goats. Rumen acidosis, enterotoxemia, gastrointestinal parasitism, neonatal diarrhea, and salmonellosis are discussed, and where appropriate, reviews of the pathophysiology, prevention, and control of these diseases are cited for further reading.

  14. Kyphosis in Jersey calves.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, M; Hopper, S A; Bradley, R

    1985-12-07

    A condition of Jersey calves involving kyphosis and lordosis is described. Four calves originating from three farms, all the progeny of one bull, were necropsied. The only significant finding was a myopathy mainly affecting sublumbar muscles. The lesions were not consistent with white muscle disease or of any known myopathy affecting Jersey calves. It is likely that this condition represents a primary muscular dystrophy of genetic origin.

  15. Necrotizing hepatitis in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C

    2014-11-01

    An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection.

  16. Nonhunting mortality in sandhill cranes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    Records of 170 sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) necropsied at the National Wildlife Health Research Center, Wisconsin, from 1976 through 1985 were reviewed as representative samples to determine causes of nonhunting mortality in the mid-continent and Rocky Mountain populations of sandhill cranes. Avian cholera, avian botulism, and ingestion of mycotoxins were leading causes of nonhunting mortality. Hailstorms, lightning, lead poisoning, predation, avian tuberculosis, and collisions with power lines also killed cranes.

  17. Primary hepatic carcinoid tumor: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Éden Sartor; Viveiros, Marcelo de Melo; Corrêa, Isaac José Felippe; Robles, Laercio; Rezende, Marcelo Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Primary hepatic carcinoid tumors are extremely rare neoplasms derived from hormone-producing neuroendocrine cells. It is difficult to make their diagnosis before biopsy, surgical resection or necropsy. A recent publication described only 94 cases of these tumors. There is no sex predilection and apparently it has no association with cirrhosis or preexisting hepatic disease. The most effective treatment is hepatectomy, and resection is determined by size and location of the lesions. PMID:25628206

  18. Trypanoxyuris (Paraoxyuronema) lagothricis (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) in Lagothrix cana (Primates: Atelidae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Hudson Alves; Ferreira Junior, Francisco Carlos; Mati, Vitor Luís Tenório; Melo, Alan Lane de

    2013-01-01

    During necropsy of a specimen of Lagothrix cana (É. Geoffroy, 1812) (Primates: Atelidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, pinworms were found in the large intestine. The intensity of infection was 64 parasites (17 males and 47 females) and there were no gross pathological changes related to parasitism. After morphological analysis the parasites were identified as Trypanoxyuris (Paraoxyuronema) lagothricis (Buckley, 1931) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae). This is the first record of this oxyurid species in primates in Brazil.

  19. Septicemic pasteurellosis in elk (Cervus elaphus) on the United States National Elk Refuge, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Smith, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Septicemic pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella multocida is believed responsible for the deaths of 48 elk (Cervus elaphus) on the National Elk Refuge near Jackson, Wyoming (USA) during 1986 and 1987. Clinical signs included depression and salivation; necropsy findings included congestion and petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages in lymph nodes, diaphragm, lungs and endocardium. Pasteurella multocida was isolated from femur marrow of eight carcasses and a variety of tissues from eight others.

  20. Detecting West Nile Virus in Owls and Raptors by an Antigen-capture Assay

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Douglas G.; Barker, Ian K.; Lindsay, Robbin; Hunter, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated a rapid antigen-capture assay (VecTest) for detection of West Nile virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, collected at necropsy from owls (N = 93) and raptors (N = 27). Sensitivity was 93.5%–95.2% for northern owl species but <42.9% for all other species. Specificity was 100% for owls and 85.7% for raptors. PMID:15663862

  1. Pyelonephritis associated with Staphylococcus intermedius in a Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Jee, Hyang; Pakhrin, Bidur; Bae, Il-Hong; Shin, Nam-Shik; Lee, Su-In; Yoo, Han-Sang; Kim, Dae-Yong

    2007-08-01

    Pyelonephritis, in which Staphylococcus intermedius was isolated, was diagnosed in a 4-year-old female Siberian tiger (Panthera tigris altaica). At necropsy, the renal pelvis was dilated with a large amount of purulent exudates. Microscopically, the lesions of renal pelvis and medulla consisted of necrotic foci intermingled primarily with numerous degenerative neutrophils and a few lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Bacteriology showed the presence of S. intermedius. This is the first report on pyelonephritis associated with S. intermedius in wild felidae.

  2. The Inflammatory Sequelae of Aortic Balloon Occlusion in Hemorrhagic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-13

    critical care phase and necropsy performed. 2.2. Animal preparation General anesthesia was induced using intravenous ketamine and maintained following...midline neck incision. This facilitated invasive blood pressure monitoring, intravenous fluid resuscitation, and the placement of a Swan Ganz catheter. A...in the 60 REBOA group by an ultrasound guided percutaneous technique. A cerebral oximetry probe (LICOX; Integra LifeSciences, Plainsboro, NJ) and

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations of Inhaled Nano-and Micro-Particle Deposition in the Rhesus Monkey Nasal Passages

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    T. (1992). Deposition of radon progeny in nonhuman primate nasal airways. In Indoor Radon and Lung Cancer : Reality or Myth, Part I. F. T. Cross, ed...monkey nasal passages that can be implemented into lung dosimetry models. ix 1. INTRODUCTION Assessment of human health risks from exposure to...7.5 µm particles displayed lung congestion upon necropsy, whereas effects in animals exposed to 12.5 or 24 µm particles were confined to the upper

  4. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-11-01

    injection. Necropsy revealed severe lower GI bleeding and intussusception (telescoping of one portion of the intestine into another) at the ileo-cecal...Pyramidal; St Rad, Stratum Radiatum. Table 3. Summary of Animals that Developed Intussusception After Repeated Exposures to Low-Dose Chemical...neurons (Figure 2C). It is important to point out that brain sections from animals that died from intussusception also did not show any alternations of

  5. Acute Oral Toxicity of Physostigmine Salicylate in Guinea Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    of animals that died during the study presented with a serous oral discharge, perianal staining, and intussusception , observations consistent with the...receiving the lower doses. The two cases of ileocolic intussusceptions observed in animals 87E00239 and 87E00257 at necropsy is probably related to the...perioral staining and intussusception ) or common incidental findings (hepatic necrosis) of little clinical significance in guinea pigs. No evidence of direct

  6. Multiple congenital malformation in a Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Noh, D H; Jeong, W I; Lee, C S; Jung, C Y; Chung, J Y; Jee, Y H; Do, S H; An, M Y; Kwon, O D; Williams, B H; Jeong, K S

    2003-11-01

    A 10-day-old male Holstein dairy calf with orthopaedic abnormalities was unable to stand but was alert with a suckle reflex. At necropsy, the calf showed multiple defects, including partial agenesis of the left rib plate, deformed left scapula, shortened left humerus, agenesis of the left kidney, atresia ani and scoliosis. The cause of these anomalies could not be determined. This report is the first to describe partial agenesis of ribs in a calf.

  7. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L.; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H.; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1. PMID:22942441

  8. Mortality causes of owl monkeys (Aotus nancymae and Aotus vociferans) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Gozalo, A; Montoya, E

    1990-01-01

    To determine the main causes of death in "owl monkeys" (Aotus nancymae and A. vociferans) in captivity, 115 necropsies were performed. According to the macroscopic findings and clinical data, results are as follow: acute lobular pneumonia (25.2%), chronic nephropathy (10.4%), acute catarrhal enteritis (8.7%), acute hemorrhagic enteritis (7%), acute toxic hepatitis (5.2%), trauma (5.2%), and others.

  9. Establishment of a Salmonella-Free Guinea Pig Colony

    PubMed Central

    Pivnick, Hilliard; Stuart, Philip F.; Walcroft, M.

    1966-01-01

    Salmonellosis due to Salmonella typhimurium was enzootic in a guinea pig breeding colony for over 25 years. A Salmonella-free auxiliary colony was established by removing weanlings from the infected colony to a clean area, and preventing infection. Examination of agglutinin titers and necropsy specimens indicated that the auxiliary colony was still free from Salmonella 18 months after its establishment while 24% of the guinea pigs dying in the infected colony yielded Salmonella typhimurium. PMID:17649571

  10. Salt toxicosis in waterfowl in North Dakota (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Windingstad, R.M.; Kartch, F.X.; Stroud, R.K.; Smith, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    About 150 waterfowl died and another 250 became weak and lethargic from suspected salt poisoning after using White Lake, a highly saline lake in Mountrail County, North Dakota. Frigid temperatures made fresh water unavailable, forcing the birds to ingest the saline waters with resultant toxic effects. Sick birds recovered when removed from the salt water and released into fresh water marshes. Brain sodium levels were higher in dead geese submitted for necropsy than in controls.

  11. Verminous myelitis in a pit bull puppy.

    PubMed

    Snook, Eric R; Baker, David G; Bauer, Rudy W

    2009-05-01

    A 10-week-old, male pit bull dog presented to the referring veterinarian with hind limb paresis and epaxial muscle atrophy. No spinal lesions were identified at gross necropsy; however, histologically there was marked granulomatous myelitis in the spinal cord between T13 and L2 with occasional, intralesional nematode larvae. Based on morphologic characteristics, the nematode larvae were identified as Strongyloides spp., possibly Strongyloides stercoralis.

  12. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths, lungworms and liver fluke in sheep and goats in Norway.

    PubMed

    Domke, Atle V Meling; Chartier, Christophe; Gjerde, Bjørn; Leine, Nils; Vatn, Synnøve; Stuen, Snorre

    2013-05-01

    The present study describes the occurrence of various gastrointestinal helminths, lungworms and liver flukes in Norwegian sheep and goats as assessed from faecal samples and post mortem examinations performed between 2007 and 2010. Faecal samples for gastrointestinal nematode egg counts were collected from 77 sheep flocks and 30 dairy goat flocks from three geographical regions in Norway. Additionally, thirty-two lambs and 16 adult goats were euthanized for necropsy examination and for identification of adult gastrointestinal nematodes and tapeworms, lungworms and liver flukes. The survey showed that there was a higher mean excretion of trichostrongyle eggs in sheep than in goats at the individual level (392 EPG vs. 154 EPG, p<0.001). For both host species, the mean prevalence and intensity of excreted trichostrongyle eggs were significantly higher in the southern coastal region compared with the inland and northern regions (p<0.001). Third stage larvae of Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia, Haemonchus and Nematodirus type were the most prevalent ones in the coprocultures from sheep, whereas larvae of Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia and Nematodirus type dominated in goats. The most prevalent gastrointestinal nematode species found at necropsy was Teladorsagia circumcincta (75.0 and 81.2% respectively in sheep and goats), while the largest mean worm burdens were recorded for Haemonchus contortus in sheep (724±623) and T. circumcincta in goats (377±529). Other gastrointestinal nematode species were present at low prevalence or in low numbers. Fasciola hepatica was only found in necropsied sheep from the coastal region with a prevalence of 18.8%. The lungworm Mullerius capillaris was found from all regions in necropsied goats (31.2%) and from coastal area in sheep (3.1%). The present study indicates that H. contortus and Nematodirus battus have a wider geographical distribution to the north than expected, and describes to our knowledge the northernmost occurrence of H

  13. Clinical and pathologic findings of blue-green algae (Microcystis aeruginosa) intoxication in a dog.

    PubMed

    DeVries, S E; Galey, F D; Namikoshi, M; Woo, J C

    1993-07-01

    A healthy dog developed signs of lethargy and vomiting after ingesting water from a tide pool containing blue-green algae. Fulminant hepatic failure occurred, and the dog was euthanized 52 hours later. At necropsy, the liver was large, friable, and discolored a dark red. Histopathology showed hepatocyte dissociation, degeneration, and necrosis. The alga was identified as Microcystis aeruginosa, a known hepatotoxin. The intraperitoneal administration of lyophilized cell material from the bloom caused hepatic necrosis in mice.

  14. Cowpox virus infection associated with a streptococcal septicaemia in a foal.

    PubMed

    Ellenberger, C; Schüppel, K-F; Möhring, M; Reischauer, A; Alex, M; Czerny, C-P; Fercho, A; Schoon, H-A

    2005-01-01

    Cowpox virus infection associated with a streptococcal septicaemia was diagnosed in a weak German Warmblood filly, born 29 days prematurely, and humanely destroyed on the sixth day of life. At necropsy, ulcerative lesions in the alimentary tract, colitis, polyarthritis and nephritis were observed. Transmission electron microscopical examination of specimens from ulcerative lesions revealed typical orthopox virions. Cowpox virus was unequivocally identified by virological and molecular-biological methods.

  15. Causes of death in marine mammals stranded along the Oregon coast.

    PubMed

    Stroud, R K; Roffe, T J

    1979-01-01

    Sixty-eight marine mammals stranded on the Oregon beaches were examined at necropsy. Gunshot was the primary cause of death in 30% of the pinnipeds examined. Bacterial infections (27%) and parasitism (27%) were also of major importance in the death and debilitation of Oregon marine mammals. Traumatic death or debilitation other than gunshot was observed in 11 animals (16%). Predation, starvation due to neonatal abandonment, viral encephalitis (presumptive diagnosis), dystocia and neoplasia were diagnosed as primary or contributory causes of stranding.

  16. An interesting neurologic case in a lovebird (Agapornis fisheri).

    PubMed

    Melillo, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    The pathogenic agent of proventricular dilatation disease causes a lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the central peripheral nervous systems. Usually, the splanchnic nerves are affected, with resultant gastrointestinal dysfunction and clinical signs related to this. When the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves are affected, neurologic signs may be present in various degrees. This case emphasizes the importance of necropsy and histopathologic examination in making a diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Fibrosarcoma of the brood pouch in an aquarium-reared lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus).

    PubMed

    Willens, Scott; Dunn, J Lawrence; Frasca, Salvatore

    2004-03-01

    An adult, male, captive lined seahorse (Hippocampus erectus) was presented with weight loss, anorexia, and brood pouch distention. Initial treatments included manual expression of the brood pouch followed by saline flushes and enrofloxacin infusions. Radiographs and physical examination identified a nodular swelling in the brood pouch wall. The mass was excised, but the seahorse died. Necropsy and histopathology revealed a malignant mesenchymal tumor with a collagenous stroma, and a brood pouch fibrosarcoma was diagnosed.

  18. Congenital jaundice in bovine aborted foetuses: an emerging syndrome in southern Belgium.

    PubMed

    Delooz, L; Mori, M; Petitjean, T; Evrard, J; Czaplicki, G; Saegerman, C

    2015-04-01

    Southern Belgium faces an unusual recent increase of icteric bovine aborted foetuses. In the necropsy room, the majority of foetuses presented jaundice and splenomegaly. Despite a wide range of analyses, no definitive cause of abortion has yet been established but some analysis results support the leptospirosis hypothesis. This first description of cases will help veterinary practitioners to recognize more cases and to conduct those to the laboratory for future investigations. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Xanthine nephrolithiasis in a galician blond beef calf.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marta; Rigueira, Lucas; Suárez, María L; Carbajales, Paloma; Moure, Pablo; Fidalgo, Luis E; Failde, Daniel; Vázquez, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    A six-month-old female Galician Blond beef calf presented signs of apathy, anorexia and weight loss. The analysis of a blood sample confirmed renal failure. Bilateral nephrolithiasis was diagnosed at necropsy. Quantitative analysis revealed the nephroliths to be composed of 100 per cent xanthine. In cattle, xanthinuria has only been described in the Japanese Black breed, but never before in other breeds. Clinical history suggested a naturally occurring xanthinuria.

  20. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1.

  1. Johne's Disease (Paratuberculosis) in a Goat

    PubMed Central

    Moser, Cara L.

    1982-01-01

    Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) was diagnosed as the cause of chronic weight loss and intermittent diarrhea in a five year old Saanen doe. Confirmatory necropsy findings included granulomatous enteritis, lymphadenitis, lymphangitis and the demonstration of abundant acid fast organisms within macrophages in impression smears of intestinal mucosa. Some of the difficulties encountered in diagnosing and controlling Johne's disease are discussed with emphasis given to the disease in small ruminants. PMID:17422113

  2. Cerebral infarction and myocardial fibrosis in a white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar).

    PubMed

    Borkowski, R; Taylor, T G; Rush, J

    2000-03-01

    A white-handed gibbon (Hylobates lar) lost the use of its right hand. Complete blood count, serum chemistry profile, electrocardiographic findings, blood pressure, and radiographic work-up were normal, but the gibbon died 2 days later. The gibbon was serologically positive for herpes simplex I and Epstein-Barr virus. Necropsy and histopathology showed acute infarction of the right cerebrum and multifocal to coalescing severe myocardial fibrosis.

  3. Klebsiella pneumoniae as a cause of pneumonia and septicemia in a civet kitten (Civettictis civetta) in the Jos Zoo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Enurah, L U; Adeniyi, K O; Ocholi, R A; Spencer, T H; Badung, J D

    1988-07-01

    A fatal case of acute pneumonia and septicemia that occurred in a captive civet kitten (Civettictis civetta) in the Jos Zoo, Nigeria is reported. Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, necropsy findings, and the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from the lung, intestine, liver and heart blood of the animal. This is the first report of clinical K. pneumoniae infection in a wild or captive animal in Nigeria.

  4. Acute Oral and Intraperitoneal Toxicity Study of WR242511 and WR269410 in Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-14

    survivors were also necropsied. The acute oral LD50 of WR242511 tartrate in male rats, administered in 1% Methylcellulose/O.4% Tween 80 by gavage, was...administered orally. The acute oral LDS0 of WR269410 in male rats, administered in 1% Methylcellulose/O.4% Tween 80 by gavage, was approximately four-fold...formulations in 0.1% Methylcellulose/O.4% Tween 80 at high enough concentrations to produce lethality, WR269410 was administered intraperitoneally as a

  5. Studies on Metabolism of 1,4-Dioxane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    gavage. V.4.6 Euthanasia : Rats will be injected with a lethal dose of a pentobarbital-based euthanasia solution via the existing vascular catheter... euthanasia of the laboratory animals. V.5.2.2 Emergency Veterinary Medical Care: During the course of this study it is not expected that the...entailing extensive trapping and handling, assessment, blood and tissue collection, humane euthanasia , and necropsy. As a veterinarian, he practiced

  6. [Infection with Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides LC (large colony type) in bezoar goat kids (Capra aegagrus cretica) in the Bern (Switzerland) Zoo].

    PubMed

    Perrin, J; Müller, M; Zangger, N; Nicolet, J

    1994-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides ssp. mycoides LC (large colony type) (MML) was isolated from three 2 to 6 weeks old wild goat kids (Capra aegagrus cretica) dead of septicemia in a Swiss zoo. Necropsy revealed peritonitis, pneumonia and enteritis. MML was isolated out of the ear canal of most of the healthy animals in the flock. The high density of the animals, the presence of concomitant diseases and the carriage among healthy animals seem to have been important predisposing factors for the MML-infection.

  7. Anesthesia or Immobilization of Domestic and Miniature Swine - Methods and Some Problems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-12-01

    critical observation and moderate long-term survival before euthanasia and necropsy. Premedication and a gaseous anesthesia administered through a...Figure 1) were located outside and consistPd of 24 runs (12 runs per side) with sloped concrete floors and four-inch concrete dividers topped with...Jelly®) or sprayed with a slippery topical anesthetic (Cetacaine®). A plastic rod-type stiffener was inserted into the tube, and two persons were

  8. Gross and microscopic lesions of polioencephalomalacia in a llama (Lama glama).

    PubMed

    Kiupel, Matti; VanAlstine, William; Chilcoat, Clayton

    2003-09-01

    A 14-wk-old female llama (Lama glama) developed progressive neurologic disease characterized by stiff gait, circling, decreased mentation, and seizures. At necropsy, lesions were limited to the brain and consisted of bilateral necrosis of the cortical gray matter of the occipital lobes of the cerebral cortex. The primary microscopic alteration was bilateral laminar cerebrocortical necrosis, affecting mainly the deep laminae. Clinical disease, and gross and microscopic lesions were consistent with those of polioencephalomalacia.

  9. Dual infection with Pythium insidiosum and Blastomyces dermatitidis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Sara L; Frank, Chad; Thompson, Craig A; Van Alstine, William G; Gelb, Hylton; Heng, Hock Gan; Klosterman, Emily; Kiupel, Matti; Grooters, Amy M

    2012-09-01

    A 4-year-old male neutered Labrador Retriever with severe gastrointestinal signs, but no respiratory signs, was diagnosed with multifocal pyogranulomatous gastritis, enteritis, and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae and multifocal pyogranulomatous pneumonia with intralesional yeast. Based on cytologic evaluation, histologic examination with special stains, and immunohistochemical analysis of tissues collected antemortem or at necropsy, dual infections with Pythium insidiosum and Blastomyces dermatitidis were detected and are reported for the first time.

  10. Whole-Genome Sequence of Streptococcus tigurinus Strain osk_001, Isolated from Postmortem Material

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizawa, Hidenori; Motooka, Daisuke; Katada, Ryuichi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Shota; Morii, Eiichi; Iida, Tetsuya

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Streptococcus tigurinus was recently described as a novel species, and some strains are highly virulent. We detected S. tigurinus in infected tissue sampled by necropsy. In order to characterize and confirm the virulence of this species, whole-genome sequencing of the pure cultured bacterium was performed. We found that the strain has specific and unique genetic elements contained in highly virulent strains of S. tigurinus. PMID:28860244

  11. Whole-Genome Sequence of Streptococcus tigurinus Strain osk_001, Isolated from Postmortem Material.

    PubMed

    Yoshizawa, Hidenori; Motooka, Daisuke; Katada, Ryuichi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Nakamura, Shota; Morii, Eiichi; Iida, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2017-08-31

    Streptococcus tigurinus was recently described as a novel species, and some strains are highly virulent. We detected S. tigurinus in infected tissue sampled by necropsy. In order to characterize and confirm the virulence of this species, whole-genome sequencing of the pure cultured bacterium was performed. We found that the strain has specific and unique genetic elements contained in highly virulent strains of S. tigurinus. Copyright © 2017 Yoshizawa et al.

  12. Ileocecocolic strictures in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus).

    PubMed

    Travis, Erika K; Duncan, Mary; Weber, Martha; Adkesson, Michael J; Junge, Randall E

    2007-12-01

    Intestinal strictures were diagnosed in two captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus). The cheetahs presented with lethargy, anorexia, diarrhea, and weight loss. The first cheetah had a stricture of the ileocecocolic junction diagnosed at necropsy. The second had an ileocecocolic stricture causing obstruction that was diagnosed at surgery. After resection and anastomosis, the cheetah recovered well. The etiology of the strictures remains undetermined. Intestinal stricture, particularly of the ileocecocolic junction, should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cheetahs with nonspecific gastrointestinal signs.

  13. A retrospective study of pathologic findings in the Amazon and Orinoco river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Christopher J; Boede, Ernesto O; Hartmann, Manuel García; Lowenstein-Whaley, Joanne; Mujica-Jorquera, Esmeralda; Parish, Scott V; Parish, James V; Garner, Michael M; Stadler, Cynthia K

    2007-06-01

    River dolphins are especially susceptible to negative human impacts. For their conservation, attempts of relocation or procreation ex situ may become important in the future to avoid their extinction. Additional knowledge and medical experiences of river dolphin management in captivity may aid such conservation efforts. The medical records and necropsy and histopathology reports on 123 captive Amazon River dolphins (Inia geoffrensis) were re-viewed. Of these 123 animals, 105 were necropsied and 70 necropsies were supported with histopathology. Eighteen animals were not necropsied. Among wild-born animals, mortality was highest in the first 2 mo immediately postcapture and transport, accounting for 32 of 123 deaths. Pneumonia and skin lesions (cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcerations and abscesses) were the most common findings, found in 44 of 105 (42%) and 38 of 105 (36%) of gross diagnoses, respectively. At least 10 of 44 cases of pneumonia diagnosed grossly included a verminous component. Cachexia, from a variety of causes, was a major gross finding in 21 animals. Fifteen animals had histologic evidence of significant renal pathology, and this was the primary cause of death in 13 cases. Hepatic pathology was found in 18 cases, and bacterial sepsis was confirmed via histology in 16 cases. Based on these findings, it may be concluded that keys to successful maintenance of this species include 1) prophylactic anthelminthic and antibiotic therapy immediately post-capture; 2) maintenance of animals in larger enclosures than in past attempts, in compatible groups, and in facilities capable of separating aggressive animals; 3) maintenance in microbiologically hygienic water quality at all times; and 4) a proactive program of preventive medicine during the immediate postcapture, quarantine, and maintenance period of captivity.

  14. First report of parasitism by Hexametra boddaertii (Nematoda: Ascaridae) in Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes: Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Peichoto, María E; Sánchez, Matías N; López, Ariel; Salas, Martín; Rivero, María R; Teibler, Pamela; Toledo, Gislayne de Melo; Tavares, Flávio L

    2016-07-15

    The current study summarizes the postmortem examination of a specimen of Oxyrhopus guibei (Serpentes, Colubridae) collected in Iguazu National Park (Argentina), and found deceased a week following arrival to the serpentarium of the National Institute of Tropical Medicine (Argentina). Although the snake appeared to be in good health, a necropsy performed following its death identified the presence of a large number of roundworms in the coelomic cavity, with indications of peritonitis and serosal adherence. Additional observations from the necropsy revealed small calcifications in the mesothelium of the coelomic cavity; solid and expressive content in the gallbladder; massive gastrointestinal obstruction due to nematodes; and lung edema and congestion. Histopathological analyses of lung sections also showed proliferative heterophilic and histiocytic pneumonia. Parasites isolated from both the intestine and coelomic cavity were identified as Hexametra boddaertii by a combination of light and scanning electron microscopic examination. Results from this necropsy identify O. guibei as a new host for H. boddaertii, and is the first report of a natural infection by Hexametra in Argentina. Since Hexametra parasites may contribute to several pathological conditions in humans, and with the recent availability of O. guibei specimens through the illegal pet trade, it is necessary to consider the possibility of zoonotic helminth transmission of Hexametra from snake to human.

  15. Experimental evaluation of urinary bladder marsupialization in male goats.

    PubMed

    May, Kimberly A; Moll, H David; Duncan, Robert B; Moon, Martha M; Pleasant, R Scott; Howard, Rick D

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of urinary bladder marsupialization in male goats. Prospective, experimental study. Six healthy mixed-breed male goats. After experimentally induced urethral obstruction, 6 male goats had urinary bladder marsupialization. Renal ultrasonography, complete blood count, and serum biochemical analysis were evaluated preoperatively (day 0), at 7 postoperative days, and then at 30-day intervals until 180 days. Stomal diameter was recorded immediately postoperatively and at each postoperative interval. Necropsy examination was performed on day 180 or when stomal stricture or death occurred. Stomal stricture occurred in 1 goat at 120 days. Another goat was found dead at 150 days; severe, suppurative cystitis was identified on necropsy. All goats had mild urine scald dermatitis. Serum biochemical values remained within normal limits, but significant decreases in white blood cell count, serum creatinine concentration, and stomal diameter occurred. At necropsy, all bladders were tubular in shape. Histological evidence of chronic suppurative cystitis and chronic, mild lymphoplasmacytic pyelitis occurred in all goats. Bacterial culture of renal tissue yielded growth in 3 goats, and bladder mucosal swabs yielded bacterial growth in all goats. Although clinical signs of ascending urinary tract infection were not observed in goats with patent stomata, urinary bladder marsupialization may result in ascending urinary tract inflammation or infection. Based on our results, urinary bladder marsupialization should be recommended with caution as the primary method for management of urinary tract obstruction in clinical cases. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  16. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Armando E; Bustos, Javier A; Garcia, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H; Dorny, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1-3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis.

  17. Lesions caused by cardiovascular flukes (Digenea: Spirorchidae) in stranded green turtles (Chelonia mydas).

    PubMed

    Gordon, A N; Kelly, W R; Cribb, T H

    1998-01-01

    Evidence of infection with spirorchid flukes (Digenea: Spirorchidae) was sought at necropsy of 96 stranded green turtles, Chelonia mydas, that were examined during the course of a survey of marine turtle mortality in southeastern Queensland, Australia. Three species of spirorchid (Hapalotrema mehrai, H. postorchis, and Neospirorchis schistosomatoides) were identified. Severe disease due to spirorchid fluke infection (spirorchidiasis) was implicated as the principal cause of mortality in 10 turtles (10%), and appeared to be one of multiple severe problems in an additional 29 turtles (30%). Although flukes were observed in only 45% of stranded C. mydas in this study, presumed spirorchid fluke infection was diagnosed in an additional 53% of turtles, based principally on characteristic necropsy lesions and to a lesser extent on the histopathological detection of spirorchid eggs. Characteristic necropsy lesions included miliary spirorchid egg granulomas, which were observed most readily on serosal surfaces, particularly of the small intestine. Cardiovascular lesions included mural endocarditis, arteritis, and thrombosis, frequently accompanied by aneurysm formation. Resolution of thrombi was observed to occur via a combination of granuloma formation about indigestible components (spirorchid fluke egg shells) and exteriorization through the vessel wall, which resulted in granulomatous nodules on the adventitial surface. Septic aortic thrombosis complicated by disseminated bacterial infection, observed in five turtles, was recorded for the first time. Egg granulomas were ubiquitous in turtle tissues throughout this study. Although they generally appeared to be mild or incidental lesions, they were occasionally associated with severe multifocal granulomatous pneumonia or meningitis.

  18. Retrospective analysis of mortalities in elephant shrews (Macroscelididae) and tree shrews (Tupaiidae) at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park, USA.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Meredith M; Woc-Colburn, Margarita; Viner, Tabitha; Sanchez, Carlos; Murray, Suzan

    2013-06-01

    Investigations into the cause of mortality and other important findings at necropsy were made into two families of small mammals at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park (SNZP; USA). Necropsy reports from 1976 through 2008 were reviewed for all elephant shrews in family Macroscelididae (n = 118) and all tree shrews in family Tupaiidae (n = 90) that lived for greater than 30 days at the SNZP. Causes of mortality were classified by body system and etiology to identify prevalent diseases and trends across demographics for each family. In elephant shrews, gastrointestinal disease (n = 18) and respiratory disease (n = 22) were important causes of mortality with an increased prevalence of pneumonia in adult males. Trauma was a common cause of mortality in tree shrews (n = 22). Cryptococcosis was an important cause of mortality in both families (n = 8 elephant shrews; n = 13 tree shrews). Bacterial infections, often systemic at time of mortality, were also common (n = 16 elephant shrews; n = 17 tree shrews). Arteriosclerosis was a common comorbid pathology noted at necropsy in certain populations, seen only in Elephantulus rufescens in the family Macroscelididae (n = 22) and in only males in the family Tupaiidae (n = 11). Gongylonemiasis was seen commonly in tree shrews (n = 15), as a comorbid finding, or in 5 cases directly leading to mortality. Awareness of the prevalence of these diseases can help guide prevention and intervention strategies.

  19. Florida Red Tides, Manatee Brevetoxicosis, and Lung Models

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Colbert, Debborah E.; Dalpra, Dana; Newton, Elizabeth A. C.; Gaspard, Joseph; Littlefield, Brandi; Manire, Charles

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, 149 Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris, died along the southwest coast of Florida. Necropsy pathology results of these animals indicated that brevetoxin from the Florida red tide, Karenia brevis, caused their death. A red tide bloom had been previously documented in the area where these animals stranded. The necropsy data suggested the mortality occurred from chronic inhalation and/or ingestion. Inhalation theories include high doses of brevetoxin deposited/stored in the manatee lung or significant manatee sensitivity to the brevetoxin. Laboratory models of the manatee lungs can be constructed from casts of necropsied animals for further studies; however, it is necessary to define the breathing pattern in the manatee, specifically the volumes and flow rates per breath to estimate toxin deposition in the lung. To obtain this information, two captive-born Florida manatees, previously trained for husbandry and research behaviors, were trained to breathe into a plastic mask placed over their nares. The mask was connected to a spirometer that measured volumes and flows in situ. Results reveal high volumes, short inspiratory and expiratory times and high flow rates, all consistent with observed breathing patterns. PMID:26448968

  20. Postmortem bacteriology: a re‐evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J A; Harrison, L M; Partridge, S M

    2006-01-01

    Aim To assess the value of postmortem bacteriology in necropsy practice, with specific emphasis on bacterial invasion of blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Methods A review of published articles on postmortem bacteriology. Studies were selected to cover the full range of necropsy practice including adults, the perinatal period, and infancy. The review covers over 5000 necropsies, mainly in adults, but including 1108 perinatal cases and 468 cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy. Data are available on 4992 blood cultures, 1168 specimens of CSF, and 743 cultures of spleen. Results Studies in which careful precautions have been taken to reduce contamination show that approximately two thirds of blood cultures are negative, two in nine yield a single isolate, and one in nine have a mixed growth. The postmortem interval has only a small effect on the isolation rate. A pure growth of a known pathogen has a more than 50% likelihood of being found in association with genuine infection in adults and in the perinatal period. Conclusions The main postmortem artefact is contamination, but this can be considerably reduced by careful technique. Agonal spread is less common than is often assumed. Postmortem translocation is not a problem if the body is appropriately stored. A pure growth of a pathogen in blood or CSF should be regarded as a possible contributing factor to death at all ages. PMID:16394274

  1. Chronic pancreatitis in dogs: a retrospective study of clinical, clinicopathological, and histopathological findings in 61 cases.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, Brier M; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Newman, Shelley J; Pool, Roy R; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical, clinicopathological, and histopathological findings of dogs with chronic pancreatitis. The necropsy database at Texas A&M University was searched for reports of dogs with histological evidence of chronic pancreatitis defined as irreversible histologic changes of the pancreas (i.e. fibrosis or atrophy). A reference necropsy population of 100 randomly selected dogs was used for signalment and concurrent disease comparisons. Cases were categorized as clinical or incidental chronic pancreatitis based on the presence of vomiting, decreased appetite, or both vs. neither of these signs. All archived pancreas samples were scored histologically using a published scoring system. Sixty-one dogs with chronic pancreatitis were included. The most frequent clinical signs were lethargy, decreased appetite, vomiting, and diarrhea. Compared to the reference necropsy population, chronic pancreatitis cases were more likely to be older, neutered, of the non-sporting/toy breed group, and to have concurrent endocrine, hepatobiliary, or neurological disease. Clinical cases had significantly higher histological scores for pancreatic necrosis and peripancreatic fat necrosis, and were significantly more likely to have hepatobiliary or endocrine disease as well as increased liver enzyme activities, or elevated cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations. In conclusion, clinical disease resulting from chronic pancreatitis might be related to the presence of pancreatic necrosis and pancreatic fat necrosis. The signalment, presentation, and concurrent diseases of dogs with chronic pancreatitis are similar to those previously reported for dogs with acute pancreatitis.

  2. Endoscopic management of intraoperative small bowel laceration during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery: a blinded porcine study.

    PubMed

    Fyock, Christopher J; Forsmark, Chris E; Wagh, Mihir S

    2011-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) has recently gained great enthusiasm, but there is concern regarding the ability to endoscopically manage complications purely via natural orifices. To assess the feasibility of endoscopically managing enteral perforation during NOTES using currently available endoscopic accessories. Twelve pigs underwent transgastric or transcolonic endoscopic exploration. Full-thickness enterotomies were intentionally created to mimic accidental small bowel lacerations during NOTES. These lacerations were then closed with endoclips. In the blinded arm of the study, small bowel repair was performed by a second blinded endoscopist. Adequate closure of the laceration was confirmed with a leak test. Primary access sites were closed with endoclips or T-anchors. At necropsy, the peritoneal cavity was inspected for abscesses, bleeding, or damage to surrounding structures. The enterotomy site was examined for adequacy of closure, adhesions, or evidence of infection. Fifteen small bowel lacerations were performed in 12 animals. Successful closure was achieved in all 10 cases in the nonblinded arm. Survival animals had an uncomplicated postoperative course and all enterotomy sites were well healed without evidence of necrosis, adhesions, abscess, or bleeding at necropsy. Leak test was negative in all animals. In the blinded arm, both small intestinal lacerations could not be identified by the blinded endoscopist. Necropsy revealed open small bowel lacerations. Small intestinal injuries are difficult to localize with currently available flexible endoscopes and accessories. Endoscopic clips, however, may be adequate for closure of small bowel lacerations if the site of injury is known.

  3. Decompression vs. Decomposition: Distribution, Amount, and Gas Composition of Bubbles in Stranded Marine Mammals

    PubMed Central

    de Quirós, Yara Bernaldo; González-Diaz, Oscar; Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Sacchini, Simona; Fernández, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Gas embolic lesions linked to military sonar have been described in stranded cetaceans including beaked whales. These descriptions suggest that gas bubbles in marine mammal tissues may be more common than previously thought. In this study we have analyzed gas amount (by gas score) and gas composition within different decomposition codes using a standardized methodology. This broad study has allowed us to explore species-specific variability in bubble prevalence, amount, distribution, and composition, as well as masking of bubble content by putrefaction gases. Bubbles detected within the cardiovascular system and other tissues related to both pre- and port-mortem processes are a common finding on necropsy of stranded cetaceans. To minimize masking by putrefaction gases, necropsy, and gas sampling must be performed as soon as possible. Before 24 h post mortem is recommended but preferably within 12 h post mortem. At necropsy, amount of bubbles (gas score) in decomposition code 2 in stranded cetaceans was found to be more important than merely presence vs. absence of bubbles from a pathological point of view. Deep divers presented higher abundance of gas bubbles, mainly composed of 70% nitrogen and 30% CO2, suggesting a higher predisposition of these species to suffer from decompression-related gas embolism. PMID:22675306

  4. Florida Red Tides, Manatee Brevetoxicosis, and Lung Models.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Colbert, Debborah E; Dalpra, Dana; Newton, Elizabeth A C; Gaspard, Joseph; Littlefield, Brandi; Manire, Charles

    In 1996, 149 Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris, died along the southwest coast of Florida. Necropsy pathology results of these animals indicated that brevetoxin from the Florida red tide, Karenia brevis, caused their death. A red tide bloom had been previously documented in the area where these animals stranded. The necropsy data suggested the mortality occurred from chronic inhalation and/or ingestion. Inhalation theories include high doses of brevetoxin deposited/stored in the manatee lung or significant manatee sensitivity to the brevetoxin. Laboratory models of the manatee lungs can be constructed from casts of necropsied animals for further studies; however, it is necessary to define the breathing pattern in the manatee, specifically the volumes and flow rates per breath to estimate toxin deposition in the lung. To obtain this information, two captive-born Florida manatees, previously trained for husbandry and research behaviors, were trained to breathe into a plastic mask placed over their nares. The mask was connected to a spirometer that measured volumes and flows in situ. Results reveal high volumes, short inspiratory and expiratory times and high flow rates, all consistent with observed breathing patterns.

  5. Successful Antiparasitic Treatment for Cysticercosis Is Associated with a Fast and Marked Reduction of Circulating Antigen Levels in a Naturally Infected Pig Model

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Armando E.; Bustos, Javier A.; Garcia, Hector H.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Zimic, Mirko; Castillo, Yesenia; Praet, Nicolas; Gabriël, Sarah; Gilman, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a common parasitic infection of humans and pigs. We evaluated the posttreatment evolution of circulating parasite-specific antigen titers in 693 consecutive blood samples from 50 naturally infected cysticercotic pigs, which received different regimes of antiparasitic drugs (N = 39, 7 groups), prednisone (N = 5), or controls (N = 6). Samples were collected from baseline to week 10 after treatment, when pigs were euthanized and carefully dissected at necropsy. Antigen levels decreased proportionally to the efficacy of treatment and correlated with the remaining viable cysts at necropsy (Pearson's p = 0.67, P = 0.000). A decrease of 5 times in antigen levels (logarithmic scale) compared with baseline was found in 20/26 pigs free of cysts at necropsy, compared with 1/24 of those who had persisting viable cysts (odds ratio [OR] = 76.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.1–3308.6, P < 0.001). Antigen monitoring reflects the course of infection in the pig. If a similar correlation exists in infected humans, this assay may provide a minimally invasive and easy monitoring assay to assess disease evolution and efficacy of antiparasitic treatment in human neurocysticercosis. PMID:26392159

  6. Unusual causes of fatal upper aerodigestive tract obstruction in wild Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops aduncus).

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Gibbs, Susan E; Bossley, Mike; Machado, Aaron; Hill, Mark

    2010-09-01

    Necropsy examination of dolphins living in Gulf St Vincent, Australia is routinely undertaken to enable the evaluation of disease processes and to provide rapid medicolegal assessment of any inflicted and/or accidental injuries. Two Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) are reported to demonstrate conditions that may result in unexpected death involving upper airway compromise by quite unusual mechanisms. In the first case an adult male was found with extensive soft tissue trauma suggesting human interaction. At necropsy, death was due instead to upper airway obstruction from an impacted Slender-spined Porcupine Fish (Diodon nichthemerus) in the posterior pharynx and upper esophagus. In the second case, an adult male dolphin was found to have died, following several weeks' illness, from upper airway obstruction due to extensive respiratory tract papillomatosis within the blowhole. Given the infectious etiology of this condition the local population will be monitored for similar lesions. These cases demonstrate rare causes of upper airway obstruction in wild dolphins that were identifiable only after detailed necropsy examination. The possibility of human involvement in the deaths could be excluded.

  7. Lesions of toxoplasmosis in Australian marsupials.

    PubMed

    Canfield, P J; Hartley, W J; Dubey, J P

    1990-08-01

    This report describes toxoplasmosis lesions in Australian marsupials. Clinical signs, necropsy findings and histopathological changes are summarized for 43 macropods, two common wombats, two koalas, six possums, 15 dasyurids, two numbats, eight bandicoots and one bilby. Animals either died suddenly without clinical signs or exhibited signs associated with respiratory, neurological or enteric disease. At necropsy, many marsupials had no visible lesions. Where present, common necropsy findings included pulmonary congestion, oedema and consolidation, adrenal enlargement and reddening, haemorrhage and ulceration of stomach and small intestine, and lymphadenomegaly and splenomegaly. Microscopically, affected lungs showed interstitial pneumonia and macrophage accumulation. Myocardial, skeletal and smooth muscle necrosis and neutrophilic inflammation were common. Organs had focal necrosis and/or fibrosis and lymphoid infiltrates. Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts were common in muscle and nervous tissue. Free tachyzoites were commonly present in areas of necrosis. Selected sections from four macropods, two koalas, two dasyurids, one wombat and one possum stained specifically with avidin-biotin complex and anti-Toxoplasma gondii serum.

  8. Decompression vs. Decomposition: Distribution, Amount, and Gas Composition of Bubbles in Stranded Marine Mammals.

    PubMed

    de Quirós, Yara Bernaldo; González-Diaz, Oscar; Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Sacchini, Simona; Fernández, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Gas embolic lesions linked to military sonar have been described in stranded cetaceans including beaked whales. These descriptions suggest that gas bubbles in marine mammal tissues may be more common than previously thought. In this study we have analyzed gas amount (by gas score) and gas composition within different decomposition codes using a standardized methodology. This broad study has allowed us to explore species-specific variability in bubble prevalence, amount, distribution, and composition, as well as masking of bubble content by putrefaction gases. Bubbles detected within the cardiovascular system and other tissues related to both pre- and port-mortem processes are a common finding on necropsy of stranded cetaceans. To minimize masking by putrefaction gases, necropsy, and gas sampling must be performed as soon as possible. Before 24 h post mortem is recommended but preferably within 12 h post mortem. At necropsy, amount of bubbles (gas score) in decomposition code 2 in stranded cetaceans was found to be more important than merely presence vs. absence of bubbles from a pathological point of view. Deep divers presented higher abundance of gas bubbles, mainly composed of 70% nitrogen and 30% CO(2), suggesting a higher predisposition of these species to suffer from decompression-related gas embolism.

  9. The practical aspects of quality assurance in Good Laboratory Practice studies in an emergency situation.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Takahashi, T

    1995-12-01

    In this report, the damage and countermeasures taken in relation to the Great Hanshin Earthquake are described. We report on the measures taken to counter damage in affected Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) studies by citing concrete examples. Case A: the testing facility was not affected, but a regulatory inspection had been scheduled for this day. Fortunately, official inspectors had reached the facility on schedule. Case B: The building for toxicology experiments was destroyed. Fortunately, most of the GLP-compliant experiments had been completed except one, the preparation of histological samples that was the last stage of the experiment. We asked the regulatory authority for appropriate countermeasures. The answer was that an inspection of the study could be conducted if an inspection is judged to be necessary. Case C: A necropsy was scheduled on this day. The study director decided that the necropsy should be postponed at least 1 week until he could secure the number of researchers needed to conduct the necropsy. Case D: The facility in Itami was destroyed. The facility was closed and the animals were moved to Kobe. The animal facility in Kobe was not affected, but because water supply stopped for 3 days, stocked water was used. Case E: Damage to computer systems in Kinki area was reported. Numerous computers fell from desks or were damaged from the impact shock. With the exception of a few, most of the damaged computers were repaired.

  10. Retrospective study of canine heartworm disease with caval syndrome in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Chikweto, A; Bhaiyat, M I; Lanza-Perea, M; Veytsman, S; Tiwari, K; De Allie, C; Sharma, R N

    2014-10-15

    Canine heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis is an important disease of dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of canine heartworm disease and evaluate cases of caval syndrome in dogs submitted for necropsy in Grenada. Out of 1617 dogs necropsied over a period of 13 years (2001-2013), 249 were found to be infected with D. immitis; giving an overall prevalence of 15.4% (95% confidence interval, 13.6% to 17.1%). There was no significant difference between male and female dogs with respect to canine heartworm infection (p = 0.3). During this period, the annual prevalence of canine heartworm disease was 22% in 2001 before slightly declining to an average of 18% in 2002-2003 and peaking at 26.8% in 2004-2005. From 2006 onwards, annual prevalence rates have steadily been decreasing; reaching the lowest (9%) in 2013. Among the 249 positive cases, 33 (13.2%) of the dogs had caval syndrome. Caval syndrome cases presented with concurrent clinical signs and were associated with cardio-pulmonary and hepatic gross lesions at necropsy. Aberrant migration of D. immitis was also noted in 2 dogs with caval syndrome. This is the first report which presents the findings of canine heartworm disease with caval syndrome in Grenada.

  11. Peracute vanadium toxicity in cattle grazing near a vanadium mine.

    PubMed

    McCrindle, C M; Mokantla, E; Duncan, N

    2001-12-01

    Animals may act as bioindicators for potential human health problems associated with mining and refining. Eight cattle died after a vanadium mine dam collapsed close to the area in which they were grazing. Necropsies were conducted on five cattle. Affected animals had shown a watery bloody diarrhea, red urine and listlessness before collapsing. On necropsy (n = 5) there was a moderate bilateral multifocal granulomatous-like conjunctivitis. The most prominent lesions were eosinophillic granulomatous-like inflammation of the thymus, mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes, oesophagus, abomasum and colon. There was also marked hyperaemia of the abomasal mucosa with petechiation. Pulmonary and tracheal haemorrhage was also present. Histopathology showed severe inflammatory cell infiltration (mainly eosinophils with lesser numbers of neutrophils and macrophages) of lymphoid tissue associated with the thymus, lymph nodes, esophagus, abomasum, colon and conjunctiva. There were also areas of tissue necrosis, congested blood vessels and haemorrhage. Conjunctival lesions point to a systemic rather than a local effect as the cattle in this case died following ingestion rather than inhalation of vanadium. The causal relationship between intoxication and death is conventionally based on the level of that toxin present in tissues at necropsy. The variability in demonstrating vanadium in biological samples may have been due to the rapid excretion of vanadium by the living animal, or the solubility of the salts, which results in the substance leaching into the fluid portion of the samples. Cross-reactions with colorimetric tests for arsenic should also be noted.

  12. Serological studies in Nectomys squamipes demonstrate the low sensitivity of coprological exams for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Peralta, Regina H S; Melo, Daniel G S; Gonçalves, Margareth M L; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Rey, Luis; Machado-Silva, José R; Peralta, José M

    2009-06-01

    The existence of wild rodents naturally infected by Schistosoma mansoni is a drawback for schistosomiasis control programs. As a consequence, it is necessary to have a precise diagnosis of S. mansoni infection in wild rodents (water rats; Nectomys squamipes), the species seemingly involved in the transmission of schistosomiasis at Sumindouro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 78 specimens of N. squamipes was captured in an endemic area at Vale do Pamparrão and Porteira Verde, Sumidouro, Brazil; 5 more were born in captivity and experimentally infected. The sensitivity and specificity of the coprological method of Kato-Katz and serological methods, i.e., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot (WB), were compared. The rodents were subsequently killed and necropsied to confirm infection. The prevalences observed using ELISA (48%) and WB (41%) were equivalent to those found at necropsy (41%). The ELISA showed a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 87%, whereas the WB showed a sensitivity of 87% and a specificity of 89%. The Kato-Katz method exhibited 50% sensitivity and 100% specificity. The differences found among the ELISA, WB, and necropsy, when compared with Kato-Katz, may be related to the low sensitivity of the coprological method. Serological methods should be used for more reliable epidemiological information.

  13. Determination of anthelmintic efficacy against Toxocara canis in dogs by use of capsule endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alice C Y; Epe, Christian; Bowman, Dwight D

    2015-09-15

    Industry guidelines for anthelmintic testing call for postmortem inspection of animals to verify treatment efficacy. A previous study showed that capsule endoscopy (CE) can be performed on dogs in vivo to quantify hookworms in the small intestine. Adoption of a minimally invasive procedure such as this could reduce the need for necropsy in efficacy trials. The present study employed CE to enumerate Toxocara canis in dogs, with two main goals: to determine if multiple capsule examinations improves the accuracy of worm counts compared to a single examination, and to establish if the efficacy of an anthelmintic compound is the same whether calculated using CE or necropsy data. To avoid needless animal sacrifice, the study was carried out on beagle dogs already in a product development trial with a planned terminal endpoint. Dogs were infected by oral inoculation with T. canis eggs. Untreated control dogs (n=8) were evaluated by CE three times while dogs treated with test compounds (3 groups of 4) were examined only once. Utilizing either the average count or just the last complete capsule examination, a robust correlation was found between CE and postmortem numbers (r=0.94, p<0.001). Calculated anthelmintic efficacy was essentially identical for the two enumeration methods, ranging from 94% to 100% for the three research compounds. CE may therefore be a viable alternative to necropsy for T. canis parasiticide trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Helminth and protozoan parasites in dogs and cats in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Vanparijs, O; Hermans, L; van der Flaes, L

    1991-01-01

    This study investigates the level of helminthic and protozoal infestation over the last 10 years in strays, well-cared-for dogs and cats. Determination of the prevalence of infections was based either on faecal examination or on worm counts at necropsy. Of 2324 faecal flotations (NaCl sp.gr. 1.20) of stray dogs, 34.2% had eggs or proglottids of one or more worm species consisting of Toxocara canis (17.4%), Toxascaris leonina (10.1%), Uncinaria stenocephala (11.4%), Trichuris vulpis (7.0%) and cestodes (2.1%). Isospora oocysts were observed in 5.2% of the dogs. The data on the distribution of the various worm species in the positive dogs indicate that T. canis eggs were by far the most common (50.9%). Necropsy data from 212 infected dogs indicate that 38.9% were infected with T. canis and 33.7% with T. leonina. The overall prevalence of worm infestation of 246 well-cared-for kennel dogs, based on worm egg counts by the McMaster technique, was 36.1%. Of 30 feline faecal samples examined by flotation, 83.3% were positive for parasites, including Toxocara cati (60%), Ancylostoma tubaeformae (36.6%), Taenia (Hydatigera) taeniaeformis (20%) and coccidia (30%). Toxocara cati was the most frequently found worm species at the necropsy of 25 cats (52%). Toxoplasma was not observed.

  15. Experimental induction of abdominal tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration by intraruminal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens type A in neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G; Avery, T B; Kennedy, G A

    1988-02-01

    The etiologic role of Clostridum perfringens type A in the acute abdominal syndrome characterized by abomasal and rumen tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration was investigated in neonatal calves. Eight calves, 4 to 12 days old, were inoculated intraruminally with toxigenic C perfringens type A. Before and after C perfringens inoculation, blood samples were collected from all calves for blood gas and serum biochemical analysis and for determination of serum copper concentration; ruminal fluid was obtained for isolation of C perfringens. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of the syndrome and, depending on the severity of clinical signs, they were either euthanatized or redosed within 4 to 7 days. After necropsy, specimens obtained from the abomasum and rumen for macroscopic and microscopic examination and for anaerobic bacteriologic culture were processed in routine manner. Intraruminal inoculation of C perfringens type A into healthy calves induced anorexia, depression, bloat, diarrhea, and in some calves, death. Serum copper concentration was within normal range. Necropsy revealed variable degrees of abomasitis, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, and ulcers (ranging from pinpoint to nearly perforate) in the abomasum. Seven of those calves also had multiple trichobezoars in the rumen. These necropsy findings were not seen in calves (controls) given distilled H2O only. In affected calves, acute abdominal syndrome was unrelated to copper deficiency, and C perfringens type A given intraruminally was able to induce clinical signs similar to those of the naturally acquired disease.

  16. Intestinal lesions caused by two swine chlamydial isolates in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D G; Andersen, A A

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether 2 distinct chlamydial isolates recovered from the intestines and feces of diarrheic nursery pigs could cause intestinal lesions in gnotobiotic pigs. Both isolates share biological characteristics with Chlamydia trachomatis. Chlamydial isolates R27 and R19 were propagated in Vero cells or embryonated eggs, respectively, and suspended in sucrose-phosphate-glutamine buffer with 10% fetal bovine serum for inoculation. Sham inocula were prepared from uninfected cell culture lysates and from uninfected eggs. Each piglet was fed 1 ml of inoculum or sham inoculum at 3-4 days of age. Ten piglets were each fed 10(9) inclusion-forming-units (IFU) and 14 piglets were each fed 10(6) IFU of isolate R27; 5 control piglets were fed sham inoculum. Twenty piglets were each fed 10(5) IFU R19; 5 control piglets were fed sham inoculum. All infected piglets developed diarrhea 4-5 days postinfection (DPI). Most piglets fed 10(9) IFU R27 became anorexic, dehydrated, and weak and were necropsied 4-7 DPI. Piglets fed 10(6) IFU R27 or 10(5) IFU R19 were necropsied 4, 7, 10, 14, and 18 DPI. Diarrhea, although never profuse, persisted in the piglets fed 10(6) IFU R27 or 10(5) IFU R19 through 12 DPI. At necropsy, all diarrheic piglets had watery colonic contents with flecks of undigested curd. In small intestine, histologic lesions were seen most consistently in distal jejunum and ileum. Distal jejunum and ileum from piglets fed 10(9) IFU R27 and necropsied 4-5 DPI were characterized by villus atrophy and multifocal necrosis of villi; necrosis was limited to the tips or apical one half of villi. Mild to severe villus atrophy, lymphangitis, and perilymphangitis were seen in the distal jejunum and ileum from all infected piglets 7 and 10 DPI. Colon from 1 infected piglet necropsied 10 DPI had mild focal serositis; significant colonic lesions were not seen in the other infected piglets. Immunostaining done on sections of distal jejunum and ileum

  17. Safety of ceftiofur sodium administered intramuscularly in horses.

    PubMed

    Mahrt, C R

    1992-11-01

    Ceftiofur sodium, a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic, was evaluated for safe use in horses. Male or female horses were allotted to groups and were given either saline solution (control), or 2.2, 6.6, or 11 mg of an aqueous solution of ceftiofur sodium/kg of body weight/d, IM, for 30 or 31 days. These dosages are expressed in terms of the ceftiofur free acid, and represent 1 to 5 times the proposed therapeutic dosage (2.2 mg/kg/d) administered for 3 times the maximal recommended duration of 10 days. Some of the horses were euthanatized and necropsied on day 31 or 32. The other horses were evaluated for an additional 30 days, and some were euthanatized and necropsied on day 60. The following types of data were collected: clinical observation; physical examination; pelleted food consumption; body weight; hematologic, serum biochemical, and urinalysis findings; organ weight; gross necropsy observations; and histopathologic findings. Ceftiofur sodium was generally well tolerated at the exaggerated doses and treatment durations used in these safety studies. Slight to mild decrease in pelleted food consumption was detected in horses given 6.6 or 11 mg of ceftiofur sodium/kg/d. Decreased food consumption began on day 2 and lasted for approximately 9 to 12 days. Generally, mild skeletal muscle irritation was detected by gross and microscopic examination of the injection sites of horses given ceftiofur sodium. Prevalence and severity of the muscle irritation tended to increase with increasing concentration of the dosing solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Anthelmintic efficacy of ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for seven consecutive days (100 µg/kg/day), against nematodes in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Felippelli, Gustavo; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Buzulini, Carolina; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Prando, Luciana; Bichuette, Murilo A; Dos Santos, Thais Rabelo; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate ivermectin and abamectin, both administered orally in naturally infected domestic swine, as well as analysing if the EPG (eggs per gram of faeces) values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies. The animals were randomly selected based on the average of three consecutive EPG counts of Strongylida, Ascaris suum and Trichuris for experiment I, and of Strongylida and Trichuris for experiment II. After the random draw, eight animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day ivermectin (Ivermectina® premix, Ouro Fino Agronegócios), eight other animals were treated, orally, during seven consecutive days with 100 µg/kg/day abamectin (Virbamax® premix - Virbac do Brasil Indústria e Comércio Ltda.), and eight pigs were kept as controls. EPG counts were performed for each individual animal at 14th day post-treatment (DPT). All animals (control and treatment) were necropsied at the 14th DPT. The results from both experiments demonstrate that both ivermectin and abamectin, administered orally for a continuous period of seven days, at a daily dosage of 100 µg/kg, were highly effective (>95%) against Hyostrongylus rubidus, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum and Metastrongylus salmi. Against Oesophagostomum dentatum, abamectin presented over 95% efficacy against both evaluated strains, while ivermectin reached other strain as resistant. Regarding T. suis, both ivermectin and abamectin were effective (efficacies >90%) against one of the tested strains, while the other one was classified as resistant. Furthermore, the EPG values were equivalent with the ivermectin and abamectin efficacy obtained by parasitological necropsies.

  19. Efficacy of Dart or Booster Vaccination with Strain RB51 in Protecting Bison against Experimental Brucella abortus Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C. S.

    2012-01-01

    This study characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (hand RB51), by single pneumatic dart delivery (dart RB51), or as two vaccinations approximately 13 months apart (booster RB51) in comparison to control bison. All bison were challenged intraconjunctivally in midgestation with 107 CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 (S2308). Bison were necropsied and sampled within 72 h of abortion or delivery of a live calf. Compared to nonvaccinated bison, bison in the booster RB51 treatment had a reduced (P < 0.05) incidence of abortion, uterine infection, or infection in maternal tissues other than the mammary gland at necropsy. Bison in single-vaccination treatment groups (hand RB51 and dart RB51) did not differ (P > 0.05) from the control group in the incidence of abortion or recovery of S2308 from uterine, mammary, fetal, or maternal tissues at necropsy. Compared to nonvaccinated animals, all RB51 vaccination groups had reduced (P < 0.05) mean colonization or incidence of infection in at least 2 of 4 target tissues, with the booster RB51 group having reduced (P < 0.05) colonization and incidence of infection in all target tissues. Our data suggest that booster vaccination of bison with RB51 enhances protective immunity against Brucella challenge compared to single vaccination with RB51 by hand or by pneumatic dart. Our study also suggests that an initial vaccination of calves followed by booster vaccination as yearlings should be an effective strategy for brucellosis control in bison. PMID:22496493

  20. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep managed under traditional husbandry system in Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Tariq, K A; Chishti, M Z; Ahmad, F; Shawl, A S

    2008-11-25

    The present study was conducted with the objective to investigate the seasonal epidemiological prevalence of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) nematodes in different age groups, sexes and breeds (genotypes) of sheep through necropsy and faecal analysis over a period of 2 years in Kashmir valley, India. A total of 1533 sheep were examined [faecal examination: 1035 (year 1: 561, year 2: 474); necropsy: 498 (year 1: 232, year 2: 266)]. Out of these, 945 (61.64%) were found infected [faecal examination: 697 (67.34%, year 1: 390 (69.51%), year 2: 307 (46.99%); necropsy: 248 (49.79%, year 1: 123 (53.01%), year 2: 125 (64.69%)] with GIT nematodes. The over all prevalence of GIT nematodes in sheep in year 1 was 64.76 and 58.37% in year 2 (P=0.04). The parasites in decreasing order of prevalence (%) in sheep were Haemonchus contortus (59.6); Ostertagia circumcincta (38.0); Bunostomum trigonocephalum (37.7); Chabertia ovina (37.7); Trichostrongylus spp. (33.9); Nematodirus spathiger (29.4); Oesophagostomum columbianum (28.4); Trichuris ovis (23.5) and Marshallagia marshalli (22.1). Season, sex, age, and genotype were the factors that influenced the epidemiological prevalence of GIT nematodes in sheep in the present study. The maximum nematode infection was observed in summer season and lowest in winter (P=0.0005). Local Kashmiri breed was less infected as compared to other genotypes (P>0.05). Lower age groups were more infected than adult animals (P>/=0.05). Prevalence was higher in rams (males) than eves (females) (P>0.05). The present study will initially be of great significance to add to the existing knowledge of the epidemiology of GIT nematodes of small ruminants and the findings will be quite helpful to devise the appropriate control and prophylactic strategies for GIT nematodiasis of sheep reared under the temperate agro-climatic conditions.

  1. White-tailed deer are susceptible to the agent of sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation.

    PubMed

    Greenlee, Justin J; Smith, Jodi D; Kunkle, Robert A

    2011-10-11

    Interspecies transmission studies afford the opportunity to better understand the potential host range and origins of prion diseases. The purpose of this experiment was to determine susceptibility of white-tailed deer to the agent of scrapie after intracerebral inoculation and to compare clinical signs and lesions to those reported for chronic wasting disease (CWD). Deer (n = 5) were inoculated with 1 mL of a 10% (wt/vol) brain homogenate derived from a sheep clinically affected with scrapie. A non-inoculated deer was maintained as a negative control. Deer were observed daily for clinical signs of disease and euthanized and necropsied when unequivocal signs of scrapie were noted. One animal died 7 months post inoculation (pi) due to intercurrent disease. Examinations of brain tissue for the presence of the disease-associated abnormal prion protein (PrP(Sc)) by western blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were negative whereas IHC of lymphoid tissues was positive. Deer necropsied at 15-22 months pi were positive for scrapie by IHC and WB. Deer necropsied after 20 months pi had clinical signs of depression and progressive weight loss. Tissues with PrP(Sc) immunoreactivity included brain (at levels of cerebrum, hippocampus, colliculus, cerebellum, and brainstem), trigeminal ganglion, neurohypophysis, retina, spinal cord, and various lymphoid tissues including tonsil, retropharyngeal and mesenteric lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, and spleen. This work demonstrates for the first time that white-tailed deer are susceptible to sheep scrapie by intracerebral inoculation. To further test the susceptibility of white-tailed deer to scrapie these experiments will be repeated with a more natural route of inoculation.

  2. Effects of capture-related injury on postcapture movement of white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Dechen Quinn, Amy C; Williams, David M; Porter, William F; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Hynes, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    Capture-related injuries or deaths of wildlife study subjects pose concerns to researchers, from considerations for animal welfare to inflated project costs and biased data. Capture myopathy (CM) is an injury that can affect an animal's survival ≤ 30 days postrelease, but is often difficult to detect without close monitoring and immediate necropsy. We evaluated the influence of capture and handling on postcapture movement in an attempt to characterize movement rates of animals suffering from CM. We captured and global positioning system-collared 95 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in central and northern New York during 2006-2008. Six juveniles died within 30 days postrelease, and necropsy reports indicated that two suffered CM (2%). We compared postcapture movement rates for juveniles that survived >30 days with those that died ≤ 30 days postcapture. Survivor movement rates (43.74 m/hr, SD = 3.53, n = 28) were significantly higher than rates for deer that died within 30 days (17.70 m/hr, SD = 1.57, n = 6) (P<0.01). Additionally, movement rates of juveniles that died of CM (15.1 m/hr) were 5.1 m/hr lower than those for juveniles that died of other causes ≤ 30 days postcapture (20.2 m/hr), but we were unable to evaluate this statistically because of insufficient sample size. We found no difference in vital rates (temperature, heart rate, respiration rate) during handling between survivors and juveniles that died within 30 days postcapture but observed that survivors were in better body condition at capture. These results suggest that deer likely to die within the 30-day CM window can be identified soon after capture, provided that intensive movement data are collected. Further, even if necropsy reports are unavailable, these animals should be censored from analysis because their behavior is not representative of movements of surviving animals.

  3. Early infection dynamics after experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in calves reveal limited calf-to-calf transmission and no impact of Hsp70 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Santema, Wiebren J; Poot, Jacqueline; Segers, Ruud P A M; Van den Hoff, Daniëlle J P; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P

    2012-11-19

    Efficient control of bovine paratuberculosis is hampered by lack of a vaccine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy of a candidate vaccine, consisting of recombinant Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) Hsp70 with DDA adjuvant, in calves experimentally infected with MAP. Four groups of 14 animals each were used. Animals in group 1 and 2 were all vaccinated with Hsp70/DDA at day 0, 84, 168 and 357, and those in group 3 and 4 were non-vaccinated controls. In each group half (n=7) of the animals were challenged and the remaining half served as contacts. Blood and fecal samples were collected at three week intervals until day 588, and subsequently all animals were subjected to necropsy. The primary outcomes assessed were fecal culture (FC) of MAP, tissue colonization of MAP, and transmission of infection to contact animals. The kinetics of MAP shedding in feces of challenged animals showed a peak around 130 days post-challenge, irrespective of vaccination status. At necropsy no differences in the level of tissue colonization between vaccinated animals and controls were observed in the challenged groups. Only one contact animal (non-vaccinated) was positive at necropsy, indicating limited to no transmission within groups. These findings indicate that Hsp70/DDA vaccination does not influence early infection dynamics after experimental infection. However, early shedding of MAP in calves did not result in efficient transmission of infection to contact animals. The latter implies that introduction of an infected calf in a cohort of susceptibles has limited consequences for spread of infection.

  4. Distribution of the Lyme disease spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in naturally and experimentally infected western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus).

    PubMed

    Leonhard, Sarah; Jensen, Kelly; Salkeld, Daniel J; Lane, Robert S

    2010-06-01

    The dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi infections within its natural hosts are poorly understood. We necropsied four wild-caught western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) that were acquired during a previous study that evaluated the reservoir competence of this rodent for the Lyme disease spirochete. One animal was infected experimentally, whereas the others were infected in the wild before capture. To investigate dissemination of B. burgdorferi and concurrent histopathologic lesions in different tissues, blood specimens, synovial and cerebrospinal fluid, ear-punch biopsies, and diverse tissue samples from skin and various organs were taken and examined by culture, polymerase chain reaction, and histology. Borrelia-positive cultures were obtained from three of the squirrels, that is, from skin biopsies (7 of 20 samples), ear-punch biopsies (2 of 8), and one (1 of 5) lymph node. Sequencing of amplicons confirmed B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) infection in 9 of 10 culture-positive samples and in DNA extracted from all 10 positive cultures. The experimentally infected squirrel yielded most of the positive samples. In contrast, bodily fluids, all other organ specimens from these animals, and all samples from one naturally infected squirrel were negative for Borrelia for both assays. None of the necropsied squirrels exhibited specific clinical signs associated with B. burgdorferi. Similarly, necropsy and histological examination of tissues indicated the presence of underlying infectious processes, none of which could be ascribed conclusively to B. burgdorferi infection. Based on these results, obtained from a small number of animals investigated at a single time point, we suggest that B. burgdorferi s.s. infection in S. griseus may result in rather localized dissemination of spirochetes, and that mild or nonclinical disease might be more common after several months of infection duration. Since spirochetes could be detected in squirrels 7-21 months postinfection, we

  5. Septicemic pasteurellosis in free-ranging neonatal pronghorn in Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunbar, Michael R.; Wolcott, Mark J.; Rimler, R.B.; Berlowski, Brenda M.

    2000-01-01

    As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings included widely scattered petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages found over a large portion of the subcutaneous tissue, meninges of the brain, epicardium, skeletal muscle, and serosal surface of the thorasic and abdominal cavities. Histological examination of lung tissues revealed diffuse congestion and edema and moderate to marked multifocal infiltrate of macrophages, neutrophils, and numerous bacteria within many terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:3,4, and B:1 were isolated from several tissues including lung, intestinal, thorasic fluid, and heart blood. Each B:1 isolate had DNA restriction endonuclease fingerprint profiles distinct from isolates previously characterized from domestic cattle, swan (Olor spp.), moose (Alces alces), and pronghorn from Montana (USA). This is the first report of pasteurellosis in pronghorn from Oregon and the B:1 isolates appear to be unique in comparison to DNA fingerprint profiles from selected domestic and wild species.

  6. Congenital portosystemic shunts and hepatic encephalopathy in goat kids in California: 11 cases (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Kinde, Hailu; Pesavento, Patricia A; Loretti, Alexandre P; Adaska, John M; Barr, Bradd C; Moore, Janet D; Anderson, Mark L; Rimoldi, Guillermo; Hill, Ashley E; Jones, Megan E B

    2014-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2012, 11 cases of congenital portosystemic shunts (cPSS) resulting in hepatic encephalopathy were diagnosed in goat kids necropsied at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System and at the Department of Pathology, Immunology & Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis. Affected animals included 6 females and 5 males of various breeds including Boer (5/11), Nigerian Dwarf (1/11), Saanen (1/11), Toggenburg (1/11), and mixed-breed (3/11) aged between 1.5 months and 11 months, submitted live (2/11) or dead (9/11) for necropsy. The most frequent clinical signs in these goats were ataxia, blindness, tremors, head bobbing, head pressing, seizures, circling, weakness, and ill thrift. Bile acids were measured in 2 animals, and were elevated in both cases (134 and 209 µmol/l, reference interval = 0-50 µmol/l). Necropsy findings were poor to fair body condition. Grossly, the livers of 4 animals were subjectively small. Microscopic lesions included portal spaces with increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplastic or absent portal veins, diffuse atrophy of the hepatic parenchyma with the presence of small hepatocytes and, in some cases, multifocal hepatocellular macrovesicular vacuolation. In the brain and spinal cord of all animals, there was bilateral and symmetric spongy degeneration affecting the cerebrum, mesencephalon, cerebellum, brainstem, and cervical spinal cord. In all cases, the brain lesions were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Congenital portosystemic shunts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young goats with a history of ill thrift, and nonspecific neurological signs.

  7. Supplemental oxygen attenuates the increase in wound bacterial growth during simulated aeromedical evacuation in goats

    PubMed Central

    Earnest, Ryan E.; Sonnier, Dennis I.; Makley, Amy T.; Campion, Eric M.; Wenke, Joseph C.; Bailey, Stephanie R.; Dorlac, Warren C.; Lentsch, Alex B.; Pritts, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial growth in soft tissue and open fractures is a known risk factor for tissue loss and complications in contaminated musculoskeletal wounds. Current care for battlefield casualties with soft tissue and musculoskeletal wounds includes tactical and strategic aeromedical evacuation (AE). This exposes patients to a hypobaric, hypoxic environment. In the present study, we sought to determine whether exposure to AE alters bacterial growth in contaminated complex musculoskeletal wounds and whether supplemental oxygen had any effect on wound infections during simulated AE. Methods A caprine model of a contaminated complex musculoskeletal wound was employed. Complex musculoskeletal wounds were created and inoculated with bioluminescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Goats were divided into three experimental groups: ground control, simulated aeromedical evacuation (AE), and simulated AE with supplemental oxygen (AE+O2). Simulated AE was induced in a hypobaric chamber pressurized to 8800 feet for 7 hours. Bacterial luminescence was measured using a photon counting camera at three timepoints: preflight (20 hours post surgery), postflight (7 hours from preflight and 27 hours post-surgery), and necropsy (24 hours from preflight and 44 hours post surgery). Results There was a significant increase in bacterial growth in the AE group compared to the ground control group measured postflight and at necropsy. Simulated AE induced hypoxia with oxygen saturation less than 93%. Supplemental oxygen corrected the hypoxia and significantly reduced bacterial growth in wounds at necropsy. Conclusions Hypoxia induced during simulated AE enhances bacterial growth in complex musculoskeletal wounds which can be prevented with the application of supplemental oxygen to the host. PMID:22743376

  8. Histomonas meleagridis in chickens: attempted transmission in the absence of vectors.

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Fuller, L; Armstrong, P L; McDougald, L R

    2006-06-01

    The progress and transmission of blackhead disease in chickens was studied in battery cages and floor pens in the absence of vectors. Two-week-old chicks were inoculated intracloacally with Histomonas meleagridis and allowed to commingle with others in floor pens. There was no confirmed transmission of blackhead to other birds in the pen, whether stocked at 10% or 25% with infected birds. A second experiment evaluated the effects of feed restriction of chickens on spread of blackhead within floor pens. Inoculated seeder birds had severe cecal lesions of blackhead at necropsy, regardless of feed restriction. Uninoculated birds did not develop lesions by the time of necropsy at 42 days of age, regardless of whether full-fed or limited by skip-day feeding. Chickens inoculated intracloacally with H. meleagridis and placed in battery cages became infected and had cecal lesions of blackhead, but few liver lesions. Chickens allowed to commingle with the inoculated birds in batteries had no lesions of histomoniasis at necropsy 2 wk postinoculation. Coccidial oocysts from turkeys (Eimeria adenoeides) were inoculated along with H. meleagridis from cultures to test the effects of sporozoite penetration in the ceca on progress of blackhead disease. Histomoniasis was not worsened by the interaction with sporozoites, as shown by unchanged severity of cecal lesions, the number of birds showing liver lesions, or the overall number of positive birds. Overall, blackhead infections showed no inclination to spread from bird to bird under conditions of these studies, in contrast to what has been reported for turkeys. These results suggest that the dynamics of blackhead transmission in chickens differs significantly from that of turkeys, where transmission from bird to bird is rapid and effective in the absence of vectors.

  9. Comparison of computed tomography and routine radiography of the tympanic bullae in the diagnosis of otitis media in the calf.

    PubMed

    Finnen, A; Blond, L; Francoz, D; Parent, J

    2011-01-01

    Otitis media is difficult to diagnose antemortem. Case reports have described computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis, but not all cases were confirmed. CT is a sensitive and specific imaging modality of the tympanic bullae and can be used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of otitis media. Sixteen Holstein calves 5-7 weeks of age were included. Prospective study. All calves were sedated with i.v. xylazine (0.05-0.15 mg/kg) for routine radiography (3 views) and CT of the tympanic bullae followed by necropsy. Based upon necropsy findings, 10 of 16 calves were affected with otitis media, 4 unilaterally and 6 bilaterally. Imaging changes associated with otitis media included increased soft tissue opacity within the bulla, thickening of the bulla wall, enlarged bulla, and osteolysis of the bulla wall and trabeculations. The most frequent radiographic changes were lysis of trabeculations and increased soft tissue opacity, which were present in 56.3% of affected bullae. On CT, increased soft tissue opacity within the bulla was present in 93.8% of affected bullae. Sensitivity of radiography and CT was 68.8 and 93.8% and specificity was 50 and 100%, respectively. The κ value between radiography and CT with necropsy diagnosis was 0.19 for radiography, indicating poor agreement, and 0.94 for CT, indicating excellent agreement. CT is more specific, more sensitive, and easier to interpret than radiography and can be used as the gold standard in the diagnosis of otitis media in the calf. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Coccidioidomycosis and other systemic mycoses of marine mammals stranding along the central California, USA coast: 1998-2012.

    PubMed

    Huckabone, Sara E; Gulland, Frances M D; Johnson, Suzanne M; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Dodd, Erin M; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Dunkin, Robin C; Casper, David; Carlson, Erin L; Sykes, Jane E; Meyer, Weiland; Miller, Melissa A

    2015-04-01

    A wide range of systemic mycoses have been reported from captive and wild marine mammals from North America. Examples include regionally endemic pathogens such as Coccidioides and Blastomyces spp., and novel pathogens like Cryptococcus gattii, which appear may have been introduced to North America by humans. Stranding and necropsy data were analyzed from three marine mammal stranding and response facilities on the central California coast to assess the prevalence, host demographics, and lesion distribution of systemic mycoses affecting locally endemic marine mammals. Between 1 January 1998 and 30 June 2012, >7,000 stranded marine mammals were necropsied at the three facilities. Necropsy and histopathology records were reviewed to identify cases of locally invasive or systemic mycoses and determine the nature and distribution of fungal lesions. Forty-one animals (0.6%) exhibited cytological, culture- or histologically confirmed locally invasive or systemic mycoses: 36 had coccidioidomycosis, two had zygomycosis, two had cryptococcosis, and one was systemically infected with Scedosporium apiospermum (an Ascomycota). Infected animals included 18 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), 20 southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis), two Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), one Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli), and one northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris). Coccidioidomycosis was reported from 15 sea lions, 20 sea otters, and one harbor seal, confirming that Coccidioides spp. is the most common pathogen causing systemic mycosis in marine mammals stranding along the central California coast. We also report the first confirmation of C. gattii infection in a wild marine mammal from California and the first report of coccidioidomycosis in a wild harbor seal. Awareness of these pathogenic fungi during clinical care and postmortem examination is an important part of marine mammal population health surveillance and human health protection

  11. Echinococcus in the wild carnivores and stray dogs of northern Tunisia: the results of a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Lahmar, S; Boufana, B S; Lahmar, S; Inoubli, S; Guadraoui, M; Dhibi, M; Bradshaw, H; Craig, P S

    2009-06-01

    Echinococcus granulosus is endemic throughout Tunisia and E. multilocularis has previously been reported as the cause of two cases of human alveolar echinococcosis in the north-west of the country. The aim of the present study was to screen wild carnivores from the north-western Jendouba governorate and semi-stray dogs from the Siliana and Sejnane regions of northern Tunisia for these two zoonotic cestodes. The results of the coproscopy, coproELISA and coproPCR that were undertaken were compared with those of necropsy, where possible. Overall, 111 faecal samples (51 from wild carnivores and 60 from stray dogs) were tested by coproELISA for Echinococcus antigen and by coproPCR for E. granulosus and E. multilocularis species-specific DNA. All 60 dogs and seven of the wild carnivores were necropsied. Eleven (18.4%) of the dogs and one golden jackal (Canis aureus) were found positive for E. granulosus at necropsy. The jackal was found to be carrying 72 E. granulosus tapeworms, which were confirmed to be of the common sheep-dog (G1) genotype. Faecal samples from 10 (19.6%) of the wild carnivores--putatively, four golden jackals, two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes atlantica), one hyaena (Hyaena hyaena) and three genets (Genetta genetta)--gave a positive result in the Echinococcus coproELISA. In the coproPCR-based follow-up, E. granulosus DNA was detected in faecal samples from five jackals, two foxes and six stray dogs. The DNA of E. multilocularis was not, however, detected in any of the faecal samples investigated. This is the first report from Tunisia of (coproPCR-)confirmed E. granulosus infections in golden jackals and red foxes. The possible role of such wild hosts in the transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia should be investigated further. The possibility of the active transmission of E. multilocularis in Tunisia still remains an open question.

  12. Reptile neoplasia at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden, 1901-2002.

    PubMed

    Sykes, John M; Trupkiewicz, John G

    2006-03-01

    A retrospective study of neoplasia in reptiles held at the Philadelphia Zoological Garden was conducted. A total of 3,684 original necropsy reports for the period 1901-2002 were reviewed and revealed 86 cases of neoplasia. Original glass slides or re-cuts from paraffin-embedded tissue blocks were examined for confirmation of the original diagnosis. At necropsy, a total of six neoplasms were identified in six of 490 chelonians (1.2%), 22 neoplasms in 19 of 736 lizards (3.0%), and 58 neoplasms in 53 of 1,835 snakes (2.9%). An additional 12 neoplasms were found in biopsies of one turtle and 10 snakes. In the chelonians, all the neoplasms were seen in turtles, four of six tumors were malignant (66%) and no organ predilection was noted. For lizards, the liver was the most commonly affected organ, with 7 of 22 primary neoplasms (31%). Multiple tumor types were identified in three lizards (15%), metastasis occurred in five cases (25%), and malignant tumors were identified in 16 cases (73%). In snakes, the liver was most frequently affected by neoplasia at necropsy, with 13 of 58 primary neoplasms (22%); multiple types of neoplasm were identified in five cases (10%) and metastasis in six (9%); and 42 tumors (80%) were diagnosed as malignant. When biopsies were included for snakes, however, the skin was the most commonly affected organ, with 17 of 69 neoplasms (24%). One of five lizards (20%) and four of six snakes (66%) with metastasis also had a second primary neoplasm. Since 1967, the incidence of lizard neoplasia has increased from 0.7% to 5.9%, and snake neoplasia has increased from 2.6% to 9.3%.

  13. Safety evaluation of chronic intrathecal administration of heparan N-sulfatase in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Richard W; Felice, Brian R; Boyd, Robert B; Butt, Mark T; Ruiz, Juan A; Heartlein, Michael W; Calias, Pericles

    2012-06-01

    An intrathecal (IT) formulation of recombinant human heparan N-sulfatase (HNS) is under development for the treatment of the neurological symptoms of mucopolysaccharidosis IIIA (MPS IIIA; Sanfilippo A disease), the defining clinical feature of this disorder. Since the average age of MPS IIIA patients is 4.5 years, the pivotal toxicology studies for HNS were conducted in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys to evaluate the effects on the developing brain. Monkeys were implanted with an IT-lumbar drug delivery device and dosed every other week by slow bolus administration (1.5, 4.5, or 8.3 mg/dose HNS for 6 months; 12 doses), with device and vehicle controls receiving phosphate-buffered saline or vehicle, respectively. Eight animals per group (four/sex) were necropsied at 3 and 6 months (device control group necropsied at 3 months), and eight animals from the vehicle group and the three HNS-dosed groups were necropsied 1 month after the final IT dose. No HNS-related clinical signs or gross central nervous system lesions were observed. Compared with controls, there were cellular infiltrates of slight-to-minimal mean severity in the meninges/perineurium surrounding the brain/spinal cord correlating with transient increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocytes, predominantly eosinophils, which largely resolved 1 month after the final dose. These changes were not associated with any adverse morphological changes in the brain or spinal cord. There appeared to be a dose-related trend toward higher mean CSF HNS levels and in tissue HNS activity levels in the brain, spinal cord, and liver. The no-observed-adverse-effect-level was 8.3 mg/dose given every other week, the highest dose administered.

  14. Relationship between thoracic auscultation and lung pathology detected by ultrasonography in sheep.

    PubMed

    Scott, Phil; Collie, Dave; McGorum, Bruce; Sargison, Neil

    2010-10-01

    The utility of routine auscultation to detect and characterise the nature of a range of superficial lung and pleural pathologies in domestic sheep was assessed using ultrasonographic examination to indicate and localise pathologies pre-mortem. Necropsy examination was then used to fully characterise the nature and extent of the lesions. Auscultation recordings were made from 10 normal sheep with no clinical evidence of respiratory disease and with absence of significant superficial lung pathology, which was confirmed initially by ultrasound examination and subsequently at necropsy examination. A further two sheep with endotoxaemia and 30 sheep with well-defined lung lesions were also examined. Increased audibility of normal lung sounds in 4/10 normal sheep was associated with tachypnoea as a consequence of handling and transport during hot weather and was also observed in the two sheep with endotoxaemia. Moderate to severe coarse crackles detected in all advanced cases of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (n=16) were audible over an area larger than the lesion distribution identified during ultrasound examination, and confirmed later at necropsy. Auscultation did not detect abnormal sounds in any of the five sheep with focal pleural abscesses (up to 10 cm diameter). Unilateral pyothorax caused attenuation of sounds relative to the contra-lateral normal lung in all three sheep with this condition. Marked fibrinous pleurisy caused attenuation of sounds relative to normal areas of lung in six sheep. No sounds resembling the description of pleural frictions rubs were heard in the sheep with marked fibrinous pleurisy (n=6) or associated with focal pleural abscesses (n=5). Routine interpretation of auscultated sound did not allow the presence of superficial lung pathology or its distribution to be accurately defined in the respiratory diseases represented in this study.

  15. Treatment of Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs with milbemycin oxime.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Dwight D; Ulrich, Michael A; Gregory, Dawn E; Neumann, Norwood R; Legg, Walter; Stansfield, David

    2005-05-15

    An examination was made as to the ability of Sentinel Flavor Tabs (milbemycin oxime/lufenuron) to treat Baylisascaris procyonis infections in dogs. The study was designed as a critical trial and included five naturally infected dogs and two dogs that were experimentally infected. Another dog from a prior clinical trial that was treated with Sentinel Flavor Tabs as part of the original FDA submission package for intestinal nematode infections was also included with the treated dogs. Of the five naturally infected dogs treated as part of the critical trial, three were cleared of their infections. These five dogs passed a total of 52 worms after treatment; one dog retained 23 worms and the other retained 1 worm at necropsy 7 days after treatment. Two of five experimentally infected Beagle dogs that had been given mice that had been fed 200 infectious eggs, developed patent infections with the parasite. These dogs were treated, and one of the dogs passed one worm and the other passed two worms after treatment with no worms being detected at necropsy 7 days after treatment. The one dog that was treated with milbemycin oxime as part of the FDA submission was clear of worms at necropsy. Overall, the mean efficacy of Sentinel Flavor Tabs was found to be 91.0%. Of the eight dogs that were treated, six were totally cleared of their infections, a cure rate of 75%. The two dogs that did not clear their infections had very large numbers of adult B. procyonis within their intestinal tracts at the time of treatment, one dog had 40 worms (23 remaining) and the other had 26 worms (1 remaining). It is suggested that the treatment of dogs with monthly Sentinel Flavor Tabs could markedly reduce the chance of infected dogs contaminating the environment. Also, additional monthly treatments are highly likely to clear dogs of any worms not killed with the initial treatment.

  16. Neoplasia in felids at the Knoxville Zoological Gardens, 1979-2003.

    PubMed

    Owston, Michael A; Ramsay, Edward C; Rotstein, David S

    2008-12-01

    A review of medical records and necropsy reports from 1979-2003 found 40 neoplasms in 26 zoo felids, including five lions (Panthera leo, two males and three females), three leopards (Panthera pardus, two males and one female), one jaguar (Panthera onca, female), 11 tigers (Panthera tigris, three males and eight females), two snow leopards (Panthera uncia, one male and one female), two cougars (Felis concolor, one male and one female), one bobcat (Felis rufus, male), and one cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus, female). Animals that had not reached 3 yr of age or had been housed in the collection less than 3 yrs were not included in the study. Neoplasia rate at necropsy was 51% (24/47), and overall incidence of felid neoplasia during the study period was 25% (26/103). Neoplasia was identified as the cause of death or reason for euthanasia in 28% (13/47) of those necropsied. Neoplasms were observed in the integumentary-mammary (n=11), endocrine (n=10), reproductive (n=8), hematopoietic-lymphoreticular (n=5), digestive (n=3), and hepatobiliary (n=2) systems. One neoplasm was unclassified by system. Multiple neoplasms were observed in 11 animals. Both benign and malignant neoplasms were observed in all systems except for the hematopoietic-lymphoreticular systems where all processes were malignant. Of the endocrine neoplasms, those involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands predominated (n=8) over other endocrine organs and included adenomas and carcinomas. In the integumentary system, 63% (7/11) of neoplasms involved the mammary gland, with mammary carcinoma representing 83% (6/7) of the neoplasms. The rates of neoplasia at this institution, during the given time period, appears to be greater than rates found in the one other published survey of captive felids.

  17. Toxocara canis in experimentally infected silver and arctic foxes.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Isam; Taira, Kensuke; Kapel, Christian M O

    2005-09-01

    In two experiments, thirty-six farm foxes of two species were inoculated with various doses of infective Toxocara canis eggs or tissue larvae isolated from mice. In experiment I, six adult arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus; 11-month old) were each inoculated with 20,000 eggs and sacrificed 100, 220, or 300 days post infection (dpi), while ten silver fox cubs (Vulpes vulpes; 6-9-week old) were infected with varying doses of eggs (30-3000) and necropsied 120 dpi. In experiment II, two groups of five cubs and two groups of five adult silver foxes received both a primary inoculation and either one or two challenge inoculations: primary inoculation (day 0) with 400 embryonated eggs were administered to five cubs and five adults and another five cubs and five adults received 400 larvae. At 50 dpi, the first challenge inoculation (400 eggs) was inoculated in all animals. At 100 dpi, three animals from each group were necropsied. The remaining two animals in each group were received a second challenge inoculation of 400 tissue larvae on 100 dpi and were subsequently necropsied at 150 dpi. In both experiments, the highest numbers of larvae per gram (lpg) of tissue was found in the kidneys (100-300 dpi). In adult foxes receiving a high dose (20,000 eggs), increasing larval burdens were found in the kidneys over the course of the experiment (up to 300 dpi). The larval migration from the lungs to other tissues appeared to be dose-dependent with the highest larval burdens found in adult foxes. The faecal egg excretion, larval burden and intestinal worm burdens decreased from the first to the second challenge infection.

  18. Questionnaire study and postmortem findings in backyard chicken flocks in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pohjola, Leena; Rossow, Laila; Huovilainen, Anita; Soveri, Timo; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2015-01-22

    Although modern commercial poultry production today is based on large farms and intensive husbandry, keeping backyard poultry has regained popularity in industrialized countries. However, the health status of backyard flocks is still relatively poorly documented. A questionnaire was sent to the owners of 376 backyard poultry flocks (<500 birds) in order to study health management procedures and characterize backyard poultry populations in Finland. Information was also collected on the postmortem findings from non-commercial flocks using necropsy data from the Finnish Food Safety Authority (Evira). Backyard flocks in Finland are small in size (<50 birds), comprising mainly chickens. Based on the results of the questionnaire, the health of such flocks is good, mortality low and vaccinations are not commonly used. Most of the flocks were registered in the national poultry register. The standard biosecurity practices are not generally applied and contact with wild birds, pets and farm animals is frequent, which can make the flocks more prone to infectious diseases. We conducted an 11-year retrospective study of the postmortem necropsy findings of the Evira in order to document the diseases, which caused mortality in backyard chickens in Finland. Necropsy was performed on a total of 132 non-commercial laying hens during 2000 - 2011. The most common postmortem findings were Marek's disease (27%) and colibacillosis (17%). This study is the first to report data on characteristics of and management practices for backyard chicken flocks in Finland. Close connections with commercial flocks are rare and farms are usually distantly located suggesting that the risk that these backyard flocks pose to commercial poultry is low.

  19. A modified critical test for the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate for Anoplocephala perfoliata in equids

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Aims of this study with 13 equids naturally infected with Anoplocephala perfoliata were to document (i) a critical test with a period of 48 h from treatment to necropsy to assess the efficacy of an anthelmintic against the tapeworm, (ii) the efficacy of pyrantel pamoate oral paste at 13.2 mg pyrantel base/kg body weight, and (iii) the time after treatment when fecal egg counts would best estimate the tapeworm’s prevalence in a herd. Feces passed in successive 12-h periods after treatment were examined for tapeworms. At necropsy, tapeworms in equids were identified as attached to the mucosa or unattached and, with a stereoscope, as normal or abnormal. At the time of treatment and at 6-h intervals thereafter, fecal samples were taken for egg counts. The efficacy of pyrantel pamoate was 96.6%; in 1 equid the efficacy was 75.3%, and in 8 it was 100%. “Major fragments” (worms without a scolex) accounted for 10% of the tapeworms recovered; they were not included in the efficacy analysis but should be. In 3 untreated equids necropsied, tapeworms were in the cecum, and 21.3% were detached. This protocol, when compared with a 24-h one without examination of feces, was more efficient in the treatment of trial animals and reduced underestimation and overestimation of an anthelmintic’s efficacy. However, a protocol similar to this 48-h critical test but with a 24- or 36-h post-treatment period should be investigated. The mean egg count peaked 18 to 24 h after treatment and the samples taken at that time would provide the best estimate of prevelance of tapeworms in a herd. The Cornell–Wisconsin centrifugal flotation technique had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% at 18 h and 92% and 100%, respectively, at 24 h. PMID:15188955

  20. Minimally invasive entero-enteral dual-path bypass using self-assembling magnets.

    PubMed

    Ryou, Marvin; Aihara, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Christopher C

    2016-10-01

    A minimally invasive method of entero-enteral bypass may be desirable for treatment of obstruction, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. We have developed a technology based on miniature self-assembling magnets which create large-caliber anastomoses (incisionless anastomosis system or IAS). The aim of this study was to assess (a) procedural characteristics of IAS deployment and (b) long-term integrity and patency of the resulting jejuno-ileal dual-path bypass. Endoscopic jejuno-ileal bypass creation using IAS magnets was performed in 8 Yorkshire pigs survived 3 months. The jejunal magnet was endoscopically deployed. However, the ileal magnet required surgical delivery given restraints of porcine anatomy. A 5-mm enterotomy was created through which the ileal magnet was inserted using a modified laparoscopic delivery tool. Magnets were manually coupled. Pigs underwent serial endoscopies for anastomosis assessment. Three-month necropsies were performed, followed by pressure testing of anastomoses and histological analysis. Jejuno-ileal bypass creation using self-assembling IAS magnets was successful in all 8 pigs (100 %). Patent, leak-free bypasses formed in all animals by day 10. All IAS magnets were expelled by day 12. Anastomoses were widely patent at 3 months, with mean maximal diameter of 30 mm. At necropsy, adhesions were minimal. Pressure testing confirmed superior integrity of anastomotic tissue. Histology showed full epithelialization across the anastomosis with no evidence of submucosal fibrosis or inflammation. Entero-enteral bypass using self-assembling IAS magnets is safe and technically feasible in the porcine model. IAS magnets can be rapidly delivered endoscopically or through a modified laparoscopic device. Expulsion of fused magnets avoids retention of prosthetic material. Anastomoses are widely patent and fully re-epithelialized. Three-month pressure testing reveals anastomotic tissue to be as robust as native tissue, while necropsy and histology

  1. Extra-intestinal coccidiosis in the kiwi (Apteryx spp.).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kerri J; Alley, Maurice R; Pomroy, William E; Gartrell, Brett D; Castro, Isabel; Howe, Laryssa

    2013-04-01

    Despite significant conservation intervention, the kiwi (Apteryx spp.) is in serious population decline. To increase survival in the wild, conservation management includes rearing of young birds in captivity, safe from introduced mammalian predators. However, an increase in density of immunologically naïve kiwi increases the risk of exposure to disease, including coccidia. Intestinal coccidiosis has recently been described in the kiwi, and although extra-intestinal coccidiosis was first recognized in kiwi in 1978, very little is known about this disease entity. This study used archived histological tissues and reports from routine necropsies to describe the pathology of naturally occurring extra-intestinal coccidiosis. At least 4.5% of all kiwi necropsied during 1991 to 2011 (n=558) were affected by extra-intestinal coccidiosis, and it is estimated that it caused death in 0.9 to 1.2% of kiwi in the study group. Four forms were recognized: renal, hepatic, and, less commonly, splenic and pulmonary. At necropsy, renal coccidiosis was associated with miliary white streaks and foci through the kidneys, renomegaly, and renal pallor or congestion. Renal meronts and gametocytes were confined to the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts, and were associated with renal tubular necrosis and tubular obstruction. Hepatic miliary pinpoint foci were present throughout the hepatic parenchyma associated microscopically with macromeronts measuring 304×227 µm. In two cases, clusters of splenic meronts were identified, and a similar lesion was identified in the pulmonary interstitium of another case. Juvenile, captive kiwi were most often affected with extra-intestinal coccidiosis, illustrating an increased expression of disease with population manipulation for conservation purposes.

  2. MRI as a Novel In Vivo Approach for Assessing Structural Changes of Chlamydia Pathology in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shubing; Meng, Xiangjun; Skinner, Julie M.; Heinrichs, Jon H.; Smith, Jeffrey G.; Boddicker, Melissa A.

    2016-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is among the most prevalent of sexually transmitted diseases. While Chlamydia infection is a reportable event and screening has increased over time, enhanced surveillance has not resulted in a reduction in the rate of infections, and Chlamydia infections frequently recur. The development of a preventative vaccine for Chlamydia may be the only effective approach for reducing infection and the frequency of pathological outcomes. Current vaccine research efforts involve time consuming and/or invasive approaches for assessment of disease state, and MRI presents a clinically translatable method for assessing infection and related pathology both quickly and non-invasively. Longitudinal T2-weighted MRI was performed over 63 days on both control or Chlamydia muridarum challenged mice, either with or without elementary body (EB) immunization, and gross necropsy was performed on day 65. A scoring system was developed to assess the number of regions affected by Chlamydia pathology and was used to document pathology over time and at necropsy. The scoring system documented increasing incidence of pathology in the unimmunized and challenged mice (significantly greater compared to the control and EB immunized-challenged groups) by 21 days post-challenge. No differences between the unchallenged and EB immunized-challenged mice were observed. MRI scores at Day 63 were consistently higher than gross necropsy scores at Day 65, although two of the three groups of mice showed no significant differences between the two techniques. In this work we describe the application of MRI in mice for the potential evaluation of disease pathology and sequelae caused by C. muridarum infection and this technique’s potential for evaluation of vaccines for Chlamydia. PMID:27467585

  3. Septicemic pasteurellosis in free-ranging neonatal pronghorn in Oregon.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, M R; Wolcott, M J; Rimler, R B; Berlowski, B M

    2000-04-01

    As part of a study to determine the cause(s) of population decline and low survival of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) neonates on Hart Mountain National Antelope Refuge (HMNAR), Oregon (USA), 55 of 104 neonates captured during May 1996 and 1997 were necropsied (n = 28, 1996; n = 27, 1997) to determine cause of death. Necropsies were conducted on fawns that died during May, June, or July of each year. The objectives of this study were to report the occurrence and pathology of pasteurellosis in neonates and determine if the isolated strain of Pasteurella multocida was unique. Septicemic pasteurellosis, caused by P. multocida, was diagnosed as the cause of death for two neonates in May and June 1997. Necropsy findings included widely scattered petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages found over a large portion of the subcutaneous tissue, meninges of the brain, epicardium, skeletal muscle, and serosal surface of the thorasic and abdominal cavities. Histological examination of lung tissues revealed diffuse congestion and edema and moderate to marked multifocal infiltrate of macrophages, neutrophils, and numerous bacteria within many terminal bronchioles and alveoli. Pasteurella multocida serotypes A:3,4, and B:1 were isolated from several tissues including lung, intestinal, thorasic fluid, and heart blood. Each B:1 isolate had DNA restriction endonuclease fingerprint profiles distinct from isolates previously characterized from domestic cattle, swan (Olor spp.), moose (Alces alces), and pronghorn from Montana (USA). This is the first report of pasteurellosis in pronghorn from Oregon and the B:1 isolates appear to be unique in comparison to DNA fingerprint profiles from selected domestic and wild species.

  4. Use of computed tomographic scanning and aortography in the diagnosis of acute dissection of the thoracic aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, J M; Oldershaw, P J; Gray, H H

    1990-01-01

    Before the introduction of computed tomographic (CT) scanning, aortography was the investigation of choice for acute aortic dissection. Between 1978 and 1982, 24 patients were referred to the Brompton Hospital with suspected acute thoracic aortic dissection; all had aortography with diagnosis confirmed at surgery (n = 12) or necropsy (n = 2) or supported by clinical outcome (n = 8). One patient in whom aortography was negative had type B dissection at necropsy and another patient was lost to follow up. CT scanning became available in this unit in 1983 and between 1983 and 1987 was used as the only imaging investigation in 32 patients with suspected acute dissection of the thoracic aorta while in a further 22 patients aortography was used alone. Results were confirmed at surgery (n = 18), necropsy (n = 3), or supported by clinical outcome (n = 31). Two patients were lost to follow up. In an additional 16 patients both aortography and CT scanning were performed with concordant findings in 10. In six in whom the results were discordant, aortography was normal in three in whom subsequent CT scanning showed type B dissection and CT scanning was normal in three patients in whom aortography showed type A dissection. Both CT scanning and aortography are reliable techniques for assessment of suspected acute dissection of the thoracic aorta. Both techniques misdiagnose occasionally and the frequency of misdiagnosis will be minimised by performing both investigations in patients where the level of clinical suspicion is high and the initial investigation negative. CT scanning tends to miss type A dissection and in view of the success of surgery in this condition this failing has the more serious clinical consequences. PMID:2223304

  5. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk), ruminal disorders (0.7%), idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%), enterotoxaemia (0.5%) and enteritis (0.4%). Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols. PMID:22414223

  6. Cholelithiasis in adult bearded dragons: retrospective study of nine adult bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) with cholelithiasis between 2013 and 2015 in southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Gimmel, A; Kempf, H; Öfner, S; Müller, D; Liesegang, A

    2017-06-01

    With an increased number of pet reptiles, many diseases occur due to nutritional disorders. Between 2013 and 2015, irregular gallbladder contents (sludge/choleliths) in adult bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) were recorded in many of the routinely conducted necropsies at the reptile rescue station in Munich (Auffangstation für Reptilien, München e.V., Munich, Germany). Nine animals, six from the rescue station and three from an associated veterinary practice (Tierärztliche Praxis für Exoten, Augsburg, Germany), were studied. Gallbladder contents from all animals were analysed at the Institute for Clinical Chemistry in Zurich, Switzerland. In three of nine animals, one cholelith composed of 100% calcium carbonate (CaCO3 ) was detected and it precipitated either as pure calcite or as a calcite:vaterite combination. In the remaining six animals, analyses suggested a protein-based material. The detection of choleliths/sludge was not anticipated at necropsy or surgery in eight of nine animals. The diet of the six animals from the rescue station was retrospectively described as mainly insects, whereas the diet of the three animals from the veterinary practice also contained little plant matter. Fed insect species were mealworm larva (Tenebrio molitor), house cricket (Acheta domestica), migratory locust (Locusta migratoria) and zophobas larva (Zophobas morio), all high in protein and fat. In other species, a nidus must be present for CaCO3 to precipitate. As a protein-based sludge was detected in six gallbladders, it is possible that a high-protein diet could lead to such a nidus and subsequently to cholelith formation. Cholelithiasis seems to be a rising problem in adult bearded dragons and is likely underdiagnosed, as many choleliths were found at necropsy. This rise in cholelithiasis may correlate with an unnatural high-protein, high-fat insect-based diet instead of a balanced plant-based diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell

  7. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type II) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    A two-phase Dose Range findng study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type II, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75micron GBII/Kg/day), and a vehicle control . Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11 -1 2 weeks of age into four treatment groups (1 2 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rat/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  8. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type I) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Crowell, J.A.; Thurman, J.D.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    A two-phase Dose Range finding study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type I, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150, micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75 micron GBI/Kg/day), and a vehicle control (O micron /Kg/day). Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11-12 weeks of age into four treatment groups (12 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rats/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals, and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four of the eight cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  9. Role of Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza-3 virus in bighorn sheep pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Evermann, James F; Herrmann-Hoesing, Lynn M; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2013-02-22

    Pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS) have been found to be culture- and/or sero-positive for Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3). The objective of this study was to determine whether these pathogens can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the first study, two groups of four BHS each were intra-tracheally administered with leukotoxin-positive (Group I) or leukotoxin-negative (Group II) B. trehalosi. All four animals in Group I developed severe pneumonia, and two of them died within 3 days. The other two animals showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. Animals in Group II neither died nor showed gross pneumonic lesions on necropsy, suggesting that leukotoxin-positive, but not leukotoxin-negative, B. trehalosi can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the second study, two other groups of four BHS (Groups III and IV) were intra-nasally administered with a mixture of RSV and PI-3. Four days later, RSV/PI-3-inoculated Group IV and another group of four BHS (Group V, positive control) were intra-nasally administered with Mannheimia haemolytica, the pathogen that consistently causes fatal pneumonia in BHS. All four animals in group III developed pneumonia, but did not die during the study period. However all four animals in Group IV, and three animals in Group V developed severe pneumonia and died within two days of M. haemolytica inoculation. The fourth animal in Group V showed severe pneumonic lesions on euthanasia and necropsy. These findings suggest that RSV/PI-3 can cause non-fatal pneumonia, but are not necessary predisposing agents for M. haemolytica-caused pneumonia of BHS.

  10. Clinical, laboratory and pathological findings in dogs experimentally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum.

    PubMed

    Schnyder, Manuela; Fahrion, Anna; Riond, Barbara; Ossent, Pete; Webster, Pia; Kranjc, Asja; Glaus, Tony; Deplazes, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this comparative study was to investigate the development of clinical signs and accompanying haematological, coproscopic and pathological findings as a basis for the monitoring of health condition of Angiostrongylus vasorum infected dogs. Six beagles were orally inoculated with 50 (n=3) or 500 (n=3) A. vasorum third stage larvae (L3) obtained from experimentally infected Biomphalaria glabrata snails. Two dogs were treated with moxidectin/imidacloprid spot-on solution and two further dogs with an oral experimental compound 92 days post infection (dpi), and were necropsied 166 dpi. Two untreated control dogs were necropsied 97 dpi. Prepatency was 47-49 days. Dogs inoculated with 500 L3 exhibited earlier (from 42 dpi) and more severe respiratory signs. Clinical signs resolved 12 days after treatment and larval excretion stopped within 20 days in all four treated dogs. Upon necropsy, 10 and 170 adult worms were recovered from the untreated dogs inoculated with 50 and 500 L3, respectively. Adult worms were also found in two treated dogs, in the absence of L1 or eggs. Despite heavy A. vasorum infection load and severe pulmonary changes including vascular thrombosis, only mild haematological changes were observed. Eosinophilia was absent but the presence of plasma cells was observed. Neutrophilic leucocytes showed a transient increase but only after treatment. Signs for coagulopathies were slight; nevertheless coagulation parameters were inoculation dose dependent. Ten weeks after treatment pulmonary fibrosis was still present. Infections starting from 50 L3 of A. vasorum had a massive impact on lung tissues and therefore on the health of affected dogs, particularly after prepatency, although only mild haematological abnormalities were evident.

  11. Animal serial killing: The first criminal conviction for animal cruelty in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Salvagni, Fernanda Auciello; de Siqueira, Adriana; Fukushima, Andre Rinaldi; Landi, Marina Frota de Albuquerque; Ponge-Ferreira, Heidi; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar

    2016-10-01

    Animal cruelty is a known behavior of psychopaths, and although the serial killing of humans is widely acknowledged worldwide, this type of crime against animals is seldom discussed. This report describes the necropsy and toxicological findings of 37 dogs and cats, which were found dead in plastic bags in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The animals had all been in the care of an alleged animal rescuer and were to be referred for adoption before being found dead. In the necropsy, the animals showed varying degrees of putrefaction, indicating different periods of death, as well as single or multiple perforations on the thorax. The perforations reached the heart, lungs or large thoracic vessels, culminating in hemopericardium and hemothorax that led to death by circulatory failure and cardiac tamponade. Blood from the heart and thoracic cavity was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and tested positive for ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic. The suspect declared that she had killed only five of the animals and that they had all been fatally sick. The necropsy proved that all 37 animals were killed in the same way, that none of the animals had any terminal diseases and that a restricted drug was used. The suspect was sentenced to 12 years, 6 months and 14days of prison for the killing of the 37 animals. This was the first conviction for the crime of animal cruelty in Brazil. The combined role of police, forensic veterinary pathologists and prosecutors were essential to the conviction, which was a great historical occasion in the fight against animal cruelty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of dart or booster vaccination with strain RB51 in protecting bison against experimental Brucella abortus challenge.

    PubMed

    Olsen, S C; Johnson, C S

    2012-06-01

    This study characterized the efficacy of the Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in bison when delivered by single intramuscular vaccination (hand RB51), by single pneumatic dart delivery (dart RB51), or as two vaccinations approximately 13 months apart (booster RB51) in comparison to control bison. All bison were challenged intraconjunctivally in midgestation with 10(7) CFU of B. abortus strain 2308 (S2308). Bison were necropsied and sampled within 72 h of abortion or delivery of a live calf. Compared to nonvaccinated bison, bison in the booster RB51 treatment had a reduced (P < 0.05) incidence of abortion, uterine infection, or infection in maternal tissues other than the mammary gland at necropsy. Bison in single-vaccination treatment groups (hand RB51 and dart RB51) did not differ (P > 0.05) from the control group in the incidence of abortion or recovery of S2308 from uterine, mammary, fetal, or maternal tissues at necropsy. Compared to nonvaccinated animals, all RB51 vaccination groups had reduced (P < 0.05) mean colonization or incidence of infection in at least 2 of 4 target tissues, with the booster RB51 group having reduced (P < 0.05) colonization and incidence of infection in all target tissues. Our data suggest that booster vaccination of bison with RB51 enhances protective immunity against Brucella challenge compared to single vaccination with RB51 by hand or by pneumatic dart. Our study also suggests that an initial vaccination of calves followed by booster vaccination as yearlings should be an effective strategy for brucellosis control in bison.

  13. Development of pituitary lesions in ND4 Swiss Webster mice when estimating the sensory irritancy of airborne chemicals using ASTM method E981-84.

    PubMed

    Werley, M S; Burleigh-Flayer, H D; Fowler, E H; Rybka, M L; Ader, A W

    1996-08-01

    This study determined the origin of pituitary lesions found in male ND4 Swiss Webster mice following a single head-only exposure to inhaled test materials using ASTM E981-84, standard test method for estimating sensory irritancy of airborne chemicals. Necropsy and histopathology data were evaluated due to the occurrence of unexpected pituitary lesions in sham control and exposure groups. Groups of four mice were restrained in body plethysmographs and exposed for 30 min to increasing dust concentrations of one of three test chemicals to assess the ability to cause sensory irritation. Sham control and test material-exposed mice were sacrificed after a single exposure and subjected to a complete necropsy and microscopic evaluation of the pituitary gland. Control mice remained in the animal room and were not restrained in the plethysmograph. Gross observation at necropsy showed pituitary lesions in one of seven unrestrained control mice (revised to zero of seven after microscopic examination). Seven of seven sham control mice had pituitary lesions, suggesting that the lesions were not related to test material exposure. Each test material-exposed group also had pituitary lesions with high incidence (52/60 for all groups combined), which was not exposure concentration-dependent. Microscopic evaluation of the pituitary glands revealed that darkening of the gland was due to hemorrhage and confirmed that the lesions developed with 100% incidence (19/19) in plethysmograph-housed animals. The rubber neck seal used to restrict animal movement in the plethysmograph appears to have caused an increase in pressure in the blood vessels in the pituitary gland; vessels then ruptured and hemorrhaged. This finding should not adversely affect sensory irritation responses evaluated with this method.

  14. EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TREATMENT WITH EUPHORBIA TIRUCALLI LATEX ON THE SURVIVAL AND INTESTINAL ADHESIONS IN RATS WITH EXPERIMENTAL PERITONITIS

    PubMed Central

    de ARAÚJO, Lilhian Alves; MRUÉ, Fátima; NEVES, Roberpaulo Anacleto; ALVES, Maxley Martins; da SILVA-JÚNIOR, Nelson Jorge; SILVA, Marcelo Seixo de Brito; de MELO-REIS, Paulo Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of plants of the family Euphorbiaceae, particularly Euphorbia tirucalli (avelós) has been popularly widespread for treating a variety of diseases of infectious, tumoral, and inflammatory. Aim: To demonstrated antimicrobial and immunomodulatory effects of these extracts, evaluating the effect of a topical treatment with an aqueous solution of avelós latex on the survival and on intestinal adhesions in rats with experimental peritonitis. Methods: Peritonitis was induced in 24 Wistar rats, that were randomized into four groups of six as follows: (1) Control group (n=6), no treatment; (2) Antibiotic group (n=6), treatment with a single intramuscular dose of antibiotic Unasyn; (3) Saline group (n=6), the abdominal cavity was washed with 0.9% saline; and (4) E.tirucalli group (n=6), the abdominal cavity was washed with E. tirucalli at a concentration of 12 mg/ml. The animals that died were necropsied, and the time of death was recorded. The survivors were killed on postoperative day 11, and necropsy was subsequently performed for evaluation of the intestinal adhesions. Results: Significant differences were observed in the control and antibiotic groups (p<0.01) with respect to the survival hours when compared with the saline and E. tirucalli groups. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the survival of animals in the saline andE. tirucalli groups; however, one animal died in the saline group. Necropsy of the animals in the saline and E. tirucalligroups showed strong adhesions resistant to manipulation, between the intestinal loops and abdominal wall. The remaining groups did not show any adhesions. Conclusions: Topical treatment with E. tirucalli latex stimulated an increased formation of intestinal adhesions and prevented the death of all animals with peritonitis. PMID:26734792

  15. Do resuscitation attempts in children who die, cause injury?

    PubMed

    Ryan, M P; Young, S J; Wells, D L

    2003-01-01

    To determine the incidence, type, and pattern of injury related to resuscitation attempts in children who die. Retrospective review of ambulance, hospital, and necropsy case records. All children who died aged 0-14 years between 1994 and 1996, and underwent a full necropsy at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine (Melbourne, Australia) were identified. Children who were subject to recognised trauma before resuscitation or died because of a congenital abnormality were excluded. The records of all remaining children were reviewed. Children were grouped according to whether resuscitation was attempted or not. From a total of 346 children who died, 204 (58.6%) were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. Resuscitation was performed in 153 (75%) children and was started before ambulance arrival in 123 (60.3%) children. Injuries were detected at necropsy in 65 (42.5%) of children who had resuscitation compared with six (11.7%) of children who had no resuscitation (p<0.0001) chi(2) test. All but two of these injuries were of a minor nature consisting principally of bruises or abrasions. Two significant injuries were identified both occurring as a result of readily identifiable resuscitation procedures. The likelihood of injury increased with the length of resuscitation. In children resuscitated for less than 60 minutes the incidence of injury was 27% compared with 62% for children resuscitated for longer ( p<0.0001). This study has shown that cardiopulmonary resuscitation commonly causes minor injuries such as superficial bruises and abrasions and the likelihood of such injury increases with the duration of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This information should reassure parents and caregivers that basic life support may be instituted without fear of causing significant injury or adversely affecting outcome in the child with cardiorespiratory arrest. Caution must be exercised when attributing significant injuries to resuscitation attempts and alternative

  16. Heart failure caused by toxoplasmosis in a fennec fox (Fennecus zerda).

    PubMed

    Kottwitz, Jack J; Preziosi, Diane E; Miller, Margaret A; Ramos-Vara, Jose A; Maggs, David J; Bonagura, John D

    2004-01-01

    A male fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) kit was examined for lethargy, inappetence, and weight loss. Clinical findings included respiratory distress, a gallop rhythm, and retinochoroiditis. Radiography indicated pleural effusion and cardiomegaly. Echocardiographic findings included left ventricular dilatation, low left ventricular ejection fraction, and atrioventricular valvular regurgitation. Necropsy findings were compatible with a diagnosis of congestive heart failure caused by myocarditis. Histopathology showed a disseminated infection with Toxoplasma gondii causing myocarditis, skeletal polymyositis, gastrointestinal myositis, and panuveitis. Toxoplasma-induced myocarditis should be included in the differential diagnosis of heart failure and retinochoroiditis in the fennec fox.

  17. Purkinje cell heterotopy with cerebellar hypoplasia in two free-living American kestrels (Falco sparverius).

    PubMed

    Armién, A G; McRuer, D L; Ruder, M G; Wünschmann, A

    2013-01-01

    Two wild fledgling kestrels exhibited lack of motor coordination, postural reaction deficits, and abnormal propioception. At necropsy, the cerebellum and brainstem were markedly underdeveloped. Microscopically, there was Purkinje cells heterotopy, abnormal circuitry, and hypoplasia with defective foliation. Heterotopic neurons were identified as immature Purkinje cells by their size, location, immunoreactivity for calbindin D-28 K, and ultrastructural features. The authors suggest that this cerebellar abnormality was likely due to a disruption of molecular mechanisms that dictate Purkinje cell migration, placement, and maturation in early embryonic development. The etiology of this condition remains undetermined. Congenital central nervous system disorders have rarely been reported in birds.

  18. [Fetal ovarian cyst: prenatal echographic diagnosis. Evolution and postnatal treatment. Clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Pardo, Rosa Andrea; Nazer, Julio

    2003-06-01

    Ovarian cysts are found in 32% of necropsies performed to neonates. They can also be diagnosed during gestation by ultrasonography. The clinical evolution of these cysts is variable, but in most cases the prognosis is favorable. Some complications such as ovarian torsion, bleeding, rupture and peritonitis have been described. We report two newborn girls with ovarian cysts, diagnosed during gestation. One required an emergency operation due to vomiting and abdominal distension, interpreted as a possible torsion of the cyst. The second girl was operated at the fourth day of life, finding a left ovarian cyst with torsion of the pedicle. Both girls had a favorable postoperative evolution.

  19. Upregulation of growth signaling and nutrient transporters in cotyledons of early to mid-gestational nutrient restricted ewes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yan; Zhu, Mei J.; Uthlaut, Adam B.; Nijland, Mark J.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Hess, Bret W.; Ford, Stephen P.

    2011-01-01

    Multiparous ewes received 100% (control, C, n=13) or 50% (nutrient restricted, NR, n=14) of NRC dietary requirements from d28-d78 of gestation. On d78, 5 C and 6 NR ewes were necropsied. The remaining 8 C and 8 NR ewes were fed to 100% of NRC from d78-d135 and necropsied. Maternal blood was collected at both necropsies and at weekly intervals for assay of glucose, insulin and leptin. Fetal blood was collected at d78 and d135 necropsies for assay of glucose and lipids. Cotyledonary (COT) tissue was evaluated for protein and mRNA expression [fatty acid transporter (FATP)1, FATP4, CD36, glucose transporter (GLUT)1 and GLUT3], mRNA expression only [placenta fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL)], or expression of phosphorylated and total protein forms [AMP kinase (AMPK)α, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and protein kinase B (Akt)]. On d78, but not d135, placental and fetal weights were reduced (P < 0.05) in NR vs. C ewes. Maternal circulating glucose, insulin and leptin levels were decreased in NR vs. C ewes on d78 (P < 0.05) but similar at d135. Fetal blood glucose and triglyceride levels were lower in NR vs. C ewes (P < 0.05) on d78, but similar on d135. On d78, GLUT1, FATP4, CD36 mRNA and protein expression levels, FABPpm mRNA level, and leptin protein level were all increased (P < 0.05) in COT of NR vs. C ewes. AMPK, ACC, and Erk1/2 activities were also increased (P < 0.05) in NR vs. C COT on d78. In contrast, only FATP4 was increased (P < 0.05) at both the mRNA and protein levels in COT of NR realimented vs. C ewes on d135. These data demonstrate placental adaptation to maternal NR through increasing nutrient transporter production and growth signaling activity. PMID:21292322

  20. Klossiella equi in a donkey--a first case report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Rezaie, A; Bahrami, S; Ansari, M

    2013-09-01

    Klossiella equi is the only known and rarely reported coccidian parasite of the renal paranchyma of equids. An aged male donkey (Equus asinus asinus) was submitted to necropsy department of veterinary hospital. In histopathological study of renal sections different developmental stages of parasite were observed. These stages were as follow: Trophozoites, microgametes, macrogametes, sporont, budding sporont, sporoblasts, free sporoblasts, mature sporoblast and sporocyst. Parasitic infection with K. equi was encountered in the donkey. According to literature review this is the first report of donkey klossiellosis in Iran.

  1. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; Santos, Jeannie Nascimento Dos

    2016-03-11

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  2. Acanthocephala Larvae parasitizing Ameiva ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758) (Squamata: Teiidae).

    PubMed

    Macedo, Lilian Cristina; Melo, Francisco Tiago de Vasconcelos; Ávila-Pires, Teresa Cristina Sauer; Giese, Elane Guerreiro; dos Santos, Jeannie Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge concerning the taxonomy and biology of species of Acanthocephala, helminth parasites of the helminth species of the phylum Acanthocephala, parasites of lizards in Brazilian Amazonia, is still insufficient, but reports of Acanthocephala in reptiles are becoming increasingly common in the literature. Cystacanth-stage Acanthocephalan larvae have been found in the visceral peritoneum during necropsy of Ameiva ameiva ameivalizards from the "Osvaldo Rodrigues da Cunha" Herpetology Collection of the Emílio Goeldi Museum, Belém, Pará, Brazil. The aim of this study was to present the morphological study of the Acanthocephala larvae found in A. ameiva ameiva lizard.

  3. Residues of petroleum hydrocarbons in tissues of sea turtles exposed to the IXTOC I oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Belisle, A.A.; Sileo, L.

    1983-01-01

    Sea turtles found dead when the Ixtoc I oil spill reached Texas waters were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for residues of petroleum hydrocarbons. Two of the three turtles were in poor flesh, but had no apparent oil-caused lesions. There was evidence of oil in all tissues examined and indications that the exposure had been chronic. Comparisons with results of studies done on birds indicate consumption of 50,000 ppm or more of oil in the diet. Some possible mechanisms of mortality are suggested.

  4. The first report of peritoneal tetrathyridiosis in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Taira, Kensuke; Yamazaki, Mutsumi; Kashimura, Akane; Une, Yumi

    2014-10-01

    This report describes a case of peritoneal larval cestodiasis caused by tetrathyridia of Mesocestoides sp. in an adult female squirrel monkey. The monkey had lived in a zoological garden in Japan and had a clinical history of wasting. At necropsy, numerous whitish oval masses were found in the liver and peritoneal cavity. These masses contained larval cestodes. Morphological observation and molecular analyses of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequences allowed us to identify the larva as the tetrathyridium of Mesocestoides sp. This is the first report of Mesocestoides larvae in a squirrel monkey in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, F.; Brandt, J.; Brantegem, L. Van; Bosseler, L.; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. PMID:26623366

  6. Salmonella arizonae sepsis in a lynx.

    PubMed

    Macri, N P; Stevenson, G W; Wu, C C

    1997-10-01

    A 4.5-wk-old lynx (Felis lynx) was presented for necropsy with a history of poor growth, mild diarrhea, anemia, and lethargy. The liver was enlarged and had a 7 mm long fracture that resulted in severe intraabdominal hemorrhage and death. Microscopic lesions were indicative of severe ulcerative cystitis and septicemia. Pure cultures of Salmonella arizonae were isolated from the liver, kidney, and spleen. Based on differences in the chronicity of inflammation in the urinary bladder versus other organs, we speculate that chronic cystitis caused by S arizonae lead to septicemic infection.

  7. Range Finding 14-Day and 90-Day Subchronic Feeding Studies with N,N-Dipropylcyclohexanecarboxamide in Rats. Phase 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    clinical chemistry values. Significant increases occurred in male rat liver organ-to-body weight ratios in all three dose levels at the 45 and 90 day necropsies during the 90-day feeding study. A no effect dose was not achieved during this study. Additional testing would be required to confirm a no effect dose level. It is concluded that a toxic hazard may exist from a prolonged significant oral exposure to N,N-Dopropylcyclohexanecarboxamide. It is recommended that further evaluation of this compound as a candidate insect repellent be discontinued due to the deleterious

  8. Short communication: Survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in tissues of cows following low-dose exposure to electron beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Bode, John F; Thoen, Charles O

    2016-08-01

    This investigation was designed to determine the effects of low-dose electron beam irradiation on the survival of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis in tissue samples collected at necropsy from clinically affected cows. Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis was isolated from the ileum and ileocecal valve of one cow and from the ileum of another cow irradiated at 4.0 kGy, but was not isolated from the ileum, ileocecal valve, or mesenteric lymph node of 11 other cows irradiated at 4 kGy.

  9. DDE poisoning in an adult bald eagle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcelon, D.K.; Thomas, N.J.

    1997-01-01

    A 12-year-old female bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) was found in May 1993 on Santa Catalina Island, California (USA), in a debilitated condition, exhibiting ataxia and tremors; it died within hours. On necropsy, the bird was emaciated but had no evidence of disease or physical injury. Chemical analyses were negative for organophosphorus pesticides and lead poisoning. High concentrations of DDE (wet weight basis) were found in the brain (212 ppm), liver (838 ppm), and serum (53 ppm). Mobilization of DDE, from depleted fat deposits, probably resulted in the lethal concentration in the eagle's brain.

  10. Ulcerative cheilitis in a rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C C; Miller, A D

    2012-03-01

    A 2-year-old, female, simian immunodeficiency virus E543-infected rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) was presented for necropsy following euthanasia due to a history of diarrhea, weight loss, and a small, round ulcer along the left labial commissure. Histopathologic examination of the ulcer revealed infiltration by large numbers of degenerate and nondegenerate neutrophils and macrophages admixed with syncytial epithelial cells. Rare epithelial cells contained herpetic inclusion bodies. These cells stained positive for Human herpesvirus 1 via immunohistochemistry, and DNA sequencing confirmed the presence of closely related Macacine herpesvirus 1 (B virus).

  11. Trace element analysis by PIXE in liver samples from dogs with chronic active hepatitis and liver cirrhosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Marianne; Ekholm, Ann-Kristin; Sevelius, Ewa

    1990-04-01

    Trace element levels of liver samples obtained from necropsied dogs suffering from hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis were determined by PIXE. Two different techniques for preparation of the samples were compared: the pellet press method and wet digestion. Both methods gave similar results, but the pellet press method was chosen for the subsequent routine analyses because of its simplicity due to few preparation steps and little risk of contamination. Preliminary results indicate elevated levels of Cu in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. In hereditary copper-induced hepatitis (Bedlington hepatitis) Fe and Br levels were increased as well.

  12. Ruptured aortic aneurysm in a coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Kilgo, John; Ray, Scott; Miller, Karl V.

    2007-07-01

    Abstract – A radio-collared adult female coyote (Canis latrans) from South Carolina was found dead with no apparent signs of trauma or struggle. Necropsy revealed a ruptured aortic aneurysm within the thoracic cavity as well as severe heartworm infection, with paracites present in the caudal vena cava. Histologically, inflammatory cell infiltrates were frequent in the aneurysm and consisted of eosinophils, neutrophils, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages. Bacteria, fungi, and paracites were not found in the aneurysm. Death was due to exsanguinations. This represents a first report of an aneurysm in a coyote.

  13. Gongylonema pulchrum infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a vari (Lemur macaco variegata; Kehr 1792).

    PubMed

    Bleier, T; Hetzel, U; Bauer, C; Behlert, O; Burkhardt, E

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the morphologic and histologic features of a case of esophageal Gongylonema pulchrum infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a 17-yr-old, female vari (Lemur macaco variegates). The lemur had lived in a German zoo and had a clinical history of dyspnea, vomiting, and anorexia. At necropsy, a whitish, soft, nodular, centrally necrotic mass was found in the caudal third of the esophagus. In addition, numerous intraepithelial nematodes (G. pulchrum) were observed in the entire esophagus. Results suggest a relation between infection with G. pulchrum and development of an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. Mortality of passerines adjacent to a North Carolina corn field treated with granular carbofuran.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augspurger, Tom; Smith, Milton R.; Meteyer, Carol U.; Converse, Kathryn A.

    1996-01-01

    Red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) were collected during an epizootic in southeastern North Carolina (USA). Activity of brain cholinesterase (ChE) was inhibited by 14 to 48% in three of five specimens, and returned to normal levels after incubation. Gastrointestinal tracts were analyzed for 30 anti-ChE agents. Carbofuran, the only compound detected, was present in all specimens at levels from 5.44 to 72.7 μg/g wet weight. Application of granular carbofuran in an adjacent corn field, results of necropsy examinations, and chemical analyses are consistent with a diagnosis of carbofuran poisoning in these specimens.

  15. An outbreak of leptospirosis in seals (Phoca vitulina) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Kik, M J L; Goris, M G; Bos, J H; Hartskeerl, R A; Dorrestein, G M

    2006-03-01

    An outbreak of leptospirosis in seals (Phoca vitulina) in captivity is described. In a zoo in The Netherlands 5 adult seals died within 12 days. At necropsy all animals showed signs of acute septicaemia, consistent with acute leptospirosis. Serological examination of one animal was positive for antibodies against Leptospira interrogans serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae and the serologically closely related serovar Copenhageni. Polymerase chain reaction was positive in one other animal. 8 nutria (Myocastor coypus) were examined, serologically, through bacteriological culture and PCR. 81,8% (9/11) were serologically positive for Leptospira. The seals and nutria were housed in the same water system.

  16. Oronasal fistula in a 53-year-old hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).

    PubMed

    Wittschen, P; Ochs, A; Gruber, A D

    2007-11-01

    An oronasal fistula is described in a 53-year-old captive hippopotamus, the animal having shown a nasal discharge, consisting mainly of food particles, during and after feeding for at least 15 years. Necropsy of the emaciated animal revealed an oronasal fistula, measuring 4.5 x 3.5 cm, adjacent to the third left molar tooth, the first and second molars being missing. The fistula was thought to have been caused by an earlier necrotizing alveolitis and osteitis. There was no evidence of rhinitis or aspiration pneumonia. Unrelated findings consisted of a follicular thyroid adenoma and generalized muscle atrophy.

  17. Abdominal pythiosis in a Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris).

    PubMed

    Buergelt, Claus; Powe, Joshua; White, Tamara

    2006-06-01

    An adult Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) housed in an outdoor sanctuary in Florida exhibited vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. A clinical workup did not reveal the source of the clinical signs and antibiotic therapy was unrewarding. Radiographs revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. The tiger died during an immobilization for a follow-up clinical examination. A necropsy was performed and tissue samples of intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes were submitted for histopathologic diagnosis. A pyogranulomatous panenteritis and lymphadenitis with intralesional hyphae led to a presumptive etiologic diagnosis of intestinal/abdominal pythiosis. The diagnosis of pythiosis was confirmed by serology and immunoblotting.

  18. Latrogenic lipoid pneumonia in an adult horse

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A 20-year-old gelding presented with a history of acute respiratory distress which began immediately after administration of a mineral oil and water mix, via nasogastric intubation, for treatment of suspected gastrointestinal dysfunction. An initial presumptive diagnosis of acute lipoid pneumonia was made; this was further supported by evidence of arterial hypoxaemia and oxygen desaturation on arterial blood gas analysis, ultrasonographic signs of bilateral ventral lung consolidation and a mixed bronchoalveolar-interstitial lung pattern seen on thoracic radiographs. Despite intensive supportive therapy the horse's condition continued to deteriorate and the decision was made for humane euthanasia. Gross necropsy findings supported the clinical diagnosis of lipoid pneumonia. PMID:21851746

  19. Localisation and characterisation of dystrophin in the central nervous system of controls and patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Uchino, M; Teramoto, H; Naoe, H; Yoshioka, K; Miike, T; Ando, M

    1994-01-01

    The aim was to localise and characterise dystrophin in various human tissues, especially in the CNS. Immunoblotting and immunostaining studies were carried out with eight region-specific dystrophin antibodies. In necropsy tissue from controls, dystrophin was noted as a doublet in immunoblots of striated muscle, and as a single band in those of smooth muscle and the CNS. With immunostaining, punctate immunoreactivity was seen on the cell bodies and dendrites of the cerebral cortical neurons and cerebellar Purkinje cells. By contrast, dystrophin was not detected in any tissues, including the cerebrum and cerebellum, of patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy who had an intellectual disturbance. Images PMID:8163990

  20. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy simulating an infiltrative myocardial disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frustaci, A; Loperfido, F; Pennestrì, F

    1985-01-01

    Congestive heart failure developed in a patient with low electrocardiographic QRS voltages, diffuse thickening of the septum and free cardiac wall, and a reduction in left ventricular internal diameter, which suggested an infiltrative heart muscle disease. Histological examination at necropsy showed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with symmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial disarray of type 1A disorganisation was extensive and equally distributed in the ventricular septum and the left anterior and left posterior ventricular free walls. Severe fibrosis (40%) was also present and may have been a possible cause of the electrocardiographic abnormalities as well as of the lack of ventricular dilatation. Images PMID:4041302