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Sample records for necrosis differently affects

  1. Dialysis buffer with different ionic strength affects the antigenicity of cultured nervous necrosis virus (NNV) suspensions.

    PubMed

    Gye, Hyun Jung; Nishizawa, Toyohiko

    2016-09-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) belongs to the genus Betanodavirus (Nodaviridae). It is highly pathogenic to various marine fishes. Here, we investigated the antigenicity changes of cultured NNV suspensions during 14days of dialyses using a dialysis tube at 1.4×10(4) molecular weight cut off (MWCO) in three different buffers (Dulbecco's phosphate buffered saline (D-PBS), 15mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), and deionized water (DIW)). Total NNV antigen titers of cultured NNV suspension varied depending on different dialysis buffers. For example, total NNV antigen titer during D-PBS dialysis was increased once but then decreased. During Tris-HCl dialysis, it was relatively stable. During dialysis in DIW, total NNV antigen titer was increased gradually. These antigenicity changes in NNV suspension might be due to changes in the aggregation state of NNV particles and/or coat proteins (CPs). ELISA values of NNV suspension changed due to changing aggregates state of NNV antigens. NNV particles in suspension were aggregated at a certain level. These aggregates were progressive after D-PBS dialysis, but regressive after Tris-HCl dialysis. The purified NNV particles self-aggregated after dialysis in D-PBS or in Tris-HCl containing 600mM NaCl, but not after dialysis in Tris-HCl or DIW. Quantitative analysis is merited to determine NNV antigens in the highly purified NNV particles suspended in buffer at low salt condition. PMID:27381060

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-17 differently affects Langerhans cell distribution and activation in an innovative three-dimensional model of normal human skin.

    PubMed

    Prignano, Francesca; Arnaboldi, Francesca; Cornaghi, Laura; Landoni, Federica; Tripo, Lara; Preis, Franz William Baruffaldi; Donetti, Elena

    2015-02-01

    Among the several cytokines involved in the psoriasis pathogenesis, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-17 play a central role. Many biomolecular steps remain unknown due to difficulty to obtain psoriatic models. To investigate the effect of TNF-alpha and IL-17 on the ultrastructure, immunophenotype, and number of epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs), human skin explants (n=7) were cultured air-liquid interface in a Transwell system. Four different conditions were used: medium alone (control), medium added with 100 ng/ml TNF-alpha or 50 ng/ml IL-17 or a combination of both cytokines. Samples were harvested 24 and 48 h after cytokine addition and were frozen. Samples harvested at 24h were also processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). By immunofluorescence analysis with anti-human Langerin antibody (three experiments/sample) we calculated the percentage of LCs/mm(2) of living epidermis after 24 and 48 h of incubation (considering control as 100%). At 24h LC number was significantly higher in samples treated with both cytokines (216.71+15.10%; p<0.001) and in TNF-alpha (125.74+26.24%; p<0.05). No differences were observed in IL-17-treated samples (100.14+38.42%). After 48 h, the number of epidermal Langerin-positive cells in IL-17- and TNF-alpha treated samples slightly decreased (94.99+36.79% and 101.37+23% vs. their controls, respectively). With the combination of both cytokines epidermal LCs strongly decreased (120+13.36%). By TEM, upon TNF-alpha stimulus LCs appeared with few organelles, mostly mitochondria, lysosomes, and scattered peripherical BGs. Upon IL-17 stimulus, LCs showed a cytoplasm with many mitochondria and numerous BGs close to the perinuclear space and Golgi apparatus, but also at the periphery, at the beginning of the dendrites. The addition of both cytokines did not affect LC ultrastructure. Our study showed that IL-17 induced significant changes in LC ultrastructure, while the combination of both cytokines seems to

  3. Macrophage response in patients diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head presenting different risk factors.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Diana; Trăistaru, Rodica; Kamal, Constantin Kamal; Alexandru, Dragoş Ovidiu; Ion, Daniela Adriana; Grecu, Dan Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a condition caused by partial or total interruption of blood supply to the femoral head. The diminished blood supply causes necrosis of the cellular elements and of the bone marrow, followed by the collapse of the bone structure, events that ultimately lead to the destruction of the bone tissue, the appearance of local pain and loss of function in the affected coxofemoral joint. The importance of this condition is that it mainly affects young adults aged 30-50 years, active from a socio-professional standpoint, and increased life expectancy. The material studied to achieve CD68 immunostaining was represented by bone fragments from the area of necrosis and from the adjacent areas of the femoral heads, harvested from 39 patients when performing hip arthroplasty surgery. The patients were diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head and hospitalized in the Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Emergency County Hospital of Craiova, Romania, from June 2014 to January 2015. The 39 patients included in the study were divided into four categories according to presented risk factors (alcohol, alcohol and smoking, trauma, corticosteroids). All the 39 cases had positive immunostaining for CD68, macrophage being highlighted both in the area of necrosis and in the adjacent areas. We noted significant differences in the number and arrangement of macrophages in patients presenting different risk factors. The highest number of macrophages was present in patients presenting a risk factor corticosteroids, and the lowest number of macrophages was found in patients who had trauma as the main risk factor.

  4. A steroid-induced bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head in an underage patient affected by multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Christian; Nistri, Lorenzo; Bracco, Laura; Giannini, Marta; Amato, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis are often treated by pulsed intravenous corticosteroids to manage acute relapses with positive outcomes. The intravenous administration is frequently associated to avascular necrosis of several bones, particularly the femur. The present report regards a case of an underage MS patient with a bilateral ANFH secondary to pulsed administrations of steroids, managed by a conservative approach on a hip, and by a novel surgical technique on the contralateral side.

  5. A steroid-induced bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head in an underage patient affected by multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Carulli, Christian; Nistri, Lorenzo; Bracco, Laura; Giannini, Marta; Amato, Maria Pia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Patients affected by Multiple Sclerosis are often treated by pulsed intravenous corticosteroids to manage acute relapses with positive outcomes. The intravenous administration is frequently associated to avascular necrosis of several bones, particularly the femur. The present report regards a case of an underage MS patient with a bilateral ANFH secondary to pulsed administrations of steroids, managed by a conservative approach on a hip, and by a novel surgical technique on the contralateral side. PMID:26811707

  6. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  7. Individual Difference Variables, Affective Differentiation, and the Structures of Affect

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio; McCrae, Robert R.; Hagemann, Dirk; Costa, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Methodological arguments are usually invoked to explain variations in the structure of affect. Using self-rated affect from Italian samples (N = 600), we show that individual difference variables related to affective differentiation can moderate the observed structure. Indices of circumplexity (Browne, 1992) and congruence coefficients to the hypothesized target were used to quantify the observed structures. Results did not support the circumplex model as a universal structure. A circular structure with axes of activation and valence was approximated only among more affectively differentiated groups: students and respondents with high scores on Openness to Feelings and measures of negative emotionality. A different structure, with unipolar Positive Affect and Negative Affect factors, was observed among adults and respondents with low Openness to Feelings and negative emotionality. The observed structure of affect will depend in part on the nature of the sample studied. PMID:12932207

  8. Differences and Similarities in TRAIL- and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Mediated Necroptotic Signaling in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sosna, Justyna; Philipp, Stephan; Fuchslocher Chico, Johaiber; Saggau, Carina; Fritsch, Jürgen; Föll, Alexandra; Plenge, Johannes; Arenz, Christoph; Pinkert, Thomas; Kalthoff, Holger; Trauzold, Anna; Schmitz, Ingo; Schütze, Stefan; Adam, Dieter

    2016-10-15

    Recently, a type of regulated necrosis (RN) called necroptosis was identified to be involved in many pathophysiological processes and emerged as an alternative method to eliminate cancer cells. However, only a few studies have elucidated components of TRAIL-mediated necroptosis useful for anticancer therapy. Therefore, we have compared this type of cell death to tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated necroptosis and found similar signaling through acid and neutral sphingomyelinases, the mitochondrial serine protease HtrA2/Omi, Atg5, and vacuolar H(+)-ATPase. Notably, executive mechanisms of both TRAIL- and TNF-mediated necroptosis are independent of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP-1), and depletion of p38α increases the levels of both types of cell death. Moreover, we found differences in signaling between TNF- and TRAIL-mediated necroptosis, e.g., a lack of involvement of ubiquitin carboxyl hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) and Atg16L1 in executive mechanisms of TRAIL-mediated necroptosis. Furthermore, we discovered indications of an altered involvement of mitochondrial components, since overexpression of the mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 protected Jurkat cells from TRAIL- and TNF-mediated necroptosis, and overexpression of Bcl-XL diminished only TRAIL-induced necroptosis in Colo357 cells. Furthermore, TRAIL does not require receptor internalization and endosome-lysosome acidification to mediate necroptosis. Taken together, pathways described for TRAIL-mediated necroptosis and differences from those for TNF-mediated necroptosis might be unique targets to increase or modify necroptotic signaling and eliminate tumor cells more specifically in future anticancer approaches. PMID:27528614

  9. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies.

  10. Rosmarinic Acid and Melissa officinalis Extracts Differently Affect Glioblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskiene, Kristina; Raudonis, Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) has many biological effects but especially important is its neuroprotective activity. The aim of the study is to produce different extracts of Melissa officinalis and analyse their chemical composition and biological properties on rat glioblastoma C6 cells. Results revealed that rosmarinic acid (RA) is the predominant compound of lemon balm extracts. RA has cytotoxic effect on glioblastoma cells (LC50 290.5 μM after the incubation of 24 h and LC50 171.3 μM after 48 h). RA at concentration 80–130 μM suppresses the cell proliferation and has an antioxidant effect. 200 μM and higher concentrations of RA have a prooxidant effect and initiate cell death through necrosis. The aqueous extract of lemon balm is also enriched in phenolic compounds: protocatechuic, caftaric, caffeic, ferulic, and cichoric acids and flavonoid luteolin-7-glucoside. This extract at concentrations 50 μM–200 μM RA has cytotoxic activity and initiates cell death through apoptosis. Extracts prepared with 70% ethanol contain the biggest amount of active compounds. These extracts have the highest cytotoxic activity on glioblastoma cells. They initiate generation of intracellular ROS and cell death through apoptosis and necrosis. Our data suggest that differently prepared lemon balm extracts differently affect glioblastoma cells and can be used as neuroprotective agents in several therapeutic strategies. PMID:27688825

  11. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in AIDS patients: a different appearance of varicella-zoster retinitis.

    PubMed

    Pavesio, C E; Mitchell, S M; Barton, K; Schwartz, S D; Towler, H M; Lightman, S

    1995-01-01

    Retinal infections caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) have been reported in immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Two cases of a VZV-related retinitis are described with the characteristic features of the recently described progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome. Both patients suffered from the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with greatly reduced peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts, and presented with macular retinitis without vitritis. The disease was bilateral in one case and unilateral in the other. The clinical course was rapidly progressive with widespread retinal involvement and the development of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with complete loss of vision in the affected eyes despite intensive intravenous antiviral therapy. VZV DNA was identified in vitreous biopsies, by molecular techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in both patients. At present, the use of very high-dose intravenous acyclovir may be the best therapeutic option in these patients for whom the visual prognosis is poor. Intravitreal antiviral drugs could also contribute to the management of these cases.

  12. Herpesvirus infection with severe lymphoid necrosis affecting a beaked whale stranded in the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Arbelo, Manuel; Sierra, Eva; Esperón, Fernando; Watanabe, Tatiane T N; Bellière, Edwige N; Espinosa de los Monteros, Antonio; Fernández, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the pathologic findings in a single, adult female Cuvier's beaked whale Ziphius cavirostris stranded in the Canary Islands. The study indicated that this whale died with a severe, systemic, herpesviral infection and clearly exhibited lesions different from those of the fat and gas embolic syndrome described in beaked whale mass strandings associated with sonar exposure. This is the first report of a cetacean alphaherpesvirus infection of the lymphoid system in a beaked whale.

  13. Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Causing Clinical and Subclinical Infections in Atlantic Salmon Have Different Genetic Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Mutoloki, Stephen; Jøssund, Trude B.; Ritchie, Gordon; Munang'andu, Hetron M.; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the causative agent of IPN, an important disease of salmonids. IPNV infections result in either sub-clinical or overt disease and the basis of this difference is not well-understood. The objective of the present study was to determine the VP2 gene of the virus associated with the different forms of clinical manifestation. Groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared in farms located in different IPN disease pressures were monitored from brood stock until grow-out over a 3 year period. Hatcheries A1 and B1 as well as cooperating seawater farms were located in a low disease risk area while hatcheries A2 and B2 as well as their cooperating seawater farms were in high IPN risk areas. Samples including eggs, milt, whole fry, kidney depending on the stage of production were collected during outbreaks or in apparently healthy populations where no outbreaks occurred. The virus was re-isolated in CHSE cells and the VP2 gene amplified by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. During the freshwater stage, there were no disease outbreaks at hatcheries A1, A2, and B1 (except in one fish group that originated from hatchery B2), although IPNV was isolated from some of the fish groups at all 3 hatcheries. By contrast, all fish groups at hatchery B2 suffered IPN outbreaks. In seawater, only groups of fish originating from hatchery A1 had no IPN outbreaks albeit virus being isolated from the fish. On the other hand, fish originating from hatcheries A2, B1, and B2 experienced outbreaks in seawater. The VP2 amino acid fingerprint of the virus associated with subclinical infections from A1 and co-operating seawater sites was V64A137P217T221A247N252S281D282E319. By contrast, all virus isolates associated with clinical infections had the motif I64T137T217A221T247V252T281N282A319, where underlined amino acids represent the avirulent and highly virulent motif, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences showed 2 clades, one of

  14. Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Causing Clinical and Subclinical Infections in Atlantic Salmon Have Different Genetic Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Mutoloki, Stephen; Jøssund, Trude B; Ritchie, Gordon; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the causative agent of IPN, an important disease of salmonids. IPNV infections result in either sub-clinical or overt disease and the basis of this difference is not well-understood. The objective of the present study was to determine the VP2 gene of the virus associated with the different forms of clinical manifestation. Groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared in farms located in different IPN disease pressures were monitored from brood stock until grow-out over a 3 year period. Hatcheries A1 and B1 as well as cooperating seawater farms were located in a low disease risk area while hatcheries A2 and B2 as well as their cooperating seawater farms were in high IPN risk areas. Samples including eggs, milt, whole fry, kidney depending on the stage of production were collected during outbreaks or in apparently healthy populations where no outbreaks occurred. The virus was re-isolated in CHSE cells and the VP2 gene amplified by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. During the freshwater stage, there were no disease outbreaks at hatcheries A1, A2, and B1 (except in one fish group that originated from hatchery B2), although IPNV was isolated from some of the fish groups at all 3 hatcheries. By contrast, all fish groups at hatchery B2 suffered IPN outbreaks. In seawater, only groups of fish originating from hatchery A1 had no IPN outbreaks albeit virus being isolated from the fish. On the other hand, fish originating from hatcheries A2, B1, and B2 experienced outbreaks in seawater. The VP2 amino acid fingerprint of the virus associated with subclinical infections from A1 and co-operating seawater sites was V64A137P217T221A247N252S281D282E319. By contrast, all virus isolates associated with clinical infections had the motif I64T137T217A221T247V252T281N282A319, where underlined amino acids represent the avirulent and highly virulent motif, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences showed 2 clades, one of

  15. Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus Causing Clinical and Subclinical Infections in Atlantic Salmon Have Different Genetic Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Mutoloki, Stephen; Jøssund, Trude B.; Ritchie, Gordon; Munang'andu, Hetron M.; Evensen, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is the causative agent of IPN, an important disease of salmonids. IPNV infections result in either sub-clinical or overt disease and the basis of this difference is not well-understood. The objective of the present study was to determine the VP2 gene of the virus associated with the different forms of clinical manifestation. Groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) reared in farms located in different IPN disease pressures were monitored from brood stock until grow-out over a 3 year period. Hatcheries A1 and B1 as well as cooperating seawater farms were located in a low disease risk area while hatcheries A2 and B2 as well as their cooperating seawater farms were in high IPN risk areas. Samples including eggs, milt, whole fry, kidney depending on the stage of production were collected during outbreaks or in apparently healthy populations where no outbreaks occurred. The virus was re-isolated in CHSE cells and the VP2 gene amplified by RT-PCR followed by sequencing. During the freshwater stage, there were no disease outbreaks at hatcheries A1, A2, and B1 (except in one fish group that originated from hatchery B2), although IPNV was isolated from some of the fish groups at all 3 hatcheries. By contrast, all fish groups at hatchery B2 suffered IPN outbreaks. In seawater, only groups of fish originating from hatchery A1 had no IPN outbreaks albeit virus being isolated from the fish. On the other hand, fish originating from hatcheries A2, B1, and B2 experienced outbreaks in seawater. The VP2 amino acid fingerprint of the virus associated with subclinical infections from A1 and co-operating seawater sites was V64A137P217T221A247N252S281D282E319. By contrast, all virus isolates associated with clinical infections had the motif I64T137T217A221T247V252T281N282A319, where underlined amino acids represent the avirulent and highly virulent motif, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences showed 2 clades, one of

  16. Species differences in testicular necrosis and DNA damage, distribution and metabolism of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP).

    PubMed

    Låg, M; Søderlund, E J; Brunborg, G; Dahl, J E; Holme, J A; Omichinski, J G; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1989-10-01

    The human testicular toxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) was studied for the same end-point in 4 different species of laboratory animals. Marked necrosis and atrophy of the seminiferous epithelium were observed in rats and guinea pigs 10 days after a single i.p. administration of DBCP (170-340 mumol/kg), whereas significantly less damage was observed in hamsters and mice. The testicular concentrations of DBCP measured at various time-points after the i.p. injection of DBCP indicated that factors in addition to tissue concentration were of importance for the observed species differences in sensitivity towards DBCP-induced testicular damage. Also, there did not seem to be any direct correlation between DBCP-induced in vivo testicular toxicity and in vitro GSH-dependent dehalogenation, inasmuch as the rate of bromide release from DBCP with hamster testicular cytosol was as fast as that with rat cytosol. Testicular DNA damage, as determined by alkaline elution 60 min after in vivo administration of 170 mumol/kg DBCP, was observed only in rats and guinea pigs. Thus, induction of DNA damage correlates with the relative susceptibilities of the species towards DBCP-induced testicular necrosis. To further study species differences in testicular activation of DBCP to DNA-damaging intermediate(s), cells isolated from the testes of the 4 species were incubated with DBCP. Testicular cells from rats and guinea pigs were the only preparations developing substantial DNA damage after 60 min incubation with low concentrations of DBCP (5-50 microM). The findings indicate that rats are sensitive towards DBCP-induced testicular necrosis because rat testicular cells easily activate DBCP to a DNA-damaging intermediate(s). The relative high testicular DBCP concentration as well as the ability to activate DBCP may explain the sensitivity of guinea pigs towards DBCP-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:2799822

  17. luxR homolog avhR in Agrobacterium vitis affects the development of a grape-specific necrosis and a tobacco hypersensitive response.

    PubMed

    Hao, Guixia; Zhang, Hongsheng; Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    The luxR homolog aviR in Agrobacterium vitis strain F2/5 was recently shown to be associated with induction of a hypersensitive response (HR) on tobacco and necrosis on grape plants, indicating that the responses are regulated by quorum sensing. We now report a second luxR homolog, avhR, whose disruption (mutant M1320) results in HR-negative and reduced grape necrosis phenotypes. The deduced AvhR protein has characteristic autoinducer binding and DNA binding domains and is unique among reported functional LuxR homologs in having substitutions at highly conserved Asp70, Trp57, and Trp85 residues, which are predicted to play important roles in autoinducer binding in TraR. M1320 was fully complemented with cloned avhR. The same array of N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHL) from F2/5, M1320, and complemented M1320 were observed; however, the signal strength from extracts of 6-day-old M1320 cultures was stronger than that of F2/5. Cultures of F2/5 amended with AHL extracts from overnight and 6-day cultures of F2/5 and M1320 were not affected in ability to cause HR or necrosis. A region of about 14 kb flanking avhR was sequenced and compared with homologous regions of A. tumefaciens C58 and Sinorhizobium meliloti Rm1021 genomes. Gene order and homology are conserved between the species. A site-directed mutation in a putative gene that resides downstream of avhR and that has homology to genes belonging to the ATP-binding cassette transporter family did not affect HR or necrosis phenotypes. It was determined that avhR and aviR are expressed independently and that neither regulates the expression of a clpA homolog in F2/5. PMID:15601702

  18. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice.

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha during neonatal brain development affects anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Babri, Shirin; Doosti, Mohammad-Hossein; Salari, Ali-Akbar

    2014-03-15

    A nascent literature suggests that neonatal infection is a risk factor for the development of brain, behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis which can affect anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in later life. It has been documented that neonatal infection raises the concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in neonate rodents and such infections may result in neonatal brain injury, at least in part, through pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, previous studies have shown that TNF-α is involved in cellular differentiation, neurogenesis and programmed cell death during the development of the central nervous system. We investigated for the first time whether neonatal exposure to TNF-α can affect body weight, stress-induced corticosterone (COR), anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult mice. In the present study, neonatal mice were treated to recombinant mouse TNF-α (0.2, 0.4, 0.7 and 1 μg/kg) or saline on postnatal days 3 and 5, then adult male and female mice were exposed to different behavioral tests. The results indicated that neonatal TNF-α treatment reduced body weight in neonatal period in both sexes. In addition, this study presents findings indicating that high doses of TNF- increase stress-induced COR levels, anxiety- and depression-related behaviors in adult males, but increase levels of anxiety without significantly influencing depression in adult female mice [corrected]. Our findings suggest that TNF-α exposure during neonatal period can alter brain and behavior development in a dose and sex-dependent manner in mice. PMID:24398264

  20. Anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment increases circulating T helper type 17 cells similarly in different types of inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hull, D N; Williams, R O; Pathan, E; Alzabin, S; Abraham, S; Taylor, P C

    2015-01-01

    We investigated changes in circulating T helper type 17 (Th17) cells following anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from 25 RA, 15 AS and eight PsA patients at baseline 4 and 12 weeks after treatment, and Th17 cell frequencies were analysed using interleukin (IL)-17 enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) and flow cytometry. A significant increase in IL-17-producing cells was observed by ELISPOT in RA and AS patients at 12 weeks. Flow cytometry confirmed significant increases in CD4+IL-17+ cells at 12 weeks in RA and AS and 4 weeks in PsA patients. Anti-TNF treatment increases circulating Th17 cells in three different diseases. PMID:25766640

  1. Isolation and partial characterization of a novel virus from different carp species suffering gill necrosis - ultrastructure and morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Granzow, H; Fichtner, D; Schütze, H; Lenk, M; Dresenkamp, B; Nieper, H; Mettenleiter, T C

    2014-06-01

    Two isolates of a novel enveloped RNA virus were obtained from carp and koi carp with gill necrosis. Both isolates behaved identically and could be propagated in different cyprinid cell lines forming large syncytia. The virus was sensitive to lipid solvents and neither exhibited haemadsorption/haemagglutination nor reverse transcriptase activity. Mature virus particles displayed a spherical shape with diameter of 100-350 nm after negative staining and 100-300 nm in ultrathin sections, covered by short projections of 8-10 nm in length. Maturation of virus progeny was shown to occur by budding and envelopment of the filamentous helical nucleocapsids at the cell surface. A detailed comparison of ultrastructure and morphogenesis of the novel virus isolates with selected arena-, ortho- and paramyxoviruses as possible candidates for evaluation of taxonomic classification yielded no consistency in all phenotypic features. Thus, on the basis of ultrastructure the novel virus isolates could not be assigned unequivocally to any established virus family. PMID:23865968

  2. Reformulated Gasoline Market Affected Refiners Differently, 1995

    EIA Publications

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on the costs of producing reformulated gasoline (RFG) as experienced by different types of refiners and on how these refiners fared this past summer, given the prices for RFG at the refinery gate.

  3. Systemic Imidacloprid Affects Intraguild Parasitoids Differently

    PubMed Central

    Roe, R. Michael; Bacheler, Jack S.

    2015-01-01

    Toxoneuron nigriceps (Viereck) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) and Campoletis sonorensis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) are solitary endoparasitoids of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). They provide biological control of H. virescens populations in Southeastern US agricultural production systems. Field and greenhouse experiments conducted from 2011–2014 compared parasitism rates of parasitoids that developed inside H. virescens larvae fed on tobacco plants treated with and without imidacloprid. The parasitoids in our study did not have a similar response. Toxoneuron nigriceps had reduced parasitism rates, but parasitism rates of C. sonorensis were unaffected. Preliminary data indicate that adult female lifespans of T. nigriceps are also reduced. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and imidacloprid metabolites in H. virescens larvae that fed on imidacloprid-treated plants and in the parasitoids that fed on these larvae. Concentrations were detectable in the whole bodies of parasitized H. virescens larvae, T. nigriceps larvae and T. nigriceps adults, but not in C. sonorensis larvae and adults. These findings suggest that there are effects of imidacloprid on multiple trophic levels, and that insecticide use may differentially affect natural enemies with similar feeding niches. PMID:26658677

  4. Contrast affects flicker and speed perception differently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, P.; Stone, L. S.

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that contrast affects speed perception, with lower-contrast, drifting gratings perceived as moving slower. In a recent study, we examined the implications of this result on models of speed perception that use the amplitude of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters to determine speed. In this study, we investigate whether the contrast dependence of speed can be understood within the context of models in which speed estimation is made using the temporal frequency of the response of linear spatio-temporal filters. We measured the effect of contrast on flicker perception and found that contrast manipulations produce opposite effects on perceived drift rate and perceived flicker rate, i.e., reducing contrast increases the apparent temporal frequency of counterphase modulated gratings. This finding argues that, if a temporal frequency-based algorithm underlies speed perception, either flicker and speed perception must not be based on the output of the same mechanism or contrast effects on perceived spatial frequency reconcile the disparate effects observed for perceived temporal frequency and speed.

  5. Persistent infections with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) of different virulence in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L.

    PubMed

    Julin, K; Johansen, L-H; Sommer, A-I; Jørgensen, J B

    2015-11-01

    Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) is a prevalent pathogen in fish worldwide. The virus causes substantial mortality in Atlantic salmon juveniles and smolts when transferred to sea water and persistent infection in surviving fish after disease outbreaks. Here, we have investigated the occurrence of the virus as well as the innate immune marker Mx in the head kidney (HK) of Atlantic salmon throughout an experimental challenge covering both a fresh and a seawater phase. The fish were challenged with a high (HV) and low virulence (LV) IPNV. Both isolates caused mortality due to reactivation of the virus after transfer to sea water. In the freshwater phase, higher levels of virus transcripts were detected in the HK of fish infected with LV IPNV compared to HV, suggesting that the HV isolate is able to limit its own replication to a level where the innate immune system is not alerted. Further, ex vivoHK leucocytes derived from fish infected with the two isolates were stimulated with CpG DNA. Significantly, higher IFN levels were found in the LV compared to the HV group in the freshwater phase. This suggests that the viruses attenuate the antiviral host immune response at different levels which may contribute to the observed differences in disease outcome.

  6. Prenatal Arsenic Exposure and Shifts in the Newborn Proteome: Interindividual Differences in Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-Responsive Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kathryn A.; Laine, Jessica; Rager, Julia E.; Sebastian, Elizabeth; Olshan, Andrew; Smeester, Lisa; Drobná, Zuzana; Stýblo, Miroslav; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Fry, Rebecca C.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) early in life is associated with adverse health effects in infants, children, and adults, and yet the biological mechanisms that underlie these effects are understudied. The objective of this research was to examine the proteomic shifts associated with prenatal iAs exposure using cord blood samples isolated from 50 newborns from Gómez Palacio, Mexico. Levels of iAs in maternal drinking water (DW-iAs) and the sum of iAs and iAs metabolites in maternal urine (U-tAs) were determined. Cord blood samples representing varying iAs exposure levels during the prenatal period (DW-iAs ranging from <1 to 236 μg As/l) were analyzed for altered expression of proteins associated with U-tAs using a high throughput, antibody-based method. A total of 111 proteins were identified that had a significant association between protein level in newborn cord blood and maternal U-tAs. Many of these proteins are regulated by tumor necrosis factor and are enriched in functionality related to immune/inflammatory response and cellular development/proliferation. Interindividual differences in proteomic response were observed in which 30 newborns were “activators,” displaying a positive relationship between protein expression and maternal U-tAs. For 20 “repressor” newborns, a negative relationship between protein expression level and maternal U-tAs was observed. The activator/repressor status was significantly associated with maternal U-tAs and head circumference in newborn males. These results may provide a critical groundwork for understanding the diverse health effects associated with prenatal arsenic exposure and highlight interindividual responses to arsenic that likely influence differential susceptibility to adverse health outcomes. PMID:24675094

  7. Genetic diversity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from farmed Pacific white shrimp and ambient pond water affected by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease outbreak in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chonsin, Kaknokrat; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Kodama, Toshio; Junjhon, Jiraphan; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Suthienkul, Orasa; Iida, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is an emerging shrimp disease that causes massive die-offs in farmed shrimps. Recent outbreaks of AHPND in Asia have been causing great losses for shrimp culture and have become a serious socioeconomic problem. The causative agent of AHPND is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is typically known to cause food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. However, there have been few reports of the epidemiology of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND strains, and the genetic relationship among AHPND strains is unclear. Here, we report the genetic characterization of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from AHPND outbreaks in Thailand. We found eight isolates from AHPND-suspected shrimps and pond water that were positive for AHPND markers AP1 and AP2. PCR analysis confirmed that none of these eight AP-positive AHPND strains possesses the genes for the conventional virulence factors affecting to humans, such as thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) and type III secretion system 2. Phylogenetic analysis by multilocus sequence typing showed that the AHPND strains are genetically diverse, suggesting that AHPND strains were not derived from a single genetic lineage. Our study represents the first report of molecular epidemiology of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus strains using multilocus sequence typing, and provides an insight into their evolutionary mechanisms.

  8. Genetic diversity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains isolated from farmed Pacific white shrimp and ambient pond water affected by acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease outbreak in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chonsin, Kaknokrat; Matsuda, Shigeaki; Theethakaew, Chonchanok; Kodama, Toshio; Junjhon, Jiraphan; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Suthienkul, Orasa; Iida, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is an emerging shrimp disease that causes massive die-offs in farmed shrimps. Recent outbreaks of AHPND in Asia have been causing great losses for shrimp culture and have become a serious socioeconomic problem. The causative agent of AHPND is Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which is typically known to cause food-borne gastroenteritis in humans. However, there have been few reports of the epidemiology of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND strains, and the genetic relationship among AHPND strains is unclear. Here, we report the genetic characterization of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from AHPND outbreaks in Thailand. We found eight isolates from AHPND-suspected shrimps and pond water that were positive for AHPND markers AP1 and AP2. PCR analysis confirmed that none of these eight AP-positive AHPND strains possesses the genes for the conventional virulence factors affecting to humans, such as thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), TDH-related hemolysin (TRH) and type III secretion system 2. Phylogenetic analysis by multilocus sequence typing showed that the AHPND strains are genetically diverse, suggesting that AHPND strains were not derived from a single genetic lineage. Our study represents the first report of molecular epidemiology of AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus strains using multilocus sequence typing, and provides an insight into their evolutionary mechanisms. PMID:26590959

  9. Stem cell factor potentiates histamine secretion by multiple mechanisms, but does not affect tumour necrosis factor-alpha release from rat mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T J; Bissonnette, E Y; Hirsh, A; Befus, A D

    1996-01-01

    The effect of stem cell factor (SCF) on histamine and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) release from rat peritoneal mast cells (PMC) was determined and the intracellular pathways involved in the potentiation of histamine secretion were investigated. The effects of SCF (2-100 ng/ml) were examined following both short-term (0 and 20 min) and long-term (up to 24hr) preincubations with SCF. Pretreatment of PMC with SCF for 0 min (concurrent) or 20 min did not induce histamine secretion directly, but significantly increased antigen (Ag)-induced histamine secretion. SCF potentiated Ag-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase and calcium ionophore A23187-induced histamine secretion. Pertussis toxin (PT) inhibited SCF-induced potentiation of IgE-dependent histamine secretion, indicating that PT-sensitive G-proteins are involved in the immediate effects of SCF. In long-term incubation experiments, SCF pretreatment for 18-24 hr significantly enhanced Ag-induced histamine secretion, but did not affect Ag-induced intracellular Ca2+ levels. The effects of long-term incubation with SCF, but not the short-term effects, were blocked by cycloheximide. Interestingly, spontaneous and Ag-induced TNF-alpha release from rat PMC were not affected by pretreatment with SCF (2-500 ng/ml) for 1 to 24 hr. Thus, through immediate and delayed mechanisms, SCF potentiates histamine release from PMC, but has not effect on TNF-alpha release. The regulation of MC by SCF may be important in allergic and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:8943730

  10. Affective reactivity differences in pregnant and postpartum women

    PubMed Central

    Rosebrock, Laina; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Reactions to emotional cues, termed affective reactivity, promote adaptation and survival. Shifts in affective reactivity during pregnancy and postpartum may invoke altered responses to environmental and biological changes. The development and testing of affective reactivity tasks, with published normative ratings for use in studies of affective reactivity, has been based on responses provided by healthy college students. A comparison of the healthy norms with ratings provided by peripartum women has yet to be conducted, despite its value in highlighting critical differences in affective reactivity during peripartum phases. This study compared arousal ratings of unpleasant, neutral, pleasant, and threat stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS; Lang et al., 2008) between three samples: (a) women measured during pregnancy and again at postpartum, (b) age-matched nonpregnant women, and (c) college-aged women from the normative sample used to test the stimuli. Using mixed-design GLMs, results showed that the pregnant and postpartum women and the age-matched women showed suppressed arousal relative to the college-age women. Additionally, postpartum women showed increased arousal to unpleasant/threat images compared to other types of images. The data suggest that future research on peripartum women should include affective reactivity tasks based on norms reflective of this specific population. PMID:25890694

  11. Type of Inflammation Differentially Affects Expression of Interleukin 1β and 6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Toll-Like Receptors in Subclinical Endometritis in Mares.

    PubMed

    Siemieniuch, Marta J; Szóstek, Anna Z; Gajos, Katarzyna; Kozdrowski, Roland; Nowak, Marcin; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mares that fail to conceive or lose their embryos, without showing typical signs of clinical endometritis, should be suspected of subclinical endometritis (SE). In this study, the question was addressed: does SE fully activate selected mechanisms of innate immunity in mares? For this aim, expression of mRNAs for Toll-like Receptor 2 and 4 (TLR 2/4), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) was examined in control mares versus either mares suffering from chronic endometritis (ChE) or subacute suppurative endometritis (SSE). The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in supernatants from endometrial tissue cultures after 4 h incubation were measured using the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method. Eighty-two warmblood mares, of known breeding history, were enrolled in this study. Based on histopathological assessment, mares were classified as suffering from ChE, SSE or as being healthy. In addition, immuno-localization of both TLR2 and TLR4 as well as TNF-α was investigated in the equine endometria. The mRNA expression of TLR2 (P < 0.01), IL-1β (P < 0.0001), IL-6 (P < 0.0001) and TLR4 and TNF (P < 0.05) was up-regulated in endometria of mares suffering from SSE compared with unaffected mares. Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were increased only in mares exhibiting SSE, compared with unaffected (P < 0.01 for both) and ChE mares (P < 0.05 for both). Immuno-localization of TNF-α and TLRs was confirmed, both in unaffected and SE-affected endometria, and was present in the luminal and glandular epithelia and stromal cells. The severity of inflammation impacts the immune response and fosters activation of innate immunity mechanisms, as observed in the endometria of mares. The intracellular localization of TLRs and TNF-α in the endometria indicates a key role of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in the immune response and inflammation. PMID:27152525

  12. Type of Inflammation Differentially Affects Expression of Interleukin 1β and 6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and Toll-Like Receptors in Subclinical Endometritis in Mares

    PubMed Central

    Szóstek, Anna Z.; Gajos, Katarzyna; Kozdrowski, Roland; Nowak, Marcin; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Mares that fail to conceive or lose their embryos, without showing typical signs of clinical endometritis, should be suspected of subclinical endometritis (SE). In this study, the question was addressed: does SE fully activate selected mechanisms of innate immunity in mares? For this aim, expression of mRNAs for Toll-like Receptor 2 and 4 (TLR 2/4), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) was examined in control mares versus either mares suffering from chronic endometritis (ChE) or subacute suppurative endometritis (SSE). The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in supernatants from endometrial tissue cultures after 4 h incubation were measured using the enzyme immunoassay (EIA) method. Eighty-two warmblood mares, of known breeding history, were enrolled in this study. Based on histopathological assessment, mares were classified as suffering from ChE, SSE or as being healthy. In addition, immuno-localization of both TLR2 and TLR4 as well as TNF-α was investigated in the equine endometria. The mRNA expression of TLR2 (P < 0.01), IL-1β (P < 0.0001), IL-6 (P < 0.0001) and TLR4 and TNF (P < 0.05) was up-regulated in endometria of mares suffering from SSE compared with unaffected mares. Concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α were increased only in mares exhibiting SSE, compared with unaffected (P < 0.01 for both) and ChE mares (P < 0.05 for both). Immuno-localization of TNF-α and TLRs was confirmed, both in unaffected and SE-affected endometria, and was present in the luminal and glandular epithelia and stromal cells. The severity of inflammation impacts the immune response and fosters activation of innate immunity mechanisms, as observed in the endometria of mares. The intracellular localization of TLRs and TNF-α in the endometria indicates a key role of endometrial epithelial and stromal cells in the immune response and inflammation. PMID:27152525

  13. Gender Differences in Cognitive and Affective Responses to Sexual Coercion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, E. Sandra; Glenn, Shannon A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined gender differences in responses to sexual coercive experiences in mixed-sex (male-female) relationships. Participants were 112 women and 28 men who had experienced sexual coercion and completed measures of cognitive (attributions to self, attributions to the coercer, internal attributions) and affective (guilt, shame)…

  14. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    PubMed

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  15. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender

    PubMed Central

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) ─ the ability to understand other’s thoughts, intentions, and emotions ─ is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one’s ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males’ motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females’ motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure. PMID:26633171

  16. Money Affects Theory of Mind Differently by Gender.

    PubMed

    Ridinger, Garret; McBride, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM)--the ability to understand other's thoughts, intentions, and emotions--is important for navigating interpersonal relationships, avoiding conflict, and empathizing. Prior research has identified many factors that affect one's ToM ability, but little work has examined how different kinds of monetary incentives affect ToM ability. We ask: Does money affect ToM ability? If so, how does the effect depend on the structure of monetary incentives? How do the differences depend on gender? We hypothesize that money will affect ToM ability differently by gender: monetary rewards increase males' motivation to express ToM ability while simultaneously crowding out females' motivation. This prediction is confirmed in an experiment that varies the structure of monetary rewards for correct answers in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). RMET scores decrease for females and increase for males with individual payments, and this effect is stronger with competitively-structured payments. RMET scores do not significantly change when monetary earnings go to a charity. Whether money improves or hinders ToM ability, and, hence, success in social interactions, thus depends on the interaction of gender and monetary incentive structure.

  17. Species differences in kidney necrosis and DNA damage, distribution and glutathione-dependent metabolism of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP).

    PubMed

    Søderlund, E J; Låg, M; Holme, J A; Brunborg, G; Omichinski, J G; Dahl, J E; Nelson, S D; Dybing, E

    1990-04-01

    Species differences and mechanisms of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) nephrotoxicity were investigated by studying DBCP renal necrosis and DNA damage, distribution and glutathione-dependent metabolism in rats, mice, hamsters and guinea pigs. Extensive renal tubular necrosis was observed in rats 48 hr after a single intraperitoneal administration (21-170 mumol/kg) of DBCP. Significantly less necrosis was found in mice and guinea pigs, whereas no renal damage was evident (less than 680 mumol/kg) in hamsters. The activation of DBCP to DNA damaging intermediates in vivo, as measured by alkaline elution of DNA isolated from kidney nuclei 60 min. after intraperitoneal injection of DBCP, was compared in all four species. Distinct DNA damage was detected in rats, mice and hamsters as early as 10 min. after administration of DBCP and within 30 min. in guinea pigs. Rats and guinea pigs showed similar sensitivity towards DBCP-induced DNA damage (extensive DNA damage greater than 21 mumol/kg DBCP), whereas in mice and hamsters a 10-50 times higher DBCP dose was needed to cause a similar degree of DNA damage. Renal DBCP concentrations at various time-points (20 min., 1, 3 and 8 hr) after intraperitoneal administration (85 mumol/kg) revealed that the initial (20 min.) DBCP concentration was substantially higher in rats and guinea pigs compared to the other two species. Furthermore, kidney elimination of DBCP occurred at a significantly lower rate in rats than in mice, hamsters and guinea pigs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2371234

  18. Regulation of arterial-venous differences in tumor necrosis factor responsiveness of endothelial cells by anatomic context.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Kluger, Martin S; D'Alessio, Alessio; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Pober, Jordan S

    2008-04-01

    We analyzed tumor necrosis factor (TNF) responses of human umbilical artery and vein endothelial cells (HUAECs and HUVECs) in organ and cell culture. In organ culture, TNF induced expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 on HUVECs but only ICAM-1 on HUAECs. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, c-jun, and ATF2 by TNF was comparable in HUAECs and HUVECs, whereas binding of transcription factors and p300 co-activator to the E-selectin enhancer was lower in HUAECs compared to HUVECs. In cell culture, HUAECs rapidly acquired inducible E-selectin and VCAM-1 whereas ICAM-1 inducibility decreased. Culture of HUVECs rapidly decreased TNF responses of all three genes. By 72 hours in cell culture, TNF-treated HUVECs and HUAECs showed comparable adhesion molecule induction and transcription factor binding to the E-selectin enhancer. Freshly isolated HUAECs expressed higher levels of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) than HUVECs, consistent with greater KLF2 induction by arterial levels of shear stress in vitro. KLF2 expression decreased rapidly in both cell types during culture. Transduction of HUVECs with KLF2 reduced TNF-mediated induction of E-selectin and VCAM-1 while increasing ICAM-1 induction and reduced transcription factor/co-activator binding to the E-selectin enhancer. In conclusion, the differential responses of HUAECs and HUVECs to TNF in organ culture correlate with transcription factor/co-activator binding to DNA and converge during cell culture. Flow-induced expression of KLF2 contributes to the in situ responses of HUAECs but not of HUVECs. PMID:18292233

  19. MKK7 confers different activities to viral infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and nervous necrosis virus (NNV) in grouper.

    PubMed

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MKK7) is one of the major stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)-activating kinases in response to environmental or physiological stimuli. Here a MKK7 named as Ec-MKK7 was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA of Ec-MKK7 was 1853 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1272 bp encoding a putative protein of 423 amino acids. A characteristic S-K-A-K-T motif was contained in the domain of dual-specificity protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (PKc_MKK7). Intracellular localization showed that Ec-MKK7 was localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of grouper spleen (GS) and/or grouper brain (EAGB) cells. Moreover, Ec-MKK7 was universally expressed in all examined tissues and showed expression modulation to challenges of lipopolysacchride (LPS), Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) in vivo. A gene targeting strategy over-expressing Ec-MKK7 was performed to examine the activities of MKK7 to viral infection in vitro. Our data showed that Ec-MKK7 was involved in the evasion and replication of SGIV but played an antiviral role to the infection of nervous necrosis virus (NNV). All results demonstrated that Ec-MKK7 could play important roles in grouper innate immunity and show distinct functions on virus infection. PMID:27601297

  20. MKK7 confers different activities to viral infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and nervous necrosis virus (NNV) in grouper.

    PubMed

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-10-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase 7 (MKK7) is one of the major stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)-activating kinases in response to environmental or physiological stimuli. Here a MKK7 named as Ec-MKK7 was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The full-length cDNA of Ec-MKK7 was 1853 bp, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1272 bp encoding a putative protein of 423 amino acids. A characteristic S-K-A-K-T motif was contained in the domain of dual-specificity protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (PKc_MKK7). Intracellular localization showed that Ec-MKK7 was localized in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of grouper spleen (GS) and/or grouper brain (EAGB) cells. Moreover, Ec-MKK7 was universally expressed in all examined tissues and showed expression modulation to challenges of lipopolysacchride (LPS), Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid (poly I:C) in vivo. A gene targeting strategy over-expressing Ec-MKK7 was performed to examine the activities of MKK7 to viral infection in vitro. Our data showed that Ec-MKK7 was involved in the evasion and replication of SGIV but played an antiviral role to the infection of nervous necrosis virus (NNV). All results demonstrated that Ec-MKK7 could play important roles in grouper innate immunity and show distinct functions on virus infection.

  1. Sleep complaints affecting school performance at different educational levels.

    PubMed

    Pagel, James F; Kwiatkowski, Carol F

    2010-01-01

    The clear association between reports of sleep disturbance and poor school performance has been documented for sleepy adolescents. This study extends that research to students outside the adolescent age grouping in an associated school setting (98 middle school students, 67 high school students, and 64 college students). Reported restless legs and periodic limb movements are significantly associated with lower GPA's in junior high students. Consistent with previous studies, daytime sleepiness was the sleep variable most likely to negatively affects high school students. Sleep onset and maintenance insomnia were the reported sleep variables significantly correlated with poorer school performance in college students. This study indicates that different sleep disorder variables negatively affect performance at different age and educational levels.

  2. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures.

  3. Leaders' smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jeanne L; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value ("ideal affect"). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders' smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N = 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders' smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  4. Electrophysiological differences in the processing of affect misattribution.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yohei; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2012-01-01

    The affect misattribution procedure (AMP) was proposed as a technique to measure an implicit attitude to a prime image [1]. In the AMP, neutral symbols (e.g., a Chinese pictograph, called the target) are presented, following an emotional stimulus (known as the prime). Participants often misattribute the positive or negative affect of the priming images to the targets in spite of receiving an instruction to ignore the primes. The AMP effect has been investigated using behavioral measures; however, it is difficult to identify when the AMP effect occurs in emotional processing-whether the effect may occur in the earlier attention allocation stage or in the later evaluation stage. In this study, we examined the neural correlates of affect misattribution, using event-related potential (ERP) dividing the participants into two groups based on their tendency toward affect misattribution. The ERP results showed that the amplitude of P2 was larger for the prime at the parietal location in participants showing a low tendency to misattribution than for those showing a high tendency, while the effect of judging neutral targets amiss according to the primes was reflected in the late processing of targets (LPP). In addition, the topographic pattern analysis revealed that EPN-like component to targets was correlated with the difference of AMP tendency as well as P2 to primes and LPP to targets. Taken together, the mechanism of the affective misattribution was closely related to the attention allocation processing. Our findings provide neural evidence that evaluations of neutral targets are misattributed to emotional primes.

  5. Leaders’ Smiles Reflect Cultural Differences in Ideal Affect

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jeanne L.; Ang, Jen Ying Zhen; Blevins, Elizabeth; Goernandt, Julia; Fung, Helene H.; Jiang, Da; Elliott, Julian; Kölzer, Anna; Uchida, Yukiko; Lee, Yi-Chen; Lin, Yicheng; Zhang, Xiulan; Govindama, Yolande; Haddouk, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted three studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief-executive-officers (CEOs), and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top ranked leaders (N = 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top ranked leaders (N = 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning vs. losing political candidates and higher vs. lower ranking CEOs and university presidents in the US and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N = 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N =266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N = 1,267) and then eight years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N = 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in GDP per capita, democratization, and human development. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures. PMID:26751631

  6. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, ...

  7. Oral immunization of rainbow trout to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (Ipnv) induces different immune gene expression profiles in head kidney and pyloric ceca.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, Natalia A; Saint-Jean, Sylvia S Rodriguez; Encinas, Paloma A; Perez-Prieto, Sara I; Coll, Julio M

    2012-08-01

    Induction of neutralizing antibodies and protection by oral vaccination with DNA-alginates of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was recently reported. Because orally induced immune response transcript gene profiles had not been described yet neither in fish, nor after IPNV vaccination, we studied them in head kidney (an immune response internal organ) and a vaccine entry tissue (pyloric ceca). By using an oligo microarray enriched in immune-related genes validated by RTqPCR, the number of increased transcripts in head kidney was higher than in pyloric ceca while the number of decreased transcripts was higher in pyloric ceca than in head kidney. Confirming previous reports on intramuscular DNA vaccination or viral infection, mx genes increased their transcription in head kidney. Other transcript responses such as those corresponding to interferons, their receptors and induced proteins (n=91 genes), VHSV-induced genes (n=25), macrophage-related genes (n=125), complement component genes (n=176), toll-like receptors (n=31), tumor necrosis factors (n=32), chemokines and their receptors (n=121), interleukines and their receptors (n=119), antimicrobial peptides (n=59), and cluster differentiation antigens (n=58) showed a contrasting and often complementary behavior when head kidney and pyloric ceca were compared. For instance, classical complement component transcripts increased in head kidney while only alternative pathway transcripts increased in pyloric ceca, different β-defensins increased in head kidney but remained constant in pyloric ceca. The identification of new gene markers on head kidney/pyloric ceca could be used to follow up and/or to improve immunity during fish oral vaccination.

  8. Iron deficiency differently affects peroxidase isoforms in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, A; Castagna, A; Baldan, B; Soldatini, G F

    2001-01-01

    The response of both specific (ascorbate peroxidase, APX) and unspecific (POD) peroxidases and H(2)O(2) content of sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Hor) grown hydroponically with (C) or without (-Fe) iron in the nutrient solution were analysed to verify whether iron deficiency led to cell oxidative status. In -Fe leaves a significant increase of H(2)O(2) content was detected, a result confirmed by electron microscopy analysis. As regards extracellular peroxidases, while APX activity significantly decreased, no change was observed in either soluble guaiacol or syringaldazine-dependent POD activity following iron starvation. Moreover, guaiacol-dependent POD activity was found to decrease in both ionically and covalently-cell-wall bound fractions, while syringaldazine-POD activity decreased only in the covalently-bound fraction. At the intracellular level both guaiacol-POD and APX activities underwent a significant decrease. The overall reduction of peroxidase activity was confirmed by the electrophoretic separation of POD isoforms and, at the extracellular level, by cytochemical localization of peroxidases by diaminobenzidine staining. The electrophoretic separation, besides quantitative differences, also revealed quantitative changes, particularly evident for ionically and covalently-bound fractions. Therefore, in sunflower plants, iron deficiency seems to affect the different peroxidase isoenzymes to different extents and to induce a secondary oxidative stress, as indicated by the increased levels of H(2)O(2). However, owing to the almost completely lack of catalytic iron capable of triggering the Fenton reaction, iron-deficient sunflower plants are probably still sufficiently protected against oxidative stress.

  9. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates. PMID:26008886

  10. Individual differences in local gray matter density are associated with differences in affective and cognitive empathy.

    PubMed

    Eres, Robert; Decety, Jean; Louis, Winnifred R; Molenberghs, Pascal

    2015-08-15

    The understanding of empathy from a neuroscientific perspective has recently developed quickly, with numerous functional MRI studies associating different brain regions with different components of empathy. A recent meta-analysis across 40 fMRI studies revealed that affective empathy is most often associated with increased activity in the insula, whereas cognitive empathy is most often associated with activity in the midcingulate cortex and adjacent dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (MCC/dmPFC). To date, however, it remains unclear whether individual differences in brain morphometry in these regions underlie different dispositions in affective and cognitive empathy. In order to test this hypothesis, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine the extent to which gray matter density predicts scores from an established empathy measure (Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy; QCAE). One hundred and seventy-six participants completed the QCAE and underwent MRI in order to acquire a high-resolution, three-dimensional T1-weighted structural scans. A factor analysis of the questionnaire scores revealed two distinct factors of empathy, affective and cognitive, which confirmed the validity of the QCAE. VBM results revealed gray matter density differences associated with the distinct components of empathy. Higher scores on affective empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the insula cortex and higher scores of cognitive empathy were associated with greater gray matter density in the MCC/dmPFC. Taken together, these results provide validation for empathy being a multi-component construct, suggesting that affective and cognitive empathy are differentially represented in brain morphometry as well as providing convergent evidence for empathy being represented by different neural and structural correlates.

  11. Polymorphisms in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor Genes Affect the Expression Levels of Membrane-Bound Type I and Type II Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sennikov, Sergey V.; Vasilyev, Filipp F.; Lopatnikova, Julia A.; Shkaruba, Nadezhda S.; Silkov, Alexander N.

    2014-01-01

    The level of TNF receptors on various cells of immune system and its association with the gene polymorphism were investigated. Determining the levels of membrane-bound TNFα receptors on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed by flow cytometry using BD QuantiBRITE calibration particles. Soluble TNFα receptor (sTNFRs) levels were determined by ELISA and genotyping was determined by PCR-RFLP. Homozygous TT individuals at SNP −609G/T TNFRI (rs4149570) showed lower levels of sTNFRI compared to GG genotype carriers. Homozygous carriers of CC genotype at SNP −1207G/C TNFRI (rs4149569) had lower expression densities of membrane-bound TNFRI on intact CD14+ monocytes compared to individuals with the GC genotype. The frequency differences in the CD3+ and CD19+ cells expressing TNFRII in relation to SNP −1709A/T TNFRII (rs652625) in healthy individuals were also determined. The genotype CC in SNP −3609C/T TNFRII (rs590368) was associated with a lower percentage of CD14+ cells expressing TNFRII compared to individuals with the CT genotype. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis had no significant changes in the frequencies of genotypes. Reduced frequency was identified for the combination TNFRI −609GT + TNFRII −3609CC only. The polymorphisms in genes represent one of cell type-specific mechanisms affecting the expression levels of membrane-bound TNFα receptors and TNFα-mediated signaling. PMID:24782596

  12. Oculomotor tasks affect differently postural control in healthy children.

    PubMed

    Bucci, Maria Pia; Ajrezo, Layla; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2015-11-01

    Eye movements affect postural stability in children. The present study focuses on the effect of different types of eye movements on postural stability in healthy children. Both eye movements and postural stability have been recorded in 51 healthy children from 6.3 to 15.5 years old. Eye movements were recorded binocularly with a video oculography (MobilEBT(®)), and postural stability was measured while child was standing on a force platform (TechnoConcept(®)). Children performed three oculomotor tasks: saccades, pursuits and reading a text silently. We measured the number of saccades made in the three oculomotor tasks, the number of words read, and the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the center of pressure (CoP). According to previous studies, postural control improves with age until 10-12 years. Saccades toward a target as well as during a reading task reduce significantly the CoP displacement and its velocity, while during pursuit eye movements all children increase postural parameters (i.e., the surface area, the length and mean velocity of the CoP). These results suggest the presence of an interaction between the oculomotor control and the postural system. Visual attention to perform saccades (to stationary targets or to words) influences postural stability more than the frequency of saccade triggering does. PMID:26096315

  13. Gender Differences in Implicit and Explicit Memory for Affective Passages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leslie A.; Rabin, Laura; Vardy, Susan Bernstein.; Frohlich, Jonathan; Wyatt, Gwinne; Dimitri, Diana; Constante, Shimon; Guterman, Elan

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-two participants were administered 4 verbal tasks, an Implicit Affective Task, an Implicit Neutral Task, an Explicit Affective Task, and an Explicit Neutral Task. For the Implicit Tasks, participants were timed while reading passages aloud as quickly as possible, but not so quickly that they did not understand. A target verbal passage was…

  14. The Shape Bias Is Affected by Differing Similarity among Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tek, Saime; Jaffery, Gul; Swensen, Lauren; Fein, Deborah; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that visual properties of objects can affect shape-based categorization in a novel-name extension task; however, we still do not know how a relationship between visual properties of objects affects judgments in a novel-name extension task. We examined effects of increased visual similarity among the target and…

  15. How will climate change affect vine behaviour in different soils?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibar, Urtzi; Aizpurua, Ana; Morales, Fermin; Pascual, Inmaculada; Unamunzaga, Olatz

    2014-05-01

    and water-deficit had a clear influence on the grape phenological development and composition, whilst soil affected root configuration and anthocyanins concentration. Effects of climate change and water availability on different soil conditions should be considered to take full advantage or mitigate the consequences of the future climate conditions.

  16. Production of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha by human T-cell clones expressing different forms of the gamma delta receptor.

    PubMed

    Christmas, S E; Meager, A

    1990-12-01

    Panels of human T-cell clones bearing the gamma delta T-cell receptor (TcR) were obtained from peripheral blood and decidual tissue and maintained in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2). TcR V gamma and V delta gene expression was determined in 40 TcR delta 1+ clones using the gamma delta T-cell subset markers Ti gamma A and delta TCS1, in conjunction with Southern blot analysis using TcR J gamma and J delta probes. gamma delta T-cell clones, together with control alpha beta T-cell clones derived from the same lymphocyte populations, were stimulated with phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and their ability to produce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) tested using specific ELISA. Many clones representative of the major peripheral V gamma 9/V delta 2J1 subset produced high amounts of both cytokines and mean levels were not significantly different from those produced by alpha beta T-cell clones. Panels of clones expressing V gamma 9 and V delta 2J1 produced significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha than clones not expressing V delta 2J1 and those expressing V delta 1J1. There was no relationship between levels of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha produced by individual gamma delta T-cell clones and also no relationship between their non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted cytotoxic activity and levels of either cytokine. There was a significant tendency for gamma delta T-cell clones to produce more TNF-alpha than IFN-gamma in comparison to alpha beta T-cell clones. The significance of these findings is discussed in the light of the reported differences in distribution in vivo of V delta 1J1+ and V delta 2J1+ cells.

  17. Metabolic differences in temperamental Brahman cattle can affect productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors may adversely affect the growth and productivity of livestock. These include stressors associated with management practices, such as weaning, handling relative to transportation, and vaccination, that can modulate growth through the production of stress-related hormones (i.e., cortisol,...

  18. Mitotic index, microvascular proliferation, and necrosis define 3 groups of 1p/19q codeleted anaplastic oligodendrogliomas associated with different genomic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Mokhtari, Karima; Dehais, Caroline; Jouvet, Anne; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Colin, Carole; Carpentier, Catherine; Forest, Fabien; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Polivka, Marc; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Eimer, Sandrine; Viennet, Gabriel; Quintin-Roué, Isabelle; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Loussouarn, Delphine; Lacroix, Catherine; Rigau, Valérie; Laquerrière, Annie; Vandenbos, Fanny; Michalak, Sophie; Sevestre, Henri; Peoch, Michel; Labrousse, François; Christov, Christo; Kemeny, Jean-Louis; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Chiforeanu, Danchristian; Ducray, François; Idbaih, Ahmed; Desenclos, Christine; Menei, Philippe; Al Nader, Edmond; Godard, Joel; Servagi-Vernat, Stéphanie; Carpentier, Antoine; Loiseau, Hugues; Dam-Hieu, Phong; Guillamo, Jean Sebastien; Emery, Evelyne; Verelle, Pierre; Durando, Xavier; Faillot, Thierry; Le Guerinel, Caroline; Ghiringhelli, François; Parker, Fabrice; Adam, Clovis; Dubois, François; Ramirez, Carole; Gueye, Edouard Marcel; Honnorat, Jerome; Chinot, Olivier; Bauchet, Luc; Beauchesne, Patrick; Campone, Mario; Frenel, Jean Sébastien; Fontaine, Denys; Campello, Chantal; Roger, Pascal; Heitzmann, Anne; Fesneau, Mélanie; Delattre, Jean Yves; Elouadhani-Hamdi, Selma; Ricard, Damien; Colin, Philippe; Vauléon, Elodie; Langlois, Olivier; Fotso, Marie Janette Motsuo; Andraud, Marie; Mouton, Servane; Noel, Georges; Desse, Nicolas; Soulard, Raoulin; Cohen-Moyal, Elisabeth; Lubrano, Vincent; Dhermain, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to correlate histological features and molecular characteristics in anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs). Methods The histological characteristics of 203 AO patients, enrolled in the French national network POLA, were analyzed. The genomic profiles of 191 cases were studied using genomic arrays. IDH mutational status was assessed by immunohistochemistry and direct sequencing. Results 1p/19q codeletion was present in 79% of cases and was associated with alpha-internexin expression (P < 10−4), IDH1/2 mutation (P < 10−4), chromosome 4 loss (P < 10−3), and better overall survival (P < 10−4). Based on mitotic index, microvascular proliferation (MVP), and necrosis, 3 groups of 1p/19q codeleted AOs were identified: (group 1) AO with more than 5 mitoses per 10-HPF, no MVP, and no necrosis; (group 2) AO with MVP and no necrosis; and (group 3) AO with MVP and necrosis. Compared with group 1, groups 2 and 3 AOs had a higher mean Ki-67 proliferation index and a higher rate of 9p and 9q losses. Compared with group 2, group 3 AOs had a higher number of chromosomal alterations including chromosome 4 loss. In the subgroup of 157 1p/19q codeleted AOs, chromosomal instability was associated with shorter progression-free survival (P = .024) and shorter overall survival (P = .023). Conclusions The present study shows that oligodendrogliomas with classic histological features remain a molecularly heterogeneous entity and should be stratified according to 1p/19q status because of its major prognostic relevance. Moreover, 1p/19q codeleted AOs are also heterogeneous. Interestingly, mitotic index, MVP, and necrosis help to classify them into 3 groups associated with distinct genomic alterations. PMID:24723566

  19. Individual differences in the acquisition of affectively valenced associations.

    PubMed

    Zinbarg, R E; Mohlman, J

    1998-04-01

    Two studies were conducted to test the predictions derived from the behavioral activation system and behavioral inhibition system theory of personality that trait anxiety is positively related to the speed of acquisition of punishment expectancies and impulsivity is positively related to the speed of acquisition of reward expectancies. Both studies used a standard approach-avoidance discrimination task with self-report measures of expectancies. Both studies found support for the hypothesized relation between trait and acquisition of punishment expectancies but not for the hypothesized relation between impulsivity and acquisition of reward expectancies. Study 2 suggested that the relation between trait anxiety and punishment expectancy is affected by the type of incentive and the type of trait anxiety measure used. The results suggest that highly trait anxious individuals are more susceptible to developing new sources of anxiety than others.

  20. Medicaid Expansion Affects Rural And Urban Hospitals Differently.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Brystana G; Reiter, Kristin L; Pink, George H; Holmes, George M

    2016-09-01

    Rural hospitals differ from urban hospitals in many ways. For example, rural hospitals are more reliant on public payers and have lower operating margins. In addition, enrollment in the health insurance Marketplaces of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has varied across rural and urban areas. This study employed a difference-in-differences approach to evaluate the average effect of Medicaid expansion in 2014 on payer mix and profitability for urban and rural hospitals, controlling for secular trends. For both types of hospitals, we found that Medicaid expansion was associated with increases in Medicaid-covered discharges. However, the increases in Medicaid revenue were greater among rural hospitals than urban hospitals, and the decrease in the proportion of costs for uncompensated care were greater among urban hospitals than rural hospitals. This preliminary analysis of the early effects of Medicaid expansion suggests that its financial impacts may be different for hospitals in urban and rural locations. PMID:27605649

  1. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats' Choices between Differently Priced Commodities.

    PubMed

    van Wingerden, Marijn; Marx, Christine; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers' sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget conditions

  2. Budget Constraints Affect Male Rats’ Choices between Differently Priced Commodities

    PubMed Central

    Kalenscher, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Demand theory can be applied to analyse how a human or animal consumer changes her selection of commodities within a certain budget in response to changes in price of those commodities. This change in consumption assessed over a range of prices is defined as demand elasticity. Previously, income-compensated and income-uncompensated price changes have been investigated using human and animal consumers, as demand theory predicts different elasticities for both conditions. However, in these studies, demand elasticity was only evaluated over the entirety of choices made from a budget. As compensating budgets changes the number of attainable commodities relative to uncompensated conditions, and thus the number of choices, it remained unclear whether budget compensation has a trivial effect on demand elasticity by simply sampling from a different total number of choices or has a direct effect on consumers’ sequential choice structure. If the budget context independently changes choices between commodities over and above price effects, this should become apparent when demand elasticity is assessed over choice sets of any reasonable size that are matched in choice opportunities between budget conditions. To gain more detailed insight in the sequential choice dynamics underlying differences in demand elasticity between budget conditions, we trained N=8 rat consumers to spend a daily budget by making a number of nosepokes to obtain two liquid commodities under different price regimes, in sessions with and without budget compensation. We confirmed that demand elasticity for both commodities differed between compensated and uncompensated budget conditions, also when the number of choices considered was matched, and showed that these elasticity differences emerge early in the sessions. These differences in demand elasticity were driven by a higher choice rate and an increased reselection bias for the preferred commodity in compensated compared to uncompensated budget

  3. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status. PMID:27364389

  4. Gender-related differences in lifestyle may affect health status.

    PubMed

    Varì, Rosaria; Scazzocchio, Beatrice; D'Amore, Antonio; Giovannini, Claudio; Gessani, Sandra; Masella, Roberta

    2016-01-01

    Consistent epidemiological and clinical evidence strongly indicates that chronic non-communicable diseases are largely associated with four lifestyle risk factors: inadequate diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, and excessive alcohol use. Notably, obesity, a worldwide-growing pathological condition determined by the combination between inadequate diet and insufficient physical activity, is now considered a main risk factor for most chronic diseases. Dietary habits and physical activity are strongly influenced by gender attitudes and behaviors that promote different patterns of healthy or unhealthy lifestyles among women and men. Furthermore, different roles and unequal relations between genders strongly interact with differences in social and economic aspects as well as cultural and societal environment. Because of the complex network of factors involved in determining the risk for chronic diseases, it has been promoting a systemic approach that, by integrating sex and gender analysis, explores how sex-specific biological factors and gender-related social factors can interact to influence the health status.

  5. Teacher Perceptions Affect Boys' and Girls' Reading Motivation Differently

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerma, Inouk E.; Mol, Suzanne E.; Jolles, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher perceptions and children's reading motivation, with specific attention to gender differences. The reading self-concept, task value, and attitude of 160 fifth and sixth graders were measured. Teachers rated each student's reading comprehension. Results showed that for boys,…

  6. Stem cell origin differently affects bone tissue engineering strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Teti, Gabriella; Salvatore, Viviana; Focaroli, Stefano; Orciani, Monia; Dicarlo, Manuela; Fini, Milena; Orsini, Giovanna; Di Primio, Roberto; Falconi, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering approaches are encouraging for the improvement of conventional bone grafting technique drawbacks. Thanks to their self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation ability, stem cells are one of the major actors in tissue engineering approaches, and among these adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold a great promise for regenerative medicine strategies. Bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) are the first- identified and well-recognized stem cell population used in bone tissue engineering. Nevertheless, several factors hamper BM-MSC clinical application and subsequently, new stem cell sources have been investigated for these purposes. The fruitful selection and combination of tissue engineered scaffold, progenitor cells, and physiologic signaling molecules allowed the surgeon to reconstruct the missing natural tissue. On the basis of these considerations, we analyzed the capability of two different scaffolds, planned for osteochondral tissue regeneration, to modulate differentiation of adult stem cells of dissimilar local sources (i.e., periodontal ligament, maxillary periosteum) as well as adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), in view of possible craniofacial tissue engineering strategies. We demonstrated that cells are differently committed toward the osteoblastic phenotype and therefore, taking into account their specific features, they could be intriguing cell sources in different stem cell-based bone/periodontal tissue regeneration approaches. PMID:26441682

  7. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems.

  8. Different carbon sources affect PCB accumulation by marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Laitano, M V; Silva Barni, M F; Costa, P G; Cledón, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B; Panarello, H O

    2016-02-01

    Pampean creeks were evaluated in the present study as potential land-based sources of PCB marine contamination. Different carbon and nitrogen sources from such creeks were analysed as boosters of PCB bioaccumulation by the filter feeder bivalve Brachidontes rodriguezii and grazer limpet Siphonaria lessoni. Carbon of different source than marine and anthropogenic nitrogen assimilated by organisms were estimated through their C and N isotopic composition. PCB concentration in surface sediments and mollusc samples ranged from 2.68 to 6.46 ng g(-1) (wet weight) and from 1074 to 4583 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively, reflecting a punctual source of PCB contamination related to a landfill area. Thus, despite the low flow of creeks, they should not be underestimated as contamination vectors to the marine environment. On the other hand, mussels PCB bioaccumulation was related with the carbon source uptake which highlights the importance to consider this factor when studying PCB distribution in organisms of coastal systems. PMID:26606107

  9. Has ADVANCE Affected Senior Compared to Junior Women Scientists Differently?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosser, Sue

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence exists to demonstrate that the NSF ADVANCE Inititiative has made a positive impact upon institutions. Since it began in 2001, ADVANCE has changed the conversation, policies, and practices in ways to remove obstacles and systemic barriers preventing success for academic women scientists and engineers. Results from ADVANCE projects on campuses have facilitated consensus nationally about policies and practices that institutions may implement to help to alleviate issues, particularly for junior women scientists.Although getting women into senior and leadership positions in STEM constituted an initial impetus for ADVANCE, less emphasis was placed upon the needs of senior women scientists. Surveys of academic women scientists indicate that the issues faced by junior and senior women scientists differ significantly. The focus of ADVANCE on junior women in many ways seemed appropriate--the senior cohort of women scinetists is fed by the junior cohort of scientists; senior women serve as mentors, role models, and leaders for the junior colleagues, while continuing to struggle to achieve full status in the profession. This presentation will center on the differences in issues faced by senior compared to junior women scientists to explore whether a next step for ADVANCE should be to address needs of senior academic women scientists.

  10. Warming will affect phytoplankton differently: evidence through a mechanistic approach

    PubMed Central

    Huertas, I. Emma; Rouco, Mónica; López-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Although the consequences of global warming in aquatic ecosystems are only beginning to be revealed, a key to forecasting the impact on aquatic communities is an understanding of individual species' vulnerability to increased temperature. Despite their microscopic size, phytoplankton support about half of the global primary production, drive essential biogeochemical cycles and represent the basis of the aquatic food web. At present, it is known that phytoplankton are important targets and, consequently, harbingers of climate change in aquatic systems. Therefore, investigating the capacity of phytoplankton to adapt to the predicted warming has become a relevant issue. However, considering the polyphyletic complexity of the phytoplankton community, different responses to increased temperature are expected. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on 12 species of phytoplankton isolated from a variety of environments by using a mechanistic approach able to assess evolutionary adaptation (the so-called ratchet technique). We found different degrees of tolerance to temperature rises and an interspecific capacity for genetic adaptation. The thermal resistance level reached by each species is discussed in relation to their respective original habitats. Our study additionally provides evidence on the most resistant phytoplankton groups in a future warming scenario. PMID:21508031

  11. Warming will affect phytoplankton differently: evidence through a mechanistic approach.

    PubMed

    Huertas, I Emma; Rouco, Mónica; López-Rodas, Victoria; Costas, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    Although the consequences of global warming in aquatic ecosystems are only beginning to be revealed, a key to forecasting the impact on aquatic communities is an understanding of individual species' vulnerability to increased temperature. Despite their microscopic size, phytoplankton support about half of the global primary production, drive essential biogeochemical cycles and represent the basis of the aquatic food web. At present, it is known that phytoplankton are important targets and, consequently, harbingers of climate change in aquatic systems. Therefore, investigating the capacity of phytoplankton to adapt to the predicted warming has become a relevant issue. However, considering the polyphyletic complexity of the phytoplankton community, different responses to increased temperature are expected. We experimentally tested the effects of warming on 12 species of phytoplankton isolated from a variety of environments by using a mechanistic approach able to assess evolutionary adaptation (the so-called ratchet technique). We found different degrees of tolerance to temperature rises and an interspecific capacity for genetic adaptation. The thermal resistance level reached by each species is discussed in relation to their respective original habitats. Our study additionally provides evidence on the most resistant phytoplankton groups in a future warming scenario.

  12. Individual differences affect honest signalling in a songbird.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Caglar; Campbell, S Elizabeth; Beecher, Michael D

    2014-01-22

    Research in the past decade has established the existence of consistent individual differences or 'personality' in animals and their important role in many aspects of animal behaviour. At the same time, research on honest signalling of aggression has revealed that while some of the putative aggression signals are reliable, they are only imperfectly so. This study asks whether a significant portion of the variance in the aggression-signal regression may be explained by individual differences in signalling strategies. Using the well-studied aggressive signalling system of song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), we carried out repeated assays to measure both aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling of territorial males. Through these assays, we found that aggressive behaviours and aggressive signalling were both highly repeatable, and moreover that aggressive behaviours in 2009-2010 predicted whether the birds would attack a taxidermic mount over a year later. Most significantly, we found that residual variation in signalling behaviours, after controlling for aggressive behaviour, was individually consistent, suggesting there may be a second personality trait determining the level of aggressive signalling. We term this potential personality trait 'communicativeness' and discuss these results in the context of honest signalling theories and recent findings reporting prevalence of 'under-signalling'.

  13. Different Starting Distances Affect 5-m Sprint Times.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Stefan; Hoffmann, Marian; Kurz, Gunther; Neumann, Rainer; Woll, Alexander; Haertel, Sascha

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of different starting distances on 5-m sprint time and the accuracy of the initial timing gate. A single-beam timing gate system (1 m high) was used to measure 5-m sprint time in 13 male sports students. Each subject performed 3 valid trials for 3 starting distances: 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 m from the initial timing lights, respectively. A high-speed video camera was used to track a reflective marker placed on the subjects' hip within a field of view around the initial timing gate. Accuracy of the initial timing gate was defined as the time between the initial timing light trigger and passing of the reflective marker by the initial timing gate. Sprint times were significantly faster for the 1.0-m starting distance (0.98 ± 0.06 seconds) than for the 0.5-m (1.05 ± 0.07 seconds) and the 0.3-m (1.09 ± 0.08 seconds) starting distances (p < 0.001). There were no differences in initial timing gate error between starting distances (p = 0.078). Hence, starting distance influenced sprint times but not the accuracy of the initial timing gate. Researchers and coaches should consider the effect of starting distance on 5-m sprint time and ensure consistent testing protocols. Based on the results of this study, we recommend a starting distance of 0.3 m that should be used for all sprint performance tests.

  14. Do different bleaching protocols affect the enamel microhardness?

    PubMed Central

    Lia Mondelli, Rafael Francisco; Garrido Gabriel, Taisa R. Conti; Piola Rizzante, Fabio Antonio; Magalhães, Ana Carolina; Soares Bombonatti, Juliana Fraga; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Tooth bleaching tends to increase enamel roughness and porosity, in addition to reducing surface microhardness. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of bleaching treatments using different hydrogen peroxide (HP) concentrations, with and without light activation on bovine enamel microhardness. Materials and Methods: The buccal surfaces of sixty bovine incisors were flattened and polished and the enamel specimens were divided into six groups: G1 : c0 ontrol, exposed to artificial saliva; G2: 35% HP applied in two sessions (45’ each); G3: 35% HP applied in two sessions (3 × 15’ each); G4: 35% HP applied in one session (3 × 7’30”) plus hybrid light (HL); G5: 25% HP applied in one session (3 × 7’30”) plus HL; and G6: 15% HP applied in one session (3 × 7’30”) plus HL. After the treatment, the enamel specimens were stored in artificial saliva. The surface microhardness (Knoop) was measured at the baseline, 24 h and 7 days after bleaching. The data was analyzed using the ANOVA test, followed by the Tukey–Krummer test (P < 0.05). Results: All bleaching procedures lead to a decrease in surface microhardness when compared with the control group after 24 h. The lowest change in surface microhardness was found in the specimens treated with 15% HP plus HL. However, 35% HP plus HL induced the highest decrease in surface microhardness. After 7 days of remineralization, the surface microhardness returned to normal levels for all bleached specimens. Conclusion: Therefore, it can be concluded that the bleaching protocols caused a slight enamel surface alteration. However, the remineralization process minimized these effects. PMID:25713480

  15. [Talus necrosis and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Trauth, J; Bläsius, K

    1988-08-01

    Aetiopathogenesis of the necrosis of the talus has not yet been definitely clarified, and neither has that of the other aseptic necroses. We were able to study the aetiopathogenesis, course of the disease and therapy in 20 of our own patients by follow-up; two of these developed necrosis of the talus in both feet. We definitely excluded patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans. Even though fracture of the talus is on the whole relatively rare, it remains the most frequent cause of necrosis of the talus. We also found talonecrosis after surgical correction of clubfoot, after Sudeck's disease (Sudeck-Leriche syndrome, Sudeck's atrophy or dystrophy), suppurative arthritis of the ankle joint, subtalar luxation and haematogenic osteomyelitis. Only few patients required surgery. In most cases a special boot constructed for arthrodesis patients proved sufficient. Each patient developed arthrodesis to a different degree. Depending upon the complaints and stiffening of the ankle joint or of the talo-calcanonavicular joint, the capacity of the patients to be gainfully employed was reduced by an amount between 20 and 30 per cent. PMID:2905578

  16. Different communities, different perspectives: issues affecting residents' response to a volcanic eruption in southern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Deanne K.; Gísladóttir, Guðrún; Dominey-Howes, Dale

    2011-11-01

    This research investigates residents' knowledge and perception of the Katla volcano and emergency response procedures in all rural and urban communities located in the eastern and southern Katla hazard zones. Using a questionnaire survey conducted in 2008, we demonstrate that there is an apparent difference between rural and urban communities' knowledge and perceptions, and identify some of the issues influencing residents' perspectives and behaviour. All rural and most urban residents have an accurate knowledge of Katla, the proposed warning system and emergency response plan. Urban residents perceived the emergency response plan to be appropriate. In comparison, rural residents did not perceive the emergency response plan as appropriate. Rural residents stated that they would personally assess the situation before deciding on a course of action independent of the proposed plan. Livelihood connections and inherited knowledge affect rural residents' ability and willingness to comply with the recommended procedures. Factors such as hazard knowledge, sense of community and attachment to place indicate that rural residents are more resilient to volcanic hazards. Based on our findings we recommend that emergency management agencies consider issues such as personal responsibility, neighbourliness and community involvement and cooperation, to develop and implement more appropriate volcanic risk mitigation strategies. In light of the recent Eyjafjallajökull eruptions, we provide a brief discussion on the 2010 emergency response. Although our findings are Iceland-specific, our recommendations may be applied internationally to other volcanic and disaster-prone regions.

  17. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-04-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively. PMID:27099753

  18. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis producing ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Prout, G R

    1976-05-01

    We present 3 cases of a rare syndrome of extrinsic ureteral obstruction produced by retroperitoneal fat necrosis and compare the medical records and histopathology to 19 cases of classic idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Clinical similarities include average age of onset in the fourth and fifth decades, male preponderance, abdominal or back pain as the presenting symptom, elevation of the blood urea concentration prior to diagnosis and tendency toward bilateral involvement. Histologically, the 2 conditions were different. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis is characterized by coalescence of fat cells into fat cysts bordered by foreign body giant cell granulomas, foam cells, light chronic inflammatory infiltrate and unimpressive fibrosis. The microscopic pathology of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis is dominated by densely collagenized fibrous tissue of varying cellularity without evidence of fat necrosis. Of the 3 cases of retroperitoneal fat necrosis 2 featured prior ischiorectal abscesses and this is considered in a discussion of the etiology of this unusual cause of ureteral compression.

  19. Insular Activity during Passive Viewing of Aversive Stimuli Reflects Individual Differences in State Negative Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meriau, Katja; Wartenburger, Isabell; Kazzer, Philipp; Prehn, Kristin; Villringer, Arno; van der Meer, Elke; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2009-01-01

    People differ with regard to how they perceive, experience, and express negative affect. While trait negative affect reflects a stable, sustained personality trait, state negative affect represents a stimulus limited and temporally acute emotion. So far, little is known about the neural systems mediating the relationship between negative affect…

  20. Death by necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Syntichaki, Popi; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2002-01-01

    Cells suffer necrotic death when exposed to extreme environmental conditions, adverse and excessive stimuli, or when deleterious mutations are encoded in their genetic material. Unlike apoptosis, which involves a highly regulated and elaborate network of biochemical events and cascades, necrosis has been considered generally to be a chaotic decadence process that effects the inexorable demise of cells otherwise not destined to die. This grim prospect is now slowly being overturned, mostly by exciting new findings in two simple model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Despite the wide spectrum of necrosis-initiating conditions, evidence is accumulating that execution of necrotic or neurodegenerative cell death may be carried out by a finite common set of mechanisms. PMID:12101090

  1. Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Toffan, Anna; Panzarin, Valentina; Toson, Marica; Cecchettin, Krizia; Pascoli, Francesco

    2016-05-26

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the appearance and the severity of VNN disease. We assessed the effect of temperature (20°, 25° and 30°C) on mortality and virus load in the brain of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with 4 genetically different betanodaviruses, namely red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV), striped jack NNV (SJNNV) and the reassortant strains RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV. The RGNNV/SJNNV virus possesses the polymerase gene of RGNNV and the coat protein gene of SJNNV, and vice versa for the SJNNV/RGNNV virus. The obtained results showed that the RGNNV strain is the most pathogenic for juvenile sea bass, but clinical disease and mortality appeared only at higher temperatures. The SJNNV strain is weakly pathogenic for D. labrax regardless of the temperature used, while virus replication was detected in the brain of survivors only at 20°C. Finally, reassortant strains caused low mortality, independent of the temperature used, but the viral load in the brain was strongly influenced by water temperature and the genetic type of the polymerase gene. Taken together, these data show that nodavirus replication in vivo is a composite process regulated by both the genetic features of the viral strain and water temperatures. PMID:27225206

  2. Water temperature affects pathogenicity of different betanodavirus genotypes in experimentally challenged Dicentrarchus labrax.

    PubMed

    Toffan, Anna; Panzarin, Valentina; Toson, Marica; Cecchettin, Krizia; Pascoli, Francesco

    2016-05-26

    Betanodaviruses are the causative agents of a highly infectious disease of fish known as viral nervous necrosis (VNN). To date, 4 different nervous necrosis virus (NNV) genotypes have been described, but natural reassortant viruses have also been detected, which further increase viral variability. Water temperature plays an important role in determining the appearance and the severity of VNN disease. We assessed the effect of temperature (20°, 25° and 30°C) on mortality and virus load in the brain of European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax experimentally infected with 4 genetically different betanodaviruses, namely red-spotted grouper NNV (RGNNV), striped jack NNV (SJNNV) and the reassortant strains RGNNV/SJNNV and SJNNV/RGNNV. The RGNNV/SJNNV virus possesses the polymerase gene of RGNNV and the coat protein gene of SJNNV, and vice versa for the SJNNV/RGNNV virus. The obtained results showed that the RGNNV strain is the most pathogenic for juvenile sea bass, but clinical disease and mortality appeared only at higher temperatures. The SJNNV strain is weakly pathogenic for D. labrax regardless of the temperature used, while virus replication was detected in the brain of survivors only at 20°C. Finally, reassortant strains caused low mortality, independent of the temperature used, but the viral load in the brain was strongly influenced by water temperature and the genetic type of the polymerase gene. Taken together, these data show that nodavirus replication in vivo is a composite process regulated by both the genetic features of the viral strain and water temperatures.

  3. Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

    2014-01-01

    of fat necrosis is MRI.Histological confirmation of fat necrosis is important.Appropriate management of localised fat necrosis is surgical excision, with avoidance of further insulin injections into the affected area. PMID:25298886

  4. Explaining affective linkages in teams: individual differences in susceptibility to contagion and individualism-collectivism.

    PubMed

    Ilies, Remus; Wagner, David T; Morgeson, Frederick P

    2007-07-01

    To expand on the understanding of how affective states are linked within teams, the authors describe a longitudinal study examining the linkages between team members' affective states over time. In a naturalistic team performance setting, they found evidence that the average affective state of the other team members was related to an individual team member's affect over time, even after controlling for team performance. In addition, they found that these affective linkages were moderated by individual differences in susceptibility to emotional contagion and collectivistic tendencies such that the strength of the linkage was stronger for those high in susceptibility and those with collectivistic tendencies. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  5. Heritable major histocompatibility complex class II-associated differences in production of tumor necrosis factor. alpha. : Relevance to genetic predisposition to systemic lupus erythematosus

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, C.O.; Fronek, Z.; Koo, M.; McDevitt, H.O. ); Lewis, G.C. ); Hansen, J.A. )

    1990-02-01

    The authors report on the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and TNF-{beta} by mitogen-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes or enriched monocyte subpopulations from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed healthy subjects. The results indicate that HLA-DR2- and DQw1-positive donors frequently exhibit low production of TNF-{alpha}, whereas DR3- and DR4-positive subjects show high levels of TNF-{alpha} production. No correlation between TNF-{alpha} levels and HLA-A, -B, and -C genotype was found. The relevance of this quantitative polymorphism to the genetic predisposition to lupus nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients was investigated. DR2, DQw1-positive SLE patients show low levels of TNF-{alpha} inducibility; this genotype is also associated with an increased incidence of lupus nephritis. DR3-positive SLE patients, on the other hand, are not predisposed to nephritis, and these patients have high TNF-{alpha} production. DR4 haplotype is associated with high TNF-{alpha} inducibility and is negatively correlated with lupus nephritis. These data may help explain the strong association between HLA-DR2, DQw1 in SLE patients and their susceptibility to nephritis.

  6. Serum-induced potentiation of tumor necrosis factor alpha production by human monocytes in response to staphylococcal peptidoglycan: involvement of different serum factors.

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, E; Rollof, J; Verhoef, J; Van Dijk, H; Fleer, A

    1994-01-01

    Peptidoglycan from a Staphylococcus epidermidis strain, isolated from a patient with septicemia, was preincubated with human serum. This mixture was then investigated for its potency to induce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by human blood monocytes. TNF was measured in the supernatants by using a bioassay and/or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay specific for TNF alpha (TNF-alpha). Although earlier studies indicated that staphylococcal peptidoglycan alone is a relatively poor stimulator of TNF-alpha production, the present study shows that human serum highly potentiates peptidoglycan-induced TNF-alpha release by human monocytes. In the presence of serum and in the low-dose range, peptidoglycan was almost as potent as endotoxin. At high peptidoglycan concentrations, monocytes showed an extremely high TNF-alpha response, but again only in the presence of serum. At low peptidoglycan doses, the stimulatory effect of serum was abrogated by heat treatment or depleting serum of complement components C1 and C3/C4, which suggests a role for the classical complement pathway. At high doses of peptidoglycan, the serum stimulatory effect depended mainly on immunoglobulin G. PMID:8063400

  7. An active DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) with a different mode of action than fish rhabdovirus DNA vaccines.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, A; Chaves-Pozo, E; de Las Heras, A I; Saint-Jean, S Rodríguez; Pérez-Prieto, S; Tafalla, C

    2010-04-26

    Although there are some commercial vaccines available against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), the disease still continues to be a major problem for aquaculture development worldwide. In the current work, we constructed a DNA vaccine against IPNV (pIPNV-PP) by cloning the long open reading frame of the polyprotein encoded by the viral RNA segment A. In vitro, the vaccine is properly translated giving the functional IPNV polyprotein since preVP2, VP2 and VP3 proteins were detected because of the VP4-protease cleavage. EPC cells transfected with the vaccine plasmid expressed the viral proteins and induced the expression of type I interferon (IFN)-induced Mx genes. Furthermore, IPNV synthesized proteins seemed to assemble in virus-like particles as evidenced by electron microscopy. In vivo, rainbow trout specimens were intramuscularly injected with the vaccine and expression of immune-relevant genes, the presence of neutralizing antibodies and effect on viral load was determined. The pIPNV-PP vaccine was expressed at the injection site and up-regulated MHC Ialpha, MHC IIalpha, type-I interferon (IFN), Mx, CD4 and CD8alpha gene expression in the muscle, head kidney or spleen, although to a much lower extent than the up-regulations observed in response to an effective DNA vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV). However, the IPNV vaccine was also very effective in terms of acquired immunity since it elicited neutralizing antibodies (in 6 out of 8 trout fingerlings) and decreased 665-fold the viral load after IPNV infection. The effectiveness of this new IPNV DNA vaccine and its possible mechanism of action are discussed and compared to other viral vaccines.

  8. Human, donkey and cow milk differently affects energy efficiency and inflammatory state by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Trinchese, Giovanna; Cavaliere, Gina; Canani, Roberto Berni; Matamoros, Sebastien; Bergamo, Paolo; De Filippo, Chiara; Aceto, Serena; Gaita, Marcello; Cerino, Pellegrino; Negri, Rossella; Greco, Luigi; Cani, Patrice D; Mollica, Maria Pina

    2015-11-01

    Different nutritional components are able, by modulating mitochondrial function and gut microbiota composition, to influence body composition, metabolic homeostasis and inflammatory state. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects produced by the supplementation of different milks on energy balance, inflammatory state, oxidative stress and antioxidant/detoxifying enzyme activities and to investigate the role of the mitochondrial efficiency and the gut microbiota in the regulation of metabolic functions in an animal model. We compared the intake of human milk, gold standard for infant nutrition, with equicaloric supplementation of donkey milk, the best substitute for newborns due to its nutritional properties, and cow milk, the primary marketed product. The results showed a hypolipidemic effect produced by donkey and human milk intake in parallel with enhanced mitochondrial activity/proton leakage. Reduced mitochondrial energy efficiency and proinflammatory signals (tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 and lipopolysaccharide levels) were associated with a significant increase of antioxidants (total thiols) and detoxifying enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase, NADH quinone oxidoreductase) in donkey- and human milk-treated animals. The beneficial effects were attributable, at least in part, to the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor-2 pathway. Moreover, the metabolic benefits induced by human and donkey milk may be related to the modulation of gut microbiota. In fact, milk treatments uniquely affected the proportions of bacterial phyla and genera, and we hypothesized that the increased concentration of fecal butyrate in human and donkey milk-treated rats was related to the improved lipid and glucose metabolism and detoxifying activities.

  9. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. PMID:27460272

  10. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Radiation Necrosis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; NONOGUCHI, Noasuke; FURUSE, Motomasa; YORITSUNE, Erina; MIYATA, Tomo; KAWABATA, Shinji; KUROIWA, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    New radiation modalities have made it possible to prolong the survival of individuals with malignant brain tumors, but symptomatic radiation necrosis becomes a serious problem that can negatively affect a patient’s quality of life through severe and lifelong effects. Here we review the relevant literature and introduce our original concept of the pathophysiology of brain radiation necrosis following the treatment of brain, head, and neck tumors. Regarding the pathophysiology of radiation necrosis, we introduce two major hypotheses: glial cell damage or vascular damage. For the differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence, we focus on the role of positron emission tomography. Finally, in accord with our hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology, we describe the promising effects of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on symptomatic radiation necrosis in the brain. PMID:25744350

  11. Cultural Differences in Affect Intensity Perception in the Context of Advertising

    PubMed Central

    Pogosyan, Marianna; Engelmann, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese, and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity, or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal (HA) images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal (LA) images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1) perceptual differences in the extent to which HA images were discriminated from LA images, and (2) categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for global advertising are discussed. PMID:22084635

  12. Emotional intelligence: a theoretical framework for individual differences in affective forecasting.

    PubMed

    Hoerger, Michael; Chapman, Benjamin P; Epstein, Ronald M; Duberstein, Paul R

    2012-08-01

    Only recently have researchers begun to examine individual differences in affective forecasting. The present investigation was designed to make a theoretical contribution to this emerging literature by examining the role of emotional intelligence in affective forecasting. Emotional intelligence was hypothesized to be associated with affective forecasting accuracy, memory for emotional reactions, and subsequent improvement on an affective forecasting task involving emotionally evocative pictures. Results from two studies (N = 511) supported our hypotheses. Emotional intelligence was associated with accuracy in predicting, encoding, and consolidating emotional reactions. Furthermore, emotional intelligence was associated with greater improvement on a second affective forecasting task, with the relationship explained by basic memory processes. Implications for future research on basic and applied decision making are discussed.

  13. Affective and Cognitive Empathy as Mediators of Gender Differences in Cyber and Traditional Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Cigdem; Erdur-Baker, Ozgur

    2012-01-01

    Gender differences in bullying behavior among adolescents have been observed, but the reasons for the discrepancy in males' and females' bullying experiences has been the focus of few studies. This study examined the role of the cognitive and affective empathy in explaining gender differences in bullying through multiple mediation analysis. The…

  14. Gender Differences in Craving and Cue Reactivity to Smoking and Negative Affect/Stress Cues

    PubMed Central

    Saladin, Michael E.; Gray, Kevin M.; Carpenter, Matthew J.; LaRowe, Steven D.; DeSantis, Stacia M.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P.

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking-and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n=37) and men (n=53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: 1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and 2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking vs. neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress vs. neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed. PMID:22494223

  15. Gender differences in craving and cue reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues.

    PubMed

    Saladin, Michael E; Gray, Kevin M; Carpenter, Matthew J; LaRowe, Steven D; DeSantis, Stacia M; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women may be less successful when attempting to quit smoking than men. One potential contributory cause of this gender difference is differential craving and stress reactivity to smoking- and negative affect/stress-related cues. The present human laboratory study investigated the effects of gender on reactivity to smoking and negative affect/stress cues by exposing nicotine dependent women (n = 37) and men (n = 53) smokers to two active cue types, each with an associated control cue: (1) in vivo smoking cues and in vivo neutral control cues, and (2) imagery-based negative affect/stress script and a neutral/relaxing control script. Both before and after each cue/script, participants provided subjective reports of smoking-related craving and affective reactions. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) responses were also measured. Results indicated that participants reported greater craving and SC in response to smoking versus neutral cues and greater subjective stress in response to the negative affect/stress versus neutral/relaxing script. With respect to gender differences, women evidenced greater craving, stress and arousal ratings and lower valence ratings (greater negative emotion) in response to the negative affect/stressful script. While there were no gender differences in responses to smoking cues, women trended towards higher arousal ratings. Implications of the findings for treatment and tobacco-related morbidity and mortality are discussed.

  16. Affective responses to movie posters: differences between adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Although the link between cognition and affect in the advertising context has been demonstrated in several studies, no research to date has considered adolescents' affective responses to movie posters and their attitudes to negative and positive images. A 2 (between subjects) × 4 (within subjects) mixed-factorial experiment design comprising two groups of subjects (80 adolescents and 80 young adults) and four advertising stimuli (two highly positive images and two highly negative images) was used to test the differences in the subjects' attitudes to advertising, positive and negative affect, and viewing intentions. Although the adolescents, compared to the young adults, did not appear to have significantly stronger attitudes to emotional advertisements (ads), they showed a similar level of intensity of affective response when exposed to negative and positive images. PMID:22046997

  17. Affective responses to movie posters: differences between adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Emma; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Although the link between cognition and affect in the advertising context has been demonstrated in several studies, no research to date has considered adolescents' affective responses to movie posters and their attitudes to negative and positive images. A 2 (between subjects) × 4 (within subjects) mixed-factorial experiment design comprising two groups of subjects (80 adolescents and 80 young adults) and four advertising stimuli (two highly positive images and two highly negative images) was used to test the differences in the subjects' attitudes to advertising, positive and negative affect, and viewing intentions. Although the adolescents, compared to the young adults, did not appear to have significantly stronger attitudes to emotional advertisements (ads), they showed a similar level of intensity of affective response when exposed to negative and positive images.

  18. Affective Response to a Loved One's Pain: Insula Activity as a Function of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, Viridiana; Latorre, Valeria; Petito, Annamaria; Gentili, Nicoletta; Fazio, Leonardo; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Arciero, Giampiero; Bondolfi, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Individual variability in emotion processing may be associated with genetic variation as well as with psychological predispositions such as dispositional affect styles. Our previous fMRI study demonstrated that amygdala reactivity was independently predicted by affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone) and genotype of the serotonin transporter in a discrimination task of fearful facial expressions. Since the insula is associated with the subjective evaluation of bodily states and is involved in human feelings, we explored whether its activity could also vary in function of individual differences. In the present fMRI study, the association between dispositional affects and insula reactivity has been examined in two groups of healthy participants categorized according to affective-cognitive styles (phobic prone or eating disorders prone). Images of the faces of partners and strangers, in both painful and neutral situations, were used as visual stimuli. Interaction analyses indicate significantly different activations in the two groups in reaction to a loved one's pain: the phobic prone group exhibited greater activation in the left posterior insula. These results demonstrate that affective-cognitive style is associated with insula activity in pain empathy processing, suggesting a greater involvement of the insula in feelings for a certain cohort of people. In the mapping of individual differences, these results shed new light on variability in neural networks of emotion. PMID:21179564

  19. Osteo-radio-necrosis (ORN) and bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ): the histopathological differences under the clinical similarities

    PubMed Central

    Mitsimponas, Konstantinos T; Moebius, Patrick; Amann, Kerstin; Stockmann, Philipp; Schlegel, Karl-Andreas; Neukam, Friedrich-Wilhelm; Wehrhan, Falk

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Both Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) and Bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) present clinically as regions of exposed necrotic bone. The study aimed to demonstrate the histopathological differences behind the observed clinical similarities. Study Design: Ten ORN specimens and ten BRONJ specimens were used, as well as ten samples of normal mandibular bone as control. Two bone-specific stainings were used, i.e. Sirius Red for the study of the relative presence of collagen types I and III and toluidine blue for the study the osteon density. Results: The Red Green Blue (RGB)-analysis of the specimens stained with Sirius Red identified significant differences between the chromatic patterns observed in bone preparations of patients suffering from ORN when compared to both BRONJ and control samples. Moreover, the osteon density of the BRONJ samples was significantly lower when compared to ORN and normal bone samples. Conclusions: The demonstrated differences in the bone architecture and in the bone collagen content between the two pathological conditions most likely reflect underlying pathophysiological differences. PMID:24551270

  20. Principal Leadership Behaviors Which Teachers at Different Career Stages Perceive as Affecting Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Valari

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the perceptions of teachers as to how the leadership of their principal affects their job satisfaction. This study collected the view of teachers at different career stages and examined their perceptions and needs. The participants consisted of 12 elementary school teachers at three different…

  1. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  2. Learning and Studying Strategies Used by General Chemistry Students with Different Affective Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2016-01-01

    Students in general chemistry were partitioned into three groups by cluster analysis of six affective characteristics (emotional satisfaction, intellectual accessibility, chemistry self-concept, math self-concept, self-efficacy, and test anxiety). The at-home study strategies for exam preparation and in-class learning strategies differed among the…

  3. Women's greater ability to perceive happy facial emotion automatically: gender differences in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Donges, Uta-Susan; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    There is evidence that women are better in recognizing their own and others' emotions. The female advantage in emotion recognition becomes even more apparent under conditions of rapid stimulus presentation. Affective priming paradigms have been developed to examine empirically whether facial emotion stimuli presented outside of conscious awareness color our impressions. It was observed that masked emotional facial expression has an affect congruent influence on subsequent judgments of neutral stimuli. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of gender on affective priming based on negative and positive facial expression. In our priming experiment sad, happy, neutral, or no facial expression was briefly presented (for 33 ms) and masked by neutral faces which had to be evaluated. 81 young healthy volunteers (53 women) participated in the study. Subjects had no subjective awareness of emotional primes. Women did not differ from men with regard to age, education, intelligence, trait anxiety, or depressivity. In the whole sample, happy but not sad facial expression elicited valence congruent affective priming. Between-group analyses revealed that women manifested greater affective priming due to happy faces than men. Women seem to have a greater ability to perceive and respond to positive facial emotion at an automatic processing level compared to men. High perceptual sensitivity to minimal social-affective signals may contribute to women's advantage in understanding other persons' emotional states.

  4. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Ramia, J M; de la Plaza, R; Quiñones-Sampedro, J E; Ramiro, C; Veguillas, P; García-Parreño, J

    2012-05-01

    Acute severe pancreatitits may be complicated by the development of 'walled-off pancreatic necrosis' (WOPN), which is characterised by a mixture of solid components and fluids on imaging studies as a consequence of organised pancreatic tissue necrosis. We present here an overview of the definition, clinical features, and diagnostic and therapeutic management of this clinical condition, which is mostly based on consensus as adequate clinical trials are lacking. PMID:22641624

  5. Practical quantification of necrosis in histological whole-slide images.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, André; Schenk, Andrea; Arlt, Janine; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Hahn, Horst K

    2013-06-01

    Since the histological quantification of necrosis is a common task in medical research and practice, we evaluate different image analysis methods for quantifying necrosis in whole-slide images. In a practical usage scenario, we assess the impact of different classification algorithms and feature sets on both accuracy and computation time. We show how a well-chosen combination of multiresolution features and an efficient postprocessing step enables the accurate quantification necrosis in gigapixel images in less than a minute. The results are general enough to be applied to other areas of histological image analysis as well. PMID:23796718

  6. Reliving emotional personal memories: affective biases linked to personality and sex-related differences.

    PubMed

    Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

    2012-06-01

    Although available evidence suggests that the emotional valence and recollective properties of autobiographical memories (AMs) may be influenced by personality- and sex-related differences, overall these relationships remain poorly understood. The present study investigated these issues by comparing the effect of general personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) and specific traits linked to emotion regulation (ER) strategies (reappraisal and suppression) on the retrieval of emotional AMs and on the associated postretrieval emotional states, in men and women. First, extraversion predicted recollection of positive AMs in both men and women, whereas neuroticism predicted the proportion of negative AMs in men and the frequency of rehearsing negative AMs in women. Second, reappraisal predicted positive AMs in men, and suppression predicted negative AMs in women. Third, while reliving of positive memories had an overall indirect effect on postretrieval positive mood through extraversion, reliving of negative AMs had a direct effect on postretrieval negative mood, which was linked to inefficient engagement of suppression in women. Our findings suggest that personality traits associated with positive affect predict recollection of positive AMs and maintenance of a positive mood, whereas personality traits associated with negative affect, along with differential engagement of habitual ER strategies in men and women, predict sex-related differences in the recollection and experiencing of negative AMs. These findings provide insight into the factors that influence affective biases in reliving AMs, and into their possible link to sex-related differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders.

  7. Differences between disease-associated endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) isoforms in cellular expression, interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and regulation by cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, N; Low, W Y; Onipinla, A; Mein, C; Caulfield, M; Munroe, P B; Chernajovsky, Y

    2015-05-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) processes peptides for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation and promotes cytokine receptor ectodomain shedding. These known functions of ERAP1 may explain its genetic association with several autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this study, we identified four novel alternatively spliced variants of ERAP1 mRNA, designated as ΔExon-11, ΔExon-13, ΔExon-14 and ΔExon-15. We also observed a rapid and differential modulation of ERAP1 mRNA levels and spliced variants in different cell types pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have studied three full-length allelic forms of ERAP1 (R127-K528, P127-K528, P127-R528) and one spliced variant (ΔExon-11) and assessed their interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in transfected cells. We observed variation in cellular expression of different ERAP1 isoforms, with R127-K528 being expressed at a much lower level. Furthermore, the cellular expression of full-length P127-K528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant was enhanced significantly when co-transfected with TNF-R1. Isoforms P127-K528, P127-R528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant associated with TNF-R1, and this interaction occurred in a region within the first 10 exons of ERAP1. Supernatant-derived vesicles from transfected cells contained the full-length and ectodomain form of soluble TNF-R1, as well as carrying the full-length ERAP1 isoforms. We observed marginal differences between TNF-R1 ectodomain levels when co-expressed with individual ERAP1 isoforms, and treatment of transfected cells with tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 exerted variable effects on TNF-R1 ectodomain cleavage. Our data suggest that ERAP1 isoforms may exhibit differential biological properties and inflammatory mediators could play critical roles in modulating ERAP1 expression, leading to altered functional activities of this enzyme.

  8. Differences between disease-associated endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) isoforms in cellular expression, interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) and regulation by cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Yousaf, N; Low, W Y; Onipinla, A; Mein, C; Caulfield, M; Munroe, P B; Chernajovsky, Y

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) processes peptides for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation and promotes cytokine receptor ectodomain shedding. These known functions of ERAP1 may explain its genetic association with several autoimmune inflammatory diseases. In this study, we identified four novel alternatively spliced variants of ERAP1 mRNA, designated as ΔExon-11, ΔExon-13, ΔExon-14 and ΔExon-15. We also observed a rapid and differential modulation of ERAP1 mRNA levels and spliced variants in different cell types pretreated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have studied three full-length allelic forms of ERAP1 (R127-K528, P127-K528, P127-R528) and one spliced variant (ΔExon-11) and assessed their interactions with tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in transfected cells. We observed variation in cellular expression of different ERAP1 isoforms, with R127-K528 being expressed at a much lower level. Furthermore, the cellular expression of full-length P127-K528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant was enhanced significantly when co-transfected with TNF-R1. Isoforms P127-K528, P127-R528 and ΔExon-11 spliced variant associated with TNF-R1, and this interaction occurred in a region within the first 10 exons of ERAP1. Supernatant-derived vesicles from transfected cells contained the full-length and ectodomain form of soluble TNF-R1, as well as carrying the full-length ERAP1 isoforms. We observed marginal differences between TNF-R1 ectodomain levels when co-expressed with individual ERAP1 isoforms, and treatment of transfected cells with tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 exerted variable effects on TNF-R1 ectodomain cleavage. Our data suggest that ERAP1 isoforms may exhibit differential biological properties and inflammatory mediators could play critical roles in modulating ERAP1 expression, leading to altered functional activities of this enzyme. PMID:25545008

  9. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video

  10. Composite resin bond strength to caries-affected dentin contaminated with 3 different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Hosseini-Shirazi, Moeen; Farahbod, Foroozan; Keshani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of composite resins to sound and caries-affected dentin in cervical areas may necessitate the use of hemostatic agents to control sulcular fluid and hemorrhage. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive system to sound and caries-affected dentin after the use of 3 different hemostatic agents. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to 48 caries-affected and 48 sound dentin surfaces in 8 groups. Groups 1-4 utilized caries-affected dentin: group 1, uncontaminated control; 2, ViscoStat; 3, ViscoStat Clear; and 4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Groups 5-8 utilized sound dentin: group 5, uncontaminated control; 6, ViscoStat; 7, ViscoStat Clear; and 8, TCA. The hemostatic agents were applied for 2 minutes and rinsed. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, shear bond strength tests were carried out. Data were analyzed with 1- and 2-way analyses of variance, t test, and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Bond strength was significantly influenced by dentin type (F = 38.23; P = 0.0001) and hemostatic agent (F = 6.32; P = 0.001). Furthermore, groups 2 and 6 (ViscoStat) showed significantly lower bond strength values than the control groups (groups 1 and 5) in both affected and sound dentin (P = 0.043 and P = 0.009, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, the bond strength of composite resin to caries-affected dentin was significantly reduced compared to that with sound dentin. Among the studied hemostatic agents, ViscoStat resulted in a greater decrease in dentin bond strength. Contamination of both sound and caries-affected dentin with hemostatic agents decreased composite resin bond strength. Of the 3 hemostatic agents used, ViscoStat Clear appeared to have the least detrimental effect on bond strength. PMID:27367640

  11. Seasonal difference in brain serotonin transporter binding predicts symptom severity in patients with seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B; Madsen, Martin K; Hjordt, Liv V; Hageman, Ida; Dam, Henrik; Svarer, Claus; da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Baaré, William; Madsen, Jacob; Hasholt, Lis; Holst, Klaus; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2016-05-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies in non-depressed individuals have demonstrated an inverse relationship between daylight minutes and cerebral serotonin transporter; this relationship is modified by serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region short allele carrier status. We here present data from the first longitudinal investigation of seasonal serotonin transporter fluctuations in both patients with seasonal affective disorder and in healthy individuals. Eighty (11)C-DASB positron emission tomography scans were conducted to quantify cerebral serotonin transporter binding; 23 healthy controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding in the summer but in their symptomatic phase during winter, patients with seasonal affective disorder had higher serotonin transporter than the healthy control subjects (P = 0.01). Compared to the healthy controls, patients with seasonal affective disorder changed their serotonin transporter significantly less between summer and winter (P < 0.001). Further, the change in serotonin transporter was sex- (P = 0.02) and genotype- (P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom severity, as indexed by Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version scores (P = 0.01). Our findings suggest that the development of depressive symptoms in winter is associated with a failure to downregulate serotonin transporter levels appropriately during exposure to the environmental stress of winter, especially in individuals with high predisposition to affective disorders.media-1vid110.1093/brain/aww043_video_abstractaww043_video_abstract.

  12. Comparison of vaccine efficacy for different antigen delivery systems for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a cohabitation challenge model.

    PubMed

    Munang'andu, Hetron M; Fredriksen, Børge N; Mutoloki, Stephen; Brudeseth, Bjørn; Kuo, Tsun-Yung; Marjara, Inderjit S; Dalmo, Roy A; Evensen, Øystein

    2012-06-01

    Two strains of IPNV made by reverse genetics on the Norwegian Sp strain NVI-015 (GenBank AY379740) backbone encoding the virulent (T(217)A(221)) and avirulent (P(217)T(221)) motifs were used to prepare inactivated whole virus (IWV), nanoparticle vaccines with whole virus, Escherichia coli subunit encoding truncated VP2-TA and VP2-PT, VP2-TA and VP2-PT fusion antigens with putative translocating domains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin, and plasmid DNA encoding segment A of the TA strain. Post challenge survival percentages (PCSP) showed that IWV vaccines conferred highest protection (PCSP=42-53) while nanoparticle, sub-unit recombinant and DNA vaccines fell short of the IWV vaccines in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) postsmolts challenged with the highly virulent Sp strain NVI-015 (TA strain) of IPNV after 560 degree days post vaccination. Antibody levels induced by these vaccines did not show antigenic differences between the virulent and avirulent motifs for vaccines made with the same antigen dose and delivery system after 8 weeks post vaccination. Our findings show that fish vaccinated with less potent vaccines comprising of nanoparticle, DNA and recombinant vaccines got infected much earlier and yielded to higher infection rates than fish vaccinated with IWV vaccines that were highly potent. Ability of the virulent (T(217)A(221)) and avirulent (P(217)T(221)) motifs to limit establishment of infection showed equal protection for vaccines made of the same antigen dose and delivery systems. Prevention of tissue damage linked to viral infection was eminent in the more potent vaccines than the less protective ones. Hence, there still remains the challenge of developing highly efficacious vaccines with the ability to eliminate the post challenge carrier state in IPNV vaccinology.

  13. Transcriptional regulation differs in affected facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy patients compared to asymptomatic related carriers

    PubMed Central

    Arashiro, Patricia; Eisenberg, Iris; Kho, Alvin T.; Cerqueira, Antonia M. P.; Canovas, Marta; Silva, Helga C. A.; Pavanello, Rita C. M.; Verjovski-Almeida, Sergio; Kunkel, Louis M.; Zatz, Mayana

    2009-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a progressive muscle disorder that has been associated with a contraction of 3.3-kb repeats on chromosome 4q35. FSHD is characterized by a wide clinical inter- and intrafamilial variability, ranging from wheelchair-bound patients to asymptomatic carriers. Our study is unique in comparing the gene expression profiles from related affected, asymptomatic carrier, and control individuals. Our results suggest that the expression of genes on chromosome 4q is altered in affected and asymptomatic individuals. Remarkably, the changes seen in asymptomatic samples are largely in products of genes encoding several chemokines, whereas the changes seen in affected samples are largely in genes governing the synthesis of GPI-linked proteins and histone acetylation. Besides this, the affected patient and related asymptomatic carrier share the 4qA161 haplotype. Thus, these polymorphisms by themselves do not explain the pathogenicity of the contracted allele. Interestingly, our results also suggest that the miRNAs might mediate the regulatory network in FSHD. Together, our results support the previous evidence that FSHD may be caused by transcriptional dysregulation of multiple genes, in cis and in trans, and suggest some factors potentially important for FSHD pathogenesis. The study of the gene expression profiles from asymptomatic carriers and related affected patients is a unique approach to try to enhance our understanding of the missing link between the contraction in D4Z4 repeats and muscle disease, while minimizing the effects of differences resulting from genetic background. PMID:19339494

  14. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: Behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  15. Individual differences in cognition, affect, and performance: behavioral, neuroimaging, and molecular genetic approaches.

    PubMed

    Parasuraman, Raja; Jiang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    We describe the use of behavioral, neuroimaging, and genetic methods to examine individual differences in cognition and affect, guided by three criteria: (1) relevance to human performance in work and everyday settings; (2) interactions between working memory, decision-making, and affective processing; and (3) examination of individual differences. The results of behavioral, functional MRI (fMRI), event-related potential (ERP), and molecular genetic studies show that analyses at the group level often mask important findings associated with sub-groups of individuals. Dopaminergic/noradrenergic genes influencing prefrontal cortex activity contribute to inter-individual variation in working memory and decision behavior, including performance in complex simulations of military decision-making. The interactive influences of individual differences in anxiety, sensation seeking, and boredom susceptibility on evaluative decision-making can be systematically described using ERP and fMRI methods. We conclude that a multi-modal neuroergonomic approach to examining brain function (using both neuroimaging and molecular genetics) can be usefully applied to understanding individual differences in cognition and affect and has implications for human performance at work. PMID:21569853

  16. Genome mapping of postzygotic hybrid necrosis in an interspecific pear population

    PubMed Central

    Montanari, Sara; Brewer, Lester; Lamberts, Robert; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael; Perchepied, Laure; Guérif, Philippe; Durel, Charles-Eric; Bus, Vincent G M; Gardiner, Susan E; Chagné, David

    2016-01-01

    Deleterious epistatic interactions in plant inter- and intraspecific hybrids can cause a phenomenon known as hybrid necrosis, characterized by a typical seedling phenotype whose main distinguishing features are dwarfism, tissue necrosis and in some cases lethality. Identification of the chromosome regions associated with this type of incompatibility is important not only to increase our understanding of the evolutionary diversification that led to speciation but also for breeding purposes. Development of molecular markers linked to the lethal genes will allow breeders to avoid incompatible inbred combinations that could affect the expression of important agronomic tratis co-segregating with these genes. Although hybrid necrosis has been reported in several plant taxa, including Rosaceae species, this phenomenon has not been described previously in pear. In the interspecific pear population resulting from a cross between PEAR3 (Pyrus bretschneideri × Pyrus communis) and ‘Moonglow’ (P. communis), we observed two types of hybrid necrosis, expressed at different stages of plant development. Using a combination of previously mapped and newly developed genetic markers, we identified three chromosome regions associated with these two types of lethality, which were genetically independent. One type resulted from a negative epistatic interaction between a locus on linkage group 5 (LG5) of PEAR3 and a locus on LG1 of ‘Moonglow’, while the second type was due to a gene that maps to LG2 of PEAR3 and which either acts alone or more probably interacts with another gene of unknown location inherited from ‘Moonglow’. PMID:26770810

  17. Genome mapping of postzygotic hybrid necrosis in an interspecific pear population.

    PubMed

    Montanari, Sara; Brewer, Lester; Lamberts, Robert; Velasco, Riccardo; Malnoy, Mickael; Perchepied, Laure; Guérif, Philippe; Durel, Charles-Eric; Bus, Vincent G M; Gardiner, Susan E; Chagné, David

    2016-01-01

    Deleterious epistatic interactions in plant inter- and intraspecific hybrids can cause a phenomenon known as hybrid necrosis, characterized by a typical seedling phenotype whose main distinguishing features are dwarfism, tissue necrosis and in some cases lethality. Identification of the chromosome regions associated with this type of incompatibility is important not only to increase our understanding of the evolutionary diversification that led to speciation but also for breeding purposes. Development of molecular markers linked to the lethal genes will allow breeders to avoid incompatible inbred combinations that could affect the expression of important agronomic tratis co-segregating with these genes. Although hybrid necrosis has been reported in several plant taxa, including Rosaceae species, this phenomenon has not been described previously in pear. In the interspecific pear population resulting from a cross between PEAR3 (Pyrus bretschneideri × Pyrus communis) and 'Moonglow' (P. communis), we observed two types of hybrid necrosis, expressed at different stages of plant development. Using a combination of previously mapped and newly developed genetic markers, we identified three chromosome regions associated with these two types of lethality, which were genetically independent. One type resulted from a negative epistatic interaction between a locus on linkage group 5 (LG5) of PEAR3 and a locus on LG1 of 'Moonglow', while the second type was due to a gene that maps to LG2 of PEAR3 and which either acts alone or more probably interacts with another gene of unknown location inherited from 'Moonglow'. PMID:26770810

  18. [A case report of progressive penile necrosis].

    PubMed

    Haba, Tomomi; Koike, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The penis is provided with blood by multiple arteries. Penile necrosis is uncommon. Penile necrosis sporadically occurs in patients with progressive diabetes mellitus and/or end stage renal failure. Penile necrosis is often considered a poor prognostic feature. We present a case of penile necrosis in a patient with mild diabetes mellitus.

  19. Measuring natural pest suppression at different spatial scales affects the importance of local variables.

    PubMed

    Bennett, A B; Gratton, C

    2012-10-01

    The role biodiversity plays in the provision of ecosystem services is widely recognized, yet few ecological studies have identified characteristics of natural systems that support and maintain ecosystem services. The purpose of this study was to identify landscape variables correlated with natural pest suppression carried out by arthropod natural enemies, predators and parasitoids. We conducted two field experiments, one observational and one experimental, where landscape variables at broad and local scales were measured and related to natural pest suppression. The first experiment measured natural pest suppression at 16 sites across an urban to rural landscape gradient in south central Wisconsin. We found natural enemy diversity positively affected natural pest suppression, whereas flower diversity negatively affected pest suppression. No relationship was found between natural pest suppression and broad scale variables, which measured the percentage of different land cover classes in the surrounding landscape. In the second experiment, we established small (2- by 3-m) replicated plots that experimentally varied flower diversity (0, 1, or 7 species) within a plot. We found no significant relationship between natural pest suppression and the different levels of flower diversity. The fact that we only found differences in natural pest suppression in our first experiment, which measured natural pest suppression at sites separated by larger distances than our second experiment, suggests the more appropriate scale for measuring ecosystem services performed by mobile organisms like insects, is across broad spatial scales where variation in natural enemies communities and the factors that affect them become more apparent.

  20. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T.; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Barnett, Gene H.; Stevens, Glen H.J.; Murphy, Erin S.; Stockham, Abigail L.; Shiue, Kevin; Suh, John H.

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  1. Sex differences in how stress affects brain activity during face viewing.

    PubMed

    Mather, Mara; Lighthall, Nichole R; Nga, Lin; Gorlick, Marissa A

    2010-10-01

    Under stress, men tend to withdraw socially whereas women seek social support. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates that stress also affects brain activity while viewing emotional faces differently for men and women. Fusiform face area response to faces was diminished by acute stress in men but increased by stress in women. Furthermore, among stressed men viewing angry faces, brain regions involved in interpreting and understanding others' emotions (the insula, temporal pole, and inferior frontal gyrus) showed reduced coordination with the fusiform face area and the amygdala, whereas the functional connectivity among these regions increased with stress for women. These findings suggest that stress influences emotional perception differently for men and women.

  2. Occurrence of two different intragenic deletions in two male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Mostacciuolo, M.L.; Miorin, M.; Vitiello, L.; Rampazzo, A.; Fanin, M.; Angelini, C.; Danieli, G.A.

    1994-03-01

    The occurrence of 2 different intragenic deletions (exons 10-44 and exon 45, respectively) is reported in 2 male relatives affected with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, both showing the same haplotype for DNA markers not included in the deleted segment. The 2 different deletions seem to have occurred independently in the same X chromosome. This finding, together with other reports, suggests possibly an increased predisposition to mutations within the DMD locus in some families. Therefore, when dealing with prenatal diagnosis, the investigation on fetal DNA cannot be restricted only to the region in which a mutation was previously identified in the family. 14 refs., 1 fig.

  3. Joint attention initiation with and without positive affect: risk group differences and associations with ASD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Gangi, Devon N; Ibañez, Lisa V; Messinger, Daniel S

    2014-06-01

    Infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty integrating smiles into initiating joint attention (IJA) bids. A specific IJA pattern, anticipatory smiling, may communicate preexisting positive affect when an infant smiles at an object and then turns the smile toward the social partner. We compared the development of anticipatory smiling at 8, 10, and 12 months in infant siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings) and without ASD (low-risk siblings). High-risk siblings produced less anticipatory smiling than low-risk siblings, suggesting early differences in communicating preexisting positive affect. While early anticipatory smiling distinguished the risk groups, IJA not accompanied by smiling best predicted later severity of ASD-related behavioral characteristics among high-risk siblings. High-risk infants appear to show lower levels of motivation to share positive affect with others. However, facility with initiating joint attention in the absence of a clear index of positive affective motivation appears to be central to the prediction of ASD symptoms. PMID:24281421

  4. Does prey community composition affect the way different behavioral types interact with their environment?

    PubMed

    Nannini, Michael A; Wahl, David H

    2016-10-01

    We examined how different exploratory behavioral types of largemouth bass responded to differing prey communities by determining effects on growth, survival and diet in experimental ponds. We found evidence that non-explorer largemouth bass target young-of-year bluegill early on in life, but bluegill were not an important diet item by late summer. The presence of young-of-year bluegill as prey does appear to affect the foraging strategy of the two exploring types differently. In the absence of small bluegill, both behavioral types feed primarily on benthic invertebrates and zooplankton. When small bluegill were present, we saw a shift away from zooplankton as prey for largemouth bass. However, that shift was toward more benthic invertebrates for non-exploring behavioral types and toward terrestrial insects for exploring behavioral types. Thus, it appears that prey community composition can have important effects on the way in which different behavioral types interact with their environment. PMID:27334870

  5. Does prey community composition affect the way different behavioral types interact with their environment?

    PubMed

    Nannini, Michael A; Wahl, David H

    2016-10-01

    We examined how different exploratory behavioral types of largemouth bass responded to differing prey communities by determining effects on growth, survival and diet in experimental ponds. We found evidence that non-explorer largemouth bass target young-of-year bluegill early on in life, but bluegill were not an important diet item by late summer. The presence of young-of-year bluegill as prey does appear to affect the foraging strategy of the two exploring types differently. In the absence of small bluegill, both behavioral types feed primarily on benthic invertebrates and zooplankton. When small bluegill were present, we saw a shift away from zooplankton as prey for largemouth bass. However, that shift was toward more benthic invertebrates for non-exploring behavioral types and toward terrestrial insects for exploring behavioral types. Thus, it appears that prey community composition can have important effects on the way in which different behavioral types interact with their environment.

  6. Programmed necrosis in inflammation: Toward identification of the effector molecules.

    PubMed

    Wallach, David; Kang, Tae-Bong; Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, programmed cell death was conceived of as a single set of molecular pathways. We now know of several distinct sets of death-inducing mechanisms that lead to differing cell-death processes. In one of them--apoptosis--the dying cell affects others minimally. In contrast, programmed necrotic cell death causes release of immunostimulatory intracellular components after cell-membrane rupture. Defining the in vivo relevance of necrotic death is hampered because the molecules initiating it [such as receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1), RIPK3, or caspase-1] also serve other functions. Proteins that participate in late events in two forms of programmed necrosis [mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) in necroptosis and gasdermin-D in pyroptosis] were recently discovered, bringing us closer to identifying molecules that strictly serve in death mediation, thereby providing probes for better assessing its role in inflammation.

  7. Toe Necrosis, Etiologies and Management, a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Abdelfatah Abou; Newman, Mackenzie; Simman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Toe necrosis may have vast different etiologies. These include ischemia, embolus, and others. (1) The most common etiology is ischemia. It is a reduction in blood supply to a viable tissue that can lead to susceptibility to infection and tissue death. Peripheral ischemia, which is rooted in the lower limbs, is a major risk factor for toe necrosis because the basal metabolic requirements of tissue are not being sufficiently met. As a result, pain, ulcers, and gangrene commonly occur. (2) Other causes of direct and indirect toe necrosis and related lower limb gangrene include mechanical trauma, infectious, pharmacological sensitivity, cancer, blue toe syndrome, and other granulomatous diseases, such as Churg-Strauss syndrome. We present a case series of toes necrosis which resulted from different etiologies and their management. PMID:26199887

  8. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject.

  9. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Barbeiro, Sandra; Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  10. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  11. Effects of Different Rainfalls on Run-out Distances and Affected Areas of Debris Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Meei-Ling; Chen, Ter-Wei; Lin, Yu-Chung; Chen, Tien-chien; Wang, Kuo-Lung; Huang, Hsiao-Yue; Chen, Mei-Jeng

    2013-04-01

    Taiwan locates at the junction of plate tectonic boundaries with active geologically condition, which results in steep terrains and fragile geological conditions. The heavy rainfall carried by typhoons often causes severe hazard of landslide and debris flow. After Typhoon Morakot, 2009, it was found that the volume of debris transported by the triggered debris flow and its effects on the affected area were much more significant compared to previous case history due to the very large amount of rainfall carried by the Typhoon. In this study, field investigations of 21 debris flow torrents with events triggered by Typhoon Morakot, 2009, were conducted, and the database of debris deposition volume and run-out distance was established. Additional dataset of debris deposition volume and run out distance of debris flow triggered by different typhoons were also collected. Comparisons of the debris deposition volumes by Typhoon Morakot and other typhoons suggested that the high precipitation of Typhoon Morakot caused larger volume of debris transportation. Statistical analysis was performed to determine the correlation of run-out distance and watershed properties. The results suggest that the correlation based on Typhoon Morakot would tend to over-estimate the possible run-out distance of the affected area in most other precipitation condition. Based on the regression analysis of dataset, regression formula of Typhoon Morakot with 50% and 70% of data distribution coverage can be used for determining run-out distance for delineating the affected area, which corresponds to medium and heavy precipitation conditions, respectively. The proposed delineation procedures for the debris flow affected area provide helpful tool for developing delineation map of potential debris flow torrent under effects of different predicted rainfall.

  12. Physiological factors affecting transcription of genes involved in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in different rice varieties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoqiong; Itani, Tomio; Wu, Xianjun; Chikawa, Yuuki; Irifune, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    Flavonoids play an important role in the grain color and flavor of rice. Since their characterization in maize, the flavonoid biosynthetic genes have been extensively studied in grape, Arabidopsis, and Petunia. However, we are still a long way from understanding the molecular features and mechanisms underlying the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. The present study was undertaken to understand the physiological factors affecting the transcription and regulation of these genes. We report that the expression of CHI, CHS, DFR, LAR, and ANS, the 5 flavonoid biosynthetic genes in different rice varieties, differ dramatically with respect to the stage of development, white light, and sugar concentrations. We further demonstrate that white light could induce the transcription of the entire flavonoid biosynthetic gene pathway; however, differences were observed in the degrees of sensitivity and the required illumination time. Our study provides valuable insights into understanding the regulation of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. PMID:24389954

  13. Deep brain stimulation affects conditioned and unconditioned anxiety in different brain areas.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, A; Klanker, M; van Oorschot, N; Post, R; Hamelink, R; Feenstra, M G P; Denys, D

    2013-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) has proven to be an effective treatment for therapy refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder. Clinical observations show that anxiety symptoms decrease rapidly following DBS. As in clinical studies different regions are targeted, it is of principal interest to understand which brain area is responsible for the anxiolytic effect and whether high-frequency stimulation of different areas differentially affect unconditioned (innate) and conditioned (learned) anxiety. In this study, we examined the effect of stimulation in five brain areas in rats (NAc core and shell, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), internal capsule (IC) and the ventral medial caudate nucleus (CAU)). The elevated plus maze was used to test the effect of stimulation on unconditioned anxiety, the Vogel conflict test for conditioned anxiety, and an activity test for general locomotor behaviour. We found different anxiolytic effects of stimulation in the five target areas. Stimulation of the CAU decreased both conditioned and unconditioned anxiety, while stimulation of the IC uniquely reduced conditioned anxiety. Remarkably, neither the accumbens nor the BNST stimulation affected conditioned or unconditioned anxiety. Locomotor activity increased with NAc core stimulation but decreased with the BNST. These findings suggest that (1) DBS may have a differential effect on unconditioned and conditioned anxiety depending on the stimulation area, and that (2) stimulation of the IC exclusively reduces conditioned anxiety. This suggests that the anxiolytic effects of DBS seen in OCD patients may not be induced by stimulation of the NAc, but rather by the IC. PMID:23900312

  14. Age differences in affective forecasting and experienced emotion surrounding the 2008 U.S. presidential election

    PubMed Central

    Scheibe, Susanne; Mata, Rui; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    In everyday life, people frequently make decisions based on tacit or explicit forecasts about the emotional consequences associated with the possible choices. We investigated age differences in such forecasts and their accuracy by surveying voters about their expected and, subsequently, their actual emotional responses to the 2008 U.S. presidential election. A sample of 762 Democratic and Republican voters aged 20 to 80 years participated in a web-based study; 346 could be re-contacted two days after the election. Older adults forecasted lower increases in high-arousal emotions (e.g., excitement after winning; anger after losing) and larger increases in low-arousal emotions (e.g., sluggishness after losing) than younger adults. Age differences in actual responses to the election were consistent with forecasts, albeit less pervasive. Additionally, among supporters of the winning candidate, but not among supporters of the losing candidate, forecasting accuracy was enhanced with age, suggesting a positivity effect in affective forecasting. These results add to emerging findings about the role of valence and arousal in emotional aging and demonstrate age differences in affective forecasting about a real-world event with an emotionally-charged outcome. PMID:21547760

  15. Chronic mild stressors and diet affect gene expression differently in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shuwen; Byers, Donna M; Irwin, Louis N

    2007-01-01

    While depression is reportedly more prevalent in women than men, a neurobiological basis for this difference has not been documented. Chronic mild stress (CMS) is a widely recognized animal model, which uses mild and unpredictable environmental stressors to induce depression. Studies of chronic stress, mainly in males, have reported an increase in the relative intake of "comfort food" as a means of counteracting the effects of stress. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that genes for certain neurotrophic factors, stress markers, and appetite regulators would be expressed differentially in male and female rats exposed to chronic, mild stressors with access to a preferred diet. Gene expression for neuropeptide Y was upregulated in females purely in response to stressors, whereas that for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) in males and fatty acid synthase (FASN) in females responded primarily to diet. Genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), AVP, and the cocaine-amphetamine regulator of transcription (CART) in males, and leptin in females, showed a significant response to the interaction between stressors and diet. Every affected gene showed a different pattern of expression in males and females. This study confirms the intimate relationship between dietary intake and response to stress at the molecular level, and emphasizes the sex- and gene-specific nature of those interactions. Therefore, it supports a neurobiological basis for differences in the affective state response to stress in males and females. PMID:17917078

  16. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations.

  17. Contextualizing individual differences in error monitoring: Links with impulsivity, negative affect, and conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kaylin E; Samuel, Douglas B; Foti, Dan

    2016-08-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is a neural measure of error processing that has been implicated as a neurobehavioral trait and has transdiagnostic links with psychopathology. Few studies, however, have contextualized this traitlike component with regard to dimensions of personality that, as intermediate constructs, may aid in contextualizing links with psychopathology. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between error monitoring and dimensions of personality within a large adult sample (N = 208). Building on previous research, we found that the ERN relates to a combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness. At low levels of conscientiousness, negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative affect) predicted an increased ERN; at high levels of conscientiousness, the effect of negative urgency was not significant. This relationship was driven specifically by the conscientiousness facets of competence, order, and deliberation. Links between personality measures and error positivity amplitude were weaker and nonsignificant. Post-error slowing was also related to conscientiousness, as well as a different facet of impulsivity: lack of perseverance. These findings suggest that, in the general population, error processing is modulated by the joint combination of negative affect, impulsivity, and conscientiousness (i.e., the profile across traits), perhaps more so than any one dimension alone. This work may inform future research concerning aberrant error processing in clinical populations. PMID:27192958

  18. Characterization on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil as affected by different influencing factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; Wang, R.; Niu, X.; Wang, M.; Zhou, Q.

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, pilot experiments were conducted to analyze the effect of different environmental factors on the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. Different plant species (cotton, ryegrass, tall fescue, and alfalfa), addition of fertilizer, different concentration of TPH in soil, bioaugmentation with effective microbial agent (EMA) and PGPR, and remediation time were tested as influencing factors during bioremediation process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH). The result shows that the remediation process can be enhanced by different plants species with the following order: tall fescue > ryegrass > alfalfa > cotton. The degradation rate of TPH increased with increased fertilizer addition and moderate level of 20 g/m2 urea is best for both plant growth and TPH remediation. High TPH content is toxic to plant growth and inhibits the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbon with 5% TPH content showing the best degradation result in soil planted with ryegrass. Bioaugmentation with different bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) showed the following results for TPH degradation: cotton + EMA + PGPR > cotton + EMA > cotton + PGPR > cotton > control. Rapid degradation of TPH was found at the initial period of remediation caused by the activity of microorganisms, continuous increase was found from 30-90 d period and slow increase was found from 90 to 150 d. The result suggests that rhizoremediation can be enhanced with the proper control of different influencing factors that affect both plant growth and microbial activity in the rhizosphere environment.

  19. Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music

    PubMed Central

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  20. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis. PMID:27695214

  1. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis.

  2. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: one law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in reporting rates between the Dutch-speaking (Flanders) and the French-speaking (Wallonia) parts of Belgium has led to speculation about cultural differences affecting the practice of euthanasia in both regions. Using Belgian data from the European Values Study conducted in 2008 among a representative sample of the general public and data from a large-scale mail questionnaire survey on euthanasia of 480 physicians from Flanders and 305 from Wallonia (conducted in 2009), this study presents empirical evidence of differences between both regions in attitudes towards and practice of euthanasia. Acceptance of euthanasia by the general population was found to be slightly higher in Flanders than in Wallonia. Compared with their Flemish counterparts, Walloon physicians held more negative attitudes towards performing euthanasia and towards the reporting obligation, less often labelled hypothetical cases correctly as euthanasia, and less often defined a case of euthanasia having to be reported. A higher proportion of Flemish physicians had received a euthanasia request since the introduction of the law. In cases of a euthanasia request, Walloon physicians consulted less often with an independent physician. Requests were more often granted in Flanders than in Wallonia (51% vs 38%), and performed euthanasia cases were more often reported (73% vs 58%). The study points out some significant differences between Flanders and Wallonia in practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding euthanasia and its legal requirements which are likely to explain the discrepancy between Wallonia and Flanders in the number of euthanasia cases reported. Cultural factors seem to play an important role in the

  3. A FISTful of Emotion: Individual Differences in Trait Anxiety and Cognitive-Affective Flexibility During Preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Mărcuş, Oana; Stanciu, Oana; MacLeod, Colin; Liebregts, Heather; Visu-Petra, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive-affective flexibility represents the ability to switch between alternative ways of processing emotional stimuli according to situational demands and individual goals. Although reduced flexibility has been implicated as a mechanism for the development of anxiety, there is very limited data on this relationship in children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to investigate cognitive-affective flexibility in preadolescents (N = 112, 50 girls, 11-12 and 13-14 years old) and to examine if this ability is related to individual differences in trait anxiety. Their interplay was assessed using the modified version of the Flexible Item Selection Task (FIST; Jacques and Zelazo 2001) with non-emotional stimuli (geometrical shapes) and the Emotional FIST (EM-FIST) with emotional stimuli (emotional facial expressions). Performance on the EM-FIST indicated that across the whole age range, trials requiring greater cognitive flexibility were more demanding than nonflexible ones, as revealed by both response time and accuracy performance. Moreover, flexibility demands were higher for younger children than for older ones but only in terms of response speed. Individual differences in trait anxiety moderated the impact of flexibility only on the EM-FIST. Being flexible on the EM-FIST was more demanding for high trait anxious children than for their low trait anxious peers. Lastly, overall girls responded faster than boys, but only in the EM-FIST. These findings extend the presently limited literature concerning variability in cognitive-affective flexibility during this sensitive developmental window.

  4. Who saves the best for last? Age differences in preferences for affective sequences.

    PubMed

    Löckenhoff, Corinna E; Reed, Andrew E; Maresca, Skye N

    2012-12-01

    We examined age differences in preferences for the temporal sequence of emotional events. In 2 studies, participants were asked to select the order in which they would like to view a series of emotionally salient images. Study 1 (N = 87; aged 21-88 years) elicited sequence preferences both directly (via a sequence construction task) and indirectly (via a temporal discounting task). Study 2 (N = 90; aged 21-89 years) used a modified version of the sequence construction task in which the sequence was selected prospectively instead of concurrently. Across both studies, younger participants preferred increasingly positive sequences, but this preference was negatively associated with age. Future time perspective was associated with both age and sequence preferences. In contrast, age differences in sequence preferences were not explained by personality traits, affective responses, or age-related decrements in cognitive functioning.

  5. Do different degrees of human activity affect the diet of Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis?

    PubMed

    Alves, V E N; Patrício, J; Dolbeth, M; Pessanha, A; Palma, A R T; Dantas, E W; Vendel, A L

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether different degrees of human activity affect the diet of the Brazilian silverside Atherinella brasiliensis in two tropical estuaries. Fish were collected along the salinity gradient of two Brazilian estuaries, the heavily impacted Paraiba Estuary and the less impacted Mamanguape Estuary, in the dry and wet seasons. The findings confirm that A. brasiliensis has generalist feeding habits and is able to change its diet under different environmental conditions. The results indicate clear spatial (i.e. along the estuarine gradient) changes in diet composition in both estuaries, but diet was also influenced by the degree of anthropogenic disturbance. During the wet season in the nutrient enriched Paraiba Estuary, when human activity was higher, the diet of A. brasiliensis was poorer and dominated by few dietary items, reflecting the potential impoverishment of prey items in this heavily disturbed system. The specimens collected in the most affected estuary also had a greater frequency of micro-plastics and parasites in their stomachs, reflecting the greater degree of human disturbance in the estuary. The present findings suggest that the diet of A. brasiliensis could be a useful indicator of changes in the ecological quality of these and other tropical estuaries of the western Atlantic Ocean. PMID:27328827

  6. Underlying personality differences between alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with and without an affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, D S; Hong, L; Morter, S; Howe, L

    1999-01-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a popular personality test, was used to profile the personalities of in-patient alcoholics/substance-use disorder patients who had, and those who did not have, a concurrent affective disorder diagnosis. The MBTI divides individuals into eight categories: Extroverts and Introverts, Sensors and Intuitives, Thinkers and Feelers, and Judgers and Perceivers. Alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with no affective disorder differed from a normative population only in being significantly more often Sensing and significantly less often Intuitive single-factor types. The Extroverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Judging four-factor type was also significantly over-represented in this group, compared to a normative population. In contrast, mood-disordered alcohol/substance-use disorder patients were significantly more often Introverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving and significantly less often Extroverted, Intuitive, Thinking, and Judging single-factor types. They were also significantly more often Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving and Introverted/Intuitive/Feeling/Perceiving four-factor types. 'Pure' alcohol/ substance-use disorder patients differed from alcohol/substance-use disorder patients with a mood disorder in that they were significantly more often Extroverted and Thinking and significantly less often Introverted and Feeling single-factor types; and significantly less often were an Introverted/Sensing/ Feeling/Perceiving four-factor type. The above results may have psychogenetic, diagnostic, and psychotherapeutic implications. PMID:10414613

  7. Chronic restraint or variable stresses differently affect the behavior, corticosterone secretion and body weight in rats.

    PubMed

    Marin, Marcelo T; Cruz, Fabio C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2007-01-30

    Organisms are constantly subjected to stressful stimuli that affect numerous physiological processes and activate the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing the release of glucocorticoids. Exposure to chronic stress is known to alter basic mechanisms of the stress response. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect of two different stress paradigms (chronic restraint or variable stress) on behavioral and corticosterone release to a subsequent exposure to stressors. Considering that the HPA axis might respond differently when it is challenged with a novel or a familiar stressor we investigated the changes in the corticosterone levels following the exposure to two stressors: restraint (familiar stress) or forced novelty (novel stress). The changes in the behavioral response were evaluated by measuring the locomotor response to a novel environment. In addition, we examined changes in body, adrenals, and thymus weights in response to the chronic paradigms. Our results showed that exposure to chronic variable stress increased basal plasma corticosterone levels and that both, chronic restraint and variable stresses, promote higher corticosterone levels in response to a novel environment, but not to a challenge restraint stress, as compared to the control (non-stressed) group. Exposure to chronic restraint leads to increased novelty-induced locomotor activity. Furthermore, only the exposure to variable stress reduced body weights. In conclusion, the present results provide additional evidence on how chronic stress affects the organism physiology and point to the importance of the chronic paradigm and challenge stress on the behavioral and hormonal adaptations induced by chronic stress.

  8. 24-epibrassinolide and 20-hydroxyecdysone affect photosynthesis differently in maize and spinach.

    PubMed

    Rothová, Olga; Holá, Dana; Kočová, Marie; Tůmová, Lenka; Hnilička, František; Hniličková, Helena; Kamlar, Marek; Macek, Tomáš

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the work was to examine the effect of brassinosteroid (24-epibrassinolide; 24E) and ecdysteroid (20-hydroxyecdysone; 20E) on various parts of primary photosynthetic processes in maize and spinach. Additionally, the effect of steroids on gaseous exchange, pigment content and biomass accumulation was studied. The efficiency of the photosynthetic whole electron-transport chain responded negatively to the 24E or 20E treatment in both species, but there were interspecific differences regarding Photosystem (PS) II response. A positive effect on its oxygen-evolving complex and a slightly better energetical connectivity between PSII units were observed in maize whereas the opposite was true for spinach. The size of the pool of the PSI end electron acceptors was usually diminished due to 24E or 20E treatment. The treatment of plants with 24E or 20E applied individually positively influenced the content of photosynthetic pigments in maize (not in spinach). On the other hand, it did not affect gaseous exchange in maize but resulted in its reduction in spinach. Plants treated with combination of both steroids mostly did not significantly differ from the control plants. We have demonstrated for the first time that 20E applied in low (10nM) concentration can affect various parts of photosynthetic processes similarly to 24E and that brassinosteroids regulate not only PSII but also other parts of the photosynthetic electron transport chain - but not necessarily in the same way.

  9. Come rain or come shine: individual differences in how weather affects mood.

    PubMed

    Klimstra, Theo A; Frijns, Tom; Keijsers, Loes; Denissen, Jaap J A; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; van Aken, Marcel A G; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2011-12-01

    There is a widespread belief that weather affects mood. However, few studies have investigated this link, and even less is known about individual differences in people's responses to the weather. In the current study, we sought to identify weather reactivity types by linking self-reported daily mood across 30 days with objective weather data. We identified four distinct types among 497 adolescents and replicated these types among their mothers. The types were labeled Summer Lovers (better mood with warmer and sunnier weather), Unaffected (weak associations between weather and mood), Summer Haters (worse mood with warmer and sunnier weather), and Rain Haters (particularly bad mood on rainy days). In addition, intergenerational concordance effects were found for two of these types, suggesting that weather reactivity may run in the family. Overall, the large individual differences in how people's moods were affected by weather reconciles the discrepancy between the generally held beliefs that weather has a substantive effect on mood and findings from previous research indicating that effects of weather on mood are limited or absent.

  10. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Nathan J; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J; Elonen, Colleen M; Whorley, Sarah B; Jicha, Terri M; Serbst, Jonathan R; Hill, Brian H; Wehr, John D

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km(2)), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 (-) and Cl(-) that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria. PMID:26614349

  11. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management.

    PubMed

    Smucker, Nathan J; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J; Elonen, Colleen M; Whorley, Sarah B; Jicha, Terri M; Serbst, Jonathan R; Hill, Brian H; Wehr, John D

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km(2)), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 (-) and Cl(-) that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  12. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smucker, Nathan J.; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A.; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Whorley, Sarah B.; Jicha, Terri M.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Hill, Brian H.; Wehr, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km2), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and <1-m resolution land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 - and Cl- that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  13. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIO) are promising contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). USPIO mediated proton relaxation rate enhancement is strongly dependent on compartmentalization of the agent and can vary depending on their intracellular or extracellular location in the tumor microenvironment. We compared the T1- and T2-enhancement pattern of intracellular and extracellular USPIO in mouse models of cancer and pilot data from patients. A better understanding of these MR signal effects will enable non-invasive characterizations of the composition of the tumor microenvironment. Materials and Methods Six 4T1 and six MMTV-PyMT mammary tumors were grown in mice and imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. R1 relaxation rates were calculated for different tumor types and different tumor areas and compared with histology. The transendothelial leakage rate of ferumoxytol was obtained by our measured relaxivity of ferumoxytol and compared between different tumor types, using a t-test. Additionally, 3 patients with malignant sarcomas were imaged with ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI. T1- and T2-enhancement patterns were compared with histopathology in a descriptive manner as a proof of concept for clinical translation of our observations. Results 4T1 tumors showed central areas of high signal on T1 and low signal on T2 weighted MR images, which corresponded to extracellular nanoparticles in a necrotic core on histopathology. MMTV-PyMT tumors showed little change on T1 but decreased signal on T2 weighted images, which correlated to compartmentalized nanoparticles in tumor associated macrophages. Only 4T1 tumors demonstrated significantly increased R1 relaxation rates of the tumor core compared to the tumor periphery (p<0.001). Transendothelial USPIO leakage was significantly higher for 4T1 tumors (3.4±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100cm3) compared to MMTV-PyMT tumors (1.0±0.9x10-3 mL/min/100 cm3). Likewise, ferumoxytol imaging in patients

  14. Simulated environmental criticalities affect transglutaminase of Malus and Corylus pollens having different allergenic potential.

    PubMed

    Iorio, Rosa Anna; Di Sandro, Alessia; Paris, Roberta; Pagliarani, Giulia; Tartarini, Stefano; Ricci, Giampaolo; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Verderio, Elisabetta; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Increases in temperature and air pollution influence pollen allergenicity, which is responsible for the dramatic raise in respiratory allergies. To clarify possible underlying mechanisms, an anemophilous pollen (hazel, Corylus avellana), known to be allergenic, and an entomophilous one (apple, Malus domestica), the allergenicity of which was not known, were analysed. The presence also in apple pollen of known fruit allergens and their immunorecognition by serum of an allergic patient were preliminary ascertained, resulting also apple pollen potentially allergenic. Pollens were subjected to simulated stressful conditions, provided by changes in temperature, humidity, and copper and acid rain pollution. In the two pollens exposed to environmental criticalities, viability and germination were negatively affected and different transglutaminase (TGase) gel bands were differently immunodetected with the polyclonal antibody AtPng1p. The enzyme activity increased under stressful treatments and, along with its products, was found to be released outside the pollen with externalisation of TGase being predominant in C. avellana, whose grain presents a different cell wall composition with respect to that of M. domestica. A recombinant plant TGase (AtPng1p) stimulated the secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) activity, that in vivo is present in human mucosa and is involved in inflammation. Similarly, stressed pollen, hazel pollen being the most efficient, stimulated to very different extent sPLA(2) activity and putrescine conjugation to sPLA(2). We propose that externalised pollen TGase could be one of the mediators of pollen allergenicity, especially under environmental stress induced by climate changes.

  15. Factors affecting phytoplankton species-specific differences in accumulation of 40 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Stange, K.; Swackhamer, D.L. )

    1994-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the bioaccumulation of hydrophobic compounds among different phytoplankton divisions, and to evaluate the factors that affect species-specific differences. Unialgal batch cultures of Selenastrum capricornutum, Anabaena sp., and Synedra sp. were exposed to 40 PCB congeners at 11 C for 40 d. PCBs selected for this study represented all 10 homologs, different substitution patterns, and a wide range of physical-chemical properties representative of compounds known to bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. Congener-specific partitioning into the algal phase over time was investigated. Species differences were observed in the rate and magnitude of accumulation. For all species, a rapid association of PCBs with the algal phase was followed by a slower partitioning from the media to the algae, which continued for several days. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) could be predicted from K[sub ow] for PCB congeners with log K[sub ow] values < 6.0, whereas no such correlation was found for the more hydrophobic congeners. Normalization of BAFs to total lipid or glycolipid content reduced some of the variability between species for the less hydrophobic congeners, but not for the more hydrophobic congeners. Normalization of BAFs to the phospholipid fraction reduced species variability for the more hydrophobic congeners, supporting the hypothesis that these compounds have restricted membrane permeability.

  16. Rice proteins, extracted by alkali and α-amylase, differently affect in vitro antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengxuan; Liu, Ye; Li, Hui; Yang, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation are different processes for rice protein (RP) isolation. The major aim of this study was to determine the influence of two different extraction methods on the antioxidant capacities of RPA, extracted by alkaline (0.2% NaOH), and RPE, extracted by α-amylase, during in vitro digestion for 2h with pepsin and for 3h with pancreatin. Upon pepsin-pancreatin digestion, the protein hydrolysates (RPA-S, RPE-S), which were the supernatants in the absence of undigested residue, and the whole protein digests (RPA, RPE), in which undigested residue remained, were measured. RPE exhibited the stronger antioxidant responses to free radical scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and reducing power, whereas the weakest antioxidant capacities were produced by RPE-S. In contrast, no significant differences in antioxidant activity were observed between RPA and RPA-S. The present study demonstrated that the in vitro antioxidant responses induced by the hydrolysates and the protein digests of RPs could be affected differently by alkali treatment and α-amylase degradation, suggesting that the extraction is a vital processing step to modify the antioxidant capacities of RPs. The results of the current study indicated that the protein digests, in which undigested residues remained, could exhibit more efficacious antioxidant activity compared to the hydrolysates.

  17. Characterization of necrosis-inducing NLP proteins in Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effector proteins function not only as toxins to induce plant cell death, but also enable pathogens to suppress or evade plant defense responses. NLP-like proteins are considered to be effector proteins, and they have been isolated from bacteria, fungi, and oomycete plant pathogens. There is increasing evidence that NLPs have the ability to induce cell death and ethylene accumulation in plants. Results We evaluated the expression patterns of 11 targeted PcNLP genes by qRT-PCR at different time points after infection by P. capsici. Several PcNLP genes were strongly expressed at the early stages in the infection process, but the expression of other PcNLP genes gradually increased to a maximum at late stages of infection. The genes PcNLP2, PcNLP6 and PcNLP14 showed the highest expression levels during infection by P. capsici. The necrosis-inducing activity of all targeted PcNLP genes was evaluated using heterologous expression by PVX agroinfection of Capsicum annuum and Nicotiana benthamiana and by Western blot analysis. The members of the PcNLP family can induce chlorosis or necrosis during infection of pepper and tobacco leaves, but the chlorotic or necrotic response caused by PcNLP genes was stronger in pepper leaves than in tobacco leaves. Moreover, PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 caused the largest chlorotic or necrotic areas in both host plants, indicating that these three genes contribute to strong virulence during infection by P. capsici. This was confirmed through functional evaluation of their silenced transformants. In addition, we further verified that four conserved residues are putatively active sites in PcNLP1 by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusions Each targeted PcNLP gene affects cells or tissues differently depending upon the stage of infection. Most PcNLP genes could trigger necrotic or chlorotic responses when expressed in the host C. annuum and the non-host N. benthamiana. Individual PcNLP genes have different phytotoxic effects, and Pc

  18. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines.

    PubMed

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies.

  19. Does age affect the stress and coping process? Implications of age differences in perceived control.

    PubMed

    Aldwin, C M

    1991-07-01

    The perceived controllability of situations is thought to influence the types of coping strategies used, and thus is important in adaptive processes. Elderly individuals are widely perceived to have less control over their environment than other adults. This lack of perceived control should have adverse affects on how they cope with stressful situations. However, most studies have shown that older adults differ little from younger adults in their approaches to coping with stress. This contradiction was investigated in a sample of 228 community-residing adults with a mean age of 42.16 (SD = 14.88). Path analysis revealed that appraisals and attributions do affect the use of coping strategies such as instrumental action and escapism in the expected directions, and age is negatively associated with perceived control. However, there was an independent and negative relationship between age and the reported use of escapist coping strategies, which mitigated the adverse effects of perceived lack of control. Neither age nor perceived controllability had direct effects on depression, but they had indirect effects through their influence on the use of coping strategies and perceived efficacy.

  20. Moult Strategies Affect Age Differences in Autumn Migration Timing in East Mediterranean Migratory Passerines

    PubMed Central

    Kiat, Yosef; Izhaki, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Adult passerines renew their flight feathers at least once every year. This complete moult occurs either in the breeding areas, just after breeding (summer moult), or, in some long-distance migratory species, at the non-breeding areas, after arrival to the southern wintering area at the end of autumn migration (winter moult). The aim of this study was to relate moult strategies with the DMD, the difference in median migration date, through Israel, between juveniles and adults. Our data on autumn migration timing in juveniles and adults was based on ringing data of 49,125 individuals belonging to 23 passerine species that breed in Europe and Western Asia and migrate through Israel. We found that DMD was associated with moult timing. In all species that perform a winter moult, adults preceded juveniles during autumn. Among migrants who perform a summer moult, we found evidence of both migration timing patterns: juveniles preceding adults or adults preceding juveniles. In addition, in summer moulters, we found a significant, positive correlation between mean breeding latitude and DMD. Although previous studies described that moult duration and extent can be affected by migration, we suggest that moult strategies affect both migration timing and migration strategy. These two moult strategies (summer or winter moult) also represent two unique migration strategies. Our findings highlight the evolutionary interplay between moult and migration strategies. PMID:26797292

  1. Inserting spaces before and after words affects word processing differently in Chinese: Evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingping; Li, Xingshan

    2014-02-01

    Unlike in English, there are no spaces between printed words in Chinese. In this study, we explored how inserting a space before or after a word affects the processing of that word in Chinese reading. Native Chinese readers' eye movements were monitored as they read sentences with different presentation conditions. The results show that inserting a space after a word facilitates its processing, but inserting a space before a word does not show this effect and inhibits the processing of that word in some cases. Our results are consistent with the prediction of a word segmentation and recognition model in Chinese Li et al., 2009, Cognit. Psychol., 58, 525. Additionally, we found that a space guides the initial landing position on the word: the initial landing position was further away from the space that inserted into the text, whether it was before or after a word.

  2. Individual Differences in Learning the Affective Value of Others Under Minimal Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Wright, Christopher I.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides the first demonstration that people can learn about the positive and negative value of other people (e.g., neutral faces) under minimal learning conditions, with stable individual differences in this learning. In four studies, participants viewed neutral faces paired with sentences describing positive, negative or neutral behaviors on either two (Study 1) or four (Studies 2, 3, and 4) occasions. Participants were later asked to judge the valence of the faces alone. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that learning does occur under minimal conditions. Study 3 and 4 further demonstrated that the degree of learning was moderated by Extraversion. Finally, Study 4 demonstrated that initial learning persisted over a period of 2 days. Implications for affective processing and person perception are discussed. PMID:18729580

  3. The effects of different sources of occupational stress on affective, motivational, and psychosomatic outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ovalle, N.K. II.

    1991-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and five additional potential sources of occupational stress on an affective outcome (job satisfaction), a motivational outcome (intent to quit), and two psychosomatic outcomes (mental and physical anxiety). In addition to role conflict and role ambiguity, the five additional sources of occupational stress centered on job characteristics, work pressures, rewards and opportunities, interaction of the job and home life, and lack of job challenge. Data were collected from 85 technicians and managers in a service organization. The results of correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that each of the sources of stress have significant yet different effects on the outcomes. Moreover, role conflict and ambiguity did not have as much of an effect across all outcomes as the other five sources of stress. These findings could be used to improve the measurement, understanding, and treatment of occupational stress. Other implications are discussed. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Tail variation of the folding primer affects the SmartAmp2 process differently.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasumasa; Oguchi-Katayama, Atsuko; Kawai, Yuki; Naito, Kana; Mitani, Yasumasa; Morlighem, Jean-Etienne; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Lezhava, Alexander

    2009-06-12

    Folding primer (FP), together with turn-back primer (TP) and boost primer (BP), is one of the major components of SmartAmp2, a rapid amplification-based method for SNP detection. FP has a unique design where the annealing region is combined with a tail that can fold back. FP tails can be classified as either "strong" or "weak", depending on the melting temperature and free energy of the hairpin structure. We report that FP tails affect the amplification process differently; by changing the FP concentration, we can increase the amplification reaction speed with "strong tails". Unlike "strong tails", concentration change of FP with "weak tails" did not show significant impact on the amplification speed. The comparative analyses using gel electrophoresis demonstrate that the FP type and FP ratio in the reaction change the amplification pattern. The above observations can be used to optimize the reaction and manipulate the reaction speed of SmartAmp2.

  5. Different Degrees of Plant Invasion Significantly Affect the Richness of the Soil Fungal Community

    PubMed Central

    Si, Chuncan; Liu, Xueyan; Wang, Congyan; Wang, Lei; Dai, Zhicong; Qi, Shanshan; Du, Daolin

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have shown that soil microorganisms play a key role in the success of plant invasion. Thus, ecologists have become increasingly interested in understanding the ecological effects of biological invasion on soil microbial communities given continuing increase in the effects of invasive plants on native ecosystems. This paper aims to provide a relatively complete depiction of the characteristics of soil microbial communities under different degrees of plant invasion. Rhizospheric soils of the notorious invasive plant Wedelia trilobata with different degrees of invasion (uninvaded, low-degree, and high-degree using its coverage in the invaded ecosystems) were collected from five discrete areas in Hainan Province, P. R. China. Soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microorganisms were assessed. Low degrees of W. trilobata invasion significantly increased soil pH values whereas high degrees of invasion did not significantly affected soil pH values. Moreover, the degree of W. trilobata invasion exerted significant effects on soil Ca concentration but did not significantly change other indices of soil physicochemical properties. Low and high degrees of W. trilobata invasion increased the richness of the soil fungal community but did not pose obvious effects on the soil bacterial community. W. trilobata invasion also exerted obvious effects on the community structure of soil microorganisms that take part in soil nitrogen cycling. These changes in soil physicochemical properties and community structure of soil microbial communities mediated by different degrees of W. trilobata invasion may present significant functions in further facilitating the invasion process. PMID:24392015

  6. Glycans affect DNA extraction and induce substantial differences in gut metagenomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Angelakis, Emmanouil; Bachar, Dipankar; Henrissat, Bernard; Armougom, Fabrice; Audoly, Gilles; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Robert, Catherine; Raoult, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides produced by bacterial species and present in feces are extremely inhibitory to DNA restriction and can cause discrepancies in metagenomic studies. We determined the effects of different DNA extraction methods on the apparent composition of the gut microbiota using Illumina MiSeq deep sequencing technology. DNA was extracted from the stool from an obese female using 10 different methods and the choice of DNA extraction method affected the proportional abundance at the phylum level, species richness (Chao index, 227 to 2,714) and diversity (non parametric Shannon, 1.37 to 4.4). Moreover DNA was extracted from stools obtained from 83 different individuals by the fastest extraction assay and by an extraction assay that degradated exopolysaccharides. The fastest extraction method was able to detect 68% to 100% genera and 42% to 95% species whereas the glycan degradation extraction method was able to detect 56% to 93% genera and 25% to 87% species. To allow a good liberation of DNA from exopolysaccharides commonly presented in stools, we recommend the mechanical lysis of stools plus glycan degradation, used here for the first time. Caution must be taken in the interpretation of current metagenomic studies, as the efficiency of DNA extraction varies widely among stool samples. PMID:27188959

  7. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  8. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  9. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Samantha J.; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman’s zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals’ latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: “attitude towards the animals” and “knowledge and experience of the animals”. In this novel study, data demonstrated

  10. Keeper-Animal Interactions: Differences between the Behaviour of Zoo Animals Affect Stockmanship.

    PubMed

    Ward, Samantha J; Melfi, Vicky

    2015-01-01

    Stockmanship is a term used to describe the management of animals with a good stockperson someone who does this in a in a safe, effective, and low-stress manner for both the stock-keeper and animals involved. Although impacts of unfamiliar zoo visitors on animal behaviour have been extensively studied, the impact of stockmanship i.e familiar zoo keepers is a new area of research; which could reveal significant ramifications for zoo animal behaviour and welfare. It is likely that different relationships are formed dependant on the unique keeper-animal dyad (human-animal interaction, HAI). The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if unique keeper-animal dyads were formed in zoos, (2) determine whether keepers differed in their interactions towards animals regarding their attitude, animal knowledge and experience and (3) explore what factors affect keeper-animal dyads and ultimately influence animal behaviour and welfare. Eight black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), eleven Chapman's zebra (Equus burchellii), and twelve Sulawesi crested black macaques (Macaca nigra) were studied in 6 zoos across the UK and USA. Subtle cues and commands directed by keepers towards animals were identified. The animals latency to respond and the respective behavioural response (cue-response) was recorded per keeper-animal dyad (n = 93). A questionnaire was constructed following a five-point Likert Scale design to record keeper demographic information and assess the job satisfaction of keepers, their attitude towards the animals and their perceived relationship with them. There was a significant difference in the animals' latency to appropriately respond after cues and commands from different keepers, indicating unique keeper-animal dyads were formed. Stockmanship style was also different between keepers; two main components contributed equally towards this: "attitude towards the animals" and "knowledge and experience of the animals". In this novel study, data demonstrated unique dyads

  11. Revealing a latent variable: Individual differences in affective response to repeated injections

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-01-01

    Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals one such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally-naïve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3rd) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3rd) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared to handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses to repeated intraperitoneal injections in rats. Given that such underlying emotional variability exists within standard, outbred rat populations, this study highlights the importance of accounting for such variability in any study investigating the effects of repeated drug administration on depressive-like behavior for reliability and replicability of findings. Thus, we recommend including an uninjected control group in all studies. PMID:26191946

  12. Different tree species affect soil respiration spatial distribution in a subtropical forest of southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Po-Neng; Yu, Jui-Chu; Wang, Ya-nan; Lai, Yen-Jen

    2014-05-01

    Global forests contain 69% of total carbon stored in forest soil and litter. But the carbon storage ability and release rate of warming gases of forest soil also affect global climate change. Soil carbon cycling processes are paid much attention by ecological scientists and policy makers because of the possibility of carbon being stored in soil via land use management. Soil respiration contributed large part of terrestrial carbon flux, but the relationship of soil respiration and climate change was still obscurity. Most of soil respiration researches focus on template and tropical area, little was known that in subtropical area. Afforestation is one of solutions to mitigate CO2 increase and to sequestrate CO2 in tree and soil. Therefore, the objective of this study is to clarify the relationship of tree species and soil respiration distribution in subtropical broad-leaves plantation in southern Taiwan. The research site located on southern Taiwan was sugarcane farm before 2002. The sugarcane was removed and fourteen broadleaved tree species were planted in 2002-2005. Sixteen plots (250m*250m) were set on 1 km2 area, each plot contained 4 subplots (170m2). The forest biomass (i.e. tree height, DBH) understory biomass, litter, and soil C were measured and analyzed at 2011 to 2012. Soil respiration measurement was sampled in each subplot in each month. The soil belongs to Entisol with over 60% of sandstone. The soil pH is 5.5 with low base cations because of high sand percentage. Soil carbon storage showed significantly negative relationship with soil bulk density (p<0.001) in research site. The differences of distribution of live tree C pool among 16 plots were affected by growth characteristic of tree species. Data showed that the accumulation amount of litterfall was highest in December to February and lowest in June. Different tree species planted in 16 plots, resulting in high spatial variation of litterfall amount. It also affected total amount of litterfall

  13. [How do adolescents view non-suicidal self-injury? Differences between affected and non-affected adolescents in a school sample].

    PubMed

    Rauber, Rachel; Weizenegger, Benedict; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of epidemiologic studies about the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), little knowledge exists regarding the way adolescents view NSSI, whether differences in the attitudes towards NSSI between affected and non-affected adolescents exist and whether the acquaintance with adolescents engaging in NSSI influence one's attitudes towards self-injury? In an epidemiological study of non-suicidal self-injury, we assessed the attitudes of 447 ninth grade students (age 15 years SD = 0.7, 52% male) NSSI using a self-constructed questionnaire with three factors. Sixty one (13.6%) pupils reported that they had intentionally injured themselves once in their life time. 43% (n = 179) indicated that they discuss the topic with others, though over half of these pupils 54% (n = 98) stated feeling burdened by discussions with friends affected by NSSI. Comparisons between affected and non-affected adolescents revealed that adolescents who had never exhibited NSSI tend to believe that NSSI is mostly interpersonally motivated. Moreover, the adolescents affected by NSSI assessed the emotional reaction as more appropriate than non-affected adolescents. This should be considered in the design and refinement of inpatient treatment concepts. Our results suggest focusing on intrapersonal motives in psychotherapeutic sessions and reducing interpersonal motives for self-injurious behaviour through the establishment of clear and transparent milieu therapeutic structural conditions.

  14. [How do adolescents view non-suicidal self-injury? Differences between affected and non-affected adolescents in a school sample].

    PubMed

    Rauber, Rachel; Weizenegger, Benedict; Schmeck, Klaus; Schmid, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing number of epidemiologic studies about the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), little knowledge exists regarding the way adolescents view NSSI, whether differences in the attitudes towards NSSI between affected and non-affected adolescents exist and whether the acquaintance with adolescents engaging in NSSI influence one's attitudes towards self-injury? In an epidemiological study of non-suicidal self-injury, we assessed the attitudes of 447 ninth grade students (age 15 years SD = 0.7, 52% male) NSSI using a self-constructed questionnaire with three factors. Sixty one (13.6%) pupils reported that they had intentionally injured themselves once in their life time. 43% (n = 179) indicated that they discuss the topic with others, though over half of these pupils 54% (n = 98) stated feeling burdened by discussions with friends affected by NSSI. Comparisons between affected and non-affected adolescents revealed that adolescents who had never exhibited NSSI tend to believe that NSSI is mostly interpersonally motivated. Moreover, the adolescents affected by NSSI assessed the emotional reaction as more appropriate than non-affected adolescents. This should be considered in the design and refinement of inpatient treatment concepts. Our results suggest focusing on intrapersonal motives in psychotherapeutic sessions and reducing interpersonal motives for self-injurious behaviour through the establishment of clear and transparent milieu therapeutic structural conditions. PMID:23057239

  15. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or “black esophagus” is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  16. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or "black esophagus" is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  17. Unhealthy how? Implicit and explicit affective evaluations of different types of unhealthy foods.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Halley E; Treat, Teresa A

    2015-04-01

    The present study examines the utility of distinguishing nutritional characteristics in implicit and explicit affective evaluations of foods, both nomothetically and idiographically. To this end, we employ indirect and direct versions of the affect misattribution procedure (AMP; Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005) to assess affective evaluations of foods that vary along dimensions of added fat and added sugar. Normatively, both added fat and added sugar are associated with more positive affective evaluations. Idiographically, both hunger and external eating are associated with more positive fat-based affective evaluations. Patterns of results were similar across implicit and explicit affective evaluations, inconsistent with a dual-process conceptualization of affective evaluation. Overall, the current work supports the utility of continuing to employ more stringently characterized image stimuli with known nutritional properties, as well as structurally similar measures of implicit and explicit affective evaluations in future work. PMID:25541502

  18. Genotypic differences and prior defoliation affect re-growth and phytochemistry after coppicing in Populus tremuloides.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Michael T; Gusse, Adam C; Lindroth, Richard L

    2012-03-01

    Although considerable research has explored how tree growth and defense can be influenced by genotype, the biotic environment, and their interaction, little is known about how genotypic differences, prior defoliation, and their interactive effects persist in trees that re-grow after damage that severs their primary stem. To address these issues, we established a common garden consisting of twelve genotypes of potted aspen (Populus tremuloides) trees, and subjected half of the trees to defoliation in two successive years. At the beginning of the third year, all trees were severed at the soil surface (coppiced) and allowed to regenerate for five months. Afterwards, we counted the number of root and stump sprouts produced and measured the basal diameter (d) and height (h) of the tallest ramet in each pot. We collected leaves one and two years after the second defoliation and assessed levels of phenolic glycosides, condensed tannins, and nitrogen. In terms of re-growth, we found that the total number of sprouts produced varied by 3.6-fold among genotypes, and that prior defoliation decreased total sprout production by 24%. The size (d(2)h) of ramets, however, did not differ significantly among genotypes or defoliation classes. In terms of phytochemistry, we observed genotypic differences in concentrations of all phytochemicals assessed both one and two years after the second defoliation. Two years after defoliation, we observed effects of prior defoliation in a genotype-by-defoliation interaction for condensed tannins. Results from this study demonstrate that genotypic differences and impacts of prior defoliation persist to influence growth and defense traits in trees even after complete removal of above-ground stems, and thus likely influence productivity and plant-herbivore interactions in forests affected by natural disturbances or actively managed through coppicing.

  19. Psychopathological differences among three groups of school children affected by the war in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Sikić, N; Javornik, N; Stracenski, M; Bunjevac, T; Buljan-Flander, G

    1997-01-01

    The consequences of extreme violence such as war torture affect children in different ways and may immediately manifest at the physical and/or psychologic level, or may remain hidden and unrecognized for years. The victims are usually very reluctant to speak about their traumatic experiences, and try to deny the existence of psychological disturbances. They often seek help for somatic problems. Taking these physical complaints seriously helps to progressively reach the psychological effects of violence. Therefore, identification of such children should be directed to more complete evaluation of their symptomatology and functioning. This can be done by: a) individual evaluation to get enough information on the historical events, functioning and symptoms of these children; and b) standardized instruments which may allow the children to disclose more about their psychological experiences during the war. In this study rating scales and assessment instruments for children aged < 15, such as CPRS with General Scoring Sheet (Fish, 1985), were used to assess the broad spectrum of psychopathology in this age group. These questionnaires were used in a large group of school children (N = 1888), 989 girls and 899 boys aged 7-16 years. The sample was divided into 3 groups: 843 non-displaced, 377 displaced and 669 refugee children. Results of statistical analysis (arithmetical mean and standard deviation of discriminative variables transformed in Z-values with F-ratio) showed the three groups of children (non-displaced, displaced and refugees) to significantly differ in 13 out of 15 psychopathologic clusters. Discriminative cannonic analysis of the 3 groups of children (non displaced, displaced and refugees) also showed significant differences. The first discriminative function (80.24% of total variance) indicated depression, violence and antisocial behavior to be rare in non-displaced children, more pronounced in displaced, and most pronounced in refugee children. The second

  20. RNA editing differently affects protein-coding genes in D. melanogaster and H. sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Luigi; Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When an RNA editing event occurs within a coding sequence it can lead to a different encoded amino acid. The biological significance of these events remains an open question: they can modulate protein functionality, increase the complexity of transcriptomes or arise from a loose specificity of the involved enzymes. We analysed the editing events in coding regions that produce or not a change in the encoded amino acid (nonsynonymous and synonymous events, respectively) in D. melanogaster and in H. sapiens and compared them with the appropriate random models. Interestingly, our results show that the phenomenon has rather different characteristics in the two organisms. For example, we confirm the observation that editing events occur more frequently in non-coding than in coding regions, and report that this effect is much more evident in H. sapiens. Additionally, in this latter organism, editing events tend to affect less conserved residues. The less frequently occurring editing events in Drosophila tend to avoid drastic amino acid changes. Interestingly, we find that, in Drosophila, changes from less frequently used codons to more frequently used ones are favoured, while this is not the case in H. sapiens. PMID:26169954

  1. Serum testosterone differences between patients with schizophrenia and those with affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mason, J W; Giller, E L; Kosten, T R

    1988-02-15

    Serum testosterone levels (ng/dl) were measured at 2-week intervals during the course of hospitalization in 35 male inpatients in the following four diagnostic groups: undifferentiated schizophrenia, paranoid schizophrenia, bipolar I disorder-manic, and major depressive disorder (endogenous type). The mean (+/- SE) testosterone levels during hospitalization were significantly higher (p less than 0.001) in the schizophrenic patients (510 +/- 38) than in the affective disorder patients (347 +/- 25). This difference persisted throughout hospitalization, being present in the first sample following admission (p less than 0.03) and the final sample before discharge (p less than 0.01). The above group differences were largely due to high testosterone levels in the paranoid schizophrenic subgroup (mean +/- SE level of 559 +/- 41). A longitudinal, as well as cross-sectional, view of the hormonal and clinical data suggests that the testosterone system is linked to both state and trait psychological factors, and this issue is discussed in the light of prior basic psychoendocrine research on this system. The potential application of these findings for new approaches to the development of biological criteria for psychiatric diagnosis is discussed.

  2. Assessment of post-contamination treatments affecting different bonding stages to dentin

    PubMed Central

    Elkassas, Dina; Arafa, Abla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the effect of cleansing treatments following saliva and blood contamination at different bonding stages to dentin. Materials and Methods: Labial surfaces of 168 permanent maxillary central incisors were ground flat exposing superficial dentin. Specimens were divided into: uncontaminated control (A), contamination after etching (B), contamination after adhesive application (C), contamination after adhesive polymerization (D). Groups were further subdivided according to cleansing treatments into: rinsing (B1, C1, D1), re-etching (B2, D3), sodium hypochlorite application (B3), ethyl alcohol application (C2), acetone application (C3), rinsing and rebonding (D2), re-etching and rebonding (D4). Composite microcylinders were bonded to treated substrates and shear loaded micro-shear bond strength (μSBS) until failure and treated surfaces were examined with scanning electron microscope. Debonded surfaces were classified as adhesive, cohesive or mixed failure. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: The μSBS values were ranked as follow; Group B: A > B3 > B2 > B1 > B, Group C: A > C3 > C2 > C1 > C, Group D: A > D4 > D1 = D2 ≥ D3. Debonded surfaces showed adhesive failure in Group B while cohesive failure in Groups C and D. Conclusions: Cleansing treatments differ according to bonding step; re-etching then rebonding suggested if etched substrate or polymerized adhesive were contaminated while acetone application decontaminated affected unpolymerized adhesive. PMID:27403048

  3. Do different substitution patterns or plant origin in hydroxyethyl starches affect blood coagulation in vitro?

    PubMed

    Matsota, Paraskevi; Politou, Marianna; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Apostolaki, Stella; Merkouri, Efrosyni; Gialeraki, Argyri; Travlou, Anthi; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2010-07-01

    The effect of hydroxyethyl starches (HES) on blood coagulation is affected by their molecular weight, their molar substitution and the C2/C6 ratio. The solutions of 6% HES 130/0.4 and 6% HES 130/0.42 have similar molecular weight and molar substitution but different C2/C6 ratio and plant origin. In the present study, the comparative effect of 6% HES 130/0.4 versus 6% HES 130/0.42 on blood coagulation was investigated in vitro. Thirty milliliter of blood was obtained from 10 healthy volunteers and was diluted by 10, 30 and 50% using either 6% HES 130/0.4 or HES 130/0.42, respectively. Blood coagulation was assessed using thrombelastography measurements (clotting time, clot formation time, maximal clot firmness and alpha-angle). The assessment of platelet function was performed with whole blood aggregometry after adding thrombin-receptor-activating protein. No differences were noted between respective dilutions of the two HES. Both colloids produced significant reductions below the reference values range in clotting time at 10, 30 and 50% dilutions. The 50% dilution of both colloids resulted in significant reduction of maximal clot firmness, alpha-angle and platelet aggregation. The present study showed that the corn-derived 6% HES 130/0.4 and the potato-derived 6% HES 130/0.42 have the same effect on blood coagulation in vitro.

  4. Plant Proteins Differently Affect Body Fat Reduction in High-fat Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joohee; Lee, Hyo Jung; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Mi Kyung; Kwon, Oran

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of corn gluten (CG), wheat gluten (WG), and soybean protein isolate (SPI), as well as their hydrolysates, on weight reduction in rats fed a high-fat diet. Eight-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=70) were fed a high-fat diet (40% of the calories were fat) for 4 weeks. Rats were then randomly divided into seven groups and were fed isocaloric diets with different protein sources for 8 weeks. The protein sources were casein (control group), intact CG (CG group), CG hydrolysate (CGH group), intact WG (WG group), WG hydrolysate (WGH group), intact SPI (SPI group), and SPI hydrolysate (SPIH group). Body weight gain, adipose tissue weights, lipid profiles in plasma and liver; and hepatic activities of carnitine palmitoyl transferase, fatty acid synthase (FAS), malic enzyme, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were assessed. The CGH group showed significant weight reduction compared with the other groups. Epididymal fat pad and plasma triglycerides in the CGH group were the lowest and were significantly different than those in the control group. FAS activity in the CGH group was significantly lower than that in the other groups. In conclusion, the CGH diet of these experimental animals demonstrated a weight-reducing effect by lowering the adipose tissue weight and by affecting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes.

  5. RNA editing differently affects protein-coding genes in D. melanogaster and H. sapiens.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Luigi; Leoni, Guido; Tramontano, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When an RNA editing event occurs within a coding sequence it can lead to a different encoded amino acid. The biological significance of these events remains an open question: they can modulate protein functionality, increase the complexity of transcriptomes or arise from a loose specificity of the involved enzymes. We analysed the editing events in coding regions that produce or not a change in the encoded amino acid (nonsynonymous and synonymous events, respectively) in D. melanogaster and in H. sapiens and compared them with the appropriate random models. Interestingly, our results show that the phenomenon has rather different characteristics in the two organisms. For example, we confirm the observation that editing events occur more frequently in non-coding than in coding regions, and report that this effect is much more evident in H. sapiens. Additionally, in this latter organism, editing events tend to affect less conserved residues. The less frequently occurring editing events in Drosophila tend to avoid drastic amino acid changes. Interestingly, we find that, in Drosophila, changes from less frequently used codons to more frequently used ones are favoured, while this is not the case in H. sapiens.

  6. Developmental changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism affect tea quality in different leaf position.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Wei-Jun; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Li, Xin; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Leaf position represents a specific developmental stage that influences both photosynthesis and respiration. However, the precise relationships between photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that affect tea quality are largely unknown. Here, we show that the effective quantum yield of photosystem II [ΦPSⅡ] as well as total chlorophyll concentration (TChl) of tea leaves increased gradually with leaf maturity. Moreover, respiration rate (RR) together with total nitrogen concentration (TN) decreased persistently, but total carbon remained unchanged during leaf maturation. Analyses of major N-based organic compounds revealed that decrease in TN was attributed to a significant decrease in the concentration of caffeine and amino acids (AA) in mature leaves. Furthermore, soluble sugar (SS) decreased, but starch concentration increased with leaf maturity, indicating that source-sink relationship was altered during tea leaf development. Detailed correlation analysis showed that ΦPSⅡ was negatively correlated with RR, SS, starch, tea polyphenol (TP), total catechins and TN, but positively correlated with TChl; while RR was positively correlated with TN, SS, TP and caffeine, but negatively correlated with TChl and starch concentrations. Our results suggest that biosynthesis of chlorophyll, catechins and polyphenols is closely associated with photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that greatly influences the relationship between primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants. PMID:27380366

  7. Plant volatiles induced by herbivore egg deposition affect insects of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Fatouros, Nina E; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Pashalidou, Foteini G; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Gols, Rieta; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata) to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra) induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae). Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant's volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels. PMID:22912893

  8. Differences in foliage affect performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda: implications for species fitness.

    PubMed

    Calvo, D; Molina, J M

    2010-01-01

    Implications for adults' fitness through the foliage effects of five different host plants on larval survival and performance of the lappet moth, Streblote panda Hübner (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), as well as their effect on species fitness were assayed. Larvae were reared under controlled laboratory conditions on excised foliage. Long-term developmental experiments were done using first instar larvae to adult emergence, and performance experiments were done using fifth instar larvae. Survival, development rates, and food use were measured. Foliar traits analysis indicated that leaves of different host plants varied, significantly affecting larvae performance and adult fitness. Pistacia lentiscus L. (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae), Arbutus unedo L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and Retama sphaerocarpa (L.) Boiss. (Fabales: Fabaceae) were the most suitable hosts. Larvae fed on Tamarix gallica L. (Caryophyllales: Tamaricaceae) and Spartium junceum L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) showed the lowest survival, rates of development and pupal and adult weight. In general, S. panda showed a relatively high capacity to buffer low food quality, by reducing developmental rates and larvae development thereby reaching the minimum pupal weight that ensures adult survival. Less suitable plants seem to have indirect effects on adult fitness, producing smaller adults that could disperse to other habitats. PMID:21062148

  9. Plant Volatiles Induced by Herbivore Egg Deposition Affect Insects of Different Trophic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fatouros, Nina E.; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Pashalidou, Foteini G.; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Gols, Rieta; Huigens, Martinus E.

    2012-01-01

    Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata) to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra) induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae). Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant’s volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels. PMID:22912893

  10. Affective personality differences in neural processing efficiency confirmed using fMRI.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeremy R; Burgess, Gregory C; Schaefer, Alexandre; Yarkoni, Tal; Larsen, Randy J; Braver, Todd S

    2005-06-01

    To test for a relation between individual differences in personality and neural-processing efficiency, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess brain activity within regions associated with cognitive control during a demanding working memory task. Fifty-three participants completed both the self-report behavioral inhibition sensitivity (BIS) and behavioral approach sensitivity (BAS) personality scales and a standard measure of fluid intelligence (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). They were then scanned as they performed a three-back working memory task. A mixed blocked/ event-related fMRI design enabled us to identify both sustained and transient neural activity. Higher BAS was negatively related to event-related activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate, the lateral prefrontal cortex, and parietal areas in regions of interest identified in previous work. These relationships were not explained by differences in either behavioral performance or fluid intelligence, consistent with greater neural efficiency. The results reveal the high specificity of the relationships among personality, cognition, and brain activity. The data confirm that affective dimensions of personality are independent of intelligence, yet also suggest that they might be interrelated in subtle ways, because they modulate activity in overlapping brain regions that appear to be critical for task performance. PMID:16180624

  11. Developmental changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism affect tea quality in different leaf position.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Xin; Yang, Wei-Jun; Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Shen, Chen; Yan, Peng; Li, Xin; Han, Wen-Yan

    2016-09-01

    Leaf position represents a specific developmental stage that influences both photosynthesis and respiration. However, the precise relationships between photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that affect tea quality are largely unknown. Here, we show that the effective quantum yield of photosystem II [ΦPSⅡ] as well as total chlorophyll concentration (TChl) of tea leaves increased gradually with leaf maturity. Moreover, respiration rate (RR) together with total nitrogen concentration (TN) decreased persistently, but total carbon remained unchanged during leaf maturation. Analyses of major N-based organic compounds revealed that decrease in TN was attributed to a significant decrease in the concentration of caffeine and amino acids (AA) in mature leaves. Furthermore, soluble sugar (SS) decreased, but starch concentration increased with leaf maturity, indicating that source-sink relationship was altered during tea leaf development. Detailed correlation analysis showed that ΦPSⅡ was negatively correlated with RR, SS, starch, tea polyphenol (TP), total catechins and TN, but positively correlated with TChl; while RR was positively correlated with TN, SS, TP and caffeine, but negatively correlated with TChl and starch concentrations. Our results suggest that biosynthesis of chlorophyll, catechins and polyphenols is closely associated with photosynthesis and respiration in different leaf position that greatly influences the relationship between primary and secondary metabolism in tea plants.

  12. Affective responses after different intensities of exercise in patients with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Rzezak, Patricia; Caxa, Luciana; Santolia, Patricia; Antunes, Hanna K. M.; Suriano, Italo; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) usually have mood and anxiety symptoms secondary to their brain injury. Exercise may be a cost-effective intervention for the regulation of the affective responses of this population. However, there are no studies evaluating the effects of exercise or the optimal intensity of exercise for this clinical group. Methods: Twelve male patients with moderate or severe TBI [mean age of 31.83 and SD of 9.53] and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers [mean age of 30.58 and SD of 9.53] participated in two sessions of exercise of high and moderate-intensity. Anxiety and mood was evaluated, and subjective assessment of experience pre- and post-exercise was assessed. A mixed between and within-subjects general linear model (GLM) analysis was conducted to compare groups [TBI, control] over condition [baseline, session 1, session 2] allowing for group by condition interaction to be determined. Planned comparisons were also conducted to test study hypotheses. Results: Although no group by condition interaction was observed, planned comparisons indicated that baseline differences between patients and controls in anxiety (Cohens’ d = 1.80), tension (d = 1.31), depression (d = 1.18), anger (d = 1.08), confusion (d = 1.70), psychological distress (d = 1.28), and physical symptoms (d = 1.42) disappear after one session of exercise, independently of the intensity of exercise. Conclusion: A single-section of exercise, regardless of exercise intensity, had a positive effect on the affective responses of patients with TBI both by increasing positive valence feelings and decreasing negative ones. Exercise can be an easily accessible intervention that may alleviate depressive symptoms related to brain injury. PMID:26161074

  13. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  14. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Senaratna, D.; Samarakone, T. S.; Gunawardena, W. W. D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  15. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  16. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser.

    PubMed

    Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa; da Silva, Camila Luna; de Carvalho, Simone Nunes; Cortez, Erika; Mencalha, André Luiz; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Stumbo, Ana Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Low-level infrared laser is considered safe and effective for treatment of muscle injuries. However, the mechanism involved on beneficial effects of laser therapy are not understood. The aim was to evaluate cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser at therapeutic fluences. C2C12 myoblast cultures at different (2 and 10 %) fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (808 nm, 100 mW) at different fluences (10, 35, and 70 J/cm(2)) and evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated by WST-1 assay; reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell viability was decreased atthe lowest FBS concentration. Laser exposure increased the cell viability in myoblast cultures at 2 % FBS after 48 and 72 h, but no significant increase in ROS was observed. Apoptosis was decreased at the higher fluence and necrosis was increased at lower fluence in myoblast cultures after 24 h of laser exposure at 2 % FBS. No laser-induced alterations were obtained at 10 % FBS. Results show that level of reactive oxygen species is not altered, at least to those evaluated in this study, but low-level infrared laser exposure affects cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures depending on laser fluence and physiologic conditions of cells.

  17. Cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser.

    PubMed

    Alexsandra da Silva Neto Trajano, Larissa; da Silva, Camila Luna; de Carvalho, Simone Nunes; Cortez, Erika; Mencalha, André Luiz; de Souza da Fonseca, Adenilson; Stumbo, Ana Carolina

    2016-07-01

    Low-level infrared laser is considered safe and effective for treatment of muscle injuries. However, the mechanism involved on beneficial effects of laser therapy are not understood. The aim was to evaluate cell viability, reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures exposed to low-level infrared laser at therapeutic fluences. C2C12 myoblast cultures at different (2 and 10 %) fetal bovine serum (FBS) concentrations were exposed to low-level infrared laser (808 nm, 100 mW) at different fluences (10, 35, and 70 J/cm(2)) and evaluated after 24, 48, and 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated by WST-1 assay; reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and necrosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. Cell viability was decreased atthe lowest FBS concentration. Laser exposure increased the cell viability in myoblast cultures at 2 % FBS after 48 and 72 h, but no significant increase in ROS was observed. Apoptosis was decreased at the higher fluence and necrosis was increased at lower fluence in myoblast cultures after 24 h of laser exposure at 2 % FBS. No laser-induced alterations were obtained at 10 % FBS. Results show that level of reactive oxygen species is not altered, at least to those evaluated in this study, but low-level infrared laser exposure affects cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis in myoblast cultures depending on laser fluence and physiologic conditions of cells. PMID:26886589

  18. The effect of playing a science center-based mobile game: Affective outcomes and gender differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood-Blaine, Dana

    Situated in a hands-on science center, The Great STEM Caper was a collaborative mobile game built on the ARIS platform that was designed to engage 5th-9th grade players in NGSS science and engineering practices while they interacted with various exhibits. Same gender partners sharing one iPad would search for QR codes placed at specific exhibits; scanning a code within the game would launch a challenge for that exhibit. The primary hypothesis was that in- game victories would be equivalent to "mastery experiences" as described by Bandura (1997) and would result in increased science self-efficacy. Gender differences in gameplay behaviors and perceptions were also studied. The study included two groups, one that played the game during their visit and one that explored the science center in the traditional way. The Motivation to Learn Science Questionnaire was administered to participants in both groups both before and after their visit to the science center. Participants wore head-mounted GoPro cameras to record their interactions within the physical and social environment. No differences in affective outcomes were found between the game and comparison groups or between boys and girls in the game group. The MLSQ was unable to measure any significant change in science self-efficacy, interest and enjoyment of science, or overall motivation to learn science in either group. However, girls outperformed boys on every measure of game achievement. Lazzaro's (2004) four types of fun were found to be a good fit for describing the gender differences in game perceptions and behaviors. Girls tended to enjoy hard fun and collaborative people fun while boys enjoyed easy fun and competitive people fun. While boys associated game achievement with enjoyment and victory, girls perceived their game achievement as difficult, rather than enjoyable or victorious.

  19. Muscular contraction mode differently affects autonomic control during heart rate matched exercise.

    PubMed

    Weippert, Matthias; Behrens, Martin; Gonschorek, Ray; Bruhn, Sven; Behrens, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. The aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN) and isometric contractions (ISO) at a similar, low heart rate (HR) level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs) performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively), rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV) indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a non-linear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  20. Delayed breeding affects lifetime reproductive success differently in male and female green woodhoopoes.

    PubMed

    Hawn, Amanda T; Radford, Andrew N; du Plessis, Morné A

    2007-05-15

    In cooperatively breeding species, many individuals only start breeding long after reaching physiological maturity [1], and this delay is expected to reduce lifetime reproductive success (LRS) [1-3]. Although many studies have investigated how nonbreeding helpers might mitigate the assumed cost of delayed breeding (reviewed in [3]), few have directly quantified the cost itself [4, 5] (but see [6, 7]). Moreover, although life-history tradeoffs frequently influence the sexes in profoundly different ways [8, 9], it has been generally assumed that males and females are similarly affected by a delayed start to breeding [7]. Here, we use 24 years of data to investigate the sex-specific cost of delayed breeding in the cooperatively breeding green woodhoopoe (Phoeniculus purpureus) and show that age at first breeding is related to LRS differently in males and females. As is traditionally expected, males that started to breed earlier in life had greater LRS than those that started later. However, females showed the opposite pattern: Those individuals that started to breed later in life actually had greater LRS than those that started earlier. In both sexes, the association between age at first breeding and LRS was driven by differences in breeding-career length, rather than per-season productivity. We hypothesize that the high mortality rate of young female breeders, and thus their short breeding careers, is related to a reduced ability to deal with the high physiological costs of reproduction in this species. These results demonstrate the importance of considering sex-specific reproductive costs when estimating the payoffs of life-history decisions and bring into question the long-held assumption that delayed breeding is necessarily costly. PMID:17412589

  1. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  2. Revealing a latent variable: individual differences in affective response to repeated injections.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cigdem; Frohmader, Karla; Akil, Huda

    2015-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 129(5) of Behavioral Neuroscience (see record 2015-43762-001). In the article, there was an error in the abstract. The sentence "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in LRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in HRs, compared with handled-controls." should be "However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, compared with handled-controls."] Latent variables may exist in experimental designs and may interfere with reproducibility of findings. The present study reveals 1 such variable, the individual differences in affective response to chronic injection stress, by using the novelty-seeking phenotype as a model of differential emotional reactivity. The phenotype is identified by exposing a population of experimentally naïve outbred rats to the mild stress of a novel environment and classifying them as high responders (HR; upper 1/3) and low responders (LR; lower 1/3) based on their locomotor reactivity. Research has shown that HR/LR animals differ in their basal levels of anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, as well as in their response to environmental and pharmacological challenges; suggesting validity of this model in studying individual differences in stress reactivity. The present data showed that 14 daily, intraperitoneal saline injections did not alter the phenotypic differences in social behavior observed basally in HR/LR rats. However, injections significantly increased time spent immobile in the forced swim test in HRs, [corrected] while the identical regimen significantly decreased the same measure in LRs, [corrected] compared with handled-controls. These data indicate that individual differences in stress reactivity can have a significant impact on the depressive-like responses

  3. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  4. Cytokine gene polymorphism [tumor necrosis factor-alpha (-308), IL-10 (-1082), IL-6 (-174), IL-17F, 1RaVNTR] in pediatric patients with primary immune thrombocytopenia and response to different treatment modalities.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Galila M; El-Beblawy, Nagham M S; Adly, Amira A; Elbarbary, Nancy S; Kamal, Tarek M; Hasan, Esraa M

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between development, progression, and response to therapy among patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and different cytokine gene polymorphisms known to be related to autoimmunity [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, IL-17, IL-1Ra]. A total of 50 pediatric patients with ITP (20 newly diagnosed, 30 chronic) and 50 healthy controls were investigated via PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis for cytokine gene polymorphism. Compared with controls, all patients showed a higher frequency of IL-6-174 CC [P = 0.0001, odds ratio (OR) = 7.048, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.18-22.7], higher GA genotype of TNF-α (-308) (P = 0.001, OR = 6.469, 95% CI = 2.0-20.9), higher CC genotype of IL-17F (P = 0.0001, OR = 55.545, 95% CI = 14.4-213.2), higher GG of IL-10-1082 (P = 0.029, OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.08-12.18), and A1A2 genotype of IL-1Ra (P = 0.039, OR = 2.374, 95% CI = 1.03-5.4). IL-10 GA and IL-1Ra A1A1 genotypes were higher among chronic patients (P = 0.042, P = 0.001 respectively) compared with newly diagnosed ones. Best platelet response to steroid treatment was found among GC genotype of IL-6 (-174) and GG genotype of IL-10 (-1082) in all patients with ITP. This suggests that previously mentioned cytokine gene polymorphisms possibly contribute to the susceptibility of acquisition of childhood ITP. Furthermore, GA genotype of IL-10 and A1A1 genotype of IL-1Ra polymorphisms are associated with increased risk of chronic ITP. IL-6 (-174) and IL-10 (-1082) genes might play a role in the effectiveness of steroid therapy among patients with ITP.

  5. Increasing shrub abundance and N addition in Arctic tundra affect leaf and root litter decomposition differently

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, J.; van de Weg, M. J.; Shaver, G. R.; Gough, L.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in global climate have resulted in a ';greening' of the Arctic as the abundance of deciduous shrub species increases. Consequently, not only the living plant community, but also the litter composition changes, which in turn can affect carbon turnover patterns in the Arctic. We examined effects of changing litter composition (both root and leaf litter) on decomposition rates with a litter bag study, and specifically focused on the impact of deciduous shrub Betula nana litter on litter decomposition from two evergreen shrubs (Ledum palustre, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea) and one graminoid (Eriophorum vaginatum) species. Additionally, we investigated how decomposition was affected by nutrient availability by placing the litterbags in an ambient and a fertilized moist acidic tundra environment. Measurements were carried out seasonally over 2 years (after snow melt, mid-growing season, end growing season). We measured litter mass loss over time, as well as the respiration rates (standardized for temperature and moisture) and temperature sensitivity of litter respiration at the time of harvesting the litter bags. For leaves, Betula litter decomposed faster than the other three species, with Eriophorum leaves decomposing the slowest. This pattern was observed for both mass loss and litter respiration rates, although the differences in respiration became smaller over time. Surprisingly, combining Betula with any other species resulted in slower overall weight loss rates than would be predicted based on monoculture weight loss rates. This contrasted with litter respiration at the time of sampling, which showed a positive mixing effect of adding Betula leaf liter to the other species. Apparently, during the first winter months (September - May) Betula litter decomposition is negatively affected by mixing the species and this legacy can still be observed in the total mass loss results later in the year. For root litter there were fewer effects of species identity on root

  6. Bile acid-induced necrosis in primary human hepatocytes and in patients with obstructive cholestasis

    SciTech Connect

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth; Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I.; Gholami, Parviz; Li, Feng; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson; Fan, Fang; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-03-15

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. - Highlights: • Cholestatic liver injury is due to cytoplasmic bile acid accumulation in hepatocytes. • Primary human hepatocytes are resistant to BA-induced injury

  7. Factors affecting 137Cs bio- availability under the application of different fertilizing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorkova, M. V.; Belova, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    Although it has been 25 years since the Chernobyl accident, it was generally found that radiocaesium remained bio-availability in some regions. Plant uptake of 137Cs is depended from quantity of exchangeable radionuclide and strongly influenced by soil properties. The addition of fertilizers to soil induces chemical and biological changes that influence the distribution of free ions the different phases (soil and soil solution). In this study we try to estimate influence of different soil conditions affecting the 137Cs bio-availability under the application of manure and inorganic fertilizers. Our research carried out in 2001-2008 years on contaminated after Chernobyl accident sod-podzolic soil during of prolonged field experiment. The experimental site was located in south-west of Bryansk region, Russia. Contamination density by 137Cs in the sampling point was equal to 475±30 kBq/m2. The sequence of crops in rotation was: 1) potato; 2) oats 3) lupine 4) winter rye. Three fertilizing systems were compared: organic - 80 tons per hectare of cow manure; inorganic fertilizing system - different rates of NPK (low, temperate and high) and mixed - 40 tons per hectare of cow manure + NPK. Main soil properties and chemical form of 137Cs and K (potassium) were detected. Radiocaesium activity was determined in soil and plant samples by gamma spectrometry, using a high purity Ge detectors. Overall efficiency was known to an accuracy of about 10-12%. Obtained results shows, that various fertilizing systems influence soil properties, chemical forms of 137Cs and K in soil and radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer in different ways. The highest reduction of exchangeable 137Cs in soil was found in case with application of organic fertilizers and also - temperate NPK rates. Part of exchangeable 137Cs is equal 6.8% (from total activity) in case of manure, 7.8% in case of inorganic fertilizers with control value - 10.2%. Caesium mobility in soil is affected by such soil properties as

  8. Abscission of pistachio flowers and fruits as affected by different pollinators.

    PubMed

    Acar, Izzet; Eti, Sinan

    2007-09-01

    This study was conducted in Ceylanpinar State Farm to determine influence of pollens of 9 different pollinators on the flower and fruit abscission of the pistachio. Comparison of pollinator effect on the abscission of flowers and fruits of 3 pistachio cultivars showed that pollens of Pistacia vera L. may increase or reduce flower and fruit abscission. Flower and fruit abscission occurred primarily during the flowering and small-fruit period, that the June and pre-harvest abscissions were low. Data collected for 3 consecutive years revealed that 83.4 to 88.2% of the flowers and fruits of Kirmizi pistachio cultivar abscised mainly during an initial 50 days after Full Blooming (FB). Siirt cultivar abscised during an initial 35 days after FB with a rate of 82.1 to 90.9%. Abscission rate of Ohadi cultivar were 84.5 to 88.6% that occurred during an initial 50 days after FB period. Males noted as 12 and 13 resulted the highest abscission in Siirt cultivar. Results demonstrated that pollinators affect flower and fruit abscission in pistachio.

  9. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-10-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  10. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids differently affect catecholamine handling by adrenal chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Andreia; Correia, Gustavo; Coelho, Marisa; Araújo, João Ricardo; Pinho, Maria João; Teixeira, Ana Luisa; Medeiros, Rui; Ribeiro, Laura

    2015-05-01

    Catecholamines (CA) play an important role in cardiovascular (CDV) disease risk. Namely, noradrenaline (NA) levels positively correlate whereas adrenaline (AD) levels negatively correlate with obesity and/or CDV disease. Western diets, which are tipically rich in Ω-6 fatty acids (FAs) and deficient in Ω-3 FAs, may contribute to the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes and/or coronary artery disease. Taking this into consideration and the fact that our group has already described that saturated FAs affect catecholamine handling by adrenal chromaffin cells, this work aimed to investigate the effect of unsaturated FAs upon catecholamine handling in the same model. Our results showed that chronic exposure to unsaturated FAs differently modulated CA cellular content and release, regardless of both FA series and number of carbon atoms. Namely, the Ω-6 arachidonic and linoleic acids, based on their effect on CA release and cellular content, seemed to impair NA and AD vesicular transport, whereas γ-linolenic acid selectively impaired AD synthesis and release. Within the Ω-9 FAs, oleic acid was devoid of effect, and elaidic acid behaved similarly to γ-linolenic acid. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (Ω-3 series) impaired the synthesis and release of both NA and AD. These results deserve attention and future development, namely, in what concerns the mechanisms involved and correlative effects in vivo. PMID:25727966

  11. Gender Differences In Social And Developmental Factors Affecting Puerto Rican Adolescents During The Early Stage

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Cosme, Wanda I.; Miranda, Christine; Fernandez, Diana M.; Maysonet, Johanna; Ramon, Raul O.

    2011-01-01

    Background Adolescence is associated with risky behaviors related with social and developmental factors. Objectives were to describe social and developmental factors affecting Puerto Rican early adolescent by gender and type of school at study entry. Methods Cross-sectional study design. The study group was composed by 168 seventh grade adolescents from private and public schools. Descriptive and non-parametric comparisons were performed. Results Significance differences among proportions for gender by type of school were found in the following variables: self-esteem and HIV/AIDS attitudes in public school and peer pressure and sensation seeking in private school Discussion Our study revealed that public school adolescents are characterized by males with higher self-esteem and less attitude for HIV/AIDS, while in private school the males has more peer pressure and seeking sensation than females. Future studies could analyze factors related with changes in developmental factors, this step is important to evaluate the effectiveness of ASUMA interventions. PMID:23875519

  12. Copper, differently from zinc, affects the conformation, oligomerization state and activity of bradykinin.

    PubMed

    Naletova, Irina; Nicoletti, Vincenzo G; Milardi, Danilo; Pietropaolo, Adriana; Grasso, Giuseppe

    2016-08-01

    The sole role of bradykinin (BK) as an inflammatory mediator is controversial, as recent data also support an anti-inflammatory role for BK in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The involvement of two different receptors (B1R and B2R) could be a key to understand this issue. However, although copper and zinc dyshomeostasis has been demonstrated to be largely involved in the development of AD, a detailed study of the interaction of BK with these two metal ions has never been addressed. In this work, we have applied mass spectrometry, circular dichroism as well as computational methods in order to assess if copper and zinc have the ability to modulate the conformation and oligomerization of BK. In addition, we have correlated the chemical data with the effect of metals on the activity of BK analyzed in cell cultures by biochemical procedures. The biochemical analyses on monocyte/macrophage cell culture (THP-1 Cell Line human) in line with the effect of metals on the conformation of BK showed that the presence of copper can affect the signaling cascade mediated by the BK receptors. The results obtained show a further role of metal ions, particularly copper, in the development and outcome of neuroinflammatory diseases. The possible implications in AD are discussed. PMID:27328010

  13. Arsenic Uptake and Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) as Affected by Different Arsenical Speciation.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sukanya; Saha, Rajnarayan; Pal, Parimal

    2016-03-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of different arsenic (As) species such as arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). The present study describes the changes in the growth, yield and accumulation characteristics of okra plants spiked with 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) of As(III), As(V) and DMA. As species negatively affected the yield and growth of the plant.The availability of arsenic compounds in the aerial parts decreased in the order As(V) > As(III) > DMA and in the roots observed as As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The results showed that except As(V), okra accumulated As(III) and DMA mainly in its roots with limited transport to shoots. Thus the plant has the capacity to tolerate As stress and can be considered as a resistive variety. The study also reveals that removal of As by boiling the vegetables with excess of water is not possible.

  14. Facial beauty affects implicit and explicit learning of men and women differently

    PubMed Central

    Ziori, Eleni; Dienes, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    The present work explores the unconscious and/or conscious nature of learning attractive faces of same and opposite sex, that is, of stimuli that experimental and neuroimaging research has shown to be rewarding and thus highly motivating. To this end, we examined performance of men and women while classifying strings of average and attractive faces for grammaticality in the experimental task of artificial grammar learning (AGL), which reflects both conscious and unconscious processes. Subjective measures were used to assess participants’ conscious and unconscious knowledge. It was found that female attractiveness impaired performance in male participants. In particular, male participants demonstrated the lowest accuracy while classifying beautiful faces of women. Conversely, female attractiveness facilitated performance in female participants. The pattern was similar for conscious and unconscious knowledge. Presumably, objects with high incentive salience, as are beautiful faces, captured resources, which were used in task relevant versus task irrelevant ways by women versus men. The present findings shed light on the relation of conscious and unconscious processing with affective and reward-related stimuli, as well as on gender differences underlying this relation. PMID:26300819

  15. Arsenic Uptake and Accumulation in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) as Affected by Different Arsenical Speciation.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Sukanya; Saha, Rajnarayan; Pal, Parimal

    2016-03-01

    Experimental investigations were conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of different arsenic (As) species such as arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) on the growth of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus). The present study describes the changes in the growth, yield and accumulation characteristics of okra plants spiked with 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) of As(III), As(V) and DMA. As species negatively affected the yield and growth of the plant.The availability of arsenic compounds in the aerial parts decreased in the order As(V) > As(III) > DMA and in the roots observed as As(III) > As(V) > DMA. The results showed that except As(V), okra accumulated As(III) and DMA mainly in its roots with limited transport to shoots. Thus the plant has the capacity to tolerate As stress and can be considered as a resistive variety. The study also reveals that removal of As by boiling the vegetables with excess of water is not possible. PMID:26679322

  16. The Stability of G6PD Is Affected by Mutations with Different Clinical Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Terrón-Hernández, Jessica; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; González-Valdez, Abigail; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; García-Torres, Itzhel; Vanoye-Carlo, America; López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Hernández-Alcántara, Gloria; Oria-Hernández, Jesús; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzyme deficiency worldwide, causing a wide spectrum of conditions with severity classified from the mildest (Class IV) to the most severe (Class I). To correlate mutation sites in the G6PD with the resulting phenotypes, we studied four naturally occurring G6PD variants: Yucatan, Nashville, Valladolid and Mexico City. For this purpose, we developed a successful over-expression method that constitutes an easier and more precise method for obtaining and characterizing these enzymes. The kcat (catalytic constant) of all the studied variants was lower than in the wild-type. The structural rigidity might be the cause and the most evident consequence of the mutations is their impact on protein stability and folding, as can be observed from the protein yield, the T50 (temperature where 50% of its original activity is retained) values, and differences on hydrophobic regions. The mutations corresponding to more severe phenotypes are related to the structural NADP+ region. This was clearly observed for the Classes III and II variants, which became more thermostable with increasing NADP+, whereas the Class I variants remained thermolabile. The mutations produce repulsive electric charges that, in the case of the Yucatan variant, promote increased disorder of the C-terminus and consequently affect the binding of NADP+, leading to enzyme instability. PMID:25407525

  17. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. PMID:27147100

  18. Different inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in fourteen families affected by type I pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Sartorato, Paola; Lapeyraque, Anne-Laure; Armanini, Decio; Kuhnle, Ursula; Khaldi, Yasmina; Salomon, Rémi; Abadie, Véronique; Di Battista, Eliana; Naselli, Arturo; Racine, Alain; Bosio, Maurizio; Caprio, Massimiliano; Poulet-Young, Véronique; Chabrolle, Jean-Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; De Gennes, Christiane; Lecornec, Marie-Hélène; Poisson, Elodie; Fusco, Anna Maria; Loli, Paola; Lombès, Marc; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2003-06-01

    We have analyzed the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) gene in 14 families with autosomal dominant or sporadic pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1), a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by neonatal renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Six heterozygous mutations were detected. Two frameshift mutations in exon 2 (insT1354, del8bp537) and one nonsense mutation in exon 4 (C2157A, Cys645stop) generate truncated proteins due to premature stop codons. Three missense mutations (G633R, Q776R, L979P) differently affect hMR function. The DNA binding domain mutant R633 exhibits reduced maximal transactivation, although its binding characteristics and ED(50) of transactivation are comparable with wild-type hMR. Ligand binding domain mutants R776 and P979 present reduced or absent aldosterone binding, respectively, which is associated with reduced or absent ligand-dependent transactivation capacity. Finally, P979 possesses a transdominant negative effect on wild-type hMR activity, whereas mutations G633R and Q776R probably result in haploinsufficiency in PHA1 patients. We conclude that hMR mutations are a common feature of autosomal dominant PHA1, being found in 70% of our familial cases. Their absence in some families underscores the importance of an extensive investigation of the hMR gene and the role of precise diagnostic procedures to allow for identification of other genes potentially involved in the disease. PMID:12788847

  19. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species.

  20. Different inactivating mutations of the mineralocorticoid receptor in fourteen families affected by type I pseudohypoaldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Sartorato, Paola; Lapeyraque, Anne-Laure; Armanini, Decio; Kuhnle, Ursula; Khaldi, Yasmina; Salomon, Rémi; Abadie, Véronique; Di Battista, Eliana; Naselli, Arturo; Racine, Alain; Bosio, Maurizio; Caprio, Massimiliano; Poulet-Young, Véronique; Chabrolle, Jean-Pierre; Niaudet, Patrick; De Gennes, Christiane; Lecornec, Marie-Hélène; Poisson, Elodie; Fusco, Anna Maria; Loli, Paola; Lombès, Marc; Zennaro, Maria-Christina

    2003-06-01

    We have analyzed the human mineralocorticoid receptor (hMR) gene in 14 families with autosomal dominant or sporadic pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA1), a rare form of mineralocorticoid resistance characterized by neonatal renal salt wasting and failure to thrive. Six heterozygous mutations were detected. Two frameshift mutations in exon 2 (insT1354, del8bp537) and one nonsense mutation in exon 4 (C2157A, Cys645stop) generate truncated proteins due to premature stop codons. Three missense mutations (G633R, Q776R, L979P) differently affect hMR function. The DNA binding domain mutant R633 exhibits reduced maximal transactivation, although its binding characteristics and ED(50) of transactivation are comparable with wild-type hMR. Ligand binding domain mutants R776 and P979 present reduced or absent aldosterone binding, respectively, which is associated with reduced or absent ligand-dependent transactivation capacity. Finally, P979 possesses a transdominant negative effect on wild-type hMR activity, whereas mutations G633R and Q776R probably result in haploinsufficiency in PHA1 patients. We conclude that hMR mutations are a common feature of autosomal dominant PHA1, being found in 70% of our familial cases. Their absence in some families underscores the importance of an extensive investigation of the hMR gene and the role of precise diagnostic procedures to allow for identification of other genes potentially involved in the disease.

  1. Arousal and affective differences between student gamblers and non-gamblers during a card game.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Campeau, Jennifer L; Harrington, Shawn J

    2012-12-01

    The current study examined the differences in arousal (physiologically and subjectively) between gamblers and non-gamblers. Thirty students from a mid-sized university took part in the study for a chance to win money in a gambling task. Nearly half of the participants identified themselves as non-gamblers and slightly more than half of the participants considered themselves gamblers. Findings indicated that gamblers experienced a significantly higher increase in physiological arousal (heart rate) compared to non-gamblers during the gambling experience. The results suggests the possibility that physiological arousal may play a role in the appeal of gambling to certain types of people. Furthermore, when gamblers suffered a loss at the end of the game, they reported feeling worse as compared to the non-gamblers and relative to their state before playing. Moreover, this affective change explained 28.6% of the variance in gambling behavior according to self-reports. Findings suggest that gamblers in our study may have been more personally invested in the gambling tasks, such that losing was more disappointing to the habitual gamblers than the non-gamblers. PMID:22057368

  2. Ballistics ordnance gelatine - How different concentrations, temperatures and curing times affect calibration results.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Fisk, Wesley; Wachsberger, Christian; Byard, Roger W

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether different concentrations of ordnance gelatine, water types, temperatures and curing times would have an effect on projectile penetration of a gelatine tissue surrogate. Both Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) specified gelatines were compared against the FBI calibration standard. 10% w/w and 20% w/w concentrations of gelatine with Bloom numbers of 250 and 285 were prepared and cured at variable temperatures (3-20°C) for 21 hours-3 weeks. Each block was shot on four occasions on the same range using steel calibre 4.5 mm BBs fired from a Daisy(®) air rifle at the required standard velocity of 180 ± 4.5 m/s, to ascertain the mean penetration depth. The results showed no significant difference in mean penetration depth using the three different water types (p > 0.05). Temperature changes and curing times did affect penetration depth. At 10°C, mean penetration depth with 20% gelatine 285 Bloom for the two water types tested was 49.7 ± 1.5 mm after 21 h curing time, whereas the same formulation at 20°C using two different water types was 79.1 ± 2.1 mm after 100 h curing time (p < 0.001). Neither of the NATO 20% concentrations of gelatine at 10°C or a 20% concentration of 285 Bloom gelatine at 10°C met the same calibration standard as the FBI recommended 10% formulation at 4°C. A 20% concentration of 285 Bloom at 20°C met the same calibration/penetration criteria as a 10% concentration of 250 Bloom at 4 °C after 100 h of curing, therefore matching the FBI calibration standard for a soft tissue simulant for wound ballistics research. These results demonstrate significant variability in simulant properties. Failure to standardise ballistic simulants may invalidate experimental results.

  3. Long-term Differences in Tillage and Land Use Affect Intra-aggregate Pore Heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Kravchenko, A.N.; Wang, A.N.W.; Smucker, A.J.M.; Rivers, M.L.

    2012-10-25

    Recent advances in computed tomography provide measurement tools to study internal structures of soil aggregates at micrometer resolutions and to improve our understanding of specific mechanisms of various soil processes. Fractal analysis is one of the data analysis tools that can be helpful in evaluating heterogeneity of the intra-aggregate internal structures. The goal of this study was to examine how long-term tillage and land use differences affect intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity. The specific objectives were: (i) to develop an approach to enhance utility of box-counting fractal dimension in characterizing intra-aggregate pore heterogeneity; (ii) to examine intra-aggregate pores in macro-aggregates (4-6 mm in size) using the computed tomography scanning and fractal analysis, and (iii) to compare heterogeneity of intra-aggregate pore space in aggregates from loamy Alfisol soil subjected to 20 yr of contrasting management practices, namely, conventional tillage (chisel plow) (CT), no-till (NT), and native succession vegetation (NS). Three-dimensional images of the intact aggregates were obtained with a resolution of 14.6 {micro}m at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL. Proposed box-counting fractal dimension normalization was successfully implemented to estimate heterogeneity of pore voxel distributions without bias associated with different porosities in soil aggregates. The aggregates from all three studied treatments had higher porosity associated with large (>100 {micro}m) pores present in their centers than in their exteriors. Pores 15 to 60 {micro}m were equally abundant throughout entire aggregates but their distributions were more heterogeneous in aggregate interiors. The CT aggregates had greater numbers of pores 15 to 60 {micro}m than NT and NS. Distribution of pore voxels belonging to large pores was most heterogeneous in the aggregates from NS, followed by NT and by CT. This result was consistent with presence of

  4. Ballistics ordnance gelatine - How different concentrations, temperatures and curing times affect calibration results.

    PubMed

    Maiden, Nicholas R; Fisk, Wesley; Wachsberger, Christian; Byard, Roger W

    2015-08-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether different concentrations of ordnance gelatine, water types, temperatures and curing times would have an effect on projectile penetration of a gelatine tissue surrogate. Both Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) specified gelatines were compared against the FBI calibration standard. 10% w/w and 20% w/w concentrations of gelatine with Bloom numbers of 250 and 285 were prepared and cured at variable temperatures (3-20°C) for 21 hours-3 weeks. Each block was shot on four occasions on the same range using steel calibre 4.5 mm BBs fired from a Daisy(®) air rifle at the required standard velocity of 180 ± 4.5 m/s, to ascertain the mean penetration depth. The results showed no significant difference in mean penetration depth using the three different water types (p > 0.05). Temperature changes and curing times did affect penetration depth. At 10°C, mean penetration depth with 20% gelatine 285 Bloom for the two water types tested was 49.7 ± 1.5 mm after 21 h curing time, whereas the same formulation at 20°C using two different water types was 79.1 ± 2.1 mm after 100 h curing time (p < 0.001). Neither of the NATO 20% concentrations of gelatine at 10°C or a 20% concentration of 285 Bloom gelatine at 10°C met the same calibration standard as the FBI recommended 10% formulation at 4°C. A 20% concentration of 285 Bloom at 20°C met the same calibration/penetration criteria as a 10% concentration of 250 Bloom at 4 °C after 100 h of curing, therefore matching the FBI calibration standard for a soft tissue simulant for wound ballistics research. These results demonstrate significant variability in simulant properties. Failure to standardise ballistic simulants may invalidate experimental results. PMID:26165674

  5. Laying performance and egg quality of blue-shelled layers as affected by different housing systems.

    PubMed

    Wang, X L; Zheng, J X; Ning, Z H; Qu, L J; Xu, G Y; Yang, N

    2009-07-01

    Blue-shelled eggs are gaining popularity as the consumption demand diversifies in some countries. This study was carried out to investigate the laying performance and egg quality of the blue-shelled egg layers as well as the effects of different housing systems on egg production and quality traits. One thousand pullets from Dongxiang blue-shelled layers were divided into 2 even groups and kept in different housing systems (outdoor vs. cage). Daily laying performance was recorded from 20 to 60 wk of age. External and internal egg quality traits were examined at 26, 34, 42, and 50 wk. Yolk cholesterol concentration and whole egg cholesterol content were measured at 40 wk of age. Average laying rate from 20 to 60 wk for the cage (54.7%) was significantly higher than that of outdoor layers (39.3%). Among all of the egg quality traits, only eggshell color was affected by housing system. Interaction between housing system and layer age was found in egg weight, eggshell color, eggshell ratio, yolk color, and yolk weight. Meanwhile, cholesterol concentration in yolk was 8.64 +/- 0.40 mg/g in the outdoor eggs, which was significantly lower than that of eggs from the cage birds (10.32 +/- 0.48 mg/g; P < 0.05). Whole egg cholesterol content in the outdoor eggs (125.23 +/- 6.32 mg/egg) was also significantly lower than that of eggs from the caged layers (158.01 +/- 8.62 mg/egg). The results demonstrated that blue-shelled layers have lower productivity in the outdoor system than in the cage system. Blue-shelled layers have lower egg weight, larger yolk proportion, and lower cholesterol content compared with commercial layers. In a proper marketing system, lower productivity could be balanced by a higher price for the better quality of blue-shelled eggs. PMID:19531721

  6. Allelic differences in a vacuolar invertase affect Arabidopsis growth at early plant development.

    PubMed

    Leskow, Carla Coluccio; Kamenetzky, Laura; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Díaz Zirpolo, José Antonio; Obata, Toshihiro; Costa, Hernán; Martí, Marcelo; Taboga, Oscar; Keurentjes, Joost; Sulpice, Ronan; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Stitt, Mark; Fernie, Alisdair Robert; Carrari, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Improving carbon fixation in order to enhance crop yield is a major goal in plant sciences. By quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, it has been demonstrated that a vacuolar invertase (vac-Inv) plays a key role in determining the radical length in Arabidopsis. In this model, variation in vac-Inv activity was detected in a near isogenic line (NIL) population derived from a cross between two divergent accessions: Landsberg erecta (Ler) and Cape Verde Island (CVI), with the CVI allele conferring both higher Inv activity and longer radicles. The aim of the current work is to understand the mechanism(s) underlying this QTL by analyzing structural and functional differences of vac-Inv from both accessions. Relative transcript abundance analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) showed similar expression patterns in both accessions; however, DNA sequence analyses revealed several polymorphisms that lead to changes in the corresponding protein sequence. Moreover, activity assays revealed higher vac-Inv activity in genotypes carrying the CVI allele than in those carrying the Ler allele. Analyses of purified recombinant proteins showed a similar K m for both alleles and a slightly higher V max for that of Ler. Treatment of plant extracts with foaming to release possible interacting Inv inhibitory protein(s) led to a large increase in activity for the Ler allele, but no changes for genotypes carrying the CVI allele. qRT-PCR analyses of two vac-Inv inhibitors in seedlings from parental and NIL genotypes revealed different expression patterns. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the vac-Inv QTL affects root biomass accumulation and also carbon partitioning through a differential regulation of vac-Inv inhibitors at the mRNA level. PMID:27194734

  7. Differences in Factors Affecting Various Crash Types with High Numbers of Fatalities and Injuries in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kai; He, Jie; Ding, Jianxun; Shi, Qin; Wang, Changjun; Li, Pingfan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Road traffic crashes that involve very high numbers of fatalities and injuries arouse public concern wherever they occur. In China, there are two categories of such crashes: a crash that results in 10–30 fatalities, 50–100 serious injuries or a total cost of 50–100 million RMB ($US8-16m) is a “serious road traffic crash” (SRTC), while a crash that is even more severe or costly is a “particularly serious road traffic crash” (PSRTC). The aim of this study is to identify the main factors affecting different types of these crashes (single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact) with the ultimate goal of informing prevention activities and policies. Methods Detailed descriptions of the SRTCs and PSRTCs that occurred from 2007 to 2014 were collected from the database “In-depth Investigation and Analysis System for Major Road Traffic Crashes” (IIASMRTC), which is maintained by the Traffic Management Research Institute of the Ministry of Public Security of China (TMRI). 18 main risk factors, which were categorized into four areas (participant, vehicle, road and environment-related) were chosen as potential independent variables for the multinomial logistic regression analysis. Comparisons were made among the single-vehicle, head-on, rear-end and side impact crashes in terms of factors affecting crash occurrence. Findings Five risk factors were significant for the six multinomial logistic regression models, which were location, vertical alignment, roadside safety rating, driver distraction and overloading of cargo. It was indicated that intersections were more likely to have side impact SRTCs and PSRTCs, especially with poor visibility at night. Overloaded freight vehicles were more likely to be involved in a rear-end crash than other freight vehicles. Driver distraction is an important risk factor for head-on crashes, while vertical alignment and roadside safety rating are positively associated with single-vehicle crashes. Conclusion Based

  8. Does the Modality Principle Hold for Different Media?: A Test of the Method-Affects-Learning Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, R.

    2006-01-01

    Does the modality of instructional messages affect learning? How does it affect different media? In this paper, I offer an answer to these questions by first proposing a theoretical framework from which effective instructional methods can be derived. Then, I report a set of studies where one method, the modality principle, was tested across…

  9. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25676469

  10. Comparative study of polyphenols and caffeine in different coffee varieties affected by the degree of roasting.

    PubMed

    Hečimović, Ivana; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Horžić, Dunja; Komes, Draženka

    2011-12-01

    The bioactive composition of coffee, as one of the most popular beverages in the world, has attracted interest as a potential source of beneficial bioactive compounds, especially polyphenols and caffeine. Since the content of these compounds is affected by the processing conditions, the objective of this study was to determine the content of polyphenolic compounds and caffeine in four different coffee varieties: Minas and Cioccolatato (Coffea arabica), and Cherry and Vietnam (Coffea canephora syn. Coffea robusta), roasted by three varying degrees (light, medium and dark). The content of the polyphenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of coffees were determined using UV/Vis spectrophotometric methods, while the content of chlorogenic acid derivatives was determined using HPLC analysis. The caffeine content was determined by means of two spectrophotometric methods, as well as HPLC analysis. Additionally, raw caffeine was also obtained by an isolation procedure with chloroform. Cherry coffee, a variety of C. canephora exhibited the highest overall content of total phenols (42.37mg GAE/g), followed by Minas coffee, while Cioccolatato contained the lowest TPC (33.12mg GAE/g). Cherry coffee also exhibited the highest content of individual classes of polyphenols (flavan-3-ols, procyanidins and tannins), while the highest content of chlorogenic acid (CQA) derivatives was determined in Minas and Cioccolatato coffees (C. arabica). The highest content of total and individual polyphenolic compounds was determined in coffees roasted in both light and medium roasting conditions, which was also observed for the content of CQA derivatives and antioxidant capacity of roasted coffees. The highest caffeine content in the coffee samples was determined by employing the HPLC analysis (0.06-2.55%). Light roasted Cherry coffee contained the highest overall content of caffeine among all coffees, which exhibited a decrease with intensified roasting.

  11. How do different data logger sizes and attachment positions affect the diving behaviour of little penguins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ropert-Coudert, Yan; Knott, Nathan; Chiaradia, André; Kato, Akiko

    2007-02-01

    It is crucial in any bio-logging study to establish the potential effect that attachment of loggers may have on the animal. This ensures that the behaviour monitored by the loggers has a biological relevance, as well as for ethical reasons. Evaluation of the effects of externally attached loggers shows that they increase the drag of swimming animals and increase their energy expenditure. Nevertheless, little research has been done on the effects of size or position of such loggers. In this study, we tested whether the size (i.e. large: 4.9% versus small: 3.4% of the bird's frontal area) or the place of attachment (middle versus lower back) affected the diving behaviour of male and female little penguins ( Eudyptula minor). The positioning of the data logger on the middle or lower section of little penguins' back had little, if no effect, on the diving variables measured in this study. Size of the loggers, however, had strong effects. Birds with large loggers made shorter dives and reached shallower depths than those with small loggers. In addition, birds with large loggers made more dives probably to compensate for the extra cost of carrying a large logger. The measured variables also differed between the sexes, with males diving deeper and longer than females. Logger size had a sex-specific effect on the trip duration and descent speed, with males equipped with large loggers staying longer at sea than those with small loggers, and females with large loggers descending faster than those with small loggers. From our results, it appears that effects of logger position do not exist or are very small in comparison with the effects of logger size. The results of the current study indicate that the effects of size of loggers be evaluated more commonly in bio-logging research into the diving activity of free-ranging birds.

  12. Factors Affecting Pathogen Survival in Finished Dairy Compost with Different Particle Sizes Under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Diao, Junshu; Chen, Zhao; Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium in finished dairy compost with different particle sizes during storage as affected by moisture content and temperature under greenhouse conditions. The mixture of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium strains was inoculated into the finished composts with moisture contents of 20, 30, and 40%, separately. The finished compost samples were then sieved into 3 different particle sizes (>1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm) and stored under greenhouse conditions. For compost samples with moisture contents of 20 and 30%, the average Salmonella reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm were 2.15, 2.27, and 2.47 log colony-forming units (CFU) g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.60, 2.03, and 2.26 log CFU g(-1) in late fall, respectively, and 2.61, 3.33, and 3.67 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. The average E. coli O157:H7 reductions in compost samples with particle sizes of >1000, 500-1000, and <500 μm were 1.98, 2.30, and 2.54 log CFU g(-1) within 5 days of storage in summer, respectively, as compared with 1.70, 2.56, and 2.90 log CFU g(-1) in winter, respectively. Our results revealed that both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 in compost samples with larger particle size survived better than those with smaller particle sizes, and the initial rapid moisture loss in compost may contribute to the fast inactivation of pathogens in the finished compost. For the same season, the pathogens in the compost samples with the same particle size survived much better at the initial moisture content of 20% compared to 40%. PMID:26153914

  13. Is rumen development in newborn calves affected by different liquid feeds and small intestine development?

    PubMed

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Jagusiak, W; Zabielski, R

    2011-06-01

    fed MR. Significant positive Pearson correlations were found between small intestine and reticulorumen weights as well as between activity of brush border lactase, maltase, aminopeptidase A, and aminopeptidase N and reticulorumen weight. Different liquid feeds affect small intestine development, animal growth, solid feed intake and metabolic status of calves and this effect can indirectly influence the development of forestomachs.

  14. Cell death by necrosis, a regulated way to go.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Mauricio; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andrés; Quest, Andrew F G

    2008-05-01

    Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death with well-defined morphological traits that are often associated with activation of caspases. More recently evidence has become available demonstrating that upon caspase inhibition alternative programs of cell death are executed, including ones with features characteristic of necrosis. These findings have changed our view of necrosis as a passive and essentially accidental form of cell death to that of an active, regulated and controllable process. Also necrosis has now been observed in parallel with, rather than as an alternative pathway to, apoptosis. Thus, cell death responses are extremely flexible despite being programmed. In this review, some of the hallmarks of different programmed cell death modes have been highlighted before focusing the discussion on necrosis. Obligatory events associated with this form of cell death include uncompensated cell swelling and related changes at the plasma membrane. In this context, representatives of the transient receptor channel family and their regulation are discussed. Also mechanisms that lead to execution of the necrotic cell death program are highlighted. Emphasis is laid on summarizing our understanding of events that permit switching between cell death modes and how they connect to necrosis. Finally, potential implications for the treatment of some disease states are mentioned. PMID:18473819

  15. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Soil Affected by Different Soil Uses of Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, J. A.; Faz, A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Bech, J.

    2009-04-01

    Heavy metals are a natural constituent of rocks, sediments and soils. However, the heavy metal content of top soils is also dependent on other sources than weathering of the indigenous minerals; input from atmospheric deposition seems to be an important pathway. Atmospheric deposition is defined as the process by which atmospheric pollutants are transferred to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces and is commonly classified as either dry or wet. The interest in atmospheric deposition has increased over the past decade due to concerns about the effects of deposited materials on the environment. Dry deposition provides a significant mechanism for the removal of particles from the atmosphere and is an important pathway for the loading of heavy metals into the soil ecosystem. Within the last decade, an intensive effort has been made to determine the atmospheric heavy metal deposition in both urban and rural areas. The main objective of this study was to identification of atmospheric heavy metals deposition in soil affected by different soil uses. Study area is located in Murcia Province (southeast of Spain), in the surroundings of Murcia City. The climate is typically semiarid Mediterranean with an annual average temperature of 18°C and precipitation of 350 mm. In order to determine heavy metals atmospheric deposition a sampling at different depths (0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-30 cm) was carried out in 7 sites including agricultural soils, two industrial areas and natural sites. The samples were taken to the laboratory where, dried, passed through a 2 mm sieve, and grinded. For the determination of the moisture the samples were weighed and oven dried at 105 °C for 24 h. The total amounts of metals (Pb, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni and Cr) were determined by digesting the samples with nitric/perchoric acids and measuring with ICP-MS. Results showed that zinc contamination in some samples of industrial areas was detected, even this contamination reaches 30 cm depth; thus it is

  16. A comparison of developmental dynamics of Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabr.) of different geographic origins and their affection by different microclimate.

    PubMed

    Daniel, M; Szymański, S; Cerný, V; Dusbábek, F; Honzáková, E; Olejnícek, J

    1980-01-01

    Developmental dynamics of D. reticulatus ticks of different geographic origins (NE Poland and SW Slovakia) were investigated and compared. A long-term field experiment was conducted in South Moravia in the zone of thermophilic oak forest. Ticks were studied in two different biotopes: in an open grassy area and in deciduous forest. Differences between the tick populations collected in Poland and Slovakia were observed in the duration of developmental cycle and in the outcome of metamorphosis, depending on biotope. The tick development in the open grassy area was more rapid, but with greater losses. The total production of adults was higher in the population originating from Slovakia.

  17. Exposure to Cerium Dioxide Nanoparticles Differently Affect Swimming Performance and Survival in Two Daphnid Species

    PubMed Central

    Artells, Ester; Issartel, Julien; Auffan, Mélanie; Borschneck, Daniel; Thill, Antoine; Tella, Marie; Brousset, Lenka; Rose, Jérôme; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Thiéry, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The CeO2 NPs are increasingly used in industry but the environmental release of these NPs and their subsequent behavior and biological effects are currently unclear. This study evaluates for the first time the effects of CeO2 NPs on the survival and the swimming performance of two cladoceran species, Daphnia similis and Daphnia pulex after 1, 10 and 100 mg.L−1 CeO2 exposures for 48 h. Acute toxicity bioassays were performed to determine EC50 of exposed daphnids. Video-recorded swimming behavior of both daphnids was used to measure swimming speeds after various exposures to aggregated CeO2 NPs. The acute ecotoxicity showed that D. similis is 350 times more sensitive to CeO2 NPs than D. pulex, showing 48-h EC50 of 0.26 mg.L−1 and 91.79 mg.L−1, respectively. Both species interacted with CeO2 NPs (adsorption), but much more strongly in the case of D. similis. Swimming velocities (SV) were differently and significantly affected by CeO2 NPs for both species. A 48-h exposure to 1 mg.L−1 induced a decrease of 30% and 40% of the SV in D. pulex and D. similis, respectively. However at higher concentrations, the SV of D. similis was more impacted (60% off for 10 mg.L−1 and 100 mg.L−1) than the one of D. pulex. These interspecific toxic effects of CeO2 NPs are explained by morphological variations such as the presence of reliefs on the cuticle and a longer distal spine in D. similis acting as traps for the CeO2 aggregates. In addition, D. similis has a mean SV double that of D. pulex and thus initially collides with twice more NPs aggregates. The ecotoxicological consequences on the behavior and physiology of a CeO2 NPs exposure in daphnids are discussed. PMID:23977004

  18. Do Couple-Based Interventions Make a Difference for Couples Affected by Cancer?: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the growing recognition that patients and partners react to a cancer diagnosis as an interdependent system and increasing evidence that psychosocial interventions can be beneficial to both patients and partners, there has been a recent increase in the attention given to interventions that target couples. The aim of this systematic review was to identify existing couple-based interventions for patients with cancer and their partners and explore the efficacy of these interventions (including whether there is added value to target the couple versus individuals), the content and delivery of couple-based interventions, and to identify the key elements of couple-based interventions that promote improvement in adjustment to cancer diagnosis. Method A systematic review of the cancer literature was performed to identify experimental and quasi-experimental couple-based interventions published between 1990 and 2011. To be considered for this review, studies had to test the efficacy of a psychosocial intervention for couples affected by cancer. Studies were excluded if they were published in a language other than English or French, focused on pharmacological, exercise, or dietary components combined with psychosocial components, or did not assess the impact of the intervention on psychological distress (e.g., depression, anxiety) or quality of life. Data were extracted using a standardised data collection form, and were analysed independently by three reviewers. Results Of the 709 articles screened, 23 were included in this review. Couple-based interventions were most efficacious in improving couple communication, psychological distress, and relationship functioning. Interventions had a limited impact on physical distress and social adjustment. Most interventions focused on improving communication and increasing understanding of the cancer diagnosis within couples. Interventions were most often delivered by masters-level nurses or clinical psychologists

  19. Emotion, working memory task demands and individual differences predict behavior, cognitive effort and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Justin; Davidson, Nicole A; Dahl, Chelsea F; Blass, Sara; Yung, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether positive and negative affect motivates verbal and spatial working memory processes, respectively, which have implications for the expenditure of mental effort. We argue that when emotion promotes cognitive tendencies that are goal incompatible with task demands, greater cognitive effort is required to perform well. We sought to investigate whether this increase in cognitive effort impairs behavioural control over a broad domain of self-control tasks. Moreover, we predicted that individuals with higher behavioural inhibition system (BIS) sensitivities would report more negative affect within the goal incompatible conditions because such individuals report higher negative affect during cognitive challenge. Positive or negative affective states were induced followed by completing a verbal or spatial 2-back working memory task. All participants then completed one of three self-control tasks. Overall, we observed that conditions of emotion and working memory incompatibility (positive/spatial and negative/verbal) performed worse on the self-control tasks, and within the incompatible conditions individuals with higher BIS sensitivities reported more negative affect at the end of the study. The combination of findings suggests that emotion and working memory compatibility reduces cognitive effort and impairs behavioural control.

  20. Thymic necrosis following oral inoculation of mouse thymic virus.

    PubMed

    Morse, S S

    1989-11-01

    Mouse thymic virus (MTLV;ICTV designation murid herpesvirus 3) infects developing T lymphocytes of neonatal mice, causing thymic necrosis and acute immunosuppression. Infected animals shed virus indefinitely. However, although transmission in nature is presumably by contact and is likely to involve the oral-nasal route, virtually all experimental studies with MTLV have used systemic (intraperitoneal) inoculation. In order to determine whether systemic inoculation causes artifacts in pathogenesis of the infection, effects of intraperitoneal and oral-nasal inoculation were compared in newborn mice. Thymic necrosis occurred with either route of inoculation, although rate of infection was lower with oral inoculation, varying from about 20% to 67%. There were no gross differences in pathogenesis. Orally infected animals seroconverted and shed virus. These data indicate that the apparent lymphotropism of thymic virus, and induction of thymic necrosis, are not dependent on route of inoculation.

  1. The soil carbon/nitrogen ratio and moisture affect microbial community structures in alkaline permafrost-affected soils with different vegetation types on the Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinfang; Xu, Shijian; Li, Changming; Zhao, Lin; Feng, Huyuan; Yue, Guangyang; Ren, Zhengwei; Cheng, Guogdong

    2014-01-01

    In the Tibetan permafrost region, vegetation types and soil properties have been affected by permafrost degradation, but little is known about the corresponding patterns of their soil microbial communities. Thus, we analyzed the effects of vegetation types and their covariant soil properties on bacterial and fungal community structure and membership and bacterial community-level physiological patterns. Pyrosequencing and Biolog EcoPlates were used to analyze 19 permafrost-affected soil samples from four principal vegetation types: swamp meadow (SM), meadow (M), steppe (S) and desert steppe (DS). Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria dominated bacterial communities and the main fungal phyla were Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mucoromycotina. The ratios of Proteobacteria/Acidobacteria decreased in the order: SM>M>S>DS, whereas the Ascomycota/Basidiomycota ratios increased. The distributions of carbon and nitrogen cycling bacterial genera detected were related to soil properties. The bacterial communities in SM/M soils degraded amines/amino acids very rapidly, while polymers were degraded rapidly by S/DS communities. UniFrac analysis of bacterial communities detected differences among vegetation types. The fungal UniFrac community patterns of SM differed from the others. Redundancy analysis showed that the carbon/nitrogen ratio had the main effect on bacteria community structures and their diversity in alkaline soil, whereas soil moisture was mainly responsible for structuring fungal communities. Thus, microbial communities and their functioning are probably affected by soil environmental change in response to permafrost degradation.

  2. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  3. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  4. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident. PMID:26949146

  5. Exploring the Factors That Affect the Intention to Use Collaborative Technologies: The Differing Perspectives of Sequential/Global Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yong-Ming

    2015-01-01

    The use of collaborative technologies in learning has received considerable attention in recent years, but few studies to date have examined the factors that affect sequential and global learners' intention to use such technologies. Previous studies have shown that the learners of different learning styles have different needs for educational…

  6. Influences of Selected Cognitive, Affective and Educational Variables on Sex-related Differences in Mathematics Learning and Studying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennema, Elizabeth

    This paper offers a detailed review of the literature concerning sex differences in the learning of mathematics. It identifies cognitive, affective and educational variables which have been either shown or hypothesized to contribute to sex-related differences in mathematics learning. The author analyzes each study in detail. One important finding…

  7. Joint Attention Initiation with and without Positive Affect: Risk Group Differences and Associations with ASD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gangi, Devon N.; Ibañez, Lisa V.; Messinger, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    Infants at risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) may have difficulty integrating smiles into initiating joint attention (IJA) bids. A specific IJA pattern, anticipatory smiling, may communicate preexisting positive affect when an infant smiles at an object and then turns the smile toward the social partner. We compared the development of…

  8. Discussions across Difference: Addressing the Affective Dimensions of Teaching Diverse Students about Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Pamela E.

    2011-01-01

    This article is about missed opportunities for promoting learning and growth in our increasingly diverse classrooms and the fundamental affective and social questions we need to address if we are to teach about diversity effectively. It is about the need to develop trust within diverse groups, so that students can learn from each others'…

  9. Orthographic Consistency Affects Spoken Word Recognition at Different Grain-Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dich, Nadya

    2014-01-01

    A number of previous studies found that the consistency of sound-to-spelling mappings (feedback consistency) affects spoken word recognition. In auditory lexical decision experiments, words that can only be spelled one way are recognized faster than words with multiple potential spellings. Previous studies demonstrated this by manipulating…

  10. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  11. Definition of bone necrosis by the pathologist

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Cristina; Franchi, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is a common disorder that may go clinically unrecognized or may result in the collapse of the architecture of bone, determining severe anatomic alterations of the involved site. Osteonecrosis is not a specific disease entity, but rather the result of a number of conditions ultimately leading to an impairment of blood supply to the bone tissue, although there is evidence that modifications of bone remodelling activity and weakening of bone structure with formation of microfractures are implicated as well. According to the site involved and to the factors promoting its development, the morbid anatomy and histopathology of osteonecrosis show a different appearance. This review discusses the main skeletal manifestations of osteonecrosis, including subarticular avascular necrosis of the femoral head and of the knee, as well as osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:22460748

  12. Tumour necrosis factor in synovial exudates.

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovine, F S; Nuki, G; Duff, G W

    1988-01-01

    The actions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) include resorption of bone and cartilage, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. TNF activity was looked for in synovial fluids from 137 patients with different rheumatic diseases. Unfractionated samples were tested in the L929 bioassay. Significant TNF activity that was neutralised by monoclonal antibody to TNF alpha occurred in 13 (30%) of 44 samples. Raised TNF levels were not associated with any particular disease type or routine laboratory markers of inflammation but were related to disease duration in osteoarthritis. The finding of biologically active TNF in symptomatic joints of arthritic patients supports the idea that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of joint damage in chronic rheumatic diseases. PMID:3263088

  13. Two different approaches to the affective profiles model: median splits (variable-oriented) and cluster analysis (person-oriented)

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Shane; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. The notion of the affective system as being composed of two dimensions led Archer and colleagues to the development of the affective profiles model. The model consists of four different profiles based on combinations of individuals’ experience of high/low positive and negative affect: self-fulfilling, low affective, high affective, and self-destructive. During the past 10 years, an increasing number of studies have used this person-centered model as the backdrop for the investigation of between and within individual differences in ill-being and well-being. The most common approach to this profiling is by dividing individuals’ scores of self-reported affect using the median of the population as reference for high/low splits. However, scores just-above and just-below the median might become high and low by arbitrariness, not by reality. Thus, it is plausible to criticize the validity of this variable-oriented approach. Our aim was to compare the median splits approach with a person-oriented approach, namely, cluster analysis. Method. The participants (N = 2, 225) were recruited through Amazons’ Mechanical Turk and asked to self-report affect using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. We compared the profiles’ homogeneity and Silhouette coefficients to discern differences in homogeneity and heterogeneity between approaches. We also conducted exact cell-wise analyses matching the profiles from both approaches and matching profiles and gender to investigate profiling agreement with respect to affectivity levels and affectivity and gender. All analyses were conducted using the ROPstat software. Results. The cluster approach (weighted average of cluster homogeneity coefficients = 0.62, Silhouette coefficients = 0.68) generated profiles with greater homogeneity and more distinctive from each other compared to the median splits approach (weighted average of cluster homogeneity coefficients = 0.75, Silhouette coefficients = 0.59). Most of the

  14. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  15. Distinct splicing signatures affect converged pathways in myelodysplastic syndrome patients carrying mutations in different splicing regulators.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jinsong; Zhou, Bing; Thol, Felicitas; Zhou, Yu; Chen, Liang; Shao, Changwei; DeBoever, Christopher; Hou, Jiayi; Li, Hairi; Chaturvedi, Anuhar; Ganser, Arnold; Bejar, Rafael; Zhang, Dong-Er; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Heuser, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous myeloid disorders with prevalent mutations in several splicing factors, but the splicing programs linked to specific mutations or MDS in general remain to be systematically defined. We applied RASL-seq, a sensitive and cost-effective platform, to interrogate 5502 annotated splicing events in 169 samples from MDS patients or healthy individuals. We found that splicing signatures associated with normal hematopoietic lineages are largely related to cell signaling and differentiation programs, whereas MDS-linked signatures are primarily involved in cell cycle control and DNA damage responses. Despite the shared roles of affected splicing factors in the 3' splice site definition, mutations in U2AF1, SRSF2, and SF3B1 affect divergent splicing programs, and interestingly, the affected genes fall into converging cancer-related pathways. A risk score derived from 11 splicing events appears to be independently associated with an MDS prognosis and AML transformation, suggesting potential clinical relevance of altered splicing patterns in MDS. PMID:27492256

  16. Gender Differences in Introductory University Physics Performance: The Influence of High School Physics Preparation and Affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra

    2006-12-01

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school has been a continuing concern for the physics education community. If females are well prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory college physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study uses HLM to identify factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that predict female and male performance in introductory college physics. The study includes controls for student demographic and academic background characteristics, and the final dataset consists of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory college physics classes. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially predict female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believe that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that similarly predict female and male performance. The results paint a dynamic picture of the factors from high school physics and the affective domain that influence the future physics performance of females and males. The implication is that there are many aspects to the teaching of physics in high school that, although widely used and thought to be effective, need reform in their implementation in order to be fully beneficial to females and/or males in college.

  17. Ascaridia galli infection affects pullets differently when feed is contaminated with the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON).

    PubMed

    Dänicke, S; Beineke, A; Rautenschlein, Silke; Valenta, Hana; Kersten, Susanne; Gauly, M

    2013-12-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of cereal grains used as animal feed. DON is known for its cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties and might adversely affect the health of poultry. The prevalence of the intestinal parasitizing roundworm Ascaridia galli is higher in outdoor housing systems and has been associated with maldigestion and malabsorption. It was hypothesized that ingested DON might not only affect the pullet itself but could also act on the nematode parasitizing in the ingesta. To examine these interactions between A. galli infection and DON contamination of feed 4 groups of 9 pullets in each were tested; non-infected groups were fed either an uncontaminated control (CON-) or a Fusarium toxin contaminated and mainly DON-containing diet (FUS-), and the corresponding A. galli inoculated groups were fed accordingly (CON+, FUS+). A. galli infection significantly reduced the jejunal villi height and increased the thickness of the tunica muscularis with the effect being more pronounced when the DON-containing diet was fed (Group FUS+). Only in this group significantly increased weights of jejunal and ileal tissues and of livers were noticed. Moreover, DON was detected in plasma of the pullets at higher frequencies when they were infected suggesting a facilitated absorption of DON. Group FUS+ was characterized by a significantly higher excretion of A. galli eggs and a concomitant lower proportion of pullets with detectable antibodies against a somatic antigen of A. galli while worm burden and worm characteristics were not affected by diet. Other effects of feeding the FUS diet to the infected pullets included an increased mass per length of male worms. In conclusion, infection of pullets with A. galli might increase the susceptibility towards DON as indicated by an increased DON absorption rate and a compromised antibody formation. The effects of DON on fecundity and worm morphology require further examination. PMID

  18. Ascaridia galli infection affects pullets differently when feed is contaminated with the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON).

    PubMed

    Dänicke, S; Beineke, A; Rautenschlein, Silke; Valenta, Hana; Kersten, Susanne; Gauly, M

    2013-12-01

    The Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a common contaminant of cereal grains used as animal feed. DON is known for its cytotoxic and anti-proliferative properties and might adversely affect the health of poultry. The prevalence of the intestinal parasitizing roundworm Ascaridia galli is higher in outdoor housing systems and has been associated with maldigestion and malabsorption. It was hypothesized that ingested DON might not only affect the pullet itself but could also act on the nematode parasitizing in the ingesta. To examine these interactions between A. galli infection and DON contamination of feed 4 groups of 9 pullets in each were tested; non-infected groups were fed either an uncontaminated control (CON-) or a Fusarium toxin contaminated and mainly DON-containing diet (FUS-), and the corresponding A. galli inoculated groups were fed accordingly (CON+, FUS+). A. galli infection significantly reduced the jejunal villi height and increased the thickness of the tunica muscularis with the effect being more pronounced when the DON-containing diet was fed (Group FUS+). Only in this group significantly increased weights of jejunal and ileal tissues and of livers were noticed. Moreover, DON was detected in plasma of the pullets at higher frequencies when they were infected suggesting a facilitated absorption of DON. Group FUS+ was characterized by a significantly higher excretion of A. galli eggs and a concomitant lower proportion of pullets with detectable antibodies against a somatic antigen of A. galli while worm burden and worm characteristics were not affected by diet. Other effects of feeding the FUS diet to the infected pullets included an increased mass per length of male worms. In conclusion, infection of pullets with A. galli might increase the susceptibility towards DON as indicated by an increased DON absorption rate and a compromised antibody formation. The effects of DON on fecundity and worm morphology require further examination.

  19. Negative core affect and employee silence: How differences in activation, cognitive rumination, and problem-solving demands matter.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Hector P; Patterson, Malcolm G; Leiva, Pedro I

    2015-11-01

    Employees can help to improve organizational performance by sharing ideas, suggestions, or concerns about practices, but sometimes they keep silent because of the experience of negative affect. Drawing and expanding on this stream of research, this article builds a theoretical rationale based on core affect and cognitive appraisal theories to describe how differences in affect activation and boundary conditions associated with cognitive rumination and cognitive problem-solving demands can explain employee silence. Results of a diary study conducted with professionals from diverse organizations indicated that within-person low-activated negative core affect increased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive rumination was high. Furthermore, within-person high-activated negative core affect decreased employee silence when, as an invariant factor, cognitive problem-solving demand was high. Thus, organizations should manage conditions to reduce experiences of low-activated negative core affect because these feelings increase silence in individuals high in rumination. In turn, effective management of experiences of high-activated negative core affect can reduce silence for individuals working under high problem-solving demand situations.

  20. An exploration of reported cognitions during an earthquake and its aftershocks: differences across affected communities and associations with psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Kannis-Dymand, Lee; Dorahy, Martin J; Crake, Rosemary; Gibbon, Peter; Luckey, Rhys

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive themes in two communities differentially affected by the September 2010 Christchurch earthquake and aftershocks were investigated. Participants (N = 124) completed questions about their thoughts during the earthquake and aftershocks as well as measures of acute stress, anxiety, and depression. Cognitions were qualitatively analyzed into themes for the earthquake and aftershocks. Themes were examined for differences across the two suburbs and associations with psychological distress. Nine cognitive themes were identified within three superordinate domains. The cognitive theme of worry and concern was the most frequently occurring for the earthquake and aftershocks across the whole sample and for the more affected suburb. Current threat was the most frequent theme for the earthquake in the less affected suburb, whereas worry and concern was the most evident in this group for aftershocks. The superordinate theme of threat was significantly related to higher acute stress disorder scores in the more affected suburb for earthquake-reported cognitions.

  1. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  2. Perspectives on Individual Differences Affecting Therapeutic Change in Communication Disorders. New Directions in Communication Disorders Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Amy L., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume examines the ramifications of individual differences in therapy outcomes for a wide variety of communication disorders. In an era where evidence-based practice is the clinical profession's watchword, each chapter attacks this highly relevant issue from a somewhat different perspective. In some areas of communication disorders,…

  3. Serious complications in experiments in which UV doses are affected by using different lamp heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, Stephan D.; Ryel, Ronald J.; Caldwell, Martyn M.

    2004-10-01

    Many experiments examining plant responses to enhanced UV-B radiation simply compare an enhanced UV-B radiation treatment with ambient UV-B (or no UV-B in most greenhouse and controlled environment studies). However, some experiments utilize multiple doses of UV-B radiation. A number of different techniques have been used to adjust the UV dose, each with advantages and disadvantages. One common technique is to place racks of fluorescent UV-B lamps at different heights above the plant canopy. A generally ignored consequence of this technique is that the pattern of shade which plants receive from the lamps is distributed differently over the course of the day at different lamp heights. To determine the effects of using lamps at different heights above the canopy, we grew three species (canola, sunflower, and maize) in the greenhouse under racks of unenergized lamps that were placed at two different heights above the plant canopy. Many plant growth characteristics differed between plants grown under the two lamp heights. These differences can potentially enhance or obscure true UV-B effects. Even more troubling is that changes in leaf mass per foliage area, which were observed in this experiment, could contribute to differences in plant UV-B sensitivity. We recommend the use of other techniques for achieving multiple doses of UV-B radiation. These range from simple and inexpensive approaches (wrapping individual fluorescent tubes in different layers of a neutral density filter such as cheese cloth) to more technical and expensive alternatives (electronically modulated lamp control systems). These choices should be determined by the goals of the particular experiment.

  4. Herpesviral Hematopoietic Necrosis in Goldfish in Switzerland: Early Lesions in Clinically Normal Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Giovannini, S; Bergmann, S M; Keeling, C; Lany, C; Schütze, H; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2016-07-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 is a pathogen of goldfish, inducing a disease referred to as herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis. The disease is described so far in Japan, North America, Taiwan, Australia, the United Kingdom, and recently also Italy. Here the authors describe histologic lesions in clinically affected fish in comparison with clinically normal but virus DNA-positive goldfish in Switzerland. While necrosis or enhanced single-cell necrosis in the hematopoietic tissue in the pronephros or mesonephros was evident in dead and sick animals, in clinically normal goldfish, only single-cell necrosis was observed. Virus DNA was demonstrated in dead as well as clinically affected and subclinically infected goldfish by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. This study identifies the presence of goldfish herpesvirus in Switzerland and highlights the fact that the virus might be more widespread than assumed, as clinically normal goldfish can also carry cyprinid herpesvirus 2, showing histologically similar lesions but of lesser extent and severity. PMID:26553521

  5. Molecular mechanisms of regulated necrosis.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Krautwald, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Linkermann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    It is now clear that apoptosis does not constitute the sole genetically encoded form of cell death. Rather, cells can spontaneously undertake or exogenously be driven into a cell death subroutine that manifests with necrotic features, yet can be inhibited by pharmacological and genetic interventions. As regulated necrosis (RN) plays a major role in both physiological scenarios (e.g., embryonic development) and pathological settings (e.g., ischemic disorders), consistent efforts have been made throughout the last decade toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms that underlie this cell death modality. Contrarily to initial beliefs, RN does not invariably result from the activation of a receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-dependent signaling pathway, but may be ignited by distinct molecular networks. Nowadays, various types of RN have been characterized, including (but not limited to) necroptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent RN and parthanatos. Of note, the inhibition of only one of these modules generally exerts limited cytoprotective effects in vivo, underscoring the degree of interconnectivity that characterizes RN. Here, we review the signaling pathways, pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic implications of the major molecular cascades that underlie RN. PMID:24582829

  6. Gender differences in introductory university physics performance: The influence of high school physics preparation and affect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra Sana

    The attrition of females studying physics after high school is a concern to the science education community. Most undergraduate science programs require introductory physics coursework. Thus, success in introductory physics is necessary for students to progress to higher levels of science study. Success also influences attitudes; if females are well-prepared, feel confident, and do well in introductory physics, they may be inclined to study physics further. This quantitative study using multilevel modeling focused on determining factors from high school physics preparation (content, pedagogy, and assessment) and the affective domain that influenced female and male performance in introductory university physics. The study controlled for some university/course level characteristics as well as student demographic and academic background characteristics. The data consisted of 1973 surveys from 54 introductory physics courses within 35 universities across the US. The results highlight high school physics and affective experiences that differentially influenced female and male performance. These experiences include: learning requirements, computer graphing/analysis, long written problems, everyday world examples, community projects, cumulative tests/quizzes, father's encouragement, family's belief that science leads to a better career, and the length of time students believed that high school physics would help in university physics. There were also experiences that had a similar influence on female and male performance. Positively related to performance were: covering fewer topics for longer periods of time, the history of physics as a recurring topic, physics-related videos, and test/quiz questions that involved calculations and/or were drawn from standardized tests. Negatively related to performance were: student-designed projects, reading/discussing labs the day before performing them, microcomputer based laboratories, discussion after demonstrations, and family

  7. Affective empathy differs in male violent offenders with high- and low-trait psychopathy.

    PubMed

    Pfabigan, Daniela M; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Wucherer, Anna M; Keckeis, Katinka; Derntl, Birgit; Lamm, Claus

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated affective and cognitive empathic processes in incarcerated violent offenders with lower and higher psychopathic traits and healthy controls. Participants witnessed painful expressions of others displayed on video clips. Skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded to assess autonomic emotional arousal, and various empathy ratings were used as measures of self-reported vicarious responses. Reduced SCRs occurred during the observation of pain in others in lower and higher psychopathic-trait participants alike, compared to controls. Despite these diminished autonomic responses indicating reduced vicarious responses, only inmates with higher psychopathic traits provided empathy ratings comparable to those of the controls. These findings indicate that violent offenders display reduced autonomic arousal in response to distress cues of others, irrespective of psychopathy. However, only higher psychopathic-trait offenders were able to provide self-report in a way that let them appear to be as empathic as controls-enabling them to know, yet not to feel, what others feel. PMID:24932875

  8. Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: the significance of differing plasma catecholamine concentrations in affected and unaffected limbs.

    PubMed

    Drummond, P D; Finch, P M; Smythe, G A

    1991-10-01

    In 26 patients with features of reflex sympathetic dystrophy, venous blood was collected from painful and unaffected limbs. Levels of plasma adrenaline, noradrenaline and its intracellular metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethyleneglycol (DHPG), were measured by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Plasma DHPG was lower on the painful side. Concentration of plasma noradrenaline was also lower on the painful side in patients with widespread allodynia, and in those with hyperhidrosis in the affected hand or foot. These findings do not support the widely held view that autonomic disturbances in reflex sympathetic dystrophy are due to sympathetic overactivity. Rather, they suggest that sweating and changes in peripheral blood flow result from supersensitivity to sympathetic neurotransmitters. After injury, supersensitivity to noradrenaline may also contribute to spontaneous pain and allodynia by disrupting efferent sympathetic modulation of sensation. This would explain why pain and allodynia are relieved by sympathetic blockade, and why noradrenaline rekindles pain in sympathectomized skin. PMID:1933231

  9. How children with facial differences are perceived by non-affected children and adolescents: perceiver effects on stereotypical attitudes.

    PubMed

    Masnari, Ornella; Schiestl, Clemens; Weibel, Lisa; Wuttke, Franziska; Landolt, Markus A

    2013-09-01

    Children with a facial difference are presumed to be at risk of social stigmatization. The purposes of this study were twofold: (1) to assess the effect of facial differences on social perceptions by unaffected children and adolescents; and (2) to identify perceiver characteristics that predict stereotypical attitudes toward facial differences. Participants were 344 non-affected children and adolescents, ages 8-17 years. Participants rated digitally altered images of 12 children depicted either with or without a facial difference. Results show that participants attributed less favorable characteristics to children with a facial difference than to those without. Moreover, participants reported less willingness to interact with or befriend a child with a facial difference. Significant predictors of low discriminative attitudes were older participant age and previous contact with someone with a facial difference. Our data call attention to the need for public education programs targeted at reducing negative attitudes toward facial differences.

  10. Bacterial communities in Malagasy soils with differing levels of disturbance affecting botanical diversity.

    PubMed

    Blasiak, Leah C; Schmidt, Alex W; Andriamiarinoro, Honoré; Mulaw, Temesgen; Rasolomampianina, Rado; Applequist, Wendy L; Birkinshaw, Chris; Rejo-Fienena, Félicitée; Lowry, Porter P; Schmidt, Thomas M; Hill, Russell T

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is well-known for the exceptional biodiversity of its macro-flora and fauna, but the biodiversity of Malagasy microbial communities remains relatively unexplored. Understanding patterns of bacterial diversity in soil and their correlations with above-ground botanical diversity could influence conservation planning as well as sampling strategies to maximize access to bacterially derived natural products. We present the first detailed description of Malagasy soil bacterial communities from a targeted 16S rRNA gene survey of greater than 290,000 sequences generated using 454 pyrosequencing. Two sampling plots in each of three forest conservation areas were established to represent different levels of disturbance resulting from human impact through agriculture and selective exploitation of trees, as well as from natural impacts of cyclones. In parallel, we performed an in-depth characterization of the total vascular plant morphospecies richness within each plot. The plots representing different levels of disturbance within each forest did not differ significantly in bacterial diversity or richness. Changes in bacterial community composition were largest between forests rather than between different levels of impact within a forest. The largest difference in bacterial community composition with disturbance was observed at the Vohibe forest conservation area, and this difference was correlated with changes in both vascular plant richness and soil pH. These results provide the first survey of Malagasy soil bacterial diversity and establish a baseline of botanical diversity within important conservation areas. PMID:24465484

  11. Bacterial communities in Malagasy soils with differing levels of disturbance affecting botanical diversity.

    PubMed

    Blasiak, Leah C; Schmidt, Alex W; Andriamiarinoro, Honoré; Mulaw, Temesgen; Rasolomampianina, Rado; Applequist, Wendy L; Birkinshaw, Chris; Rejo-Fienena, Félicitée; Lowry, Porter P; Schmidt, Thomas M; Hill, Russell T

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is well-known for the exceptional biodiversity of its macro-flora and fauna, but the biodiversity of Malagasy microbial communities remains relatively unexplored. Understanding patterns of bacterial diversity in soil and their correlations with above-ground botanical diversity could influence conservation planning as well as sampling strategies to maximize access to bacterially derived natural products. We present the first detailed description of Malagasy soil bacterial communities from a targeted 16S rRNA gene survey of greater than 290,000 sequences generated using 454 pyrosequencing. Two sampling plots in each of three forest conservation areas were established to represent different levels of disturbance resulting from human impact through agriculture and selective exploitation of trees, as well as from natural impacts of cyclones. In parallel, we performed an in-depth characterization of the total vascular plant morphospecies richness within each plot. The plots representing different levels of disturbance within each forest did not differ significantly in bacterial diversity or richness. Changes in bacterial community composition were largest between forests rather than between different levels of impact within a forest. The largest difference in bacterial community composition with disturbance was observed at the Vohibe forest conservation area, and this difference was correlated with changes in both vascular plant richness and soil pH. These results provide the first survey of Malagasy soil bacterial diversity and establish a baseline of botanical diversity within important conservation areas.

  12. Bacterial Communities in Malagasy Soils with Differing Levels of Disturbance Affecting Botanical Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Blasiak, Leah C.; Schmidt, Alex W.; Andriamiarinoro, Honoré; Mulaw, Temesgen; Rasolomampianina, Rado; Applequist, Wendy L.; Birkinshaw, Chris; Rejo-Fienena, Félicitée; Lowry, Porter P.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Hill, Russell T.

    2014-01-01

    Madagascar is well-known for the exceptional biodiversity of its macro-flora and fauna, but the biodiversity of Malagasy microbial communities remains relatively unexplored. Understanding patterns of bacterial diversity in soil and their correlations with above-ground botanical diversity could influence conservation planning as well as sampling strategies to maximize access to bacterially derived natural products. We present the first detailed description of Malagasy soil bacterial communities from a targeted 16S rRNA gene survey of greater than 290,000 sequences generated using 454 pyrosequencing. Two sampling plots in each of three forest conservation areas were established to represent different levels of disturbance resulting from human impact through agriculture and selective exploitation of trees, as well as from natural impacts of cyclones. In parallel, we performed an in-depth characterization of the total vascular plant morphospecies richness within each plot. The plots representing different levels of disturbance within each forest did not differ significantly in bacterial diversity or richness. Changes in bacterial community composition were largest between forests rather than between different levels of impact within a forest. The largest difference in bacterial community composition with disturbance was observed at the Vohibe forest conservation area, and this difference was correlated with changes in both vascular plant richness and soil pH. These results provide the first survey of Malagasy soil bacterial diversity and establish a baseline of botanical diversity within important conservation areas. PMID:24465484

  13. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites.

    PubMed

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian; Chau, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human-machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human-machine interface applications.

  14. The Effects of Spiritual/Religious Engagement on College Students' Affective Outcomes: Differences by Gender and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennick, Liz A.; Smedley, Cynthia Toms; Fisher, Dan; Wallace, Elizabeth; Young, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the general and differential effects of spiritual/religious engagement on affective college outcomes (i.e., leadership skills, interpersonal skills, social satisfaction, sense of belonging, and psychological well-being) across different gender and racial groups among undergraduate students at research universities. The study…

  15. Comparison of blood volume pulse and skin conductance responses to mental and affective stimuli at different anatomical sites

    PubMed Central

    Kushki, Azadeh; Fairley, Jillian; Merja, Satyam; King, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of blood volume pulse (BVP) and skin conductance are commonly used as indications of psychological arousal in affective computing and human–machine interfaces. To date, palmar surfaces remain the primary site for these measurements. Placement of sensors on palmar surfaces, however, is undesirable when recordings are fraught with motion and pressure artifacts. These artifacts are frequent when the human participant has involuntary movements as in hyperkinetic cerebral palsy. This motivates the use of alternative measurement sites. The present study examined the correlation between measurements of blood volume pulse and skin conductance obtained from three different sites on the body (fingers, toes and ear for BVP; fingers, toes and arch of the foot for skin conductance) in response to cognitive and affective stimuli. The results of this pilot study indicated significant inter-site correlation among signal features derived from different sites, with the exception of BVP amplitude, the number of electrodermal reactions and the slope of the electrodermal activity response. We attribute these differences in part to inter-site discrepancies in local skin conditions, such as skin temperature. Despite these differences, significant changes from baseline were present in the responses to the cognitive and affective stimuli at non-palmar sites, suggesting that these sites may provide viable signal measurements for use in affective computing and human–machine interface applications. PMID:21849720

  16. Differences in Affect, Life Satisfaction, and Depression between Successfully and Unsuccessfully Rehabilitated Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapin, Martha H.; Holbert, Donald

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed whether persons with spinal cord injuries who were successfully rehabilitated differed from those who were not with regard to positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and depression. An ex post facto research design compared persons with spinal cord injuries who were previously employed with persons with spinal cord…

  17. Association of varicella zoster dermatitis with acute retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Browning, D J; Blumenkranz, M S; Culbertson, W W; Clarkson, J D; Tardif, Y; Gourdeau, A; Minturn, J

    1987-06-01

    The authors report seven patients in whom the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome developed shortly after cutaneous varicella zoster infection. The length of time between the skin infection and ARN varied from 5 days to 3 months. Both eyes were affected in one of seven cases. The ophthalmic branch of cranial nerve V ipsilateral to an affected eye was involved by the zoster dermatitis in only two of the seven cases. The association lends further support to the proposal that herpes zoster virus is a major cause of ARN. A history of recent zoster dermatitis should be sought in patients with ARN.

  18. Genetics of a Pheromonal Difference Affecting Sexual Isolation between Drosophila Mauritiana and D. Sechellia

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, J. A.; Charlesworth, B.

    1997-01-01

    Females of the sibling species Drosophila sechellia and D. mauritiana differ in their cuticular hydrocarbons: the predominant compound in D. sechellia is 7,11-heptacosadiene (7,11-HD), while that in D. mauritiana is 7-tricosene (7-T). We investigate the genetic basis of this difference and its involvement in reproductive isolation between the species. Behavioral studies involving hydrocarbon transfer suggest that these compounds play a large role in the sexual isolation between D. mauritiana males and D. sechellia females, while sexual isolation in the reciprocal hybridization results more from differences in female behavior than hydrocarbons. This interspecific difference in hydrocarbon profile is due to evolutionary change at a minimum of six loci, all on the third chromosome. The localization of evolutionary change to the third chromosome has been seen in every other genetic analysis of female hydrocarbon differences in the D. melanogaster group. We suggest that the high 7,11-HD phenotype seen in two species evolved twice independently from ancestors having the high 7-T phenotype, and that the recurrent third-chromosome effects are evolutionary convergences that may be due to a concentration of ``hydrocarbon genes'' on that chromosome. PMID:9093854

  19. Enrichment and individual differences affect welfare indicators in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Izzo, Genevieve N; Bashaw, Meredith J; Campbell, John B

    2011-08-01

    Enrichment aims to improve captive animals' welfare by enhancing their environments. Two of the struggles associated with measuring welfare are identifying when animals' needs are being met or surpassed and identifying how individual differences play a role in these outcomes. Using a group of related Guyanese squirrel monkeys, we studied changes in five welfare indicators under different environmental conditions. Manipulating food presentation, walkways, and toys, we created five enrichment levels ranging from just above USDA standards to considerably more complex than the animals' normal housing. At the end of each level, a novelty test was performed in which an unfamiliar woman entered the enclosure and offered food. Changes in behavior as a function of enrichment condition were analyzed using a repeated-measures MANOVA. Compared to baseline, less enrichment consistently increased negative welfare indicators (abnormal behavior, aggression, and negative responses to the novelty test), while more enrichment sometimes decreased these indicators. Positive welfare indicators were less consistently related to enrichment, but positive response to the novelty test did increase somewhat in the most enriched condition. Across conditions, rank correlations revealed that individuals had highly consistent individual differences in positive responses to novelty and somewhat consistent individual differences in rates of aggression. The goal of the enrichment and the species, sex, and individual animals to be enriched should be considered when selecting a welfare indicator, and facilities measuring animal welfare should study changes in the behavior of specific individuals to control for individual differences.

  20. Operant (biofeedback) control of left-right frontal alpha power differences: potential neurotherapy for affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, J P; Cha, G; Blair, T; Gotlib, I H

    1995-09-01

    Two experiments were done with subjects from a paid pool of undergraduates. In each study, there were five 1-hour sessions on each of 5 days: (1) Baseline: Rewards given for randomly selected 20% of the 700-ms sequential epochs; mean and SD of baseline power differences determined. 2) Exploration: Subjects were rewarded when right minus left alpha differences in an epoch were greater than the baseline mean plus about .85 SD (p = .20); subjects told to discover how to generate rewards. (3)-(5). Training: Subjects were paid (over and above the $8/h flat rate) in proportion to their hit rates. In the first study (in which active filters passed 8-12 Hz activity, and the rectified, integrated amplitude was utilized), 6 of 8 subjects met learning criteria (a significant difference between baseline and training scores). In the second study (in which on-line FFTs were used to extract alpha power), 3 of 5 subjects met learning criteria.

  1. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers.

  2. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers. PMID:26513334

  3. Sucrose Sensitivity of Honey Bees Is Differently Affected by Dietary Protein and a Neonicotinoid Pesticide.

    PubMed

    Démares, Fabien J; Crous, Kendall L; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W; Human, Hannelie

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed. PMID:27272274

  4. Sucrose Sensitivity of Honey Bees Is Differently Affected by Dietary Protein and a Neonicotinoid Pesticide.

    PubMed

    Démares, Fabien J; Crous, Kendall L; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W; Human, Hannelie

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed.

  5. Sucrose Sensitivity of Honey Bees Is Differently Affected by Dietary Protein and a Neonicotinoid Pesticide

    PubMed Central

    Démares, Fabien J.; Crous, Kendall L.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Nicolson, Susan W.; Human, Hannelie

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade, declines in honey bee colonies have raised worldwide concerns. Several potentially contributing factors have been investigated, e.g. parasites, diseases, and pesticides. Neonicotinoid pesticides have received much attention due to their intensive use in crop protection, and their adverse effects on many levels of honey bee physiology led the European Union to ban these compounds. Due to their neuronal target, a receptor expressed throughout the insect nervous system, studies have focused mainly on neuroscience and behaviour. Through the Geometric Framework of nutrition, we investigated effects of the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam on survival, food consumption and sucrose sensitivity of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Thiamethoxam did not affect protein and carbohydrate intake, but decreased responses to high concentrations of sucrose. Interestingly, when bees ate fixed unbalanced diets, dietary protein facilitated better sucrose detection. Both thiamethoxam and dietary protein influenced survival. These findings suggest that, in the presence of a pesticide and unbalanced food, honey bee health may be severely challenged. Consequences for foraging efficiency and colony activity, cornerstones of honey bee health, are also discussed. PMID:27272274

  6. Differences in Affective and Behavioral Health-Related Variables Associated with Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausell, R. Barker; Soeken, Karen L.

    Although considerable data exist linking individual lifestyle variables to health outcomes, little is known about how the elderly differ from younger adults with respect to both their health seeking behavior and their beliefs about health. A national survey contrasted 155 persons aged 65 years of age or older with 1100 younger adults in order to…

  7. How Factors of Personal Attitudes and Learning Environments Affect Gender Difference toward Mobile Distance Learning Acceptance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Hsiu-Me

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technology for learning empowers the shift from traditionally pure instructor-centered classroom teaching to fully learner-centered educational settings. Although mobile learning (m-learning) accessing Internet resources anytime and anywhere and it may cause gender difference toward it; thus the issue of the relationship between gender…

  8. Individual differences in social anxiety affect the salience of errors in social contexts.

    PubMed

    Barker, Tyson V; Troller-Renfree, Sonya; Pine, Daniel S; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-12-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) is an event-related potential that occurs approximately 50 ms after an erroneous response. The magnitude of the ERN is influenced by contextual factors, such as when errors are made during social evaluation. The ERN is also influenced by individual differences in anxiety, and it is elevated among anxious individuals. However, little research has examined how individual differences in anxiety interact with contextual factors to impact the ERN. Social anxiety involves fear and apprehension of social evaluation. In the present study, we explored how individual differences in social anxiety interact with social contexts to modulate the ERN. The ERN was measured in 43 young adults characterized as being either high or low in social anxiety, while they completed a flanker task in two contexts: alone and during social evaluation. The results revealed a significant interaction between social anxiety and context, such that the ERN was enhanced in a social relative to a nonsocial context only among highly socially anxious individuals. Furthermore, the degree of such enhancement significantly correlated with individual differences in social anxiety. These findings demonstrate that social anxiety is characterized by enhanced neural activity to errors in social-evaluative contexts.

  9. Regional Differences in the Listener's Phonemic Inventory Affect Semantic Processing: A Mismatch Negativity (MMN) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunelliere, Angele; Dufour, Sophie; Nguyen, Noel

    2011-01-01

    Using the mismatch negativity (MMN) response, we examined how Standard French and Southern French speakers access the meaning of words ending in /e/ or /[epsilon]/ vowels which are contrastive in Standard French but not in Southern French. In Standard French speakers, there was a significant difference in the amplitude of the brain response after…

  10. Age Differences in Affective Decision Making as Indexed by Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauffman, Elizabeth; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence; Claus, Eric; Banich, Marie T.; Graham, Sandra; Woolard, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary perspectives on age differences in risk taking, informed by advances in developmental neuroscience, have emphasized the need to examine the ways in which emotional and cognitive factors interact to influence decision making. In the present study, a diverse sample of 901 individuals between the ages of 10 and 30 were administered a…

  11. Factors Affecting School Participation in Turkey: An Analysis of Regional Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat; Chudgar, Amita

    2016-01-01

    There are thousands of children who remain out of school at both primary and secondary levels in Turkey. The current disparities in access to education in Turkey are mostly driven by systematic regional differences and high gender inequalities. Although several existing studies have paid close attention to gender-based inequities in school access,…

  12. Transpapillary drainage of pancreatic parenchymal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Smoczyński, Marian; Adrych, Krystian

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades the strategy of treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed. Endoscopic therapy of patients with symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis has a high rate of efficiency. Here we present a description of a patient with parenchymal limited necrosis of the pancreas and a disruption of the main pancreatic duct. In the treatment, active transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic necrosis (through the major duodenal papilla) was performed and insertion of an endoprosthesis into the main pancreatic duct (through the minor duodenal papilla) was applied, which enabled a bypass over the infiltration and resulted in complete resolution. PMID:26649102

  13. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  14. Role of the Mitochondrion in Programmed Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the “programmed” nature of apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death has always been believed to be a random, uncontrolled process that leads to the “accidental” death of the cell. This dogma, however, is being challenged and the concept of necrosis also being “programmed” is gaining ground. In particular, mitochondria appear to play a pivotal role in the mediation of programmed necrosis. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to appraise the current concepts regarding the signaling mechanisms of programmed necrosis, with specific attention to the contribution of mitochondria to this process. PMID:21423395

  15. Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ian P.; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  16. Bile Acid-Induced Necrosis in Primary Human Hepatocytes and in Patients with Obstructive Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Woolbright, Benjamin L.; Dorko, Kenneth; Antoine, Daniel J.; Clarke, Joanna I.; Gholami, Parviz; Li, Feng; Kumer, Sean C.; Schmitt, Timothy M.; Forster, Jameson; Fan, Fang; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Park, B. Kevin; Hagenbuch, Bruno; Olyaee, Mojtaba; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of bile acids is a major mediator of cholestatic liver injury. Recent studies indicate bile acid composition between humans and rodents is dramatically different, as humans have a higher percent of glycine conjugated bile acids and increased chenodeoxycholate content, which increases the hydrophobicity index of bile acids. This increase may lead to direct toxicity that kills hepatocytes, and promotes inflammation. To address this issue, this study assessed how pathophysiological concentrations of bile acids measured in cholestatic patients affected primary human hepatocytes. Individual bile acid levels were determined in serum and bile by UPLC/QTOFMS in patients with extrahepatic cholestasis with, or without, concurrent increases in serum transaminases. Bile acid levels increased in serum of patients with liver injury, while biliary levels decreased, implicating infarction of the biliary tracts. To assess bile acid-induced toxicity in man, primary human hepatocytes were treated with relevant concentrations, derived from patient data, of the model bile acid glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC). Treatment with GCDC resulted in necrosis with no increase in apoptotic parameters. This was recapitulated by treatment with biliary bile acid concentrations, but not serum concentrations. Marked elevations in serum full-length cytokeratin-18, high mobility group box1 protein (HMGB1), and acetylated HMGB1 confirmed inflammatory necrosis in injured patients; only modest elevations in caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18 were observed. These data suggest human hepatocytes are more resistant to human-relevant bile acids than rodent hepatocytes, and die through necrosis when exposed to bile acids. These mechanisms of cholestasis in humans are fundamentally different to mechanisms observed in rodent models. PMID:25636263

  17. Emotion regulation of the affect-modulated startle reflex during different picture categories.

    PubMed

    Conzelmann, Annette; McGregor, Victoria; Pauli, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies on emotion regulation of the startle reflex found an increase in startle amplitude from down-, to non-, to up-regulation for pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. We wanted to clarify whether this regulation effect remains stable for different picture categories within pleasant and unpleasant picture sets. We assessed startle amplitude of 31 participants during down-, non-, or up-regulation of feelings elicited by pleasant erotic and adventure and unpleasant victim and threat pictures. Startle amplitude was smaller during adventure and erotic compared to victim and threat pictures and increased from down-, to non-, to up-regulation independently of the picture category. Results indicate that the motivational priming effect on startle modulation elicited by different picture categories is independent of emotion regulation instructions. In addition, the emotion regulation effect is independent of motivational priming effects. PMID:26061976

  18. Nitrous Oxide From Fertilized Cropland in the New York State as Affected by Different Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodovskaya, M.; Singurindy, O.; Richards, B. K.; Warland, J.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2008-12-01

    The detrimental loss of N from N fertilizers is a serious environmental problem of modern agriculture. Amongst the threats that elevated N use poses to the environment, the increase in net N2O production is of special concern, due to its persistent atmospheric effect as a greenhouse gas and as a contributor to ozone destruction. Long-term monitoring of N2O flux was conducted on a mid-size dairy farm in central New York to determine N2O emission levels from agricultural practices that are common for the region. The technique used was Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectrometer (TDLAS) coupled with 3D sonic anemometer; continuous eddy flux observations were conducted throughout three years on an alfalfa field in 2006, corn field in 2007, and on a split alfalfa/corn site in 2008 (ongoing). All fields were fertilized after/before growing seasons with dairy manure only. The results showed highly variable, instantaneous nature of N2O flux, with peak values reached after strong and sharp increases in both soil moisture and temperature. Manure spreading affected N2O fluxes only when factors of temperature and moisture were not limiting: at temperatures below 5°C, manure spreading had no pronounced effect on the N2O release. Average flux values were higher for corn (0.059μg m-2 s-1) then for alfalfa (0.045μg m-2 s-1), which was possibly related to manure application during spring thaw and its further incorporation with the plowing on the corn field. The greatest flux value for 2006-2007 of 0.76μg m-2 s-1 was also observed for the corn field during a spring thawing event.

  19. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Jessica; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Marée, Raphael; Dardenne, Nadia; Jeanray, Nathalie; Wehenkel, Louis; Aleström, Peter; van Loon, Jack J W A; Muller, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf) of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity.

  20. Zebrafish Bone and General Physiology Are Differently Affected by Hormones or Changes in Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Aceto, Jessica; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Marée, Raphael; Dardenne, Nadia; Jeanray, Nathalie; Wehenkel, Louis; Aleström, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Teleost fish such as zebrafish (Danio rerio) are increasingly used for physiological, genetic and developmental studies. Our understanding of the physiological consequences of altered gravity in an entire organism is still incomplete. We used altered gravity and drug treatment experiments to evaluate their effects specifically on bone formation and more generally on whole genome gene expression. By combining morphometric tools with an objective scoring system for the state of development for each element in the head skeleton and specific gene expression analysis, we confirmed and characterized in detail the decrease or increase of bone formation caused by a 5 day treatment (from 5dpf to 10 dpf) of, respectively parathyroid hormone (PTH) or vitamin D3 (VitD3). Microarray transcriptome analysis after 24 hours treatment reveals a general effect on physiology upon VitD3 treatment, while PTH causes more specifically developmental effects. Hypergravity (3g from 5dpf to 9 dpf) exposure results in a significantly larger head and a significant increase in bone formation for a subset of the cranial bones. Gene expression analysis after 24 hrs at 3g revealed differential expression of genes involved in the development and function of the skeletal, muscular, nervous, endocrine and cardiovascular systems. Finally, we propose a novel type of experimental approach, the "Reduced Gravity Paradigm", by keeping the developing larvae at 3g hypergravity for the first 5 days before returning them to 1g for one additional day. 5 days exposure to 3g during these early stages also caused increased bone formation, while gene expression analysis revealed a central network of regulatory genes (hes5, sox10, lgals3bp, egr1, edn1, fos, fosb, klf2, gadd45ba and socs3a) whose expression was consistently affected by the transition from hyper- to normal gravity. PMID:26061167

  1. Chemistry of conjugation to gold nanoparticles affects G-protein activity differently

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gold nanoparticles (AuNP) are extensively used as biophysical tools in the area of medicine and technology due to their distinct properties. However, vivid understanding of the consequences of biomolecule-nanomaterial interactions is still lacking. In this context, we explore the affect of conjugation of Gαi1 subunit (of heterotrimeric G-proteins) to AuNP and examine its consequences. We consider two bio-conjugation strategies covalent and non-covalent binding. Results Affinity of the AuNP to the Gαi1 is 7.58 × 10 12 M-1. AuNP conjugated Gαi1 exhibits altered kinetics of activation, non-covalent bio-conjugates displays retarded kinetics, up to 0.88 fold when GTPγS was used as ligand, of protein activation contrary to covalent conjugates which accelerates it to ~ 5 fold. Conjugation influence intrinsic Gαi1 GTPase function in conflicting modes. Non-covalent conjugation inhibits GTPase function (decrease in activity upto 0.8 fold) whilst covalent conjugation drastically accelerates it (12 fold increase in activity). Altered basal nucleotide uptake in both types of conjugates and GTPase function in non-covalent conjugate are almost comparable except for GTPase property of covalent conjugate. The effect is despite the fact that conjugation does not change global conformation of the protein. Conclusion These findings provide clear evidence that nanoparticles, in addition to ‘passive interaction’ with protein (biomolecule), can interact “actively” with biomolecule and modify its function. This concept should be considered while engineering nanoparticle based delivery systems in medicine. PMID:23510390

  2. Testing Different Versions of the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales in a Clinical Sample

    PubMed Central

    Geir, Pedersen; Selsbakk, Johansen Merete; Theresa, Wilberg; Sigmund, Karterud

    2014-01-01

    Background As a tool to investigate the experiences of six primary emotions, Davis, Panksepp, and Normansell [1] developed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). However, the psychometric properties of the ANPS have been questioned, and in particular the factor structure. This study replicates earlier psychometric studies on ANPS in a sample of (546) personality disordered patients, and also includes ANPS-S, a recent short version of ANPS by Pingault and colleagues [2], and a truncated version of BANPS by Barrett and colleagues [3]. Methodology/Principal Findings The study of the full ANPS revealed acceptable internal consistencies of the primary emotion subscales, ranging from 0.74–0.87. However, factor analyses revealed poor to mediocre fit for a six factor solution. Correlational analyses, in addition, revealed too high correlations between PLAY and SEEK, and between SADNESS and FEAR. The two short versions displayed better psychometric properties. The range of internal consistency was 0.61–0.80 for the BANPS scales and 0.65–84 for the ANPS-S. Backward Cronbach Alpha Curves indicated potentials for improvement on all three versions of the questionnaire. Items retained in the short versions did not systematically cover the full theoretical content of the long scales, in particular for CARE and SADNESS in the BANPS. The major problems seem to reside in the operationalization of the CARE and SADNESS subscales of ANPS. Conclusions/Significance Further work needs to be done in order to realize a psychometrically sound instrument for the assessment of primary emotional experiences. PMID:25289939

  3. Prenatal caffeine intake differently affects synaptic proteins during fetal brain development.

    PubMed

    Mioranzza, Sabrina; Nunes, Fernanda; Marques, Daniela M; Fioreze, Gabriela T; Rocha, Andréia S; Botton, Paulo Henrique S; Costa, Marcelo S; Porciúncula, Lisiane O

    2014-08-01

    Caffeine is the psychostimulant most consumed worldwide. However, little is known about its effects during fetal brain development. In this study, adult female Wistar rats received caffeine in drinking water (0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 g/L) during the active cycle in weekdays, two weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy. Cerebral cortex and hippocampus from embryonic stages 18 or 20 (E18 or E20, respectively) were collected for immunodetection of the following synaptic proteins: brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB receptor, Sonic Hedgehog (Shh), Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43) and Synaptosomal-associated Protein 25 (SNAP-25). Besides, the estimation of NeuN-stained nuclei (mature neurons) and non-neuronal nuclei was verified in both brain regions and embryonic periods. Caffeine (1.0 g/L) decreased the body weight of embryos at E20. Cortical BDNF at E18 was decreased by caffeine (1.0 g/L), while it increased at E20, with no major effects on TrkB receptors. In the hippocampus, caffeine decreased TrkB receptor only at E18, with no effects on BDNF. Moderate and high doses of caffeine promoted an increase in Shh in both brain regions at E18, and in the hippocampus at E20. Caffeine (0.3g/L) decreased GAP-43 only in the hippocampus at E18. The NeuN-stained nuclei increased in the cortex at E20 by lower dose and in the hippocampus at E18 by moderate dose. Our data revealed that caffeine transitorily affect synaptic proteins during fetal brain development. The increased number of NeuN-stained nuclei by prenatal caffeine suggests a possible acceleration of the telencephalon maturation. Although some modifications in the synaptic proteins were transient, our data suggest that caffeine even in lower doses may alter the fetal brain development. PMID:24862851

  4. Water management affects arsenic and cadmium accumulation in different rice cultivars.

    PubMed

    Hu, Pengjie; Huang, Jiexue; Ouyang, Younan; Wu, Longhua; Song, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Li, Zhu; Han, Cunliang; Zhou, Liqiang; Huang, Yujuan; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Paddy rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food and one of the major sources of dietary arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in Asia. A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of four water management regimes (aerobic, intermittent irrigation, conventional irrigation and flooding) on As and Cd accumulation in seven major rice cultivars grown in Zhejiang province, east China. With increasing irrigation from aerobic to flooded conditions, the soil HCl-extractable As concentrations increased significantly and the HCl-extractable Cd concentrations decreased significantly. These trends were consistent with the As and Cd concentrations in the straw, husk and brown rice. Water management both before and after the full tillering stage affected As and Cd accumulation in the grains. The intermittent and conventional treatments produced higher grain yields than the aerobic and flooded treatments. Cd concentrations in brown rice varied 13.1-40.8 times and As varied 1.75-8.80 times among the four water management regimes. Cd and As accumulation in brown rice varied among the rice cultivars, with Guodao 6 (GD6) was a low Cd but high-As-accumulating cultivar while Indonesia (IR) and Yongyou 9 (YY9) were low As but high-Cd-accumulating cultivars. Brown rice Cd and As concentrations in the 7 cultivars were significantly negatively correlated. The results indicate that As and Cd accumulated in rice grains with opposite trends that were influenced by both water management and rice cultivar. Production of 'safe' rice with respect to As and Cd might be possible by balancing water management and rice cultivar according to the severity of soil pollution. PMID:23719663

  5. Auxin and LANCEOLATE affect leaf shape in tomato via different developmental processes.

    PubMed

    Ben-Gera, Hadas; Ori, Naomi

    2012-10-01

    Elaboration of a complex leaves depends on the morphogenetic activity of a specific tissue at the leaf margin termed marginal-blastozon (MB). In tomato (Solanum lycopersicym), prolonged activity of the MB leads to the development of compound leaves. The activity of the MB is restricted by the TCP transcription factor LANCEOLATE (LA). Plants harboring the dominant LA mutant allele La-2 have simple leaves with a uniform blade. Conversely, leaves of pFIL > > miR319 are compound and grow indeterminately in their margins due to leaf overexpression of miR319, a negative regulator of LA and additional miR319-sensitive genes. We have recently shown that the auxin-response sensor DR5::VENUS marks and precedes leaflet initiation events in the MB. Mutations in ENTIRE (E), an auxin signal inhibitor from the Aux/IAA family, lead to the expansion of the DR5::VENUS signal to throughout the leaf-primordia margin, and to a simplified leaf phenotype. Here, we examined the interaction between auxin, E, and LA in tomato leaf development. In La-2 leaf primordia, the auxin signal is very weak and is diffused to throughout the leaf margin, suggesting that auxin acts within the developmental-context of MB activity, which is controlled by LA. e La-2 double mutants showed an enhanced simple leaf phenotype and e pFIL > > miR319 leaves initiated less leaflets than wild-type, but their margins showed continuous growth. These results suggest that E and auxin affect leaflet initiation within the context of the extended MB activity, but their influence on the extent of indeterminate growth of the leaf is minor.

  6. Racial Differences Affecting Night Time Blood Pressure Dipping Groups in Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wong, LH; Elaine, Huang; Kong, RT

    2016-01-01

    Background Normal blood pressure (BP) follows a circadian rhythm, with dipping of BP at night. However, little has been done to show how the dipping groups vary amongst the White and Asian population at different periods of the year. This study aims to examine the pattern of nocturnal dipping between the White and Asian population, as well as to compare it to the different timings of the year, between summer and winter. Methods Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor recordings were obtained from 220 patients, half were White patients obtained from Mercy University Hospital, Cork, Ireland and half were Asian patients from National Heart Centre, Singapore during the summer period from May to June and the winter period from October to December. Results Both the Irish and Singaporeans exhibit a decrease in total number of reverse dipper from summer to winter. However, the redistribution of reverse dipper was mainly to the dippers in Singapore, while in Ireland it was to both the extreme dipper and dipper. Irish seasonal changes also resulted in an increase in nocturnal diastolic pressure (95% CI, 0.72 to 6.03, 3.37 mm Hg; p<0.05) and a change in the duration of dipping at night (95% CI, 0.045 to 1.01, 0.53 Hours; p<0.05). Conclusion Regardless of race or temperature, reverse dippers seem to decrease in winter. However, the racial differences dictate the redistribution of the fall in number of dippers. This has implications on how reverse dippers should be treated at different periods of the year. PMID:26989605

  7. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate.

  8. How Different Genetically Manipulated Brassica Genotypes Affect Life Table Parameters of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Nikooei, Mehrnoosh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Jalali Javaran, Mokhtar; Soufbaf, Mahmoud

    2015-04-01

    The fitness of Plutella xylostella L. on different genetically manipulated Brassica plants, including canola's progenitor (Brassica rapa L.), two cultivated canola cultivars (Opera and RGS003), one hybrid (Hyula401), one gamma-ray mutant-RGS003, and one transgenic (PF) genotype was compared using two-sex and female-based life table parameters. All experiments were conducted in a growth chamber at 25±1°C, 65±5% relative humidity, and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. There were significant differences in duration of different life stages of P. xylostella on different plant genotypes. The shortest (13.92 d) and longest (24.61 d) total developmental time were on Opera and PF, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase of P. xylostella ranged between 0.236 (Opera) and 0.071 day(-1) (PF). The highest (60.79 offspring) and lowest (7.88 offspring) net reproductive rates were observed on Opera and PF, respectively. Comparison of intrinsic rate of increase, net reproductive rates, finite rate of increase, mean generation time, fecundity, and survivorship of P. xylostella on the plant genotypes suggested that this pest performed well on cultivars (RGS003 and Opera) and performed poorly on the other manipulated genotypes especially on mutant-RGS003 and PF. Glucosinolate levels were significantly higher in damaged plants than undamaged ones and the lowest and highest concentrations of glucosinolates were found in transgenic genotype and canola's progenitor, respectively. Interestingly, our results showed that performance and fitness of this pest was better on canola's progenitor and cultivated plants, which had high levels of glucosinolate. PMID:26470162

  9. Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure. PMID:27510378

  10. Affecting Factors of Secondhand Smoke Exposure in Korea: Focused on Different Exposure Locations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li Yuan; Cheong, Hae Kwan; Lee, Eun Whan; Kang, Kyeong Jin; Park, Jae Hyun

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) not only can cause serious illness, but is also an economic and social burden. Contextual and individual factors of non-smoker exposure to SHS depend on location. However, studies focusing on this subject are lacking. In this study, we described and compared the factors related to SHS exposure according to location in Korea. Regarding individual factors related to SHS exposure, a common individual variable model and location-specific variable model was used to evaluate SHS exposure at home/work/public locations based on sex. In common individual variables, such as age, and smoking status showed different relationships with SHS exposure in different locations. Among home-related variables, housing type and family with a single father and unmarried children showed the strongest positive relationships with SHS exposure in both males and females. In the workplace, service and sales workers, blue-collar workers, and manual laborers showed the strongest positive association with SHS exposure in males and females. For multilevel analysis in public places, only SHS exposure in females was positively related with cancer screening rate. Exposure to SHS in public places showed a positive relationship with drinking rate and single-parent family in males and females. The problem of SHS embodies social policies and interactions between individuals and social contextual factors. Policy makers should consider the contextual factors of specific locations and regional and individual context, along with differences between males and females, to develop effective strategies for reducing SHS exposure. PMID:27510378

  11. Display symmetry affects positional specificity in same-different judgment of pairs of novel visual patterns.

    PubMed

    Dill, M; Fahle, M

    1999-11-01

    Deciding whether a novel visual pattern is the same as or different from a previously seen reference is easier if both stimuli are presented to the same rather than to different locations in the field of view (Foster & Kahn (1985). Biological Cybernetics, 51, 305-312; Dill & Fahle (1998). Perception and Psychophysics, 60, 65-81). We investigated whether pattern symmetry interacts with the effect of translation. Patterns were small dot-clouds which could be mirror-symmetric or asymmetric. Translations were displacements of the visual pattern symmetrically across the fovea, either left-right or above-below. We found that same-different discriminations were worse (less accurate and slower) for translated patterns, to an extent which in general was not influenced by pattern symmetry, or pattern orientation, or direction of displacement. However, if the displaced pattern was a mirror image of the original one (along the trajectory of the displacement), then performance was largely invariant to translation. Both positional specificity and its reduction in symmetric displays may be explained by location-specific pre-processing of the visual input.

  12. Visual scanning in the recognition of facial affect: is there an observer sex difference?

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Suzane; Cooper, Sian L; Douglas, Jacinta M

    2009-01-01

    This investigation assessed whether differences exist in the way males and females overtly orient their visual attention to salient facial features while viewing static emotional facial expressions. Eye movements were recorded while fifty healthy participants (23 males, 27 females) viewed a series of six universal facial expressions. Groups were compared with respect to accuracy and reaction time in emotional labeling. The number and duration of foveal fixations to four predefined facial areas of interest (AOIs)--each eye, nose, mouth--were also recorded. There were no significant group differences with respect to accuracy (p = 0.997), though females were significantly faster than males in correctly identifying expressions (p = 0.047). Analysis of the visual scan path revealed that while both groups spent more time and looked more frequently at the eye region, males spent significantly more time viewing the nose and mouth. The duration and number of fixations made to the nose were significantly greater in males (p < 0.05). This study is the first to show reaction time differences between the sexes across a range of universal emotions. Further, this is the first work to suggest the orienting of attention to the lower part of the face, especially the nose, appears to differentiate the sexes. PMID:19757950

  13. Gender differences and related factors affecting online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Sue-Huei; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent to which gender and other factors predict the severity of online gaming addiction among Taiwanese adolescents. A total of 395 junior high school students were recruited for evaluation of their experiences playing online games. Severity of addiction, behavioral characteristics, number of stressors, and level of satisfaction with daily life were compared between males and females who had previously played online games. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore gender differences in the relationships between severity of online gaming addiction and a number of variables. This study found that subjects who had previously played online games were predominantly male. Gender differences were also found in the severity of online gaming addiction and motives for playing. Older age, lower self-esteem, and lower satisfaction with daily life were associated with more severe addiction among males, but not among females. Special strategies accounting for gender differences must be implemented to prevent adolescents with risk factors from becoming addicted to online gaming.

  14. Soil quality index as affected by different cropping systems in northwestern Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Sofi, J A; Bhat, A G; Kirmai, N A; Wani, J A; Lone, Aabid H; Ganie, Mumtaz A; Dar, G I H

    2016-03-01

    Soil quality assessment provides a tool for evaluating the sustainability of soils under different crop cafeterias. Our objective was to develop the soil quality index for evaluating the soil quality indicators under different cropping systems in northwest Himalaya-India. Composite soil samples were taken from the study area from different cropping systems which include T1 (forest soil control), T2 (rice-oilseed, lower belts), T3 (rice-oilseed, higher belts), T4 (rice-oats), T5 (rice-fallow), T6 (maize-oats), T7 (maize-peas), T8 (apple), T9 (apple-beans), and T10 (apple-maize). Physical, chemical, and biological soil indicators were determined, and it was found that soil enzyme activities involved in nutrient cycling were significantly higher in forest soils, which were reflected in higher levels of available pool of nutrients. Carbon stocks were found significantly higher in forest soil which was translated in improved soil physical condition. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to reduce multidimensionality of data followed by scoring by homothetic transformation of the selected indicators. Pearson's interclass correlation was performed to avoid redundancy, and highly correlated variables were not retained. Inclusion of legumes in the apple orchard floor recorded highest soil quality rating across the treatments. Cereal-based cropping systems were found in lower soil quality rating; however, the incorporation of peas in the system improved soil health.

  15. Individual differences in decision making: Drive and reward responsiveness affect strategic bargaining in economic games

    PubMed Central

    Scheres, Anouk; Sanfey, Alan G

    2006-01-01

    Background In the growing body of literature on economic decision making, the main focus has typically been on explaining aggregate behavior, with little interest in individual differences despite considerable between-subject variability in decision responses. In this study, we were interested in asking to what degree individual differences in fundamental psychological processes can mediate economic decision-making behavior. Methods Specifically, we studied a personality dimension that may influence economic decision-making, the Behavioral Activation System, (BAS) which is composed of three components: Reward Responsiveness, Drive, and Fun Seeking. In order to assess economic decision making, we utilized two commonly-used tasks, the Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game. Individual differences in BAS were measured by completion of the BIS/BAS Scales, and correlations between the BAS scales and monetary offers made in the two tasks were computed. Results We found that higher scores on BAS Drive and on BAS Reward Responsiveness were associated with a pattern of higher offers on the Ultimatum Game, lower offers on the Dictator Game, and a correspondingly larger discrepancy between Ultimatum Game and Dictator Game offers. Conclusion These findings are consistent with an interpretation that high scores on Drive and Reward Responsiveness are associated with a strategy that first seeks to maximize the likelihood of reward, and then to maximize the amount of reward. More generally, these results suggest that there are additional factors other than empathy, fairness and selfishness that contribute to strategic decision-making. PMID:17049091

  16. Mismatch Negativity Affects Muscle Fatigue during Repeated Contraction Trials of Different Durations

    PubMed Central

    Aleksandrov, Aleksander A.; Knyazeva, Veronika M.; Stankevich, Ludmila N.; Dmitrieva, Elena S.; Shestakova, Anna N.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of involuntary attention switching (related to mismatch negativity generation in the oddball paradigm) on fatigue development during trials of different durations. The experiment consisted of two trials, long (40 min) and short (15 min), and two experimental conditions in each trial: the simple reaction task (deviants-only paradigm) and the stimuli recognition task (oddball paradigm). In each condition, a participant responded to each target acoustic stimulus by squeezing a handgrip dynamometer. We found the significantly lower rates of fatigue development in the short-trial deviants-only paradigm compared to the long trial. The short- and the long-trial oddball paradigms differed significantly from both the short- and the long-trial deviants-only paradigms. The results demonstrated that the fatigue developed differently depending on the expected trial duration. The involuntary activation of attention broke this subconscious regulative mechanism leading to increase of the compression force during the long trial and its decrease during the short. PMID:26869932

  17. [Stomatal response of spring wheat and related affecting factors under different irrigation treatment].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Feng-Yun; Chai, Shou-Xi

    2010-01-01

    Taking three spring wheat cultivars as test materials, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation treatments on the stomatal conductance of the cultivars during their growth period, with the relationships between the stomatal conductance and the environmental factors analyzed. On the basis of winter irrigation with 1800 m3 x hm(-2) of water, three irrigation treatments, i. e., irrigating three times (T1), two times (T2), and once (T3) during spring wheat growth period, were installed, with 1050 m3 x hm(-2) of irrigation water each time. All irrigation treatments had greater effects on the stomatal conductance, which was decreased with the decreasing times of irrigation, and varied with the cultivars. From jointing stage to florescence, the stomatal conductance in all treatments had the same variation trend, i. e., decreased after an initial increase, and reached the peak at heading stage. After florescence, difference occurred among the treatments. In treatment T1, the stomatal conductance of all test cultivars increased after an initial decrease; in treatment T2, the variation patterns of stomatal conductance differed with cultivars; while in treatment T3, the conductance of all cultivars decreased all along. Among the environmental factors, relative atmospheric humidity had the greatest effects on the stomatal conductance, and their correlation coefficient in treatments T2 and T3 reached significant (0.82) and very significant (0.92* *), respectively. The stomatal regulation mechanism of spring wheat adapting to water deficit in Hexi corridor was of feedback manner.

  18. [Progress on tantalum rod implanting for the treatment of femur head necrosis].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-kang; Ye, Fu-sheng; Tong, Pei-jian; Fan, Yan-hua; Li, Min; Ying, Hang; Xiao, Lu-wei

    2013-07-01

    Incorrect treatment for femur head necrosis can cause collapse of femoral head and tresult in severe harm for the patients (especially for the patient with middle-aged and young). The structure and mechanics characteristics of tantalum rod is similar to bone tissue, it higher strength and can adapt the internal environment of organism, so it has a large potency in treating femur head necrosis. Treatment of early femur head necrosis with tantalum rod implanting had alreadly widey applied at home and abroad, the method has the advantages of simple operation, little risk, less complication and beseems the patient with stage I - II of ARCO. But reasons that the difficult diagnosis of early femur head necrosis, localized effect of tantalum rod, different experience of medical worker,caused the contentions about effect of tantalum rod implanting. With development of science, tantalum rod implanting combined with correlative biotechnology should raise the effect in treating femur head necrosis.

  19. Cerebral necrosis after radiotherapy and/or intraarterial chemotherapy for brain tumors: PET and neuropathologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Di Chiro, G.; Oldfield, E.; Wright, D.C.; De Michele, D.; Katz, D.A.; Patronas, N.J.; Doppman, J.L.; Larson, S.M.; Ito, M.; Kufta, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral necrosis after radiotherapy for brain tumors is being recognized as a problem more common than previously estimated. Distinction between this iatrogenic complication and tumor recurrence cannot be made by either CT or MR imaging. By using positron emission tomography (PET) with /sup 18/F-deoxyglucose (FDG) we were able to reach a diagnosis of radiation necrosis, later verified, in 10 of 95 patients referred for the purpose of differentiating tumor recurrence from necrosis. The critical PET-FDG feature was focal hypometabolism in the area of necrosis, which contrasted with the hypermetabolism associated with the residual/recurrent tumor. In addition, four cases of cerebral necrosis after supraophthalmic, intraarterial chemotherapy (BCNU) were studied with the PET-FDG method. The area of chemotherapy damage was also characterized by marked hypometabolism. Histology revealed both similarities and differences between radio- and chemonecrosis.

  20. Different kinds of information affect word learning in the preschool years: the case of part-term learning.

    PubMed

    Saylor, Megan M; Sabbagh, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    Two studies investigated how preschool children's interpretations of novel words as names for parts of objects were affected by 3 kinds of information: (a) whole object familiarity, (b) whole part juxtaposition, and (c) syntactic information indicating possession. Study 1 tested 3- to 4-year-olds and found that although there was evidence that all information affected children's part-term interpretations to some extent, they were most systematic when provided with 2 or more kinds of information. Study 2 adapted the procedure for use with 2.5-year-olds and found the same general pattern of results. Variations across studies were found that may reflect changes in how different kinds of information affect word learning with development.

  1. Wistar Kyoto and Wistar rats differ in the affective and locomotor effects of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Anthony S; Zentner, Isaac J; Mardekian, Stacey K; Tanenbaum, Jason B

    2008-01-28

    Anhedonia is a characteristic of clinical depression and has been associated with dysfunction of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, a system also involved in mediating nicotine reward. To further examine the relationship between anhedonia, clinical depression and nicotine reward, the present experiment determined if Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, an animal model of clinical depression, differed from Wistar rats in nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP). Strain differences in nicotine-induced changes in locomotor activity also were determined simultaneously. To determine if strain differences were specific to reward-based learning, nicotine or lithium chloride (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) experiments were conducted. Rats received vehicle or nicotine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) during a multi-trial, biased CPP training procedure or received vehicle, nicotine (0.2, 0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) or lithium chloride (LiCl; 0.0375, 0.075 or 0.15 M) during a multi-trial CTA training procedure. Whereas both nicotine doses (0.4 and 0.8 mg/kg) initially induced hypoactivity, only the moderate nicotine dose (0.4 mg/kg) induced hyperactivity with repeated administration and produced a CPP in Wistar rats. Both nicotine doses failed to alter locomotor activity or produce a CPP in WKY rats. WKY rats also acquired a LiCl CTA more slowly and less robustly compared to Wistar rats. In contrast, nicotine dose-dependently produced a CTA in both strains and WKY rats were more sensitive to the avoidance effects of nicotine compared to Wistar rats. Collectively, these results suggest that WKY rats show deficits in nicotine reward and specific aversive drug stimuli compared to Wistar rats.

  2. Histologic differences between orthotopic xenograft pancreas models affect Verteporfin uptake measured by fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Isabelle, Martin; Hoopes, P. J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) that uses the second generation photosensitizer, verteporfin (VP), is a developing therapy for pancreatic cancer. The optimal timing of light delivery related to VP uptake and distribution in pancreatic tumors will be important information to obtain to improve treatment for this intractable disease. In this work we examined uptake and distribution of VP in two orthotopic pancreatic tumors with different histological structure. ASPC-1 (fast-growing) and Panc-1 (slower growing) tumors were implanted in SCID mice and studied when tumors were approximately 100mm3. In a pilot study, these tumors had been shown to differ in uptake of VP using lightinduced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in vivo and fluorescence imaging ex vivo and that work is extended here. In vivo fluorescence mean readings of tumor and liver increased rapidly up to 15 minutes after photosensitizer injection for both tumor types, and then continued to increase up to 60 minutes post injection to a higher level in ASPC-1 than in Panc-1. There was variability among animals with the same tumor type, in both liver and tumor uptake and no selectivity of tumor over liver. In this work we further examined VP uptake at multiple time points in relation to microvascular density and perfusion, using DiOC7 (to mark blood vessels) and VP fluorescence in the same tissue slices. Analysis of DiOC7 fluorescence indicates that AsPC-1 and Panc-1 have different vascular densities but AsPC-1 vasculature is more perfusive. Analysis of colocalized DiOC7 and VP fluorescence showed ASPC-1 with higher accumulation of VP 3 hrs after injection and more VP at a distance from blood vessels compared to Panc-1. This work shows the need for techniques to analyze photosensitizer distribution in order to optimize photodynamic therapy as an effective treatment for pancreatic tumors.

  3. Emission and distribution of fumigants as affected by soil moistures in three different textured soils.

    PubMed

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein

    2013-01-01

    Water application is a low-cost strategy to control emissions of soil fumigant to meet the requirements of the stringent environmental regulations and it is applicable for a wide range of commodity groups. Although it is known that an increase in soil moisture reduces emissions, the range of soil moisture for minimizing emissions without risking pest control, is not well defined for various types of soils. With two column studies, we determined the effect of different soil moisture levels on emission and distribution of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in three different textured soils. Results on sandy loam and loam soils showed that by increasing soil moisture from 30% to 100% of field capacity (FC), peak fluxes were lowered by 77-88% and their occurrences were delayed 5-15 h, and cumulative emissions were reduced 24-49%. For the sandy soil, neither peak fluxes nor the cumulative emissions were significantly different when soil moisture increased from 30% to 100% FC. Compared to the drier soils, the wetter soils retained consistently higher fumigant concentrations in the gas-phase, suggesting efficacy may not be impacted in these soils. The air-filled porosity positively and linearly correlated with the cumulative emission loss across all soil types indicating that it may serve as a good indicator for estimating emissions. These laboratory findings can be further tested under field conditions to conclude what irrigation regime should be used for increasing soil water content before fumigant application that can achieve maximum emission reduction and uniform fumigant distribution with high exposure index values.

  4. Different marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates affect differentially the composition of enriched bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Domínguez, E; Casamayor, E O; Català, P; Lebaron, P

    2005-04-01

    We studied the effects of predation on the cytometric and phylogenetic features of two enriched bacterial communities obtained from two cultures of marine heterotrophic nanoflagellates: Jakoba libera and a mixed culture of Cafeteria sp. and Monosiga sp. Protists were harvested by flow cytometric cell sorting and eight different treatments were prepared. Each bacterial community was incubated with and without protists, and we added two treatments with protists and the bacteria present after the sorting procedure (cosorted bacteria). The bacterial community derived from the culture of Jakoba libera had higher green fluorescence per cell (FL1) than that derived from the mixed culture of Cafeteria sp. and Monosiga sp. When the experiment began all treatments presented bacterial communities that increase in fluorescence per bacterium (FL1); after that the FL1 decreased when bacteria attained maximal concentrations; and, finally, there was a new increase in FL1 toward the end of the experiment. Cosorted bacteria of Jakoba libera had the same fluorescence as the bacterial community derived from this protist, while the bacteria derived from the mixed culture of Cafeteria sp. and Monosiga sp. was nearly twice as fluorescent than that of the parental community. All treatments presented a general decline of SSC along the incubation. Therefore, there was a small influence of protists on the cytometric signature of each bacterial community. However, each bacterial community preyed by Jakoba libera or the mixed culture of Cafeteria sp. and Monosiga sp. led to four different phylogenetic fingerprint. Besides, the final Communities were different from the fingerprint of controls without protists, and most of them diverge from the fingerprint of cosorted bacteria. Our results confirm that changes in the phylogenetic composition of marine bacterial communities may depend on the initial communities of both bacteria and protists.

  5. Elevated temperature differently affects foliar nitrogen partitioning in seedlings of diverse Douglas fir provenances.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Junker, Laura Verena; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change causes an increase in ambient air temperature, a major environmental factor influencing plant physiology and growth that already has been perceived at the regional scale and is expected to become even more severe in the future. In the present study, we investigated the effect of elevated ambient air temperature on the nitrogen metabolism of two interior provenances of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) originating from contrasting habitats, namely the provenances Monte Creek (MC) from a drier environment and Pend Oreille (PO) from a more humid environment. Three- to four-year-old seedlings of the two provenances were grown for 3 months in controlled environments under either control temperature (day 20 °C, night 15 °C) or high temperature (HT, 30/25 °C) conditions. Total nitrogen (N), soluble protein, chlorophyll and total amino acid (TAA) contents as well as individual amino acid concentrations were determined in both current-year and previous-year needles. Our results show that the foliar total N contents of the two provenances were unaffected by HT. Arginine, lysine, proline, glutamate and glutamine were the most abundant amino acids, which together contributed ∼88% to the TAA pool of current- and previous-year needles. High temperature decreased the contents of most amino acids of the glutamate family (i.e., arginine, proline, ornithine and glutamine) in current-year needles. However, HT did not affect the concentrations of metabolites related to the photorespiratory pathway, such as [Formula: see text], glycine and serine. In general, current-year needles were considerably more sensitive to HT than previous-year needles. Moreover, provenance PO originating from a mesic environment showed stronger responses to HT than provenance MC. Our results indicate provenance-specific plasticity in the response of Douglas fir to growth temperature. Provenance-specific effects of elevated temperature on N-use efficiency suggest

  6. Elevated temperature differently affects foliar nitrogen partitioning in seedlings of diverse Douglas fir provenances.

    PubMed

    Du, Baoguo; Jansen, Kirstin; Junker, Laura Verena; Eiblmeier, Monika; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen; Gessler, Arthur; Ensminger, Ingo; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    Global climate change causes an increase in ambient air temperature, a major environmental factor influencing plant physiology and growth that already has been perceived at the regional scale and is expected to become even more severe in the future. In the present study, we investigated the effect of elevated ambient air temperature on the nitrogen metabolism of two interior provenances of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) originating from contrasting habitats, namely the provenances Monte Creek (MC) from a drier environment and Pend Oreille (PO) from a more humid environment. Three- to four-year-old seedlings of the two provenances were grown for 3 months in controlled environments under either control temperature (day 20 °C, night 15 °C) or high temperature (HT, 30/25 °C) conditions. Total nitrogen (N), soluble protein, chlorophyll and total amino acid (TAA) contents as well as individual amino acid concentrations were determined in both current-year and previous-year needles. Our results show that the foliar total N contents of the two provenances were unaffected by HT. Arginine, lysine, proline, glutamate and glutamine were the most abundant amino acids, which together contributed ∼88% to the TAA pool of current- and previous-year needles. High temperature decreased the contents of most amino acids of the glutamate family (i.e., arginine, proline, ornithine and glutamine) in current-year needles. However, HT did not affect the concentrations of metabolites related to the photorespiratory pathway, such as [Formula: see text], glycine and serine. In general, current-year needles were considerably more sensitive to HT than previous-year needles. Moreover, provenance PO originating from a mesic environment showed stronger responses to HT than provenance MC. Our results indicate provenance-specific plasticity in the response of Douglas fir to growth temperature. Provenance-specific effects of elevated temperature on N-use efficiency suggest

  7. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity.

  8. Affects of different tillage managements on soil physical quality in a clayey soil.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Mustafa; Selvi, Kemal Çağatay; Dengiz, Orhan; Gürsoy, Fatma Esra

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in 2011, researches the effects of different tillage practices on the physical soil quality of clayey soil. This soil quality index (SQI) assessment was made by studying the changes in physical soil functions such as suitability for root development, facilitation for water entry, movement and storage, and resistance against surface degradation based on tillage management. When compared with the control parcel, statistically significant decreases were seen in the SQI with different tillage practices (p < 0.05). Among the tillage practices, the highest SQI was seen with the plow + rotary tiller + direct seeding machine, while the lowest SQI was seen with the direct drilling practice. On the other hand, the statistically insignificant effects of tillage practices on the soil quality of the study area were considered to be a result of either the study period or the joint effect of soil texture and climatic features. Thus, long-term tillage practices were recommended in order to get healthier information about soil quality by considering soil and climatic conditions. In addition, for heavy clayey soils, reduced tillage practices, which included plowing, were thought to develop physical soil qualities of root development and water movement.

  9. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P

    2016-01-01

    microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  10. Endogenous hormone levels affect the regeneration ability of callus derived from different organs in barley.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Takakazu; Mori, Izumi C; Yamane, Miki; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2016-02-01

    Hordeum vulgare (barley) is an important agricultural crop worldwide. A simple and efficient transformation system is needed to analyze the functions of barley genes and generate lines with improved agronomic traits. Currently, Golden Promise and Igri are the most amenable barley cultivars for stable transformation. Here we evaluated the regeneration ratios and endogenous hormone levels of calli derived from various malting barley cultivars, including Golden Promise, Haruna Nijo, and Morex. We harvested samples not only from immature embryos, but also from different explants of juvenile plants, cotyledons, coleoptiles, and roots. The callus properties differed among genotypes and explant types. Calli derived from the immature embryos of Golden Promise, which showed the highest ratio of regeneration of green shoots, had the highest contents of indoleacetic acid, trans-zeatin, and cis-zeatin. By contrast, calli derived from the cotyledons of Morex and the immature embryos of Haruna Nijo had elevated levels of salicylic acid and abscisic acid, respectively. We thus propose that the former phytohormones are positively associated with the regeneration ability of callus but the later phytohormones are negatively associated. PMID:26735586

  11. Deletion of CGI-58 or adipose triglyceride lipase differently affects macrophage function and atherosclerosis[S

    PubMed Central

    Goeritzer, Madeleine; Schlager, Stefanie; Radovic, Branislav; Madreiter, Corina T.; Rainer, Silvia; Thomas, Gwynneth; Lord, Caleb C.; Sacks, Jessica; Brown, Amanda L.; Vujic, Nemanja; Obrowsky, Sascha; Sachdev, Vinay; Kolb, Dagmar; Chandak, Prakash G.; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Sattler, Wolfgang; Brown, J. Mark; Kratky, Dagmar

    2014-01-01

    Cellular TG stores are efficiently hydrolyzed by adipose TG lipase (ATGL). Its coactivator comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) strongly increases ATGL-mediated TG catabolism in cell culture experiments. To investigate the consequences of CGI-58 deficiency in murine macrophages, we generated mice with a targeted deletion of CGI-58 in myeloid cells (macCGI-58−/− mice). CGI-58−/− macrophages accumulate intracellular TG-rich lipid droplets and have decreased phagocytic capacity, comparable to ATGL−/− macrophages. In contrast to ATGL−/− macrophages, however, CGI-58−/− macrophages have intact mitochondria and show no indications of mitochondrial apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress, suggesting that TG accumulation per se lacks a significant role in processes leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. Another notable difference is the fact that CGI-58−/− macrophages adopt an M1-like phenotype in vitro. Finally, we investigated atherosclerosis susceptibility in macCGI-58/ApoE-double KO (DKO) animals. In response to high-fat/high-cholesterol diet feeding, DKO animals showed comparable plaque formation as observed in ApoE−/− mice. In agreement, antisense oligonucleotide-mediated knockdown of CGI-58 in LDL receptor−/− mice did not alter atherosclerosis burden in the aortic root. These results suggest that macrophage function and atherosclerosis susceptibility differ fundamentally in these two animal models with disturbed TG catabolism, showing a more severe phenotype by ATGL deficiency. PMID:25316883

  12. How microRNA172 affects fruit growth in different species is dependent on fruit type

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Xu, Juan; Gleave, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT microRNA172 (miR172) expression has been shown to have a positive effect on Arabidopsis fruit (siliques) growth. In contrast, over-expression of miR172 has a negative influence on fruit growth in apple, resulting in a dramatic reduction in fruit size. This negative influence is supported by the results of analyzing a transposable element (TE) insertional allele of a MIR172 gene that has reduced expression of the miRNA and is associated with an increase in fruit size. Arabidopsis siliques are a dry fruit derived from ovary tissues, whereas apple is a fleshy pome fruit derived mostly from hypanthium tissues. A model has been developed to explain the contrasting impact of miR172 expression in these two plant species based on the differences in their fruit structure. Transgenic apple plants with extremely high levels of miR172 overexpression produced flowers consisting of carpel tissues only, which failed to produce fruit. By comparison, in tomato, a fleshy berry fruit derived from the ovary, high level over-expression of the same miR172 resulted in carpel-only flowers which developed into parthenocarpic fruit. These results further indicate that the influence of miR172 on fruit growth in different plant species depends on its fruit type. PMID:26926448

  13. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Does student learning style affect performance on different formats of biomechanics examinations?

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chengtu; Mache, Melissa; Knudson, Duane

    2012-03-01

    Students' learning style preferences have been widely adapted into teaching and learning environments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between self-reported and assessed learning style preferences (visual, auditory, reading/writing, kinesthetic: VARK) on performance in different types of multiple-choice examinations (T1: text only format and T2: visual format) given in an introductory biomechanics class. Students who enrolled in three biomechanics classes at a state university were recruited to participate in the study. Ninety students (47 males and 43 females) completed a learning style survey and two types of examinations. Results showed that approximately half of the students were assessed and self-reported as kinesthetic for their preferred learning style. There was no significant difference in test performance between students who preferred visual and reading/writing learning styles (self-reported and assessed). These students demonstrated similar learning and comprehension of biomechanical concepts regardless of whether the test material was presented in their preferred sensory mode or not. Interestingly, female students' perceptions of their learning style preference may have a positive effect on the test results when the test is presented in their preferred format.

  15. Memory performance and affect: are there gender differences in community-residing older adults?

    PubMed

    McDougall, Graham Joseph; Pituch, Keenan A; Stanton, Marietta P; Chang, Wanchen

    2014-08-01

    After age 65, the incidence of episodic memory decline in males is greater than in females. We explored the influence of anxiety and depression on objective and subjective memory performance in a diverse sample of community-residing older adults. The study was a secondary analysis of data on three samples of adults from two states, Ohio and Texas: a community sample (n = 177); a retirement community sample (n = 97); and the SeniorWISE Study (n = 265). The sample of 529 adults was 74% female, the average age was 76.58 years (range = 59-100 years), and educational attainment was 13.12 years (±3.68); 68% were Caucasian, and 17% had depressive symptoms. We found no memory performance differences by gender. Males and females were similarly classified into the four memory performance groups, with almost half of each gender in the poor memory category. Even though males had greater years of education, they used fewer compensatory memory strategies. The observed gender differences in memory were subjective evaluations, specifically metamemory. Age was not a significant predictor of cognition or memory performance, nor did males have greater memory impairment than females.

  16. Optical properties of photosynthetic picoplankton in different physiological states as affected by growth irradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramski, Dariusz; Morel, André

    1990-02-01

    A phycocyanin-rich cyanobacterium belonging to the genus Synechocystis has been adapted and grown under differing irradiances (PAR), ranging from 16 to 1450 μE m -2 s -1, and differing spectral compositions ("white", "blue" and "green"). Chlorophyll-specific as well as carbon-specific spectral absorption and scattering coefficients were determined for all conditions. Due to drastic changes in chlorophyll and phycocyanin content per cell in response to the radiative level imposed to the culture, these coefficients undergo extreme variations, in a range wider than the inter-specific range already reported for eucaryotic algae. The optical dimensionless efficiency factors have been computed and used to calculate the bulk refractive index (in the range 1.05-1.06 with respect to the index of water). The optical properties of this picoplanktonic species is typical of "small" optical particles, with a scattering efficiency increasing towards the blue, and a backscattering efficiency increasing towards the red end of the spectrum. Superimposed on this pattern are features associated with the presence of pigments, including the phycocyanin signature. Although the cellular pigment concentrations are high (particularly at low irradiances), the package effect remains negligible. Thus Synechocystis is well suited for harvesting light, even if the presence of biliprotein appears to be useless in regards to the spectral quality of the light available in the deep layers of the euphotic zone.

  17. Massive tongue necrosis secondary to temporal arteritis.

    PubMed

    Roseman, B B; Granite, E

    1984-10-01

    A case of unusually massive necrosis of the tongue secondary to temporal arteritis is presented. The clinician must include temporal arteritis in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of tongue ischemia.

  18. Sink-source characteristics of two distinctly different forest species as affected by elevated carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Pushnik, J.C.; Florv, W.B.; Demaree, R.S. ); Anderson, P.D.; Houpis J.L.J. )

    1993-05-01

    The basic physiology and biochemistry of photosynthesis is being correlated with the leaf level processes and morphology of the Sierra Nevada varieties of Taxus brevifolia and Pinus ponderosa in an attempt to identify control mechanisms of carbohydrate partitioning. We are evaluating sink/source relationships in terms of carbon assimilation (gas-exchange (A[ci] curves and temperature effects); RuBPCase activity, chloroplast structure, integrity, and distributions, stomatal densities, internal leaf organization); transport functions (sucrose-phosphate synthetase (SPS) activity); long-term sink (immunoelectron microscopic detection of taxol). The results of these investigations suggest carbon acquisition characteristics are similar among the conifers, but with distinct differences in carboxylation efficiencies, SPS activity, needle starch content/chloroplast, and vascular tissue areas. These baseline characteristics are currently being evaluated in response to elevated CO[sub 2].

  19. Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Eric J.; Smith, Marshall E.; Tanner, Kristine

    2012-01-01

    Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by healthcare practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to better treat women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

  20. Gender differences affecting vocal health of women in vocally demanding careers.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Eric J; Tanner, Kristine; Smith, Marshall E

    2011-10-01

    Studies suggest that occupational voice users have a greater incidence of vocal issues than the general population. Women have been found to experience vocal health problems more frequently than men, regardless of their occupation. Traditionally, it has been assumed that differences in the laryngeal system are the cause of this disproportion. Nevertheless, it is valuable to identify other potential gender distinctions which may make women more vulnerable to voice disorders. A search of the literature was conducted for gender-specific characteristics which might impact the vocal health of women. This search can be used by health care practitioners to help female patients avoid serious vocal health injuries, as well as to treat better those women who already suffer from such vocal health issues. PMID:21722077

  1. On-line ostracism affects children differently from adolescents and adults.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Dominic; Weick, Mario; Thomas, Dominique; Colbe, Hazel; Franklin, Keith M

    2011-03-01

    This research examines adults', and for the first time, children's and adolescents' reaction to being ostracized and included, using an on-line game, 'Cyberball' with same and opposite sex players. Ostracism strongly threatened four primary needs (esteem, belonging, meaning, and control) and lowered mood among 8- to 9-year-olds, 13- to 14-year-olds, and adults. However, it did so in different ways. Ostracism threatened self-esteem needs more among 8- to 9-year-olds than older participants. Among 13- to 14-year-olds, ostracism threatened belonging more than other needs. Belonging was threatened most when ostracism was participants' first experience in the game. Moreover, when participants had been included beforehand, ostracism threatened meaning needs most strongly. Gender of other players had no effect. Practical and developmental implications for social inclusion and on-line experiences among children and young people are discussed.

  2. Can different conditioning activities and rest intervals affect the acute performance of taekwondo turning kick?

    PubMed

    Santos, Jonatas F da Silva; Valenzuela, Tomás H; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the acute effect of strength, plyometric, and complex exercises (combined strength and plyometric exercise) in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and frequency speed of kick test (FSKT) and attempted to establish the best rest interval to maximize performance in the CMJ, number of kicks, and impact generated during FSKT. Eleven taekwondo athletes (mean ± SD; age: 20.3 ± 5.2 years; body mass: 71.8 ± 15.3 kg; height: 177 ± 7.2 cm) participated. One control and 9 experimental conditions were randomly applied. Each condition was composed of warm-up, conditioning activity (half-squat: 3 × 1 at 95% 1RM; jumps: 3 × 10 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier; or complex exercise: half-squat 3 × 2 at 95% 1RM + 4 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier), followed by different rest intervals (5-, 10-minute, and self-selected) before CMJ and FSKT. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. The alpha level was set at 5%. Significant difference was found in the number of kicks (F9,90 = 1.32; p = 0.239; and η2 = 0.116 [small]). The complex method with a 10-minute rest interval (23 ± 5 repetitions) was superior (p = 0.026) to the control (19 ± 3 repetitions), maximum strength with a self-selected rest interval (328 ± 139 seconds; 18 ± 2 repetitions) (p = 0.015), and plyometric with a 5-minute rest interval (18 ± 3 repetitions) (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that taekwondo athletes increased the number of kicks in a specific test by using the complex method when 10-minute rest interval was used.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylogenetic groups differ in affecting host plants along heavy metal levels.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Yang, Haishui; Yu, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and play important role in plant growth. However, the effects of AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) on host plant under various heavy metal levels are not clear. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to compare symbiotic relationship between AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) and host plant functional groups (herbs vs. trees, and non-legumes vs. legumes) at three heavy metal levels. In the meta-analysis, we calculate the effect size (ln(RR)) by taking the natural logarithm of the response ratio of inoculated to non-inoculated shoot biomass from each study. We found that the effect size of Glomeraceae increased, but the effect size of non-Glomeraceae decreased under high level of heavy metal compared to low level. According to the effect size, both Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae promoted host plant growth, but had different effects under various heavy metal levels. Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than non-Glomeraceae did under heavy metal condition, while non-Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than Glomeraceae did under no heavy metal. AMF phylogenetic groups also differed in promoting plant functional groups under various heavy metal levels. Interacting with Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under high heavy metal level, while trees and legumes grew better than herbs and non-legumes did under medium heavy metal level. Interacting with non-Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under no heavy metal. We suggested that the combination of legume with Glomeraceae could be a useful way in the remediation of heavy metal polluted environment. PMID:25288547

  4. Biofortification and Bioavailability of Rice Grain Zinc as Affected by Different Forms of Foliar Zinc Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoe

    2012-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) biofortification through foliar Zn application is an attractive strategy to reduce human Zn deficiency. However, little is known about the biofortification efficiency and bioavailability of rice grain from different forms of foliar Zn fertilizers. Methodology/Principal Findings Four different Zn forms were applied as a foliar treatment among three rice cultivars under field trial. Zinc bioavailability was assessed by in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Foliar Zn fertilization was an effective agronomic practice to promote grain Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability among three rice cultivars, especially, in case of Zn-amino acid and ZnSO4. On average, Zn-amino acid and ZnSO4 increased Zn concentration in polished rice up to 24.04% and 22.47%, respectively. On average, Zn-amino acid and ZnSO4 increased Zn bioavailability in polished rice up to 68.37% and 64.43%, respectively. The effectiveness of foliar applied Zn-amino acid and ZnSO4 were higher than Zn-EDTA and Zn-Citrate on improvement of Zn concentration, and reduction of phytic acid, as a results higher accumulation of bioavailable Zn in polished rice. Moreover, foliar Zn application could maintain grain yield, the protein and minerals (Fe and Ca) quality of the polished rice. Conclusions Foliar application of Zn in rice offers a practical and useful approach to improve bioavailable Zn in polished rice. According to current study, Zn-amino acid and ZnSO4 are recommended as excellent foliar Zn forms to ongoing agronomic biofortification. PMID:23029003

  5. Chemical stress by different agents affects the melatonin content of barley roots.

    PubMed

    Arnao, Marino B; Hernández-Ruiz, Josefa

    2009-04-01

    The presence of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in plants has been clearly demonstrated. However, while this indoleamine has been intensively studied in animals, especially in mammals, the same is not true in the case of plants, where one of the most interesting aspects is its possible role as antioxidative molecule in physiological processes. Some data reflect the possible protective role that melatonin may exert in some stress situations such as ultraviolet (UV)-radiation, induced senescence and copper stress. The present work was designed to establish how the melatonin content changes in plants as a result of chemically induced stress. For this, barley plants were exposed in different treatments to the chemical-stress agents: sodium chloride, zinc sulphate or hydrogen peroxide. After different times, the content of melatonin in treated roots and control roots were determined using liquid chromatography (LC) with time-of-flight/mass spectrometry and LC with fluorescence detection for identification and quantification, respectively. The data show that the melatonin content in roots increased due to stress, reaching up to six times the melatonin content of control roots. Induction was time dependent, while hydrogen peroxide (10 mm) and zinc sulphate (1 mm) were the most effective inducers. The capacity of roots to absorb melatonin from soil was also studied. The data establish, for first time, that the chemical-stress agents assayed can induce the biosynthesis of melatonin in barley roots and produce a significant increase in their melatonin content. Such an increase in melatonin probably plays an important antioxidative role in the defense against chemically induced stress and other abiotic/biotic stresses. PMID:19196434

  6. Can different conditioning activities and rest intervals affect the acute performance of taekwondo turning kick?

    PubMed

    Santos, Jonatas F da Silva; Valenzuela, Tomás H; Franchini, Emerson

    2015-06-01

    This study compared the acute effect of strength, plyometric, and complex exercises (combined strength and plyometric exercise) in the countermovement jump (CMJ) and frequency speed of kick test (FSKT) and attempted to establish the best rest interval to maximize performance in the CMJ, number of kicks, and impact generated during FSKT. Eleven taekwondo athletes (mean ± SD; age: 20.3 ± 5.2 years; body mass: 71.8 ± 15.3 kg; height: 177 ± 7.2 cm) participated. One control and 9 experimental conditions were randomly applied. Each condition was composed of warm-up, conditioning activity (half-squat: 3 × 1 at 95% 1RM; jumps: 3 × 10 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier; or complex exercise: half-squat 3 × 2 at 95% 1RM + 4 vertical jumps above 40-cm barrier), followed by different rest intervals (5-, 10-minute, and self-selected) before CMJ and FSKT. The conditions were compared using an analysis of variance with repeated measures, followed by Bonferroni's post hoc test. The alpha level was set at 5%. Significant difference was found in the number of kicks (F9,90 = 1.32; p = 0.239; and η2 = 0.116 [small]). The complex method with a 10-minute rest interval (23 ± 5 repetitions) was superior (p = 0.026) to the control (19 ± 3 repetitions), maximum strength with a self-selected rest interval (328 ± 139 seconds; 18 ± 2 repetitions) (p = 0.015), and plyometric with a 5-minute rest interval (18 ± 3 repetitions) (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that taekwondo athletes increased the number of kicks in a specific test by using the complex method when 10-minute rest interval was used. PMID:26010798

  7. Disturbace events affect interactions amoung four different hydrolytic enzymes in arid soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnock, D.; Litvak, M. E.; Sinsabaugh, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Global change processes are significantly altering key ecosystem processes in arid ecosystems. Such phenomena are also likely to influence the functional behaviors of resident soil microbial communities, and the magnitude of biogeochemical processes, including, soil organic matter turnover, soil nutrient cycling and soil carbon storage. To assess the aggregate influences of tree mortality, woody plant encroachment, fire, and drought, on soil microbial community activity and functionality, we collected soil samples from beneath plant canopies, and from adjacent bare soils. We sampled from two different piñon-juniper woodland sites. One had many dead piñons, while the other did not, a burned and an unburned grassland, a shrub site, a shrub/grass ecotone, and a juniper savannah. We analyzed eleven soil physicochemical properties, none of which showed any significant trends across our different sampling locations, fungal biomass, and the activities of alanine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, β-D-glucosidase, and β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAGase). One-wayANOVA results showed that enzyme activity patterns were largely consistent across field sites, while multivariate analyses showed a variety of interactive responses by individual enzymes,with respect to disturbance events. For example, at the burned grassland, all four enzymes activities were strongly correlated, while at the unburned grassland, relationships between peptidase:NAGase and peptidase:β-D-glucosidase were weak, with both R2 ≤ 0.08. Additionally in the shrub-grass ecotone, the correlation among enzyme activities and soil nutrient availabilities were up to 8x stronger than those observed at either grassland site. These results show that disturbance alters the number of functional dimensions needed to describe enzymatic C, N and P acquisition, which may be an indication of shifts in microbial community organization.

  8. Particles from wood smoke and road traffic differently affect the innate immune system of the lung.

    PubMed

    Samuelsen, Mari; Cecilie Nygaard, Unni; Løvik, Martinus

    2009-09-01

    The effect of particles from road traffic and wood smoke on the innate immune response in the lung was studied in a lung challenge model with the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Female Balb/cA mice were instilled intratracheally with wood smoke particles, particles from road traffic collected during winter (studded tires used; St+), and during autumn (no studded tires; St-), or diesel exhaust particles (DEP). Simultaneously with, and 1 or 7 days after particle instillation, 10(5) bacteria were inoculated intratracheally. Bacterial numbers in the lungs and spleen 1 day after Listeria challenge were determined, as an indicator of cellular activation. In separate experiments, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected 4 h and 24 h after particle instillation. All particles tested reduced the numbers of bacteria in the lung 24 h after bacterial inoculation. When particles were given simultaneously with Listeria, the reduction was greatest for DEP, followed by St+ and St-, and least for wood smoke particles. Particle effects were no longer apparent after 7 days. Neutrophil numbers in BAL fluid were increased for all particle exposed groups. St+ and St- induced the highest levels of IL-1beta, MIP-2, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha, followed by DEP, which induced no TNF-alpha. In contrast, wood smoke particles only increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, indicating a cytotoxic effect of these particles. In conclusion, all particles tested activated the innate immune system as determined with Listeria. However, differences in kinetics of anti-Listeria activity and levels of proinflammatory mediators point to cellular activation by different mechanisms. PMID:19552530

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal phylogenetic groups differ in affecting host plants along heavy metal levels.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Yang, Haishui; Yu, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianjun; Xu, Ligen; Chen, Xin

    2014-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are important components of soil microbial communities, and play important role in plant growth. However, the effects of AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) on host plant under various heavy metal levels are not clear. Here we conducted a meta-analysis to compare symbiotic relationship between AMF phylogenetic groups (Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae) and host plant functional groups (herbs vs. trees, and non-legumes vs. legumes) at three heavy metal levels. In the meta-analysis, we calculate the effect size (ln(RR)) by taking the natural logarithm of the response ratio of inoculated to non-inoculated shoot biomass from each study. We found that the effect size of Glomeraceae increased, but the effect size of non-Glomeraceae decreased under high level of heavy metal compared to low level. According to the effect size, both Glomeraceae and non-Glomeraceae promoted host plant growth, but had different effects under various heavy metal levels. Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than non-Glomeraceae did under heavy metal condition, while non-Glomeraceae provided more benefit to host plants than Glomeraceae did under no heavy metal. AMF phylogenetic groups also differed in promoting plant functional groups under various heavy metal levels. Interacting with Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under high heavy metal level, while trees and legumes grew better than herbs and non-legumes did under medium heavy metal level. Interacting with non-Glomeraceae, herbs and legumes grew better than trees and non-legumes did under no heavy metal. We suggested that the combination of legume with Glomeraceae could be a useful way in the remediation of heavy metal polluted environment.

  10. Effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Oka, Akio; Iwamoto, Eiji; Tatsuda, Ken

    2015-10-01

    Twenty 10-month-old Japanese Black steers were used to evaluate the effects of clay on fat necrosis and carcass characteristics. Ten steers (Clay group) were fed the clay (50 g/day) during 10-30 months of age. The other 10 steers (Control group) were not fed it. There was no significant difference in body weight or average daily gain between the two groups (P > 0.05). The occurrence of fat necrotic mass in the Clay group (30%) was lower (P < 0.05) than that in the Control group (90%) at slaughter. The size of necrotic masses in the Clay group was smaller (P < 0.05) than that in the Control group. There was no significant difference in the marbling score, beef color, Longissimus muscle area or subcutaneous fat thickness between the two groups. These results suggest that the clay prevented the occurrence of fat necrosis and did not affect the carcass characteristics in Japanese Black steers.

  11. Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

    2008-02-01

    Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis. PMID:18215520

  12. Retroperitoneal endoscopic debridement for infected peripancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Seifert, H; Wehrmann, T; Schmitt, T; Zeuzem, S; Caspary, W F

    2000-08-19

    Standard management of infected peripancreatic necrosis consists of open surgical debridement and lavage--a traumatic intervention with substantial morbidity and mortality. As an alternative and novel approach with minimum invasiveness, we present fenestration of the gastric wall and debridement of infected necrosis by direct retroperitoneal endoscopy. In three patients, this strategy led to rapid clinical improvement and no serious complications. Transgastric endoscopic therapy may be a less traumatic alternative to surgery and should be further assessed in prospective studies.

  13. Application of soil magnetometry on urban and industrial areas affected by different sources of pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magiera, T.; Szuszkiewicz, M.; Rachwał, M.

    2012-04-01

    Soil magnetometry as a proxy screening method has proven to be a suitable method for outlining soil pollution, connected with industrial and urban dust deposition as well as qualitative and semi-quantitative evaluation of potentially contaminated areas with considerably high concentration of technogenic iron particles and related heavy metals. In combination with geochemical method it could be also used for better targeting the geochemical sampling and reducing the number of chemical analysis. During this study the method was applied on areas dominated by 3 different sources of pollution: urban (mostly related to coal combustion), metallurgical and coke production. The three analyzed forest complexes were artificially planted and grow on anthroposols with different stage of transformation. During the study analysis of vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility (κ) in 40 topsoil profiles taken in 3 above mentioned forest areas were performed. Additionally, soil samples taken from horizons with increased magnetic susceptibility (mostly organic horizon) and from mineral horizons (considered as a background) were selected to chemical analysis of 9 heavy metal content (Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb). X-ray fluorescence method was applied for geochemical study. The highest κ values up to 1200 × 10-5 SI units were measured in the vicinity of metallurgical plant but the correlation between κ values and heavy metal content was there very low and statistically not significant. The considerably high correlation between magnetic susceptibility and some heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, As) were observed on 2 other areas of study. On the base of these study in combination with former mineralogical study of industrial dusts and topsoils, the following conclusions have been drown: Steelworks - emit strongly magnetic technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) including metallic iron (α-Fe) that is strong ferromagnetic (giving high κ values) but do not contain heavy

  14. Parameters affecting different acoustic radiation force impulse applications in the diagnosis of fibrotic liver changes

    PubMed Central

    Galgenmueller, Sabrina; Jaeger, Heike; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Stefan A; Oeztuerk, Suemeyra; Haenle, Mark M; Mason, Richard A; Graeter, Tilmann

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the virtual touch tissue quantification (VTTQ) and virtual touch imaging quantification (VTIQ) techniques, and identify possible factors that may influence VTTQ and VTIQ measurements. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-six (104 women/82 men) of 323 subjects met the inclusion criteria (age > 18 years, no history of chronic or gastrointestinal disease, body-mass index (BMI) < 30 kg/m², a fasting period of at least three hours, no history of hepatotoxic pharmaceuticals, alcohol consumption < 24 g/d in men and < 12 g/d in women, and normal findings upon ultrasound examination of the abdomen). Measurements were taken at depths of 50 mm with VTTQ, 15 mm and 25 mm with VTIQ in the right hepatic lobe, and at 15 mm with only VTIQ in the left hepatic lobe. The examiner acquired six measurements per position, thereby giving 24 measurements in total. RESULTS: The 95% confidence intervals of mean were 1.23-1.29 m/s for VTTQ and 1.29-1.37 m/s, 1.17-1.23 m/s, and 1.48-1.57 m/s for VTIQ in a depth of 15 mm and 25 mm in the right hepatic lobe and 15 mm in the left hepatic lobe. Only superficial measurements in the right hepatic lobe with the VTIQ method exhibited an effect of age on shear wave velocity. Measurements acquired using the 6C1 probe with the VTTQ method showed no dependence on BMI. By comparison, BMI influenced measurements taken with the VTIQ method using the 9L4 probe in the superficial and deep areas of the right hepatic lobe, as well as in the left hepatic lobe (P = 0.0160, P = 0.0019, P = 0.0173, respectively). Gender influenced measurements at depths of 50 mm with VTTQ and 25 mm with VTIQ in the right hepatic lobe (P = 0.0001, P = 0.0269). Significant differences were found between measurements with the 6C1 (VTTQ) and 9L4 probes (VTIQ) (P = 0.0067), between superficial and deep measurements (P < 0.0001), and between the right and left lobes of the liver (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Measurements in the right lobe and deep regions are preferable. Gender

  15. Telomere profiles and tumor-associated macrophages with different immune signatures affect prognosis in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hung, Noelyn A; Eiholzer, Ramona A; Kirs, Stenar; Zhou, Jean; Ward-Hartstonge, Kirsten; Wiles, Anna K; Frampton, Chris M; Taha, Ahmad; Royds, Janice A; Slatter, Tania L

    2016-03-01

    Telomere maintenance is a hallmark of cancer and likely to be targeted in future treatments. In glioblastoma established methods of identifying telomerase and alternative lengthening of telomeres leave a significant proportion of tumors with no defined telomere maintenance mechanism. This study investigated the composition of these tumors using RNA-Seq. Glioblastomas with an indeterminate telomere maintenance mechanism had an increased immune signature compared with alternative lengthening of telomeres and telomerase-positive tumors. Immunohistochemistry for CD163 confirmed that the majority (80%) of tumors with an indeterminate telomere maintenance mechanism had a high presence of tumor-associated macrophages. The RNA-Seq and immunostaining data separated tumors with no defined telomere maintenance mechanism into three subgroups: alternative lengthening of telomeres like tumors with a high presence of tumor-associated macrophages and telomerase like tumors with a high presence of tumor-associated macrophages. The third subgroup had no increase in tumor-associated macrophages and may represent a distinct category. The presence of tumor-associated macrophages conferred a worse prognosis with reduced patient survival times (alternative lengthening of telomeres with and without macrophages P=0.0004, and telomerase with and without macrophages P=0.013). The immune signatures obtained from RNA-Seq were significantly different between telomere maintenance mechanisms. Alternative lengthening of telomeres like tumors with macrophages had increased expression of interferon-induced proteins with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFIT1-3). Telomerase-positive tumors with macrophages had increased expression of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), CXCL12 and sushi-repeat containing protein x-linked 2 (SRPX2). Telomerase-positive tumors with macrophages were also associated with a reduced frequency of total/near total resections (44% vs >76% for all other subtypes

  16. Milk from different species: Relationship between protein fractions and inflammatory response in infants affected by generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Ciliberti, M G; Figliola, L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Polito, A N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant. The ability of PBMC to secrete cytokines in response to milk and protein fraction stimulation may predict the secretion of soluble factor TNF-α in the bloodstream of challenged patients. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks induced low-level production of IL-10 by cultured PBMC in at least 50% of cases; the same behavior was observed in both casein and whey protein fractions for all species studied. Bovine and ovine milk and their casein fractions induced production of lower levels of IL-1β in 80% of patients, whereas caprine milk and its casein fraction induced the highest levels in 80% of patients. The amount of IL-6 detected after stimulation of PBMC by milk and its fractions for all species was lower than that of other proinflammatory cytokines. In the bovine, total free radicals were higher in bulk milk and lower in the casein fraction, whereas the whey protein fraction showed an intermediate level; in caprine, ROS/RNS levels were not different among milk fractions, whereas ovine had higher levels for bulk milk and casein than the whey protein fraction. Lower levels of ROS/RNS detected in PBMC cultured with caprine milk fraction could be responsible for the lower levels of

  17. Milk from different species: Relationship between protein fractions and inflammatory response in infants affected by generalized epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Albenzio, M; Santillo, A; Ciliberti, M G; Figliola, L; Caroprese, M; Marino, R; Polito, A N

    2016-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of protein fractions from bovine, caprine, and ovine milk on production of cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) by cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMBC) from infants with generalized epilepsy. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks were pasteurized and analyzed for chemical composition. Then, PBMC were isolated from 10 patients with generalized epilepsy (5 males; mean age 33.6±5.4mo). Production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-10, IL-6, and IL-1β was studied in cultured PBMC (from infants with epilepsy and controls) stimulated by bovine, caprine, and ovine milk and casein and whey protein fractions, and levels of ROS and RNS were measured in the culture supernatant. The ability of PBMC to secrete cytokines in response to milk and protein fraction stimulation may predict the secretion of soluble factor TNF-α in the bloodstream of challenged patients. Bovine, caprine, and ovine bulk milks induced low-level production of IL-10 by cultured PBMC in at least 50% of cases; the same behavior was observed in both casein and whey protein fractions for all species studied. Bovine and ovine milk and their casein fractions induced production of lower levels of IL-1β in 80% of patients, whereas caprine milk and its casein fraction induced the highest levels in 80% of patients. The amount of IL-6 detected after stimulation of PBMC by milk and its fractions for all species was lower than that of other proinflammatory cytokines. In the bovine, total free radicals were higher in bulk milk and lower in the casein fraction, whereas the whey protein fraction showed an intermediate level; in caprine, ROS/RNS levels were not different among milk fractions, whereas ovine had higher levels for bulk milk and casein than the whey protein fraction. Lower levels of ROS/RNS detected in PBMC cultured with caprine milk fraction could be responsible for the lower levels of

  18. Antioxidant capacity of different cheeses: Affecting factors and prediction by near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Revilla, I; González-Martín, M I; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Blanco-López, M A; Lobos-Ortega, I A; Hernández-Hierro, J M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed antioxidant capacity of 224 cheese samples prepared using 16 varied mixtures of milk from cows, ewes, and goats, in 2 manufacturing seasons (winter and summer), and over 6mo of ripening. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the spectrophotometric 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) method. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with season of manufacturing and time of ripening but not with animal species providing the milk. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between the total antioxidant capacity and retinol (r=0.399), fat percentage (r=0.308), protein percentage (r=0.366), K (r=0.385), Mg (r=0.312), Na (r=0.432), and P (0.272) were observed. We evaluated the use of near infrared spectroscopy technology, together with the use of a remote reflectance fiber-optic probe, to predict the antioxidant capacity of cheese samples. The model generated allowed us to predict antioxidant capacity in unknown cheeses of different compositions and ripening times. PMID:27085414

  19. Clonal differences in IgE antibodies affect cutaneous anaphylaxis-associated thermal sensitivity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Mack, Madison; Tonc, Elena; Ashbaugh, Alyssa; Wetzel, Abigail; Sykes, Akilah; Engblom, Camilla; Shabani, Estela; Mora-Solano, Carolina; Trier, Anna; Swanson, Linnea; Ewan, Emily; Martinov, Tijana; Chatterjea, Devavani

    2014-01-01

    Cellular and molecular mediators of immune responses are increasingly implicated in acute and chronic pain pathophysiologies. Here we demonstrate that passive cutaneous IgE/Ag anaphylaxis provokes increased thermal sensitivity in the hind paw tissue of mice. The murine anti-DNP IgE antibodies SPE-7 and ε26 are known to induce differential cytokine production in bone marrow cultured mast cells in vitro without antigen challenge. We found a novel, antigen-dependent heterogeneity in the thermal pain responses elicited in the hind paws between SPE-7 and ε26 sensitized DNP-challenged mice. Mice experienced pronounced hind paw thermal sensitivity lasting 6 hours after DNP challenge when sensitized with SPE-7 but not ε26 IgE. The two IgE clones induced equivalent hind paw edema, neutrophil influx, cytokine production, and reduction in tissue histamine content in vivo, and bound to the same or overlapping epitopes on the DNP antigen in vitro. Therefore IgE antibodies against the same antigen can induce comparable inflammation, yet contribute to markedly different anaphylaxis-associated pain within an allergic response, suggesting that non-canonical IgE binding partners such as sensory neurons may play a role in allergy-related pain responses. PMID:25149207

  20. Homo- and heterofermentative lactobacilli differently affect sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Basso, Thiago Olitta; Gomes, Fernanda Sgarbosa; Lopes, Mario Lucio; de Amorim, Henrique Vianna; Eggleston, Gillian; Basso, Luiz Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial contamination during industrial yeast fermentation has serious economic consequences for fuel ethanol producers. In addition to deviating carbon away from ethanol formation, bacterial cells and their metabolites often have a detrimental effect on yeast fermentative performance. The bacterial contaminants are commonly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), comprising both homo- and heterofermentative strains. We have studied the effects of these two different types of bacteria upon yeast fermentative performance, particularly in connection with sugarcane-based fuel ethanol fermentation process. Homofermentative Lactobacillus plantarum was found to be more detrimental to an industrial yeast strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1), when compared with heterofermentative Lactobacillus fermentum, in terms of reduced yeast viability and ethanol formation, presumably due to the higher titres of lactic acid in the growth medium. These effects were only noticed when bacteria and yeast were inoculated in equal cell numbers. However, when simulating industrial fuel ethanol conditions, as conducted in Brazil where high yeast cell densities and short fermentation time prevail, the heterofermentative strain was more deleterious than the homofermentative type, causing lower ethanol yield and out competing yeast cells during cell recycle. Yeast overproduction of glycerol was noticed only in the presence of the heterofermentative bacterium. Since the heterofermentative bacterium was shown to be more deleterious to yeast cells than the homofermentative strain, we believe our findings could stimulate the search for more strain-specific antimicrobial agents to treat bacterial contaminations during industrial ethanol fermentation.

  1. Zinc Affects Differently Growth, Photosynthesis, Antioxidant Enzyme Activities and Phytochelatin Synthase Expression of Four Marine Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen-Deroche, Thi Le Nhung; Caruso, Aurore; Le, Thi Trung; Bui, Trang Viet; Schoefs, Benoît; Tremblin, Gérard; Morant-Manceau, Annick

    2012-01-01

    Zinc-supplementation (20 μM) effects on growth, photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase), and the expression of phytochelatin synthase gene were investigated in four marine diatoms (Amphora acutiuscula, Nitzschia palea, Amphora coffeaeformis and Entomoneis paludosa). Zn-supplementation reduced the maximum cell density. A linear relationship was found between the evolution of gross photosynthesis and total chlorophyll content. The Zn treatment decreased the electron transport rate except in A. coffeaeformis and in E. paludosa at high irradiance. A linear relationship was found between the efficiency of light to evolve oxygen and the size of the light-harvesting antenna. The external carbonic anhydrase activity was stimulated in Zn-supplemented E. paludosa but was not correlated with an increase of photosynthesis. The total activity of the antioxidant enzymes did not display any clear increase except in ascorbate peroxidase activity in N. palea. The phytochelatin synthase gene was identified in the four diatoms, but its expression was only revealed in N. palea, without a clear difference between control and Zn-supplemented cells. Among the four species, A. paludosa was the most sensitive and A. coffeaeformis, the most tolerant. A. acutiuscula seemed to be under metal starvation, whereas, to survive, only N. palea developed several stress responses. PMID:22645501

  2. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation. PMID:24228035

  3. How Is the Enamel Affected by Different Orthodontic Bonding Agents and Polishing Techniques?

    PubMed Central

    Heravi, Farzin; Shafaee, Hooman; Abdollahi, Mojtaba; Rashed, Roozbeh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of new bonding techniques on enamel surface. Materials and Methods: Sixty upper central incisors were randomly divided into two equal groups. In the first group, metal brackets were bonded using TransbondXT and, in the second group, the same brackets were bonded with Maxcem Elite. The shear bond strength (SBS) of both agents to enamel was measured and the number and length of enamel cracks before bonding, after debonding and after polishing were compared. The number of visible cracks and the adhesive remnant index (ARI) scores in each group were also measured. Results: There were significantly more enamel cracks in the Transbond XT group after debonding and polishing compared to the Maxcem Elite group. There was no significant difference in the length of enamel cracks between the two groups; but, in each group, a significant increase in the length of enamel cracks was noticeable after debonding. Polishing did not cause any statistically significant change in crack length. The SBS of Maxcem Elite was significantly lower than that of Transbond XT (95% confidence interval). Conclusion: Maxcem Elite offers clinically acceptable bond strength and can thus be used as a routine adhesive for orthodontic purposes since it is less likely to damage the enamel. PMID:26622271

  4. Timing of phosphate application affects arsenic phytoextraction by Pteris vittata L. of different ages.

    PubMed

    Santos, Jorge A G; Gonzaga, Maria I S; Ma, Lena Q; Srivastava, M

    2008-07-01

    The effects of timing in phosphate application on plant growth and arsenic removal by arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata L. of different ages were evaluated. The hydroponic experiment consisted of three plant ages (A45d, A90d and A180d) and three P feeding regimens (P200+0, P134+66 and P66+134) growing for 45 d in 0.2-strength Hoagland-Arnon solution containing 145 microg L(-1) As. While all plants received 200 microM P, P was added in two phases: during acclimation and after arsenic exposure. High initial P-supply (P200+0) favored frond biomass production and plant P uptake, while split-P application (P134+66 and P66+134) favored plant root production. Single P addition favored arsenic accumulation in the roots while split-P addition increased frond arsenic accumulation. Young ferns (A45d) in treatment P134+66 were the most efficient in arsenic removal, reducing arsenic concentration to below 10 microg L(-1) in 35 d. The results indicated that the use of young ferns, coupled with feeding of low initial P or split-P application, increased the efficiency of arsenic removal by P. vittata.

  5. Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-02-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  6. Bacterial community composition and diversity of five different permafrost-affected soils of Northeast Greenland.

    PubMed

    Ganzert, Lars; Bajerski, Felizitas; Wagner, Dirk

    2014-08-01

    Greenland is one of the regions of interest with respect to climate change and global warming in the Northern Hemisphere. Little is known about the structure and diversity of the terrestrial bacterial communities in ice-free areas in northern Greenland. These soils are generally poorly developed and usually carbon- and nitrogen-limited. Our goal was to provide the first insights into the soil bacterial communities from five different sites in Northeast Greenland using culture-independent and culture-dependent methods. The comparison of environmental and biological data showed that the soil bacterial communities are diverse and significantly pH-dependent. The most frequently detected OTUs belonged to the phyla Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes and (Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-) Proteobacteria. Low pH together with higher nitrogen and carbon concentrations seemed to support the occurrence of (Alpha-, Beta-, Delta-) Proteobacteria (at the expense of Acidobacteria), whereas Bacteroidetes were predominant at higher values of soil pH. Our study indicates that pH is the main factor for shaping bacterial community, but carbon and nitrogen concentrations as well may become important, especially for selecting oligotrophic microorganisms.

  7. Gender Differences in the High School and Affective Experiences of Introductory College Physics Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazari, Zahra; Sadler, Philip M.; Tai, Robert H.

    2008-10-01

    The disparity in persistence between males and females studying physics has been a topic of concern to physics educators for decades. Overall, while female students perform as well as or better than male students, they continue to lag considerably in terms of persistence. The most significant drop in females studying physics occurs between high school and college.2 Since most female physicists report that they became attracted to physics and decided to study it further while in high school, according to the International Study of Women in Physics,3 it is problematic that high school is also the stage at which females begin to opt out at much higher rates than males. Although half of the students taking one year of physics in high school are female, females are less likely than males to take a second or Advanced Placement (AP) physics course.4 In addition, the percentage of females taking the first physics course in college usually falls between 30% and 40%. In other words, although you may see gender parity in a first high school physics course, this parity does not usually persist to the next level of physics course. In addition, even if there is parity in a high school physics course, it does not mean that males and females experience the course in the same way. It is this difference in experience that may help to explain the drop in persistence of females.

  8. The difference practice makes: Evidence, articulation, and affect in HIV prevention.

    PubMed

    Race, Kane

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the difference that a conception of sex as social practice has made to the relations articulated in HIV social research in Australia. In defining sexual practice as "fluid, embedded in specific social formations, and involving the negotiation of meaning" (Kippax & Stephenson, 2005), social researchers put their own research categories and questions at risk by constructing situations in which the objects of research were given occasions to counter researchers' presumptions through the use of their own categories. Taking this risk produced sharp insights about the evolving dynamics of gay sexuality in this context and produced distinctive, interesting findings. It enabled the articulation of the practice of negotiated safety and later strategies of HIV risk reduction emerging from gay men's practice, for example. I draw on Latour's (2004) concept of articulation to make sense of these innovations and cut through some of the key distinctions that organize HIV research: qualitative/quantitative; social/biomedical; subject/ object; human/nonhuman; interpretations/evidence. Rather than rest on the organizing power of these distinctions, keeping HIV prevention effective, engaging and interesting will require specific attention to the embodied articulation of HIV relations in the present.

  9. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice with different radial oxygen loss?

    PubMed

    Li, H; Man, Y B; Ye, Z H; Wu, C; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2013-11-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the temporal variation of arsenic (As) speciation and accumulation in two paddy rice cultivars (TD 71 and Xiushui 11) with different degrees of radial oxygen loss (ROL) at three growth periods (day 7, day 35, day 63 after flooding the soil) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 30 mg As kg(-1). The results showed that TD 71 with high ROL colonized by Glomus intraradices led to higher root colonization rates than Xiushui 11 at three growth periods, both in soil with or without 30 mg As kg(-1) (p<0.05). Mycorrhizal inoculation led to elevated (p<0.05) root ratios of arsenite (As(III)) conc./arsenate (As(V)) conc. (concentration) in TD 71 with high ROL at three growth periods in As contaminated flooding soils. Furthermore, the ratios of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in roots of TD71 were significantly more than Xiushui 11 when colonized by AMF at three growth periods in 30 mg As kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). Therefore, rice with high ROL can favor AM fungal infection and enhance root ratio of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in the presence of AMF.

  10. Different Culture Media Affect Proliferation, Surface Epitope Expression, and Differentiation of Ovine MSC.

    PubMed

    Adamzyk, Carina; Emonds, Tanja; Falkenstein, Julia; Tolba, René; Jahnen-Dechent, Wilhelm; Lethaus, Bernd; Neuss, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic implants including engineered bone tissue are commonly tested in sheep. To avoid rejection of heterologous or xenogeneic cells, autologous cells are preferably used, that is, ovine mesenchymal stem cells (oMSC). Unlike human MSC, ovine MSC are not well studied regarding isolation, expansion, and characterization. Here we investigated the impact of culture media composition on growth characteristics, differentiation, and surface antigen expression of oMSC. The culture media varied in fetal calf serum (FCS) content and in the addition of supplements and/or additional epidermal growth factor (EGF). We found that FCS strongly influenced oMSC proliferation and that specific combinations of supplemental factors (MCDB-201, ITS-plus, dexamethasone, and L-ascorbic acid) determined the expression of surface epitopes. We compared two published protocols for oMSC differentiation towards the osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic fate and found (i) considerable donor to donor variations, (ii) protocol-dependent variations, and (iii) variations resulting from the preculture medium composition. Our results indicate that the isolation and culture of oMSC in different growth media are highly variable regarding oMSC phenotype and behaviour. Furthermore, variations from donor to donor critically influence growth rate, surface marker expression, and differentiation.

  11. Antioxidant capacity of different cheeses: Affecting factors and prediction by near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Revilla, I; González-Martín, M I; Vivar-Quintana, A M; Blanco-López, M A; Lobos-Ortega, I A; Hernández-Hierro, J M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we analyzed antioxidant capacity of 224 cheese samples prepared using 16 varied mixtures of milk from cows, ewes, and goats, in 2 manufacturing seasons (winter and summer), and over 6mo of ripening. Antioxidant capacity was evaluated using the spectrophotometric 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylenebenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) method. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly correlated with season of manufacturing and time of ripening but not with animal species providing the milk. Moreover, statistically significant correlations between the total antioxidant capacity and retinol (r=0.399), fat percentage (r=0.308), protein percentage (r=0.366), K (r=0.385), Mg (r=0.312), Na (r=0.432), and P (0.272) were observed. We evaluated the use of near infrared spectroscopy technology, together with the use of a remote reflectance fiber-optic probe, to predict the antioxidant capacity of cheese samples. The model generated allowed us to predict antioxidant capacity in unknown cheeses of different compositions and ripening times.

  12. Do arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi affect arsenic accumulation and speciation in rice with different radial oxygen loss?

    PubMed

    Li, H; Man, Y B; Ye, Z H; Wu, C; Wu, S C; Wong, M H

    2013-11-15

    The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the temporal variation of arsenic (As) speciation and accumulation in two paddy rice cultivars (TD 71 and Xiushui 11) with different degrees of radial oxygen loss (ROL) at three growth periods (day 7, day 35, day 63 after flooding the soil) were investigated in soil, spiked with and without 30 mg As kg(-1). The results showed that TD 71 with high ROL colonized by Glomus intraradices led to higher root colonization rates than Xiushui 11 at three growth periods, both in soil with or without 30 mg As kg(-1) (p<0.05). Mycorrhizal inoculation led to elevated (p<0.05) root ratios of arsenite (As(III)) conc./arsenate (As(V)) conc. (concentration) in TD 71 with high ROL at three growth periods in As contaminated flooding soils. Furthermore, the ratios of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in roots of TD71 were significantly more than Xiushui 11 when colonized by AMF at three growth periods in 30 mg As kg(-1) soil (p<0.05). Therefore, rice with high ROL can favor AM fungal infection and enhance root ratio of As(III) conc./As(V) conc. in the presence of AMF. PMID:22673057

  13. The regulatory properties of Rubisco activase differ among species and affect photosynthetic induction during light transitions.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, A Elizabete; Salvucci, Michael E

    2013-04-01

    Rubisco's catalytic chaperone, Rubisco activase (Rca), uses the energy from ATP hydrolysis to restore catalytic competence to Rubisco. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), inhibition of Rca activity by ADP is fine tuned by redox regulation of the α-isoform. To elucidate the mechanism for Rca regulation in species containing only the redox-insensitive β-isoform, the response of activity to ADP was characterized for different Rca forms. When assayed in leaf extracts, Rubisco activation was significantly inhibited by physiological ratios of ADP to ATP in species containing both α-Rca and β-Rca (Arabidopsis and camelina [Camelina sativa]) or just the β-Rca (tobacco [Nicotiana tabacum]). However, Rca activity was insensitive to ADP inhibition in an Arabidopsis transformant, rwt43, which expresses only Arabidopsis β-Rca, although not in a transformant of Arabidopsis that expresses a tobacco-like β-Rca. ATP hydrolysis by recombinant Arabidopsis β-Rca was much less sensitive to inhibition by ADP than recombinant tobacco β-Rca. Mutation of 17 amino acids in the tobacco β-Rca to the corresponding Arabidopsis residues reduced ADP sensitivity. In planta, Rubisco deactivated at low irradiance except in the Arabidopsis rwt43 transformant containing an ADP-insensitive Rca. Induction of CO2 assimilation after transition from low to high irradiance was much more rapid in the rwt43 transformant compared with plants containing ADP-sensitive Rca forms. The faster rate of photosynthetic induction and a greater enhancement of growth under a fluctuating light regime by the rwt43 transformant compared with wild-type Arabidopsis suggests that manipulation of Rca regulation might provide a strategy for enhancing photosynthetic performance in certain variable light environments.

  14. Two types of mental fatigue affect spontaneous oscillatory brain activities in different ways

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fatigue has a multi-factorial nature. We examined the effects of two types of mental fatigue on spontaneous oscillatory brain activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Methods Participants were randomly assigned to two groups in a single-blinded, crossover fashion to perform two types of mental fatigue-inducing experiments. Each experiment consisted of a 30-min fatigue-inducing 0- or 2-back test session and two evaluation sessions performed just before and after the fatigue-inducing mental task session. Results After the 0-back test, decreased alpha power was indicated in the right angular gyrus and increased levels in the left middle and superior temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and right medial frontal gyrus. After the 2-back test, decreased alpha power was indicated in the right middle and superior frontal gyrus and increased levels in the left inferior parietal and superior parietal lobules, right parahippocampal gyrus, right uncus, left postcentral gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus. For beta power, increased power following the 0-back test was indicated in the left middle temporal gyrus, left superior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, and left precentral gyrus. After the 2-back test, decreased power was suggested in the left superior frontal gyrus and increased levels in the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule. Some of these brain regions might be associated with task performance during the fatigue-inducing trials. Conclusions Two types of mental fatigue may produce different alterations of the spontaneous oscillatory MEG activities. Our findings would provide new perspectives on the neural mechanisms underlying mental fatigue. PMID:23305089

  15. Virus load in pigs affected with different clinical forms of classical swine fever.

    PubMed

    Rout, M; Saikumar, G

    2012-04-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an endemic disease in India, but the real magnitude of the problem is not known as only outbreaks of acute CSF are reported and many cases of chronic and clinically inapparent forms of the disease, which manifest a confusing clinical picture, remain undiagnosed. The real status of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) infection can only be known by testing pigs with highly specific and sensitive diagnostic assays. To obtain the baseline prevalence of CSFV infection among pigs in an endemic region where no vaccination was being performed, a real-time PCR assay was used to detect viral genetic material in tissue samples collected from a slaughterhouse in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh in India. In total, 1120 slaughtered pigs were examined for the presence of CSF suggestive pathological lesions and tissues from suspected cases were tested for the presence of CSFV antigen and nucleic acids by indirect immuno-peroxidase test and real-time PCR, respectively. Based on the detection of viral genetic material in the tonsils, the prevalence of CSFV infection among slaughtered pigs was found to be 7.67%. Pigs detected positive for viral genome by quantitative real-time PCR assay when categorized into different forms of CSF, depending upon the pathological lesions observed, the viral load in the tonsils of some of the pigs with chronic or clinically inapparent form of the disease was similar to that detected in pigs with acute CSF. The results of the study suggested that the risk posed by pigs with chronic disease or those infected but showing no clinical disease may be relatively higher as they can transmit the virus to new susceptible hosts over a longer period of time.

  16. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. PMID:26149415

  17. Factors affecting stomatal uptake of ozone by different canopies and a comparison between dose and exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leiming; Vet, Robert; Brook, Jeffrey R; Legge, Allan H

    2006-10-15

    Measured ozone (O(3)) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) concentrations and fluxes over five different canopies (mixed coniferous-deciduous forest, deciduous forest, corn, soybean and pasture) in the eastern USA were analyzed to investigate the stomatal uptake of O(3). It was found that the ambient O(3) concentration levels had little effect on stomatal conductance. However, the accumulated stomatal uptake of O(3), upon reaching a threshold value on any given day, appears to reduce the rate of further O(3) uptake substantially. This may explain why the maximum O(3) deposition velocity often appeared in the early morning hours over some forest canopies. Substantially reduced CO(2) fluxes over wet canopies compared to dry canopies suggest that stomata were likely partially or totally blocked by water droplets or films when canopies were wet. By using a big-leaf dry deposition model, measured O(3) fluxes were separated into stomatal and non-stomatal portions. It was estimated that stomatal uptake contributed 55-75% of the total daytime O(3) fluxes and 40-60% of the total daytime plus nighttime fluxes, depending on canopy type. This suggests that about half of the total O(3) flux occurred through the non-stomatal pathway. At three locations (deciduous forest, corn and soybean sites), O(3) concentrations of 30-60 ppb and of 60-85 ppb contributed equally to the accumulated stomatal fluxes, while at the other two locations (mixed coniferous-deciduous forest and pasture sites), concentrations of 30-60 ppb contributed twice as much as those from 60 to 85 ppb.

  18. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  19. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  20. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m-2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m-2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher density

  1. Does the different mowing regime affect soil biological activity and floristic composition of thermophilous Pieniny meadow?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Józefowska, Agnieszka; Zaleski, Tomasz; Zarzycki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The study area was located in the Pieniny National Park in the Carpathian Mountain (Southern Poland). About 30% of Park's area is covered by meadows. The climax stage of this area is forest. Therefore extensive use is indispensable action to keep semi-natural grassland such as termophilous Pieniny meadows, which are characterized by a very high biodiversity. The purpose of this research was to answer the question, how the different way of mowing: traditional scything (H), and mechanical mowing (M) or abandonment of mowing (N) effect on the biological activity of soil. Soil biological activity has been expressed by microbial and soil fauna activity. Microbial activity was described directly by count of microorganisms and indirectly by enzymatic activity (dehydrogenase - DHA) and the microbial biomass carbon content (MBC). Enchytraeidae and Lumbricidae were chosen as representatives of soil fauna. Density and species diversity of this Oligochaeta was determined. Samples were collected twice in June (before mowing) and in September (after mowing). Basic soil properties, such as pH value, organic carbon and nitrogen content, moisture and temperature, were determined. Mean count of vegetative bacteria forms, fungi and Actinobacteria was higher in H than M and N. Amount of bacteria connected with nitrification and denitrification process and Clostridium pasteurianum was the highest in soil where mowing was discontinued 11 years ago. The microbial activity measured indirectly by MBC and DHA indicated that the M had the highest activity. The soil biological activity in second term of sampling had generally higher activity than soil collected in June. That was probably connected with highest organic carbon content in soil resulting from mowing and the end of growing season. Higher earthworm density was in mowing soil (220 and 208 individuals m‑2 in H and M respectively) compare to non-mowing one (77 ind. m‑2). The density of Enchytraeidae was inversely, the higher

  2. A multilevel analysis of factors affecting pocket probing depth in patients responding differently to periodontal treatment.

    PubMed

    Axtelius, B; Söderfeldt, B; Attström, R

    1999-02-01

    3 distinct levels are involved in the periodontal inflammatory process: site, tooth, and individual. By focusing attention on the levels in the population, multilevel or hierarchical modelling (MLM) enables the researcher to understand where and how the effects at the levels involved are occurring. The aim of this paper is therefore to analyse the progression of periodontal disease using analytical models that consider the level hierarchy. 22 patients with periodontitis, in previous reports described as either non-responsive or responsive to periodontal treatment, were investigated. In the multilevel modelling method (MLM), the site pocket probing depth (PPD) is summarised in 3 parameters: the overall mean, the between-individual variance, and the within-individual, between-site variance. The model can readily be extended to include independent variables for sites, teeth and individuals. If these variables are important determinants of PPD, their inclusion in the model will lead to a reduction in residual variances between sites, teeth and individuals. The PPDs were used for construction of a PPD change variable (cPPD). This variable, together with the final registrations of PPD (fPPD) alone, were used as dependent variables in the MLM. Independent predictor variables, 12 on site-level, 3 on tooth-level, and 19 on individual-level, were constructed. The total number of sites assessed was 2236 distributed on 559 teeth in 22 subjects. Initially, a fixed, fully unconditional model (models A and E) was assessed, where no predictor variables were specified at any level. Different random-intercept models (B-D, F-H) were then calculated where the independent variables were inserted in blocks relating to each level. The variance components at all 3 levels were significantly larger than zero. This indicates that MLM is recommended for analysing the present data. The inserted predictors showed 100% sensitivity relating to the subject-level variance. Subsequent testing of the

  3. Different aliphatic dicarboxylates affected assemble of new coordination polymers constructed from flexible-rigid mixed ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xinxin; Ma Ying; Wang Enbo

    2007-11-15

    In this article, seven coordination polymers: [Cd(C{sub 5}H{sub 6}O{sub 4})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})]{sub n} (1), [Zn(C{sub 5}H{sub 6}O{sub 4})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})]{sub n} (2), [Cd(C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 4})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})]{sub n} (3), {l_brace}[Mn(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O){sub 4}] (C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}).4H{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub n} (4), [Mn{sub 5}(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4}){sub 4}(O)]{sub n} (5), [Cd(C{sub 4}H{sub 4}O{sub 4})(C{sub 10}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (6) and [Zn(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}O{sub 4})(C{sub 12}H{sub 8}N{sub 2})(H{sub 2}O)]{sub n} (7) were synthesized and characterized by single-crystallographic X-ray diffraction. Compounds 1 and 2 are two-dimensional layers connected by glutarate anions and 4,4'-bpy. Unlike compounds 1 and 2, compound 3 is a two-fold interpenetration network. Compound 4 is a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further extended to two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure with hydrogen bond. During the synthesis of compound 4, to our surprise, we got compound 5; compound 5 is an interesting three-dimensional network composed of pentanuclear Mn(II) building units and succinate anions. Compound 6 is also a two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure composed of one-dimensional chain-like structure with hydrogen bonds and {pi}-{pi} interactions. Compound 7 is also a one-dimensional chain-like structure, which is further connected with the same kind of interaction to generate two-dimensional supramolecular layer structure. Furthermore, compounds 1 and 2 both exhibit fluorescent property at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Seven complexes composed by 3D metal ions, aliphatic acid ligand and rigid bidentate nitrogen ligands: 4,4'-bpy, 2,2'-bpy and 1,10'-phen. With the change of the carbon number of the backbone of aliphatic dicarboxylate ligand, we can synthesize different complexes with various structures.

  4. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and cereals differently affect gut development in broiler chickens and young pigs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-12-17

    Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp

  5. Growth Performance of Early Finishing Gilts as Affected by Different Net Energy Concentrations in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gang Il; Kim, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Jong Hyuk; Kil, Dong Yong

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to study the response of the growth performance of early finishing gilts to different net energy (NE) concentrations in diets, and to compare the NE values of diets between calculated NE values and measured NE values using French and Dutch CVB (Centraal Veevoederbureau; Central Bureau for Livestock Feeding) NE systems. In a metabolism trail, the NE concentrations in five diets used for the growth trial were determined based on digestible nutrient concentrations, digestible energy, and metabolizable energy using a replicated 5×5 Latin square design with 10 barrows (initial body weight [BW], 39.2±2.2 kg). In a growth trial, a total of 60 early finishing gilts (Landrace×Yorkshire; initial BW, 47.7±3.5 kg) were allotted to five dietary treatments of 8.0, 9.0, 10.0, 11.0, and 12.0 MJ NE/kg (calculated, as-is basis) with 12 replicate pens and one pig per pen in a 42-d feeding experiment. The NE and amino acid (AA) concentrations in all diets were calculated based on the values from NRC (2012). Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE concentrations in all diets were closely maintained. Pigs were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. Results indicated that calculated NE concentrations in diets (i.e., five dietary treatments) were close to measured NE concentrations using French NE system in diets. The final BW was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.05) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. Furthermore, average daily gain (ADG) was increased (linear and quadratic, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets. There was a quadratic relationship (p<0.01) between average daily feed intake and NE concentrations in diets. Feed efficiency (G:F) was also increased (linear, p<0.01) as NE concentrations in diets were increased. The NE intake per BW gain (kcal NE/kg of BWG) was increased (linear, p<0.01) with increasing NE concentrations in diets that were predicted from both French and Dutch CVB NE

  6. A Case of Bilateral Aseptic Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Diana; Trăistaru, Rodica; Kamal, C K; Alexandru, D O; Mogoantă, L; Grecu, D C

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a disease whose etiology is not completely elucidated and generally affects young adults aged between 30 and 50 years. In a significant number of patients bilateral disease occurs, which makes detection in its early stages constitute an important objective. We present the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with the following risk factors: smoking and chronic alcohol consumption, who is diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the left femoral head, ARCO stage IV, and in just six months after the diagnosis and hip arthroplasty, he suffers an injury which leads to the same diagnosis in the contralateral hip. We want to emphasize that for all patients with a high index of suspicion there should be an MRI examination, because the plane radiographs or CT are most often not relevant in detecting early signs of this condition. Diagnosis of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in the early stages is a necessity in order to obtain an optimal result of conservative treatment.

  7. A Case of Bilateral Aseptic Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    KAMAL, DIANA; TRĂISTARU, RODICA; KAMAL, C.K.; ALEXANDRU, D.O.; MOGOANTĂ, L.; GRECU, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a disease whose etiology is not completely elucidated and generally affects young adults aged between 30 and 50 years. In a significant number of patients bilateral disease occurs, which makes detection in its early stages constitute an important objective. We present the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with the following risk factors: smoking and chronic alcohol consumption, who is diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the left femoral head, ARCO stage IV, and in just six months after the diagnosis and hip arthroplasty, he suffers an injury which leads to the same diagnosis in the contralateral hip. We want to emphasize that for all patients with a high index of suspicion there should be an MRI examination, because the plane radiographs or CT are most often not relevant in detecting early signs of this condition. Diagnosis of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in the early stages is a necessity in order to obtain an optimal result of conservative treatment. PMID:26788359

  8. Toxic myopathy and acute hepatic necrosis in cattle caused by ingestion of Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Zanata, Carina; Damasceno, Everson Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pintar; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    The epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of field and experimental Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) poisoning in cattle are described. The low availability of good quality forage and high rate of infestation of pastures by S. obtusifolia were the factors that led to poisonous plant ingestion. In this study, the morbidity ranged between 2% and 27.9%, and the lethality was 100%. For the experimental study, six cattle were fed with the aerial parts of S. obtusifolia collected in three different seasons at 9%-38% of the animal's body weight. The experimental and field diseases were similar. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, reluctance to move, muscular weakness and recumbency. The gross findings included pale discoloration of the skeletal muscle. Microscopically, the affected cattle showed degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal muscles and occasionally of the cardiac muscles. Additionally, two cattle showed centrilobular hepatic necrosis. In this study, S. obtusifolia collected from the same farm showed seasonal variation in toxicity. Poisoning by S. obtusifolia is an important cause of death of cattle in the Central Western region of Brazil. The toxicosis caused by this plant is similar to S. occidentalis poisoning; however, in S. obtusifolia poisoning, acute hepatic necrosis is sometimes present. PMID:25255730

  9. Toxic myopathy and acute hepatic necrosis in cattle caused by ingestion of Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Zanata, Carina; Damasceno, Everson Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pintar; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    The epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of field and experimental Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) poisoning in cattle are described. The low availability of good quality forage and high rate of infestation of pastures by S. obtusifolia were the factors that led to poisonous plant ingestion. In this study, the morbidity ranged between 2% and 27.9%, and the lethality was 100%. For the experimental study, six cattle were fed with the aerial parts of S. obtusifolia collected in three different seasons at 9%-38% of the animal's body weight. The experimental and field diseases were similar. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, reluctance to move, muscular weakness and recumbency. The gross findings included pale discoloration of the skeletal muscle. Microscopically, the affected cattle showed degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal muscles and occasionally of the cardiac muscles. Additionally, two cattle showed centrilobular hepatic necrosis. In this study, S. obtusifolia collected from the same farm showed seasonal variation in toxicity. Poisoning by S. obtusifolia is an important cause of death of cattle in the Central Western region of Brazil. The toxicosis caused by this plant is similar to S. occidentalis poisoning; however, in S. obtusifolia poisoning, acute hepatic necrosis is sometimes present.

  10. Lipolysis of visceral adipocyte triglyceride by pancreatic lipases converts mild acute pancreatitis to severe pancreatitis independent of necrosis and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krutika; Trivedi, Ram N; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Cline, Rachel A; DeLany, James P; Navina, Sarah; Singh, Vijay P

    2015-03-01

    Visceral fat necrosis has been associated with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) for over 100 years; however, its pathogenesis and role in SAP outcomes are poorly understood. Based on recent work suggesting that pancreatic fat lipolysis plays an important role in SAP, we evaluated the role of pancreatic lipases in SAP-associated visceral fat necrosis, the inflammatory response, local injury, and outcomes of acute pancreatitis (AP). For this, cerulein pancreatitis was induced in lean and obese mice, alone or with the lipase inhibitor orlistat and parameters of AP induction (serum amylase and lipase), fat necrosis, pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure, and inflammatory response were assessed. Pancreatic lipases were measured in fat necrosis and were overexpressed in 3T3-L1 cells. We noted obesity to convert mild cerulein AP to SAP with greater cytokines, unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and multisystem organ failure, and 100% mortality without affecting AP induction or pancreatic necrosis. Increased pancreatic lipase amounts and activity were noted in the extensive visceral fat necrosis of dying obese mice. Lipase inhibition reduced fat necrosis, UFAs, organ failure, and mortality but not the parameters of AP induction. Pancreatic lipase expression increased lipolysis in 3T3-L1 cells. We conclude that UFAs generated via lipolysis of visceral fat by pancreatic lipases convert mild AP to SAP independent of pancreatic necrosis and the inflammatory response. PMID:25579844

  11. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship. PMID:23519591

  12. Changing self-reported physical activity using different types of affectively and cognitively framed health messages, in a student population.

    PubMed

    Morris, Benjamin; Lawton, Rebecca; McEachan, Rosemary; Hurling, Robert; Conner, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The present research focused upon the power of different messages to increase self-reported physical activity (PA). Five hundered and ninety six participants were randomised to one of five conditions that varied in the content of message: short-term affective, short-term cognitive, long-term affective, long-term cognitive and a no message control. PA was measured at baseline and follow-up (seven days later) was done using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire over the subsequent seven day period. The affective short-term message (ASM) was shown to be equally effective at increasing self-reported PA as a cognitive long-term message. Furthermore, when controlling for baseline activity levels, the ASM emerged as being the message that produced the highest levels of self-reported PA at follow-up. The findings point to the value of distinguishing between health messages in terms of the focus on affective and cognitive outcomes and the temporal nature of the outcomes (short-term or long-term).

  13. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

  14. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  15. Taking the long view: Implications of individual differences in temporal distancing for affect, stress reactivity, and well-being.

    PubMed

    Bruehlman-Senecal, Emma; Ayduk, Özlem; John, Oliver P

    2016-10-01

    Recent experimental work demonstrates that temporal distancing from negative experiences reduces distress. Yet two central questions remain: (a) do people differ in the habitual tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences, and if so (b) what implications does this tendency have for well-being? Seven studies explored these questions. Study 1 describes the construction and reliability of the Temporal Distancing Questionnaire, a new measure of individual differences in the tendency to place negative experiences into a broader future time perspective. Study 2 establishes a nomological network around this construct, examining the relationship of temporal distancing to other theoretically related constructs. Study 3 tests whether people high in temporal distancing (i.e., "high temporal distancers") experience greater concurrent well-being, including greater positive affect and life satisfaction and lesser negative affect, worry, and depressive symptoms. Study 4 examines whether temporal distancing predicts well-being measured at the daily level, and across time. Finally, Studies 5a-5c explore a key way in which temporal distancing may support psychological well-being-by facilitating more adaptive responses to negative experiences. Our results demonstrate that the tendency to temporally distance from negative experiences predicts a more positive profile of affective experiences and stress-reactivity that may support immediate and longer-term well-being. Moreover, many of these findings remained significant when controlling for general reappraisal tendencies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Thermal acclimation and nutritional history affect the oxidation of different classes of exogenous nutrients in Siberian hamsters, Phodopus sungorus.

    PubMed

    McCue, Marshall D; Voigt, Christian C; Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-11-01

    During acclimatization to winter, changes in morphology and physiology combined with changes in diet may affect how animals use the nutrients they ingest. To study (a) how thermal acclimation and (b) nutritional history affect the rates at which Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) oxidize different classes of dietary nutrients, we conducted two trials in which we fed hamsters one of three (13) C-labeled compounds, that is, glucose, leucine, or palmitic acid. We predicted that under acute cold stress (3 hr at 2°C) hamsters previously acclimated to cold temperatures (10°C) for 3 weeks would have higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and would oxidize a greater proportion of dietary fatty acids than animals acclimated to 21°C. We also investigated how chronic nutritional stress affects how hamsters use dietary nutrients. To examine this, hamsters were fed four different diets (control, low protein, low lipid, and low-glycemic index) for 2 weeks. During cold challenges, hamsters previously acclimated to cold exhibited higher thermal conductance and RMR, and also oxidized more exogenous palmitic acid during the postprandial phase than animals acclimated to 21°C. In the nutritional stress trial, hamsters fed the low protein diet oxidized more exogenous glucose, but not more exogenous palmitic acid than the control group. The use of (13) C-labeled metabolic tracers combined with breath testing demonstrated that both thermal and nutritional history results in significant changes in the extent to which animals oxidize dietary nutrients during the postprandial period.

  17. Gender differences in Salix myrsinifolia at the pre-reproductive stage are little affected by simulated climatic change.

    PubMed

    Nybakken, Line; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2013-04-01

    Females of dioecious species are known often to prioritize defense, while males grow faster. As climatic change is known to influence both growth and defense in plants, it would be important to know whether it affects the sexes of dioecious species differently. This could have impacts on future sex ratios in nature. We grew four clones of each sex of Salix myrsinifolia in greenhouse chambers under ambient conditions, enhanced temperature, enhanced CO2 or enhanced temperature  +  enhanced CO2 . The females had the greatest growth and also the highest levels of phenolic compounds in twigs, while in leaves some compounds were higher in males, some in females. Enhanced CO2 increased growth equally in both sexes, while growth was not affected by elevated temperature. Phenolic compounds in twigs were, however, lowered under elevated temperature. The gender differences were not strongly affected by the simulated climatic changes, but the effects seen on some highly concentrated compounds may be important. We interpret the intensive growth at pre-reproductive phase as a strategy in females to get an initial advantage before later periods with fewer resources available for growth.

  18. [Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in young adults].

    PubMed

    Vasey, H M

    1984-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a well-defined entity. The underlying diseases originate from very different types of pathological conditions. Alcoholism, cortisone therapy, gout or hyperuricemia, sickle cell anaemia and others all lead, through various pathways, to the impairment of the medullary blood flow. In many instances, a compartment syndrome can be demonstrated in the femoral head. Death of the osteocytes follows bone marrow necrosis. Revascularisation originates in the periphery of the necrotic segment. Vascular buds and fibroblasts invade the medullary space. New bone is laid over the necrotic trabeculae. Mechanical failure results from changes in the bony framework at three different levels. The subchondral boneplate may be weakened by the process of revascularisation, the necrotic trabeculae may fail because of diminished stiffness and strength, and overloading has been demonstrated at the junction between dead and living bone. Elevation of the intramedullary pressure is the first objective sign of impending or established bone necrosis. Scintigraphy with Technetium 99 m - Sulphur colloid can now show the early stages of marrow necrosis. Roentgenographic changes only appear in a later phase of the disease. Aseptic necrosis must be considered as involving both hips, unless proven otherwise. Attention given to the "silent hip" may allow salvage and prevent the occurrence of osteo-arthritic changes leaving merely unilateral disease. As long as the geometrical shape of the femoral head is maintained operation may well prove useful. The aim at this stage is to prevent collapse. It is impossible to know in the early stages whether mechanical failure will occur, but there is general agreement that the femoral head will eventually undergo deformation. A spherical epiphysis is therefore considered a success. All the conservative methods aim to decompress the medullary cavity. Core biopsy, curettage, bone grafting and intertrochanteric osteotomy all have

  19. Renal Papillary Necrosis: Role of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Vaidehi K.

    2016-01-01

    Renal Papillary Necrosis (RPN) is idefined as Ischemic necrobiosis of the papilla in the medulla of the kidneys. Variety of etiological factors are recognized which cause papillary necrosis, such as analgesic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, urinary obstruction and sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. The early diagnosis of RPN is important to improve prognosis and reduce morbidity. Radiological Imaging offers early diagnosis and can guide prompt treatment of papillary necrosis and can minimize a decline in renal function. Here we report three cases of RPN with typical imaging findings. One of them was diabetic and hypertensive female with recurrent Urinary tract Infections and other was a male with no known co-morbidity. Both of them were diagnosed to have renal papillary necrosis on CT scan and were managed operatively and conservatively, respectively. Third case was a healthy female being investigated to be renal donor for her son. Here RPN was an incidental finding and was treated conservatively. Thus CT scan could detect it pre-operatively and complications due to transplantation of a kidney with papillary necrosis were avoided. So, we want to emphasize the importance of Radiology, particularly CT scanning in detection of RPN and to guide early and prompt treatment. PMID:26894147

  20. Not all sounds sound the same: Parkinson's disease affects differently emotion processing in music and in speech prosody.

    PubMed

    Lima, César F; Garrett, Carolina; Castro, São Luís

    2013-01-01

    Does emotion processing in music and speech prosody recruit common neurocognitive mechanisms? To examine this question, we implemented a cross-domain comparative design in Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty-four patients and 25 controls performed emotion recognition tasks for music and spoken sentences. In music, patients had impaired recognition of happiness and peacefulness, and intact recognition of sadness and fear; this pattern was independent of general cognitive and perceptual abilities. In speech, patients had a small global impairment, which was significantly mediated by executive dysfunction. Hence, PD affected differently musical and prosodic emotions. This dissociation indicates that the mechanisms underlying the two domains are partly independent.

  1. On the relation of necrosis and inflammation to denaturation of proteins.

    PubMed

    OPIE, E L

    1962-03-01

    Necrosis of the skin was produced by the injection of measured quantities of electrolytes and of amino compounds into the dermis, and the relative ability of these substances to produce it was determined. Inflammation characterized by edema and accumulation of leucocytes accompanied necrosis. The ability of electrolytes to produce necrosis was found to increase with the valence of their basic ion, and in this respect was in accord with their ability to denature proteins. The quantity of different electrolytes needed to produce necrosis varied in the same order as the molar concentration of these electrolytes, that is isotonic with liver or kidney cells. Necrosis caused by amino compounds occurred with similar relation to the isotonicity of liver cells. In this as in other relations the cells acted as osmometers. The foregoing relations indicate that denaturation of proteins, necrosis of living tissue, and osmotic activity of liver or kidney cells are determined by molecular weight, valence, and ion-dissociation of electrolytes, that is, by the factors that determine the colligative properties of electrolytes. Agents such as turpentine, mustard, or croton oil and some halogen substitution compounds of methyl that are insoluble in water and soluble in lipoids have produced skin necrosis and inflammation.

  2. Metal toxicity differently affects the Iris pseudacorus-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi symbiosis in terrestrial and semi-aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Wężowicz, K; Turnau, K; Anielska, T; Zhebrak, I; Gołuszka, K; Błaszkowski, J; Rozpądek, P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation offers an environmental friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia grown in the basin of the Centuria River (S Poland) were used. Iris pseudacorus was grown in substratum from an industrial waste, enriched in Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cd in a terrestrial and water-logged habitat. Plant yield and photosynthetic performance was the highest in the aquatic environment; however, the presence of toxic metals (TM) negatively affected photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry as shown by the JIP test. Fungi colonization and Cd accumulation within plant tissues was decreased. In the terrestrial habitat, neither arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) nor metal toxicity affected plant growth, although metal uptake, Cd in particular, as well as photosynthesis were affected. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more Cd, and photosynthesis was downregulated. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the I. pseudacorus-AMF symbiosis adapts itself to the presence of toxic metals in the environment, optimizing resource supply, energy fluxes, and possibly stress tolerance mechanisms. Plant/AMF consortia grown in terrestrial and water-logged habitats utilize different strategies to cope with metal toxicity. The use of AMF in improving the phytoremediation potential of I. pseudacorus needs, however, further research.

  3. Metal toxicity differently affects the Iris pseudacorus-arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi symbiosis in terrestrial and semi-aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Wężowicz, K; Turnau, K; Anielska, T; Zhebrak, I; Gołuszka, K; Błaszkowski, J; Rozpądek, P

    2015-12-01

    Phytoremediation offers an environmental friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques. In this study, mycorrhizal fungi isolated from the roots of Mentha longifolia grown in the basin of the Centuria River (S Poland) were used. Iris pseudacorus was grown in substratum from an industrial waste, enriched in Pb, Fe, Zn, and Cd in a terrestrial and water-logged habitat. Plant yield and photosynthetic performance was the highest in the aquatic environment; however, the presence of toxic metals (TM) negatively affected photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry as shown by the JIP test. Fungi colonization and Cd accumulation within plant tissues was decreased. In the terrestrial habitat, neither arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) nor metal toxicity affected plant growth, although metal uptake, Cd in particular, as well as photosynthesis were affected. Inoculated plants accumulated significantly more Cd, and photosynthesis was downregulated. The results presented in this study clearly indicate that the I. pseudacorus-AMF symbiosis adapts itself to the presence of toxic metals in the environment, optimizing resource supply, energy fluxes, and possibly stress tolerance mechanisms. Plant/AMF consortia grown in terrestrial and water-logged habitats utilize different strategies to cope with metal toxicity. The use of AMF in improving the phytoremediation potential of I. pseudacorus needs, however, further research. PMID:26585452

  4. Are preoperative sex-related differences of affective symptoms in primary brain tumor patients associated with postoperative histopathological grading?

    PubMed

    Richter, Andre; Jenewein, J; Krayenbühl, N; Woernle, C; Bellut, D

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the impact of the histopathological tumor type on affective symptoms before surgery among male and female patients with supratentorial primary brain tumors. A total of 44 adult patients were included in the study. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Additionally, clinical interviews, including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), were conducted. The general function of patients was measured with the Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). All measures were obtained before surgery and therefore before the final histopathological diagnosis. All self-rating questionnaires but not the HDRS, showed significantly higher scores in female patients. The functional status assessed with the KPS was lower in female patients and correlated to the somatic part of the BDI. We further found a tendency for higher HDRS scores in male patients with a WHO grade 4 tumor stage compared to female patients. This finding was supported by positive correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in male and negative correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in female patients. In conclusion the preoperative evaluation of affective symptoms with self-rating questionnaires in patients with brain tumors may be invalidated by the patient’s functional status. Depression should be explored with clinical interviews in these patients. Sex differences of affective symptoms in this patient group may also be related to the malignancy of the tumor, but further studies are needed to disentangle this relationship. PMID:26468140

  5. [The influence of the difference of caries detective methods on the bond strength for caries affected root canal dentin].

    PubMed

    Otake, Shiho

    2010-03-01

    Firm adhesion of composite resin and dentin is the basic premise for building up resin composite cores successfully. To assess the efficacy of several caries detective methods (stained with Caries Detector and probing with sharp probe) for caries affected root canal dentin, microtensile bond strengths of resin composite to caries-affected root canal dentin and failure mode distribution were analyzed in this study. Color and hardness were used for assessment of root caries as follows: Dye stain group (pale pink stained with Caries Detector), Probing group (probing with sharp probe) and Sound dentin group (Control). The bond strengths (mean +/- standard deviation) of the Probing group (64.6 +/- 11.9 MPa) and the Sound dentin group (68.7 +/- 11.1 MPa) were significantly higher than those of the Dye stain group (46.9 +/- 7.9 MPa, p<0.05). However, there is no significant difference in fracture mode between the Dye stain group and the Probing group (p<0.05). This could be attributed to that the thick smear layer caused a loss of hybrid layer strength. In conclusion, the caries removal technique of the root canal dentin affected the bond strength of the resin composite.

  6. Are preoperative sex-related differences of affective symptoms in primary brain tumor patients associated with postoperative histopathological grading?

    PubMed

    Richter, Andre; Jenewein, J; Krayenbühl, N; Woernle, C; Bellut, D

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to explore the impact of the histopathological tumor type on affective symptoms before surgery among male and female patients with supratentorial primary brain tumors. A total of 44 adult patients were included in the study. Depression and anxiety were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Additionally, clinical interviews, including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS), were conducted. The general function of patients was measured with the Karnofsky Performance Status scale (KPS). All measures were obtained before surgery and therefore before the final histopathological diagnosis. All self-rating questionnaires but not the HDRS, showed significantly higher scores in female patients. The functional status assessed with the KPS was lower in female patients and correlated to the somatic part of the BDI. We further found a tendency for higher HDRS scores in male patients with a WHO grade 4 tumor stage compared to female patients. This finding was supported by positive correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in male and negative correlations between HDRS scores and WHO grade in female patients. In conclusion the preoperative evaluation of affective symptoms with self-rating questionnaires in patients with brain tumors may be invalidated by the patient’s functional status. Depression should be explored with clinical interviews in these patients. Sex differences of affective symptoms in this patient group may also be related to the malignancy of the tumor, but further studies are needed to disentangle this relationship.

  7. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS.

  8. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

  9. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that – despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees – suggesting the action of associational resistance processes – and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores. PMID:25938417

  10. Tree Species Composition and Harvest Intensity Affect Herbivore Density and Leaf Damage on Beech, Fagus sylvatica, in Different Landscape Contexts.

    PubMed

    Mangels, Jule; Blüthgen, Nico; Frank, Kevin; Grassein, Fabrice; Hilpert, Andrea; Mody, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Most forests are exposed to anthropogenic management activities that affect tree species composition and natural ecosystem processes. Changes in ecosystem processes such as herbivory depend on management intensity, and on regional environmental conditions and species pools. Whereas influences of specific forest management measures have already been addressed for different herbivore taxa on a local scale, studies considering effects of different aspects of forest management across different regions are rare. We assessed the influence of tree species composition and intensity of harvesting activities on arthropod herbivores and herbivore-related damage to beech trees, Fagus sylvatica, in 48 forest plots in three regions of Germany. We found that herbivore abundance and damage to beech trees differed between regions and that - despite the regional differences - density of tree-associated arthropod taxa and herbivore damage were consistently affected by tree species composition and harvest intensity. Specifically, overall herbivore damage to beech trees increased with increasing dominance of beech trees - suggesting the action of associational resistance processes - and decreased with harvest intensity. The density of leaf chewers and mines was positively related to leaf damage, and several arthropod groups responded to beech dominance and harvest intensity. The distribution of damage patterns was consistent with a vertical shift of herbivores to higher crown layers during the season and with higher beech dominance. By linking quantitative data on arthropod herbivore abundance and herbivory with tree species composition and harvesting activity in a wide variety of beech forests, our study helps to better understand the influence of forest management on interactions between a naturally dominant deciduous forest tree and arthropod herbivores.

  11. Tumor necrosis factor-α: regulation of renal function and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a pleiotropic cytokine that becomes elevated in chronic inflammatory states such as hypertension and diabetes and has been found to mediate both increases and decreases in blood pressure. High levels of TNF-α decrease blood pressure, whereas moderate increases in TNF-α have been associated with increased NaCl retention and hypertension. The explanation for these disparate effects is not clear but could simply be due to different concentrations of TNF-α within the kidney, the physiological status of the subject, or the type of stimulus initiating the inflammatory response. TNF-α alters renal hemodynamics and nephron transport, affecting both activity and expression of transporters. It also mediates organ damage by stimulating immune cell infiltration and cell death. Here we will summarize the available findings and attempt to provide plausible explanations for such discrepancies. PMID:23515717

  12. Extensive hepatic necrosis in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Bemmel, L A; Hack, W W; Seldenrijk, C A; Kneepkens, C M

    1992-02-01

    A fatal case of fulminant hepatic failure that occurred in the neonatal period is reported in a premature infant born after 27 4/7-weeks' gestation. Immediately after birth the infant had severe hypoxia and hypotension resulting from birth asphyxia, hypovolemic shock, and septicemia. At autopsy, histological appearance of the liver showed virtually total hepatocellular necrosis without features of fibrosis. Although the exact cause of hepatocellular injury cannot be fully ascertained, it is assumed that hypoxia and hypotension must have been the predominant factors leading to massive hepatic necrosis.

  13. Differential impact of a complex environment on positive affect in an animal model of individual differences in emotionality.

    PubMed

    Perez-Sepulveda, J A; Flagel, S B; Garcia-Fuster, M J; Slusky, R J; Aldridge, J W; Watson, S; Akil, H

    2013-09-17

    Anhedonia, or the inability to experience positive feelings is a hallmark of depression. However, few animal models have relied on decreased positive affect as an index of susceptibility to depression. Rats emit frequency-modulated ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), designated as "positive" calls in the 50-kHz range. USVs have been associated with pharmacological activation of motivational reward circuits. Here we utilized selectively-bred rats differing in "emotionality" to ask whether there are associated differences in USVs. Rats bred based on locomotor response to novelty and classified as bred High Responders (bHRs) or bred Low Responders (bLRs) exhibit inborn differences in response to environmental cues, stress responsiveness, and depression-like behavior. These animals also exhibit differences in anxiety-like behavior, which are reversed by exposure to environmental complexity (EC). Finally, these animals exhibit unique profiles of responsiveness to rewarding stimuli accompanied with distinct patterns of dopamine regulation. We investigated whether acute and chronic environmental manipulations impacted USVs in bHRs and bLRs. We found that, relative to bLRs, bHRs emitted significantly more 50-kHz USVs. However, if a bLR is accompanied by another bLR, there is a significant increase in 50-kHZ USVs emitted by this phenotype. bHRs emitted increases in 50-kHZ UVSs upon first exposure to EC, whereas bLRs showed a similar increase only after repeated exposure. bLRs' increase in positive affect after chronic EC was coupled with significant positive correlations between corticosterone levels and c-fos mRNA in the accumbens. Conversely, a decline in the rate of positive calls in bHRs after chronic EC was associated with a negative correlation between corticosterone and accumbens c-fos mRNA. These studies demonstrate that inborn differences in emotionality interact with the environment to influence positive affect and underscore the potential interaction between

  14. Mother-infant dyadic reparation and individual differences in vagal tone affect 4-month-old infants' social stress regulation.

    PubMed

    Provenzi, Livio; Casini, Erica; de Simone, Paola; Reni, Gianluigi; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-12-01

    Infants' social stress regulation (i.e., reactivity and recovery) might be affected by mother-infant dyadic functioning and infants' vagal tone (i.e., respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA). This study investigated the role of a specific dyadic functioning feature (i.e., dyadic reparation) and individual differences in vagal tone regulation (i.e., RSA suppression vs. non-suppression) in relation to social stress regulation in 4-month-old infants. A total of 65 mother-infant dyads participated in the face-to-face still-face paradigm. Social stress reactivity and recovery were measured as negative emotionality during Still-Face and Reunion episodes, respectively. RSA was measured during Play, Still-Face, and Reunion episodes. Suppressors had higher dyadic reparation during Play and higher recovery from social stress compared with non-suppressors. Higher reparation during Play was associated with lower reactivity and higher recovery only for suppressors. Findings suggest a joint role of infants' RSA individual differences and dyadic reparation in affecting infants' social stress regulation at 4 months of age. PMID:26247809

  15. Membrane voltage differently affects mIPSCs and current responses recorded from somatic excised patches in rat hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Pytel, Maria; Mozrzymas, Jerzy W

    2006-01-30

    Recent analysis of current responses to exogenous GABA applications recorded from excised patches indicated that membrane voltage affected the GABAA receptor gating mainly by altering desensitization and binding [M. Pytel, K. Mercik, J.W. Mozrzymas, Membrane voltage modulates the GABAA receptor gating in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, Neuropharmacology, in press]. In order investigate the impact of such voltage effect on GABAA receptors in conditions of synaptic transmission, mIPSCs and current responses to rapid GABA applications were recorded from the same culture of rat hippocampal neurons. We found that I-V relationship for mIPSCs amplitudes showed a clear outward rectification while for current responses an inward rectification was seen, except for very low GABA concentrations. A clear shift in amplitude cumulative distributions indicated that outward rectification resulted from the voltage effect on the majority of mIPSCs. Moreover, the decaying phase of mIPSCs was clearly slowed down at positive voltages and this effect was represented by a shift in cumulative distributions of weighted decaying time constants. In contrast, deactivation of current responses was only slightly affected by membrane depolarization. These data indicate that the mechanisms whereby the membrane voltage modulates synaptic and extrasynaptic receptors are qualitatively different but the mechanism underlying this difference is not clear.

  16. Alkaline phosphatase activity at the southwest coast of India: A comparison of locations differently affected by upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamatha, S. S.; Malik, Ashish; Varik, Sandesh; Parvathi, V.; Jineesh, V. K.; Gauns, Mangesh U.; LokaBharathi, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The realization of the potential importance of phosphorus (P) as a limiting nutrient in marine ecosystem is increasing globally. Hence, the contribution of biotic variables in mobilizing this nutrient would be relevant especially in productive coastal waters. As alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) indicates the status of P for primary production in aquatic environments, we asked the following question: is the level of APA indicative of P sufficiency or deficiency in coastal waters, especially, where upwelling is a regular phenomenon? Therefore, we have examined the total APA, chlorophyll a along with phosphatase producing bacteria (PPB) and related environmental parameters from nearshore to offshore in coastal waters off Trivandrum and Kochi regions differently affected by upwelling during the onset of monsoon. Off Trivandrum, APA in the offshore waters of 5-m layer at 2.23 μM P h- 1 was > 4 times higher than nearshore. Thus, low APA could be indicative of P sufficiency in coastal waters and higher activity suggestive of deficiency in offshore waters off Trivandrum. In contrast, there was less difference in APA between near and offshore surface waters off Kochi. Our results show that the regions differently affected by upwelling respond differently according to ambient P concentration, distance from shore or depth of water. These observations could apparently be applicable to other coastal systems as well, where gradients in upwelling and phosphate runoff have been noticed. Further studies on other transects would throw more light on the extent and direction of the relationship between APA and ambient P concentration. Such studies would help in understanding the level of control of this nutrient on the productivity of coastal waters.

  17. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered. PMID:26155183

  18. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered. PMID:26155183

  19. Prenatal Hypoxia in Different Periods of Embryogenesis Differentially Affects Cell Migration, Neuronal Plasticity, and Rat Behavior in Postnatal Ontogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Dmitrii S.; Dubrovskaya, Nadezhda M.; Tumanova, Natalia L.; Zhuravin, Igor A.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term effects of prenatal hypoxia on embryonic days E14 or E18 on the number, type and localization of cortical neurons, density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines, and parietal cortex-dependent behavioral tasks were examined in the postnatal ontogenesis of rats. An injection of 5′ethynyl-2′deoxyuridine to pregnant rats was used to label neurons generated on E14 or E18 in the fetuses. In control rat pups a majority of cells labeled on E14 were localized in the lower cortical layers V-VI while the cells labeled on E18 were mainly found in the superficial cortical layers II-III. It was shown that hypoxia both on E14 and E18 results in disruption of neuroblast generation and migration but affects different cell populations. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E14, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was decreased while the number of labeled neurons scattered within the superficial cortical layers was increased. In rat pups subjected to hypoxia on E18, the total number of labeled cells in the parietal cortex was also decreased but the number of scattered labeled neurons was higher in the lower cortical layers. It can be suggested that prenatal hypoxia both on E14 and E18 causes a disruption in neuroblast migration but with a different outcome. Only in rats subjected to hypoxia on E14 did we observe a reduction in the total number of pyramidal cortical neurons and the density of labile synaptopodin-positive dendritic spines in the molecular cortical layer during the first month after birth which affected development of the cortical functions. As a result, rats subjected to hypoxia on E14, but not on E18, had impaired development of the whisker-placing reaction and reduced ability to learn reaching by a forepaw. The data obtained suggest that hypoxia on E14 in the period of generation of the cells, which later differentiate into the pyramidal cortical neurons of the V-VI layers and form cortical minicolumns, affects formation of

  20. [Carbon source metabolic diversity of soil microbial community under different climate types in the area affected by Wenchuan earthquake].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Shuai; Lin, Yong-Ming; Ma, Rui-Feng; Deng, Hao-Jun; Du, Kun; Wu, Cheng-Zhen; Hong, Wei

    2015-02-01

    The MS8.0 Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 led to huge damage to land covers in northwest Sichuan, one of the critical fragile eco-regions in China which can be divided into Semi-arid dry hot climate zone (SDHC) and Subtropical humid monsoon climate zone (SHMC). Using the method of Bilog-ECO-microplate technique, this paper aimed to determine the functional diversity of soil microbial community in the earthquake-affected areas which can be divided into undamaged area (U), recover area (R) and damaged area without recovery (D) under different climate types, in order to provide scientific basis for ecological recovery. The results indicated that the average-well-color-development (AWCD) in undamaged area and recovery area showed SDHC > SHMC, which was contrary to the AWCD in the damaged area without recovery. The AWCD of damaged area without recovery was the lowest in both climate zones. The number of carbon source utilization types of soil microbial in SHMC zone was significantly higher than that in SDHC zone. The carbon source utilization types in both climate zones presented a trend of recover area > undamaged area > damaged area without recovery. The carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community was significantly different in different climate zones. The diversity index and evenness index both showed a ranking of undamaged area > recover area > damaged area without recovery. In addition, the recovery area had the highest richness index. The soil microbial carbon sources metabolism characteristic was affected by soil nutrient, aboveground vegetation biomass and vegetation coverage to some extent. In conclusion, earthquake and its secondary disasters influenced the carbon source metabolic diversity characteristic of soil microbial community mainly through the change of aboveground vegetation and soil environmental factors.

  1. The coat protein of Alternanthera mosaic virus is the elicitor of a temperature-sensitive systemic necrosis in Nicotiana benthamiana, and interacts with a host boron transporter protein

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Nam, Jiryun; Seo, Eun-Young; Nam, Moon; Vaira, Anna Maria; Bae, Hanhong; Jang, Chan-Yong; Lee, Cheol Ho; Kim, Hong Gi; Roh, Mark; Hammond, John

    2014-03-15

    Different isolates of Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV; Potexvirus), including four infectious clones derived from AltMV-SP, induce distinct systemic symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Virus accumulation was enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C; severe clone AltMV 3-7 induced systemic necrosis (SN) and plant death at 15 °C. No interaction with potexvirus resistance gene Rx was detected, although SN was ablated by silencing of SGT1, as for other cases of potexvirus-induced necrosis. Substitution of AltMV 3-7 coat protein (CP{sub SP}) with that from AltMV-Po (CP{sub Po}) eliminated SN at 15 °C, and ameliorated symptoms in Alternanthera dentata and soybean. Substitution of only two residues from CP{sub Po} [either MN(13,14)ID or LA(76,77)IS] efficiently ablated SN in N. benthamiana. CP{sub SP} but not CP{sub Po} interacted with Arabidopsis boron transporter protein AtBOR1 by yeast two-hybrid assay; N. benthamiana homolog NbBOR1 interacted more strongly with CP{sub SP} than CP{sub Po} in bimolecular fluorescence complementation, and may affect recognition of CP as an elicitor of SN. - Highlights: • Alternanthera mosaic virus CP is an elicitor of systemic necrosis in N. benthamiana. • Virus-induced systemic necrosis is enhanced at 15 °C compared to 25 °C. • Induction of systemic necrosis is dependent on as few as two CP amino acid residues. • These residues are at subunit interfaces within the same turn of the virion helix. • Inducer/non-inducer CPs interact differentially with a boron transporter protein.

  2. Pancreatic necrosis in progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, A A; Joos, A

    1980-01-01

    Fatal pancreatic necrosis, secondary to extensive acute arteritic changes, is reported in a case of progressive systemic sclerosis. The patient presented first with hypertension and renal involvement, with active vascular lesions demonstrated by biopsy. The renal lesion at necropsy was inactive, showing the characteristic concentric fibrosis only, while the pancreatic vascular lesions were both chronic proliferative and acute in type. Images PMID:7436566

  3. Infectious pancreatic necrosis: its detection and identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.

    1965-01-01

    Ultimate control of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in hatcheries depends largely upon learning where the virus occurs. To detect the presence of virus either susceptible fish or susceptible fish cell cultures may be used as test systems. In modern virology, it is generally agreed that cell cultures are more convenient, are usually a much more sensitive test system, and allow more rapid determinations.

  4. Stress management training as a prevention program for heavy social drinkers: cognitions, affect, drinking, and individual differences.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, D J; Smith, R E; Johnson, S

    1985-01-01

    The effectiveness of cognitive-affective stress management training (SMT) as a drinking reduction program for heavy social drinking college students was investigated. The SMT package included muscle relaxation and meditation training, cognitive restructuring, and coping skill rehearsal during induced affect. Treated and control subjects rated the frequency and intensity of their anxiety, anger and depression and recorded their alcohol consumption on a daily basis over a 6-month period. SMT significantly reduced posttreatment daily anxiety ratings and was associated with changes in four of ten irrational beliefs and a shift toward more internal locus of control in treated subjects. Reduction in anxiety was no longer evident at the 2 1/2- and 5 1/2-month follow-ups. The men in the SMT group showed a significant decrease in daily drinking rates at posttreatment and at the 2 1/2-month follow-up, but drinking returned to baseline levels by 5 1/2 months for the group as a whole. However, significant improvement variance in daily moods and in drinking rates over all posttreatment periods was accounted for by individual difference variables in the trained subjects but not in the control group, suggesting that these cognitive, personality, and social support variables are associated with response to stress management training. Implications of these results for future prevention research are discussed.

  5. Cytochrome P450 differences in normal and imposex-affected female whelk Buccinum undatum from the open North Sea.

    PubMed

    Santos, M M; ten Hallers-Tjabbes, C C; Vieira, N; Boon, J P; Porte, C

    2002-01-01

    Normal and imposex-affected female Buccinum undatum were sampled from the open North Sea at three locations, one with low, and two with high shipping densities. Cytochrome P450 components and P450 aromatase activity were determined in the microsomal fractions isolated from pooled digestive gland/gonads. Cytochrome P450 aromatase activity was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in normal females collected in the low shipping density area (1,325 +/- 295 fmol/h/mg protein) than levels from imposex animals from a high shipping density area (620 +/- 287 fmol/h/mg protein). A negative correlation was found between aromatase activity and organotin body burden (r = -0.99). Levels of CYP450, cytochrome b5 and NADPH cytochrome c reductase activity did not show differences among groups. This is the first field evidence of depressed aromatase activity in imposex affected females, although additional research under laboratory controlled conditions is required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the development of imposex in this species.

  6. How does low temperature coupled with different pressures affect initiation mechanisms and subsequent decompositions in nitramine explosive HMX?

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Xiong, Guolin; Zhu, Weihua; Xiao, Heming

    2015-09-21

    We have performed ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to study coupling effects of temperature (534-873 K) and pressure (1-20 GPa) on the initiation mechanisms and subsequent chemical decompositions of nitramine explosive 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX). A new initiation decomposition mechanism of HMX was found to be the unimolecular C-H bond breaking, and this mechanism was independent of the coupling effects of different temperatures and pressures. The formed hydrogen radicals could promote subsequent decompositions of HMX. Subsequent decompositions were very sensitive to the pressure at low temperatures (534 and 608 K), while the temperature became the foremost factor that affected the decomposition at a high temperature (873 K) instead of the pressure. Our study may provide a new insight into understanding the coupling effects of the temperature and pressure on the initiation decomposition mechanisms of nitramine explosives.

  7. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  8. Acute toxicity of the cationic surfactant C12-benzalkonium in different bioassays: how test design affects bioavailability and effect concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Geurts, Marc; Sjollema, Sascha B; Kramer, Nynke I; Hermens, Joop L M; Droge, Steven T J

    2014-03-01

    Using an ion-exchange-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method, the freely dissolved concentrations of C12-benzalkonium were measured in different toxicity assays, including 1) immobilization of Daphnia magna in the presence or absence of dissolved humic acid; 2) mortality of Lumbriculus variegatus in the presence or absence of a suspension of Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) sediment; 3) photosystem II inhibition of green algae Chlorella vulgaris; and 4) viability of in vitro rainbow trout gill cell line (RTgill-W1) in the presence or absence of serum proteins. Furthermore, the loss from chemical adsorption to the different test vessels used in these tests was also determined. The C12-benzalkonium sorption isotherms to the different sorbent phases were established as well. Our results show that the freely dissolved concentration is a better indicator of the actual exposure concentration than the nominal or total concentration in most test assays. Daphnia was the most sensitive species to C12-benzalkonium. The acute Daphnia and Lumbriculus tests both showed no enhanced toxicity from possible ingestion of sorbed C12-benzalkonium in comparison with water-only exposure, which is in accordance with the equilibrium partitioning theory. Moreover, the present study demonstrates that commonly used sorbent phases can strongly affect bioavailability and observed effect concentrations for C12-benzalkonium. Even stronger effects of decreased actual exposure concentrations resulting from sorption to test vessels, cells, and sorbent phases can be expected for more hydrophobic cationic surfactants. PMID:24273010

  9. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  10. Differences in the sensitivity of fungi and bacteria to season and invertebrates affect leaf litter decomposition in a Mediterranean stream.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gómez, Juanita; Elosegi, Arturo; Duarte, Sofia; Cássio, Fernanda; Pascoal, Cláudia; Romaní, Anna M

    2016-08-01

    Microorganisms are key drivers of leaf litter decomposition; however, the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of different microbial groups are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of seasonal variation and invertebrates on fungal and bacterial dynamics, and on leaf litter decomposition. We followed the decomposition of Populus nigra litter in a Mediterranean stream through an annual cycle, using fine and coarse mesh bags. Irrespective of the season, microbial decomposition followed two stages. Initially, bacterial contribution to total microbial biomass was higher compared to later stages, and it was related to disaccharide and lignin degradation; in a later stage, bacteria were less important and were associated with hemicellulose and cellulose degradation, while fungi were related to lignin decomposition. The relevance of microbial groups in decomposition differed among seasons: fungi were more important in spring, whereas in summer, water quality changes seemed to favour bacteria and slowed down lignin and hemicellulose degradation. Invertebrates influenced litter-associated microbial assemblages (especially bacteria), stimulated enzyme efficiencies and reduced fungal biomass. We conclude that bacterial and fungal assemblages play distinctive roles in microbial decomposition and differ in their sensitivity to environmental changes, ultimately affecting litter decomposition, which might be particularly relevant in highly seasonal ecosystems, such as intermittent streams.

  11. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  12. Relationships between different burn, vegetation and soil ratios with Landsat spectral reflectance values in fire affected areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krina, Anastasia; Koutsias, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    The proportion of unburned vegetation within a fire affected area can be regarded as a proxy measure of fire severity that can be estimated by means of remote sensing techniques. Yet, in order to obtain sound results, it is essential to improve our current knowledge regarding the spectral discrimination of areas that have been completely burnt from adjacent areas within a fire perimeter that still have patches of vegetation, or unburned proportion of vegetation on them. The aim of our research is to reveal the role of the vegetation or the small vegetation gaps in spectral characteristics of pixels with mixed land cover synthesis (burned, vegetation and soil) to achieve a better assessment of fire mapping and the impact of fire in the burned area. Three land cover types were identified, namely vegetation, bare land and burned area by applying pixel based classification using the maximum likelihood algorithm in high-resolution aerial photographs (1m). Moreover, multispectral satellite Landsat data that were acquired close to capture date of the aerial photos and were converted to TOC reflectance from USGS, were used to measure the association between land cover portions and satellite-derived VIs and spectral signatures. A grid of 30x30m was created to extract the ratio of the land cover categories corresponding to each selected pixel of the satellite image LANDSAT TM. Samples of different land cover ratios and of different types of substrate (e.g. rocks, light- or dark-colored soil) were delineated and their reflectance values at each spectral channel were extracted and used to calculate statistics in order to characterize the spectral properties. Finally, various vegetation indices were computed to investigate the role of the proportion of land cover and substrate in the variation of VIs. The results of our study reveal the spectral characteristics of burnt area at the pixel level and suggest the efficiency of certain spectral channels for the estimation of the

  13. Dietary fatty acids affect mitochondrial phospholipid compositions and mitochondrial gene expression of rainbow trout liver at different ages.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; De Santis, C; Rubio-Mejía, O L; Tocher, D R

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria are among the first responders to various stressors that challenge the homeostasis of cells and organisms. Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL), particularly cardiolipin (CL), and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, liver mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, lipid peroxidation, and mtDNA gene expression were analyzed in rainbow trout fed three diets with the same base formulation but with lipid supplied either by fish oil (FO), rapeseed oil (RO), or high DHA oil (DHA) during 6 weeks. Specifically, two feeding trials were performed using fish from the same population of two ages (1 and 3 years), and PL class compositions of liver mitochondria, fatty acid composition of individual PL classes, TBARS content, and mtDNA expression were determined. Dietary fatty acid composition strongly affected mitochondrial membrane composition from trout liver but observed changes did not fully reflect the diet, particularly when it contained high DHA. The changes were PL specific, CL being particularly resistant to changes in DHA. Some significant differences observed in expression of mtDNA with diet may suggest long-term dietary effects in mitochondrial gene expression which could affect electron transport chain function. All the changes were influenced by fish age, which could be related to the different growth rates observed between 1- and 3-year-old trout but that could also indicate age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes.

  14. The plasticizer bisphenol A affects somatic and sexual development, but differently in pipid, hylid and bufonid anurans.

    PubMed

    Tamschick, Stephanie; Rozenblut-Kościsty, Beata; Ogielska, Maria; Kekenj, David; Gajewski, Franz; Krüger, Angela; Kloas, Werner; Stöck, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Due to their terrestrial habitats and aquatic reproduction, many amphibians are both very vulnerable and highly suitable bioindicators. The plasticizer bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most produced chemical substances worldwide, and knowledge on its impacts on humans and animals is mounting. BPA is used for the industrial production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and found in a multitude of consumer products. Studies on BPA have involved mammals, fish and the fully aquatic anuran model Xenopus laevis. However, our knowledge about the sexual development of non-model, often semi-terrestrial anuran amphibians remains poor. Using a recently developed experimental design, we simultaneously applied BPA to two non-model species (Hyla arborea, Hylidae; Bufo viridis, Bufonidae) and the model X. laevis (Pipidae), compared their genetic and phenotypic sex for detection of sex reversals, and studied sexual development, focusing on anatomical and histological features of gonads. We compared three concentrations of BPA (0.023, 2.28 and 228 μg/L) to control groups in a high-standard flow-through-system, and tested whether conclusions, drawn from the model species, can be extrapolated to non-model anurans. In contrast to previous studies on fish and Xenopus, often involving dosages much higher than most environmental pollution data, we show that BPA causes neither the development of mixed sex nor of sex-reversed individuals (few, seemingly BPA-independent sex reversals) in all focal species. However, environmentally relevant concentrations, as low as 0.023 μg/L, were sufficient to provoke species-specific anatomically and histologically detectable impairments of gonads, and affected morphological traits of metamorphs. As the intensity of these effects differed between the three species, our data imply that BPA diversely affects amphibians with different evolutionary history, sex determination systems and larval ecologies. These results highlight the role of

  15. Obatoclax kills anaplastic thyroid cancer cells by inducing lysosome neutralization and necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Champa, Devora; Orlacchio, Arturo; Patel, Bindi; Ranieri, Michela; Shemetov, Anton A; Verkhusha, Vladislav V; Cuervo, Ana Maria; Di Cristofano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Poorly differentiated and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are very aggressive, almost invariably lethal neoplasms for which no effective treatment exists. These tumors are intrinsically resistant to cell death, even when their driver oncogenic signaling pathways are inhibited. We have undertaken a detailed analysis, in mouse and human thyroid cancer cells, of the mechanism through which Obatoclax, a pan-inhibitor of the anti-apoptotic proteins of the BCL2 family, effectively reduces tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that Obatoclax does not induce apoptosis, but rather necrosis of thyroid cancer cells, and that non-transformed thyroid cells are significantly less affected by this compound. Surprisingly, we show that Obatoclax rapidly localizes to the lysosomes and induces loss of acidification, block of lysosomal fusion with autophagic vacuoles, and subsequent lysosomal permeabilization. Notably, prior lysosome neutralization using different V-ATPase inhibitors partially protects cancer cells from the toxic effects of Obatoclax. Although inhibition of autophagy does not affect Obatoclax-induced cell death, selective down-regulation of ATG7, but not of ATG5, partially impairs Obatoclax effects, suggesting the existence of autophagy-independent functions for ATG7. Strikingly, Obatoclax killing activity depends only on its accumulation in the lysosomes, and not on its interaction with BCL2 family members. Finally, we show that also other lysosome-targeting compounds, Mefloquine and LLOMe, readily induce necrosis in thyroid cancer cells, and that Mefloquine significantly impairs tumor growth in vivo, highlighting a clear vulnerability of these aggressive, apoptosis-resistant tumors that can be therapeutically exploited. PMID:27144341

  16. A Developmental Shift in Black-White Differences in Depressive Affect across Adolescence and Early Adulthood: The Influence of Early Adult Social Roles and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jager, Justin

    2011-01-01

    This study examined Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect using a longitudinal sample of middle-class, suburban U.S. subjects (n = 956) that spanned from adolescence to early adulthood. Specifically, this study examined whether Black-White differences in growth of depressive affect shift over time, and the extent to which that…

  17. Factors affecting vertical distribution of Fukushima accident-derived radiocesium in soil under different land-use conditions.

    PubMed

    Koarashi, Jun; Atarashi-Andoh, Mariko; Matsunaga, Takeshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Nagao, Seiya; Nagai, Haruyasu

    2012-08-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident in Japan, triggered by a big earthquake and the resulting tsunami on 11 March 2011, caused a substantial release of radiocesium ((137)Cs and (134)Cs) and a subsequent contamination of soils in a range of terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying factors and processes affecting radiocesium retention in these soils is essential to predict how the deposited radiocesium will migrate through the soil profile and to other biological components. We investigated vertical distributions of radiocesium and physicochemical properties in soils (to 20 cm depth) at 15 locations under different land-use types (croplands, grasslands, and forests) within a 2 km × 2 km mesh area in Fukushima city. The total (137)Cs inventory deposited onto and into soil was similar (58.4±9.6 kBq m(-2)) between the three different land-use types. However, aboveground litter layer at the forest sites and herbaceous vegetation at the non-forested sites contributed differently to the total (137)Cs inventory. At the forest sites, 50-91% of the total inventory was observed in the litter layer. The aboveground vegetation contribution was in contrast smaller (<35%) at the other sites. Another remarkable difference was found in vertical distribution of (137)Cs in mineral soil layers; (137)Cs penetrated deeper in the forest soil profiles than in the non-forested soil profiles. We quantified (137)Cs retention at surface soil layers, and showed that higher (137)Cs retention can be explained in part by larger amounts of silt- and clay-sized particles in the layers. More importantly, the (137)Cs retention highly and negatively correlated with soil organic carbon content divided by clay content across all land-use types. The results suggest that organic matter inhibits strong adsorption of (137)Cs on clay minerals in surface soil layers, and as a result affects the vertical distribution and thus the mobility of (137)Cs in soil, particularly in the forest ecosystems.

  18. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces necrosis/necroptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated 1,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE)-induced cell death in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. DAPE reduced cell viability in NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, and MSTO-211H MPM cell lines in a concentration (1-100μM)-dependent manner. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V (AV), DAPE significantly increased the population of PI-positive and AV-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis, and that of PI-positive and AV-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced reduction of NCI-H28 cell viability was partially inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase to induce necroptosis, or knocking-down RIP1. DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potentials in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced mitochondrial damage was attenuated by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D (CypD). DAPE did not affect expression and mitochondrial localization of p53 protein in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE significantly decreased intracellular ATP concentrations in NCI-H28 cells. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE induces necroptosis and necrosis of MPM cells; the former is mediated by RIP1 kinase and the latter is caused by generating ROS and opening CypD-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore, to reduce intracellular ATP concentrations.

  19. Stromal Integrin α11β1 Affects RM11 Prostate and 4T1 Breast Xenograft Tumors Differently

    PubMed Central

    Skogstrand, Trude; Sortland, Kristina; Schmid, Marei Caroline; Reed, Rolf K.; Stuhr, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It has been implied that the collagen binding integrin α11β1 plays a role in carcinogenesis. As still relatively little is known about how the stromal integrin α11β1 affects different aspects of tumor development, we wanted to examine the direct effects on primary tumor growth, fibrosis, tumor interstitial fluid pressure (PIF) and metastasis in murine 4T1 mammary and RM11 prostate tumors, using an in vivo SCID integrin α11-deficient mouse model. Methods Tumor growth was measured using a caliper, PIF by the wick-in-needle technique, activated fibroblasts by α-SMA immunofluorescence staining and fibrosis by transmission electron microscopy and picrosirius-red staining. Metastases were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Results RM11 tumor growth was significantly reduced in the SCID integrin α11-deficient (α11-KO) compared to in SCID integrin α11 wild type (WT) mice, whereas there was no similar effect in the 4T1 tumor model. The 4T1 model demonstrated an alteration in collagen fibril diameter in the integrin α11-KO mice compared to WT, which was not found in the RM11 model. There were no significant differences in the amount of activated fibroblasts, total collagen content, collagen organization or PIF in the tumors in integrin α11-deficient mice compared to WT mice. There was also no difference in lung metastases between the two groups. Conclusion Deficiency of stromal integrin α11β1 showed different effects on tumor growth and collagen fibril diameter depending on tumor type, but no effect on tumor PIF or development of lung metastasis. PMID:26990302

  20. D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase cell type specifically affects angiogenesis pathway in different prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Eugenia E; Prudnikova, Tatiana Y; Zabarovsky, Eugene R; Kashuba, Vladimir I; Grigorieva, Elvira V

    2014-04-01

    D-glucuronyl C5-epimerase (GLCE) is involved in breast and lung carcinogenesis as a potential tumor suppressor gene, acting through inhibition of tumor angiogenesis and invasion/metastasis pathways. However, in prostate tumors, increased GLCE expression is associated with advanced disease, suggesting versatile effects of GLCE in different cancers. To investigate further the potential cancer-promoting effect of GLCE in prostate cancer, GLCE was ectopically re-expressed in morphologically different LNCaP and PC3 prostate cancer cells. Transcriptional profiles of normal PNT2 prostate cells, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 prostate cancer cells, and GLCE-expressing LNCaP and PC3 cells were determined. Comparative analysis revealed the genes whose expression was changed in prostate cancer cells compared with normal PNT2 cells, and those differently expressed between the cancer cell lines (ACTA2, IL6, SERPINE1, TAGLN, SEMA3A, and CDH2). GLCE re-expression influenced mainly angiogenesis-involved genes (ANGPT1, SERPINE1, IGF1, PDGFB, TNF, IL8, TEK, IFNA1, and IFNB1) but in a cell type-specific manner (from basic deregulation of angiogenesis in LNCaP cells to significant activation in PC3 cells). Invasion/metastasis pathway was also affected (MMP1, MMP2, MMP9, S100A4, ITGA1, ITGB3, ERBB2, and FAS). The obtained results suggest activation of angiogenesis as a main molecular mechanism of pro-oncogenic effect of GLCE in prostate cancer. GLCE up-regulation plus expression pattern of a panel of six genes, discriminating morphologically different prostate cancer cell sub-types, is suggested as a potential marker of aggressive prostate cancer.

  1. Inter-individual differences in trait negative affect moderate cortisol's effects on memory formation: preliminary findings from two studies.

    PubMed

    Abercrombie, Heather C; Wirth, Michelle M; Hoks, Roxanne M

    2012-05-01

    Acute emotional arousal moderates the effects of cortisol on memory. However, it is currently unknown how stable inter-individual differences (i.e., traits) moderate cortisol's effects on memory. In two studies using within-subjects designs - 31 healthy males in Study 1 and 42 healthy subjects (22 female) in Study 2 - we measured trait negative affect (NA) and presented emotional and neutral pictures. In Study 1, we manipulated endogenous cortisol levels using a speech stressor following encoding. In Study 2, using a randomized placebo-controlled design, we pharmacologically manipulated cortisol levels prior to encoding (0.1mg/kg hydrocortisone vs. saline infused over 30min). Free recall for pictures was subsequently assessed. Trait NA repeatedly moderated the relationship between cortisol and memory formation. Findings suggested the speculative conclusion that the direction of effects may vary by sex. In males, cortisol was related to memory facilitation in subjects with lower Trait NA. Conversely, females with higher Trait NA showed greater cortisol-related increases in memory. Trait NA may be a stable inter-individual difference predicting neurocognitive effects of cortisol during stressors.

  2. Gender differences in affective sharing and self-other distinction during empathic neural responses to others' sadness.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pinchao; Wang, Junfang; Jin, Yan; Huang, Shanshan; Xie, Mengshu; Deng, Lin; Fang, Juncong; Zheng, Xiaochun; Chen, Xiaoying; Li, Yue; Jiang, Yijie; Zheng, Xifu

    2015-06-01

    Self-other distinction, the separation between self and other, is a prerequisite for empathy through which individuals share another individual's feelings. Prior research suggests that females are better at recognizing and sharing others' emotions, whereas males perform better at self-other distinction. It is unclear, however, whether this superiority in the self-other distinction occurs in males throughout the experience of empathy or only at some stages of the empathic process. The present study utilized event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate this issue. In two separate experimental tasks, subjects were instructed to either judge the emotions shown on a face (other-task) or evaluate their own affective responses to the emotions shown on a face (self-task). The results of the other-task revealed that unlike males, females displayed increased P2 (190-240 ms) amplitudes to sad expressions compared with neutral expressions. This finding might be associated with an improved ability to recognize and share the emotions of others in females. In contrast, only males exhibited larger P2 amplitudes to sad expressions compared with neutral expressions during the self-task. This awareness of one's own emotions in response to another individual might reflect a distinction between the self and the other at an early stage in males. At the late cognitive controlled stage, gender differences became weak. However, the emotion effects in each task for both genders were positively correlated with self-reported cognitive empathy, which was indexed by the perspective taking (PT) and fantasy (FS) subscale, but not with affective empathy. PMID:24929672

  3. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Edith M.; Hamner, Samuel R.; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle–tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0–1.75 m s−1 and ran at speeds of 2.0–5.0 m s−1. We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force–length and force–velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle–tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running. PMID:23470656

  4. Cognitive "babyness": developmental differences in the power of young children's supernatural thinking to influence positive and negative affect.

    PubMed

    Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F

    2012-09-01

    Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood.

  5. How muscle fiber lengths and velocities affect muscle force generation as humans walk and run at different speeds.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Edith M; Hamner, Samuel R; Seth, Ajay; Millard, Matthew; Delp, Scott L

    2013-06-01

    The lengths and velocities of muscle fibers have a dramatic effect on muscle force generation. It is unknown, however, whether the lengths and velocities of lower limb muscle fibers substantially affect the ability of muscles to generate force during walking and running. We examined this issue by developing simulations of muscle-tendon dynamics to calculate the lengths and velocities of muscle fibers from electromyographic recordings of 11 lower limb muscles and kinematic measurements of the hip, knee and ankle made as five subjects walked at speeds of 1.0-1.75 m s(-1) and ran at speeds of 2.0-5.0 m s(-1). We analyzed the simulated fiber lengths, fiber velocities and forces to evaluate the influence of force-length and force-velocity properties on force generation at different walking and running speeds. The simulations revealed that force generation ability (i.e. the force generated per unit of activation) of eight of the 11 muscles was significantly affected by walking or running speed. Soleus force generation ability decreased with increasing walking speed, but the transition from walking to running increased the force generation ability by reducing fiber velocities. Our results demonstrate the influence of soleus muscle architecture on the walk-to-run transition and the effects of muscle-tendon compliance on the plantarflexors' ability to generate ankle moment and power. The study presents data that permit lower limb muscles to be studied in unprecedented detail by relating muscle fiber dynamics and force generation to the mechanical demands of walking and running.

  6. Response-driven imaging biomarkers for predicting radiation necrosis of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazem Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H.; Chenevert, Thomas; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Radiation necrosis is an uncommon but severe adverse effect of brain radiation therapy (RT). Current predictive models based on radiation dose have limited accuracy. We aimed to identify early individual response biomarkers based upon diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and incorporated them into a response model for prediction of radiation necrosis. Twenty-nine patients with glioblastoma received six weeks of intensity modulated RT and concurrent temozolomide. Patients underwent DT-MRI scans before treatment, at three weeks during RT, and one, three, and six months after RT. Cases with radiation necrosis were classified based on generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) of whole brain and DT index early changes in the corpus callosum and its substructures. Significant covariates were used to develop normal tissue complication probability models using binary logistic regression. Seven patients developed radiation necrosis. Percentage changes of radial diffusivity (RD) in the splenium at three weeks during RT and at six months after RT differed significantly between the patients with and without necrosis (p = 0.05 and p = 0.01). Percentage change of RD at three weeks during RT in the 30 Gy dose-volume of the splenium and brain gEUD combined yielded the best-fit logistic regression model. Our findings indicate that early individual response during the course of RT, assessed by radial diffusivity, has the potential to aid the prediction of delayed radiation necrosis, which could provide guidance in dose-escalation trials.

  7. Effects of skeleton structure on necrosis targeting and clearance properties of radioiodinated dianthrones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjian; Jiang, Cuihua; Yang, Shengwei; Gao, Meng; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Xiaoning; Shao, Haibo; Feng, Yuanbo; Sun, Ziping; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    Necrosis avid agents (NAAs) can be used for diagnose of necrosis-related diseases, evaluation of therapeutic responses and targeted therapeutics of tumor. In order to probe into the effects of molecular skeleton structure on necrosis targeting and clearance properties of radioiodinated dianthrones, four dianthrone compounds with the same substituents but different skeletal structures, namely Hypericin (Hyp), protohypericin (ProHyp), emodin dianthrone mesomer (ED-1) and emodin dianthrone raceme (ED-2) were synthesized and radioiodinated. Then radioiodinated dianthrones were evaluated in vitro for their necrosis avidity in A549 lung cancer cells untreated and treated with H2O2. Their biodistribution and pharmacokinetic properties were determined in rat models of induced necrosis. In vitro cell assay revealed that destruction of rigid skeleton structure dramatically reduced their necrosis targeting ability. Animal studies demonstrated that destruction of rigid skeleton structure dramatically reduced the necrotic tissue uptake and speed up the clearance from the most normal tissues for the studied compounds. Among these (131)I-dianthrones, (131)I-Hyp exhibited the highest uptake and persistent retention in necrotic tissues. Hepatic infarction could be clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using (131)I-Hyp as an imaging probe. The results suggest that the skeleton structure of Hyp is the lead structure for further structure optimization of this class of NAAs.

  8. Response-driven Imaging Biomarkers for Predicting Radiation Necrosis of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H.; Chenevert, Thomas; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Radiation necrosis is an uncommon but severe adverse effect of brain radiation therapy. Current predictive models based on radiation dose have limited accuracy. We aimed to identify early individual response biomarkers based upon diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and incorporated them into a response model for prediction of radiation necrosis. Methods and Materials Twenty-nine patients with glioblastoma received six weeks of intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolamide. Patients underwent DT-MRI scans before treatment, at three weeks during RT, and one, three, and six months after RT. Cases with radiation necrosis were classified based on generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) of whole brain and DT index early changes in the corpus callosum and its substructures. Significant covariates were used to develop normal tissue complication probability models using binary logistic regression. Results Seven patients developed radiation necrosis. Percentage changes of radial diffusivity (RD) in the splenium at three weeks during RT and at six months after RT differed significantly between the patients with and without necrosis (p=0.05 and p=0.01). Percentage change of RD at three weeks during RT in the 30 Gy dose-volume of the splenium and brain gEUD combined yielded the best-fit logistic regression model. Conclusions Our findings indicate that early individual response during the course of RT, assessed by radial diffusivity, has the potential to aid in predicting delayed radiation necrosis, which could provide guidance in dose-escalation trials. PMID:24778364

  9. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    PubMed

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  10. Finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Sik; Lee, Tae Rim; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Radial artery puncture, an invasive procedure, is frequently used for critical patients. Although considered safe, severe complications such as finger necrosis can occur. Herein, we review the clinical course of finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture. A 63-year-old woman visited the emergency department (ED) with left second and third finger pain after undergoing intravenous (IV) access in her wrist for procedural sedation. During the IV access, she experienced wrist pain, which increased during the 12 hours prior to her ED presentation. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in her left radial artery and absence of blood flow to the proper palmar digital artery. Subsequent angiointervention and urokinase thrombolysis failed. The second finger was eventually amputated owing to gangrene. Radial artery puncture can occur accidentally during IV wrist access, resulting in severe morbidity. Providers should carefully examine the puncture site and collateral flow, followed by multiple examinations to ensure distal circulation.

  11. Programmed necrosis in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Linkermann, Andreas; De Zen, Federica; Weinberg, Joel; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Krautwald, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) had been widely used synonymously to caspase-mediated apoptosis until caspase-independent cell death was described. Identification of necrosis as a regulated process in ischaemic conditions has recently changed our understanding of PCD. At least three pathways of programmed necrosis (PN) have been identified. First, receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3)-dependent necroptosis causes organ failure following stroke, myocardial infarction and renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Necroptosis can be mediated either by a large intracellular caspase-8-containing signalling complex called the ripoptosome or by the RIP1-/RIP3-containing necroptosome and is controlled by a caspase-8/FLICE inhibitory protein(long) heterodimer at least in the latter case. Second, mitochondrial permeability transition mediates apoptotic or necrotic stimuli and depends on the mitochondrial protein cyclophilin D. The third PN pathway involves the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-calpain axis that contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). Preclinical interference with the PN pathways therefore raises expectations for the future treatment of ischaemic conditions. In this brief review, we aim to summarize the clinically relevant PCD pathways and to transfer the basic science data to settings of AKI. We conclude that pathologists were quite right to refer to ischaemic kidney injury as 'acute tubular necrosis'. PMID:22942173

  12. Dietary carbohydrate and lipid sources affect differently the oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles.

    PubMed

    Castro, Carolina; Peréz-Jiménez, Amalia; Coutinho, Filipe; Díaz-Rosales, Patricia; Serra, Cláudia Alexandra Dos Reis; Panserat, Stéphane; Corraze, Geneviève; Peres, Helena; Oliva-Teles, Aires

    2015-11-28

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lipid source and carbohydrate content on the oxidative status of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) juveniles. For that purpose, four diets were formulated with fish oil (FO) and vegetable oils (VO) as the lipid source and with 20 or 0 % gelatinised starch as the carbohydrate source, in a 2×2 factorial design. Liver and intestine antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)), hepatic and intestinal lipid peroxidation (LPO), as well as hepatic oxidative stress index (OSI), were measured in fish fed the experimental diets for 73 d (n 9 fish/diet). Carbohydrate-rich diets promoted a decrease in hepatic LPO and OSI, whereas the lipid source induced no changes. Inversely, dietary lipid source, but not dietary carbohydrate concentration, affected LPO in the intestine. Lower intestinal LPO was observed in VO groups. Enzymes responsive to dietary treatments were GR, G6PD and CAT in the liver and GR and GPX in the intestine. Dietary carbohydrate induced GR and G6PD activities and depressed CAT activity in the liver. GPX and GR activities were increased in the intestine of fish fed VO diets. Overall, effects of diet composition on oxidative status were tissue-related: the liver and intestine were strongly responsive to dietary carbohydrates and lipid sources, respectively. Furthermore, different metabolic routes were more active to deal with the oxidative stress in the two organs studied.

  13. Combinations of alkaloids affecting different molecular targets with the saponin digitonin can synergistically enhance trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Krstin, Sonja; Peixoto, Herbenya Silva; Wink, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The flagellate Trypanosoma brucei causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. Only a few drugs are registered to treat trypanosomiasis, but those drugs show severe side effects. Also, because some pathogen strains have become resistant, new strategies are urgently needed to combat this parasitic disease. An underexplored possibility is the application of combinations of several trypanocidal agents, which may potentiate their trypanocidal activity in a synergistic fashion. In this study, the potential synergism of mutual combinations of bioactive alkaloids and alkaloids with a membrane-active steroidal saponin, digitonin, was explored with regard to their effect on T. b. brucei. Alkaloids were selected that affect different molecular targets: berberine and chelerythrine (intercalation of DNA), piperine (induction of apoptosis), vinblastine (inhibition of microtubule assembly), emetine (intercalation of DNA, inhibition of protein biosynthesis), homoharringtonine (inhibition of protein biosynthesis), and digitonin (membrane permeabilization and uptake facilitation of polar compounds). Most combinations resulted in an enhanced trypanocidal effect. The addition of digitonin significantly stimulated the activity of almost all alkaloids against trypanosomes. The strongest effect was measured in a combination of digitonin with vinblastine. The highest dose reduction indexes (DRI) were measured in the two-drug combination of digitonin or piperine with vinblastine, where the dose of vinblastine could be reduced 9.07-fold or 7.05-fold, respectively. The synergistic effects of mutual combinations of alkaloids and of alkaloids with digitonin present a new avenue to treat trypanosomiasis but one which needs to be corroborated in future animal experiments.

  14. Resveratrol affects differently rat liver and brain mitochondrial bioenergetics and oxidative stress in vitro: investigation of the role of gender.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana C; Silva, Ana M; Santos, Maria S; Sardão, Vilma A

    2013-03-01

    Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans stilbene) is commonly recognized by its antioxidant properties. Despite its beneficial qualities, the toxic effects of this natural compound are still unknown. Since mitochondria are essential to support the energy-dependent regulation of several cell functions, the objective of this study was to evaluate resveratrol effects on rat brain and liver mitochondrial fractions from male and females regarding oxidative stress and bioenergetics. No basal differences were observed between mitochondrial fractions from males and females, except in liver mitochondria, the generation of H(2)O(2) by the respiratory chain is lower for female preparations. Resveratrol inhibited lipid peroxidation in preparations from both genders and organs. Furthermore, brain mitochondria in both gender groups appeared susceptible to resveratrol as seen by a decrease in state 3 respiration and alterations in mitochondrial membrane potential fluctuations during ADP phosphorylation. As opposed, liver mitochondria were less affected by resveratrol. Our data also demonstrates that resveratrol inhibits complex I activity in all mitochondrial preparations. The results suggest that brain mitochondria appear to be more susceptible to resveratrol effects, and gender appears to play a minor role. It remains to be determined if resveratrol effects on brain mitochondria contribute to deterioration of mitochondrial function or instead to mediate hormesis-mediated events.

  15. Combinations of Alkaloids Affecting Different Molecular Targets with the Saponin Digitonin Can Synergistically Enhance Trypanocidal Activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Herbenya Silva

    2015-01-01

    The flagellate Trypanosoma brucei causes sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in animals. Only a few drugs are registered to treat trypanosomiasis, but those drugs show severe side effects. Also, because some pathogen strains have become resistant, new strategies are urgently needed to combat this parasitic disease. An underexplored possibility is the application of combinations of several trypanocidal agents, which may potentiate their trypanocidal activity in a synergistic fashion. In this study, the potential synergism of mutual combinations of bioactive alkaloids and alkaloids with a membrane-active steroidal saponin, digitonin, was explored with regard to their effect on T. b. brucei. Alkaloids were selected that affect different molecular targets: berberine and chelerythrine (intercalation of DNA), piperine (induction of apoptosis), vinblastine (inhibition of microtubule assembly), emetine (intercalation of DNA, inhibition of protein biosynthesis), homoharringtonine (inhibition of protein biosynthesis), and digitonin (membrane permeabilization and uptake facilitation of polar compounds). Most combinations resulted in an enhanced trypanocidal effect. The addition of digitonin significantly stimulated the activity of almost all alkaloids against trypanosomes. The strongest effect was measured in a combination of digitonin with vinblastine. The highest dose reduction indexes (DRI) were measured in the two-drug combination of digitonin or piperine with vinblastine, where the dose of vinblastine could be reduced 9.07-fold or 7.05-fold, respectively. The synergistic effects of mutual combinations of alkaloids and of alkaloids with digitonin present a new avenue to treat trypanosomiasis but one which needs to be corroborated in future animal experiments. PMID:26349826

  16. Low temperature and defoliation affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes in different regions of the rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea.

    PubMed

    Portes, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; de Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2008-10-01

    In addition to the storage function, fructans in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth have been associated with drought and freezing tolerance. Vernonia herbacea, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, bears underground reserve organs, rhizophores, accumulating inulin-type fructans. The rhizophore is a cauline branched system with positive geotropic growth, with the apex (distal region) presenting younger tissues; sprouting of new shoots occurs by development of buds located on the opposite end (proximal region). Plants induced to sprouting by excision of the aerial organs present increased 1-fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity in the proximal region, while plants at the vegetative stage present high 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in the distal region. The aim of the present study was to analyze how low temperature (5 degrees C) could affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes and fructan composition in the different regions of the rhizophores of intact and excised plants. 1-SST and 1-fructan:fructan fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) were higher in the distal region decreasing towards the proximal region in intact plants at the vegetative phase, and were drastically diminished when cold and/or excision were imposed. In contrast, 1-FEH increased in the proximal region of treated plants, mainly in excised plants subjected to cold. The ratio fructo-oligo to fructo-polysaccharides was significantly higher in plants exposed to low temperature (1.17 in intact plants and 1.64 in excised plants) than in plants exposed to natural temperature conditions (0.84 in intact vegetative plants and 0.58 in excised plants), suggesting that oligosaccharides are involved in the tolerance of plants to low temperature via 1-FEH, in addition to 1-FFT. Principal component analysis indicated different response mechanisms in fructan metabolism under defoliation and low temperature, which could be interpreted as part of the strategies to undergo unfavorable environmental conditions

  17. Low temperature and defoliation affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes in different regions of the rhizophores of Vernonia herbacea.

    PubMed

    Portes, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; de Carvalho, Maria Angela M

    2008-10-01

    In addition to the storage function, fructans in Asteraceae from floras with seasonal growth have been associated with drought and freezing tolerance. Vernonia herbacea, native of the Brazilian Cerrado, bears underground reserve organs, rhizophores, accumulating inulin-type fructans. The rhizophore is a cauline branched system with positive geotropic growth, with the apex (distal region) presenting younger tissues; sprouting of new shoots occurs by development of buds located on the opposite end (proximal region). Plants induced to sprouting by excision of the aerial organs present increased 1-fructan exohydrolase (1-FEH) activity in the proximal region, while plants at the vegetative stage present high 1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase (1-SST) in the distal region. The aim of the present study was to analyze how low temperature (5 degrees C) could affect fructan-metabolizing enzymes and fructan composition in the different regions of the rhizophores of intact and excised plants. 1-SST and 1-fructan:fructan fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) were higher in the distal region decreasing towards the proximal region in intact plants at the vegetative phase, and were drastically diminished when cold and/or excision were imposed. In contrast, 1-FEH increased in the proximal region of treated plants, mainly in excised plants subjected to cold. The ratio fructo-oligo to fructo-polysaccharides was significantly higher in plants exposed to low temperature (1.17 in intact plants and 1.64 in excised plants) than in plants exposed to natural temperature conditions (0.84 in intact vegetative plants and 0.58 in excised plants), suggesting that oligosaccharides are involved in the tolerance of plants to low temperature via 1-FEH, in addition to 1-FFT. Principal component analysis indicated different response mechanisms in fructan metabolism under defoliation and low temperature, which could be interpreted as part of the strategies to undergo unfavorable environmental conditions

  18. Plasma of Argon Affects the Earliest Biological Response of Different Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Canullo, L; Genova, T; Tallarico, M; Gautier, G; Mussano, F; Botticelli, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the early cell response and protein adsorption elicited by the argon plasma treatment of different commercially available titanium surfaces via a chair-side device. Sterile disks made of grade 4 titanium (n= 450, 4-mm diameter) with 3 surface topographies (machined, plasma sprayed, and zirconia blasted and acid etched) were allocated to receive 4 testing treatments (2% and 10% protein adsorption and cell adhesion with MC3T3-E1 and MG-63). Furthermore, the specimens were divided to undergo 1) argon plasma treatment (10 W, 1 bar for 12 min) in a plasma reactor, 2) ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for 2 h (positive control group), or 3) no treatment (control group). Pretreatment surface analyses based on a scanning electron microscope and profilometer images were also performed. Profilometric analysis demonstrated that the evaluated specimens perfectly suit the standard parameters. The use of argon plasma was capable of affecting the quantity of proteins adsorbed on the different surfaces, notwithstanding their roughness or topographic features at a low fetal bovine serum concentration (2%). UV light treatment for 2 h attained similar results. Moreover, both the plasma of argon and the UV light demonstrated a significant increase in the number of osteoblasts adherent at 10 min in all tested surfaces. Within its limitations, this in vitro study highlights the potential biological benefits of treating implant surfaces with plasma of argon or UV, irrespective of the roughness of the titanium surface. However, in vivo experiments are needed to confirm these preliminary data and settle the rationale of a treatment that might be clinically relevant in case of bone-reparative deficiencies.

  19. Plasma of Argon Affects the Earliest Biological Response of Different Implant Surfaces: An In Vitro Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Canullo, L; Genova, T; Tallarico, M; Gautier, G; Mussano, F; Botticelli, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the early cell response and protein adsorption elicited by the argon plasma treatment of different commercially available titanium surfaces via a chair-side device. Sterile disks made of grade 4 titanium (n= 450, 4-mm diameter) with 3 surface topographies (machined, plasma sprayed, and zirconia blasted and acid etched) were allocated to receive 4 testing treatments (2% and 10% protein adsorption and cell adhesion with MC3T3-E1 and MG-63). Furthermore, the specimens were divided to undergo 1) argon plasma treatment (10 W, 1 bar for 12 min) in a plasma reactor, 2) ultraviolet (UV) light treatment for 2 h (positive control group), or 3) no treatment (control group). Pretreatment surface analyses based on a scanning electron microscope and profilometer images were also performed. Profilometric analysis demonstrated that the evaluated specimens perfectly suit the standard parameters. The use of argon plasma was capable of affecting the quantity of proteins adsorbed on the different surfaces, notwithstanding their roughness or topographic features at a low fetal bovine serum concentration (2%). UV light treatment for 2 h attained similar results. Moreover, both the plasma of argon and the UV light demonstrated a significant increase in the number of osteoblasts adherent at 10 min in all tested surfaces. Within its limitations, this in vitro study highlights the potential biological benefits of treating implant surfaces with plasma of argon or UV, irrespective of the roughness of the titanium surface. However, in vivo experiments are needed to confirm these preliminary data and settle the rationale of a treatment that might be clinically relevant in case of bone-reparative deficiencies. PMID:26848069

  20. Dietary ergot alkaloids as a possible cause of tail necrosis in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Korn, A K; Gross, M; Usleber, E; Thom, N; Köhler, K; Erhardt, G

    2014-11-01

    This study describes the association between tail necrosis in rabbits and mycotoxins in rabbit feed. Clinical cases of tail necrosis were observed in 14 out of 103 rabbits kept in an outdoor group housing, fed with hay and a commercial pelleted feed. The observed clinical symptoms, alopecia, erosions, crusts and necrosis were restricted to the tail area and exclusively occurred in young rabbits aged 113 ± 20 days. Dermatological examination suggested that ischemia had caused necrosis. Analysis of blood samples showed an elevated level of creatine kinase. No weight loss occurred in affected rabbits. Trauma caused by injuries or technopathic lesions was also excluded. Histopathologically, the lesions were characterized by acute muscle fibre degeneration and chronic active dermatitis with granulation tissue formation. Necropsy of one rabbit revealed hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis as remarkable findings. Feed analysis for ergot alkaloids by enzyme immunoassays yielded a mean and maximum ergot alkaloid content of 410 ± 250 μg/kg and 1,700 μg/kg, respectively. Faeces of affected rabbits contained ergot alkaloids at levels up to 200 μg/kg. The mean and maximum dietary intake of total ergot alkaloids were 17 and 71 μg/kg bodyweight, respectively. Fusarium toxins (trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins) were also found in the feed, but at levels which did not explain the observed effects. The results indicate that ergot alkaloids may have been the cause of tail necrosis, which is supported by literature data showing that rabbits are especially sensitive towards these toxins. PMID:25234267

  1. Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis in relation to myocyte necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, I.J.; Jalil, J.E.; Tan, L.B.; Cho, K.; Weber, K.T.; Clark, W.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol results in cardiac hypertrophy, myocyte necrosis, and interstitial cell fibrosis. Our objectives in this study have been to examine whether hypertrophy and fibrosis occur in a compensatory and reparative response to myocyte loss or whether either process may be occurring independently of myocyte loss and thus be a reactive response to adrenergic hormone stimulation. We have examined this question by evaluating each of these responses in rats treated with different doses and forms of isoproterenol administration. Myocyte necrosis was evaluated using in vivo labeling with monoclonal antimyosin for identification of myocytes with permeable sarcolemma, which was indicative of irreversible injury. Myocardial fibrosis was evaluated by morphometric point counting of Gomori-stained tissue sections and by assessment of the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by determination of increased levels of DNA synthesis. Stimulation of fibroblast DNA synthesis was determined from DNA specific radioactivities and radioautography after pulse labeling with (3H)thymidine. The evidence provided by this study suggests that the degree and timing of myocardial hypertrophy does not follow the course of myocyte loss and, thus, appears to be either a response to altered cardiac loading or a reactive response to beta-adrenergic hormone stimulation rather than a compensation for myocyte loss. Myocardial fibrosis, on the other hand, appears to be more closely related to myocyte necrosis with respect to collagen accumulation in the same areas of the heart, its dose-response relation to the amount of isoproterenol administered, and the timing of increased DNA synthesis, or fibroblast proliferation, after myocyte loss.

  3. Cocaine hepatotoxicity: a study on the pathogenesis of periportal necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C. J.; Charles, S. J.; Mullervy, J.

    1994-01-01

    Cocaine is reported to produce either periportal or mid-zonal necrosis in mice pretreated with the enzyme inducer phenobarbitone (James et al. 1987; Powell et al. 1991; Charles & Powell 1992). Dose-response and time course experiments were performed in phenobarbitone treated male DBA/2Ha mice to study the pathogenesis of this unusual cocaine induced lesion. An increase in the dose of cocaine from 60 to 90 or 120 mg/kg produced more extensive and severe periportal and linking portal damage and elevated plasma aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in a dose dependent manner. Scattered hepatocyte degeneration began at the edge of the periportal region and was detectable by electron microscopy within 30 minutes of administration of 60 mg/kg of cocaine, with conspicuous disorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum being one of the earliest changes. Significant elevations of plasma AST and ALT were observed 3 hours after cocaine administration and were sustained for 12 hours, at which time progressive hepatocyte damage had developed into a network of confluent necrosis at the periphery of the periportal region. The rapidity of organelle derangement and subsequent cell death, and absence of any effect on total cytochrome P-450 or FAD-mono-oxygenase levels, appear to distinguish this periportal lesion from previous reports of cocaine induced centrilobular necrosis in non-enzyme induced mice, suggesting that the two types of damage may develop by different mechanisms. The observation that periportal lesions commence at the periphery of the periportal area, progressing portalwards with increasing dose and time, offers an explanation for the previously conflicting reports of cocaine induced mid-zonal and/or periportal lesions in phenobarbitone treated mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7734331

  4. Foot strike pattern differently affects the axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation in downhill trail running.

    PubMed

    Giandolini, Marlene; Horvais, Nicolas; Rossi, Jérémy; Millet, Guillaume Y; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2016-06-14

    Trail runners are exposed to a high number of shocks, including high-intensity shocks on downhill sections leading to greater risk of osseous overuse injury. The type of foot strike pattern (FSP) is known to influence impact severity and lower-limb kinematics. Our purpose was to investigate the influence of FSP on axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation during an intense downhill trail run (DTR). Twenty-three trail runners performed a 6.5-km DTR (1264m of negative elevation change) as fast as possible. Four tri-axial accelerometers were attached to the heel, metatarsals, tibia and sacrum. Accelerations were continuously recorded at 1344Hz and analyzed over six sections (~400 steps per subject). Heel and metatarsal accelerations were used to identify the FSP. Axial, transverse and resultant peak accelerations, median frequencies and shock attenuation within the impact-related frequency range (12-20Hz) were assessed between tibia and sacrum. Multiple linear regressions showed that anterior (i.e. forefoot) FSPs were associated with higher peak axial acceleration and median frequency at the tibia, lower transverse median frequencies at the tibia and sacrum, and lower transverse peak acceleration at the sacrum. For resultant acceleration, higher tibial median frequency but lower sacral peak acceleration were reported with forefoot striking. FSP therefore differently affects the components of impact shock acceleration. Although a forefoot strike reduces impact severity and impact frequency content along the transverse axis, a rearfoot strike decreases them in the axial direction. Globally, the attenuation of axial and resultant impact-related vibrations was improved using anterior FSPs.

  5. Feeding with powdered diet after weaning affects sex difference in acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in rats.

    PubMed

    Takase, K; Mitsushima, D; Masuda, J; Mogi, K; Funabashi, T; Endo, Y; Kimura, F

    2005-01-01

    We have reported in the past that female rats fed a powdered diet showed better spatial learning and memory functions than female rats a fed pelleted diet. In the present study, we examined the effects of feeding with powdered diet on acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in both sexes of rats. After weaning (3 weeks of age), rats were fed either standard pelleted diet or powdered diet, and after maturation (9-12 weeks of age), they were used in an in vivo microdialysis study, in which no eserine (a cholinesterase inhibitor) was added to the perfusate. The dialysate was collected from the dorsal hippocampus at 20-min intervals under freely moving conditions for more than 24 h. Acetylcholine in the dialysate was measured by high performance liquid chromatography. As we reported previously, the acetylcholine release showed a clear daily rhythm in both sexes, and males showed significantly greater acetylcholine release in the hippocampus than females in rats fed pelleted diet. Conversely, in rats fed powdered diet, no sex difference in the acetylcholine release was observed, since feeding with powdered diet significantly increased the acetylcholine release only in females. To further examine the number of cholinergic neurons in the medial septum and horizontal limb of the diagonal band of Broca, immunocytochemistry for choline acetyltransferase was performed in both sexes of rats fed either standard pelleted diet or powdered diet. However, neither sex nor feeding conditions affect the number of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive cells in the areas. These results suggest that powdered diet after weaning enhances spontaneous acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in female rats without changes in the number of cholinergic neurons in the areas. It is possible that this effect of feeding contributes to improve the performance in spatial learning and memory functions in female rats fed powdered diet.

  6. Foot strike pattern differently affects the axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation in downhill trail running.

    PubMed

    Giandolini, Marlene; Horvais, Nicolas; Rossi, Jérémy; Millet, Guillaume Y; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2016-06-14

    Trail runners are exposed to a high number of shocks, including high-intensity shocks on downhill sections leading to greater risk of osseous overuse injury. The type of foot strike pattern (FSP) is known to influence impact severity and lower-limb kinematics. Our purpose was to investigate the influence of FSP on axial and transverse components of shock acceleration and attenuation during an intense downhill trail run (DTR). Twenty-three trail runners performed a 6.5-km DTR (1264m of negative elevation change) as fast as possible. Four tri-axial accelerometers were attached to the heel, metatarsals, tibia and sacrum. Accelerations were continuously recorded at 1344Hz and analyzed over six sections (~400 steps per subject). Heel and metatarsal accelerations were used to identify the FSP. Axial, transverse and resultant peak accelerations, median frequencies and shock attenuation within the impact-related frequency range (12-20Hz) were assessed between tibia and sacrum. Multiple linear regressions showed that anterior (i.e. forefoot) FSPs were associated with higher peak axial acceleration and median frequency at the tibia, lower transverse median frequencies at the tibia and sacrum, and lower transverse peak acceleration at the sacrum. For resultant acceleration, higher tibial median frequency but lower sacral peak acceleration were reported with forefoot striking. FSP therefore differently affects the components of impact shock acceleration. Although a forefoot strike reduces impact severity and impact frequency content along the transverse axis, a rearfoot strike decreases them in the axial direction. Globally, the attenuation of axial and resultant impact-related vibrations was improved using anterior FSPs. PMID:27087676

  7. Increases in physical activity may affect quality of life differently in men and women: The PACE project

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Duncan, Glen E.; Beresford, Shirley A.A.; McTiernan, Anne; Patrick, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Obesity is associated with impaired quality of life (QoL), but less is known about physical activity. We investigated how decreases in body mass index (BMI) and increases in activity affect obesity-specific QoL and potential gender differences in associations. Methods In a large worksite-randomized trial of a multilevel intervention on diet and physical activity behaviors, we conducted a cohort analysis at two years of follow-up. Self-reported activity and Obesity and Weight-Loss Quality Of Life (OWLQOL) were analyzed for individual-level associations using linear mixed models accounting for random worksite effects. Results Gender modified the BMI-OWLQOL relationship, so analyses were conducted for males and females separately. Adjusting for demographic confounders, baseline OWLQOL, and several worksite-level variables including intervention arm, a 1.9 unit decrease in BMI (the interquartile range) was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.2, 2.2) in males and 3.6 (95% CI: 3.2, 4.0) in females. Similarly, a 23 unit increase in physical activity score was associated with an OWLQOL increase of 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5, 1.4) in males and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.3) in females. Physical activity associations were attenuated when adjusting for change in BMI, but remained significant for women (mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2). Conclusions This is the first study to demonstrate that increasing physical activity may improve obesity-specific QoL to a greater extent in women, particularly among overweight women, independent of BMI. Results may inform the design of interventions tailored to women targeting well-being through messages of increasing physical activity. PMID:23504523

  8. Rumen microbial and fermentation characteristics are affected differently by bacterial probiotic supplementation during induced lactic and subacute acidosis in sheep

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ruminal disbiosis induced by feeding is the cause of ruminal acidosis, a digestive disorder prevalent in high-producing ruminants. Because probiotic microorganisms can modulate the gastrointestinal microbiota, propionibacteria- and lactobacilli-based probiotics were tested for their effectiveness in preventing different forms of acidosis. Results Lactic acidosis, butyric and propionic subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) were induced by feed chalenges in three groups of four wethers intraruminally dosed with wheat, corn or beet pulp. In each group, wethers were either not supplemented (C) or supplemented with Propionibacterium P63 alone (P) or combined with L. plantarum (Lp + P) or L. rhamnosus (Lr + P). Compared with C, all the probiotics stimulated lactobacilli proliferation, which reached up to 25% of total bacteria during wheat-induced lactic acidosis. This induced a large increase in lactate concentration, which decreased ruminal pH. During the corn-induced butyric SARA, Lp + P decreased Prevotella spp. proportion with a concomitant decrease in microbial amylase activity and total volatile fatty acids concentration, and an increase in xylanase activity and pH. Relative to the beet pulp-induced propionic SARA, P and Lr + P improved ruminal pH without affecting the microbial or fermentation characteristics. Regardless of acidosis type, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that probiotic supplementations modified the bacterial community structure. Conclusion This work showed that the effectiveness of the bacterial probiotics tested depended on the acidosis type. Although these probiotics were ineffective in lactic acidosis because of a deeply disturbed rumen microbiota, some of the probiotics tested may be useful to minimize the occurrence of butyric and propionic SARA in sheep. However, their modes of action need to be further investigated. PMID:22812531

  9. Phorbol esters and adenosine affect the readily releasable neurotransmitter pool by different mechanisms at amphibian motor nerve endings.

    PubMed

    Searl, T J; Silinsky, E M

    2003-12-01

    Phorbol esters and adenosine have been proposed to interact at common sites downstream of calcium entry at amphibian motor nerve endings. We thus studied the actions and interactions of phorbol esters and adenosine using electrophysiological recording techniques in conjunction with both binomial statistical analysis and high-frequency stimulation at the amphibian neuromuscular junction. To begin this study, we confirmed previous observations that synchronous evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release (reflected as endplate potentials, EPPs) is well described by a simple binomial distribution. We then used binomial analysis to study the effects of the phorbol ester phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu, 100 nM) and adenosine (50 microM) on the binomial parameters n (the number of calcium charged ACh quanta available for release) and p (the average probability of release), where the mean level of evoked ACh release (m) = np. We found that PDBu increased m by increasing the parameter n whilst adenosine reduced m by reducing n; neither agent affected the parameter p. PDBu had no effect on either the potency or efficacy of the inhibition produced by adenosine. Subtle differences between these two agents were revealed by the patterns of EPPs evoked by high-frequency trains of stimuli. Phorbol esters increased ACh release during the early phase of stimulation but not during the subsequent plateau phase. The inhibitory effect of adenosine was maximal at the beginning of the train and was still present with reduced efficacy during the plateau phase. When taken together with previous findings, these present results suggest that phorbol esters increase the immediately available store of synaptic vesicles by increasing the number of primed vesicles whilst adenosine acts at a later stage of the secretory process to decrease the number of calcium-charged primed vesicles.

  10. Maternal deprivation in neonatal rats of different conditions affects growth rate, circadian clock, and stress responsiveness differentially.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Ayano; Ohtsuki, Yoshio; Yoshihara, Toshihiro; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2005-09-15

    Effects of periodic maternal deprivation (MD) were examined in rat pups on growth rate, circadian phase and period at weaning, and stress responsiveness in adulthood. MD was performed from postnatal day 1 to day 6 or day 7, with or without keeping ambient temperature at 37 degrees C and humidity at 70-80% during deprivation. Times of day and length of MD were also changed. Body weights were significantly reduced at weaning in MD12 (MD for 12 h) and MD6am (MD for 6 h in the morning) pups, whereas they were not changed in MD6pm (MD in the afternoon) and all MD3 groups. At 8 weeks old, body weight was still significantly lower in MD12 than the control, but not different from the control in other groups. Circadian phases of free-running locomotor rhythm at weaning were almost reversed in MD12, MD6am and MD6pm as compared with those in the control. Intermediate phase-shifts were observed in MD3Eam (3 h MD in the first quarter of the light phase; early am) and MD3Lam (late am; the second quarter), whereas no phase-shift was detected in MD3Epm (early pm; the third quarter) and MD3Lpm (late pm; the fourth quarter). Elevation of plasma corticosterone level after novelty exposure at 8 weeks old was more robustly in MD12 and MD3Lam than in the control, but the hormone response in MD3Lpm was not different from the control. Keeping ambient temperature at 37 degrees C during MD did not rescue the MD-induced body weight loss, but attenuated the phase-shifts of the circadian clock, and completely cancelled the stress-induced hormone response in MD12 rats. These findings indicate that MD in rat pups differentially affects growth rate, circadian clock, and stress responsiveness in adulthood, depending on time of day, length of MD and ambient temperature during MD. PMID:16126237

  11. How Different Methodologies of Harvesting and Analysing the Samples Affect the Test Results in Determining Joint Mediators

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz, Ibrahim; Gokay, Nevzat Selim; Bircan, Rifat; Saracoglu, Gamze V.; Dervisoglu, Sergulen; Gokce, Alper

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. This study has researched the affect of different methodologies of harvesting and analysing the samples in determining the mediators emerging after the rat articular cartilage injury. Materials and Methods. One hundred and forty-four male wistar rats were divided into 2 groups. Synovial fluid samples were taken from all of the rats. We entered into the right knees of the rats in group I (n = 36) under anaesthesia and took cartilage tissue samples from their distal femur. Samples were taken as reference values for enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and histopathological evaluations. We entered into the right knees of the rats in group II (n = 108) and formed complete layer of cartilage injury in their medial femoral condyles. At the end of the 15th day, the rats were sacrificed after taking synovial fluid samples from their right knees creating defect in the rats in group II. The molecular markers in the synovial fluid and cartilage tissue samples which were taken from the experimental and control groups (MMP-9, MMP-13, TIMP-1, TNF-α, and NO) were analysed by direct or indirect methodologies. SPSS 18.0 Package program was used in the statistical evaluation. Students t-test where the measurement variables between the experimental and control groups were compared was applied. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were used in the determination of the diagnostic sufficiency from the tissue. Results. No difference was found between TIMP-1 (P = 0.67) and MMP-9 (P = 0.28) levels in synovial fluid and cartilage tissue. From the molecular markers, when MMP-9, MMP-13, NO, TIMP-1, TNF-α′, the area under ROC curve, and P values were examined, MMP-13 (P < 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.70–0.85), NO (P < 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.72–0.86), and TNF-α (P < 0.0001, 95% CI: 0.91–0.98) results were found to be statistically significant. Inferences. The indirect ELISA protocol which we apply for the cartilage tissue as an alternative to synovial lavage fluid is a

  12. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of a necrosis- and ethylene-inducing, protein-encoding gene family from Verticillium dahliae.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bang-Jun; Jia, Pei-Song; Gao, Feng; Guo, Hui-Shan

    2012-07-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a hemibiotrophic, phytopathogenic fungus that causes wilt disease in a wide range of crops, including cotton. Successful host colonization by hemibiotrophic pathogens requires the induction of plant cell death to provide the saprophytic nutrition for the transition from the biotrophic to the necrotrophic stage. In this study, we identified a necrosis-inducing Ph