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Sample records for necrosis factor-like weak

  1. Thrombospondin-4, tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor Fn14: novel extracellular matrix modulating factors in cardiac remodelling.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Erja; Ruskoaho, Heikki; Rysä, Jaana

    2012-12-01

    Cardiac remodelling is defined as changes in the size, shape, and function of the heart, which are most commonly caused by hypertension-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial infarction. Both neurohumoral and inflammatory factors have critical roles in the regulation of cardiac remodelling. A characteristic feature of cardiac remodelling is modification of the extracellular matrix (ECM), often manifested by fibrosis, a process that has vital consequences for the structure and function of the myocardium. In addition to established modulators of the ECM, the matricellular protein thrombospondin-4 (TSP-4) as well as the tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor Fn14 has been recently shown to modulate cardiac ECM. TSP-4 null mice develop pronounced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis with defects in collagen maturation in response to pressure overload. TWEAK and Fn14 belong to the tumour necrosis factor superfamily of proinflammatory cytokines. Recently it was shown that elevated levels of circulating TWEAK via Fn14 critically affect the cardiac ECM, characterized by increasing fibrosis and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in mice. Here we review the literature concerning the role of matricellular proteins and inflammation in cardiac ECM remodelling, with a special focus on TSP-4, TWEAK, and its receptor Fn14.

  2. The role of soluble tumor necrosis factor like weak inducer of apoptosis and interleukin-17A in the etiopathogenesis of celiac disease: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Mahmut; Kaplan, Mustafa; Ates, Ihsan; Kilic, Zeki Mesut Yaln; Kilic, Hasan; Suna, Nuretdin; Ates, Hale; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2016-06-01

    Our aim in this study was to determine soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) levels in celiac disease, and their association with the gluten diet and autoantibodies. Eighty patients with celiac diagnosis and 80 healthy control individuals with similar age, gender and body mass index to the patient group were included in the study. Serum sTWEAK and IL-17A levels were measured by the serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The median IL-17A (117.5 pg/mL vs. 56.7 pg/mL; P = 0.001) level in celiac patients was higher than in the control group, while the median sTWEAK (543 pg/mL vs. 643 pg/mL; P = 0.016) level in patients was determined to be lower. In the patient group, patients who complied with the gluten diet had a lower level of median IL-17A (98.1 pg/mL vs. 197.5 pg/mL; P = 0.034) and a higher level of sTWEAK (606 pg/mL vs. 522.8 pg/mL; P = 0.031) than those who did not adhere. Furthermore, the IL-17A level was higher and the sTWEAK level was lower in celiac patients with positive antibody than those with negative antibody. A positive correlation was determined among anti-gliadin antibody IgA, anti-gliadin antibody IgG, anti-tissue transglutaminase IgG levels and the IL-17A level, and a negative correlation was determined with the sTWEAK level. In celiac disease, the sTWEAK and IL-17A levels differ between patients who cannot adapt to the gluten diet and who are autoantibody positive, and patients who adapt to the diet and are autoantibody negative. We believe that sTWEAK and IL-17A are associated with the inflammation in celiac pathogenesis. PMID:27367991

  3. The role of soluble tumor necrosis factor like weak inducer of apoptosis and interleukin-17A in the etiopathogenesis of celiac disease

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, Mahmut; Kaplan, Mustafa; Ates, Ihsan; Kilic, Zeki Mesut Yalın; Kilic, Hasan; Suna, Nuretdin; Ates, Hale; Kayacetin, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Our aim in this study was to determine soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) levels in celiac disease, and their association with the gluten diet and autoantibodies. Eighty patients with celiac diagnosis and 80 healthy control individuals with similar age, gender and body mass index to the patient group were included in the study. Serum sTWEAK and IL-17A levels were measured by the serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The median IL-17A (117.5 pg/mL vs. 56.7 pg/mL; P = 0.001) level in celiac patients was higher than in the control group, while the median sTWEAK (543 pg/mL vs. 643 pg/mL; P = 0.016) level in patients was determined to be lower. In the patient group, patients who complied with the gluten diet had a lower level of median IL-17A (98.1 pg/mL vs. 197.5 pg/mL; P = 0.034) and a higher level of sTWEAK (606 pg/mL vs. 522.8 pg/mL; P = 0.031) than those who did not adhere. Furthermore, the IL-17A level was higher and the sTWEAK level was lower in celiac patients with positive antibody than those with negative antibody. A positive correlation was determined among anti-gliadin antibody IgA, anti-gliadin antibody IgG, anti-tissue transglutaminase IgG levels and the IL-17A level, and a negative correlation was determined with the sTWEAK level. In celiac disease, the sTWEAK and IL-17A levels differ between patients who cannot adapt to the gluten diet and who are autoantibody positive, and patients who adapt to the diet and are autoantibody negative. We believe that sTWEAK and IL-17A are associated with the inflammation in celiac pathogenesis. PMID:27367991

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis Accelerates the Progression of Renal Fibrosis in Lupus Nephritis by Activating SMAD and p38 MAPK in TGF-β1 Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiqin; Xue, Leixi; Liu, Zhichun; Huang, Jun; Wen, Jian; Hu, Ji; Bo, Lin; Yang, Ru

    2016-01-01

    This study aim was to explore the effects of tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) in lupus nephritis and its potential underlying mechanisms. MRL/lpr mice were used for in vivo experiments and human proximal tubular cells (HK2 cells) were used for in vitro experiments. Results showed that MRL/lpr mice treated with vehicle solution or LV-Control shRNA displayed significant proteinuria and severe renal histopathological changes. LV-TWEAK-shRNA treatment reversed these changes and decreased renal expressions of TWEAK, TGF-β1, p-p38 MAPK, p-Smad2, COL-1, and α-SMA proteins. In vitro, hTWEAK treatment upregulated the expressions of TGF-β1, p-p38 MAPK, p-SMAD2, α-SMA, and COL-1 proteins in HK2 cells and downregulated the expressions of E-cadherin protein, which were reversed by cotreatment with anti-TWEAK mAb or SB431542 treatment. These findings suggest that TWEAK may contribute to chronic renal changes and renal fibrosis by activating TGF-β1 signaling pathway, and phosphorylation of Smad2 and p38 MAPK proteins was also involved in this signaling pathway. PMID:27365897

  5. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 have a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebral cortical neurons have a high vulnerability to the harmful effects of hypoxia. However, the brain has the ability to detect and accommodate to hypoxic conditions. This phenomenon, known as preconditioning, is a natural adaptive process highly preserved among species whereby exposure to sub-lethal hypoxia promotes the acquisition of tolerance to a subsequent lethal hypoxic injury. The cytokine tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) are found in neurons and their expression is induced by exposure to sub-lethal hypoxia. Accordingly, in this work we tested the hypothesis that the interaction between TWEAK and Fn14 induces tolerance to lethal hypoxic and ischemic conditions. Methods Here we used in vitro and in vivo models of hypoxic and ischemic preconditioning, an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion and mice and neurons genetically deficient in TWEAK, Fn14, or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) to investigate whether treatment with recombinant TWEAK or an increase in the expression of endogenous TWEAK renders neurons tolerant to lethal hypoxia. We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to study the effect of TWEAK on the expression of neuronal TNF-α, Western blot analysis to investigate whether the effect of TWEAK was mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and immunohistochemical techniques and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis to study the effect of TWEAK on apoptotic cell death. Results We found that either treatment with recombinant TWEAK or an increase in the expression of TWEAK and Fn14 induce hypoxic and ischemic tolerance in vivo and in vitro. This protective effect is mediated by neuronal TNF-α and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 pathway via phosphorylation and inactivation of the B-cell lymphoma 2-associated death promoter protein. Conclusions Our work

  6. Studies of binding of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) to fibroblast growth factor inducible 14 (Fn14).

    PubMed

    Fick, Andrea; Lang, Isabell; Schäfer, Viktoria; Seher, Axel; Trebing, Johannes; Weisenberger, Daniela; Wajant, Harald

    2012-01-01

    To perform highly sensitive cellular binding studies with TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), we developed a bioluminescent variant of soluble TWEAK (GpL-FLAG-TNC-TWEAK) by fusing it genetically to the C terminus of the luciferase of Gaussia princeps (GpL). Equilibrium binding studies on human (HT1080 and HT29) and murine (Renca and B16) cell lines at 37 °C revealed high affinities of human TWEAK from 53 to 112 pm. The dissociation rate constant of the TWEAK-Fn14 interaction was between 0.48×10(-3) s(-1) (HT29) and 0.58×10(-3) s(-1) (HT1080) for the human molecules, and the association rate constant obtained was 3.3×10(6) m(-1) s(-1) for both cell lines. It has been shown previously that oligomerization of soluble TWEAK trimers results in enhanced Fn14-mediated activation of the classical NFκB pathway. Binding studies with GpL-FLAG-TNC-TWEAK trimers oligomerized by help of a FLAG tag-specific antibody gave no evidence for a major increase in Fn14 occupancy by oligomerized ligand despite strongly enhanced induction of the NFκB target IL8. Thus, aggregated complexes of soluble TWEAK and Fn14 have a higher intrinsic activity to stimulate the classical NFκB pathway and qualitatively differ from isolated trimeric TWEAK-Fn14 complexes. Furthermore, determination of IL8 induction as a function of occupied activated receptors revealed that the intrinsic capability of TNFR1 to stimulate the classical NFκB pathway and IL8 production was ∼100-fold higher than Fn14. Thus, although ∼25 activated TNFR1 trimers were sufficient to trigger half-maximal IL8 production, more than 2500 cell-bound oligomerized TWEAK trimers were required to elicit a similar response. PMID:22081603

  7. Renal papillary necrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... your provider. Alternative Names Necrosis - renal papillae; Renal medullary necrosis Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Ruggenenti P, Cravedi P, Remuzzi G. Microvascular and macrovascular diseases of the kidney. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, ...

  8. Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) Signaling, but Not TWEAK (TNF-like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis)-triggered cIAP1 (Cellular Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1) Degradation, Requires cIAP1 RING Dimerization and E2 Binding

    PubMed Central

    Feltham, Rebecca; Moulin, Maryline; Vince, James E.; Mace, Peter D.; Wong, Wendy Wei-Lynn; Anderton, Holly; Day, Catherine L.; Vaux, David L.; Silke, John

    2010-01-01

    Cellular inhibitor of apoptosis (cIAP) proteins, cIAP1 and cIAP2, are important regulators of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily (SF) signaling and are amplified in a number of tumor types. They are targeted by IAP antagonist compounds that are undergoing clinical trials. IAP antagonist compounds trigger cIAP autoubiquitylation and degradation. The TNFSF member TWEAK induces lysosomal degradation of TRAF2 and cIAPs, leading to elevated NIK levels and activation of non-canonical NF-κB. To investigate the role of the ubiquitin ligase RING domain of cIAP1 in these pathways, we used cIAP-deleted cells reconstituted with cIAP1 point mutants designed to interfere with the ability of the RING to dimerize or to interact with E2 enzymes. We show that RING dimerization and E2 binding are required for IAP antagonists to induce cIAP1 degradation and protect cells from TNF-induced cell death. The RING functions of cIAP1 are required for full TNF-induced activation of NF-κB, however, delayed activation of NF-κB still occurs in cIAP1 and -2 double knock-out cells. The RING functions of cIAP1 are also required to prevent constitutive activation of non-canonical NF-κB by targeting NIK for proteasomal degradation. However, in cIAP double knock-out cells TWEAK was still able to increase NIK levels demonstrating that NIK can be regulated by cIAP-independent pathways. Finally we show that, unlike IAP antagonists, TWEAK was able to induce degradation of cIAP1 RING mutants. These results emphasize the critical importance of the RING of cIAP1 in many signaling scenarios, but also demonstrate that in some pathways RING functions are not required. PMID:20356846

  9. Fat Necrosis and Oil Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Previous Topic Granular cell tumors Next Topic Mastitis Fat necrosis and oil cysts Fat necrosis happens when ... lumpy area if it becomes bothersome. How do fat necrosis and oil cysts affect your risk for ...

  10. Subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Dogu; Berg, Jais O

    2016-04-01

    We have described subcutaneous encapsulated fat necrosis, which is benign, usually asymptomatic and underreported. Images have only been published on two earlier occasions, in which the necrotic nodules appear "pearly" than the cloudy yellow surface in present case. The presented image may help future surgeons to establish the diagnosis peroperatively. PMID:27099753

  11. Death by necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Syntichaki, Popi; Tavernarakis, Nektarios

    2002-01-01

    Cells suffer necrotic death when exposed to extreme environmental conditions, adverse and excessive stimuli, or when deleterious mutations are encoded in their genetic material. Unlike apoptosis, which involves a highly regulated and elaborate network of biochemical events and cascades, necrosis has been considered generally to be a chaotic decadence process that effects the inexorable demise of cells otherwise not destined to die. This grim prospect is now slowly being overturned, mostly by exciting new findings in two simple model organisms, Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Despite the wide spectrum of necrosis-initiating conditions, evidence is accumulating that execution of necrotic or neurodegenerative cell death may be carried out by a finite common set of mechanisms. PMID:12101090

  12. Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1957-06-01

    Experimental results on the non-conservation of parity and charge conservation in weak interactions are reviewed. The two-component theory of the neutrino is discussed. Lepton reactions are examined under the assumption of the law of conservation of leptons and that the neutrino is described by a two- component theory. From the results of this examination, the universal Fermi interactions are analyzed. Although reactions involving the neutrino can be described, the same is not true of reactions which do not involve the lepton, as the discussion of the decay of K mesons and hyperons shows. The question of the invariance of time reversal is next examined. (J.S.R.)

  13. Walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Ramia, J M; de la Plaza, R; Quiñones-Sampedro, J E; Ramiro, C; Veguillas, P; García-Parreño, J

    2012-05-01

    Acute severe pancreatitits may be complicated by the development of 'walled-off pancreatic necrosis' (WOPN), which is characterised by a mixture of solid components and fluids on imaging studies as a consequence of organised pancreatic tissue necrosis. We present here an overview of the definition, clinical features, and diagnostic and therapeutic management of this clinical condition, which is mostly based on consensus as adequate clinical trials are lacking. PMID:22641624

  14. [A case report of progressive penile necrosis].

    PubMed

    Haba, Tomomi; Koike, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    The penis is provided with blood by multiple arteries. Penile necrosis is uncommon. Penile necrosis sporadically occurs in patients with progressive diabetes mellitus and/or end stage renal failure. Penile necrosis is often considered a poor prognostic feature. We present a case of penile necrosis in a patient with mild diabetes mellitus.

  15. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject.

  16. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Barbeiro, Sandra; Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  17. Black Anal Canal: Acute Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Catarina; Gonçalves, Cláudia; Alves, Paulo; Gil, Inês; Canhoto, Manuela; Silva, Filipe; Cotrim, Isabel; Amado, Cristina; Eliseu, Liliana; Vasconcelos, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Acute ischemia of the rectum or anal canal resulting in necrosis is extremely uncommon because both the rectum and the anal canal have excellent blood supplies. We present a case with spontaneous necrosis of the anal canal without rectal involvement. Surgical debridement was accomplished, and the recovery was uneventful. The patient was elderly, with probable atherosclerotic arterial disease, and presented with hypotension. Due to the lack of other precipitating factors, the hypoperfusion hypothesis seems to be the most suitable in this case. To the best of our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature on this subject. PMID:27626027

  18. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis. PMID:27695214

  19. Inflammatory duodenal necrosis complicating gastroschisis

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Dina; Lee, Geraint J.; Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Drake, David

    2016-01-01

    Babies with gastroschisis have an increased risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) that can lead to short bowel syndrome, a long-term parenteral nutrition requirement, and its associated complications. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of recurrent duodenal ischemia and necrosis associated with gastroschisis in the absence of NEC totalis.

  20. Minimally invasive treatment of infected pancreatic necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Cebulski, Włodzimierz; Słodkowski, Maciej; Krasnodębski, Ireneusz W.

    2014-01-01

    Infected pancreatic necrosis is a challenging complication that worsens prognosis in acute pancreatitis. For years, open necrosectomy has been the mainstay treatment option in infected pancreatic necrosis, although surgical debridement still results in high morbidity and mortality rates. Recently, many reports on minimally invasive treatment in infected pancreatic necrosis have been published. This paper presents a review of minimally invasive techniques and attempts to define their role in the management of infected pancreatic necrosis. PMID:25653725

  1. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or “black esophagus” is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  2. Acute Esophageal Necrosis: An Update.

    PubMed

    Inayat, Faisal; Hurairah, Abu; Virk, Hafeez Ul Hassan

    2016-07-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) or "black esophagus" is a rare clinical entity with an unclear etiology. It is diagnosed at upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with the presence of strikingly black necrotic esophagus. The treatment is primarily medical, but the prognosis is generally poor due to advanced age and comorbid illnesses in patients who develop AEN. Herein, we discussed the implications of poor glycemic control in regards with AEN and undertook a literature review of this rare diagnosis. PMID:27583242

  3. [Talus necrosis and its treatment].

    PubMed

    Trauth, J; Bläsius, K

    1988-08-01

    Aetiopathogenesis of the necrosis of the talus has not yet been definitely clarified, and neither has that of the other aseptic necroses. We were able to study the aetiopathogenesis, course of the disease and therapy in 20 of our own patients by follow-up; two of these developed necrosis of the talus in both feet. We definitely excluded patients suffering from osteochondrosis dissecans. Even though fracture of the talus is on the whole relatively rare, it remains the most frequent cause of necrosis of the talus. We also found talonecrosis after surgical correction of clubfoot, after Sudeck's disease (Sudeck-Leriche syndrome, Sudeck's atrophy or dystrophy), suppurative arthritis of the ankle joint, subtalar luxation and haematogenic osteomyelitis. Only few patients required surgery. In most cases a special boot constructed for arthrodesis patients proved sufficient. Each patient developed arthrodesis to a different degree. Depending upon the complaints and stiffening of the ankle joint or of the talo-calcanonavicular joint, the capacity of the patients to be gainfully employed was reduced by an amount between 20 and 30 per cent. PMID:2905578

  4. Weak scale supersymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J. California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Physics)

    1990-11-12

    An introduction to the ideas and current state of weak scale supersymmetry is given. It is shown that LEP data on Z decays has already excluded two of the most elegant models of weak scale supersymmetry. 14 refs.

  5. Biological effects of targeted inactivation of hepatocyte growth factor-like protein in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Bezerra, J A; Carrick, T L; Degen, J L; Witte, D; Degen, S J

    1998-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor-like protein (HGFL) is a liver-derived serum glycoprotein involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, and is proposed to have a fundamental role in embryogenesis, fertility, hematopoiesis, macrophage activation, and tissue repair. To assess the in vivo effects of total loss of HGFL, we generated mice with targeted disruption of the gene resulting in loss of the protein. Disruption of the HGFL gene allowed for normal embryogenesis, and followed a Mendelian pattern of genetic transmission. Mice homozygous for the targeted allele (HGFL-/- mice) are fertile, and grow to adulthood without obvious phenotypic abnormalities in unchallenged animals, except for development of lipid-containing cytoplasmic vacuoles in hepatocytes throughout the liver lobules. These histologic changes are not accompanied by discernible changes in synthetic or excretory hepatic functions. Hematopoiesis appears unaltered, and although macrophage activation is delayed in the absence of HGFL, migration to the peritoneal cavity upon challenge with thioglycollate was similar in HGFL-/- and wild-type mice. Challenged with incision to skin, HGFL-/- mice display normal wound healing. These data demonstrate that HGFL is not essential for embryogenesis, fertility, or wound healing. HGFL-deficient mice will provide a valuable means to assess the role of HGFL in hepatic and systemic responses to inflammatory and infectious stimuli in vivo. PMID:9486989

  6. ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (Arl2) protein influences microtubule dynamics in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Beghin, Anne . E-mail: anne.beghin@recherche.univ-lyon1.fr; Honore, Stephane; Messana, Celine; Matera, Eva-Laure; Aim, Jennifer; Burlinchon, Sandrine; Braguer, Diane; Dumontet, Charles

    2007-02-01

    ADP ribosylation factor like 2 (Arl2) protein is involved in the folding of tubulin peptides. Variants of the human adenocarcinoma line MCF7 cells with increased or reduced content of Arl2 protein were produced and characterized. Western blot analysis performed after separation of the different fractions of tubulins showed that the content in polymerizable soluble heterodimers was significantly increased in cells with the highest Arl2 expression level (MA+) and reduced in cells with the lowest Arl2 expression level (MA-) in comparison to control cells (MP). Microtubule dynamic instability, measured after microinjection of rhodamine-labelled tubulin in living cells, was significantly enhanced in MA+ cells and reduced in MA- cells. These alterations involved modifications of the microtubule growth and shortening rates, duration of attenuation phases, percentage of time spent in each phase (growth, shortening and attenuation) and catastrophe frequency. We also observed modifications in the expression level of the tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2Ac, which has been shown to form a complex with Arl2. Finally, cell cycle progression was modified in these cells, particularly in regard to duration of telophase. In summary, alterations in Arl2 protein content were found to be associated with modifications in tubulin pools, microtubule dynamics as well as cell cycle progression.

  7. EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR LIKE5 peptide represses stomatal development by inhibiting meristemoid maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tomoko; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Nishizawa, Michi; Kajita, Ryoko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Ishiguro, Sumie

    2013-01-01

    Stomatal development in Arabidopsis epidermis is both positively and negatively regulated by a family of Cys-rich peptides, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR LIKEs (EPFLs). We synthesized biologically active synthetic EPFL5 (sEPFL5) peptide, which reduced the number of stoma in leaves and cotyledons. The sEPFL5 possesses three disulfide bonds at positions identical to those of a positive development factor, stomagen. Application of sEPFL5 had little inhibitory effect on protodermal cells entering the stomatal lineage, but did inhibit the maintenance of meristemoid activity, resulting in the differentiation of arrested meristemoids into pavement cells. This phenotype was enhanced in the too many mouths (tmm) mutant background. RNA analysis revealed that sEPFL5 application halved SPEECHLESS expression and abolished MUTE expression in tmm mutants, explaining the phenotype observed. The action of sEPFL5 was mediated by ERECTA family receptors. We propose that EPFL5 functions to establish the differentiation of stomatal lineage cells to pavement cells. PMID:23748792

  8. Stimulation of neutrophils by tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanoff, S.J.; Vadas, M.A.; Harlan, J.M.; Sparks, L.H.; Gamble, J.R.; Agosti, J.M.; Waltersdorph, A.M.

    1986-06-01

    Human recombinant tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was shown to be a weak direct stimulus of the neutrophil respiratory burst and degranulation. The stimulation, as measured by iodination, H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ production, and lysozyme release, was considerably increased by the presence of unopsonized zymosan in the reaction mixture, an effect which was associated with the increased ingestion of the zymosan. TNF does not act as an opsonin but, rather, reacts with the neutrophil to increase its phagocytic activity. TNF-dependent phagocytosis, as measured indirectly by iodination, is inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (Mab) 60.1 and 60.3, which recognize different epitopes on the C3bi receptor/adherence-promoting surface glycoprotein of neutrophils. Other neutrophil stimulants, namely N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine, the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, and phorbol myristic acetate, also increase iodination in the presence of zymosan; as with TNF, the effect of these stimulants is inhibited by Mab 60.1 and 60.3, whereas, in contrast to that of TNF, their stimulation of iodination is unaffected by an Mab directed against TNF. TNF may be a natural stimulant of neutrophils which promotes adherence to endothelial cells and to particles, leading to increased phagocytosis, respiratory burst activity, and degranulation.

  9. Rooting for the root of elongation factor-like protein phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Sakaguchi, Miako; Matsumoto, Takuya; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Inagaki, Yuji

    2010-09-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) may play a pivotal role in the evolution of elongation factor-like (EFL) genes in eukaryotes. To date, numbers of putative cases for lateral transfer of EFL genes have been postulated based on unrooted EFL phylogenies. Nevertheless, the root position in EFL phylogeny is important to validate lateral EFL gene transfer: for instance, a clade of two EFL homologs from distantly related organisms in an unrooted EFL tree does not necessarily confirm the LGT, since the possibility that the root may locate in this clade cannot be excluded. Cocquyt et al. (2009, p. 39) recently demonstrated that a putative case of lateral EFL gene transfer, which was originally proposed based on an unrooted phylogeny, could not be endorsed by the corresponding rooted analysis. Although rooting EFL phylogeny is indispensable to elucidate various aspects in EFL gene evolution, we suspected that the outgroup clade comprised of EF-1alpha and eukaryote-specific EF-1alpha paralogs erroneously attached to long EFL branches in Cocquyt et al. (2009) - a typical long branch attraction (LBA) artifact. Here, we systematically assessed the putative LBA artifact between the branch leading to the outgroup clade and long ingroup branches by analyzing the original dataset used in Cocquyt et al. (2009) with and without modifying ingroup-sequence sampling. A series of the rooted EFL analyses indicated that the root inference was highly susceptible to presence and absence of long-branched ingroup-sequences, suggesting that the rooted EFL phylogenies cannot be free from severe LBA artifact. We also discussed a new aspect in EFL gene evolution in stramenopiles identified in the course of the EFL analyses described above. Finally, the relative timing of the first emergence of EFL gene in eukaryotes was contemplated based on the current EF-1alpha/EFL distribution.

  10. Direct phylogenetic evidence for lateral transfer of elongation factor-like gene

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Sako, Yoshihiko

    2008-01-01

    Genes encoding elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins, which show high similarity to elongation factor-1α (EF-1α), have been found in phylogenetically distantly related eukaryotes. The sporadic distribution of “EFL-containing” lineages within “EF-1α-containing” lineages indirectly, but strongly, suggests lateral gene transfer as the principal driving force in EFL evolution. However, one of the most critical aspects in the above hypothesis, the donor lineages in any putative cases of lateral EFL gene transfer, remained unclear. In this study, we provide direct evidence for lateral transfer of an EFL gene through the analyses of 10 diatom EFL genes. All diatom EFL homologues tightly clustered in phylogenetic analyses, suggesting acquisition of the exogenous EFL gene early in diatom evolution. Our survey additionally identified Thalassiosira pseudonana as a eukaryote bearing EF-1α and EFL genes and secondary EFL gene loss in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, the complete genome of which encodes only the EF-1α gene. Most importantly, the EFL phylogeny recovered a robust grouping of homologues from diatoms, the cercozoan Bigelowiella natans, and the foraminifer Planoglabratella opecularis, with the diatoms nested within the Bigelowiella plus Planoglabratella (Rhizaria) grouping. The particular relationships recovered are further consistent with two characteristic sequence motifs. The best explanation of our data analyses is an EFL gene transfer from a foraminifer to a diatom, the first case in which the donor–recipient relationship was clarified. Finally, based on a reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR assay and the genome information of Thalassiosira and Phaeodactylum, we propose the loss of elongation factor function in Thalassiosira EF-1α. PMID:18458344

  11. Postselected weak measurement beyond the weak value

    SciTech Connect

    Geszti, Tamas

    2010-04-15

    Closed expressions are derived for the quantum measurement statistics of pre- and postselected Gaussian particle beams. The weakness of the preselection step is shown to compete with the nonorthogonality of postselection in a transparent way. The approach is shown to be useful in analyzing postselection-based signal amplification, allowing measurements to be extended far beyond the range of validity of the well-known Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman limit. Additionally, the present treatment connects postselected weak measurement to the topic of phase-contrast microscopy.

  12. Soluble TNF-Like Weak Inducer of Apoptosis as a New Marker in Preeclampsia: A Pilot Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Zeynep Kayaoglu; Sumnu, Abdullah; Bademler, Neslihan; Kilic, Elif; Sumnu, Gulay; Karadag, Serhat; Gursu, Meltem; Ozel, Aysegul; Batmaz, Gonca; Ates, Seda; Dane, Banu; Ozturk, Savas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. All findings of preeclampsia appear as the clinical consequences of diffuse endothelial dysfunction. Soluble tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (sTWEAK) was recently introduced as a TNF related cytokine in various inflammatory and noninflammatory disorders. sTWEAK was found to be related to endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease. In our study we aimed to compare sTWEAK levels in women with preeclampsia to corresponding levels in a healthy pregnant control group. Materials and Methods. The study was undertaken with 33 patients with preeclampsia and 33 normal pregnant women. The concentration of sTWEAK in serum was calculated with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Results. Serum creatinine, uric acid, LDH levels, and uPCR were significantly higher in the patient group compared to the control group. sTWEAK levels were significantly lower in preeclamptic patients (332 ± 144 pg/mL) than in control subjects (412 ± 166 pg/mL) (p = 0.04). Discussion. Our study demonstrates that sTWEAK is decreased in patients with preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnant women. There is a need for further studies to identify the role of sTWEAK in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and to determine whether it can be regarded as a predictor of the development of preeclampsia. PMID:26989294

  13. Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulga, I. C.; Pikulin, D. I.; Loring, T. A.

    2016-06-01

    Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand.

  14. Aperiodic Weak Topological Superconductors.

    PubMed

    Fulga, I C; Pikulin, D I; Loring, T A

    2016-06-24

    Weak topological phases are usually described in terms of protection by the lattice translation symmetry. Their characterization explicitly relies on periodicity since weak invariants are expressed in terms of the momentum-space torus. We prove the compatibility of weak topological superconductors with aperiodic systems, such as quasicrystals. We go beyond usual descriptions of weak topological phases and introduce a novel, real-space formulation of the weak invariant, based on the Clifford pseudospectrum. A nontrivial value of this index implies a nontrivial bulk phase, which is robust against disorder and hosts localized zero-energy modes at the edge. Our recipe for determining the weak invariant is directly applicable to any finite-sized system, including disordered lattice models. This direct method enables a quantitative analysis of the level of disorder the topological protection can withstand. PMID:27391744

  15. Acute oesophageal necrosis (black oesophagus).

    PubMed

    Galtés, Ignasi; Gallego, María Ángeles; Esgueva, Raquel; Martin-Fumadó, Carles

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old man was admitted to hospital after being found unconscious in his home. He had a history of alcoholism, multiple drug addictions, and type I diabetes mellitus. At admission, he had hyperglycaemia (550 mg/dL) with glucosuria and ketone bodies in the urine, along with septic shock refractory to bilateral alveolar infiltrates and severe respiratory failure. The patient died 24 hours post admission due to multiple organ failure, with diabetic ketoacidosis decompensated by possible respiratory infection in a patient with polytoxicomania. The autopsy confirmed the presence of acute bilateral bronchopneumonia, chronic pancreatitis, severe hepatic steatosis, and generalized congestive changes. At the oesophagus, acute oesophageal necrosis was evident. PMID:26949146

  16. Thermal inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.; Gould, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A plaque assay was used to follow the inactivation kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in cell culture media at various temperatures. Inactivation of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a visceral organ slurry was compared with that in culture media.

  17. Tumor necrosis factor interaction with gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, De-Hao; Elzey, Sherrie; Delrio, Frank W.; Keene, Athena M.; Tyner, Katherine M.; Clogston, Jeffrey D.; Maccuspie, Robert I.; Guha, Suvajyoti; Zachariah, Michael R.; Hackley, Vincent A.

    2012-05-01

    We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The native TNF used in this study exists in the active homotrimer configuration prior to conjugation. After binding to AuNPs, the maximum surface density of TNF is (0.09 +/- 0.02) nm-2 with a binding constant of 3 × 106 (mol L-1)-1. Dodecyl sulfate ions induce desorption of monomeric TNF from the AuNP surface, indicating a relatively weak intermolecular binding within the AuNP-bound TNF trimers. Anti-TNF binds to both TNF-conjugated and citrate-stabilized AuNPs, showing that non-specific binding is significant. Based on the number of anti-TNF molecules adsorbed, a substantially higher binding affinity was observed for the TNF-conjugated surface. The inclusion of thiolated polyethylene glycol (SH-PEG) on the AuNPs inhibits the binding of anti-TNF, and the amount of inhibition is related to the number ratio of surface bound SH-PEG to TNF and the way in which the ligands are introduced. This study highlights the challenges in quantitatively characterizing complex hybrid nanoscale conjugates, and provides insight on TNF-AuNP formation and activity.We report on a systematic investigation of molecular conjugation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) protein onto gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the subsequent binding behavior to its antibody (anti-TNF). We employ a combination of physical and spectroscopic characterization methods, including electrospray-differential mobility analysis, dynamic light scattering, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis

  18. Weak measure expansive flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Keonhee; Oh, Jumi

    2016-01-01

    A notion of measure expansivity for flows was introduced by Carrasco-Olivera and Morales in [3] as a generalization of expansivity, and they proved that there were no measure expansive flows on closed surfaces. In this paper we introduce a concept of weak measure expansivity for flows which is really weaker than that of measure expansivity, and show that there is a weak measure expansive flow on a closed surface. Moreover we show that any C1 stably weak measure expansive flow on a C∞ closed manifold M is Ω-stable, and any C1 stably measure expansive flow on M satisfies both Axiom A and the quasi-transversality condition.

  19. Molecular mechanisms of regulated necrosis.

    PubMed

    Galluzzi, Lorenzo; Kepp, Oliver; Krautwald, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Linkermann, Andreas

    2014-11-01

    It is now clear that apoptosis does not constitute the sole genetically encoded form of cell death. Rather, cells can spontaneously undertake or exogenously be driven into a cell death subroutine that manifests with necrotic features, yet can be inhibited by pharmacological and genetic interventions. As regulated necrosis (RN) plays a major role in both physiological scenarios (e.g., embryonic development) and pathological settings (e.g., ischemic disorders), consistent efforts have been made throughout the last decade toward the characterization of the molecular mechanisms that underlie this cell death modality. Contrarily to initial beliefs, RN does not invariably result from the activation of a receptor interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3)-dependent signaling pathway, but may be ignited by distinct molecular networks. Nowadays, various types of RN have been characterized, including (but not limited to) necroptosis, mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT)-dependent RN and parthanatos. Of note, the inhibition of only one of these modules generally exerts limited cytoprotective effects in vivo, underscoring the degree of interconnectivity that characterizes RN. Here, we review the signaling pathways, pathophysiological relevance and therapeutic implications of the major molecular cascades that underlie RN. PMID:24582829

  20. History of Weak Interactions

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  1. Transpapillary drainage of pancreatic parenchymal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Smoczyński, Marian; Adrych, Krystian

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades the strategy of treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis has changed. Endoscopic therapy of patients with symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis has a high rate of efficiency. Here we present a description of a patient with parenchymal limited necrosis of the pancreas and a disruption of the main pancreatic duct. In the treatment, active transpapillary drainage of the pancreatic necrosis (through the major duodenal papilla) was performed and insertion of an endoprosthesis into the main pancreatic duct (through the minor duodenal papilla) was applied, which enabled a bypass over the infiltration and resulted in complete resolution. PMID:26649102

  2. Post-pancreatitis Fat Necrosis Mimicking Carcinomatosis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joshua P; Arnoletti, J Pablo; Varadarajulu, Shyam; Morgan, Desiree E

    2008-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis can result in retroperitoneal fat necrosis, typically occurring in the peripancreatic region, with extension into the transverse mesocolon, omentum and mesenteric root. When evaluated with contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT), acute peripancreatic post necrotic collections typically become lower in attenuation over time, and often appear as homogeneous fluid collections. Saponification as a complication of fat necrosis in patients with acute pancreatitis is a well recognized clinical entity. While retroperitonal fat necrosis is commonly seen on CECT, saponification is not a prominent imaging feature. We present a case of acute pancreatitis complicated by extensive saponification of fat throughout the retroperitoneum and peritoneal lining, mimicking carcinomatosis.

  3. Role of the Mitochondrion in Programmed Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Baines, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the “programmed” nature of apoptosis and autophagy, necrotic cell death has always been believed to be a random, uncontrolled process that leads to the “accidental” death of the cell. This dogma, however, is being challenged and the concept of necrosis also being “programmed” is gaining ground. In particular, mitochondria appear to play a pivotal role in the mediation of programmed necrosis. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to appraise the current concepts regarding the signaling mechanisms of programmed necrosis, with specific attention to the contribution of mitochondria to this process. PMID:21423395

  4. Weak bond screening system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  5. Massive tongue necrosis secondary to temporal arteritis.

    PubMed

    Roseman, B B; Granite, E

    1984-10-01

    A case of unusually massive necrosis of the tongue secondary to temporal arteritis is presented. The clinician must include temporal arteritis in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of tongue ischemia.

  6. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis producing ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ross, J S; Prout, G R

    1976-05-01

    We present 3 cases of a rare syndrome of extrinsic ureteral obstruction produced by retroperitoneal fat necrosis and compare the medical records and histopathology to 19 cases of classic idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis. Clinical similarities include average age of onset in the fourth and fifth decades, male preponderance, abdominal or back pain as the presenting symptom, elevation of the blood urea concentration prior to diagnosis and tendency toward bilateral involvement. Histologically, the 2 conditions were different. Retroperitoneal fat necrosis is characterized by coalescence of fat cells into fat cysts bordered by foreign body giant cell granulomas, foam cells, light chronic inflammatory infiltrate and unimpressive fibrosis. The microscopic pathology of idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis is dominated by densely collagenized fibrous tissue of varying cellularity without evidence of fat necrosis. Of the 3 cases of retroperitoneal fat necrosis 2 featured prior ischiorectal abscesses and this is considered in a discussion of the etiology of this unusual cause of ureteral compression.

  7. Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

    2008-02-01

    Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis. PMID:18215520

  8. Retroperitoneal endoscopic debridement for infected peripancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Seifert, H; Wehrmann, T; Schmitt, T; Zeuzem, S; Caspary, W F

    2000-08-19

    Standard management of infected peripancreatic necrosis consists of open surgical debridement and lavage--a traumatic intervention with substantial morbidity and mortality. As an alternative and novel approach with minimum invasiveness, we present fenestration of the gastric wall and debridement of infected necrosis by direct retroperitoneal endoscopy. In three patients, this strategy led to rapid clinical improvement and no serious complications. Transgastric endoscopic therapy may be a less traumatic alternative to surgery and should be further assessed in prospective studies.

  9. Imaging Tumor Necrosis with Ferumoxytol

    PubMed Central

    Aghighi, Maryam; Golovko, Daniel; Ansari, Celina; Marina, Neyssa M.; Pisani, Laura; Kurlander, Lonnie; Klenk, Christopher; Bhaumik, Srabani; Wendland, Michael; Daldrup-Link, Heike E.

    2015-01-01

    showed similar findings with high T1 signal in areas of tumor necrosis and low signal in areas of intracellularly compartmentalized iron. Conclusion Differential T1- and T2-enhancement patterns of USPIO in tumors enable conclusions about their intracellular and extracellular location. This information can be used to characterize the composition of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26569397

  10. Weak shock reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, John K.; Brio, Moysey

    2000-05-01

    We present numerical solutions of a two-dimensional inviscid Burgers equation which provides an asymptotic description of the Mach reflection of weak shocks. In our numerical solutions, the incident, reflected, and Mach shocks meet at a triple point, and there is a supersonic patch behind the triple point, as proposed by Guderley for steady weak-shock reflection. A theoretical analysis indicates that there is an expansion fan at the triple point, in addition to the three shocks. The supersonic patch is extremely small, and this work is the first time it has been resolved.

  11. In praise of weakness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Aephraim; Feizpour, Amir; Rozema; Mahler; Hayat

    2013-03-01

    Quantum physics is being transformed by a radical new conceptual and experimental approach known as weak measurement that can do everything from tackling basic quantum mysteries to mapping the trajectories of photons in a Young's double-slit experiment. Aephraim Steinberg, Amir Feizpour, Lee Rozema, Dylan Mahler and Alex Hayat unveil the power of this new technique.

  12. [Fatal hepatic necrosis during treatment with sodium valproate].

    PubMed

    Miguil, M; Chlihi, A; Mjahed, K; Sarf, I; Moutawakkil, S; Benaguida, M

    1995-01-01

    The authors report a case of fatal hepatic failure in a 19-year old young man suffering from absence seizures and treated for two months with valproic acid (VPA). The duration of VPA therapy before onset of clinical manifestations was four weeks. The prodromal symptoms were weakness, anorexia, and vomiting, then in a few weeks occurred a jaundice and an hepatic encephalopathy leading to death. Among laboratory findings disturbance of liver tests and particularly depressed levels of clotting factors were observed. The histologic study of the liver showed an extended centrolobular necrosis associated with fatty change and fibrosis. The mechanism of this hepatic failure remains unknown. The seriousness of this complication necessitates to respect any contraindications.

  13. Hypernuclear Weak Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.

    The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms. The expressions of the nonmesonic decay rates Gamma_{nm} and the decay asymmetry parameter alpha_1 of protons from the polarized hypernuclei are presented in the shell model framework. We then introduce the meson theoretical Lambda N -> NN interactions which include the one-meson exchanges, the correlated-2pi exchanges, and the chiral-pair-meson exchanges. The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. With the adoption of the pi + 2pi/rho + 2pi/sigma + omega + K + rhopi/a_1 + sigmapi/a_1 exchange potentials, we have carried out the systematic calculations of the nonmesonic decay observables for light-to-heavy hypernuclei. The present model can account for the available experimental data of the decay rates, Gamma_n/Gamma_p ratios, and the intrinsic asymmetry parameters alpha_Lambda (alpha_Lambda is related to alpha_1) of emitted protons well and consistently within the error bars. The hypernuclear lifetimes are evaluated by converting the total weak decay rates Gamma_{tot} = Gamma_pi + Gamma_{nm} to tau, which exhibit saturation property for the hypernuclear mass A ≥ 30 and agree grossly well with experimental data for the mass range from light to heavy hypernuclei except for the very light ones. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.

  14. Painful fat necrosis resulting from insulin injections

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M; Menon, V; Roberts, S; Barber, T M

    2014-01-01

    Summary The case is a 34-year-old woman with long-standing type 1 diabetes mellitus with existing follow-up in the outpatient clinic at the Warwickshire Institute for the Study of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, UHCW. She had maintained good glycaemic control and glycaemic stability with basal bolus regimen for many years. She had not developed any diabetes-related complications and had no other co-morbidities. Six months ago, she presented to A&E with sudden-onset, well-localised and severe pain in the right iliac fossa, just lateral to the para-umbilical area. Her biochemistry was normal. Ultrasound scan, however, revealed a right-sided ovarian cyst, which was thought to have caused pain to her. She was discharged from A&E with simple analgesia. On subsequent gynaecological follow-up 4 weeks later, her pain remained severe and examination revealed an exquisitely tender subcutaneous nodule at the same location measuring 2 cm in diameter. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan at the time revealed a 1 cm mass in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which co-localised to her pain. The mass demonstrated a central fat signal surrounded by a peripheral ring: observations consistent with fat necrosis. There were other smaller subcutaneous nodules also observed in the left para-umbilical area. Subsequent surgical resection of the main area of fat necrosis was performed. The patient made an excellent recovery and her pain resolved post-operatively. Histology confirmed the presence of fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is a rare complication of s.c. insulin injection. This case illustrates the importance of considering this diagnosis in patients who inject insulin and develop localised injection-site pain. Learning points Fat necrosis is a rare complication of insulin injections that can manifest with severe, persistent and well-localised pain.Fat necrosis can masquerade as other pathologies causing diagnostic confusion.The imaging modality of choice for accurate diagnosis

  15. Renal Papillary Necrosis: Role of Radiology

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Vaidehi K.

    2016-01-01

    Renal Papillary Necrosis (RPN) is idefined as Ischemic necrobiosis of the papilla in the medulla of the kidneys. Variety of etiological factors are recognized which cause papillary necrosis, such as analgesic nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, urinary obstruction and sickle cell haemoglobinopathy. The early diagnosis of RPN is important to improve prognosis and reduce morbidity. Radiological Imaging offers early diagnosis and can guide prompt treatment of papillary necrosis and can minimize a decline in renal function. Here we report three cases of RPN with typical imaging findings. One of them was diabetic and hypertensive female with recurrent Urinary tract Infections and other was a male with no known co-morbidity. Both of them were diagnosed to have renal papillary necrosis on CT scan and were managed operatively and conservatively, respectively. Third case was a healthy female being investigated to be renal donor for her son. Here RPN was an incidental finding and was treated conservatively. Thus CT scan could detect it pre-operatively and complications due to transplantation of a kidney with papillary necrosis were avoided. So, we want to emphasize the importance of Radiology, particularly CT scanning in detection of RPN and to guide early and prompt treatment. PMID:26894147

  16. Weak Gravitational Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Sandrine; Starck, Jean-Luc; Leonard, Adrienne; Réfrégier, Alexandre

    2012-03-01

    This chapter reviews the data mining methods recently developed to solve standard data problems in weak gravitational lensing. We detail the different steps of the weak lensing data analysis along with the different techniques dedicated to these applications. An overview of the different techniques currently used will be given along with future prospects. Until about 30 years ago, astronomers thought that the Universe was composed almost entirely of ordinary matter: protons, neutrons, electrons, and atoms. The field of weak lensing has been motivated by the observations made in the last decades showing that visible matter represents only about 4-5% of the Universe (see Figure 14.1). Currently, the majority of the Universe is thought to be dark, that is, does not emit electromagnetic radiation. The Universe is thought to be mostly composed of an invisible, pressure less matter - potentially relic from higher energy theories - called "dark matter" (20-21%) and by an even more mysterious term, described in Einstein equations as a vacuum energy density, called "dark energy" (70%). This "dark" Universe is not well described or even understood; its presence is inferred indirectly from its gravitational effects, both on the motions of astronomical objects and on light propagation. So this point could be the next breakthrough in cosmology. Today's cosmology is based on a cosmological model that contains various parameters that need to be determined precisely, such as the matter density parameter Omega_m or the dark energy density parameter Omega_lambda. Weak gravitational lensing is believed to be the most promising tool to understand the nature of dark matter and to constrain the cosmological parameters used to describe the Universe because it provides a method to directly map the distribution of dark matter (see [1,6,60,63,70]). From this dark matter distribution, the nature of dark matter can be better understood and better constraints can be placed on dark energy

  17. Composite weak bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  18. Sequential weak measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchison, Graeme; Jozsa, Richard; Popescu, Sandu |||

    2007-12-15

    The notion of weak measurement provides a formalism for extracting information from a quantum system in the limit of vanishing disturbance to its state. Here we extend this formalism to the measurement of sequences of observables. When these observables do not commute, we may obtain information about joint properties of a quantum system that would be forbidden in the usual strong measurement scenario. As an application, we provide a physically compelling characterization of the notion of counterfactual quantum computation.

  19. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS.

  20. The progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Holland, G N

    1994-01-01

    The progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a recently described clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is caused by varicellazoster virus infection of the retina. Its course and clinical features distinguish it from the acute retinal necrosis syndrome and CMV retinopathy. Early disease is characterized by multifocal deep retinal opacification. Lesions rapidly coalesce and progress to total retinal necrosis over a short period of time. Despite aggressive therapy with intravenous antivirial drugs, prognosis is poor; disease progression and/or recurrence is common, and the majority of patients develop no light perception vision. Total retinal detachments are common. Prophylaxis against retinal detachment using laser retinopexy has not been useful in most cases. PORN syndrome is an uncommon, but devastating complication of AIDS. PMID:7852023

  1. Extensive hepatic necrosis in a premature infant.

    PubMed

    Bemmel, L A; Hack, W W; Seldenrijk, C A; Kneepkens, C M

    1992-02-01

    A fatal case of fulminant hepatic failure that occurred in the neonatal period is reported in a premature infant born after 27 4/7-weeks' gestation. Immediately after birth the infant had severe hypoxia and hypotension resulting from birth asphyxia, hypovolemic shock, and septicemia. At autopsy, histological appearance of the liver showed virtually total hepatocellular necrosis without features of fibrosis. Although the exact cause of hepatocellular injury cannot be fully ascertained, it is assumed that hypoxia and hypotension must have been the predominant factors leading to massive hepatic necrosis.

  2. `Weak A' phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Cartron, J. P.; Gerbal, A.; Hughes-Jones, N. C.; Salmon, C.

    1974-01-01

    Thirty-five weak A samples including fourteen A3, eight Ax, seven Aend, three Am and three Ae1 were studied in order to determine their A antigen site density, using an IgG anti-A labelled with 125I. The values obtained ranged between 30,000 A antigen sites for A3 individuals, and 700 sites for the Ae1 red cells. The hierarchy of values observed made it possible to establish a quantitative relationship between the red cell agglutinability of these phenotypes measured under standard conditions, and their antigen site density. PMID:4435836

  3. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  4. Weak decay of hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Moby Dick spectrometer (at BNL) in coincidence with a range spectrometer and a TOF neutron detector will be used to study the weak decay modes of /sup 12/C. The Moby Dick spectrometer will be used to reconstruct and tag events in which specific hypernuclear states are formed in the reaction K/sup -/ + /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/ + /sup 12/C. Subsequent emission of decay products (pions, protons and neutrons) in coincidence with the fast forward pion will be detected in a time and range spectrometer, and a neutron detector.

  5. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Pirtskhalava, David; Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico; Vernizzi, Filippo E-mail: luca.santoni@sns.it E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar φ invariant under the internal galileon symmetry φ→φ+b{sub μ} x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon's quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  6. Pancreatic necrosis in progressive systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, A A; Joos, A

    1980-01-01

    Fatal pancreatic necrosis, secondary to extensive acute arteritic changes, is reported in a case of progressive systemic sclerosis. The patient presented first with hypertension and renal involvement, with active vascular lesions demonstrated by biopsy. The renal lesion at necropsy was inactive, showing the characteristic concentric fibrosis only, while the pancreatic vascular lesions were both chronic proliferative and acute in type. Images PMID:7436566

  7. Infectious pancreatic necrosis: its detection and identification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, K.

    1965-01-01

    Ultimate control of infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in hatcheries depends largely upon learning where the virus occurs. To detect the presence of virus either susceptible fish or susceptible fish cell cultures may be used as test systems. In modern virology, it is generally agreed that cell cultures are more convenient, are usually a much more sensitive test system, and allow more rapid determinations.

  8. Weakly relativistic plasma expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Fermous, Rachid Djebli, Mourad

    2015-04-15

    Plasma expansion is an important physical process that takes place in laser interactions with solid targets. Within a self-similar model for the hydrodynamical multi-fluid equations, we investigated the expansion of both dense and under-dense plasmas. The weakly relativistic electrons are produced by ultra-intense laser pulses, while ions are supposed to be in a non-relativistic regime. Numerical investigations have shown that relativistic effects are important for under-dense plasma and are characterized by a finite ion front velocity. Dense plasma expansion is found to be governed mainly by quantum contributions in the fluid equations that originate from the degenerate pressure in addition to the nonlinear contributions from exchange and correlation potentials. The quantum degeneracy parameter profile provides clues to set the limit between under-dense and dense relativistic plasma expansions at a given density and temperature.

  9. Finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Sik; Lee, Tae Rim; Cha, Won Chul; Shin, Tae Gun; Sim, Min Seob; Jo, Ik Joon; Song, Keun Jeong; Rhee, Joong Eui; Jeong, Yeon Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Radial artery puncture, an invasive procedure, is frequently used for critical patients. Although considered safe, severe complications such as finger necrosis can occur. Herein, we review the clinical course of finger necrosis after accidental radial artery puncture. A 63-year-old woman visited the emergency department (ED) with left second and third finger pain after undergoing intravenous (IV) access in her wrist for procedural sedation. During the IV access, she experienced wrist pain, which increased during the 12 hours prior to her ED presentation. Emergency angiography revealed a pseudoaneurysm in her left radial artery and absence of blood flow to the proper palmar digital artery. Subsequent angiointervention and urokinase thrombolysis failed. The second finger was eventually amputated owing to gangrene. Radial artery puncture can occur accidentally during IV wrist access, resulting in severe morbidity. Providers should carefully examine the puncture site and collateral flow, followed by multiple examinations to ensure distal circulation.

  10. Evolution of elongation factor-like (EFL) protein in Rhizaria is revised by radiolarian EFL gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ishitani, Yoshiyuki; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Yabuki, Akinori; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Inagaki, Yuji; Takishita, Kiyotaka

    2012-01-01

    Elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins are considered to carry out equivalent functions in translation in eukaryotic cells. Elongation factor 1α and EFL genes are patchily distributed in the global eukaryotic tree, suggesting that the evolution of these elongation factors cannot be reconciled without multiple lateral gene transfer and/or ancestral co-occurrence followed by differential loss of either of the two factors. Our current understanding of the EF-1α/EFL evolution in the eukaryotic group Rhizaria, composed of Foraminifera, Radiolaria, Filosa, and Endomyxa, remains insufficient, as no information on EF-1α/EFL gene is available for any members of Radiolaria. In this study, EFL genes were experimentally isolated from four polycystine radiolarians (i.e. Dictyocoryne, Eucyrtidium, Collozoum, and Sphaerozoum), as well as retrieved from publicly accessible expressed sequence tag data of two acantharean radiolarians (i.e. Astrolonche and Phyllostaurus) and the endomyxan Gromia. The EFL homologs from radiolarians, foraminiferans, and Gromia formed a robust clade in both maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, suggesting that EFL genes were vertically inherited from their common ancestor. We propose an updated model for EF-1α/EFL evolution in Rhizaria by incorporating new EFL data obtained in this study.

  11. Direct cellular effects of some mediators, hormones and growth factor-like agents on denervated (isolated) rat gastric mucosal cells.

    PubMed

    Bódis, B; Karádi, O; Nagy, L; Dohoczky, C; Kolega, M; Mózsik, G

    1997-01-01

    The brain-gut axis has an important role in the mechanism of gastric cytoprotection in vivo. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of protective agents without any central and peripheral innervation. A mixed population of rat gastric mucosal cells was isolated by the method of Nagy et al (Gastroenterology (1994) 77, 433-443). Cells were incubated for 60 min with cytoprotective drugs such as prostacyclin, histamine, pentagastrin and PL-10 substances (synthesized parts of BPC). At the end of this incubation cells were treated by 15% ethanol for 5 min. Cell viability was tested by trypan blue exclusion test and succinic dehydrogenase activity. The following results were obtained: 1) prostacyclin, histamine and pentagastrin had no direct cytoprotective effect on isolated cells; and 2) PL-10 substances significantly protected the cells against ethanol-induced cellular damage. This led to the following conclusions: 1) in the phenomenon of gastric cytoprotection only the growth factor-like agents have a direct cellular effect; and 2) the intact peripheral innervation is basically necessary for the development of mediators and hormone-induced gastric cytoprotection. PMID:9403792

  12. Role of membrane-anchored heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor and CD9 on macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, N; Kihara, S; Yamashita, S; Higashiyama, S; Nakagawa, T; Shimomura, I; Funahashi, T; Kameda-Takemura, K; Kawata, S; Taniguchi, N; Matsuzawa, Y

    1997-01-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal-growth-factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a potent mitogen for smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) belonging to the EGF family. We have previously determined that HB-EGF is expressed in macrophages and SMCs of human atherosclerotic lesions and that its membrane-anchored precursor, proHB-EGF, also has a juxtacrine mitogenic activity which is markedly enhanced by CD9, a surface marker of lymphohaemopoietic cells. Therefore, when both proHB-EGF and CD9 are expressed on macrophages, they may strongly promote the development of atherosclerosis. In the present study we have investigated the changes in proHB-EGF and CD9 in THP-1 cells during differentiation into macrophages and by the addition of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (OxLDL) and assessed juxtacrine growth activity of THP-1 macrophages for human aortic SMCs. HB-EGF and CD9 at both the mRNA and the protein level were up-regulated after differentiation into macrophages, and further expression of HB-EGF was induced by the addition of OxLDL or lysophosphatidylcholine. Juxtacrine induction by formalin-fixed growth was suppressed to control levels by an inhibitor of HB-EGF and was partially decreased by anti-CD9 antibodies. These results suggest that co-expression of proHB-EGF and CD9 on macrophages plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis by a juxtacrine mechanism. PMID:9396739

  13. Evolution of elongation factor-like (EFL) protein in Rhizaria is revised by radiolarian EFL gene sequences.

    PubMed

    Ishitani, Yoshiyuki; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Yabuki, Akinori; Tsuchiya, Masashi; Inagaki, Yuji; Takishita, Kiyotaka

    2012-01-01

    Elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and elongation factor-like (EFL) proteins are considered to carry out equivalent functions in translation in eukaryotic cells. Elongation factor 1α and EFL genes are patchily distributed in the global eukaryotic tree, suggesting that the evolution of these elongation factors cannot be reconciled without multiple lateral gene transfer and/or ancestral co-occurrence followed by differential loss of either of the two factors. Our current understanding of the EF-1α/EFL evolution in the eukaryotic group Rhizaria, composed of Foraminifera, Radiolaria, Filosa, and Endomyxa, remains insufficient, as no information on EF-1α/EFL gene is available for any members of Radiolaria. In this study, EFL genes were experimentally isolated from four polycystine radiolarians (i.e. Dictyocoryne, Eucyrtidium, Collozoum, and Sphaerozoum), as well as retrieved from publicly accessible expressed sequence tag data of two acantharean radiolarians (i.e. Astrolonche and Phyllostaurus) and the endomyxan Gromia. The EFL homologs from radiolarians, foraminiferans, and Gromia formed a robust clade in both maximum-likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses, suggesting that EFL genes were vertically inherited from their common ancestor. We propose an updated model for EF-1α/EFL evolution in Rhizaria by incorporating new EFL data obtained in this study. PMID:22672006

  14. Programmed necrosis in acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Linkermann, Andreas; De Zen, Federica; Weinberg, Joel; Kunzendorf, Ulrich; Krautwald, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) had been widely used synonymously to caspase-mediated apoptosis until caspase-independent cell death was described. Identification of necrosis as a regulated process in ischaemic conditions has recently changed our understanding of PCD. At least three pathways of programmed necrosis (PN) have been identified. First, receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIP3)-dependent necroptosis causes organ failure following stroke, myocardial infarction and renal ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Necroptosis can be mediated either by a large intracellular caspase-8-containing signalling complex called the ripoptosome or by the RIP1-/RIP3-containing necroptosome and is controlled by a caspase-8/FLICE inhibitory protein(long) heterodimer at least in the latter case. Second, mitochondrial permeability transition mediates apoptotic or necrotic stimuli and depends on the mitochondrial protein cyclophilin D. The third PN pathway involves the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-calpain axis that contributes to acute kidney injury (AKI). Preclinical interference with the PN pathways therefore raises expectations for the future treatment of ischaemic conditions. In this brief review, we aim to summarize the clinically relevant PCD pathways and to transfer the basic science data to settings of AKI. We conclude that pathologists were quite right to refer to ischaemic kidney injury as 'acute tubular necrosis'. PMID:22942173

  15. [Effects and molecular mechanisms of the biological action of weak and extremely weak magnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V V; Ponomarev, V O; Novikov, G V; Kuvichkin, V V; Iablokova, E V; Fesenko, E E

    2010-01-01

    A number of effects of weak combined (static and alternating) magnetic fields with an alternating component of tens and hundreds nT at a collinear static field of 42 microT, which is equivalent to the geomagnetic field, have been found: the activation of fission and regeneration of planarians Dugesia tigrina, the inhibition of the growth of the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice, the stimulation of the production of the tumor necrosis factor by macrophages, a decrease in the protection of chromatin against the action of DNase 1, and the enhancement of protein hydrolysis in systems in vivo and in vitro. The frequency and amplitude ranges for the alternating component of weak combined magnetic fields have been determined at which it affects various biological systems. Thus, the optimal amplitude at a frequency of 4.4 Hz is 100 nT (effective value); at a frequency of 16.5 Hz, the range of effective amplitudes is broader, 150-300 nT; and at a frequency of 1 (0.5) Hz, it is 300 nT. The sum of close frequencies (e.g., 16 and 17 Hz) produces a similar biological effect as the product of the modulating (0.5 Hz) and carrying frequencies (16.5 Hz), which is explained by the ratio A = A0sin omega1t + A0sin omega2t = A0sin(omega1 + omega2)t/2cos(omega1 - omega2)t/2. The efficiency of magnetic signals with pulsations (the sum of close frequencies) is more pronounced than that of sinusoidal frequencies. These data may indicate the presence of several receptors of weak magnetic fields in biological systems and, as a consequence, a higher efficiency of the effect at the simultaneous adjustment to these frequencies by the field. Even with consideration of these facts, the mechanism of the biological action of weak combined magnetic fields remains still poorly understood. PMID:20968074

  16. Hepatic Necrosis and Degenerative Myopathy Associated with Cassava Feeding in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Daniel-Igwe, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Forty-three deaths were recorded among pigs fed boiled cassava meal at a private piggery over a period of two years. There were signs of sudden death in some cases with blood exuding from the external nares, vomiting, muscular weakness and pain or reluctance to move, emaciation, and stunted growth. The necropsy lesions included skeletal and cardiac muscle degeneration and necrosis, icterus, hepatic necrosis, and oedema of the dependent parts. The deaths and clinical signs are thought to be due to a non cyanide toxic principle in cassava, possibly the coumarins (scopoletin), which is found in high levels in cassava diet even after heat treatment. Therefore, the use of proper processing technology to obtain cassava products of high quality is recommended. PMID:26464937

  17. Modified low density lipoproteins suppress production of a platelet-derived growth factor-like protein by cultured endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fox, P L; DiCorleto, P E

    1986-01-01

    Cultured endothelial cells (EC) produce a platelet-derived growth factor-like protein (PDGF-c) that stimulates the growth of cultured cells of mesenchymal origin. We have examined the effect of native plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) and chemically modified LDL on production of PDGF-c by EC. Acetyl-LDL, but not native LDL, suppressed the production of PDGF-c by bovine aortic EC. Half-maximal inhibition was observed at a concentration of 25-75 micrograms of cholesterol per ml, and maximal inhibition (0-25% of control) at 150 micrograms of cholesterol per ml. EC treated with acetyl-LDL showed no morphological damage, there was no change in cell number, and the effect on production of PDGF-c was substantially reversed upon removal of the acetyl-LDL. The observed inhibition of PDGF-c production was specific, since total cellular and secreted protein synthesis were unaffected by acetyl-LDL. Acetyl-LDL suppressed PDGF-c production in both bovine aortic and human umbilical vein EC, but not in rat heart EC. This cell specificity correlated with the presence of scavenger receptors as measured by degradation of 125I-labeled acetyl-LDL and uptake of fluorescently labeled acetyl-LDL. Dimethylpropanediamine-LDL, a cationic modified lipoprotein, also inhibited PDGF-c production. The inhibition by both types of modified LDL was accompanied by significant intracellular cholesterol accumulation, suggesting a role for EC lipid composition in the regulation of production of PDGF-c. PMID:3460071

  18. Plasmin-dependent elimination of the growth-factor-like domain in urokinase causes its rapid cellular uptake and degradation.

    PubMed Central

    Poliakov, A; Tkachuk, V; Ovchinnikova, T; Potapenko, N; Bagryantsev, S; Stepanova, V

    2001-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) act in concert to mediate pericellular proteolysis and to stimulate intracellular signalling responsible for cell migration and proliferation. uPA is composed of three domains, a proteolytic domain (PD), a kringle domain (KD) and a growth-factor-like domain (GFD), the last of which mediates the interaction with uPAR. We demonstrate that uPA, associated with the surface of U937 cells, undergoes plasmin-mediated cleavage of the Lys(46)-Ser(47) bond with elimination of the GFD. Using recombinant forms of uPA, we show that a uPA variant lacking the GFD (r-uPADeltaGFD) and unable to associate with uPAR is rapidly cleared from the cell surface. Binding and internalization of r-uPADeltaGFD are markedly decreased in the presence of 39 kDa receptor-associated protein (RAP), the antagonist of several endocytic receptors of the low-density lipoprotein receptor family, suggesting that this protein clearance pathway is used for r-uPADeltaGFD. In contrast with rapidly internalized r-uPADeltaGFD, the intact recombinant single-chain urokinase with wild-type structure (r-uPAwt) bound to uPAR is retained on the cell surface. Soluble uPAR protects uPA from cleavage by plasmin that results in the elimination of GFD, suggesting that uPAR might protect cell-bound urokinase from plasmin-mediated cleavage between the GFD and KD and subsequent degradation. PMID:11311125

  19. Ketoconazole attenuates radiation-induction of tumor necrosis factor

    SciTech Connect

    Hallahan, D.E.; Virudachalam, S.; Kufe, D.W.; Weichselbaum, R.R.

    1994-07-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that inhibitors of phospholipase A2 attenuate ionizing radiation-induced arachidonic acid production, protein kinase C activation, and prevent subsequent induction of the tumor necrosis factor gene. Because arachidonic acid contributes to radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor expression, the authors analyzed the effects of agents which alter arachidonate metabolism on the regulation of this gene. Phospholipase A2 inhibitors quinicrine, bromphenyl bromide, and pentoxyfylline or the inhibitor of lipoxygenase (ketoconazole) or the inhibitor of cycloxygenase (indomethacine) were added to cell culture 1 h prior to irradiation. Radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by each of the phospholipase A2 inhibitors (quinicrine, bromphenylbromide, and pentoxyfylline). Furthermore, ketoconazole attenuated X ray induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression. Conversely, indomethacin enhanced tumor necrosis factor expression following irradiation. The finding that radiation-induced tumor necrosis factor gene expression was attenuated by ketoconazole suggests that the lipoxygenase pathway participates in signal transduction preceding tumor necrosis factor induction. Enhancement of tumor necrosis factor expression by indomethacin following irradiation suggests that prostaglandins produced by cyclooxygenase act as negative regulators of tumor necrosis factor expression. Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor induction ameliorate acute and subacute sequelae of radiotherapy. The authors propose therefore, that ketoconazole may reduce acute radiation sequelae such as mucositis and esophagitis through a reduction in tumor necrosis factor induction or inhibition of phospholipase A2 in addition to its antifungal activity. 25 refs., 2 figs.

  20. SU-E-T-549: Modeling Relative Biological Effectiveness of Protons for Radiation Induced Brain Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkovic, D; Peeler, C; Grosshans, D; Titt, U; Taleei, R; Mohan, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a model of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of protons as a function of dose and linear energy transfer (LET) for induction of brain necrosis using clinical data. Methods: In this study, treatment planning information was exported from a clinical treatment planning system (TPS) and used to construct a detailed Monte Carlo model of the patient and the beam delivery system. The physical proton dose and LET were computed in each voxel of the patient volume using Monte Carlo particle transport. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study registered to the treatment planning CT was used to determine the region of the necrosis in the brain volume. Both, the whole brain and the necrosis volumes were segmented from the computed tomography (CT) dataset using the contours drawn by a physician and the corresponding voxels were binned with respect to dose and LET. The brain necrosis probability was computed as a function of dose and LET by dividing the total volume of all necrosis voxels with a given dose and LET with the corresponding total brain volume resulting in a set of NTCP-like curves (probability as a function of dose parameterized by LET). Results: The resulting model shows dependence on both dose and LET indicating the weakness of the constant RBE model for describing the brain toxicity. To the best of our knowledge the constant RBE model is currently used in all clinical applications which may Result in increased rate of brain toxicities in patients treated with protons. Conclusion: Further studies are needed to develop more accurate brain toxicity models for patients treated with protons and other heavy ions.

  1. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection. PMID:19884745

  2. Tracheal necrosis with surgical emphysema following thyroidectomy.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, A; Ganguly, M; Saidha, N; Gulia, P

    2009-01-01

    Tracheal necrosis after thyroidectomy is an extremely rare event with only a few published reports. We present a case of a 65-year-old male who developed rapidly progressive surgical emphysema of face and upper thorax on the seventh day following total thyroidectomy. Prompt surgical exploration of neck revealed a tracheal rent at the level of the second tracheal ring. This hole was then refashioned into a formal tracheostomy. Patient had an eventful recovery. Tracheostomy was closed by the 14th day. The complication was probably related to tracheal injury sustained due to electro-coagulation and subsequent secondary infection.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor alpha and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Luster, M I; Simeonova, P P; Gallucci, R; Matheson, J

    1999-09-01

    The molecular cloning of a group of proteins, collectively referred to as cytokines, and including interleukins, chemokines, growth factors, colony stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors, has allowed for the increased understanding of the mechanisms for many disease processes as well as provided strategies for the development of novel therapies. Conceptually similar to hormones and peptides, this group of phylogenetically related molecules are also involved in various toxicological processes, including apoptosis, cell repair, and in particular inflammation. In this review, we offer a description of what many believe represents the primary regulatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and its role in toxicological processes. For over a decade it has been suspected that this molecule helps mediate the shock state induced by bacterial endotoxin and the wasting diathesis that typifies chronic diseases. Advances in molecular biology that have provided tools to modulate TNFalpha regulation and synthesis have allowed for the identification of additional roles for TNFalpha in homeostasis, cellular damage, and repair. This review provides a brief summary of our understanding of TNFalpha biology followed by a discussion of its role in toxicological responses. This is followed by specific examples of organ-specific and tissue-specific responses to chemical damage where TNFalpha has been implicated. The review concludes with a review of its implication in human risk assessment, particularly as it relates to genetic polymorphisms of TNFalpha expression and disease susceptibility.

  4. Mechanisms of Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Dean W.; James, Laura P.

    2010-01-01

    Although considered safe at therapeutic doses, at higher doses, acetaminophen produces a centrilobular hepatic necrosis that can be fatal. Acetaminophen poisoning accounts for approximately one-half of all cases of acute liver failure in the United States and Great Britain today. The mechanism occurs by a complex sequence of events. These events include: (1) CYP metabolism to a reactive metabolite which depletes glutathione and covalently binds to proteins; (2) loss of glutathione with an increased formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in hepatocytes undergoing necrotic changes; (3) increased oxidative stress, associated with alterations in calcium homeostasis and initiation of signal transduction responses, causing mitochondrial permeability transition; (4) mitochondrial permeability transition occurring with additional oxidative stress, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and loss of the ability of the mitochondria to synthesize ATP; and (5) loss of ATP which leads to necrosis. Associated with these essential events there appear to be a number of inflammatory mediators such as certain cytokines and chemokines that can modify the toxicity. Some have been shown to alter oxidative stress, but the relationship of these modulators to other critical mechanistic events has not been well delineated. In addition, existing data support the involvement of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation of regenerative processes leading to the reestablishment of hepatic structure and function. PMID:20020268

  5. Experimental investigations of weak definite and weak indefinite noun phrases

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Natalie M.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney M.; Carlson, Greg N.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    Definite noun phrases typically refer to entities that are uniquely identifiable in the speaker and addressee’s common ground. Some definite noun phrases (e.g. the hospital in Mary had to go the hospital and John did too) seem to violate this uniqueness constraint. We report six experiments that were motivated by the hypothesis that these “weak definite” interpretations arise in “incorporated” constructions. Experiments 1-3 compared nouns that seem to allow for a weak definite interpretation (e.g. hospital, bank, bus, radio) with those that do not (e.g. farm, concert, car, book). Experiments 1 and 2 used an instruction-following task and picture-judgment task, respectively, to demonstrate that a weak definite need not uniquely refer. In Experiment 3 participants imagined scenarios described by sentences such as The Federal Express driver had to go to the hospital/farm. The imagined scenarios following weak definite noun phrases were more likely to include conventional activities associated with the object, whereas following regular nouns, participants were more likely to imagine scenarios that included typical activities associated with the subject; similar effects were observed with weak indefinites. Experiment 4 found that object-related activities were reduced when the same subject and object were used with a verb that does not license weak definite interpretations. In Experiment 5, a science fiction story introduced an artificial lexicon for novel concepts. Novel nouns that shared conceptual properties with English weak definite nouns were more likely to allow weak reference in a judgment task. Experiment 6 demonstrated that familiarity for definite articles and anti- familiarity for indefinite articles applies to the activity associated with the noun, consistent with predictions made by the incorporation analysis. PMID:23685208

  6. Avascular necrosis of bone complicating corticosteroid replacement therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P L; Corbett, M

    1983-01-01

    Two patients who developed widespread severe avascular necrosis of bone while on steroid replacement therapy are described. One, a diabetic, underwent yttrium-90 pituitary ablation for retinopathy and developed avascular necrosis within 18 months of starting prednisolone. The other, who had Addison's disease, developed avascular necrosis within 14 months of starting cortisol replacement therapy. Both cases came to bilateral total hip replacement. Images PMID:6859959

  7. Resisting Weakness of the Will

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Neil

    2012-01-01

    I develop an account of weakness of the will that is driven by experimental evidence from cognitive and social psychology. I will argue that this account demonstrates that there is no such thing as weakness of the will: no psychological kind corresponds to it. Instead, weakness of the will ought to be understood as depletion of System II resources. Neither the explanatory purposes of psychology nor our practical purposes as agents are well-served by retaining the concept. I therefore suggest that we ought to jettison it, in favour of the vocabulary and concepts of cognitive psychology. PMID:22984298

  8. Weak-shock reflection factors

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-09-07

    The purpose of this paper is to compare reflection factors for weak shocks from various surfaces, and to focus attention on some unsolved questions. Three different cases are considered: square-wave planar shock reflection from wedges; square-wave planar shock reflection from cylinders; and spherical blast wave reflection from a planar surface. We restrict ourselves to weak shocks. Shocks with a Mach number of M{sub O} < 1.56 in air or with an overpressure of {Delta}{sub PI} < 25 psi (1.66 bar) under normal ambient conditions are called weak.

  9. Definition of bone necrosis by the pathologist

    PubMed Central

    Fondi, Cristina; Franchi, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is a common disorder that may go clinically unrecognized or may result in the collapse of the architecture of bone, determining severe anatomic alterations of the involved site. Osteonecrosis is not a specific disease entity, but rather the result of a number of conditions ultimately leading to an impairment of blood supply to the bone tissue, although there is evidence that modifications of bone remodelling activity and weakening of bone structure with formation of microfractures are implicated as well. According to the site involved and to the factors promoting its development, the morbid anatomy and histopathology of osteonecrosis show a different appearance. This review discusses the main skeletal manifestations of osteonecrosis, including subarticular avascular necrosis of the femoral head and of the knee, as well as osteonecrosis of the jaw. PMID:22460748

  10. Tumour necrosis factor in synovial exudates.

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovine, F S; Nuki, G; Duff, G W

    1988-01-01

    The actions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) include resorption of bone and cartilage, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of arthritis. TNF activity was looked for in synovial fluids from 137 patients with different rheumatic diseases. Unfractionated samples were tested in the L929 bioassay. Significant TNF activity that was neutralised by monoclonal antibody to TNF alpha occurred in 13 (30%) of 44 samples. Raised TNF levels were not associated with any particular disease type or routine laboratory markers of inflammation but were related to disease duration in osteoarthritis. The finding of biologically active TNF in symptomatic joints of arthritic patients supports the idea that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of joint damage in chronic rheumatic diseases. PMID:3263088

  11. Nicolau Syndrome: An Iatrogenic Cutaneous Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Nischal, KC; Basavaraj, HB; Swaroop, MR; Agrawal, DP; Sathyanarayana, BD; Umashankar, NP

    2009-01-01

    Nicolau syndrome is an uncommon complication of intramuscular injection leading to variable degrees of necrosis of skin and the underlying tissues. We report here two cases of this syndrome. Our first case was a 25 year-old male who developed intense pain and purplish discoloration of the skin in the right hip after intramuscular diclofenac injection. The second case was a 60 year-old male who developed intense pain and discoloration of skin, not only at the injection site, but also on the left scapular area and left elbow after receiving chlorpheniramine maleate injection intramuscularly. These cases highlight the need for awareness about this condition and the need to exercise utmost care during the administration of any parenteral injections by dermatologists. PMID:20808597

  12. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Aufderheide, M.B. State Univ. of New York . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-02-19

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and {beta}{sup {minus}} decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2015-05-01

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  14. Weak Energy: Form and Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Allen D.

    The equation of motion for a time-dependent weak value of a quantum mechanical observable contains a complex valued energy factor—the weak energy of evolution. This quantity is defined by the dynamics of the pre-selected and post-selected states which specify the observable's weak value. It is shown that this energy: (i) is manifested as dynamical and geometric phases that govern the evolution of the weak value during the measurement process; (ii) satisfies the Euler-Lagrange equations when expressed in terms of Pancharatnam (P) phase and Fubini-Study (FS) metric distance; (iii) provides for a PFS stationary action principle for quantum state evolution; (iv) time translates correlation amplitudes; (v) generalizes the temporal persistence of state normalization; and (vi) obeys a time-energy uncertainty relation. A similar complex valued quantity—the pointed weak energy of an evolving quantum state—is also defined and several of its properties in PFS coordinates are discussed. It is shown that the imaginary part of the pointed weak energy governs the state's survival probability and its real part is—to within a sign—the Mukunda-Simon geometric phase for arbitrary evolutions or the Aharonov-Anandan (AA) geometric phase for cyclic evolutions. Pointed weak energy gauge transformations and the PFS 1-form are defined and discussed and the relationship between the PFS 1-form and the AA connection 1-form is established. [Editors note: for a video of the talk given by Prof. Parks at the Aharonov-80 conference in 2012 at Chapman University, see http://quantum.chapman.edu/talk-25.

  15. Pseudotumoral encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous degeneration.

    PubMed

    Felipo, F; Vaquero, M; del Agua, C

    2004-09-01

    An extraordinary case of encapsulated fat necrosis characterized by its large size, diffuse formation of pseudomembranes, and tendency to recur after excision is reported. A 67-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from morbid obesity was admitted for diagnosis and surgical treatment of a soft tissue mass showing a longest diameter of 14 cm and lying adjacently to the scar from previous appendicectomy. Histopathologic features were consistent with a nodular-cystic encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous transformation. Eight months after surgery, a new larger mass (longest diameter of 18 cm) sharing identical histopathologic features appeared in the same location. Encapsulated fat necrosis is a well-defined entity even though several names have been proposed for this condition, including mobile encapsulated lipoma, encapsulated necrosis, or nodular-cystic fat necrosis. Its pathogenesis seems to be related to ischemic changes secondary to previous trauma. It may occasionally show degenerative changes, including dystrophic calcifications and presence of pseudomembranes. To our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of encapsulated fat necrosis presenting as lesions of such size and showing diffuse formation of pseudomembranes; these particular features made diagnosis difficult and led to consideration of a wide range of potential diagnostic possibilities. This case expands the clinico-pathologic spectrum of membranocystic fat necrosis, including the potential ability of this subcutaneous fatty tissue abnormality to recur after surgical excision. Felipo F, Vaquero M, del Agua C. Pseudotumoral encapsulated fat necrosis with diffuse pseudomembranous degeneration.

  16. Black esophagus (acute esophageal necrosis) after spinal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Román Fernández, A; López Álvarez, A; Fossati Puertas, S; Areán González, I; Varela García, O; Viaño López, P M

    2014-01-01

    Acute esophagic necrosis or black esophagus is an uncommon clinical entity that owes its name to the endoscopic view of the necrotic esophageal mucosa. It is always related with a critical medical condition and usually has an ischemic etiology. We report the first case of acute esophageal necrosis after a spinal anesthetic for partial hip joint arthroplasty. We discuss the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms.

  17. Quantum discord with weak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Uttam Pati, Arun Kumar

    2014-04-15

    Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.

  18. Weak Selection and Protein Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Akashi, Hiroshi; Osada, Naoki; Ohta, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    The “nearly neutral” theory of molecular evolution proposes that many features of genomes arise from the interaction of three weak evolutionary forces: mutation, genetic drift, and natural selection acting at its limit of efficacy. Such forces generally have little impact on allele frequencies within populations from generation to generation but can have substantial effects on long-term evolution. The evolutionary dynamics of weakly selected mutations are highly sensitive to population size, and near neutrality was initially proposed as an adjustment to the neutral theory to account for general patterns in available protein and DNA variation data. Here, we review the motivation for the nearly neutral theory, discuss the structure of the model and its predictions, and evaluate current empirical support for interactions among weak evolutionary forces in protein evolution. Near neutrality may be a prevalent mode of evolution across a range of functional categories of mutations and taxa. However, multiple evolutionary mechanisms (including adaptive evolution, linked selection, changes in fitness-effect distributions, and weak selection) can often explain the same patterns of genome variation. Strong parameter sensitivity remains a limitation of the nearly neutral model, and we discuss concave fitness functions as a plausible underlying basis for weak selection. PMID:22964835

  19. [Programmed necrosis: a new target for
ischemia reperfusion injury].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Ming, Yingzi; Niu, Ying; Liu, Qianwen; Ye, Qifa

    2016-07-01

    Recent years, the researchers have found a new type of cell death, referred to programmed necrosis or necroptosis, which involves the death receptor and the ligand binds and is initiated under the inhibition of apoptosis pathway. Programmed necrosis possesses the morphological features of typical necrosis accompanied by inflammation. The receptor interacting protein kinase 1/3(RIPK1/3) can be inhibited by the specific inhibitors, such as necrostatin-1. RIPK1/3 could regulate programmed necrosis and play a key role in the process. The significance of programmed necrosis in ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) has been attracted great attention at present. Simultaneously, a series of studies have found it also involves in the IRI of heart, kidney, brain and retina. PMID:27592584

  20. Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Radiation Necrosis in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    MIYATAKE, Shin-Ichi; NONOGUCHI, Noasuke; FURUSE, Motomasa; YORITSUNE, Erina; MIYATA, Tomo; KAWABATA, Shinji; KUROIWA, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    New radiation modalities have made it possible to prolong the survival of individuals with malignant brain tumors, but symptomatic radiation necrosis becomes a serious problem that can negatively affect a patient’s quality of life through severe and lifelong effects. Here we review the relevant literature and introduce our original concept of the pathophysiology of brain radiation necrosis following the treatment of brain, head, and neck tumors. Regarding the pathophysiology of radiation necrosis, we introduce two major hypotheses: glial cell damage or vascular damage. For the differential diagnosis of radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence, we focus on the role of positron emission tomography. Finally, in accord with our hypothesis regarding the pathophysiology, we describe the promising effects of the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody bevacizumab on symptomatic radiation necrosis in the brain. PMID:25744350

  1. Warping the Weak Gravity Conjecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooner, Karta; Parameswaran, Susha; Zavala, Ivonne

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Gravity Conjecture, if valid, rules out simple models of Natural Inflation by restricting their axion decay constant to be sub-Planckian. We revisit stringy attempts to realise Natural Inflation, with a single open string axionic inflaton from a probe D-brane in a warped throat. We show that warped geometries can allow the requisite super-Planckian axion decay constant to be achieved, within the supergravity approximation and consistently with the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Preliminary estimates of the brane backreaction suggest that the probe approximation may be under control. However, there is a tension between large axion decay constant and high string scale, where the requisite high string scale is difficult to achieve in all attempts to realise large field inflation using perturbative string theory. We comment on the Generalized Weak Gravity Conjecture in the light of our results.

  2. State tomography via weak measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shengjun

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has revealed that the wave function of a pure state can be measured directly and that complementary knowledge of a quantum system can be obtained simultaneously by weak measurements. However, the original scheme applies only to pure states, and it is not efficient because most of the data are discarded by post-selection. Here, we propose tomography schemes for pure states and for mixed states via weak measurements, and our schemes are more efficient because we do not discard any data. Furthermore, we demonstrate that any matrix element of a general state can be directly read from an appropriate weak measurement. The density matrix (with all of its elements) represents all that is directly accessible from a general measurement. PMID:23378924

  3. Acute Bladder Necrosis after Pelvic Arterial Embolization for Pelvic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Two Cases of Immediate Postembolization Bladder Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Elliott, Sean P.; Hittelman, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of acute bladder injury with bladder neck necrosis identified during the initial operative evaluation and within the early postprocedural period in patients with significant pelvic trauma requiring pelvic vascular embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bladder neck necrosis found during the initial intraoperative surgical evaluation or early postoperative setting.

  4. Acute Bladder Necrosis after Pelvic Arterial Embolization for Pelvic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Two Cases of Immediate Postembolization Bladder Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Osterberg, E. Charles; Elliott, Sean P.; Hittelman, Adam B.

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of acute bladder injury with bladder neck necrosis identified during the initial operative evaluation and within the early postprocedural period in patients with significant pelvic trauma requiring pelvic vascular embolization. To our knowledge, this is the first report of bladder neck necrosis found during the initial intraoperative surgical evaluation or early postoperative setting. PMID:27656309

  5. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. Two of its most publicized comological connections are emphasized: big bang nucleosynthesis and dark matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of neutrine flavors, N(sub nu) is approximately 3 which in now being confirmed. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galacty and structure formation in the universe. The role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure is demonstrated.

  6. Weak value amplification considered harmful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrie, Christopher; Combes, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    We show using statistically rigorous arguments that the technique of weak value amplification does not perform better than standard statistical techniques for the tasks of parameter estimation and signal detection. We show that using all data and considering the joint distribution of all measurement outcomes yields the optimal estimator. Moreover, we show estimation using the maximum likelihood technique with weak values as small as possible produces better performance for quantum metrology. In doing so, we identify the optimal experimental arrangement to be the one which reveals the maximal eigenvalue of the square of system observables. We also show these conclusions do not change in the presence of technical noise.

  7. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. ):)

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease. PMID:9270850

  9. Immunization with viral antigens: infectious haematopoietic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Winton, J R

    1997-01-01

    Infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is one of the most important viral diseases of salmonids, especially among juvenile fish where losses can be high. For over 20 years, researchers have tested a variety of preparations for control of IHN. Early vaccines consisted of killed virus and were effective when delivered by injection, but too costly to be practical on a large scale. Attenuated vaccines were developed by serial passage in cell culture and by monoclonal antibody selection. These offered excellent protection and were cost-effective, but residual virulence and uncertainty about their effects on other aquatic species made them poor candidates for licensing. Subunit vaccines using part of the IHNV glycoprotein gene cloned into E. coli or into an attenuated strain of A. salmonicida have been tested, appeared safe and were inexpensive. These vaccines were reported to provide some protection when delivered by immersion. Information on the location of antigenic sites on the glycoprotein led to trials using synthetic peptides, but these did not seem to be economically viable. Recently, plasmid vectors encoding the glycoprotein gene under control of a cytomegalovirus promoter were developed for genetic immunization. The constructs were highly protective when delivered by injection, but a more practical delivery system is needed. Thus, while several vaccine strategies have been tried in order to stimulate specific immunity against IHN, more research is needed to develop a commercially viable product for control of this important disease.

  10. [An infected necrosis of the chin].

    PubMed

    Muller, B S; van Goor, H F; Rosenberg, A J W P

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old man was referred by his dentist to a maxillofacial surgeon with complaints of illness and pain in the mandible, associated with a rapidly expanding area of black gingiva and mucosa surrounding the lower front teeth. Clinically and radiographically there was evidence of an infected necrosis of the chin and floor of mouth. Following debridement at the operating room, the patient was treated at the intensive care unit for septic shock leading to prolonged hospitalisation. Investigation of the bone marrow did not provide an explanation for pancytopenia or the severity of the illness. In addition, genetic investigation of thiopurine S-methyltransferase gene showed no mutations. This gene codes for an identically named protein enzyme that contributes in the metabolising of the medicine azathioprine, used daily for an autoimmune disease. A combination of the use of azathioprine, a folic acid deficiency and sepsis led to this exceptional course of illness. Therapeutic intervention consisted of surgical debridement and treatment of the bacteraemia. Afterwards several corrective surgeries were necessary to restore oral functions.

  11. MicroRNA-351 Regulates Two-Types of Cell Death, Necrosis and Apoptosis, Induced by 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akira; Omi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Satake, Akito; Hiramoto, Akiko; Masutani, Mitsuko; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Wataya, Yusuke; Kim, Hye-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Cell-death can be necrosis and apoptosis. We are investigating the mechanisms regulating the cell death that occurs on treatment of mouse cancer cell-line FM3A with antitumor 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR): necrosis occurs for the original clone F28-7, and apoptosis for its variant F28-7-A. Here we report that a microRNA (miR-351) regulates the cell death pattern. The miR-351 is expressed strongly in F28-7-A but only weakly in F28-7. Induction of a higher expression of miR-351 in F28-7 by transfecting an miRNA mimic into F28-7 resulted in a change of the death mode; necrosis to apoptosis. Furthermore, transfection of an miR-351 inhibitor into F28-7-A resulted in the morphology change, apoptosis to necrosis, in this death-by-FUdR. Possible mechanism involving lamin B1 in this miR-351's regulatory action is discussed. PMID:27071035

  12. MicroRNA-351 Regulates Two-Types of Cell Death, Necrosis and Apoptosis, Induced by 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Satake, Akito; Hiramoto, Akiko; Masutani, Mitsuko; Tanuma, Sei-ichi; Wataya, Yusuke; Kim, Hye-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Cell-death can be necrosis and apoptosis. We are investigating the mechanisms regulating the cell death that occurs on treatment of mouse cancer cell-line FM3A with antitumor 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR): necrosis occurs for the original clone F28-7, and apoptosis for its variant F28-7-A. Here we report that a microRNA (miR-351) regulates the cell death pattern. The miR-351 is expressed strongly in F28-7-A but only weakly in F28-7. Induction of a higher expression of miR-351 in F28-7 by transfecting an miRNA mimic into F28-7 resulted in a change of the death mode; necrosis to apoptosis. Furthermore, transfection of an miR-351 inhibitor into F28-7-A resulted in the morphology change, apoptosis to necrosis, in this death-by-FUdR. Possible mechanism involving lamin B1 in this miR-351’s regulatory action is discussed. PMID:27071035

  13. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick

    2005-12-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy.

  14. Weak localization of seismic waves.

    PubMed

    Larose, E; Margerin, L; Van Tiggelen, B A; Campillo, M

    2004-07-23

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity.

  15. Cosmology with weak lensing surveys.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick

    2005-12-15

    Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening mass. Since the lensing effects arise from deflections of the light rays due to fluctuations of the gravitational potential, they can be directly related to the underlying density field of the large-scale structures. Weak gravitational surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background observations as they probe unbiased nonlinear matter power spectra at medium redshift. Ongoing CMBR experiments such as WMAP and a future Planck satellite mission will measure the standard cosmological parameters with unprecedented accuracy. The focus of attention will then shift to understanding the nature of dark matter and vacuum energy: several recent studies suggest that lensing is the best method for constraining the dark energy equation of state. During the next 5 year period, ongoing and future weak lensing surveys such as the Joint Dark Energy Mission (JDEM; e.g. SNAP) or the Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope will play a major role in advancing our understanding of the universe in this direction. In this review article, we describe various aspects of probing the matter power spectrum and the bi-spectrum and other related statistics with weak lensing surveys. This can be used to probe the background dynamics of the universe as well as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. PMID:16286284

  16. N-{Delta} weak transition

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, Krzysztof M.

    2011-11-23

    A short review of the Rein-Sehgal and isobar models is presented. The attention is focused on the nucleon-{Delta}(1232) weak transition form-factors. The results of the recent re-analyses of the ANL and BNL bubble chamber neutrino-deuteron scattering data are discussed.

  17. [Torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices of the large bowel].

    PubMed

    Timofeev, M E; Fedorov, E D; Krechetova, A P; Shapoval'iants, S G

    2014-01-01

    The features of the clinical symptoms was studied, the possibility of laparoscopy in modern diagnosis and treatment of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel was assessed in the article. It was done the retrospective analysis of the medical records of 87 patients with a diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis of the large bowel. The patients had laparoscopic operations in our hospital in the period from January 1995 to December 2012. The clinical picture, laboratory and instrumental datas in cases of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis were scarce and nonspecific. An abdominal pain preferentially localized in the lower divisions was the main symptom (97.7%). The instrumental methods did not allow to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in the majority of cases and all these techniques were used for the differential diagnosis with other diseases. The assumption of the presence of appendices torsion and necrosis occured just in 34.5% of cases before the operation. Diagnosis of epiploic appendices torsion and necrosis present significant difficulties on prehospital and preoperative stages. The diagnostic laparoscopy is the method of choice in unclear situations and it allows to diagnose the torsion and necrosis of epiploic appendices in 96.6% of cases. Successful surgical treatment by using laparoscopic approach is possible in 90.8% of cases.

  18. Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.

  19. Challenges With the Diagnosis and Treatment of Cerebral Radiation Necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Samuel T.; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S.; Barnett, Gene H.; Stevens, Glen H.J.; Murphy, Erin S.; Stockham, Abigail L.; Shiue, Kevin; Suh, John H.

    2013-11-01

    The incidence of radiation necrosis has increased secondary to greater use of combined modality therapy for brain tumors and stereotactic radiosurgery. Given that its characteristics on standard imaging are no different that tumor recurrence, it is difficult to diagnose without use of more sophisticated imaging and nuclear medicine scans, although the accuracy of such scans is controversial. Historically, treatment had been limited to steroids, hyperbaric oxygen, anticoagulants, and surgical resection. A recent prospective randomized study has confirmed the efficacy of bevacizumab in treating radiation necrosis. Novel therapies include using focused interstitial laser thermal therapy. This article will review the diagnosis and treatment of radiation necrosis.

  20. Incus and stapes necrosis associated with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Tüz, M; Doğru, H; Yasan, H; Döner, F; Yariktaş, M

    2006-07-01

    Chronic otitis media is often associated with ossicular defects, the most frequent being necrosis of the long process of incus. Except for infection and cholesteatoma; trauma and local pressure by chorda tympani are uncommon causes leading to incus erosion. In the literature, no case of incus necrosis has been reported associated with type II diabetes mellitus (DM). A patient is presented in this report with incus and stapes suprastructure necrosis and associated type II DM who was admitted to the out-patient clinic with complaints of conductive hearing loss. PMID:16834796

  1. Practical quantification of necrosis in histological whole-slide images.

    PubMed

    Homeyer, André; Schenk, Andrea; Arlt, Janine; Dahmen, Uta; Dirsch, Olaf; Hahn, Horst K

    2013-06-01

    Since the histological quantification of necrosis is a common task in medical research and practice, we evaluate different image analysis methods for quantifying necrosis in whole-slide images. In a practical usage scenario, we assess the impact of different classification algorithms and feature sets on both accuracy and computation time. We show how a well-chosen combination of multiresolution features and an efficient postprocessing step enables the accurate quantification necrosis in gigapixel images in less than a minute. The results are general enough to be applied to other areas of histological image analysis as well. PMID:23796718

  2. Plaquing procedure for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, J.A.; Mulcahy, D.

    1980-01-01

    A single overlay plaque assay was designed and evaluated for infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Epithelioma papillosum carpio cells were grown in normal atmosphere with tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane- or HEPES (N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid)-buffered media. Plaques were larger and formed more quickly on 1- to 3-day-old cell monolayers than on older monolayers. Cell culture medium with a 10% addition of fetal calf serum (MEM 10) or without serum (MEM 0) were the most efficient virus diluents. Dilution with phosphate-buffered saline, saline, normal broth, or deionized water reduced plaque numbers. Variations in the pH (7.0 to 8.0) of a MEM 0 diluent did not affect plaque numbers. Increasing the volume of viral inoculum above 0.15 ml (15- by 60-mm plate) decreased plaquing efficiency. Significantly more plaques occurred under gum tragacanth and methylcellulose than under agar or agarose overlays. Varying the pH (6.8 to 7.4) of methylcellulose overlays did not significantly change plaque numbers. More plaques formed under the thicker overlays of both methylcellulose and gum tragacanth. Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and HEPES performed equally well, buffering either medium or overlay. Plaque numbers were reduced when cells were rinsed after virus adsorption or less than 1 h was allowed for adsorption. Variation in adsorption time between 60 and 180 min did not change plaque numbers. The mean plaque formation time was 7 days at 16 degrees C. The viral dose response was linear when the standardized assay was used.

  3. Weak values and weak coupling maximizing the output of weak measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2014-06-15

    In a weak measurement, the average output 〈o〉 of a probe that measures an observable A{sup -hat} of a quantum system undergoing both a preparation in a state ρ{sub i} and a postselection in a state E{sub f} is, to a good approximation, a function of the weak value A{sub w}=Tr[E{sub f}A{sup -hat} ρ{sub i}]/Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}], a complex number. For a fixed coupling λ, when the overlap Tr[E{sub f}ρ{sub i}] is very small, A{sub w} diverges, but 〈o〉 stays finite, often tending to zero for symmetry reasons. This paper answers the questions: what is the weak value that maximizes the output for a fixed coupling? What is the coupling that maximizes the output for a fixed weak value? We derive equations for the optimal values of A{sub w} and λ, and provide the solutions. The results are independent of the dimensionality of the system, and they apply to a probe having a Hilbert space of arbitrary dimension. Using the Schrödinger–Robertson uncertainty relation, we demonstrate that, in an important case, the amplification 〈o〉 cannot exceed the initial uncertainty σ{sub o} in the observable o{sup -hat}, we provide an upper limit for the more general case, and a strategy to obtain 〈o〉≫σ{sub o}. - Highlights: •We have provided a general framework to find the extremal values of a weak measurement. •We have derived the location of the extremal values in terms of preparation and postselection. •We have devised a maximization strategy going beyond the limit of the Schrödinger–Robertson relation.

  4. Weak Coupling in 143Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiao-Hong; E, Ideguchi; T, Kishida; M, Ishihara; H, Tsuchida; Y, Gono; T, Morikawa; M, Shibata; H, Watanabe; M, Miyake; T, Tsutsumi; S, Motomura; S, Mitarai

    2000-04-01

    The high-spin states of 143Nd have been studied in the 130Te(18O, 5n)143Nd reaction at a beam energy of 80 MeV using techniques of in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy. Measurements of γ - γ - t coincidences, γ-ray angular distributions, and γ-ray linear polarizations were performed. A level scheme of 143Nd with spin and parity assignments up to 53/2+ is proposed. While a weak coupling model can explain the level structure up to the Jπ=39/2- state, this model can not reproduce the higher-lying states. Additionally, a new low-lying non-yrast level sequence in 143Nd was observed in the present work, which can be well described by the weak coupling of an i13/2 neutron to the 142Nd core nucleus.

  5. Overdamping by weakly coupled environments

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, Massimiliano; Haake, Fritz

    2005-12-15

    A quantum system weakly interacting with a fast environment usually undergoes a relaxation with complex frequencies whose imaginary parts are damping rates quadratic in the coupling to the environment in accord with Fermi's 'golden rule'. We show for various models (spin damped by harmonic-oscillator or random-matrix baths, quantum diffusion, and quantum Brownian motion) that upon increasing the coupling up to a critical value still small enough to allow for weak-coupling Markovian master equations, a different relaxation regime can occur. In that regime, complex frequencies lose their real parts such that the process becomes overdamped. Our results call into question the standard belief that overdamping is exclusively a strong coupling feature.

  6. Optimizing SNAP for Weak Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High, F. W.; Ellis, R. S.; Massey, R. J.; Rhodes, J. D.; Lamoureux, J. I.; SNAP Collaboration

    2004-12-01

    The Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) satellite proposes to measure weak gravitational lensing in addition to type Ia supernovae. Its pixel scale has been set to 0.10 arcsec per pixel as established by the needs of supernova observations. To find the optimal pixel scale for accurate weak lensing measurements we conduct a tradeoff study in which, via simulations, we fix the suvey size in total pixels and vary the pixel scale. Our preliminary results show that with a smaller scale of about 0.08 arcsec per pixel we can minimize the contribution of intrinsic shear variance to the error on the power spectrum of mass density distortion. Currently we are testing the robustness of this figure as well as determining whether dithering yields analogous results.

  7. Post-facelift flap necrosis treatment using charged polystyrene microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Oren; Farber, Nimrod; Remer, Eric; Tessone, Ariel; Trivizki, Omer; Bank, Jonathan; Winkler, Eyal; Zilinsky, Isaac; Haik, Josef

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flap necrosis following facial rhytidectomy constitutes a vexing and grievous complication to the patient and the surgeon. Treatment modalities that can expedite wound healing and re-epithelialization rates are highly desired. OBJECTIVES: To assess wound healing and re-epithelialization rates of open wounds following postrhytidectomy flap necrosis treated with commercially available charged polystyrene microspheres (Polyheal-1, Polyheal Ltd, Israel). METHODS: Flap necrosis following rhytidectomy with open wounds in three female patients were treated using dressings soaked with Polyheal-1. Wound closure rates were documented. RESULTS: The wounds demonstrated both accelerated granulation tissue formation and rapid re-epithelialization rates. No complications or side effects were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: Charged polystyrene microspheres may offer a new and efficacious way to treat open wounds due to flap necrosis following facial rhytidectomy. Further research with larger patient numbers is still needed to verify these findings. PMID:24431937

  8. Toe Necrosis, Etiologies and Management, a Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Abdelfatah Abou; Newman, Mackenzie; Simman, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Toe necrosis may have vast different etiologies. These include ischemia, embolus, and others. (1) The most common etiology is ischemia. It is a reduction in blood supply to a viable tissue that can lead to susceptibility to infection and tissue death. Peripheral ischemia, which is rooted in the lower limbs, is a major risk factor for toe necrosis because the basal metabolic requirements of tissue are not being sufficiently met. As a result, pain, ulcers, and gangrene commonly occur. (2) Other causes of direct and indirect toe necrosis and related lower limb gangrene include mechanical trauma, infectious, pharmacological sensitivity, cancer, blue toe syndrome, and other granulomatous diseases, such as Churg-Strauss syndrome. We present a case series of toes necrosis which resulted from different etiologies and their management. PMID:26199887

  9. Renal papillary necrosis and pyelonephritis accompanying fenoprofen therapy.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; Lange, R K; Kantrow, C M

    1979-10-26

    Renal papillary necrosis occurred after fenoprofen calcium administration in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus and urinary tract infection. Possible mechanisms of renal damage may be hypersensitivity, decreased blood flow, and decreased production of a prostaglandin E-like substance.

  10. Cerebral radiation necrosis: diagnostic challenge and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Eisele, S C; Dietrich, J

    2015-09-01

    Cerebral radiation is an indispensable cornerstone in the treatment of many primary and metastatic brain tumors. However, besides its desired therapeutic effect on tumor cells, a significant proportion of patients will experience neurotoxic side effects as the consequence of radiotherapy. Radiation necrosis can result in progressive neurological symptoms and radiographic changes. To differentiate radiation necrosis from progressive tumor based on imaging can pose a diagnostic challenge because the MRI characteristics may be similar in both situations. Therefore, surgical biopsy and pathological confirmation is sometimes necessary to guide further management. Effective treatment options for cerebral radiation necrosis exist and should be offered to symptomatic patients. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular processes underlying the development of radiation necrosis is necessary to prevent and minimize radiation-associated morbidity and to improve treatment strategies.

  11. Chronic renal insufficiency from cortical necrosis induced by arsenic poisoning.

    PubMed

    Gerhardt, R E; Hudson, J B; Rao, R N; Sobel, R E

    1978-08-01

    A 39-year-old man had anuria and azotemia and was found to be suffering from acute arsenic poisoning. After two peritoneal dialyses, partial renal function returned, and the patient has survived for five years without dialysis. Renal cortical necrosis was demonstrated by renal biopsy and renal calcification. We suggest that arsenic be added to the list of substances capable of causing renal cortical necrosis and recommend consideration of this complication in cases of arsenical poisoning.

  12. Skin and Neourethral Necrosis in Staged Hypospadias Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mahdavi, Alireza; Sarafi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Complications in hypospadias surgery are not uncommon however penile skin or flap necrosis is rarely reported. Ischemia of the flap or graft is a major complication in two stage repair of hypospadias. A 2-year old boy with proximal penile hypospadias, operated earlier for chordee correction and urethral plate formation with a preputial flap, presented for stage 2 repair. Ten days after surgery patient developed skin and neourethral necrosis. Early debridement was done followed by coverage with scrotal flaps. PMID:27398320

  13. Robotic cystogastrostomy and debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Nassour, Ibrahim; Ramzan, Zeeshan; Kukreja, Sachin

    2016-09-01

    Walled-off pancreatic necrosis is a known complication of acute pancreatitis and requires intervention if symptomatic or complicated. Laparoscopic cystogastrostomy as a minimally invasive surgical intervention has been well-described in surgical literature but data on a robotic approach is limited. Here we report a case of robotic cystogastrostomy and debridement of walled-off pancreatic necrosis in a patient with a history of severe biliary pancreatitis. PMID:27039191

  14. Erythromelalgia with subsequent digital necrosis, glomerulonephritis, and antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Paira, Sergio; Cassano, Gustavo; Korol, Virginia; Ortiz, Alberto; Roverano, Susana

    2005-08-01

    Erythromelalgia is a condition of extremities characterized by redness, increased temperature, and burning pain. We describe the first reported case of erythromelalgia in a young woman with digital necrosis and mesangial nephritis associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. The symptoms and necrosis completely resolved with treatment with corticosteroids. We discuss the differential diagnosis of this entity and highlight the importance of a follow up of these patients, because erythromelalgia may precede a myeloproliferative disorder or systemic lupus erythematosus by months or years.

  15. Tumour necrosis factors in childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Najam, F I; Giasuddin, A S; Shembesh, A H

    2001-03-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) and TNF beta levels in serum were measured by enzyme immunoassays in 64 Libyan children (age: 1-12 years, sex: 39 males, 25 females) with mild to moderately severe asthma (Group A). Among these patients, 35 had active disease (AA) and 29 had inactive disease (NA). According to age range, 20, 21 and 23 patients were between 1-3 years (A1), > 3-5 years (A2) and > 5-12 years (A3) respectively. A1 had 9 and 11 patients with active (AA1) and inactive (NA1) disease; A2 had 10 and 11 patients with active (AA2) and inactive (NA2) disease; A3 had 16 and 7 patients with active (AA3) and inactive (NA3) disease respectively. Age-matched comparisons was made with 57 healthy children (age: 1-12 years; sex: 30 males, 27 females) (Group B). Among the controls, 15, 19 and 23 children were between 1-3 years (B1), > 3-5 years (B2) and > 5-12 years (B3) respectively. It was observed that serum mean TNF alpha level was significantly higher in patients, while TNF beta levels was normal (A vs B-TNF alpha P < 0.001, TNF beta: P > 0.1). The TNF alpha level was elevated significantly in active disease, while it was normal in inactive disease (AA, NA, B: P = 0.0001; AA vs NA; P < 0.0001; NA vs B: P > 0.05) and TNF beta levels were normal in both groups (AA, NA, B: P = 0.25). Further, TNF alpha levels were significantly higher in all age ranges but in patients with active disease only (AA1, NA1, B: P = 0.0008; AA2, NA2, B: P = 0.0003; AA3, NA3, B: P = 0.0396). TNF alpha may therefore be involved in the pathophysiology of asthma possibly through various proinflammatory mechanisms.

  16. Detecting weakly interacting massive particles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drukier, A. K.; Gelmini, G. B.

    The growing synergy between astrophysics, particle physics, and low background experiments strengthens the possibility of detecting astrophysical non-baryonic matter. The idea of direct detection is that an incident, massive weakly interacting particle could collide with a nucleus and transfer an energy that could be measured. The present low levels of background achieved by the PNL/USC Ge detector represent a new technology which yields interesting bounds on Galactic cold dark matter and on light bosons emitted from the Sun. Further improvements require the development of cryogenic detectors. The authors analyse the practicality of such detectors, their optimalization and background suppression using the "annual modulation effect".

  17. Weak lensing by galaxy troughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Galaxy troughs, i.e. underdensities in the projected galaxy field, are a weak lensing probe of the low density Universe with high signal-to-noise ratio. I present measurements of the radial distortion of background galaxy images and the de-magnification of the CMB by troughs constructed from Dark Energy Survey and Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy catalogs. With high statistical significance and a relatively robust modeling, these probe gravity in regimes of density and scale difficult to access for conventional statistics.

  18. Weak quasielastic production of hyperons

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S. K.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2006-09-01

    The quasielastic weak production of {lambda} and {sigma} hyperons from nucleons and nuclei induced by antineutrinos is studied in the energy region of some ongoing neutrino oscillation experiments in the intermediate energy region. The hyperon-nucleon transition form factors determined from neutrino-nucleon scattering and an analysis of high precision data on semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry have been used. The nuclear effects due to Fermi motion and final state interaction effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have also been studied. The numerical results for differential and total cross sections have been presented.

  19. Tagged-weak {pi} method

    SciTech Connect

    Margaryan, A.; Hashimoto, O.; Kakoyan, V.; Knyazyan, S.; Tang, L.

    2011-02-15

    A new 'tagged-weak {pi} method' is proposed for determination of electromagnetic transition probabilities B(E2) and B(M1) of the hypernuclear states with lifetimes of {approx}10{sup -10} s. With this method, we are planning to measure B(E2) and B(M1) for light hypernuclei at JLab. The results of Monte Carlo simulations for the case of E2(5/2{sup +}, 3/2{sup +} {yields} 1/2{sup +}) transitions in {sub {Lambda}}{sup 7}He hypernuclei are presented.

  20. The weak scale from BBN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Pinner, David; Ruderman, Joshua T.

    2014-12-01

    The measured values of the weak scale, v, and the first generation masses, m u, d, e , are simultaneously explained in the multiverse, with all these parameters scanning independently. At the same time, several remarkable coincidences are understood. Small variations in these parameters away from their measured values lead to the instability of hydrogen, the instability of heavy nuclei, and either a hydrogen or a helium dominated universe from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. In the 4d parameter space of ( m u , m d , m e , v), catastrophic boundaries are reached by separately increasing each parameter above its measured value by a factor of (1.4, 1.3, 2.5, ˜ 5), respectively. The fine-tuning problem of the weak scale in the Standard Model is solved: as v is increased beyond the observed value, it is impossible to maintain a significant cosmological hydrogen abundance for any values of m u, d, e that yield both hydrogen and heavy nuclei stability.

  1. Weak antilocalisation in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Xintao; Hankiewicz, Ewelina; Culcer, Dimitrie

    2014-03-01

    Topological insulators (TI) have changed our understanding of insulating behaviour. They are insulators in the bulk but conducting along their surfaces due to spin-orbit interaction. Much of the recent research focuses on overcoming the transport bottleneck, the fact that surface state transport is overwhelmed by bulk transport stemming from unintentional doping. The key to overcoming this bottleneck is identifying unambiguous signatures of surface state transport. This talk will discuss one such signature, which is manifest in the coherent backscattering of electrons. Due to strong spin-orbit coupling in TI one expects to observe weak antilocalisation rather than weak localisation, meaning that coherent backscattering increases the electrical conductivity. The features of this effect, however, are rather subtle, because in TI the impurities have strong spin-orbit coupling as well. I will show that spin-orbit coupled impurities introduce an additional time scale, which is expected to be shorter than the dephasing time, and the resulting conductivity has a logarithmic dependence on the carrier density, a behaviour hitherto unknown in 2D electron systems. The result we predict is observable experimentally and would provide a smoking gun test of surface transport.

  2. Weak lensing and cosmological investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Viviana

    2005-03-01

    In the last few years the scientific community has been dealing with the challenging issue of identifying the dark energy component. We regard weak gravitational lensing as a brand new, and extremely important, tool for cosmological investigation in this field. In fact, the features imprinted on the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation by the lensing from the intervening distribution of matter represent a pretty unbiased estimator, and can thus be used for putting constraints on different dark energy models. This is true in particular for the magnetic-type B-modes of CMB polarization, whose unlensed spectrum at large multipoles (l ~= 1000) is very small even in presence of an amount of gravitational waves as large as currently allowed by the experiments: therefore, on these scales the lensing phenomenon is the only responsible for the observed power, and this signal turns out to be a faithful tracer of the dark energy dynamics. We first recall the formal apparatus of the weak lensing in extended theories of gravity, introducing the physical observables suitable to cast the bridge between lensing and cosmology, and then evaluate the amplitude of the expected effect in the particular case of a Non-Minimally-Coupled model, featuring a quadratic coupling between quintessence and Ricci scalar.

  3. Uterine necrosis and lumbosacral-plexopathy following pelvic vessel embolization for postpartum haemorrhage: report of two cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Rohilla, Minakshi; Singh, Purnima; Kaur, Jaswinder; Prasad, G R V; Jain, Vanita; Lal, Anupam

    2014-10-01

    We are reporting two cases of uterine necrosis and lumbosacral-plexopathy in patients, who underwent pelvic vessel embolization (PVE) following postpartum hemorrhage. Embolization was performed with gelfoam slurry, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles and coil in one patient and with gelfoam slurry only, in second patient. Both patients had lower limbs weakness and had persistent fever in the postembolization period. Nerve conduction study in both were suggestive of common peroneal and tibial neuropathy. An ultrasonography and computed tomography of abdomen and pelvis revealed bulky uterus with no identifiable endometrium and multiple air foci in subendometrial region suggestive of uterine necrosis, confirmed later by histology of expelled uterine mass. Lumbosacral ischemia resulting in paraparesis and uterine necrosis presenting as longstanding fever after embolization are extremely rare but overwhelming complications of embolization. Only 19 cases of uterine necrosis and <10 cases of lumbosacral plexopathy have been reported in the literature. The overall effectiveness of PVE is high in treatment of obstetric hemorrhage with low complication rate and highly selective PVE may further prevent these complication. To the best of our knowledge the co-existing uterine necrosis and lumbosacral plexopathy secondry to PVE has not been described prevoiusly in patients with postpartum hemorrhage. Both patients recovered with conservative management.

  4. Effect of bevacizumab on radiation necrosis of the brain

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, Javier; Kumar, Ashok J.; Conrad, Charles A.; Levin, Victor A. . E-mail: vlevin@mdanderson.org

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: Because blocking vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from reaching leaky capillaries is a logical strategy for the treatment of radiation necrosis, we reasoned that bevacizumab might be an effective treatment of radiation necrosis. Patients and Methods: Fifteen patients with malignant brain tumors were treated with bevacizumab or bevacizumab combination for their tumor on either a 5 mg/kg/2-week or 7.5 mg/kg/3-week schedule. Radiation necrosis was diagnosed in 8 of these patients on the basis of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and biopsy. MRI studies were obtained before treatment and at 6-week to 8-week intervals. Results: Of the 8 patients with radiation necrosis, posttreatment MRI performed an average of 8.1 weeks after the start of bevacizumab therapy showed a reduction in all 8 patients in both the MRI fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) abnormalities and T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities. The average area change in the T1-weighted post-Gd-contrast abnormalities was 48% ({+-}22 SD), and the average change in the FLAIR images was 60% ({+-}18 SD). The average reduction in daily dexamethasone requirements was 8.6 mg ({+-}3.6). Conclusion: Bevacizumab, alone and in combination with other agents, can reduce radiation necrosis by decreasing capillary leakage and the associated brain edema. Our findings will need to be confirmed in a randomized trial to determine the optimal duration of treatment.

  5. The Extracellular Matrix Regulates Granuloma Necrosis in Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Al Shammari, Basim; Shiomi, Takayuki; Tezera, Liku; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Workman, Victoria; Sathyamoorthy, Tarangini; Mauri, Francesco; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Robertson, Brian D; D'Armiento, Jeanine; Friedland, Jon S; Elkington, Paul T

    2015-08-01

    A central tenet of tuberculosis pathogenesis is that caseous necrosis leads to extracellular matrix destruction and bacterial transmission. We reconsider the underlying mechanism of tuberculosis pathology and demonstrate that collagen destruction may be a critical initial event, causing caseous necrosis as opposed to resulting from it. In human tuberculosis granulomas, regions of extracellular matrix destruction map to areas of caseous necrosis. In mice, transgenic expression of human matrix metalloproteinase 1 causes caseous necrosis, the pathological hallmark of human tuberculosis. Collagen destruction is the principal pathological difference between humanised mice and wild-type mice with tuberculosis, whereas the release of proinflammatory cytokines does not differ, demonstrating that collagen breakdown may lead to cell death and caseation. To investigate this hypothesis, we developed a 3-dimensional cell culture model of tuberculosis granuloma formation, using bioelectrospray technology. Collagen improved survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected cells analyzed on the basis of a lactate dehydrogenase release assay, propidium iodide staining, and measurement of the total number of viable cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that collagen destruction is an initial event in tuberculosis immunopathology, leading to caseous necrosis and compromising the immune response, revealing a previously unappreciated role for the extracellular matrix in regulating the host-pathogen interaction. PMID:25676469

  6. ACUTE HEPATIC NECROSIS INDUCED BY BRUCELLA INFECTION IN HYPERTHYROID MICE

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, G. Mary; Spink, Wesley W.

    1959-01-01

    When small numbers of Brucella melitensis were inoculated into ABC mice, occasional hepatic granulomas without necrosis were demonstrated. The greatest multiplication of brucellae was detected in the spleens. Because it had been previously observed that ACTH or cortisone markedly accelerated the multiplication of brucellae in the livers of infected mice with destruction of liver cells, it was considered that triiodothyronine might likewise exaggerate a brucella infection by stimulating endogenous adrenal secretion. Although adrenal hypertrophy was produced, infection of mice treated with triiodothyronine resulted in severe hepatic necrosis or infarcts without the multiplication of brucellae in either the livers or spleens. The lesions were not encountered in untreated infected mice or in control mice treated with triiodothyronine. The necrosis was associated with minimal inflammatory reaction. The necrosis was not induced in mice treated with triiodothyronine and given brucella endotoxin. The precise genesis of the acute hepatic necrosis cited in these experiments remains undefined. Triiodothyronine did not cause deaths in mice infected with Br. melitensis. The infection was neither enhanced nor suppressed. PMID:13803714

  7. Apoptosis, oncosis, and necrosis. An overview of cell death.

    PubMed Central

    Majno, G.; Joris, I.

    1995-01-01

    The historical development of the cell death concept is reviewed, with special attention to the origin of the terms necrosis, coagulation necrosis, autolysis, physiological cell death, programmed cell death, chromatolysis (the first name of apoptosis in 1914), karyorhexis, karyolysis, and cell suicide, of which there are three forms: by lysosomes, by free radicals, and by a genetic mechanism (apoptosis). Some of the typical features of apoptosis are discussed, such as budding (as opposed to blebbing and zeiosis) and the inflammatory response. For cell death not by apoptosis the most satisfactory term is accidental cell death. Necrosis is commonly used but it is not appropriate, because it does not indicate a form of cell death but refers to changes secondary to cell death by any mechanism, including apoptosis. Abundant data are available on one form of accidental cell death, namely ischemic cell death, which can be considered an entity of its own, caused by failure of the ionic pumps of the plasma membrane. Because ischemic cell death (in known models) is accompanied by swelling, the name oncosis is proposed for this condition. The term oncosis (derived from ónkos, meaning swelling) was proposed in 1910 by von Reckling-hausen precisely to mean cell death with swelling. Oncosis leads to necrosis with karyolysis and stands in contrast to apoptosis, which leads to necrosis with karyorhexis and cell shrinkage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856735

  8. Cell death by necrosis, a regulated way to go.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, Mauricio; Armisén, Ricardo; Stutzin, Andrés; Quest, Andrew F G

    2008-05-01

    Apoptosis is a programmed form of cell death with well-defined morphological traits that are often associated with activation of caspases. More recently evidence has become available demonstrating that upon caspase inhibition alternative programs of cell death are executed, including ones with features characteristic of necrosis. These findings have changed our view of necrosis as a passive and essentially accidental form of cell death to that of an active, regulated and controllable process. Also necrosis has now been observed in parallel with, rather than as an alternative pathway to, apoptosis. Thus, cell death responses are extremely flexible despite being programmed. In this review, some of the hallmarks of different programmed cell death modes have been highlighted before focusing the discussion on necrosis. Obligatory events associated with this form of cell death include uncompensated cell swelling and related changes at the plasma membrane. In this context, representatives of the transient receptor channel family and their regulation are discussed. Also mechanisms that lead to execution of the necrotic cell death program are highlighted. Emphasis is laid on summarizing our understanding of events that permit switching between cell death modes and how they connect to necrosis. Finally, potential implications for the treatment of some disease states are mentioned. PMID:18473819

  9. Recombinant epidermal growth factor-like domain-1 from coagulation factor VII functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted glioma magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heng; Chen, Xiao; Xue, Wei; Chu, Chengchao; Liu, Yu; Tong, Haipeng; Du, Xuesong; Xie, Tian; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    The highly infiltrative and invasive nature of glioma cells often leads to blurred tumor margins, resulting in incomplete tumor resection and tumor recurrence. Accurate detection and precise delineation of glioma help in preoperative delineation, surgical planning and survival prediction. In this study, recombinant epidermal growth factor-like domain-1, derived from human coagulation factor VII, was conjugated to iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) for targeted glioma magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The synthesized EGF1-EGFP-IONPs exhibited excellent targeting ability toward tissue factor (TF)-positive U87MG cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro, and demonstrated persistent and efficient MR contrast enhancement up to 12 h for preclinical glioma models with high targeting specificity in vivo. They hold great potential for clinical translation and developing targeted theranostics against brain glioma. PMID:27785017

  10. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator-like Proteases in Teleosts Lack Genuine Receptor-binding Epidermal Growth Factor-like Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Bager, René; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Jensen, Jan K.; Szczur, Agnieszka; Christensen, Anni; Andersen, Lisbeth M.; Johansen, Jesper S.; Larsen, Niels; Baatrup, Erik; Huang, Mingdong; Ploug, Michael; Andreasen, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Plasminogen activation catalyzed by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays an important role in normal and pathological tissue remodeling processes. Since its discovery in the mid-1980s, the cell membrane-anchored urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) has been believed to be central to the functions of uPA, as uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation activity appeared to be confined to cell surfaces through the binding of uPA to uPAR. However, a functional uPAR has so far only been identified in mammals. We have now cloned, recombinantly produced, and characterized two zebrafish proteases, zfuPA-a and zfuPA-b, which by several criteria are the fish orthologs of mammalian uPA. Thus, both proteases catalyze the activation of fish plasminogen efficiently and both proteases are inhibited rapidly by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). But zfuPA-a differs from mammalian uPA by lacking the exon encoding the uPAR-binding epidermal growth factor-like domain; zfuPA-b differs from mammalian uPA by lacking two cysteines of the epidermal growth factor-like domain and a uPAR-binding sequence comparable with that found in mammalian uPA. Accordingly, no zfuPA-b binding activity could be found in fish white blood cells or fish cell lines. We therefore propose that the current consensus of uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation taking place on cell surfaces, derived from observations with mammals, is too narrow. Fish uPAs appear incapable of receptor binding in the manner known from mammals and uPA-catalyzed plasminogen activation in fish may occur mainly in solution. Studies with nonmammalian vertebrate species are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of plasminogen activation. PMID:22733817

  11. Heterogeneous, weakly coupled map lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotelo Herrera, M.a. Dolores; San Martín, Jesús; Porter, Mason A.

    2016-07-01

    Coupled map lattices (CMLs) are often used to study emergent phenomena in nature. It is typically assumed (unrealistically) that each component is described by the same map, and it is important to relax this assumption. In this paper, we characterize periodic orbits and the laminar regime of type-I intermittency in heterogeneous weakly coupled map lattices (HWCMLs). We show that the period of a cycle in an HWCML is preserved for arbitrarily small coupling strengths even when an associated uncoupled oscillator would experience a period-doubling cascade. Our results characterize periodic orbits both near and far from saddle-node bifurcations, and we thereby provide a key step for examining the bifurcation structure of heterogeneous CMLs.

  12. 7 CFR 51.894 - Weak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.894 Weak. Weak means... content, inferior flavor, or are of poor keeping quality....

  13. 7 CFR 51.894 - Weak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.894 Weak. Weak means that individual berries are somewhat translucent, watery and soft, may have relatively low...

  14. 7 CFR 51.894 - Weak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.894 Weak. Weak means that individual berries are somewhat translucent, watery and soft, may have relatively low...

  15. RIP3-dependent necrosis induced inflammation exacerbates atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingjun; Jin, Wei; Wang, Yuhui; Huang, Huanwei; Li, Jia; Zhang, Cai

    2016-04-29

    Atherothrombotic vascular disease is already the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Atherosclerosis shares features with diseases caused by chronic inflammation. More attention should concentrates on the innate immunity effect atherosclerosis progress. RIP3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3) act through the transcription factor named Nr4a3 (Nuclear orphan receptors) to regulate cytokine production. Deletion RIP3 decreases IL-1α production. Injection of anti-IL-1α antibody protects against the progress of atherosclerosis in ApoE -/- mice. RIP3 as a molecular switch in necrosis, controls macrophage necrotic death caused inflammation. Inhibiting necrosis will certainly reduce atherosclerosis through limit inflammation. Necrotic cell death caused systemic inflammation exacerbated cardiovascular disease. Inhibition of necrosis may yield novel therapeutic targets for treatment in years to come.

  16. Thymic necrosis following oral inoculation of mouse thymic virus.

    PubMed

    Morse, S S

    1989-11-01

    Mouse thymic virus (MTLV;ICTV designation murid herpesvirus 3) infects developing T lymphocytes of neonatal mice, causing thymic necrosis and acute immunosuppression. Infected animals shed virus indefinitely. However, although transmission in nature is presumably by contact and is likely to involve the oral-nasal route, virtually all experimental studies with MTLV have used systemic (intraperitoneal) inoculation. In order to determine whether systemic inoculation causes artifacts in pathogenesis of the infection, effects of intraperitoneal and oral-nasal inoculation were compared in newborn mice. Thymic necrosis occurred with either route of inoculation, although rate of infection was lower with oral inoculation, varying from about 20% to 67%. There were no gross differences in pathogenesis. Orally infected animals seroconverted and shed virus. These data indicate that the apparent lymphotropism of thymic virus, and induction of thymic necrosis, are not dependent on route of inoculation.

  17. Deterministic weak localization in periodic structures.

    PubMed

    Tian, C; Larkin, A

    2005-12-01

    In some perfect periodic structures classical motion exhibits deterministic diffusion. For such systems we present the weak localization theory. As a manifestation for the velocity autocorrelation function a universal power law decay is predicted to appear at four Ehrenfest times. This deterministic weak localization is robust against weak quenched disorders, which may be confirmed by coherent backscattering measurements of periodic photonic crystals.

  18. Toxic myopathy and acute hepatic necrosis in cattle caused by ingestion of Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Zanata, Carina; Damasceno, Everson Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pintar; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    The epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of field and experimental Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) poisoning in cattle are described. The low availability of good quality forage and high rate of infestation of pastures by S. obtusifolia were the factors that led to poisonous plant ingestion. In this study, the morbidity ranged between 2% and 27.9%, and the lethality was 100%. For the experimental study, six cattle were fed with the aerial parts of S. obtusifolia collected in three different seasons at 9%-38% of the animal's body weight. The experimental and field diseases were similar. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, reluctance to move, muscular weakness and recumbency. The gross findings included pale discoloration of the skeletal muscle. Microscopically, the affected cattle showed degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal muscles and occasionally of the cardiac muscles. Additionally, two cattle showed centrilobular hepatic necrosis. In this study, S. obtusifolia collected from the same farm showed seasonal variation in toxicity. Poisoning by S. obtusifolia is an important cause of death of cattle in the Central Western region of Brazil. The toxicosis caused by this plant is similar to S. occidentalis poisoning; however, in S. obtusifolia poisoning, acute hepatic necrosis is sometimes present. PMID:25255730

  19. Toxic myopathy and acute hepatic necrosis in cattle caused by ingestion of Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Fernando Henrique; Zanata, Carina; Damasceno, Everson Dos Santos; de Oliveira, Leonardo Pintar; da Silva, Leilane Aparecida; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Riet-Correa, Franklin

    2014-12-15

    The epidemiological, clinical and pathological findings of field and experimental Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod; coffee senna) poisoning in cattle are described. The low availability of good quality forage and high rate of infestation of pastures by S. obtusifolia were the factors that led to poisonous plant ingestion. In this study, the morbidity ranged between 2% and 27.9%, and the lethality was 100%. For the experimental study, six cattle were fed with the aerial parts of S. obtusifolia collected in three different seasons at 9%-38% of the animal's body weight. The experimental and field diseases were similar. The main clinical signs were diarrhea, reluctance to move, muscular weakness and recumbency. The gross findings included pale discoloration of the skeletal muscle. Microscopically, the affected cattle showed degeneration and necrosis of the skeletal muscles and occasionally of the cardiac muscles. Additionally, two cattle showed centrilobular hepatic necrosis. In this study, S. obtusifolia collected from the same farm showed seasonal variation in toxicity. Poisoning by S. obtusifolia is an important cause of death of cattle in the Central Western region of Brazil. The toxicosis caused by this plant is similar to S. occidentalis poisoning; however, in S. obtusifolia poisoning, acute hepatic necrosis is sometimes present.

  20. Indium-111 WBC scan in acute toxic centrilobular hepatic necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.M.; Dhekne, R.D.; Moore, W.H. )

    1989-12-01

    In this case of prolonged fever and abnormal liver functions, dual tracer scintigraphy with In-111 WBCs and Tc-99m SC led to a biopsy-proven diagnosis of severe acute toxic hepatitis (hepatocellular necrosis). Correlation of the Tc-99m SC scan findings with those previously reported for pseudotumors of the liver is discussed. A pseudonormal scan pattern is described for the In-111 WBC scintigraphy. Discordance between In-111 WBC and Tc-99m SC scintigraphy in this clinical setting should raise the possibility of hepatic necrosis as a diagnostic alternative to hepatic abscess.

  1. A new geographic and host record for infectious pancreatic necrosis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parisot, T.J.; Yasutake, W.T.; Bressler, V.

    1963-01-01

    The occurrence of infectious pancreatic necrosis in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) has been experimentally authenticated for the first time in the western United States. The cutthroat trout represents a new host. Brook trout fin tissue culture inoculated with bacteria-free filtrate from the diseased fish tissue showed marked degenerative changes after 24 hours. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), kokanee (O. nerka), and silver salmon (O. kisutch) were not susceptible to the virus when inoculated. Histologically, extensive pancreatic necrosis was observed in the original and experimental materials, but striated muscle hyalinization was detected only in the original material.

  2. Genetic ablation of soluble tumor necrosis factor with preservation of membrane tumor necrosis factor is associated with neuroprotection after focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Pernille M; Clausen, Bettina H; Degn, Matilda; Thyssen, Stine; Kristensen, Lotte K; Svensson, Martina; Ditzel, Nicholas; Finsen, Bente; Deierborg, Tomas; Brambilla, Roberta; Lambertsen, Kate L

    2016-09-01

    Microglia respond to focal cerebral ischemia by increasing their production of the neuromodulatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor, which exists both as membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor and as cleaved soluble tumor necrosis factor forms. We previously demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor knockout mice display increased lesion volume after focal cerebral ischemia, suggesting that tumor necrosis factor is neuroprotective in experimental stroke. Here, we extend our studies to show that mice with intact membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor, but no soluble tumor necrosis factor, display reduced infarct volumes at one and five days after stroke. This was associated with improved functional outcome after experimental stroke. No changes were found in the mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor and tumor necrosis factor-related genes (TNFR1, TNFR2, TACE), pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) or chemokines (CXCL1, CXCL10, CCL2); however, protein expression of TNF, IL-1β, IL-6 and CXCL1 was reduced in membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor(Δ/Δ) compared to membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor(wt/wt) mice one day after experimental stroke. This was paralleled by reduced MHCII expression and a reduction in macrophage infiltration in the ipsilateral cortex of membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor(Δ/Δ) mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that membrane-anchored tumor necrosis factor mediates the protective effects of tumor necrosis factor signaling in experimental stroke, and therapeutic strategies specifically targeting soluble tumor necrosis factor could be beneficial in clinical stroke therapy. PMID:26661199

  3. Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe undergoes decoherence can be significantly lower than that of a standard weak measurement. This indicates another advantage of weak-value amplification in improving the performance of parameter estimation. We illustrate the results by an exact numerical simulation of decoherence arising from a bosonic mode and compare it to the first-order analytical result we obtain.

  4. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  5. Weak Turbulence in Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Gurudas; Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid

    2015-11-01

    Weak turbulence plays a significant role in space plasma dynamics. Induced nonlinear scattering dominates the evolution in the low-beta isothermal radiation belt plasmas and affects the propagation characteristics of waves. As whistler waves propagate away from the earth they are scattered in the magnetosphere such that their trajectories are turned earthward where they are reflected back towards the magnetosphere. Repeated scattering and reflection of the whistlers establishes a cavity in which the wave energy can be maintained for a long duration with, on average, a smaller wave-normal angle. Consequently, the cyclotron resonance time for the trapped energetic electrons increases, leading to an enhanced pitch-angle scattering rate. Enhanced pitch-angle scattering lowers the lifetime of the energetic electron population. Also, pitch-angle scattering of the trapped population in the cavity with a loss cone distribution amplifies the whistler waves, which in turn promotes a more rapid precipitation through a positive feedback mechanism. Typical storm-pumped radiation belt parameters and laboratory experiments will be used to elucidate this phenomenon Work supported by NRL Base Funds.

  6. Weak Turbulence in Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, G.; Crabtree, C. E.; Rudakov, L.

    2015-12-01

    Weak turbulence plays a significant role in space plasma dynamics. Induced nonlinear scattering dominates the evolution in the low-beta isothermal radiation belt plasmas and affects the propagation characteristics of waves. As whistler waves propagate away from the earth they are scattered in the magnetosphere such that their trajectories are turned earthward where they are reflected back towards the magnetosphere. Repeated scattering and reflection of the whistlers establishes a cavity in which the wave energy can be maintained for a long duration with, on average, a smaller wave-normal angle. Consequently, the cyclotron resonance time for the trapped energetic electrons increases, leading to an enhanced pitch-angle scattering rate. Enhanced pitch-angle scattering lowers the lifetime of the energetic electron population. Also, pitch-angle scattering of the trapped population in the cavity with a loss cone distribution amplifies the whistler waves, which in turn promotes a more rapid precipitation through a positive feedback mechanism. Typical storm-pumped radiation belt parameters and laboratory experiments will be used to elucidate this phenomenon.

  7. Licensed DNA Vaccines against Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV).

    PubMed

    Alonso, Marta; Leong, Jo-Ann C

    2013-04-01

    This article reviews some of the recent patents on DNA vaccines against fish viruses, in particular against the novirhabdovirus infectious hematopoitic necrosis virus (IHNV). Although very effective in protecting fish against IHNV, only one DNA vaccine has been approved to date for use in Canada. In Europe and in US, its commercialization is restricted due to safety concerns.

  8. Comparison of Types of Cell Death: Apoptosis and Necrosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Francis; Zuzel, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Cell death is an essential factor in many biological processes including development. Discusses two types of cell death: (1) necrosis (induced by sodium azide); and (2) apoptosis (induced by sodium chromate). Illustrates key features that differ between these two types of cells death including loss of membrane integrity and internucleosomal DNA…

  9. Necrosis avid contrast agents: functional similarity versus structural diversity.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yicheng; Bormans, Guy; Chen, Feng; Verbruggen, Alfons; Marchal, Guy

    2005-08-01

    Two categories of necrosis-avid contrast agents (NACAs), namely porphyrin- and nonporphyrin-based complexes, have thus far been discovered as necrosis-targeting markers for noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) identification of acute myocardial infarction, assessment of tissue or organ viability, and therapeutic evaluation after interventional therapies. In addition to necrosis labeling, other less-specific functions, such as first-pass perfusion, blood pool contrast effect, hepatobiliary contrast enhancement (CE), adrenal and spleen CE, and renal functional imaging, also are demonstrated with NACAs. Despite various investigations with a collection of clues in favor of certain hypotheses, the mechanisms of such a unique targetability for NACAs still remain to be elucidated. However, a few things have become clear that porphyrin-like structures are not necessary for necrosis avidity and the albumin binding is not the supposed driving force but only a parallel nonspecific feature shared by both NACAs and non-NACA substances. Although the research and development of NACAs still remain in preclinical stage at a relatively small scale, their significance rests upon striking enhancement effects, which may warrant their eventual versatile clinical applications. The present review article is intended to summarize the cumulated facts about the evolving research on this topic, to demonstrate experimental observations for better understanding of the mechanisms, to trigger broader public interests and more intensive research activities, and to advocate, toward both academics and industries, further promotion of preclinical and clinical development of this unique and promising class of contrast agents. PMID:16024991

  10. Avascular necrosis of the hip in multiple epiphyseal dysplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, W.G.; Bassett, G.S.; Mandell, G.A.; Scott, C.I. Jr. )

    1989-11-01

    We observed radiographic changes of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the capital femoral epiphysis in 9 hips of 11 patients with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED). Plain roentgenography, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies all revealed characteristic asymmetric changes in the presence of AVN superimposed on dysplastic femoral heads.

  11. Adult hemolytic-uremic syndrome and bone marrow necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, C.B.; Redmond, J. III

    1984-11-01

    A case is reported of adult hemolytic-uremic syndrome in which massive bone marrow necrosis developed, a previously undescribed complication. Technetium-99m minicolloid scanning and indium-111 bone marrow scans were used to demonstrate lack of bone marrow activity in the patient. 11 references, 2 figures.

  12. Multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis complicating heparin-induced thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Warkentin, T E; Sikov, W M; Lillicrap, D P

    1999-09-01

    Two patients developed catastrophic multicentric skin necrosis while receiving warfarin to treat venous thromboembolism complicated by immune-mediated heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). Patient 1 developed skin necrosis involving the breasts, thighs, and face, as well as venous limb gangrene and bilateral hemorrhagic necrosis of the adrenal glands, resulting in death. The second patient developed bilateral mammary necrosis necessitating mastectomies, as well as skin necrosis involving the thigh. Neither patient had an identifiable hypercoagulable syndrome, other than HIT. HIT may represent a risk factor for the development of multicentric warfarin-induced skin necrosis (WISN).

  13. Pixelation Effects in Weak Lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    High, F. William; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Ellis, Richard

    2007-11-01

    Weak gravitational lensing can be used to investigate both dark matter and dark energy but requires accurate measurements of the shapes of faint, distant galaxies. Such measurements are hindered by the finite resolution and pixel scale of digital cameras. We investigate the optimum choice of pixel scale for a space-based mission, using the engineering model and survey strategy of the proposed Supernova Acceleration Probe as a baseline. We do this by simulating realistic astronomical images containing a known input shear signal and then attempting to recover the signal using the Rhodes, Refregier, & Groth algorithm. We find that the quality of shear measurement is always improved by smaller pixels. However, in practice, telescopes are usually limited to a finite number of pixels and operational life span, so the total area of a survey increases with pixel size. We therefore fix the survey lifetime and the number of pixels in the focal plane while varying the pixel scale, thereby effectively varying the survey size. In a pure trade-off for image resolution versus survey area, we find that measurements of the matter power spectrum would have minimum statistical error with a pixel scale of 0.09" for a 0.14" FWHM point-spread function (PSF). The pixel scale could be increased to ~0.16" if images dithered by exactly half-pixel offsets were always available. Some of our results do depend on our adopted shape measurement method and should be regarded as an upper limit: future pipelines may require smaller pixels to overcome systematic floors not yet accessible, and, in certain circumstances, measuring the shape of the PSF might be more difficult than those of galaxies. However, the relative trends in our analysis are robust, especially those of the surface density of resolved galaxies. Our approach thus provides a snapshot of potential in available technology, and a practical counterpart to analytic studies of pixelation, which necessarily assume an idealized shape

  14. Weak {}^* convergence of operator means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Alexandr V.

    2011-12-01

    For a linear operator U with \\Vert U^n\\Vert \\le \\operatorname{const} on a Banach space X we discuss conditions for the convergence of ergodic operator nets T_\\alpha corresponding to the adjoint operator U^* of U in the {W^*O}-topology of the space \\operatorname{End} X^*. The accumulation points of all possible nets of this kind form a compact convex set L in \\operatorname{End} X^*, which is the kernel of the operator semigroup G=\\overline{\\operatorname{co}}\\,\\Gamma_0, where \\Gamma_0=\\{U_n^*, n \\ge 0\\}. It is proved that all ergodic nets T_\\alpha weakly {}^* converge if and only if the kernel L consists of a single element. In the case of X=C(\\Omega) and the shift operator U generated by a continuous transformation \\varphi of a metrizable compactum \\Omega we trace the relationships among the ergodic properties of U, the structure of the operator semigroups L, G and \\Gamma=\\overline{\\Gamma}_0, and the dynamical characteristics of the semi-cascade (\\varphi,\\Omega). In particular, if \\operatorname{card}L=1, then a) for any \\omega \\in\\Omega the closure of the trajectory \\{\\varphi^n\\omega, n \\ge 0\\} contains precisely one minimal set m, and b) the restriction (\\varphi,m) is strictly ergodic. Condition a) implies the {W^*O}-convergence of any ergodic sequence of operators T_n \\in \\operatorname{End} X^* under the additional assumption that the kernel of the enveloping semigroup E(\\varphi,\\Omega) contains elements obtained from the `basis' family of transformations \\{\\varphi^n, n \\ge 0\\} of the compact set \\Omega by using some transfinite sequence of sequential passages to the limit.

  15. Involvement of leucine zipper transcription factor-like protein 1 (Lztfl1) in the attenuation of cognitive impairment by exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Izawa, Tetsuya; Oh-ishi, Shuji; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki

    2011-12-01

    It is well known that exercise prevents and reduces cognitive impairment. In the present study, we focused on exercise training as a tool to prevent cognitive impairment, and searched for novel molecules that may relate to the prevention of cognitive impairment in the hippocampus. Two-month-old senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8) mice were subjected to voluntary exercise training by running on a wheel for 4 months, and were then assigned a conditioned fear memory test. Moreover, various mRNA levels in the hippocampus were examined by DNA array analysis and real-time PCR. Contextual fear memory in SAMP8 control mice was significantly impaired compared with that in non-senescence mice. Exercise training definitely attenuated such cognitive impairment. The results of real-time PCR analysis that was conducted following DNA array analysis in the hippocampus revealed that, compared with SAMR8 control mice, the expression levels of leucine zipper transcription factor-like protein 1 (Lztfl1) mRNA were significantly higher in SAMP8 mice subjected to exercise training. In addition, the overexpression of Lztfl1 promoted neurite outgrowth in Neuro 2a cells. These results suggest that exercise has a preventive effect on cognitive impairment in SAMP8 mice, and that exercise-induced increase in Lztfl1 induces neurite outgrowth.

  16. Involvement of reactive oxygen species in stimuli-induced shedding of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor.

    PubMed

    Umata, Toshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) is a critical growth factor for a number of physiological and pathological processes, such as wound healing, atherosclerosis and cancer proliferation. HB-EGF is synthesized as a membrane form (proHB-EGF), and is shedded at the cell surface to yield soluble HB-EGF, resulting in making it active. In this study, the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF was investigated using monkey kidney Vero cells overexpressing HB-EGF (Vero-H cells). 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) as a ligand for seventransmembrane G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and sorbitol as stress induced shedding of HB-EGF mediated protein kinase C (PKC)-δ, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and p38MAPK, respectively. These stimuli-induced sheddings of HB-EGF were inhibited by N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), suggesting the involvement of ROS. As specific inhibitors of these protein kinases inhibited the shedding of HB-EGF, these signaling pathways seem to be independent, respectively. In contrast, γ-ray irradiation did not induce shedding although it did increase intracellular ROS levels. Taken together, these results suggest that the synergistic generation of ROS and the activation of protein kinase are required to promote stimuli-induced shedding of HB-EGF. PMID:24930874

  17. veA-dependent RNA-pol II transcription elongation factor like protein, RtfA, is associated with secondary metabolism and morphological development in Aspergillus nidulans

    PubMed Central

    Ramamoorthy, Vellaisamy; Shantappa, Sourabha; Dhingra, Sourabh; Calvo, Ana M.

    2012-01-01

    In Aspergillus nidulans the global regulatory gene veA is necessary for the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites, including the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST). In order to identify additional veA-dependent genetic elements involved in regulating ST production, we performed a mutagenesis on a deletion veA (ΔveA) strain to obtain revertant mutants (RM) that regained the capability to produce toxin. Genetic analysis and molecular characterization of one of the revertant mutants, RM3, revealed that a point mutation occurred at the coding region of the rtfA gene, encoding a RNA-pol II transcription elongation factor like protein, similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rtf1. The A. nidulans rtfA gene product accumulates in nuclei. Deletion of rtfA gene in a ΔveA background restored mycotoxin production in a medium-dependent manner. rtfA also affects the production of other metabolites including penicillin. Biosynthesis of this antibiotic decreased in the absence of rtfA. Furthermore, rtfA is necessary for normal morphological development. Deletion of the rtfA gene in wild-type strains (veA+) resulted in a slight decrease in growth rate, drastic reduction in conidiation, and complete loss of sexual development. This is the first study of an Rtf1 like gene in filamentous fungi. We found rtfA putative orthologs extensively conserved in numerous fungal species. PMID:22783880

  18. BnEPFL6, an EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) secreted peptide gene, is required for filament elongation in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi; Tao, Zhangsheng; Liu, Qiong; Wang, Xinfa; Yu, Jingyin; Liu, Guihua; Wang, Hanzhong

    2014-07-01

    Inflorescence architecture, pedicel length and stomata patterning in Arabidopsis thaliana are specified by inter-tissue communication mediated by ERECTA and its signaling ligands in the EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR-LIKE (EPFL) family of secreted cysteine-rich peptides. Here, we identified and characterized BnEPFL6 from Brassica napus. Heterologous expression of this gene under the double enhanced CaMV promoter (D35S) in Arabidopsis resulted in shortened stamen filaments, filaments degradation, and reduced filament cell size that displayed down-regulated expression of AHK2, in which phenotypic variation of ahk2-1 mutant presented highly consistent with that of BnEPFL6 transgenic lines. Especially, the expression level of BnEPFL6 in the shortened filaments of four B. napus male sterile lines (98A, 86A, SA, and Z11A) was similar to that of BnEPFL6 in the transgenic Arabidopsis lines. The activity of pBnEPFL6.2::GUS was intensive in the filaments of transgenic lines. These observations reveal that BnEPFL6 plays an important role in filament elongation and may also affect organ morphology and floral organ specification via a BnEPFL6-mediated cascade. PMID:24838654

  19. First report of soybean vein necrosis disease caused by soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several viral diseases of soybean (Glycine max) have been previously identified in the north-central U.S. soybean production area, which includes Wisconsin and Iowa (Hartman et al., 1999). In September 2012, soybean plants with symptoms similar to those reported for soybean vein necrosis disease (SV...

  20. Instrumental systematics and weak gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandelbaum, R.

    2015-05-01

    We present a pedagogical review of the weak gravitational lensing measurement process and its connection to major scientific questions such as dark matter and dark energy. Then we describe common ways of parametrizing systematic errors and understanding how they affect weak lensing measurements. Finally, we discuss several instrumental systematics and how they fit into this context, and conclude with some future perspective on how progress can be made in understanding the impact of instrumental systematics on weak lensing measurements.

  1. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Freedman, S.J. Chicago Univ., IL . Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL . Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  2. [Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in young adults].

    PubMed

    Vasey, H M

    1984-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a well-defined entity. The underlying diseases originate from very different types of pathological conditions. Alcoholism, cortisone therapy, gout or hyperuricemia, sickle cell anaemia and others all lead, through various pathways, to the impairment of the medullary blood flow. In many instances, a compartment syndrome can be demonstrated in the femoral head. Death of the osteocytes follows bone marrow necrosis. Revascularisation originates in the periphery of the necrotic segment. Vascular buds and fibroblasts invade the medullary space. New bone is laid over the necrotic trabeculae. Mechanical failure results from changes in the bony framework at three different levels. The subchondral boneplate may be weakened by the process of revascularisation, the necrotic trabeculae may fail because of diminished stiffness and strength, and overloading has been demonstrated at the junction between dead and living bone. Elevation of the intramedullary pressure is the first objective sign of impending or established bone necrosis. Scintigraphy with Technetium 99 m - Sulphur colloid can now show the early stages of marrow necrosis. Roentgenographic changes only appear in a later phase of the disease. Aseptic necrosis must be considered as involving both hips, unless proven otherwise. Attention given to the "silent hip" may allow salvage and prevent the occurrence of osteo-arthritic changes leaving merely unilateral disease. As long as the geometrical shape of the femoral head is maintained operation may well prove useful. The aim at this stage is to prevent collapse. It is impossible to know in the early stages whether mechanical failure will occur, but there is general agreement that the femoral head will eventually undergo deformation. A spherical epiphysis is therefore considered a success. All the conservative methods aim to decompress the medullary cavity. Core biopsy, curettage, bone grafting and intertrochanteric osteotomy all have

  3. Breast necrosis induced by the use of coumadin: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Ejzenberg, Dani; Neusquen, Lucienne Pereira Del Grossi; Rolnik, Daniel Lorber; Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Piato, José Roberto Morales

    2015-01-01

    The coumadin-induced skin necrosis is rare and occurs more frequently in the breasts, thighs and buttocks. We describe the first case of coumadin necrosis of the breast in Brazil in a 62-year-old patient. PMID:26018146

  4. [APOPTOSIS AND NECROSIS OF CIRCULATING NEUTROPHILS IN PATIENTS WHILE HIGH RISK OF POSTOPERAIVE PERITONITIS OCCURRENCE].

    PubMed

    Sheyko, V D; Sytnik, D A; Shkurupiy, O O

    2015-11-01

    Processes of apoptosis and necrosis of peripheral neutrophils were investigated in 43 patients, operated on for an acute abdominal organs diseases on the first and fourth postoperative days. Changes of apoptosis and necrosis processes in peripheral neutrophils in dynamics were established. Unfavorable course of early postoperative period in patients with initial high and average risk of postoperative peritonitis occurrence was accompanied by shift in necrosis/apoptosis ratio towards necrosis of peripheral neutrophils.

  5. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in hippocampus: modulation of expression by seizures and anti-excitotoxic action.

    PubMed

    Opanashuk, L A; Mark, R J; Porter, J; Damm, D; Mattson, M P; Seroogy, K B

    1999-01-01

    The expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF), an EGF receptor ligand, was investigated in rat forebrain under basal conditions and after kainate-induced excitotoxic seizures. In addition, a potential neuroprotective role for HB-EGF was assessed in hippocampal cultures. In situ hybridization analysis of HB-EGF mRNA in developing rat hippocampus revealed its expression in all principle cell layers of hippocampus from birth to postnatal day (P) 7, whereas from P14 through adulthood, expression decreased in the pyramidal cell layer versus the dentate gyrus granule cells. After kainate-induced excitotoxic seizures, levels of HB-EGF mRNA increased markedly in the hippocampus, as well as in several other cortical and limbic forebrain regions. In the hippocampus, HB-EGF mRNA expression increased within 3 hr after kainate treatment, continued to increase until 24 hr, and then decreased; increases occurred in the dentate gyrus granule cells, in the molecular layer of the dentate gyrus, and in and around hippocampal pyramidal CA3 and CA1 neurons. At 48 hr after kainate treatment, HB-EGF mRNA remained elevated in vulnerable brain regions of the hippocampus and amygdaloid complex. Western blot analysis revealed increased levels of HB-EGF protein in the hippocampus after kainate administration, with a peak at 24 hr. Pretreatment of embryonic hippocampal cell cultures with HB-EGF protected neurons against kainate toxicity. The kainate-induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in hippocampal neurons was not altered in cultures pretreated with HB-EGF, suggesting an excitoprotective mechanism different from that of previously characterized excitoprotective growth factors. Taken together, these results suggest that HB-EGF may function as an endogenous neuroprotective agent after seizure-induced neural activity/injury. PMID:9870945

  6. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started. PMID:25948844

  7. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids. PMID:27511757

  8. The combination of breast necrosis and chylothorax following the OPCAB

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Yaghoubi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Due to long term patency, the internal mammary artery is considered as a conduit of choice for revascularization of the left anterior descending coronary artery. The internal mammary artery and its accessory branches in addition to perfusing the chest wall structures also contributes to supplying, part of the female breast arteries. In addition, due to the accompaniment of thoracic duct branches with the left internal mammary artery, harvesting may be associated with injury to these branches and contribute to chylothorax. We report a rare case of chylothorax and the breast necrosis following the coronary artery bypass grafting. The chylothorax was started in the second postoperative day and ceased gradually in the 12th day of operation. The breast necrosis appeared in the 3th weeks of operation with pain, and tenderness and black skin color change. The patient underwent total mastectomy in the 4th weeks of operation. PMID:27493707

  9. Progressive outer retinal necrosis: manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lo, Phey Feng; Lim, Rongxuan; Antonakis, Serafeim N; Almeida, Goncalo C

    2015-05-06

    We present the case of a 54-year-old man who developed progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) as an initial manifestation of HIV infection without any significant risk factors for infection with HIV. PORN is usually found as a manifestation of known AIDS late in the disease. Our patient presented with transient visual loss followed by decrease in visual acuity and facial rash. Subsequent investigation revealed anterior chamber tap positive for varicella zoster virus (VZV), as well as HIV positivity, with an initial CD4 count of 48 cells/µL. Systemic and intravitreal antivirals against VZV, and highly active antiretroviral therapy against HIV were started, which halted further progression of retinal necrosis. This case highlights the importance of suspecting PORN where there is a rapidly progressive retinitis, and also testing the patient for HIV, so appropriate treatment can be started.

  10. Progressive outer retinal necrosis-like retinitis in immunocompetent hosts.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Rohan; Tripathy, Koushik; Gogia, Varun; Venkatesh, Pradeep

    2016-08-10

    We describe two young immunocompetent women presenting with bilateral retinitis with outer retinal necrosis involving posterior pole with centrifugal spread and multifocal lesions simulating progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) like retinitis. Serology was negative for HIV and CD4 counts were normal; however, both women were on oral steroids at presentation for suspected autoimmune chorioretinitis. The retinitis in both eyes responded well to oral valaciclovir therapy. However, the eye with the more fulminant involvement developed retinal detachment with a loss of vision. Retinal atrophy was seen in the less involved eye with preservation of vision. Through these cases, we aim to describe a unique evolution of PORN-like retinitis in immunocompetent women, which was probably aggravated by a short-term immunosuppression secondary to oral steroids.

  11. Percutaneous debridement of posttraumatic infected major hepatic necrosis.

    PubMed

    Sacks, David; Ong, Adrian; Fernandez, Forrest

    2014-08-01

    Although percutaneous drainage of liver abscesses has long been the standard of care, percutaneous drainage of infected necrotic liver tissue is usually used only to stabilize a patient's condition in the setting of sepsis before surgical debridement is ultimately required, frequently in the form of a hepatic lobectomy. The present report describes three cases of curative percutaneous drainage and percutaneous debridement of posttraumatic infected major hepatic necrosis. Techniques used included catheter suction, lavage, and foreign body retrieval.

  12. Diagnosis of delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, M.; Swartz, B.E.; Mandelkern, M.; Ropchan, J.; Gee, M.; Blahd, W.H. )

    1990-04-01

    A 27-year-old man developed delayed cerebral radiation necrosis following proton beam therapy to an arteriovenous malformation. Neuroimaging with technetium 99m diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid and positron emission tomographic scanning with fludeoxyglucose F 18 aided in his evaluation. Significant improvement of his neurologic deficits resulted from corticosteroid therapy. Clinical resolution was corroborated by serial computed tomographic scans demonstrating regression of the abnormality (a mass lesion). Various facets of radiation injury are discussed, including pathogenesis, risk factors, diagnosis, and therapy.

  13. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis

    PubMed Central

    Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:24926266

  14. [Morphologic analysis of a case of Sheehan's postpartal hypophyseal necrosis].

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, R; Stevanović, G

    1979-01-01

    The post-mortem finding of a 39-year-old woman with the Sheehan postpartal necrosis of the hypophysis is described. This was the only such case of 16,580 obductions of women in the period from 1961 to 1976. The cause of death was cerebral encephalomalacia and non-specific bronchopneumonia. The death occurred five years after the last delivery and almost three years after the established clinical diagnosis.

  15. Disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatocellular necrosis due to clove oil.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Biggerstaff, J; Savidge, G F

    1992-10-01

    We describe the case of a 2-year-old child who suffered from disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and hepatocellular necrosis, following ingestion of clove oil. The patient was treated with heparin and fresh frozen plasma, and, following specific haemostasis assays, with appropriate coagulation factor and inhibitor concentrates. The case demonstrates how this approach can be successfully used in the management of DIC with coexisting liver failure. PMID:1450336

  16. A case of hypoglycemic brain injuries with cortical laminar necrosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Wan; Jin, Eun Sun; Hwang, Hyung-Sik; Yoo, Hyung-Joon; Jeong, Je Hoon

    2010-06-01

    We report a case of 68-yr-old male who died from brain injuries following an episode of prolonged hypoglycemia. While exploring controversies surrounding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings indicating the bad prognosis in patients with hypoglycemia-induced brain injuries, we here discuss interesting diffusion-MRI of hypoglycemic brain injuries and their prognostic importance focusing on laminar necrosis of the cerebral cortex.

  17. Herbal hepatitis: subacute hepatic necrosis secondary to chaparral leaf.

    PubMed

    Katz, M; Saibil, F

    1990-04-01

    A 33-year-old woman developed subacute hepatic necrosis after several months of ingestion of Chaparral Leaf, an herbal product. Symptoms first appeared 3 months after she began taking the tablets. The patient unwittingly carried out a clinical challenge by reducing, then increasing, the dose of pills. The public and the medical profession must be wary of all "harmless" nonprescription medications, whether purchased in pharmacies or elsewhere.

  18. Carrot yellow leaf virus Is Associated with Carrot Internal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Ian P.; Skelton, Anna; Macarthur, Roy; Hodges, Tobias; Hinds, Howard; Flint, Laura; Nath, Palash Deb; Boonham, Neil; Fox, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Internal necrosis of carrot has been observed in UK carrots for at least 10 years, and has been anecdotally linked to virus infection. In the 2009 growing season some growers had up to 10% of yield with these symptoms. Traditional diagnostic methods are targeted towards specific pathogens. By using a metagenomic approach with high throughput sequencing technology, other, as yet unidentified causes of root necrosis were investigated. Additionally a statistical analysis has shown which viruses are most closely associated with disease symptoms. Carrot samples were collected from a crop exhibiting root necrosis (102 Affected: 99 Unaffected) and tested for the presence of the established carrot viruses: Carrot red leaf virus (CtRLV), Carrot mottle virus (CMoV), Carrot red leaf associated viral RNA (CtRLVaRNA) and Parsnip yellow fleck virus (PYFV). The presence of these viruses was not associated with symptomatic carrot roots either as single viruses or in combinations. A sub-sample of carrots of mixed symptom status was subjected to MiSeq sequencing. The results from these tests suggested Carrot yellow leaf virus (CYLV) was associated with symptomatic roots. Additionally a novel Torradovirus, a novel Closterovirus and two novel Betaflexiviradae related plant viruses were detected. A specific diagnostic test was designed for CYLV. Of the 102 affected carrots, 98% were positive for CYLV compared to 22% of the unaffected carrots. From these data we conclude that although we have yet to practically demonstrate a causal link, CYLV appears to be strongly associated with the presence of necrosis of carrots. PMID:25365290

  19. Cerebral radiation necrosis following treatment of extracranial malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, J.P.; Hwang, T.L.; Leavens, M.E.; Libshitz, H.I.

    1984-11-01

    Nine patients with cerebral radiation necrosis following radiation therapy for extracranial neoplasms were seen at MD Anderson Hospital between 1956 and 1982. The diagnosis was confirmed at autopsy in one case, by surgical intervention in six cases, and strongly suspected based upon CT scan findings and radiation records in two cases. The world literature is reviewed, and diagnostic criteria using the CT scan and radiation doses presented.

  20. Weak rigidity in the PPN formalism

    SciTech Connect

    del Olmo, V.; Olivert, J.

    1987-04-01

    The influence of the concept of weakly rigid almost-thermodynamic material schemes on the classical deformations is analyzed. The methods of the PPN approximation are considered. In this formalism, the equations that characterize the weak rigidity are expressed. As a consequence of that, an increase of two orders of magnitude in the strain rate tensor is obtained.

  1. On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams, Daniel B.; Haitjema, Henk; Kauffman, Leon J.

    2012-01-01

    Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.

  2. Spin Seebeck effect in a weak ferromagnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arboleda, Juan David; Arnache Olmos, Oscar; Aguirre, Myriam Haydee; Ramos, Rafael; Anadon, Alberto; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo

    2016-06-01

    We report the observation of room temperature spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a weak ferromagnetic normal spinel Zinc Ferrite (ZFO). Despite the weak ferromagnetic behavior, the measurements of the SSE in ZFO show a thermoelectric voltage response comparable with the reported values for other ferromagnetic materials. Our results suggest that SSE might possibly originate from the surface magnetization of the ZFO.

  3. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  4. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  5. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction

    PubMed Central

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered. PMID:26155183

  6. A Case of Idiopathic Mesenteric Phlebosclerosis with Progressive Intestinal Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Kayano, Hajime; Nomura, Eiji; Hiraiwa, Shinichiro; Kuramoto, Toru; Yatabe, Kentaro; Machida, Takashi; Tajiri, Takuma; Mukai, Masaya; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    The patient was a 39-year-old woman who was referred to our department from her previous doctor with a 2-day history of right abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed wall thickening associated with calcification in the ascending colon. Contrast enhancement in the same portion of the intestinal wall was rather poor. Fluid accumulation was also seen around the intestine, so emergency surgery was performed under a provisional diagnosis of intestinal necrosis. Intestinal necrosis due to idiopathic mesenteric phlebosclerosis was diagnosed from postoperative histopathological tests. Idiopathic mesenteric phlebosclerosis displays a chronic course and in most cases conservative treatment is indicated. Bowel obstruction is common among patients who require surgical treatment, but rare cases such as the present one are also seen in which intestinal necrosis occurs. In recent years, an association with herbal medicine has been indicated as one potential cause of this disease, and this entity should be kept in mind when patients with acute abdomen and a history of taking herbal medicines are encountered. PMID:27344996

  7. A Case of Bilateral Aseptic Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Diana; Trăistaru, Rodica; Kamal, C K; Alexandru, D O; Mogoantă, L; Grecu, D C

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a disease whose etiology is not completely elucidated and generally affects young adults aged between 30 and 50 years. In a significant number of patients bilateral disease occurs, which makes detection in its early stages constitute an important objective. We present the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with the following risk factors: smoking and chronic alcohol consumption, who is diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the left femoral head, ARCO stage IV, and in just six months after the diagnosis and hip arthroplasty, he suffers an injury which leads to the same diagnosis in the contralateral hip. We want to emphasize that for all patients with a high index of suspicion there should be an MRI examination, because the plane radiographs or CT are most often not relevant in detecting early signs of this condition. Diagnosis of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in the early stages is a necessity in order to obtain an optimal result of conservative treatment.

  8. A Case of Bilateral Aseptic Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    PubMed Central

    KAMAL, DIANA; TRĂISTARU, RODICA; KAMAL, C.K.; ALEXANDRU, D.O.; MOGOANTĂ, L.; GRECU, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a disease whose etiology is not completely elucidated and generally affects young adults aged between 30 and 50 years. In a significant number of patients bilateral disease occurs, which makes detection in its early stages constitute an important objective. We present the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with the following risk factors: smoking and chronic alcohol consumption, who is diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the left femoral head, ARCO stage IV, and in just six months after the diagnosis and hip arthroplasty, he suffers an injury which leads to the same diagnosis in the contralateral hip. We want to emphasize that for all patients with a high index of suspicion there should be an MRI examination, because the plane radiographs or CT are most often not relevant in detecting early signs of this condition. Diagnosis of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in the early stages is a necessity in order to obtain an optimal result of conservative treatment. PMID:26788359

  9. Cation dyshomeostasis and cardiomyocyte necrosis: the Fleckenstein hypothesis revisited

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Brian J.; Cheema, Yaser; Shahbaz, Atta U.; Bhattacharya, Syamal K.; Weber, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    An ongoing loss of cardiomyocytes to apoptotic and necrotic cell death pathways contributes to the progressive nature of heart failure. The pathophysiological origins of necrotic cell loss relate to the neurohormonal activation that accompanies acute and chronic stressor states and which includes effector hormones of the adrenergic nervous system. Fifty years ago, Albrecht Fleckenstein and coworkers hypothesized the hyperadrenergic state, which accompanies such stressors, causes cardiomyocyte necrosis based on catecholamine-initiated excessive intracellular Ca2+ accumulation (EICA), and mitochondrial Ca2+ overloading in particular, in which the ensuing dysfunction and structural degeneration of these organelles leads to necrosis. In recent years, two downstream factors have been identified which, together with EICA, constitute a signal–transducer–effector pathway: (i) mitochondria-based induction of oxidative stress, in which the rate of reactive oxygen metabolite generation exceeds their rate of detoxification by endogenous antioxidant defences; and (ii) the opening of the mitochondrial inner membrane permeability transition pore (mPTP) followed by organellar swelling and degeneration. The pathogenesis of stress-related cardiomyopathy syndromes is likely related to this pathway. Other factors which can account for cytotoxicity in stressor states include: hypokalaemia; ionized hypocalcaemia and hypomagnesaemia with resultant elevations in parathyroid hormone serving as a potent mediator of EICA; and hypozincaemia with hyposelenaemia, which compromise antioxidant defences. Herein, we revisit the Fleckenstein hypothesis of EICA in leading to cardiomyocyte necrosis and the central role played by mitochondria. PMID:21398641

  10. Necrosis and apoptosis in Trichinella spiralis-mediated tumour reduction.

    PubMed

    Vasilev, Sasa; Ilic, Natasa; Gruden-Movsesijan, Alisa; Vasilijic, Sasa; Bosic, Martina; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    It is known that infection with different pathogens, including helminths, can alter the progression of malignant or other diseases. We studied the effect of chronic Trichinella spiralis infection or muscle larvae excretory-secretory (ES L1) antigens on the malignant tumour growth in the mouse melanoma model system in vivo and in vitro. Our results confirmed that chronic infection with T. spiralis possesses the capacity to slow down the progression of tumour growth, resulting in an impressive reduction in tumour size. We found that the phenomenon could, at least partially, be related to a lower level of tumour necrosis compared to necrosis present in control animals with progressive malignancy course. An increased apoptotic potential among the low percentage of cells within the total tumour cell number in vivo was also observed. ES L1 antigen, as a parasitic product that is released during the chronic phase of infection, reduced the survival and slightly, but significantly increased the apoptosis level of melanoma cells in vitro. Our results imply that powerful Trichinella anti-malignance capacity does not rely only on necrosis and apoptosis but other mechanisms through which infection or parasite products manipulate the tumor establishment and expansion should be considered. PMID:26155183

  11. Advances in weak-values based metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Andrew; Viza, Gerardo; Martínez-Rincón, Julián; Alves, Gabriel; Howell, John; Kwiat, Paul

    2015-03-01

    We theoretically and experimentally describe the relative advantages of implementing weak-values-based metrology versus standard methods. To accomplish this, we measure small optical beam deflections both a weak-values-based technique, and a standard technique. By introducing controlled external modulations of the detector, and transverse beam-jitter, we quantify the mitigation of these sources in the weak values-based experiment versus the standard experiment. In all cases, the weak-values technique performs the same or better than the standard technique by up to two orders of magnitude in precision for our parameters. We further measure the statistical efficiency of the weak-values-based technique. By post-selecting on 1% of the photons, we obtain 99% of the available Fisher information of the beam deflection parameter. We also discuss ways to recycle the discarded events, obtaining much greater precision on a measured parameter.

  12. Atomic homodyne detection of weak atomic transitions.

    PubMed

    Gunawardena, Mevan; Elliott, D S

    2007-01-26

    We have developed a two-color, two-pathway coherent control technique to detect and measure weak optical transitions in atoms by coherently beating the transition amplitude for the weak transition with that of a much stronger transition. We demonstrate the technique in atomic cesium, exciting the 6s(2)S(1/2) --> 8s(2)S(1/2) transition via a strong two-photon transition and a weak controllable Stark-induced transition. We discuss the enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for this measurement technique over that of direct detection of the weak transition rate, and project future refinements that may further improve its sensitivity and application to the measurement of other weak atomic interactions.

  13. Spectrum of Mathematical Weaknesses: Related Neuropsychological Correlates.

    PubMed

    Perna, Robert; Loughan, Ashlee R; Le, Jessica; Hertza, Jeremy; Cohen, Morris J

    2015-01-01

    Math disorders have been recognized for as long as language disorders yet have received far less research. Mathematics is a complex construct and its development may be dependent on multiple cognitive abilities. Several studies have shown that short-term memory, working memory, visuospatial skills, processing speed, and various language skills relate to and may facilitate math development and performance. The hypotheses explored in this research were that children who performed worse on math achievement than on Full-Scale IQ would exhibit weaknesses in executive functions, memory, and visuoperceptual skills. Participants included 436 children (27% girls, 73% boys; age range = 5-17 years, M(age) = 9.45 years) who were referred for neuropsychological evaluations due to academic and/or behavioral problems. This article specifically focuses on the spectrum of math weakness rather than clinical disability, which has yet to be investigated in the literature. Results suggest that children with relative weakness to impairments in math were significantly more likely to have cognitive weaknesses to impairments on neuropsychological variables, as compared with children without math weaknesses. Specifically, the math-weak children exhibit a weakness to impairment on measures involving attention, language, visuoperceptual skills, memory, reading, and spelling. Overall, our results suggest that math development is multifaceted. PMID:25117216

  14. Structural features of sequential weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diósi, Lajos

    2016-07-01

    We discuss the abstract structure of sequential weak measurement (WM) of general observables. In all orders, the sequential WM correlations without postselection yield the corresponding correlations of the Wigner function, offering direct quantum tomography through the moments of the canonical variables. Correlations in spin-1/2 sequential weak measurements coincide with those in strong measurements, they are constrained kinematically, and they are equivalent with single measurements. In sequential WMs with postselection, an anomaly occurs, different from the weak value anomaly of single WMs. In particular, the spread of polarization σ ̂ as measured in double WMs of σ ̂ will diverge for certain orthogonal pre- and postselected states.

  15. Complex weak values in quantum measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Jozsa, Richard

    2007-10-15

    In the weak value formalism of Aharonov et al., the weak value A{sub w} of any observable A is generally a complex number. We derive a physical interpretation of its value in terms of the shift in the measurement pointer's mean position and mean momentum. In particular, we show that the mean position shift contains a term jointly proportional to the imaginary part of the weak value and the rate at which the pointer is spreading in space as it enters the measurement interaction.

  16. Weak side of strong topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbierski, Björn; Schneider, Martin; Brouwer, Piet W.

    2016-04-01

    Strong topological insulators may have nonzero weak indices. The nonzero weak indices allow for the existence of topologically protected helical states along line defects of the lattice. If the lattice admits line defects that connect opposite surfaces of a slab of such a "weak-and-strong" topological insulator, these states effectively connect the surface states at opposite surfaces. Depending on the phases accumulated along the dislocation lines, this connection results in a suppression of in-plane transport and the opening of a spectral gap or in an enhanced density of states and an increased conductivity.

  17. Competition between weak localization and ballistic transport.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chushun

    2009-06-19

    High-frequency transport in perfect periodic dielectric cylinder arrays is studied. We analytically calculate the diffusive-ballistic transport crossover, which displays the competition between weak localization and ballistic transport. PMID:19659008

  18. Sodium in weak G-band giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Lambert, David L.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium abundances have been determined for eight weak G-band giants whose atmospheres are greatly enriched with products of the CN-cycling H-burning reactions. Systematic errors are minimized by comparing the weak G-band giants to a sample of similar but normal giants. If, further, Ca is selected as a reference element, model atmosphere-related errors should largely be removed. For the weak-G-band stars (Na/Ca) = 0.16 +/- 0.01, which is just possibly greater than the result (Na/Ca) = 0.10 /- 0.03 from the normal giants. This result demonstrates that the atmospheres of the weak G-band giants are not seriously contaminated with products of ON cycling.

  19. Parametric instabilities in weakly magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherall, J.C.; Goldman, M.V.; Nicholson, D.R.

    1981-05-15

    Parametric instabilities in a weakly magnetized plasma are discussed. The results are applied to waves excited by electron streams which travel outward from the Sun along solar-wind magnetic field lines, as in a type III solar radio burst.

  20. Sensor/amplifier for weak light sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmet, D. J.; Jason, A. J.; Parr, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Light sensor/amplifier circuit detects weak light converts it into strong electrical signal in electrically noisy environment. Circuit is relatively simple and uses inexpensive, readily available components. Device is useful in such applications as fire detection and photographic processing.

  1. Experimental studies of weakly coupled superconductors (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrenko, I. M.

    2004-07-01

    A review is given of the main experimental results obtained in research on weakly coupled superconductors after 1964 at the Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kharkov (ILTPE).

  2. Mitochondria mediate tumor necrosis factor-alpha/NF-kappaB signaling in skeletal muscle myotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. P.; Atkins, C. M.; Sweatt, J. D.; Reid, M. B.; Hamilton, S. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is implicated in muscle atrophy and weakness associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Recently, we reported that TNF-alpha directly induces muscle protein degradation in differentiated skeletal muscle myotubes, where it rapidly activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We also have found that protein loss induced by TNF-alpha is NF-kappaB dependent. In the present study, we analyzed the signaling pathway by which TNF-alpha activates NF-kappaB in myotubes differentiated from C2C12 and rat primary myoblasts. We found that activation of NF-kappaB by TNF-alpha was blocked by rotenone or amytal, inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. On the other hand, antimycin A, an inhibitor of complex III, enhanced TNF-alpha activation of NK-kappaB. These results suggest a key role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating NF-kappaB activation in muscle. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha stimulated protein kinase C (PKC) activity. However, other signal transduction mediators including ceramide, Ca2+, phospholipase A2 (PLA2), and nitric oxide (NO) do not appear to be involved in the activation of NF-kappaB.

  3. Some Topics in Weak and Electromagnetic Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorken, James D.

    1982-01-01

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * LECTURE I QUANTUM-ELECTRODYNAMICS TESTS; TESTS OF Jμ Jμ STRUCTURE IN WEAK INTERACTIONS; HIGHER-ORDER WEAK INTERACTIONS * LECTURE II PHENOMENOLOGY OF DEEP-INELASTIC PROCESSES; NO FINAL-STATE HADRONS OBSERVED * LECTURE III LIGHT-CONE COMMUTATORS; MODELS OF THE STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS * LECTURE IV HADRON FINAL STATES IN DEEP-INELASTIC PROCESSES; GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS * LECTURE V INCLUSIVE PROCESSES AT VERY HIGH TRANSVERSE MOMENTUM * REFERENCES

  4. Deterministic implementation of weak quantum cubic nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim; Furusawa, Akira

    2011-11-15

    We propose a deterministic implementation of weak cubic nonlinearity, which is a basic building block of a full-scale continuous-variable quantum computation. Our proposal relies on preparation of a specific ancillary state and transferring its nonlinear properties onto the desired target by means of deterministic Gaussian operations and feed forward. We show that, despite the imperfections arising from the deterministic nature of the operation, the weak quantum nonlinearity can be implemented and verified with the current level of technology.

  5. Looking for heavier weak bosons with DUMAND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Stecker, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    One or more heavier weak bosons may coexist with the standard weak boson, a broad program may be laid out for a search for the heavier W's via change in the total cross section due to the additional propagator, a concomitant search, and a subsequent search for significant antimatter in the universe involving the same annihilation, but being independent of possible neutrino oscillations. The program is likely to require detectors sensitive to higher energies, such as acoustic detectors.

  6. Electromagnetic and Weak transitions in light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    M. Viviani; L.E. Marcucci; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; R. Schiavilla

    2002-09-01

    Recent advances in the study of the p -- d radiative and mu -- {sup 3}He weak capture processes by our group are presented and discussed. The trinucleon bound and scattering states have been obtained from variational calculations by expanding the corresponding wave functions in terms of correlated hyper-spherical harmonic functions. The electromagnetic and weak transition currents include one- and two-body operators. The accuracy achieved in these calculations allows for interesting comparisons with experimental data.

  7. Clinical Manifestation of Self-Limiting Acute Retinal Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Borkowski, Piotr; Szczepanik, Szymon; Moneta-Wielgoś, Joanna; Kęcik, Dariusz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper was to present a case series of self-limiting, peripheral acute retinal necrosis and to demonstrate efficacy of treatment with valacyclovir in patients resistant to acyclovir. The diagnosis was made on ophthalmoscopic examination and positive serum tests for herpes viruses. Material/Methods Ten patients (6F and 4M) aged 19–55 years were diagnosed and treated for self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN). The following endpoints were reported: visual outcomes, clinical features, disease progression, treatment, and complications. Patients received only symptomatic treatment because they did not consent to vitreous puncture. Results Peripheral, mild retinitis was diagnosed in all eyes at baseline. Initially, all patients were treated with systemic acyclovir (800 mg, 5 times a day), prednisone (typically 40–60 mg/day), and aspirin in an outpatient setting. In 6 patients, treatment was discontinued at 6 months due to complete resolution of the inflammatory process. Four patients with immune deficiency showed signs and symptoms of chronic inflammation. Two patients did not respond to acyclovir (2 non-responders); however, those patients were successfully treated with valacyclovir. Complete resolution of inflammatory lesions was observed in 8 patients. In 2 patients, the disease progressed despite treatment – 1 female patient after kidney transplant who stopped the prescribed medications, and 1 male patient with SLE and antiphospholipid syndrome who experienced breakthrough symptoms on-treatment. He died due to cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. Neurological complications (encephalitis and meningitis) were observed in 2 female patients. Prophylactic laser photocoagulation was performed in 1 subject. Conclusions A series of cases of self-limiting acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is presented. This clinical form of ARN can resemble toxoplasmic retinitis in some cases. Oral antiviral medications provide an effective alternative to

  8. Diarachidonoylphosphoethanolamine induces necrosis/necroptosis of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshiko; Tsuchiya, Ayako; Kanno, Takeshi; Nakano, Takashi; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated 1,2-diarachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DAPE)-induced cell death in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) cells. DAPE reduced cell viability in NCI-H28, NCI-H2052, NCI-H2452, and MSTO-211H MPM cell lines in a concentration (1-100μM)-dependent manner. In the flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V (AV), DAPE significantly increased the population of PI-positive and AV-negative cells, corresponding to primary necrosis, and that of PI-positive and AV-positive cells, corresponding to late apoptosis/secondary necrosis, in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced reduction of NCI-H28 cell viability was partially inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of RIP1 kinase to induce necroptosis, or knocking-down RIP1. DAPE generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) followed by disruption of mitochondrial membrane potentials in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE-induced mitochondrial damage was attenuated by cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of cyclophilin D (CypD). DAPE did not affect expression and mitochondrial localization of p53 protein in NCI-H28 cells. DAPE significantly decreased intracellular ATP concentrations in NCI-H28 cells. Overall, the results of the present study indicate that DAPE induces necroptosis and necrosis of MPM cells; the former is mediated by RIP1 kinase and the latter is caused by generating ROS and opening CypD-dependent mitochondrial permeability transition pore, to reduce intracellular ATP concentrations.

  9. Isoproterenol-induced myocardial fibrosis in relation to myocyte necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, I.J.; Jalil, J.E.; Tan, L.B.; Cho, K.; Weber, K.T.; Clark, W.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Treatment of rats with the beta-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol results in cardiac hypertrophy, myocyte necrosis, and interstitial cell fibrosis. Our objectives in this study have been to examine whether hypertrophy and fibrosis occur in a compensatory and reparative response to myocyte loss or whether either process may be occurring independently of myocyte loss and thus be a reactive response to adrenergic hormone stimulation. We have examined this question by evaluating each of these responses in rats treated with different doses and forms of isoproterenol administration. Myocyte necrosis was evaluated using in vivo labeling with monoclonal antimyosin for identification of myocytes with permeable sarcolemma, which was indicative of irreversible injury. Myocardial fibrosis was evaluated by morphometric point counting of Gomori-stained tissue sections and by assessment of the stimulation of fibroblast proliferation by determination of increased levels of DNA synthesis. Stimulation of fibroblast DNA synthesis was determined from DNA specific radioactivities and radioautography after pulse labeling with (3H)thymidine. The evidence provided by this study suggests that the degree and timing of myocardial hypertrophy does not follow the course of myocyte loss and, thus, appears to be either a response to altered cardiac loading or a reactive response to beta-adrenergic hormone stimulation rather than a compensation for myocyte loss. Myocardial fibrosis, on the other hand, appears to be more closely related to myocyte necrosis with respect to collagen accumulation in the same areas of the heart, its dose-response relation to the amount of isoproterenol administered, and the timing of increased DNA synthesis, or fibroblast proliferation, after myocyte loss.

  10. Interferon-γ-Induced Necrosis: An Antitumor Biotherapeutic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Gregory P.

    2013-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ—like the well-known antitumor biotherapeutic IFN-α—is a powerful antiproliferative and immune modulatory cytokine, but mixed results from clinical trials, together with issues of systemic toxicity, have dampened enthusiasm for its use in the treatment of cancer. We suggest that at least 2 factors reduce the antitumor efficacy of IFN-γ: (1) poorly understood survival mechanisms that protect most tumor cells from IFN-γ-induced direct cytotoxicity, and (2) the short half-life of IFN-γ in serum. In this review, we outline avenues to overcome both these limitations. First, we have identified the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) as a protective mechanism against IFN-γ-induced necrosis, and disabling NF-κB allows IFN-γ to trigger RIP1 kinase-dependent programmed necrosis (or necroptosis) in otherwise resistant cells. Second, we propose that fusing IFN-γ to tumor-specific antibodies will stabilize IFN-γ in serum and target this cytokine to tumor cells. We expect that such IFN-γ–antibody chimeras (called immunocytokines), when combined with agents that neutralize tumor-intrinsic survival signals such as NF-κB, will exert potent tumoricidal activity with minimized systemic side effects. Although this review will focus on exploiting IFN-γ-induced necrosis for treatment of renal cell carcinoma, these approaches are also directly applicable to several human cancers in which IFNs have shown therapeutic potential. PMID:23570383

  11. Cocaine hepatotoxicity: a study on the pathogenesis of periportal necrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C. J.; Charles, S. J.; Mullervy, J.

    1994-01-01

    Cocaine is reported to produce either periportal or mid-zonal necrosis in mice pretreated with the enzyme inducer phenobarbitone (James et al. 1987; Powell et al. 1991; Charles & Powell 1992). Dose-response and time course experiments were performed in phenobarbitone treated male DBA/2Ha mice to study the pathogenesis of this unusual cocaine induced lesion. An increase in the dose of cocaine from 60 to 90 or 120 mg/kg produced more extensive and severe periportal and linking portal damage and elevated plasma aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases in a dose dependent manner. Scattered hepatocyte degeneration began at the edge of the periportal region and was detectable by electron microscopy within 30 minutes of administration of 60 mg/kg of cocaine, with conspicuous disorganization of the endoplasmic reticulum being one of the earliest changes. Significant elevations of plasma AST and ALT were observed 3 hours after cocaine administration and were sustained for 12 hours, at which time progressive hepatocyte damage had developed into a network of confluent necrosis at the periphery of the periportal region. The rapidity of organelle derangement and subsequent cell death, and absence of any effect on total cytochrome P-450 or FAD-mono-oxygenase levels, appear to distinguish this periportal lesion from previous reports of cocaine induced centrilobular necrosis in non-enzyme induced mice, suggesting that the two types of damage may develop by different mechanisms. The observation that periportal lesions commence at the periphery of the periportal area, progressing portalwards with increasing dose and time, offers an explanation for the previously conflicting reports of cocaine induced mid-zonal and/or periportal lesions in phenobarbitone treated mice. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7734331

  12. Association of varicella zoster dermatitis with acute retinal necrosis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Browning, D J; Blumenkranz, M S; Culbertson, W W; Clarkson, J D; Tardif, Y; Gourdeau, A; Minturn, J

    1987-06-01

    The authors report seven patients in whom the acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome developed shortly after cutaneous varicella zoster infection. The length of time between the skin infection and ARN varied from 5 days to 3 months. Both eyes were affected in one of seven cases. The ophthalmic branch of cranial nerve V ipsilateral to an affected eye was involved by the zoster dermatitis in only two of the seven cases. The association lends further support to the proposal that herpes zoster virus is a major cause of ARN. A history of recent zoster dermatitis should be sought in patients with ARN.

  13. Bilateral breast necrosis due to local injection of fish oil.

    PubMed

    Turk, Emin; Karagulle, Erdal; Koksal, Hande; Togan, Turhan; Erinanc, Ozgur Hilal; Dogru, Osman; Moray, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The breast is as aesthetically important as it is physiologically. Physicians and women have practiced various methods for breast aesthetics and augmentation. We report a female veterinarian who injected fish oil into her breast, which led to inflammation and necrosis of breast tissue. When all medical therapies failed, bilateral subcutaneous mastectomy was performed. We did not find a case in the literature where fish oil had been used for breast augmentation. However, we did find that many agents have been injected for breast augmentation, the results of which were tragic, just as the case presented herein.

  14. Cutaneous necrosis associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome and mycosis fungoides.

    PubMed

    Hill, V A; Whittaker, S J; Hunt, B J; Liddell, K; Spittle, M F; Smith, N P

    1994-01-01

    The development of extensive cutaneous necrosis in a patient with tumour-stage mycosis fungoides is described. Skin biopsies showed a lymphomatous infiltrate, and thrombosis of dermal blood vessels. Investigation revealed the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies, a lupus anticoagulant, and low free protein S, which contributed to a prothrombotic state. Antiphospholipid antibodies have been detected in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, but clinical manifestations are uncommon. Such autoantibodies may be produced by neoplastic lymphoid cells. The frequency with which antiphospholipid antibodies occur in mycosis fungoides is currently unknown.

  15. [Protocol for the treatment of severe acute pancreatitis with necrosis].

    PubMed

    Barreda, Luis; Targarona, Javier; Rodriguez, César

    2005-01-01

    The Severe Acute Pancreatic Unit of Edgardo Rebagliati Martins National Hospital was officially created in the year 2000. Up to date, we have cared for more than 195 patients with Pancreatic Necrosis. All of them have been treated under a management protocol presented by us. This has helped us to standardize treatment and also to compare results with work groups around the world. This Protocol comes from our own experience and that of our colleagues abroad with a wide knowledge in this kind of pathology abroad, with whom we maintain close ties.

  16. BCG Induced Necrosis of the Entire Bladder Urothelium.

    PubMed

    Krönig, Malte; Jilg, Cordula; Burger, Dieter; Langer, Mathias; Timme-Bronsert, Sylvia; Werner, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Seemann, Wolfgang-Schultze

    2015-09-01

    Instillation therapy with attenuated tuberculosis bacteria (BCG) can significantly reduce rates of recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Local and systemic side effects such as dysuria, irritative voiding symptoms or partial bladder contracture and systemic inflammation were reported. A 75 year-old male patient with recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer developed necrosis of the entire bladder urothelium more than six years after BCG instillation immunotherapy. The resulting irritative voiding symptoms and low bladder capacity required radical cystectomy. BCG instillation can cause severe side effects, which develop gradually and eventually need radical surgical therapy such as cystectomy without tumor recurrence.

  17. Skin necrosis caused by prallethrin-A worldwide used insecticide.

    PubMed

    Botnariu, Gina; Birsan, Cristina; Podoleanu, Cristian; Moldovan, Cosmin; Stolnicu, Simona; Chiriac, Anca

    2016-04-01

    We report a case of necrosis caused by the use of prallethrin (mosquito repellent) on the skin in a 67-year-old diabetic female patient suffering from delusions of parasitosis. Cutaneous toxicity due to pyrethroids is less known or reported, despite well-documented pyrethroid poisoning involving the gastrointestinal, respiratory, cardiac, and nervous systems. Skin irritation has been described after acute accidental exposure but, as far as we know, no data have been published on the effects of pyrethroids when applied directly to the skin. PMID:26987111

  18. Cancer treatment by ultrasound: Increasing the depth of necrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melodelima, David; Cathignol, Dominique

    2004-06-01

    Tissue coagulation by high-intensity ultrasound is a well-established method of cancer treatment. It suffers, however, from insufficient depth of action in the case of deep-seated tumors where endoscopic or interstitial applicators are used. It is demonstrated here that this depth can be increased by temporarily creating cavitation bubbles in such a way that ultrasound attenuation becomes stronger in the zone where tissue heating is insufficient. In vitro experiments in liver tissue confirm that bubbles are indeed located in this zone and that the effective depth of coagulation necrosis is doubled.

  19. Digital necrosis with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil

    PubMed Central

    Warrier, Vinod; Ahmad, Ali; Alshatti, Yaqoub; Jafar, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Digital necrosis is a rare phenomenon of paraneoplastic syndrome associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. Since 1965, more than 70 cases have been reported worldwide in the literature. Case report A 54-year-old male smoker presented with Raynaud’s phenomenon, proceeding to frank gangrene of the fingers. Working up the case finally pointed toward carcinoma of the tonsil as the underlying cause – a rare paraneoplastic manifestation. Conclusion No definite etiology has been found to be the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in this case of the squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil. A brief discussion of the literature is also presented. PMID:27390535

  20. Supraspinatus Intramuscular Calcified Hematoma or Necrosis Associated with Tendon Tear

    PubMed Central

    Lädermann, Alexandre; Genevay, Muriel; Abrassart, Sophie; Schwitzguébel, Adrien Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Rotator cuff intramuscular calcification is a rare condition usually caused by heterotopic ossification and myositis ossificans. Case Presentation. We describe a patient with voluminous calcified mass entrapped in supraspinatus muscle associated with corresponding tendon tear. Histological examination corresponded to a calcified hematoma or necrosis. Patient was surgically managed with open excision of the calcified hematoma and rotator cuff arthroscopic repair. At 6 months, supraspinatus muscle was healed, and functional outcome was good. Discussion and Conclusion. We hypothesized that supraspinatus intramuscular calcified hematoma was responsible for mechanical stress on the tendon. This association has never been described. PMID:26380138

  1. Enteritis necroticans with midgut necrosis caused by Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Clarke, L E; Diekmann-Guiroy, B; McNamee, W; Java, D J; Weiss, S M

    1994-05-01

    Enteritis necroticans is a necrotizing process manifesting as segmental gangrene of the bowel, triggered by Clostridium perfringens toxins under specific dietary conditions. It is a rare disease in developed countries and is probably underdiagnosed. A case of enteritis necroticans presenting with midgut necrosis with sepsis and hemolysis is reported herein. Bacteriologic culture of blood and peritoneal content revealed C perfringens. Dietary history, including the ingestion of meat together with sweet potatoes, should increase clinical suspicion of enteritis necroticans. Early recognition and timely surgical intervention are required for successful treatment. Clinicians are encouraged to be aware of this clinically fulminant yet rarely recognized surgical entity.

  2. [Cell therapy for aseptic necrosis of femoral head].

    PubMed

    Toguchida, Junya; Aoyama, Tomoki; Goto, Koji; Kakinoki, Ryosuke; Kasai, Yasunari

    2011-12-01

    As the clinical application of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC), we have engaged in the development of cell transplantation therapy for aseptic necrosis of femoral head. Based on the results obtained by in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments, we established the protocol for the clinical trial combining MSC with vascularized bone grafts. The protocol was approved by IRB on November 25, 2007, and the first case was operated on February 22, 2008. Since then 10 cases have been successfully treated and were followed at least 24 months with satisfactory results.

  3. Skin Necrosis Associated with Thromboprophylaxis after Total Knee Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Karuppiah, S. V.; Johnstone, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Thromboprophylaxis are routinely given to prevent venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients after total hip and knee replacement surgeries. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (fractioned heparin) is effective in the prevention and treatment of VTE. The predicable effect of LMWH has popularized it for routine clinical use. Although LMWH has lesser complication rate, compared to unfractioned heparin (UFH), sporadic clinical complication has been reported. We report a rare case of skin necrosis secondary to use of LMWH tinzaparin used for routine thromboprophylaxis after total knee replacement. PMID:24804131

  4. BCG Induced Necrosis of the Entire Bladder Urothelium.

    PubMed

    Krönig, Malte; Jilg, Cordula; Burger, Dieter; Langer, Mathias; Timme-Bronsert, Sylvia; Werner, Martin; Wetterauer, Ulrich; Seemann, Wolfgang-Schultze

    2015-09-01

    Instillation therapy with attenuated tuberculosis bacteria (BCG) can significantly reduce rates of recurrence of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Local and systemic side effects such as dysuria, irritative voiding symptoms or partial bladder contracture and systemic inflammation were reported. A 75 year-old male patient with recurrent non muscle invasive bladder cancer developed necrosis of the entire bladder urothelium more than six years after BCG instillation immunotherapy. The resulting irritative voiding symptoms and low bladder capacity required radical cystectomy. BCG instillation can cause severe side effects, which develop gradually and eventually need radical surgical therapy such as cystectomy without tumor recurrence. PMID:26793538

  5. The spectrum of muscle histopathologic findings in 42 weak scleroderma patients

    PubMed Central

    Paik, Julie J.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Lloyd, Thomas E.; Corse, Andrea M.; Casciola-Rosen, Livia; Shah, Ami A.; Boin, Francesco; Hummers, Laura K.; Mammen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if distinct muscle pathological features exist in scleroderma subjects with weakness. Methods This retrospective study included weak scleroderma subjects with muscle biopsies available for review. Biopsies were systematically assessed for individual pathologic features including inflammation, necrosis, fibrosis, and acute neurogenic atrophy. Based on the aggregate individual features, biopsies were assigned a histopathologic category of polymyositis, dermatomyositis, necrotizing myopathy, non-specific myositis, “acute denervation”, “fibrosis only”, or “other”. Clinical data analyzed included autoantibody profiles, scleroderma subtype and disease duration, Medsger muscle severity scores, creatine kinase (CK), electromyography (EMG), and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results 42 subjects (79% female and 64% diffuse scleroderma) were included in this study. Necrosis (67%), inflammation (48%), acute neurogenic atrophy (48%), and fibrosis (33%) were the most prevalent pathologic features. The presence of fibrosis was strongly associated with anti-PM-Scl antibodies. Histopathologic categories included non-specific myositis (36%), necrotizing myopathy (21%), dermatomyositis (7%), “acute denervation” (7%), “fibrosis only” (7%), and polymyositis (5%). Disease duration of scleroderma at the time of muscle biopsy was shorter in polymyositis than other histopathologic categories. Patients with anti-PM-Scl and Scl-70 antibodies also had a shorter disease duration than those with other auto-antibody profiles. Conclusion Non-specific myositis and necrotizing myopathy were the most common histopathologic categories in weak scleroderma subjects. Surprisingly, nearly half of the subjects studied had histological evidence of acute motor denervation (acute neurogenic atrophy); this has not been previously reported. Taken together, these observations suggest that a variety of pathologic mechanisms may underlie the development of

  6. Mastectomy Weight and Tissue Expander Volume Predict Necrosis and Increased Costs Associated with Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yalanis, Georgia C.; Nag, Shayoni; Georgek, Jakob R.; Cooney, Carisa M.; Manahan, Michele A.; Rosson, Gedge D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Impaired vascular perfusion in tissue expander (TE) breast reconstruction leads to mastectomy skin necrosis. We investigated factors and costs associated with skin necrosis in postmastectomy breast reconstruction. Methods: Retrospective review of 169 women with immediate TE placement following mastectomy between May 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013 was performed. Patient demographics, comorbidities, intraoperative, and postoperative outcomes were collected. Logistic regression analysis on individual variables was performed to determine the effects of tissue expander fill volume and mastectomy specimen weight on skin necrosis. Billing data was obtained to determine the financial burden associated with necrosis. Results: This study included 253 breast reconstructions with immediate TE placement from 169 women. Skin necrosis occurred in 20 flaps for 15 patients (8.9%). Patients with hypertension had 8 times higher odds of skin necrosis [odd ratio (OR), 8.10, P < 0.001]. Patients with TE intraoperative fill volumes >300 cm3 had 10 times higher odds of skin necrosis (OR, 10.66, P =0.010). Volumes >400 cm3 had 15 times higher odds of skin necrosis (OR, 15.56, P = 0.002). Mastectomy specimen weight was correlated with skin necrosis. Specimens >500 g had 10 times higher odds of necrosis and specimens >1000 g had 18 times higher odds of necrosis (OR, 10.03 and OR, 18.43; P =0.003 and P <0.001, respectively). Mastectomy skin necrosis was associated with a 50% increased inpatient charge. Conclusion: Mastectomy flap necrosis is associated with HTN, larger TE volumes and mastectomy specimen weights, resulting in increased inpatient charges. Conservative TE volumes should be considered for patients with hypertension and larger mastectomy specimens. PMID:26301139

  7. Carbendazim impends hepatic necrosis when combined with imazalil or cypermethrin.

    PubMed

    Dikić, Domagoj; Landeka, Irena; Knežević, Fabijan; Mojsović-Ćuić, Ana; Benković, Vesna; Horvat-Knežević, Anica; Lončar, Goran; Teparić, Renata; Rogić, Dunja

    2012-05-01

    Imazalil, cypermethrin and carbendazim are detected in plants for human nutrition. To explore whether their combinations, applied orally in low doses, would induce changes in metabolic patterns and hepatotoxicity, a subchronic in vivo experiment was conducted. Doses of 10mg/kg of imazalil (im) and cypermethrin (cy) and 20 mg/kg of carbendazim (car) and their combinations (im, 10 mg/kg+cy, 10mg/kg; im, 10mg/kg+car, 20mg/kg; car, 20 mg/kg + im, 10 mg/kg) were given to Swiss mice daily over 28 days. After 24 hr from the last dose, the relationships of cytotoxicity biomarkers were analysed: serum lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate transaminase, alanine transferase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, creatinine and total proteins. Individual pesticides showed different toxic potential (cy>im car) generally characterized by increase in enzyme activities. Histological analysis showed that cypermethrin, but not imazalil or carbendazim, alone can cause mild necrosis. Combinations generally caused decrease in the activity of enzymes, indicating liver damage. Low doses of carbendazim in combination with low doses of imazalil or cypermethrin caused very pronounced hepatic necrosis, more than any of the three individually applied pesticides or combination of imazalil and cypermethrin. In fruits and vegetables for human consumption, residues of these three pesticides and prolonged combined intake of low doses, which by themselves acutely would not cause any effect, may have similar hepatotoxic effects. PMID:22077925

  8. Predicting development of infected necrosis in acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Dambrauskas, Zilvinas; Pundzius, Juozas; Barauskas, Giedrius

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of severe acute pancreatitis is about 30 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, and it carries an overall mortality rate of 10-15%. Infection of pancreatic necrosis occurs in 20-30% of patients with severe acute pancreatitis and triples the mortality rate. Therefore, early prediction and diagnosis of infection in necrotizing pancreatitis are extremely important. The aim of the studies included in this review was to investigate the potential of specific prognostic factors to predict the development of secondary pancreatic infection in severe acute pancreatitis. This is seen as an important tool allowing to perform a computed tomography- or ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration for bacteriological sampling at the right moment, to confirm the diagnosis, and, finally, to select the subgroup of patients who would benefit from the antibiotic prophylaxis. Precise patients' selection could possibly result in more rational use of antibiotics in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis and reduction of multi-resistant bacteria. Recent studies show that C-reactive protein is an important prognostic marker of pancreatic necrosis with the highest sensitivity and negative prognostic value in this respect. Procalcitonin alone or in combination with interleukin-6 best identifies patients not at risk for infection. However, a review of the clinical studies suggests that we still do not have an optimal model, thus there is a need for new more reliable biochemical and/or clinical predictive systems.

  9. Epidemiological characteristics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV): a review.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Peter; Paley, Richard; Alegria-Moran, Raul; Oidtmann, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV, Rhabdoviridae), is the causative agent of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN), a disease notifiable to the World Organisation for Animal Health, and various countries and trading areas (including the European Union). IHNV is an economically important pathogen causing clinical disease and mortalities in a wide variety of salmonid species, including the main salmonid species produced in aquaculture, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We reviewed the scientific literature on IHNV on a range of topics, including geographic distribution; host range; conditions required for infection and clinical disease; minimum infectious dose; subclinical infection; shedding of virus by infected fish; transmission via eggs; diagnostic tests; pathogen load and survival of IHNV in host tissues. This information is required for a range of purposes including import risk assessments; parameterisation of disease models; for surveillance planning; and evaluation of the chances of eradication of the pathogen to name just a few. The review focuses on issues that are of relevance for the European context, but many of the data summarised have relevance to IHN globally. Examples for application of the information is presented and data gaps highlighted. PMID:27287024

  10. Hadronic Weak Interaction Studies at the SNS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, Nadia

    2016-03-01

    Neutrons have been a useful probe in many fields of science, as well as an important physical system for study in themselves. Modern neutron sources provide extraordinary opportunities to study a wide variety of physics topics. Among them is a detailed study of the weak interaction. An overview of studies of the hadronic weak (quark-quark) as well as semi-leptonic (quark-lepton) interactions at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is presented. These measurements, done in few-nucleon systems, are finally letting us gain knowledge of the hadronic weak interaction without the contributions from nuclear effects. Forthcoming results from the NPDGamma experiment will, due to the simplicity of the neutron, provide an unambiguous measurement of the long range pion-nucleon weak coupling (often referred to as hπ), which will finally test the theoretical predictions. Results from NPDGamma and future results from the n +3 He experiment will need to be complemented by additional measurements to completely describe the hadronic weak interaction.

  11. Experimental noiseless linear amplification using weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Joseph; Boston, Allen; Palsson, Matthew; Pryde, Geoff

    2016-09-01

    The viability of quantum communication schemes rely on sending quantum states of light over long distances. However, transmission loss can degrade the signal strength, adding noise. Heralded noiseless amplification of a quantum signal can provide a solution by enabling longer direct transmission distances and by enabling entanglement distillation. The central idea of heralded noiseless amplification—a conditional modification of the probability distribution over photon number of an optical quantum state—is suggestive of a parallel with weak measurement: in a weak measurement, learning partial information about an observable leads to a conditional back-action of a commensurate size. Here we experimentally investigate the application of weak, or variable-strength, measurements to the task of heralded amplification, by using a quantum logic gate to weakly couple a small single-optical-mode quantum state (the signal) to an ancilla photon (the meter). The weak measurement is carried out by choosing the measurement basis of the meter photon and, by conditioning on the meter outcomes, the signal is amplified. We characterise the gain of the amplifier as a function of the measurement strength, and use interferometric methods to show that the operation preserves the coherence of the signal.

  12. Explaining numeracy development in weak performing kindergartners.

    PubMed

    Toll, Sylke W M; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2014-08-01

    Gaining better insight into precursors of early numeracy in young children is important, especially in those with inadequate numeracy skills. Therefore, in the current study, visual and verbal working memory, non-symbolic and symbolic comparison skills, and specific math-related language were used to explain early numeracy performance and development of weak performing children throughout kindergarten. The early numeracy ability of both weak performers and typical performers was measured at four time points during 2 years of kindergarten to compare growth rates. Results show a significant faster development of early numeracy in the weak performers. The development of weak performers' numeracy was influenced by verbal working memory, symbolic comparison skills, and math language, whereas only math language was positively related to the slope of typical performers' numeracy. In the weak performers, visual working memory, non-symbolic comparison skills, and math language showed an effect on the initial early numeracy level of these children. The intercept of the typical performers was predicted by five covariates, all except non-symbolic comparison. PMID:24786672

  13. DRAM Weak Cell Characterization for Retention Time.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jonghyuk; Lee, Sungho; Choi, Byoungdeog

    2016-05-01

    This work proposes a sequence of tests for detecting refresh weak cells based on data retention time distribution in the main cell array of DRAMs and verify the feasibility of the proposed method through analysis of 30 nm design-rule DRAM cells with Recess Channel Array Transistor (RCAT) and Buried Channel Array Transistor (BCAT). Basic idea of the proposed mechanism is to test with different bias conditions and break down retention failures based on their root causes such as Gate Induced Drain Leakage, sub-threshold leakage and junction leakage. This categorization helps to determine the physical locations of each failure group, enabling precise Physical Failure Analysis (PFA). The characterization of data retention weak cells for 30 nm design rule DRAMs with BCAT and RCAT has been investigated. Most weak cells were classified as GIDL leaky cells in both cases. In the case of BCAT, the distance between the word line and the storage node, caused by the process distribution, is the main origin of weak cells. In the case of RCAT, the sharp corner of the active layer in the storage node is the main cause of weak cells. PMID:27483878

  14. Weak lensing in the Dark Energy Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troxel, Michael

    2016-03-01

    I will present the current status of weak lensing results from the Dark Energy Survey (DES). DES will survey 5000 square degrees in five photometric bands (grizY), and has already provided a competitive weak lensing catalog from Science Verification data covering just 3% of the final survey footprint. I will summarize the status of shear catalog production using observations from the first year of the survey and discuss recent weak lensing science results from DES. Finally, I will report on the outlook for future cosmological analyses in DES including the two-point cosmic shear correlation function and discuss challenges that DES and future surveys will face in achieving a control of systematics that allows us to take full advantage of the available statistical power of our shear catalogs.

  15. Composition of weakly altered Martian crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mustard, J. F.; Murchie, S. L.; Erard, S.

    1993-01-01

    The mineralogic and chemical composition of weakly altered crust remains an unresolved question for Mars. Dark regions hold clues to the composition since they are thought to comprise surface exposures of weakly altered crustal materials. Understanding the in situ composition of relatively pristine crustal rocks in greater detail is important for investigating basic volcanic processes. Also, this will provide additional constraints on the chemical pathways by which pristine rocks are altered to produce the observed ferric iron-bearing assemblages and inferred clay silicate, sulphate, and magnetic oxide phases. Reflectance spectra of dark regions obtained with the ISM instrument are being used to determine the basic mineralogy of weakly altered crust for a variety of regions on Mars.

  16. Weak self-adjoint differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandarias, M. L.

    2011-07-01

    The concepts of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations were introduced by Ibragimov (2006 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 318 742-57 2007 Arch. ALGA 4 55-60). In Ibragimov (2007 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 333 311-28), a general theorem on conservation laws was proved. In this paper, we generalize the concept of self-adjoint and quasi self-adjoint equations by introducing the definition of weak self-adjoint equations. We find a class of weak self-adjoint quasi-linear parabolic equations. The property of a differential equation to be weak self-adjoint is important for constructing conservation laws associated with symmetries of the differential equation.

  17. Molecular biology and immunology for clinicians 23: autoimmunity and the superfamilies of tumor necrosis factor and tumor necrosis factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Leonard H

    2003-04-01

    The parsimony of nature can be stated as "if its not broke don't fix it, just tweak it and reuse it again and again." Nature recycles: once a motif is demonstrably useful it shows up again, often in unexpected places. Tumor necrosis factor and its receptor(s) are examples of this. At least 20 molecules have now been identified as being 25% homologous or more identical with tumor necrosis factor and being involved in a variety of immune and nonimmune functions. Members of the receptor superfamily have shared structural motifs and trigger shared intracellular signaling pathways. Rather than having been implicated in arcane and rare syndromes, some of these activities are pivotal in immune function and, when perturbed, some predispose to known immunodeficiency and autoimmune disease. Not surprisingly, some of these are becoming targets for immunomodulation. New members of these 2 superfamilies are currently being described and the newcomers and the "original stock" will show up in the clinic before you know it! Part of the confusion has always been that each laboratory describing a new biologic principle names the mediating compound. Thus, multiple labs, multiple names for the same protein (recall Ro/SS-A, La/SS-B). Thus, special attention is paid below to acronyms and their synonyms.

  18. Weak Acid Ionization Constants and the Determination of Weak Acid-Weak Base Reaction Equilibrium Constants in the General Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyasulu, Frazier; McMills, Lauren; Barlag, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory to determine the equilibrium constants of weak acid negative weak base reactions is described. The equilibrium constants of component reactions when multiplied together equal the numerical value of the equilibrium constant of the summative reaction. The component reactions are weak acid ionization reactions, weak base hydrolysis…

  19. Extrapolating Weak Selection in Evolutionary Games

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Bin; García, Julián; Hauert, Christoph; Traulsen, Arne

    2013-01-01

    In evolutionary games, reproductive success is determined by payoffs. Weak selection means that even large differences in game outcomes translate into small fitness differences. Many results have been derived using weak selection approximations, in which perturbation analysis facilitates the derivation of analytical results. Here, we ask whether results derived under weak selection are also qualitatively valid for intermediate and strong selection. By “qualitatively valid” we mean that the ranking of strategies induced by an evolutionary process does not change when the intensity of selection increases. For two-strategy games, we show that the ranking obtained under weak selection cannot be carried over to higher selection intensity if the number of players exceeds two. For games with three (or more) strategies, previous examples for multiplayer games have shown that the ranking of strategies can change with the intensity of selection. In particular, rank changes imply that the most abundant strategy at one intensity of selection can become the least abundant for another. We show that this applies already to pairwise interactions for a broad class of evolutionary processes. Even when both weak and strong selection limits lead to consistent predictions, rank changes can occur for intermediate intensities of selection. To analyze how common such games are, we show numerically that for randomly drawn two-player games with three or more strategies, rank changes frequently occur and their likelihood increases rapidly with the number of strategies . In particular, rank changes are almost certain for , which jeopardizes the predictive power of results derived for weak selection. PMID:24339769

  20. Cloning, sequence, and expression of the glycoprotein gene of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, a fish rhabdovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Feyereisen-Koener, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Double-stranded cDNA was prepared from infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus mRNA and cloned into the plasmid vector pUC8. A coprotein (G-protein) of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was selected by hybridization to a /sup 32/P-labeled probe. The restriction map and nucleotide sequence of the mRNA encoding the glycoprotein of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was determined using this full-length cDNA clone.

  1. Percentage tumor necrosis following chemotherapy in neuroblastoma correlates with MYCN status but not survival.

    PubMed

    Bomken, Simon; Davies, Beverley; Chong, Leeai; Cole, Michael; Wood, Katrina M; McDermott, Michael; Tweddle, Deborah A

    2011-03-01

    The percentage of chemotherapy-induced necrosis in primary tumors corresponds with outcome in several childhood malignancies, including high-risk metastatic diseases. In this retrospective pilot study, the authors assessed the importance of postchemotherapy necrosis in high-risk neuroblastoma with a histological and case notes review of surgically resected specimens. The authors reviewed all available histology of 31 high-risk neuroblastoma cases treated with COJEC (dose intensive etoposide and vincristine with either cyclophosphamide, cisplatin or carboplatin) or OPEC/OJEC (etoposide, vincristine and cyclophosphamide with alternating cisplatin [OPEC] or carboplatin [OJEC]) induction chemotherapy in 2 Children's Cancer & Leukaemia Group (CCLG) pediatric oncology centers. The percentage of postchemotherapy necrosis was assessed and compared with MYCN amplification status and overall survival. The median percentage of postchemotherapy tumor necrosis was 60%. MYCN status was available for 28 cases, of which 12 were amplified (43%). Survival in cases with ≥ 60% necrosis or ≥ 90% necrosis was not better than those with less necrosis, nor was percentage necrosis associated with survival using Cox regression. However, MYCN-amplified tumors showed a higher percentage of necrosis than non-MYCN-amplified tumors, 71.3% versus 37.2% (P = .006). This effect was not related to prechemotherapy necrosis and did not confer improved overall survival. Postchemotherapy tumor necrosis is higher in patients with MYCN amplification. In this study, postchemotherapy necrosis did not correlate with overall survival and should not lead to modification of postoperative treatment. However, these findings need to be confirmed in a larger prospective study of children with high-risk neuroblastoma. PMID:21214410

  2. Electro-weak reactions for astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    R. Schiavilla

    2000-06-01

    The status of ''ab initio'' microscopic calculations of the {sup 2}H(p,{gamma}){sup 3}He and {sup 3}He(p,e{sup +}{nu}{sub e}){sup 4}He reactions is reviewed. The methods used to generate accurate nuclear ground- and scattering-state wave functions, and to construct realistic electro-weak transition operators are described. The uncertainties in the theoretical predictions, particularly those relevant to the p-{sup 3}He weak capture, are discussed. For the dp radiative capture, the theoretical results are compared with the TUNL data in the energy range 0--100 keV.

  3. Spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ge-Rui; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The spectroscopy of a weakly isolated horizon has been investigated. We obtain an equally spaced entropy spectrum with its quantum equal to the one given by Bekenstein (Phys Rev D 7:2333, 1973). We demonstrate that the quantization of entropy and area is a generic property of horizons which exists in a wide class of spacetimes admitting weakly isolated horizons. Our method based on the tunneling method also indicates that the entropy quantum of black hole horizons is closely related to Hawking temperature.

  4. Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Goenner, Hubert

    2013-04-15

    The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).

  5. Simple understanding of quantum weak values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Lupei; Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2016-02-01

    In this work we revisit the important and controversial concept of quantum weak values, aiming to provide a simplified understanding to its associated physics and the origin of anomaly. Taking the Stern-Gerlach setup as a working system, we base our analysis on an exact treatment in terms of quantum Bayesian approach. We also make particular connection with a very recent work, where the anomaly of the weak values was claimed from the pure statistics in association with “disturbance” and “post-selection”, rather than the unique quantum nature. Our analysis resolves the related controversies through a clear and quantitative way.

  6. Simple understanding of quantum weak values

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lupei; Feng, Wei; Li, Xin-Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this work we revisit the important and controversial concept of quantum weak values, aiming to provide a simplified understanding to its associated physics and the origin of anomaly. Taking the Stern-Gerlach setup as a working system, we base our analysis on an exact treatment in terms of quantum Bayesian approach. We also make particular connection with a very recent work, where the anomaly of the weak values was claimed from the pure statistics in association with “disturbance” and “post-selection”, rather than the unique quantum nature. Our analysis resolves the related controversies through a clear and quantitative way. PMID:26838670

  7. Compressive wavefront sensing with weak values.

    PubMed

    Howland, Gregory A; Lum, Daniel J; Howell, John C

    2014-08-11

    We demonstrate a wavefront sensor that unites weak measurement and the compressive-sensing, single-pixel camera. Using a high-resolution spatial light modulator (SLM) as a variable waveplate, we weakly couple an optical field's transverse-position and polarization degrees of freedom. By placing random, binary patterns on the SLM, polarization serves as a meter for directly measuring random projections of the wavefront's real and imaginary components. Compressive-sensing optimization techniques can then recover the wavefront. We acquire high quality, 256 × 256 pixel images of the wavefront from only 10,000 projections. Photon-counting detectors give sub-picowatt sensitivity.

  8. Critical level statistics for weakly disordered graphene.

    PubMed

    Amanatidis, E; Kleftogiannis, I; Katsanos, D E; Evangelou, S N

    2014-04-16

    In two dimensions chaotic level statistics with the Wigner spacing distribution P(S) is expected for massless fermions in the Dirac region. The obtained P(S) for weakly disordered finite graphene samples with zigzag edges turns out, however, to be neither chaotic (Wigner) nor localized (Poisson). It is similar to the intermediate statistics at the critical point of the Anderson metal-insulator transition. The quantum transport of finite graphene for weak disorder, with critical level statistics can occur via edge states as in topological insulators, and for strong disorder, graphene behaves as an ordinary Anderson insulator with Poisson statistics.

  9. Characterization of necrosis-inducing NLP proteins in Phytophthora capsici

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Effector proteins function not only as toxins to induce plant cell death, but also enable pathogens to suppress or evade plant defense responses. NLP-like proteins are considered to be effector proteins, and they have been isolated from bacteria, fungi, and oomycete plant pathogens. There is increasing evidence that NLPs have the ability to induce cell death and ethylene accumulation in plants. Results We evaluated the expression patterns of 11 targeted PcNLP genes by qRT-PCR at different time points after infection by P. capsici. Several PcNLP genes were strongly expressed at the early stages in the infection process, but the expression of other PcNLP genes gradually increased to a maximum at late stages of infection. The genes PcNLP2, PcNLP6 and PcNLP14 showed the highest expression levels during infection by P. capsici. The necrosis-inducing activity of all targeted PcNLP genes was evaluated using heterologous expression by PVX agroinfection of Capsicum annuum and Nicotiana benthamiana and by Western blot analysis. The members of the PcNLP family can induce chlorosis or necrosis during infection of pepper and tobacco leaves, but the chlorotic or necrotic response caused by PcNLP genes was stronger in pepper leaves than in tobacco leaves. Moreover, PcNLP2, PcNLP6, and PcNLP14 caused the largest chlorotic or necrotic areas in both host plants, indicating that these three genes contribute to strong virulence during infection by P. capsici. This was confirmed through functional evaluation of their silenced transformants. In addition, we further verified that four conserved residues are putatively active sites in PcNLP1 by site-directed mutagenesis. Conclusions Each targeted PcNLP gene affects cells or tissues differently depending upon the stage of infection. Most PcNLP genes could trigger necrotic or chlorotic responses when expressed in the host C. annuum and the non-host N. benthamiana. Individual PcNLP genes have different phytotoxic effects, and Pc

  10. Ischaemic necrosis of the tongue as a rare complication of cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Hulstaert, E; Roggeman, E; Beeckman, A-S; Moerman, M; Vanderstraeten, E; Rasquin, K; Monsaert, E; Baert, D; Dewint, P; Burvenich, P; Van Steenkiste, C

    2015-12-01

    Ischaemic necrosis of the tongue is an unusual clinical finding. In most cases it is associated with vasculitis, particularly giant cell arteritis (GCA). Other causes include profound cardiogenic shock. We report a case of tongue necrosis in an 81-year-old Caucasian woman. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for cardiogenic shock. Swelling of the tongue was reported before intubation and evolved into tongue ischaemia and necrosis of the tip of the tongue. After surgical debridement the patient recovered. To our knowledge, this is the second report of a patient surviving tongue necrosis resulting from cardiogenic shock.

  11. Gallbladder torsion with acute cholecystitis and gross necrosis.

    PubMed

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis.

  12. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonist-induced sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Clementine, Rochelle Robicheaux; Lyman, Justin; Zakem, Jerald; Mallepalli, Jyothi; Lindsey, Stephen; Quinet, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is an important player in granuloma formation, and recent clinical trials have investigated the efficacy of TNF-alpha inhibitors in sarcoidosis. Paradoxically, there are several case reports in the medical literature describing the development of sarcoidosis in patients treated with TNF-alpha inhibitors. We describe 3 cases of TNF-alpha antagonist-induced sarcoidosis: 1 case of pulmonary, ocular and cutaneous sarcoidosis developing in a patient receiving infliximab for erosive rheumatoid arthritis, 1 case of etanercept-induced sarcoidosis in a patient with seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, and 1 case of sarcoidosis developing in a patient receiving etanercept for erosive rheumatoid arthritis. We also provide a brief discussion on the role of TNF alpha in granuloma formation and implications in the use of TNF-alpha antagonists in autoimmune disease.

  13. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompromised kidney allograft recipient.

    PubMed

    Turno-Kręcicka, A; Boratyńska, M; Tomczyk-Socha, M; Mazanowska, O

    2015-06-01

    Ocular complications in patients who underwent renal transplantation are attributed to side effects of the immunosuppressive regimen. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and it occurs almost exclusively in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a case of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who underwent renal transplant and, after a few years, developed bilateral PORN associated with viral infections. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and BK virus were identified by polymerase chain reaction from the vitreous fluid. It is unclear which of the viruses identified had the dominant role in the pathogenesis of PORN and other organ damage, or whether their actions were synergistic. Adequate antiviral immune surveillance, as well as pre-transplant vaccination against VZV, may reduce the incidence of VZV infection and its complications. PMID:25846017

  14. Programmed necrosis in inflammation: Toward identification of the effector molecules.

    PubMed

    Wallach, David; Kang, Tae-Bong; Dillon, Christopher P; Green, Douglas R

    2016-04-01

    Until recently, programmed cell death was conceived of as a single set of molecular pathways. We now know of several distinct sets of death-inducing mechanisms that lead to differing cell-death processes. In one of them--apoptosis--the dying cell affects others minimally. In contrast, programmed necrotic cell death causes release of immunostimulatory intracellular components after cell-membrane rupture. Defining the in vivo relevance of necrotic death is hampered because the molecules initiating it [such as receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 (RIPK1), RIPK3, or caspase-1] also serve other functions. Proteins that participate in late events in two forms of programmed necrosis [mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) in necroptosis and gasdermin-D in pyroptosis] were recently discovered, bringing us closer to identifying molecules that strictly serve in death mediation, thereby providing probes for better assessing its role in inflammation.

  15. Antiviral selection in the management of acute retinal necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Patrick MK; Hooper, Claire Y; Lightman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    There is no consensus on the optimal antiviral regimen in the management of acute retinal necrosis, a disease caused by herpetic viruses with devastating consequences for the eye. The current gold standard is based on retrospective case series. Because the incidence of disease is low, few well-designed, randomized trials have evaluated treatment dosage and duration. Newer oral antiviral agents are emerging as alternatives to high-dose intravenous acyclovir, avoiding the need for inpatient intravenous treatment. Drug resistance is uncommon but may also be difficult to identify. Antiviral drugs have few side effects, but special attention needs to be paid to patients who have underlying renal disease, are pregnant or are immunocompromised. PMID:20169044

  16. Targeting tumor-necrosis factor receptor pathways for tumor immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schaer, David A; Hirschhorn-Cymerman, Daniel; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2014-01-01

    With the success of ipilimumab and promise of programmed death-1 pathway-targeted agents, the field of tumor immunotherapy is expanding rapidly. Newer targets for clinical development include select members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family. Agonist antibodies to these co-stimulatory molecules target both T and B cells, modulating T-cell activation and enhancing immune responses. In vitro and in vivo preclinical data have provided the basis for continued development of 4-1BB, OX40, glucocorticoid-induced TNFR-related gene, herpes virus entry mediator, and CD27 as potential therapies for patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the immune response to tumors, consider preclinical and early clinical data on select TNFR family members, discuss potential translational challenges and suggest possible combination therapies with the aim of inducing durable antitumor responses. PMID:24855562

  17. Malaria: a tumour necrosis factor inhibitor from parasitized erythrocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, N A; Caro, H N; Taverne, J; Playfair, J H; Rademacher, T W

    1996-01-01

    The excessive production of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with the pathology of blood-stage malaria and phosphatidylinositol-containing phospholipid antigens from parasitized erythrocytes stimulate its secretion by macrophages, thus acting as toxins. This brief report describes some properties of an inhibitor present in lysates from erythrocytes infected with malarial parasites that blocked the detection of recombinant TNF in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and diminished or abolished the cytotoxicity of TNF. It was not found in control lysates of normal erythrocytes. Its addition to macrophage cultures stimulated by toxic malarial preparations or by bacterial lipopolysaccharide also blocked the detection of TNF. These findings may explain the contradictory results obtained from different assays for TNF, and emphasize the need for caution when interpreting the results of a single assay system. If released when parasitized erythrocytes rupture in vivo, the inhibitor could help protect both parasite and host from the damaging effects of TNF. PMID:8778034

  18. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in tissue local necrosis detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cip, Ondrej; Buchta, Zdenek; Lesundak, Adam; Randula, Antonin; Mikel, Bretislav; Lazar, Josef; Veverkova, Lenka

    2014-03-01

    The recent effort leads to reliable imaging techniques which can help to a surgeon during operations. The fluorescence spectroscopy was selected as very useful online in vivo imaging method to organics and biological materials analysis. The presented work scopes to a laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique to detect tissue local necrosis in small intestine surgery. In first experiments, we tested tissue auto-fluorescence technique but a signal-to-noise ratio didn't express significant results. Then we applied a contrast dye - IndoCyanine Green (ICG) which absorbs and emits wavelengths in the near IR. We arranged the pilot experimental setup based on highly coherent extended cavity diode laser (ECDL) used for stimulating of some critical areas of the small intestine tissue with injected ICG dye. We demonstrated the distribution of the ICG exciter with the first file of shots of small intestine tissue of a rabbit that was captured by high sensitivity fluorescent cam.

  19. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in immunocompromised kidney allograft recipient.

    PubMed

    Turno-Kręcicka, A; Boratyńska, M; Tomczyk-Socha, M; Mazanowska, O

    2015-06-01

    Ocular complications in patients who underwent renal transplantation are attributed to side effects of the immunosuppressive regimen. Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) syndrome is a clinical variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and it occurs almost exclusively in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a case of a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient who underwent renal transplant and, after a few years, developed bilateral PORN associated with viral infections. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and BK virus were identified by polymerase chain reaction from the vitreous fluid. It is unclear which of the viruses identified had the dominant role in the pathogenesis of PORN and other organ damage, or whether their actions were synergistic. Adequate antiviral immune surveillance, as well as pre-transplant vaccination against VZV, may reduce the incidence of VZV infection and its complications.

  20. Experimental alcohol-induced hepatic necrosis: suppression by propylthiouracil.

    PubMed

    Israel, Y; Kalant, H; Orrego, H; Khanna, J M; Videla, L; Phillips, J M

    1975-03-01

    We have previously reported that a hypermetabolic state, resembling that produced by thryoid hormones, exists in the livers of animals treated chronically with ethanol. We propose that this alteration produces a relative hypoxia in the centrilobular zone of the liver which, if severe enough, leads to cellular death and to the production of hepatitis. Rats consuming ethanol for 30 days, given with a nutritionally adequate diet, and exposed to reduced oxygen tensions for only 6 hr, developed histological and biochemical evidence of hepatocellular necrosis and inflammatory lesions confined to the centrilobular zone. The severity was proportional to the degree of hypoxia. Pair-fed (nonalcohol) controls showed no such lesions. Treatment of the animals with propylthiouracil for 3-10 days abolished the hypermetabolic state of the liver in ethanol-consuming animals, and drastically reduced the histological and biochemical effects of hypoxia in them. These findings may have implications for pathogenesis and treatment of alcoholic hepatitis in man.

  1. Phylogeography of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Garver, Kyle A.; Troyer, Ryan M.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Einer-Jensen, Katja; Anderson, Eric D.

    2003-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is a rhabdoviral pathogen that infects wild and cultured salmonid fish throughout the Pacific Northwest of North America. IHNV causes severe epidemics in young fish and can cause disease or occur asymptomatically in adults. In a broad survey of 323 IHNV field isolates, sequence analysis of a 303 nucleotide variable region within the glycoprotein gene revealed a maximum nucleotide diversity of 8.6 %, indicating low genetic diversity overall for this virus. Phylogenetic analysis revealed three major virus genogroups, designated U, M and L, which varied in topography and geographical range. Intragenogroup genetic diversity measures indicated that the M genogroup had three- to fourfold more diversity than the other genogroups and suggested relatively rapid evolution of the M genogroup and stasis within the U genogroup. We speculate that factors influencing IHNV evolution may have included ocean migration ranges of their salmonid host populations and anthropogenic effects associated with fish culture.

  2. Some aspects of pathogenesis of infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasutake, William T.; Amend, Donald F.

    1972-01-01

    The histopathogenesis of infectious haematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus infection was studied by exposing juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) to the IHN virus. Fish samples were taken every 24 h for histological examination and for determination of virus concentration. A close correlation was found between histopathological changes and virus concentration. The most significant changes occurred 4 days after exposure. The haematopocitic tissue of the kidney was the most extensively involved but minor degenerative changes were seen in the liver, pancreas, and in the granular cells of the digestive tract. On the 4th day, maximum tissue concentration of virus was reached and the mortality increased. By the 5th day, 90% of the samples showed extensive pathological changes in the kidney, together with variable changes in spleen, liver, pancreas, and gut. Similarities in the histopathogenesis of IHN, Oregon sockeye disease (OSD), Sacramento River chinook disease (SRCD) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS), are discussed.

  3. Progressive outer retinal necrosis in a patient with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, K; Inoue, M; Ishida, S; Kawashima, S; Wakabayashi, T; Suzuki, S; Katsura, H

    2001-01-01

    Progressive outer retinal necrosis syndrome (PORN) is a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy and the majority of the described cases were related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We present a patient who is HIV negative with nephrotic syndrome and prednisolone use for 4 months who showed clinical features of PORN. Low CD4 counts and lymphocytopenia suggested immunosuppression. In the left eye, tractional retinal detachment at the posterior pole followed by incomplete posterior vitreous detachment developed. In addition to intravenous administration of acyclovir, vitreous surgeries including stripping of the posterior hyaloid and silicone-oil tamponade were successfully performed to repair the retinal detachment in the left eye and to prevent it in the right eye.

  4. Tumor necrosis factor alpha polymorphism in heart failure/cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Vadlamani, Lou; Iyengar, Srinivas

    2004-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that is produced by activated macrophages. It has been shown to stimulate the release of endothelial cytokines and NO, increase vascular permeability, decrease contractility, and induce a prothrombotic state. The most studied TNF-a gene mutation in heart disease is a gamma to alpha substitution, which occurs when 308 nucleotides move upstream from the transcription initiation site in the TNF promoter and has been associated with elevated levels of TNF-alpha. The TNF1 allele (wild type) contains gamma at this site, while the TNF2 allele has an alpha substitution at the site. The TNF2 allele is a more powerful transcriptional activator, therefore leading to higher TNF-alpha levels. Most of the studies to date have failed to conclusively show any link between the polymorphism and heart disease, both coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathy/heart failure. PMID:15591843

  5. Polypeptide composition of spleen necrosis virus, a reticuloendotheliosis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Mosser, A G

    1975-01-01

    The polypeptide composition of virions of spleen necrosis virus, a reticuloendotheliosis virus, was determined using electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-containing, 10 percent polyacrylamide gels. Ten polypeptides were resolved. Four of these were present in minor and somewhat variable amounts. Two proteins, gp71 and gp22, contained D-glucosamine and were located on the outer surface of the lipid envelope, as demonstrated by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination and by bromelain digestion. The results suggest that two of the minor proteins, p36 and p26, were also located on the outer surface, although they lacked D-glucosamine. Treatment of the virus with 0.25 percent Nonidet P-40 and 1 percent dithiothreitol produced a subparticle with a buoyant density of approximately 1.31 g/cm-3. This particle was relatively enriched with polypeptides p77, p62, and p50 and contained small amounts of three other polypeptides. PMID:1142473

  6. [A case of nasal tip necrosis after hyaluronic acid injection].

    PubMed

    Honart, J-F; Duron, J-B; Mazouz Dorval, S; Rausky, J; Revol, M

    2013-12-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the most used dermal filler. Some complications associated with its use have been described, but most of them are rare and benign. We report an exceptional case of skin necrosis of the tip of the nose, in a 22-year-old patient, after HA injection. The initial appearance may occurred subsequent aesthetic sequels. After necrotic tissue excision, patient was followed in rapid succession. Daily local care has led to wound healing, without any important sequel. This rare complication reminds us that HA injections are not without risk, despite their apparent simplicity of use. Moreover, the case presented confirms the potential healing of the nasal tip, allowing treatment with wound healing, rather than other early invasive procedure.

  7. Role of Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily in Neuroinflammation and Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Sandip; Lal, Girdhari

    2015-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) molecules play an important role in the activation, proliferation, differentiation, and migration of immune cells into the central nervous system (CNS). Several TNF superfamily molecules are known to control alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and immunity. Development of transgenic and gene knockout animals, and monoclonal antibodies against TNFSF molecules have increased our understanding of individual receptor-ligand interactions, and their intracellular signaling during homeostasis and neuroinflammation. A strong clinical association has been observed between TNFSF members and CNS autoimmunity such as multiple sclerosis and also in its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Therefore, they are promising targets for alternative therapeutic options to control autoimmunity. Although, TNFSF ligands are widely distributed and have diverse functions, we have restricted the discussions in this review to TNFSF receptor-ligand interactions and their role in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammation and CNS autoimmunity.

  8. Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head: Are Any Genes Involved?

    PubMed Central

    Pouya, Farzaneh; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2015-01-01

    Avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) is a pathologic process that results from interruption of blood supply to the femur bone resulting in the death of bone cells and collapse of the femoral head. Nontraumatic ANFH continues to be a significant challenge to orthopedic surgeons. While the exact mechanisms remain elusive, many new insights have emerged from research in the last decade that has given us a clearer picture of the pathogenesis of nontraumatic ANFH. Progression to the end stage of ANFH appears to be related to five main mechanisms: hypercoagulable conditions, angiogenesis suppressions, hyperadipogenesis, heritable states, and switching the bone remodelling into bone resorption. Researchers have been examining the pathogenic mechanisms of ANFH but none of these theories have been firmly confirmed although some appear more plausible than the others. All of these factors can switch bone remodelling into bone resorption, which can further lead to ANFH progression ending up to femoral head collapse. PMID:26213697

  9. Bone marrow necrosis in acute leukemia: Clinical characteristic and outcome.

    PubMed

    Badar, Talha; Shetty, Aditya; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Cortes, Jorge; Konopleva, Marina; Borthakur, Gautam; Pierce, Sherry; Huang, Xuelin; Chen, Hsiang-Chun; Kadia, Tapan; Daver, Naval; Dinardo, Courtney; O'Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Kantarjian, Hagop; Ravandi, Farhad

    2015-09-01

    Bone marrow necrosis (BMN) is characterized by infarction of the medullary stroma, leading to marrow necrosis with preserved cortical bone. In reported small series, BMN in hematological malignancies is associated with poor prognosis. We sought to find the impact of BMN on clinical outcome in a relatively larger cohort of patients with acute leukemias. Overall we evaluated 1,691 patients; 1,051 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 640 with acute lymphocytic leukemia referred to our institution between 2002 and 2013. Patients with AML and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) were evaluated separately to determine the incidence of BMN, associated clinical features and its prognostic significance. At initial diagnosis, BMN was observed in 25 (2.4%) patients with AML and 20 (3.2%) patients with ALL. In AML, BMN was significantly associated with French-American-British AML M5 morphology (32% vs. 10%, P = 0.002). The complete remission (CR) rate in AML with and without BMN was 32% and 59% respectively (P = 0.008). Likewise, CR rate in ALL with BMN was also inferior, 70% vs. 92% (P = 0.005). The median overall survival (OS) in AML with BMN was significantly poorer, 3.7 months compared to 14 months without BMN (P = 0.003). Similarly, the median OS in ALL with and without BMN was 61.7 and 72 months respectively (P = 0.33). BMN is not a rare entity in AML and ALL, but is infrequent. BMN in AML and in ALL is suggestive of inferior response and poor prognosis.

  10. Fat Necrosis of the Breast Following Folinic Acid Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Hammon, M.; Dilbat, G.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.

    2013-01-01

    Case Report: We report here on a 58-year-old patient with abnormal findings in the left breast on screening mammography (October 2012). In May 2008 the patient was diagnosed with rectal cancer, subsequently treated by surgical resection followed by radiochemotherapy. In September 2011 the patient was diagnosed with peritoneal cancer. Extravasation of folinic acid occurred during palliative chemotherapy, which was delivered through a surgically implanted port, placed prepectorally on the left side. The patient had not previously undergone breast surgery. The abnormal finding in the left breast was located at the 1–2 oʼclock position. The mammogram showed extensive hyperdense nodules with predominantly round, fine granular calcifications. On sonography, the findings presented as a hypoechogenic, inhomogenous, partially diffuse, partly solid, partly cystic mass with individual calcifications and reduced echogenicity in the dorsal aspect. Strong densification of the left breast was found at the corresponding position on palpation. On computed tomography (CT) done during follow-up for rectal cancer, new streaky/pitted densifications were noted in the left breast. Based on the patientʼs previous history and the results of the breast diagnostics a diagnosis of extensive fat necrosis after folinic acid extravasation was made. No further measures were taken. The patient will continue to be screened using mammography. Conclusion: A good knowledge of the mammographic and sonographic features of fat necrosis can reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies. Careful consideration of the patientʼs prior medical history is very important in breast diagnostics and may often be decisive for the correct diagnosis. PMID:24771912

  11. Reaction zone structure for strong, weak overdriven, and weak underdriven oblique detonations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Joseph M.; Gonthier, Keith A.

    1992-01-01

    A simple dynamic systems analysis is used to give examples of strong, weak overdriven, and weak underdriven oblique detonations. Steady oblique detonations consisting of a straight lead shock attached to a solid wedge followed by a resolved reaction zone structure are admitted as solutions to the reactive Euler equations. This is demonstrated for a fluid that is taken to be an inviscid, calorically perfect ideal gas that undergoes a two-step irreversible reaction with the first step exothermic and the second step endothermic. This model admits solutions for a continuum of shock wave angles for two classes of solutions identified by a Rankine-Hugoniot analysis: strong and weak overdriven waves. The other class, weak underdriven, is admitted for eigenvalue shock-wave angles. Chapman-Jouguet waves, however, are not admitted. These results contrast those for a corresponding onestep model that, for detonations with a straight lead shock, only admits strong, weak overdriven, and Chapman-Jouguet solutions.

  12. [A strong man with a weak shoulder].

    PubMed

    Henket, Marjolijn; Lycklama á Nijeholt, Geert J; van der Zwaal, Peer

    2013-01-01

    A 47-year-old former olympic athlete had pain and weakness of his left shoulder. There was no prior trauma. He had full range-of-motion and a scapular dyskinesia. There was atrophy of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoideus muscles. He was diagnosed with 'idiopathic neuritis of the accessorius nerve'. PMID:24326139

  13. Interaction barriers for light, weakly bound projectiles

    SciTech Connect

    Kolata, J. J.; Aguilera, E. F.

    2009-02-15

    A parametrization of the interaction-barrier model of C. Y. Wong [Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 766 (1973)] is given for light, weakly bound projectiles and also for the exotic 'halo' nuclei {sup 6}He and {sup 8}B. Comparisons are made with the original parametrization. The extremely anomalous behavior of the interaction radius and barrier curvature for halo nuclei is discussed.

  14. Resource Letter WI-1: Weak Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstein, Barry R.

    1977-01-01

    Provides a listing of sources of literature and teaching aids to improve course content in the fields of: weak interactions, beta decay, orbital electron capture, muon capture, semileptonic decay, nonleptonic processes, parity violation in nuclei, neutrino physics, and parity violation in atomic physics. (SL)

  15. Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2004-11-01

    Weak radiative baryonic B decays B{yields}B{sub 1}B{sub 2}-bar{gamma} are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b{yields}s{gamma} electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  16. Many-body chaos at weak coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The strength of chaos in large N quantum systems can be quantified using λ L , the rate of growth of certain out-of-time-order four point functions. We calculate λ L to leading order in a weakly coupled matrix Φ4 theory by numerically diagonalizing a ladder kernel. The computation reduces to an essentially classical problem.

  17. Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ming-Xing; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Yun, Deng; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we propose one quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator to sign classical messages. This scheme can preserve the merits in the original arbitrated scheme with some entanglement resources, and provide a higher efficiency in transmission and reduction the complexity of implementation. The arbitrator is costless and only involved in the disagreement case.

  18. 7 CFR 51.894 - Weak.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Weak. 51.894 Section 51.894 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT...

  19. Weak shock wave reflection from concave surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Sebastien; Skews, Beric

    2013-07-01

    The reflection of very weak shock waves from concave curved surfaces has not been well documented in the past, and recent studies have shown the possible existence of a variation in the accepted reflection configuration evolution as a shock wave encounters an increasing gradient on the reflecting surface. The current study set out to investigate this anomaly using high-resolution photography. Shock tube tests were done on various concave circular and parabolic geometries, all with zero initial ramp angle. Although the results have limitations due to the achievable image resolution, the results indicate that for very weak Mach numbers, M S < 1.1, there may be a region in which the reflection configuration resembles that of a regular reflection, unlike for the stronger shock wave case. This region exists after the triple point of the Mach reflection meets the reflecting surface and prior to the formation of the additional shock structures that represent a transitioned regular reflection. The Mach and transitioned regular reflections at 1.03 < M s < 1.05 also exhibit no signs of a visible shear layer, or a clear discontinuity at the triple point, and are thus also apparently different in the weak shock regime than what has been described for stronger shocks, similar to what has been shown for weak shocks reflecting off a plane wedge.

  20. Quantum trajectories based on the weak value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takuya; Tsutsui, Izumi

    2015-04-01

    The notion of the trajectory of an individual particle is strictly inhibited in quantum mechanics because of the uncertainty principle. Nonetheless, the weak value, which has been proposed as a novel and measurable quantity definable to any quantum observable, can offer a possible description of trajectory on account of its statistical nature. In this paper, we explore the physical significance provided by this "weak trajectory" by considering various situations where interference takes place simultaneously with the observation of particles, that is, in prototypical quantum situations for which no classical treatment is available. These include the double slit experiment and Lloyd's mirror, where in the former case it is argued that the real part of the weak trajectory describes an average over the possible classical trajectories involved in the process, and that the imaginary part is related to the variation of interference. It is shown that this average interpretation of the weak trajectory holds universally under the complex probability defined from the given transition process. These features remain essentially unaltered in the case of Lloyd's mirror where interference occurs with a single slit.

  1. Transitivity, weakly mixing property and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lidong; Liang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyi; Sun, Xuelian

    2016-01-01

    Let X be a compact metric space without isolated points and let f : X → X be a continuous map. In this paper, if (X,f) is a transitive dynamical system with a repelling periodic point, then f is chaotic in the sense of Kato. In addition, if f is weakly topologically mixing, then f is chaotic in the strong sense of Kato.

  2. Molecular Handshake: Recognition through Weak Noncovalent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthy, Parvathi S.

    2006-01-01

    The weak noncovalent interactions between substances, the handshake in the form of electrostatic interactions, van der Waals' interactions or hydrogen bonding is universal to all living and nonliving matter. They significantly influence the molecular and bulk properties and behavior of matter. Their transient nature affects chemical reactions and…

  3. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  4. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha induces translocation of protein kinase C in tumour necrosis factor-sensitive cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, N; Fuchimoto, S; Orita, K

    1991-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether the anti-proliferative effect of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was associated with the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), using PANC-1 cells (TNF-alpha sensitive) and LoVo cells (TNF-alpha resistant). In combination with 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a potent activator of PKC, TNF-alpha caused marked inhibition of the growth of LoVo cells. Inhibition of PANC-1 cell growth by TNF-alpha was blocked by pretreatment with TPA for 24 hr, along with down-regulation of PKC activity. Intracellular translocation of PKC from cytosol to membrane was induced by TNF-alpha treatment in PANC-1 cells but not in LoVo cells. PMID:1916896

  5. The weak measurement process and the weak value of spin for metastable helium 23S1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monachello, Vincenzo; Barker, Peter; Flack, Robert; Hiley, Basil

    2016-05-01

    An experiment is being designed and constructed in order to measure the weak value of spin for an atomic system. The principle of the ``weak measurement'' process was first proposed by Aharonov, Albert and Vaidman, and describes a scenario in which a system is weakly coupled to a pointer between well-defined pre- and post-selected states. This experiment will utilise a pulsed supersonic beam of spin-1 metastable Helium (He*) atoms in the 23S1 state. The spin of the pre-selected He* atoms will be weakly coupled to its centre-of-mass. During its flight, the atomic beam will be prepared in a desired quantum state and travel through two inhomogeneous magnets (weak and strong) which both comprise the ``weak measurement'' process. The deviation of the post-selected ms = + 1 state as measured using a micro-channel plate, phosphor screen and CCD camera setup will allow for the determination of the weak value of spin. This poster will report on the methods used and the experimental realisation.

  6. Weak Gravitatational Lensing by Illustris-1 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brainerd, Tereasa G.; Koh, Patrick H.

    2016-06-01

    We compute the weak gravitational lensing signal of isolated, central galaxies obtained from the z=0.5 timestep of the ΛCDM Illustris-1 simulation. The galaxies have stellar masses ranging from 9.5 ≤ log10(M*/Msun) ≤ 11.0 and are located outside cluster and rich group environments. Although there is local substructure present in the form of small, luminous satellite galaxies, the central galaxies are the dominant objects within the virial radii (r200), and each central galaxy is at least 5 times brighter than any other luminous galaxy within the friends-of-friends halo. We compute the weak lensing signal within projected radii 0.05 < rp/r200 < 1.5 and investigate the degree to which the weak lensing signal is anisotropic. Since CDM halos are non-spherical, the weak lensing signal is expected to be anisotropic; however, the degree of anisotropy that is observed depends upon the symmetry axes that are used to define the geometry. The anisotropy is expected to be maximized when the major axis of the projected dark matter mass distribution is used to define the geomety. In practice in the observed universe, one must necessarily use the projected distribution of the luminous mass to define the geometry. If mass and light are not well-aligned, this results in a suppression of the weak lensing anistropy. Our initial analysis shows that the ellipticity of the projected dark matter halo is uncorrelated with the ellipticity of the projected stellar mass. That is ɛhalo ≠ f × ɛlight, where f is a constant multiplicative factor. In addition, in projection on the sky, the major axis of the dark matter mass is offset from that of the stellar mass by ˜40o on average. On scales rp ≤ 0.15 r200, the weak lensing anisotropy obtained when using the stellar mass to define the geometry is of order 7% and agrees well with the anisotropy obtained when using the dark matter mass to define the geometry. On scales rp ˜ r200, the anisotropy obtained when using the stellar mass to

  7. Tumor necrosis factor beta and ultraviolet radiation are potent regulators of human keratinocyte ICAM-1 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Krutmann, J.; Koeck, A.S.; Schauer, E.; Parlow, F.; Moeller, A.K.; Kapp, A.; Foerster, E.S.; Schoepf, E.L.; Luger, T.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) functions as a ligand of leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), as well as a receptor for human picorna virus, and its regulation thus affects various immunologic and inflammatory reactions. The weak, constitutive ICAM-1 expression on human keratinocytes (KC) can be up-regulated by cytokines such as interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha). In order to further examine the regulation of KC ICAM-1 expression, normal human KC or epidermoid carcinoma cells (KB) were incubated with different cytokines and/or exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Subsequently, ICAM-1 expression was monitored cytofluorometrically using a monoclonal anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Stimulation of cells with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, rhIL-4, rhIL-5, rhIL-6, rh granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), rh interferon alpha (rhIFN alpha), and rh transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) did not increase ICAM-1 surface expression. In contrast, rhTNF beta significantly up-regulated ICAM-1 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the combination of rhTNF beta with rhIFN gamma increased the percentage of ICAM-1-positive KC synergistically. This stimulatory effect of rhTNF beta was further confirmed by the demonstration that rhTNF beta was capable of markedly enhancing ICAM-1 mRNA expression in KC. Finally, exposure of KC in vitro to sublethal doses of UV radiation (0-100 J/m2) prior to cytokine (rhIFN tau, rhTNF alpha, rhTNF beta) stimulation inhibited ICAM-1 up-regulation in a dose-dependent fashion. These studies identify TNF beta and UV light as potent regulators of KC ICAM-1 expression, which may influence both attachment and detachment of leukocytes and possibly viruses to KC.

  8. A diverse family of proteins containing tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor domains.

    PubMed

    Zapata, J M; Pawlowski, K; Haas, E; Ware, C F; Godzik, A; Reed, J C

    2001-06-29

    We have identified three new tumor necrosis factor-receptor associated factor (TRAF) domain-containing proteins in humans using bioinformatics approaches, including: MUL, the product of the causative gene in Mulibrey Nanism syndrome; USP7 (HAUSP), an ubiquitin protease; and SPOP, a POZ domain-containing protein. Unlike classical TRAF family proteins involved in TNF family receptor (TNFR) signaling, the TRAF domains (TDs) of MUL, USP7, and SPOP are located near the NH(2) termini or central region of these proteins, rather than carboxyl end. MUL and USP7 are capable of binding in vitro via their TDs to all of the previously identified TRAF family proteins (TRAF1, TRAF2, TRAF3, TRAF4, TRAF5, and TRAF6), whereas the TD of SPOP interacts weakly with TRAF1 and TRAF6 only. The TD of MUL also interacted with itself, whereas the TDs of USP7 and SPOP did not self-associate. Analysis of various MUL and USP7 mutants by transient transfection assays indicated that the TDs of these proteins are necessary and sufficient for suppressing NF-kappaB induction by TRAF2 and TRAF6 as well as certain TRAF-binding TNF family receptors. In contrast, the TD of SPOP did not inhibit NF-kappaB induction. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy indicated that MUL localizes to cytosolic bodies, with targeting to these structures mediated by a RBCC tripartite domain within the MUL protein. USP7 localized predominantly to the nucleus, in a TD-dependent manner. Data base searches revealed multiple proteins containing TDs homologous to those found in MUL, USP7, and SPOP throughout eukaryotes, including yeast, protists, plants, invertebrates, and mammals, suggesting that this branch of the TD family arose from an ancient gene. We propose the moniker TEFs (TD-encompassing factors) for this large family of proteins.

  9. Nasal Skin Necrosis: An Unexpected New Finding in Severe Chikungunya Fever.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jaime R; Córdova, Leopoldo G; Saravia, Víctor; Arvelaez, Joanne; Castro, Julio S

    2016-01-01

    Three adult Venezuelan patients with virologically confirmed Chikungunya fever, who developed extensive acute nasal skin necrosis early in the course of a life-threatening illness characterized by shock and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, are discussed. One patient survived and fully recovered. Nasal necrosis has not previously been associated with the disease.

  10. Analysis of risk and predictors of brain radiation necrosis after radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hongqing; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Junjie; Chang, Joe Y; Wang, Xiaoguang; Yuan, Zhiyong; Wang, Ping

    2016-02-16

    In this study, we examined the factors contributing to brain radiation necrosis and its predictors of patients treated with Cyberknife radiosurgery. A total of 94 patients with primary or metastatic brain tumours having been treated with Cyberknife radiotherapy from Sep. 2006 to Oct. 2011 were collected and retrospectively analyzed. Skull based tracking was used to deliver radiation to 104 target sites. and the prescribed radiation doses ranged from 1200 to 4500 cGy in 1 to 8 fractions with a 60% to 87% isodose line. Radiation necrosis was confirmed by imaging or pathological examination. Associations between cerebral radiation necrosis and factors including diabetes, cardio-cerebrovascular disease, target volume, isodose line, prescribed dosage, number of fractions, combination with whole brain radiation and biologically equivalent dose (BED) were determined by logistic regression. ROC curves were created to measure the predictive accuracy of influence factors and identify the threshold for brain radiation necrosis. Our results showed that radiation necrosis occurred in 12 targets (11.54%). Brain radiation necrosis was associated by BED, combination with whole brain radiotherapy, and fractions (areas under the ROC curves = 0.892±0.0335, 0.650±0.0717, and 0.712±0.0637 respectively). Among these factors, only BED had the capability to predict brain radiation necrosis, and the threshold dose was 7410 cGy. In conclusion, BED is the most effective predictor of brain radiation necrosis, with a dose of 7410 cGy being identified as the threshold.

  11. Bladder Necrosis Associated with Placenta Accreta, Embolization, and Repair of Cystotomies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wayland J.; Smith, Arthur D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bladder necrosis is an unusual and potentially devastating complication of embolization of the hypogastric arterial branches. The rich collateral blood supply makes this an extremely rare event. We present the case of a patient with bladder necrosis following placenta accreta that was treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and uterine artery embolization and cystotomy repairs. PMID:27579379

  12. Weakly nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.W. )

    1991-08-01

    For many cases of interest to inertial fusion, growth of Rayleigh--Taylor and other hydrodynamic instabilities is such that the perturbations remain linear or weakly nonlinear. The transition to nonlinearity is studied via a second-order solution for multimode classical Rayleigh--Taylor growth. The second-order solution shows how classical Rayleigh--Taylor systems forget initial amplitude information in the weakly nonlinear phase. Stabilized growth relevant to inertial fusion is qualitatively different, and initial amplitudes are not dominated by nonlinear effects. In all systems with a full spectrum of modes, nonlinear effects begin when mode amplitudes reach about 1/{ital Lk}{sup 2}, for modes of wave number {ital k} and system size {ital L}.

  13. Weak Energy Condition Violation and Superluminal Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Francisco; Crawford, Paulo

    Recent solutions to the Einstein Field Equations involving negative energy densities, i.e., matter violating the weak-energy-condition, have been obtained, namely traversable wormholes, the Alcubierre warp drive and the Krasnikov tube. These solutions are related to superluminal travel, although locally the speed of light is not surpassed. It is difficult to define faster-than-light travel in generic space-times, and one can construct metrics which apparently allow superluminal travel, but are in fact flat Minkowski space-times. Therefore, to avoid these difficulties it is important to provide an appropriate definition of superluminal travel.We investigate these problems and the relationship between weak-energy-condition violation and superluminal travel.

  14. Crystallographic Phasing from Weak Anomalous Signals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qun; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    The exploitation of anomalous signals for biological structural solution is maturing. Single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) is dominant in de novo structure analysis. Nevertheless, for challenging structures where the resolution is low (dmin ≥ 3.5 Å) or where only lighter atoms (Z ≤ 20) are present, as for native macromolecules, solved SAD structures are still scarce. With the recent rapid development in crystal handling, beamline instrumentation, optimization of data collection strategies, use of multiple crystals and structure determination technologies, the weak anomalous diffraction signals are now robustly measured and should be used for routine SAD structure determination. The review covers these recent advances on weak anomalous signals measurement, analysis and utilization. PMID:26432413

  15. Amplification effects in optomechanics via weak measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Song, He-Shan

    2014-07-01

    We revisit the scheme of single-photon weak-coupling optomechanics using postselection, proposed by Pepper, Ghobadi, Jeffrey, Simon, and Bouwmeester [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.023601], by analyzing the exact solution of the dynamical evolution. Positive and negative amplification effects of the displacement of the mirror's position can be generated when the Kerr phase is considered. This effect occurs when the postselected state of the photon is orthogonal to the initial state, which cannot be explained by the usual weak measurement results. The amplification effect can be further modulated by a phase shifter, and the maximal displacement state can appear within a short evolution time.

  16. Weak cosmic censorship: as strong as ever.

    PubMed

    Hod, Shahar

    2008-03-28

    Spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. This is the essence of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The hypothesis, put forward by Penrose 40 years ago, is still one of the most important open questions in general relativity. In this Letter, we reanalyze extreme situations which have been considered as counterexamples to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In particular, we consider the absorption of scalar particles with large angular momentum by a black hole. Ignoring back reaction effects may lead one to conclude that the incident wave may overspin the black hole, thereby exposing its inner singularity to distant observers. However, we show that when back reaction effects are properly taken into account, the stability of the black-hole event horizon is irrefutable. We therefore conclude that cosmic censorship is actually respected in this type of gedanken experiments.

  17. Shock Wave Dynamics in Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph A., III

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamics of shock waves in weakly ionized argon plasmas has been performed using a pressure ruptured shock tube. The velocity of the shock is observed to increase when the shock traverses the plasma. The observed increases cannot be accounted for by thermal effects alone. Possible mechanisms that could explain the anomalous behavior include a vibrational/translational relaxation in the nonequilibrium plasma, electron diffusion across the shock front resulting from high electron mobility, and the propagation of ion-acoustic waves generated at the shock front. Using a turbulence model based on reduced kinetic theory, analysis of the observed results suggest a role for turbulence in anomalous shock dynamics in weakly ionized media and plasma-induced hypersonic drag reduction.

  18. Weak cosmic censorship: as strong as ever.

    PubMed

    Hod, Shahar

    2008-03-28

    Spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. This is the essence of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The hypothesis, put forward by Penrose 40 years ago, is still one of the most important open questions in general relativity. In this Letter, we reanalyze extreme situations which have been considered as counterexamples to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In particular, we consider the absorption of scalar particles with large angular momentum by a black hole. Ignoring back reaction effects may lead one to conclude that the incident wave may overspin the black hole, thereby exposing its inner singularity to distant observers. However, we show that when back reaction effects are properly taken into account, the stability of the black-hole event horizon is irrefutable. We therefore conclude that cosmic censorship is actually respected in this type of gedanken experiments. PMID:18517851

  19. Security Weaknesses in Arbitrated Quantum Signature Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Kejia; Cao, Tianqing

    2014-01-01

    Arbitrated quantum signature (AQS) is a cryptographic scenario in which the sender (signer), Alice, generates the signature of a message and then a receiver (verifier), Bob, can verify the signature with the help of a trusted arbitrator, Trent. In this paper, we point out there exist some security weaknesses in two AQS protocols. Our analysis shows Alice can successfully disavow any of her signatures by a simple attack in the first protocol. Furthermore, we study the security weaknesses of the second protocol from the aspects of forgery and disavowal. Some potential improvements of this kind of protocols are given. We also design a new method to authenticate a signature or a message, which makes AQS protocols immune to Alice's disavowal attack and Bob's forgery attack effectively.

  20. An algorithm for multivariate weak stochastic dominance

    SciTech Connect

    Mosler, K.

    1994-12-31

    The talk addresses the computational problem of comparing two given probability distributions in n-space with respect to several stochastic orderings. The orderings investigated are weak first degree stochastic dominance, weak second degree stochastic dominance, and their dual ordering relations. For each of the four dominance relations we present conditions which are necessary and sufficient for dominance of F over G when F and G have finite support in n-space. An algorithm is proposed which operates efficiently on the join-semilattice generated by their joint support. If F and G are empirical distribution functions, and {anti F} and {anti G}denote the underlying probability laws, significance tests can be performed on {anti F} = {anti G} against the alternative that {anti F} {ne} {anti G} and {anti F} dominates {anti G} in one of the four orderings. Other applications are found in decision theory, applied probability, operations research, and economics.

  1. Weak Cosmic Censorship: As Strong as Ever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2008-03-01

    Spacetime singularities that arise in gravitational collapse are always hidden inside of black holes. This is the essence of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. The hypothesis, put forward by Penrose 40 years ago, is still one of the most important open questions in general relativity. In this Letter, we reanalyze extreme situations which have been considered as counterexamples to the weak cosmic censorship conjecture. In particular, we consider the absorption of scalar particles with large angular momentum by a black hole. Ignoring back reaction effects may lead one to conclude that the incident wave may overspin the black hole, thereby exposing its inner singularity to distant observers. However, we show that when back reaction effects are properly taken into account, the stability of the black-hole event horizon is irrefutable. We therefore conclude that cosmic censorship is actually respected in this type of gedanken experiments.

  2. Towards weakly constrained double field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kanghoon

    2016-08-01

    We show that it is possible to construct a well-defined effective field theory incorporating string winding modes without using strong constraint in double field theory. We show that X-ray (Radon) transform on a torus is well-suited for describing weakly constrained double fields, and any weakly constrained fields are represented as a sum of strongly constrained fields. Using inverse X-ray transform we define a novel binary operation which is compatible with the level matching constraint. Based on this formalism, we construct a consistent gauge transform and gauge invariant action without using strong constraint. We then discuss the relation of our result to the closed string field theory. Our construction suggests that there exists an effective field theory description for massless sector of closed string field theory on a torus in an associative truncation.

  3. Disordered weak and strong topological insulators.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Koji; Ohtsuki, Tomi; Imura, Ken-Ichiro

    2013-06-01

    A global phase diagram of disordered weak and strong topological insulators is established numerically. As expected, the location of the phase boundaries is renormalized by disorder, a feature recognized in the study of the so-called topological Anderson insulator. Here, we report unexpected quantization, i.e., robustness against disorder of the conductance peaks on these phase boundaries. Another highlight of the work is on the emergence of two subregions in the weak topological insulator phase under disorder. According to the size dependence of the conductance, the surface states are either robust or "defeated" in the two subregions. The nature of the two distinct types of behavior is further revealed by studying the Lyapunov exponents.

  4. From weak discontinuities to nondissipative shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Garifullin, R. N. Suleimanov, B. I.

    2010-01-15

    An analysis is presented of the effect of weak dispersion on transitions from weak to strong discontinuities in inviscid fluid dynamics. In the neighborhoods of transition points, this effect is described by simultaneous solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation u{sub t}'+ uu{sub x}' + u{sub xxx}' = 0 and fifth-order nonautonomous ordinary differential equations. As x{sup 2} + t{sup 2} {yields}{infinity}, the asymptotic behavior of these simultaneous solutions in the zone of undamped oscillations is given by quasi-simple wave solutions to Whitham equations of the form r{sub i}(t, x) = tl{sub i} x/t{sup 2}.

  5. [Progress on tantalum rod implanting for the treatment of femur head necrosis].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiao-kang; Ye, Fu-sheng; Tong, Pei-jian; Fan, Yan-hua; Li, Min; Ying, Hang; Xiao, Lu-wei

    2013-07-01

    Incorrect treatment for femur head necrosis can cause collapse of femoral head and tresult in severe harm for the patients (especially for the patient with middle-aged and young). The structure and mechanics characteristics of tantalum rod is similar to bone tissue, it higher strength and can adapt the internal environment of organism, so it has a large potency in treating femur head necrosis. Treatment of early femur head necrosis with tantalum rod implanting had alreadly widey applied at home and abroad, the method has the advantages of simple operation, little risk, less complication and beseems the patient with stage I - II of ARCO. But reasons that the difficult diagnosis of early femur head necrosis, localized effect of tantalum rod, different experience of medical worker,caused the contentions about effect of tantalum rod implanting. With development of science, tantalum rod implanting combined with correlative biotechnology should raise the effect in treating femur head necrosis.

  6. [Brachial plexus compression from supraclavicular encapsulated fat necrosis. A case report].

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Páez, Miguel; de Miguel-Pueyo, Luis; Marín-Salido, Esteban José; Carrasco-Brenes, Antonio; Martín-Gallego, Alvaro; Arráez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old male, lacking clinical history of previous illness, who had surgery at our hospital to treat a mass in the supraclavicular space. The patient presented with a 1-month progressive distal paresis of the left arm. The histo-pathological examination of the mass revealed an encapsulated fat necrosis. Fat necrosis is characterised by cystic architecture, encapsulation with fat necrosis within, and inflammatory infiltration of its walls. Neural structure compression secondary to this tumour mass is very rare. Fat necrosis is more frequent in the lower limbs, in areas exposed to trauma. This article is the first report of brachial plexus compression due to supraclavicular fat necrosis. PMID:24837841

  7. Cerebral necrosis after radiotherapy and/or intraarterial chemotherapy for brain tumors: PET and neuropathologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Di Chiro, G.; Oldfield, E.; Wright, D.C.; De Michele, D.; Katz, D.A.; Patronas, N.J.; Doppman, J.L.; Larson, S.M.; Ito, M.; Kufta, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral necrosis after radiotherapy for brain tumors is being recognized as a problem more common than previously estimated. Distinction between this iatrogenic complication and tumor recurrence cannot be made by either CT or MR imaging. By using positron emission tomography (PET) with /sup 18/F-deoxyglucose (FDG) we were able to reach a diagnosis of radiation necrosis, later verified, in 10 of 95 patients referred for the purpose of differentiating tumor recurrence from necrosis. The critical PET-FDG feature was focal hypometabolism in the area of necrosis, which contrasted with the hypermetabolism associated with the residual/recurrent tumor. In addition, four cases of cerebral necrosis after supraophthalmic, intraarterial chemotherapy (BCNU) were studied with the PET-FDG method. The area of chemotherapy damage was also characterized by marked hypometabolism. Histology revealed both similarities and differences between radio- and chemonecrosis.

  8. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-04-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  9. Spontaneous and bilateral necrosis of the femoral head in a young experimental beagle dog

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Kurotaki, Tetsuro; Yamada, Naoaki; Kumabe, Shino; Doi, Takuya; Wako, Yumi; Tsuchitani, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the pathological characterizations of a rare case of necrosis of the femoral head that was spontaneous, bilateral, avascular and nontraumatic. A 14-month-old beagle dog was presented with pain in the hind limbs. At necropsy, the articular surface in the bilateral femoral head was markedly irregular. There were no gross abnormalities other than in the hip joints. Microscopically, a wide range of trabecular bone necrosis localized in the subchondral area was observed in both femoral heads. In the right femoral head, fibrosis and proliferative vessels were noted in the subchondral area. The articular cartilage was thickened irregularly, but there was no evidence of cartilage necrosis. The bone marrow adjacent to the affected area showed severe depression. In the metaphysis, atrophic bone marrow, but not bone necrosis, was observed. This was a rare case of spontaneous necrosis of the femoral head in an experimental beagle dog. PMID:26028821

  10. Mutual synchronization of weakly coupled gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Rozental, R. M.; Glyavin, M. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S.; Zotova, I. V.; Ginzburg, N. S.

    2015-09-15

    The processes of synchronization of two weakly coupled gyrotrons are studied within the framework of non-stationary equations with non-fixed longitudinal field structure. With the allowance for a small difference of the free oscillation frequencies of the gyrotrons, we found a certain range of parameters where mutual synchronization is possible while a high electronic efficiency is remained. It is also shown that synchronization regimes can be realized even under random fluctuations of the parameters of the electron beams.

  11. Acute neuromuscular weakness associated with dengue infection

    PubMed Central

    Hira, Harmanjit Singh; Kaur, Amandeep; Shukla, Anuj

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV) test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2nd to 4th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients. PMID:22346188

  12. Heat capacity in weakly correlated liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Khrustalyov, Yu. V.; Vaulina, O. S.; Koss, X. G.

    2012-12-15

    Previously unavailable numerical data related to the heat capacity in two- and three-dimensional liquid Yukawa systems are obtained by means of fluctuation theory. The relations between thermal conductivity and diffusion constants are numerically studied and discussed. New approximation for heat capacity dependence on non-ideality parameter for weakly correlated systems of particles is proposed. Comparison of the obtained results to the existing theoretical and numerical data is discussed.

  13. Exclusive processes in strong and weak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tsokos, K.

    1983-01-01

    Evolution equations for flavor singlet mesons are derived; these are solved in terms of Gegenbauer polynomials. These results have been applied to exclusive processes at large momentum transfer which involve flavor singlet mesons and glueballs - two glueball decays of the Upsilon, radiative psi decays and two-photon processes involving the eta. Exclusive, weak decays of heavy mesons are examined and the heavy mass scaling behavior of decay rates is obtained.

  14. Weakly bound states in heterogeneous waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Hofmann, Christoph P.

    2016-07-01

    We study the spectrum of the Helmholtz equation in a two-dimensional infinite waveguide, containing a weak heterogeneity localized at an internal point, and obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions at its border. We use the variational theorem to derive the condition for which the lowest eigenvalue of the spectrum falls below the continuum threshold and a bound state appears, localized at the heterogeneity. We devise a rigorous perturbation scheme and derive the exact expression for the energy to third order in the heterogeneity.

  15. Measuring neutrino masses with weak lensing

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2006-11-17

    Weak gravitational lensing of distant galaxies by large scale structure (LSS) provides an unbiased way to map the matter distribution in the low redshift universe. This technique, based on the measurement of small distortions in the images of the source galaxies induced by the intervening LSS, is expected to become a key cosmological probe in the future. We discuss how future lensing surveys can probe the sum of the neutrino masses at the 0 05 eV level.

  16. [Weak signal detection in every heart cycle].

    PubMed

    Yuan, J; Xu, X; Gao, D; Shi, G

    2001-12-01

    In this article, a new approach is introduced to lowering the myo-electronic noise in weak ECG signals. We use artificial neural network to make the noise be white, and then we adopt an adaptive filter of which the reference signal is achieved by extracting from other ECG cycle. The outcome is the reduction of both white noise and non-white noise in ECG signal. Satisfactory results have been achieved by using this method in the experiment of late potential detection.

  17. Weak measurement and Bohmian conditional wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Norsen, Travis; Struyve, Ward

    2014-11-15

    It was recently pointed out and demonstrated experimentally by Lundeen et al. that the wave function of a particle (more precisely, the wave function possessed by each member of an ensemble of identically-prepared particles) can be “directly measured” using weak measurement. Here it is shown that if this same technique is applied, with appropriate post-selection, to one particle from a perhaps entangled multi-particle system, the result is precisely the so-called “conditional wave function” of Bohmian mechanics. Thus, a plausibly operationalist method for defining the wave function of a quantum mechanical sub-system corresponds to the natural definition of a sub-system wave function which Bohmian mechanics uniquely makes possible. Similarly, a weak-measurement-based procedure for directly measuring a sub-system’s density matrix should yield, under appropriate circumstances, the Bohmian “conditional density matrix” as opposed to the standard reduced density matrix. Experimental arrangements to demonstrate this behavior–and also thereby reveal the non-local dependence of sub-system state functions on distant interventions–are suggested and discussed. - Highlights: • We study a “direct measurement” protocol for wave functions and density matrices. • Weakly measured states of entangled particles correspond to Bohmian conditional states. • Novel method of observing quantum non-locality is proposed.

  18. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogeneis imperfecta mice

    PubMed Central

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J. Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J.; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (Po, Po/mg and Po/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased Po and an inability to sustain Po for the 300 ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. PMID:20619344

  19. Shoulder weakness in professional baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, S P; Gleim, G W; Nicholas, J A

    1994-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: 1) compare shoulder range of motion and strength in professional baseball pitchers (N = 47) compared with age-matched controls (N = 16), and 2) examine the relationship of injury history to strength and range of motion. Based on injury history pitchers were categorized as: 1) none (N = 26), 2) injury requiring conservative intervention (N = 9), or 3) injury requiring surgical intervention (N = 12). Range of motion was measured for internal rotation (IROM) and external rotation (EROM). Eccentric strength was measured by hand-held dynamometer for internal rotation (IR), external rotation (ER), abduction (ABD), and supraspinatus muscle (SUP) strength. Injury history had no effect on strength and range of motion. Dominant EROM was greater in pitchers, P < 0.0001, and controls, P < 0.05, with pitchers having greater EROM motion bilaterally, P < 0.0001. Pitchers were weaker in SUP on the dominant vs nondominant side, P < 0.0001, and on the dominant side for weight adjusted ER, ABD, P < 0.01, and SUP, P < 0.0001, compared with controls. In conclusion, dominance and pitching resulted in soft tissue adaptation. Pitchers displayed weakness in three of four tests by comparison with controls, suggesting that the demands of pitching are insufficient to produce eccentric strength gains and may in fact lead to weakness. Dominant-side SUP weakness in pitchers may reflect subclinical pathology or chronic fatigue.

  20. Weak homological dimensions and biflat Koethe algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkovskii, A Yu

    2008-06-30

    The homological properties of metrizable Koethe algebras {lambda}(P) are studied. A criterion for an algebra A={lambda}(P) to be biflat in terms of the Koethe set P is obtained, which implies, in particular, that for such algebras the properties of being biprojective, biflat, and flat on the left are equivalent to the surjectivity of the multiplication operator A otimes-hat A{yields}A. The weak homological dimensions (the weak global dimension w.dg and the weak bidimension w.db) of biflat Koethe algebras are calculated. Namely, it is shown that the conditions w.db {lambda}(P)<=1 and w.dg {lambda}(P)<=1 are equivalent to the nuclearity of {lambda}(P); and if {lambda}(P) is non-nuclear, then w.dg {lambda}(P)=w.db {lambda}(P)=2. It is established that the nuclearity of a biflat Koethe algebra {lambda}(P), under certain additional conditions on the Koethe set P, implies the stronger estimate db {lambda}(P), where db is the (projective) bidimension. On the other hand, an example is constructed of a nuclear biflat Koethe algebra {lambda}(P) such that db {lambda}(P)=2 (while w.db {lambda}(P)=1). Finally, it is shown that many biflat Koethe algebras, while not being amenable, have trivial Hochschild homology groups in positive degrees (with arbitrary coefficients). Bibliography: 37 titles.

  1. Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orozco, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico

  2. Membrane Tumor Necrosis Factor Confers Partial Protection to Listeria Infection

    PubMed Central

    Torres, David; Janot, Laure; Quesniaux, Valerie F.J.; Grivennikov, Sergei I.; Maillet, Isabelle; Sedgwick, Jonathon D.; Ryffel, Bernhard; Erard, Francois

    2005-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a critical role in the host response to the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes (LM). TNF exists in soluble and membrane-bound forms and exhibits both unique and overlapping activities. We examined the role of membrane TNF in the absence of secreted TNF for host resistance in knockin mice in which the endogenous TNF was replaced by a regulated, noncleavable allele (mem-TNF). Macrophages expressing mem-TNF produced nitric oxide and displayed normal bactericidal activity. Although mice completely deficient in TNF (TNF−/−) succumbed to LM infection within 4 days, mem-TNF mice controlled LM infection at a low dose (104 CFU) but succumbed at a higher dose of infection (105 CFU). In contrast to complete TNF deficiency, mem-TNF mice developed confined microabscesses that expressed inducible nitric oxide synthase. The transfer of lymphocytes from immunized mem-TNF, but not TNF−/−, mice protected TNF−/− mice from fatal infection. Taken together the data suggest that in the absence of soluble TNF, the presence of membrane-expressed TNF on phagocytes and lymphocytes partially restores host defense to LM infection. PMID:16314479

  3. Renal Papillary Necrosis Appearing as Bladder Cancer on Imaging.

    PubMed

    Dagrosa, Lawrence M; Ghali, Fady; Gormley, Elizabeth Ann

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) presented with acute onset left lower quadrant pain, left-sided back pain, vomiting, and dysuria. Abdominopelvic CT scan revealed left hydroureteronephrosis to the level of the left ureterovesical junction (UVJ) where a bladder mass appeared to be obstructing the left ureteral orifice. The obstruction was ultimately found to be the result of a sloughed renal papilla lodged in the distal ureter, which created an inflammatory mass at the UVJ. Her history of diabetes and frequent UTIs likely predisposed her to the development of renal papillary necrosis (RPN) that resulted in sloughing of a renal papilla, distal ureteral obstruction with subsequent bladder inflammation that mimicked a bladder mass on imaging. RPN is a condition associated with many etiologies and likely represents a common final pathway of several diseases. Although several hypotheses exist, it is primarily thought to be ischemic in nature and is related to the underlying physiology of the renal papillae. We present a case of hydroureteronephrosis and bladder mass secondary to a sloughed renal papilla from RPN. PMID:27579408

  4. Modulation of topoisomerase activities by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Baloch, Z; Cohen, S; Fresa, K; Coffman, F D

    1995-01-01

    A number of chemotherapeutic agents which inhibit the DNA topoisomerases markedly potentiate cell death mediated by tumor necrosis factor, suggesting a role for these enzymes in the TNF cytotoxic mechanism. To investigate this possibility, topoisomerase I and II activities were assayed following TNF addition to murine L929 cells. Topoisomerase I and II activities increased within 15 min of TNF addition and returned to baseline levels within 1 and 2 hr, respectively. The increases in both topoisomerase activities were blocked by H-7 (but not H-8) and similar increases were seen following PMA addition. However, concentrations of H-7 which blocked the increased topoisomerase activities had no effect on TNF cytotoxicity nor on the enhancement of TNF cytotoxicity by topoisomerase inhibitors. Thus, in these cells topoisomerase activities are directly modified by TNF during the initial phases of a cytotoxic response. However, neither TNF cytotoxicity nor the enhancement of TNF cytotoxicity by topoisomerase inhibitors appears to require the TNF-mediated increases in topoisomerase activities. PMID:7842491

  5. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Seike, Soshi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takehara, Masaya; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis.

  6. Necrosis prediction of photodynamic therapy applied to skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Romanov, O. G.; López-Escobar, M.; Ortega-Quijano, N.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2009-02-01

    The great selectivity and the lack of side effects of Photodynamic Therapy make it more advantageous than radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The application of PDT to skin diseases is particularly appropriate, due to the accessibility of this tissue. Common disorders like nonmelanoma skin cancer, that includes basocelullar or squamous cell carcinomas, can be treated with PDT. Conventional procedures, like surgery or radiotherapy, are not so efficient and do not, in general, obtain the same favourable results. PDT in dermatology medical praxis uses fixed protocols depending on the photosensitizer and the optical source used. These protocols are usually provided by the photosensitizer laboratory, and every lesion is treated with the same parameters. In this work we present a photo-chemical model of PDT applied to skin disorders treated with topical photosensitizers. Optical propagation inside the tissue is calculated by means of a 3D diffusion equation, solved via a finite difference numerical method. The photosensitizer degradation or photobleaching is taken into account, as the drug looses efficiency with the irradiation time. With these data the necrosis area is estimated, so this model could be used as a predictive tool to adjust the optical power and exposition time for the particular disease under treatment.

  7. Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily in Innate Immunity and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Šedý, John; Bekiaris, Vasileios; Ware, Carl F.

    2015-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor superfamily (TNFSF) and its corresponding receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) form communication pathways required for developmental, homeostatic, and stimulus-responsive processes in vivo. Although this receptor–ligand system operates between many different cell types and organ systems, many of these proteins play specific roles in immune system function. The TNFSF and TNFRSF proteins lymphotoxins, LIGHT (homologous to lymphotoxins, exhibits inducible expression, and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for herpes virus entry mediator [HVEM], a receptor expressed by T lymphocytes), lymphotoxin-β receptor (LT-βR), and HVEM are used by embryonic and adult innate lymphocytes to promote the development and homeostasis of lymphoid organs. Lymphotoxin-expressing innate-acting B cells construct microenvironments in lymphoid organs that restrict pathogen spread and initiate interferon defenses. Recent results illustrate how the communication networks formed among these cytokines and the coreceptors B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) and CD160 both inhibit and activate innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), innate γδ T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. Understanding the role of TNFSF/TNFRSF and interacting proteins in innate cells will likely reveal avenues for future therapeutics for human disease. PMID:25524549

  8. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Seike, Soshi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takehara, Masaya; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis. PMID:26807591

  9. Tumour necrosis factor induction by malaria exoantigens depends upon phospholipid.

    PubMed Central

    Bate, C A; Taverne, J; Román, E; Moreno, C; Playfair, J H

    1992-01-01

    In patients with malaria, the clinical manifestations of the disease are associated with the presence of high concentrations of tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the serum. Blood-stage parasites of human and rodent malarial parasites release serologically related exoantigens which induce the production of TNF in vitro and in vivo and which can kill mice made hypersensitive to TNF by pretreatment with D-galactosamine. They also elicit the production of T-independent antibody, which blocks these effects. The capacity of the exoantigens to stimulate macrophages to secrete TNF does not require the presence of protein or carbohydrate, but is associated with a lipid whose activity can be abolished by treatment with phospholipase C. Treatments of the exoantigens which destroyed their activity in vitro also abrogated their immunogenicity and their toxicity for mice. No TNF-inducing activity could be detected in preparations of parasitized erythrocytes that was not associated with phospholipid, and the TNF-inducing properties of the malarial phospholipids are quite distinct from those of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. We conclude that release of potentially toxic phospholipids by parasites may be responsible for some of the pathology of malaria. PMID:1537589

  10. Lysophosphatidic acid induces necrosis and apoptosis in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Holtsberg, F W; Steiner, M R; Keller, J N; Mark, R J; Mattson, M P; Steiner, S M

    1998-01-01

    A diverse body of evidence indicates a role for the lipid biomediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in the CNS. This study identifies and characterizes the induction of neuronal death by LPA. Treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons from embryonic rat brains with 50 microM LPA resulted in neuronal necrosis, as determined morphologically and by the release of lactate dehydrogenase. A concentration of LPA as low as 10 microM led to the release of lactate dehydrogenase. In contrast, treatment of neurons with 0.1 or 1.0 microM LPA resulted in apoptosis, as determined by chromatin condensation. In addition, neuronal death induced by 1 microM LPA was characterized as apoptotic on the basis of terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, externalization of phosphatidylserine, and protection against chromatin condensation, TUNEL staining, and phosphatidylserine externalization by treatment with N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone, a broad-spectrum inhibitor of caspases, i.e., members of the interleukin-1beta converting enzyme family. Studies with antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors did not indicate a significant role for these receptors in apoptosis induced by 1 microM LPA. LPA (1 microM) also induced a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential. Moreover, pretreatment of neurons with cyclosporin A protected against the LPA-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and neuronal apoptosis. Thus, LPA, at pathophysiological levels, can induce neuronal apoptosis and could thereby participate in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:9422348

  11. Cortical laminar necrosis related to migrainous cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    Arboix, Adrià; González-Peris, Sebastià; Grivé, Elisenda; Sánchez, María-José; Comes, Emili

    2013-01-01

    We present a 29-year-old woman with a long history of attacks of migraine with and without visual aura. She was a heavy smoker (20 cigarettes/d) and was currently taking oral contraceptives. During a typical migraine attack with aura, she developed dysarthria, left brachial hemiparesis and hemihypoesthesia and brief and autolimited left clonic facial movements. Four hours after onset, vascular headache and focal sensorimotor neurological deficit were the only persisting symptoms and, on seventh day, she was completely recovered. Brain magnetic resonance imaging on day 20 after onset showed a subacute ischemic lesion in the right temporo-parietal cortex compatible with cortical laminar necrosis (CLN). Extensive neurological work-up done to rule out other known causes of cerebral infarct with CLN was unrevealing. Only ten of 3.808 consecutive stroke patients included in our stroke registry over a 19-year period fulfilled the strictly defined International Headache Society criteria for migrainous stroke. The present case is the unique one in our stroke registry that presents CLN related to migrainous cerebral infarction. Migrainous infarction can result in CLN. PMID:24340278

  12. Methods to Differentiate Radiation Necrosis and Recurrent Disease in Gliomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewell, Lars

    2007-03-01

    Given the difficulty in differentiating Radiation Induced Necrosis (RIN) and recurrent disease in glioma patients using conventional techniques (CT scans, MRI scans), researchers have looked for different imaging modalities. Among these different modalities are Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DWMRI) and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS). In DWMRI, an Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) is calculated for a Region Of Interest (ROI), and then monitored over time (longitudinally). In the brain, different anatomical features can complicate the interpretation of ADCs. In particular, the density and spatial variation of the cerebral spinal fluid filled fissures known as sulci can influence how a change in an ADC is explained. We have used the covariance of pixel intensity in T1 weighted MRI scans to study how intra-patient and inter-patient sulci density varies, and will present these results. MRS uses the shift in the MR signal due to the local chemical environment to determine the concentration of brain metabolites like choline and creatin. The ratio of metabolites such as these has been shown to have the power to discriminate between RIN and recurrent disease in glioma patients. At our institution, we have initiated a protocol whereby we will use DWMRI and MRS to study how best to utilize these complimentary forms of imaging.

  13. Clostridium perfringens Delta-Toxin Induces Rapid Cell Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Seike, Soshi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Kobayashi, Keiko; Takehara, Masaya; Nagahama, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens delta-toxin is a β-pore-forming toxin and a putative pathogenic agent of C. perfringens types B and C. However, the mechanism of cytotoxicity of delta-toxin remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of cell death induced by delta-toxin in five cell lines (A549, A431, MDCK, Vero, and Caco-2). All cell lines were susceptible to delta-toxin. The toxin caused rapid ATP depletion and swelling of the cells. Delta-toxin bound and formed oligomers predominantly in plasma membrane lipid rafts. Destruction of the lipid rafts with methyl β-cyclodextrin inhibited delta-toxin-induced cytotoxicity and ATP depletion. Delta-toxin caused the release of carboxyfluorescein from sphingomyelin-cholesterol liposomes and formed oligomers; toxin binding to the liposomes declined with decreasing cholesterol content in the liposomes. Flow cytometric assays with annexin V and propidium iodide revealed that delta-toxin treatment induced an elevation in the population of annexin V-negative and propidium iodide-positive cells. Delta-toxin did not cause the fragmentation of DNA or caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, delta-toxin caused damage to mitochondrial membrane permeability and cytochrome c release. In the present study, we demonstrate that delta-toxin produces cytotoxic activity through necrosis. PMID:26807591

  14. Amprolium-induced cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN) in dromedary racing camels.

    PubMed

    Wernery, U; Haydn-Evans, J; Kinne, J

    1998-08-01

    Amprolium was successfully used to induce cerebrocortical necrosis (CCN) in dromedary racing camels, only when they were fed on a barley diet. Camels which were fed on hay ad libitum did not suffer form CCN, although their thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) reached similar levels as in camels fed on barley. The reason for this phenomenon is discussed. Five camels which suffered from CCN had TPP values of 80-115% and were euthanized on humane grounds when they were in lateral recumbency. Pathohistological investigations revealed a polioencephalomalacia of the dorsal cerebral cortex with oedema and status spongiosus. Cerebral autofluorescence was observed under ultraviolet light. The major clinicopathological changes were a slight anemia and a decreased potassium value whereas glucose, muscle enzymes, leucocyte counts and differential counts were elevated. A TPP effect of 12% was found during this study in healthy dromedary racing camels and symptoms were observed when TPP values reached 80-115%. The test is now being widely used during the camel racing season.

  15. [Intestinal necrosis as clinical presentation of Takayasu arteritis].

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Rodrigo; Gatica, Héctor; Segovia, Erico; Cortés, Claudia

    2002-10-01

    A 32 years old female was admitted to hospital due to acute abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and liquid stools. Physical examination was normal except for pain on her left inferior abdominal quadrant without peritoneal irritation signs. An abdominal CAT-scan suggested thrombosis at celiac trunk, although the echo Doppler showed no alterations except for signs of ischemia in the distal branch of the superior mesenteric artery. An exploratory laparotomy was performed disclosing a necrosis of the distal ileum and cecum, diffuse peritonitis and thrombosis of the ileocecoapendiculocolic artery. No vasculitis lesions were found in the arteries of medium size examined. A history of intermittent claudication for the past 3 years as well as acrocyanosis, asymmetry of pulses and blood pressure in the superior extremities was ascertained after the surgery. A MRI angiogram showed multiple stenoses and irregularities at the celiac trunk, hepatic, superior mesenteric and fibular arteries. No abnormalities at the aortic arch and its main branches were documented. A sepsis due to Candida sp complicated her postoperative period. After recovery, prednisone 1 mg/kg/day was started and the anticoagulation continued. The abdominal pain, intermittent claudication and superior limb acrocyanosis disappeared. This is an unusual case of type IV Takayasu's arteritis with acute abdominal signs as the first manifestation.

  16. Detection of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda; Lightner, Donald; Pantoja, Carlos; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia

    2014-08-21

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), which has also been referred to as early mortality syndrome (EMS), initially emerged as a destructive disease of cultured shrimp species in Asia in 2009. The pathogen associated with the disease, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, subsequently spread to the Western Hemisphere and emerged in Mexico in early 2013. The spread to the Western Hemisphere is a major concern to shrimp producers in the region. To date, the only peer-reviewed published method for determining whether mortalities are due to AHPND is through histological examination. A novel PCR detection method was employed to assess samples from Mexico in order to confirm the presence of the pathogen in this country. This manuscript details the detection methods used to confirm the presence of AHPND in Mexico. Both immersion and per os challenge studies were used to expose the Penaeus vannamei to the bacteria in order to induce the disease. Histological analysis confirmed AHPND status following the challenge studies. Also provided are the details of the molecular test by PCR that was used for screening candidate V. parahaemolyticus isolates. A rapid PCR assay for detection of AHPND may help with early detection and help prevent the spread of AHPND to other countries.

  17. [Aseptic necrosis of the temporomandibular joint in systemic lupus erythematosus].

    PubMed

    Grinin, V M; Maksimovskiĭ, Iu M; Nasonova, V A

    1999-01-01

    A total of 285 patients with verified systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were examined. They complained of painful temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) and/or limited mobility of the mandible. Eight patients with chronic arthritis of the TMJ and a shortened (by 3-4 mm) mandibular branch were detected. In 4 female patients aged 25-38 with SLE lasting for about 5.5 years, unilateral signs of myoarticular dysfunction of the TMJ, flattening and decrease of the articular head without erosion and destruction, subcortical round foci with uneven internal contours were found in the central or median part of the head, with the compact bone above the foci thinned and the articular surface flattened; this prompted us to regard these changes as avascular necrosis (AN) of the joint. Shortening of the mandibular branch was caused by deformation of the neck of the articular process and its declination backwards. The detected changes in the TMJ were not accompanied by involvement of other joints. All these 4 patients with SLE and TMJ AN suffered from cerebropathy with epileptic attacks (frequent in 2 patients), Raynaud's syndrome, and bright capillaries of the palms and soles; 2 patients developed clinical picture of the antiphospholipid syndrome. Computer tomography and magnetic resonance findings validating the development of TMJ AN in?

  18. Vaccinia Virus Induces Programmed Necrosis in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Whilding, Lynsey M; Archibald, Kyra M; Kulbe, Hagen; Balkwill, Frances R; Öberg, Daniel; McNeish, Iain A

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which oncolytic vaccinia virus induces tumor cell death are poorly understood. We have evaluated cell death pathways following infection of ovarian cancer cells with both wild-type and thymidine kinase-deleted (dTK) Lister strain vaccinia. We show that death does not rely upon classical apoptosis despite the appearances of some limited apoptotic features, including phosphatidylserine externalization and appearance of sub-G1 DNA populations. Vaccinia infection induces marked lipidation of LC3 proteins, but there is no general activation of the autophagic process and cell death does not rely upon autophagy induction. We show that vaccinia induces necrotic morphology on transmission electron microscopy, accompanied by marked by reductions in intracellular adenosine triphosphate, altered mitochondrial metabolism, and release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. This necrotic cell death appears regulated, as infection induces formation of a receptor interacting protein (RIP1)/caspase-8 complex. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of both RIP1 and substrates downstream of RIP1, including MLKL, significantly attenuate cell death. Blockade of TNF-α, however, does not alter virus efficacy, suggesting that necrosis does not result from autocrine cytokine release. Overall, these results show that, in ovarian cancer cells, vaccinia virus causes necrotic cell death that is mediated through a programmed series of events. PMID:23985697

  19. Tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced pulmonary vascular endothelial injury.

    PubMed Central

    Goldblum, S E; Hennig, B; Jay, M; Yoneda, K; McClain, C J

    1989-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mediates components of the acute-phase response, stimulates granulocyte metabolism, and induces endothelial cell surface changes. We studied whether human recombinant TNF-alpha (rTNF-alpha) could increase pulmonary edema formation and pulmonary vascular permeability. Rabbits preinfused with 125I-albumin were administered rTNF-alpha or saline. Animals were sacrificed, and lung wet/dry weight ratios as well as bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma 125I activities were determined. rTNF-alpha increased lung wet/dry weight ratios by 151% (P less than 0.02) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/plasma 125I activity ratios by 376% (P less than 0.01) compared with values for saline controls. Electron microscopy of lung sections demonstrated endothelial injury, perivascular edema, and extravasation of an ultrastructural permeability tracer. To demonstrate that rTNF-alpha could directly increase pulmonary vascular endothelial permeability in vitro, we studied albumin transfer across cultured porcine pulmonary artery endothelial cell monolayers. rTNF-alpha induced time-dependent dose-response increments in transendothelial albumin flux in the absence of granulocyte effector cells. These observations suggest that rTNF-alpha can provoke acute pulmonary vascular endothelial injury in vivo as well as in vitro. Images PMID:2925247

  20. Renal papillary necrosis in haemophilia and christmas disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, G M; Evans, K T; Bloom, A L; Al-Gailani, F

    1983-03-01

    Haematuria is common in haemophilia and Christmas disease. A variety of radiological abnormalities in the urinary tract has been described in the literature, the commonest being hydronephrosis and obstructive uropathy. The findings in 26 cases seen in this centre were reported by Beck and Evans in 1972; although urinary-tract obstruction was relatively common, it was noted that signs suggestive of renal papillary necrosis (RPN) were present in some cases. In the present study, 20 of these patients were reinvestigated up to 10 years after the original radiological studies; a total number of 46 past and present intravenous urograms were examined. There was evidence of RPN in 11 of the 20 patients, and in five of these the signs had changed over the intervening period. The relevance of these findings is discussed; none of the patients showed evidence of renal failure. It is suggested that episodes of urinary-tract obstruction could be related to papillary sloughing, in some cases, rather than clot obstruction or obstruction due to retroperitoneal bleeding.

  1. Targeted Cancer Therapy with Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Weibo; Kerner, Zachary J.; Hong, Hao; Sun, Jiangtao

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), a member of the TNF superfamily, was the first cytokine to be evaluated for cancer biotherapy. However, the clinical use of TNF-α is severely limited by its toxicity. Currently, TNF-α is administered only through locoregional drug delivery systems such as isolated limb perfusion and isolated hepatic perfusion. To reduce the systemic toxicity of TNF-α, various strategies have been explored over the last several decades. This review summarizes current state-of-the-art targeted cancer therapy using TNF-α. Passive targeting, cell-based therapy, gene therapy with inducible or tissue-specific promoters, targeted polymer-DNA complexes, tumor pre-targeting, antibody-TNF-α conjugate, scFv/TNF-α fusion proteins, and peptide/TNF-α fusion proteins have all been investigated to combat cancer. Many of these agents are already in advanced clinical trials. Molecular imaging, which can significantly speed up the drug development process, and nanomedicine, which can integrate both imaging and therapeutic components, has the potential to revolutionize future cancer patient management. Cooperative efforts from scientists within multiple disciplines, as well as close partnerships among many organizations/entities, are needed to quickly translate novel TNF-α-based therapeutics into clinical investigation. PMID:24115841

  2. Survival of the salmonid viruses infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHNV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV) in ozonated, chlorinated, and Untreated waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary A.; Nelson, Nancy C.; Smith, Cathy A.

    1978-01-01

    Ozone and chlorine inactivation curves were determined in three water types at 10 °C for the fish pathogenic viruses infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHNV) and infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPNV). In phosphate-buffered, distilled water (PBDW) an ozone dose of 0.01 mg/L for 30 or 60 s inactivated IHNV or IPNV, respectively, suspended at a tissue culture 50% infective dose (TCID50) of 104–105/mL. In hard (120 mg/L as CaCO3) and soft water (30 mg/L) lake waters, an ozone application rate of 70 mg∙h−1∙L−1 for 10 min destroyed IHNV. IPNV inactivation in hard water required 90 mg∙O3∙h−1∙L−1 for 10 min but only a 30-s contact time in soft water. The IPNV was also somewhat more resistant to chlorine. In PBDW, a residual of 0.1 mg/L with contact times of 30 and 60 s, respectively, destroyed IHNV and IPNV. In soft lake water IHNV was destroyed within 5 min at 0.5 mg/L, while in hard water a 10-min contact time was required. For IPNV disinfection in soft water, 0.2 mg/L for 10 min was sufficient but this chlorine residual had essentially no effect on IPNV in hard water. Increasing this dose to 0.7 mg/L destroyed IPNV in hard water within 2 min. In untreated waters, IPNV was stable for at least 8 wk in either distilled, soft, or hard lake waters. However, IHNV survived only about 2 wk in distilled and 7 wk in the soft or hard lake waters. We suggest the serious consideration of ozone as a fish disease control agent. Key words: ozone, chlorine disinfection, fish pathogens, viruses

  3. Necrosis, and then stress induced necrosis-like cell death, but not apoptosis, should be the preferred cell death mode for chemotherapy: clearance of a few misconceptions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ju; Lou, Xiaomin; Jin, Longyu; Zhou, Rongjia; Liu, Siqi; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, D. Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Cell death overarches carcinogenesis and is a center of cancer researches, especially therapy studies. There have been many nomenclatures on cell death, but only three cell death modes are genuine, i.e. apoptosis, necrosis and stress-induced cell death (SICD). Like apoptosis, SICD is programmed. Like necrosis, SICD is a pathological event and may trigger regeneration and scar formation. Therefore, SICD has subtypes of stress-induced apoptosis-like cell death (SIaLCD) and stress-induced necrosis-like cell death (SInLCD). Whereas apoptosis removes redundant but healthy cells, SICD removes useful but ill or damaged cells. Many studies on cell death involve cancer tissues that resemble parasites in the host patients, which is a complicated system as it involves immune clearance of the alien cancer cells by the host. Cancer resembles an evolutionarily lower-level organism having a weaker apoptosis potential and poorer DNA repair mechanisms. Hence, targeting apoptosis for cancer therapy, i.e. killing via SIaLCD, will be less efficacious and more toxic. On the other hand, necrosis of cancer cells releases cellular debris and components to stimulate immune function, thus counteracting therapy-caused immune suppression and making necrosis better than SIaLCD for chemo drug development. PMID:25594039

  4. Necrosis, and then stress induced necrosis-like cell death, but not apoptosis, should be the preferred cell death mode for chemotherapy: clearance of a few misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ju; Lou, Xiaomin; Jin, Longyu; Zhou, Rongjia; Liu, Siqi; Xu, Ningzhi; Liao, D Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Cell death overarches carcinogenesis and is a center of cancer researches, especially therapy studies. There have been many nomenclatures on cell death, but only three cell death modes are genuine, i.e. apoptosis, necrosis and stress-induced cell death (SICD). Like apoptosis, SICD is programmed. Like necrosis, SICD is a pathological event and may trigger regeneration and scar formation. Therefore, SICD has subtypes of stress-induced apoptosis-like cell death (SIaLCD) and stress-induced necrosis-like cell death (SInLCD). Whereas apoptosis removes redundant but healthy cells, SICD removes useful but ill or damaged cells. Many studies on cell death involve cancer tissues that resemble parasites in the host patients, which is a complicated system as it involves immune clearance of the alien cancer cells by the host. Cancer resembles an evolutionarily lower-level organism having a weaker apoptosis potential and poorer DNA repair mechanisms. Hence, targeting apoptosis for cancer therapy, i.e. killing via SIaLCD, will be less efficacious and more toxic. On the other hand, necrosis of cancer cells releases cellular debris and components to stimulate immune function, thus counteracting therapy-caused immune suppression and making necrosis better than SIaLCD for chemo drug development. PMID:25594039

  5. On the relation of necrosis and inflammation to denaturation of proteins.

    PubMed

    OPIE, E L

    1962-03-01

    Necrosis of the skin was produced by the injection of measured quantities of electrolytes and of amino compounds into the dermis, and the relative ability of these substances to produce it was determined. Inflammation characterized by edema and accumulation of leucocytes accompanied necrosis. The ability of electrolytes to produce necrosis was found to increase with the valence of their basic ion, and in this respect was in accord with their ability to denature proteins. The quantity of different electrolytes needed to produce necrosis varied in the same order as the molar concentration of these electrolytes, that is isotonic with liver or kidney cells. Necrosis caused by amino compounds occurred with similar relation to the isotonicity of liver cells. In this as in other relations the cells acted as osmometers. The foregoing relations indicate that denaturation of proteins, necrosis of living tissue, and osmotic activity of liver or kidney cells are determined by molecular weight, valence, and ion-dissociation of electrolytes, that is, by the factors that determine the colligative properties of electrolytes. Agents such as turpentine, mustard, or croton oil and some halogen substitution compounds of methyl that are insoluble in water and soluble in lipoids have produced skin necrosis and inflammation.

  6. Bevacizumab as Therapy for Radiation Necrosis in Four Children With Pontine Gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Arthur K.; Macy, Margaret E.; Foreman, Nicholas K.

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Diffuse pontine gliomas are a pediatric brain tumor that is fatal in nearly all patients. Given the poor prognosis for patients with this tumor, their quality of life is very important. Radiation therapy provides some palliation, but can result in radiation necrosis and associated neurologic decline. The typical treatment for this necrosis is steroid therapy. Although the steroids are effective, they have numerous side effects that can often significantly compromise quality of life. Bevacizumab, an antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been suggested as a treatment for radiation necrosis. We report on our initial experience with bevacizumab therapy for radiation necrosis in pediatric pontine gliomas. Materials and Methods: Four children with pontine gliomas treated at the Children's Hospital in Denver and the University of Colorado Denver developed evidence of radiation necrosis both clinically and on imaging. Those 4 children then received bevacizumab as a treatment for the radiation necrosis. We reviewed the clinical outcome and imaging findings. Results: After bevacizumab therapy, 3 children had significant clinical improvement and were able to discontinue steroid use. One child continued to decline, and, in retrospect, had disease progression, not radiation necrosis. In all cases, bevacizumab was well tolerated. Conclusions: In children with pontine gliomas, bevacizumab may provide both therapeutic benefit and diagnostic information. More formal evaluation of bevacizumab in these children is needed.

  7. AICAR induces AMPK-independent programmed necrosis in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Liu, Shuang-Qing; Gao, Xing-Hua; Zhang, Long-Yang

    2016-05-27

    AICAR (5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside or acadesine) is an AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist, which induces cytotoxic effect to several cancer cells. Its potential activity in prostate cancer cells and the underlying signaling mechanisms have not been extensively studied. Here, we showed that AICAR primarily induced programmed necrosis, but not apoptosis, in prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, PC-3 and PC-82 lines). AICAR's cytotoxicity to prostate cancer cells was largely attenuated by the necrosis inhibitor necrostatin-1. Mitochondrial protein cyclophilin-D (CYPD) is required for AICAR-induced programmed necrosis. CYPD inhibitors (cyclosporin A and sanglifehrin A) as well as CYPD shRNAs dramatically attenuated AICAR-induced prostate cancer cell necrosis and cytotoxicity. Notably, AICAR-induced cell necrosis appeared independent of AMPK, yet requiring reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. ROS scavengers (N-acetylcysteine and MnTBAP), but not AMPKα shRNAs, largely inhibited prostate cancer cell necrosis and cytotoxicity by AICAR. In summary, the results of the present study demonstrate mechanistic evidences that AMPK-independent programmed necrosis contributes to AICAR's cytotoxicity in prostate cancer cells. PMID:27103440

  8. Lossy compression of weak lensing data

    SciTech Connect

    Vanderveld, R. Ali; Bernstein, Gary M.; Stoughton, Chris; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Dobke, Benjamin M.

    2011-07-12

    Future orbiting observatories will survey large areas of sky in order to constrain the physics of dark matter and dark energy using weak gravitational lensing and other methods. Lossy compression of the resultant data will improve the cost and feasibility of transmitting the images through the space communication network. We evaluate the consequences of the lossy compression algorithm of Bernstein et al. (2010) for the high-precision measurement of weak-lensing galaxy ellipticities. This square-root algorithm compresses each pixel independently, and the information discarded is by construction less than the Poisson error from photon shot noise. For simulated space-based images (without cosmic rays) digitized to the typical 16 bits per pixel, application of the lossy compression followed by image-wise lossless compression yields images with only 2.4 bits per pixel, a factor of 6.7 compression. We demonstrate that this compression introduces no bias in the sky background. The compression introduces a small amount of additional digitization noise to the images, and we demonstrate a corresponding small increase in ellipticity measurement noise. The ellipticity measurement method is biased by the addition of noise, so the additional digitization noise is expected to induce a multiplicative bias on the galaxies measured ellipticities. After correcting for this known noise-induced bias, we find a residual multiplicative ellipticity bias of m {approx} -4 x 10-4. This bias is small when compared to the many other issues that precision weak lensing surveys must confront, and furthermore we expect it to be reduced further with better calibration of ellipticity measurement methods.

  9. Lossy compression of weak lensing data

    DOE PAGES

    Vanderveld, R. Ali; Bernstein, Gary M.; Stoughton, Chris; Rhodes, Jason; Massey, Richard; Dobke, Benjamin M.

    2011-07-12

    Future orbiting observatories will survey large areas of sky in order to constrain the physics of dark matter and dark energy using weak gravitational lensing and other methods. Lossy compression of the resultant data will improve the cost and feasibility of transmitting the images through the space communication network. We evaluate the consequences of the lossy compression algorithm of Bernstein et al. (2010) for the high-precision measurement of weak-lensing galaxy ellipticities. This square-root algorithm compresses each pixel independently, and the information discarded is by construction less than the Poisson error from photon shot noise. For simulated space-based images (without cosmicmore » rays) digitized to the typical 16 bits per pixel, application of the lossy compression followed by image-wise lossless compression yields images with only 2.4 bits per pixel, a factor of 6.7 compression. We demonstrate that this compression introduces no bias in the sky background. The compression introduces a small amount of additional digitization noise to the images, and we demonstrate a corresponding small increase in ellipticity measurement noise. The ellipticity measurement method is biased by the addition of noise, so the additional digitization noise is expected to induce a multiplicative bias on the galaxies measured ellipticities. After correcting for this known noise-induced bias, we find a residual multiplicative ellipticity bias of m {approx} -4 x 10-4. This bias is small when compared to the many other issues that precision weak lensing surveys must confront, and furthermore we expect it to be reduced further with better calibration of ellipticity measurement methods.« less

  10. Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

    2012-09-19

    The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

  11. Nanoelectromechanics of superconducting weak links (Review Article)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parafilo, A. V.; Krive, I. V.; Shekhter, R. I.; Jonson, M.

    2012-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical effects in superconducting weak links are considered. Three different superconducting devices are studied: (i) a single-Cooper-pair transistor, (ii) a transparent SNS junction, and (iii) a single-level quantum dot coupled to superconducting electrodes. The electromechanical coupling is due to electrostatic or magnetomotive forces acting on a movable part of the device. It is demonstrated that depending on the frequency of mechanical vibrations the electromechanical coupling could either suppress or enhance the Josephson current. Nonequilibrium effects associated with cooling of the vibrational subsystem or pumping energy into it at low bias voltages are discussed.

  12. Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro

    2016-02-26

    We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics. PMID:26967399

  13. Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.

  14. Weak η production off the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Alam, M. Rafi; Athar, M. Sajjad; Alvarez-Ruso, L.; Vacas, M. J. Vicente

    2015-05-15

    The weak η-meson production off the nucleon induced by (anti)neutrinos is studied at low and intermediate energies, the range of interest for several ongoing and future neutrino experiments. We consider Born diagrams and the excitation of N{sup *} (1535)S{sub 11} and N{sup *} (1650)S{sub 11} resonances. The vector part of the N-S{sub 11} transition form factors has been obtained from the MAID helicity amplitudes while the poorly known axial part is constrained with the help of the partial conservation of the axial current (PCAC) and assuming the pion-pole dominance of the pseudoscalar form factor.

  15. Electrostatic decay in a weakly magnetized plasma.

    PubMed

    Layden, A; Cairns, Iver H; Li, B; Robinson, P A

    2013-05-01

    The kinematics of the electrostatic (ES) decay of a Langmuir wave into a Langmuir wave and an ion sound wave are generalized to a weakly magnetized plasma. Unlike the unmagnetized case, ES decay in a magnetized plasma is always kinematically permitted and can produce daughter Langmuir waves with very small wave numbers, which we demonstrate by quasilinear simulations. The simulations further show that ES decay in magnetized plasmas is consistent with STEREO spacecraft observations of transversely polarized Langmuir waves in the solar wind. PMID:23683206

  16. Supersymmetric Higgs Bosons in Weak Boson Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Hollik, Wolfgang; Plehn, Tilman; Rauch, Michael; Rzehak, Heidi

    2009-03-06

    We compute the complete supersymmetric next-to-leading-order corrections to the production of a light Higgs boson in weak-boson fusion. The size of the electroweak corrections is of similar order as the next-to-leading-order corrections in the standard model. The supersymmetric QCD corrections turn out to be significantly smaller than expected and than their electroweak counterparts. These corrections are an important ingredient to a precision analysis of the (supersymmetric) Higgs sector at the LHC, either as a known correction factor or as a contribution to the theory error.

  17. Thermodynamics of Weakly Measured Quantum Systems.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Jose Joaquin; Lutz, Eric; Romito, Alessandro

    2016-02-26

    We consider continuously monitored quantum systems and introduce definitions of work and heat along individual quantum trajectories that are valid for coherent superposition of energy eigenstates. We use these quantities to extend the first and second laws of stochastic thermodynamics to the quantum domain. We illustrate our results with the case of a weakly measured driven two-level system and show how to distinguish between quantum work and heat contributions. We finally employ quantum feedback control to suppress detector backaction and determine the work statistics.

  18. Reptation in a Weak Driving Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalberts, Daniel; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.

    1997-03-01

    A simplified model of reptation is presented. The Master Equation of the model is systematically solved by expansion in powers of the strength of the driving field. From the explicit form of the probability distribution, exact conclusions can be drawn about the average shape of the polymer, its drift velocity, and the zero field diffusion constant. Correlations between segments of the chain are calculated and turn out to be large, even in the weak driving field limit. The results are compared with simulations of the model.

  19. LensTools: Weak Lensing computing tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, A.

    2016-02-01

    LensTools implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing, including tools for image analysis, statistical processing and numerical theory predictions. The package offers many useful features, including complete flexibility and easy customization of input/output formats; efficient measurements of power spectrum, PDF, Minkowski functionals and peak counts of convergence maps; survey masks; artificial noise generation engines; easy to compute parameter statistical inferences; ray tracing simulations; and many others. It requires standard numpy and scipy, and depending on tools used, may require Astropy (ascl:1304.002), emcee (ascl:1303.002), matplotlib, and mpi4py.

  20. Plasma Emission by Weak Turbulence Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.; Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J.

    2014-11-01

    The plasma emission is the radiation mechanism responsible for solar type II and type III radio bursts. The first theory of plasma emission was put forth in the 1950s, but the rigorous demonstration of the process based upon first principles had been lacking. The present Letter reports the first complete numerical solution of electromagnetic weak turbulence equations. It is shown that the fundamental emission is dominant and unless the beam speed is substantially higher than the electron thermal speed, the harmonic emission is not likely to be generated. The present findings may be useful for validating reduced models and for interpreting particle-in-cell simulations.

  1. Naturalness and the weak gravity conjecture.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N

    2014-08-01

    The weak gravity conjecture (WGC) is an ultraviolet consistency condition asserting that an Abelian force requires a state of charge q and mass m with q>m/m_{Pl}. We generalize the WGC to product gauge groups and study its tension with the naturalness principle for a charged scalar coupled to gravity. Reconciling naturalness with the WGC either requires a Higgs phase or a low cutoff at Λ∼qm_{Pl}. If neither applies, one can construct simple models that forbid a natural electroweak scale and whose observation would rule out the naturalness principle.

  2. Improved Quantum Signature Scheme with Weak Arbitrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Qi; Li, Wen-Min

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we find a man-in-the-middle attack on the quantum signature scheme with a weak arbitrator (Luo et al., Int. J. Theor. Phys., 51:2135, 2012). In that scheme, the authors proposed a quantum signature based on quantum one way function which contains both verifying the signer phase and verifying the signed message phase. However, after our analysis we will show that Eve can adopt different strategies in respective phases to forge the signature without being detected. Then we present an improved scheme to increase the security.

  3. Weak Localization in few layer Black Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillgren, Nathaniel; Shi, Yanmeng; Espiritu, Timothy; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takahashi; Lau, Chun Ning (Jeanie)

    Few-layer black phosphorus has recently attracted interest from the scientific community due to its high mobility, tunable band gap, and large anisotropy. Recent experiments have demonstrated that black phosphorus provides a promising candidate to explore the physics of 2D semiconductors. In this study we explore the magnetotransport of few-layer black phosphorus-boron nitride hetereostructure devices at low magnetic fields. Weak localization is observed at low temperatures. We extract the dephasing length and measure its dependence on temperature, carrier density and electric field.

  4. Hollow vortices in weakly compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, Vikas; Crowdy, Darren

    2015-11-01

    In a two-dimensional, inviscid and steady fluid flow, hollow vortices are bounded regions of constant pressure with non-zero circulation. It is known that for an infinite row of incompressible hollow vortices, analytical solutions for the flow field and the shape of the hollow vortex boundary can be obtained using conformal mapping methods. In this talk, we show how to derive analytical expressions for a weakly compressible hollow vortex row. This is done by introducing a new method based on the Imai-Lamla formula. We will also touch upon how to extend these results to a von-Karman street of hollow vortices.

  5. Parametric Amplification For Detecting Weak Optical Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid; Chen, Chien; Chakravarthi, Prakash

    1996-01-01

    Optical-communication receivers of proposed type implement high-sensitivity scheme of optical parametric amplification followed by direct detection for reception of extremely weak signals. Incorporates both optical parametric amplification and direct detection into optimized design enhancing effective signal-to-noise ratios during reception in photon-starved (photon-counting) regime. Eliminates need for complexity of heterodyne detection scheme and partly overcomes limitations imposed on older direct-detection schemes by noise generated in receivers and by limits on quantum efficiencies of photodetectors.

  6. Weak neutral currents and collapse initiated supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.R.

    1993-03-19

    Since 1974 the neutrino processes mediated by neutral currents have been a part of supernova (SN) modeling calculations. In this report only present day SN calculations will be discussed. First I will give brief description of the SN computer model and an outline of the explosion process as depicted by that model. Then I will discuss the role weak neutral current (WNC) processes play in this explosion process. Finally, I will discus inelastic scattering of tau neutrinos by heavy elements in WNC or Earth as a mechanism for measuring the mass of tau neutrino.

  7. [The weakness of individual psychologic dream theory].

    PubMed

    Strunz, F

    1988-05-13

    This article undertakes a critical evaluation of Adlerian dream theory. The main weakness of the theory is found to be its lack of an inherent instance of truth that shows the dreamer the way to a better and more feasible life style. Contemporary Adlerians' treatment of the master's dream dogmas and their practical use in psychotherapy are described. There seems to be a convergence movement of today's practical application methods of the dream in all psychotherapeutic schools. Adlerian dream interpretation in the original sense intended by Adler is practised nowhere by psychotherapists today and seems largely antiquated.

  8. Precision frequency measurements with interferometric weak values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starling, David J.; Dixon, P. Ben; Jordan, Andrew N.; Howell, John C.

    2010-12-01

    We demonstrate an experiment which utilizes a Sagnac interferometer to measure a change in optical frequency of 129 ± 7 kHz/Hz with only 2 mW of continuous-wave, single-mode input power. We describe the measurement of a weak value and show how even higher-frequency sensitivities may be obtained over a bandwidth of several nanometers. This technique has many possible applications, such as precision relative frequency measurements and laser locking without the use of atomic lines.

  9. Haplotypes of tumor necrosis factor gene and tracheal aspirate fluid levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kazzi, S Nadya J; Tromp, Gerard; Quasney, Michael W; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2008-08-01

    Individual variability in the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) has been attributed to genetic factors. We examined whether alleles of TNF gene (lymphotoxin-alpha+250, TNF-alpha-308, and TNF-alpha-238) affect tracheal aspirate fluid (TAF) levels of TNF-alpha among preterm infants at risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. TAF samples were collected within 48 h of birth and 7, 14, 21, and 28 d later. Haplotypes [designated using the nucleotide bases in the chromosome order (lymphotoxin-alpha+250, TNF-alpha-308, TNF-alpha-238)] of TNF were correlated with levels of TNF-alpha. Diplotypes of TNF (genotypes of haplotypes) classified as high, intermediate, or low based on their relation to TAF TNF-alpha levels were also correlated with TNF-alpha levels. The most frequent (and reference haplotype) was AGG. The GGG haplotype was associated with the lowest TAF TNF-alpha levels on day 7 among African American infants (p < 0.008). Sequential changes in levels of TNF-alpha correlated with infants' diplotype status [high (HH), intermediate (HL), low (LL)]. Fetal chorioamnionitis but not bronchopulmonary dysplasia was associated with infants' diplotypes (p < 0.005). Haplotypes of the TNF gene influence TAF levels of TNF-alpha. Diplotypes of TNF are associated with fetal chorioamnionitis.

  10. Use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors in patients with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gallitano, Stephanie M; McDermott, Laura; Brar, Kanwaljit; Lowenstein, Eve

    2016-05-01

    Patients with HIV and AIDS are living longer because of advancements in antiretroviral therapy. These patients are often susceptible to debilitating inflammatory disorders that are refractory to standard treatment. We discuss the relationship of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and HIV and then review 27 published cases of patients with HIV being treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors. This review is limited because no randomized controlled trials have been performed with this patient population. Regardless, we propose that reliable seropositive patients, who are adherent to medication regimens and frequent monitoring and have failed other treatment modalities, should be considered for treatment with tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors.

  11. Bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in five painted storks.

    PubMed

    Weber, Martha A; Terrell, Scott P; Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Mangold, Barbara J

    2002-08-01

    Five painted storks were treated with fenbendazole for 5 days for internal parasitism. Four birds died following treatment. Profound heteropenia was a consistent finding in all samples evaluated; additionally, the 1 surviving bird had progressive anemia. Consistent necropsy findings in the 4 birds that died were small intestinal crypt cell necrosis and severe bone marrow depletion and necrosis. Fenbendazole has been associated with bone marrow hypoplasia and enteric damage in mammals and other species of birds. The dosages of fenbendazole used in birds are often substantially higher than those recommended for mammals, which may contribute to bone marrow hypoplasia and intestinal crypt cell necrosis associated with fenbendazole administration in birds.

  12. Skin and soft tissue necrosis from calcium chloride in a deicer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min P; Raho, Vittorio J; Mak, John; Kaynar, A Murat

    2007-01-01

    Calcium chloride salt is the principle ingredient of many commercially available deicers. Calcium chloride melts snow and ice by its osmotic action. We present a case of skin and soft tissue necrosis associated with the use of a calcium chloride-containing deicer. Although calcium chloride is known to produce soft tissue necrosis if it extravasates during intravenous administration, necrosis and skin sloughing has rarely been described after topical exposure to this salt. Calcium chloride likely produces tissue injury from the heat liberated by mixing calcium chloride with water (exothermic reaction) and from direct calcium deposits in the skin (calcinosis cutis) and soft tissue.

  13. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  14. Fibrinolytic response to tumor necrosis factor in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Levi, M; Büller, H R; van Deventer, S J; de Boer, J P; Hack, C E; ten Cate, J W

    1991-09-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) may be involved in the disturbance of the procoagulant-fibrinolytic balance in septicemia, leading to microvascular thrombosis. To assess the dynamics of the fibrinolytic response to TNF in humans, we performed a crossover saline-controlled study in six healthy men, investigating the effects of a bolus intravenous injection of recombinant human TNF (50 micrograms/m2) on the stimulation and inhibition of plasminogen activation as well as on plasmin activity and inhibition. TNF induced a brief fourfold increase in the overall plasma plasminogen activator (PA) activity peaking after 1 h (p less than 0.0001), which was associated with rises in the antigenic levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (p less than 0.0001) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (p less than 0.0001). Plasminogen activator inhibitor type I antigen remained unchanged in the first hour, but showed a rapid eightfold increase thereafter (p less than 0.0001), which coincided with the decrease in PA activity. Generation of plasmin activity in the first hour was signified by an 11-fold rise in D-dimer levels (p less than 0.0001); inhibition of plasmin was reflected by a 36-fold rise in plasmin-alpha 2 antiplasmin complexes (p less than 0.0001), as well as by a transient 16% decrease in alpha 2-antiplasmin activity (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, TNF induced an early activation of the fibrinolytic system becoming maximal in 1 h, with a rapid inhibition thereafter. Earlier observations in the same subjects showed sustained coagulation activation for 6-12 h. The observed disbalance between the procoagulant and fibrinolytic mechanisms after TNF injection confirms the in vivo relevance of the effects of TNF on vascular endothelium in vitro and may explain the tendency towards microvascular thrombosis in septicemia.

  15. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25911043

  16. Regulation of bitter taste responses by tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed

    Feng, Pu; Jyotaki, Masafumi; Kim, Agnes; Chai, Jinghua; Simon, Nirvine; Zhou, Minliang; Bachmanov, Alexander A; Huang, Liquan; Wang, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Inflammatory cytokines are important regulators of metabolism and food intake. Over production of inflammatory cytokines during bacterial and viral infections leads to anorexia and reduced food intake. However, it remains unclear whether any inflammatory cytokines are involved in the regulation of taste reception, the sensory mechanism governing food intake. Previously, we showed that tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is preferentially expressed in a subset of taste bud cells. The level of TNF in taste cells can be further induced by inflammatory stimuli. To investigate whether TNF plays a role in regulating taste responses, in this study, we performed taste behavioral tests and gustatory nerve recordings in TNF knockout mice. Behavioral tests showed that TNF-deficient mice are significantly less sensitive to the bitter compound quinine than wild-type mice, while their responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are comparable to those of wild-type controls. Furthermore, nerve recording experiments showed that the chorda tympani nerve in TNF knockout mice is much less responsive to bitter compounds than that in wild-type mice. Chorda tympani nerve responses to sweet, umami, salty, and sour compounds are similar between TNF knockout and wild-type mice, consistent with the results from behavioral tests. We further showed that taste bud cells express the two known TNF receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 and, therefore, are potential targets of TNF. Together, our results suggest that TNF signaling preferentially modulates bitter taste responses. This mechanism may contribute to taste dysfunction, particularly taste distortion, associated with infections and some chronic inflammatory diseases.

  17. Efficacy of certain disinfectants against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Diane G.; Amend, Donald F.

    1978-01-01

    The virucidal properties of iodophor, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), formalin, thimerosal (organic mercurial compound), malachite green, and acriflavine were tested on infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Iodine and chlorine showed good activity, but efficacy depended on the concentration of virus, the presence of organic matter (calf serum), and water pH. Water hardness (0-300 mg 1−1 as CaCO3) did not affect virucidal activity. In a 5 min exposure, 4 mg 1−1available iodine inactivated 103.9 TCID50 m1−1 IPNV but 16 mg 1−1 iodine were needed for inactivation of 106.3TCID50m1−1. The addition of 0-5% calf serum significantly reduced the iodine concentration and the virucidal activity. In comparison, 4 mg 1−1 chlorine were needed to inactivate 1046 TCID50 m1−1 IPNV in 5 min. However, the addition of 0-07 % serum greatly reduced the chlorine concentration and extended the virucidal contact time to 30 min or more. IPNV at 106.3 TCID60 m1−1 was not inactivated by exposures for 60 min to 0-2% formalin, 10 min to 0-2% thimerosal, 60 min to 5 mg 1−1 malachite green, or 20 min to 500 mg 1−1 acriflavine. However, acriflavine at 0-5 mg 1−1 in cell culture media prevented the development of cytopathology caused by IPNV and may be useful in the treatment of the disease.

  18. Exogenous tumour necrosis factor α induces suppression of autoimmune arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Our previous studies showed that arthritic Lewis (LEW) rats produced the highest levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α in the recovery phase of adjuvant arthritis (AA), suggesting a correlation between high TNFα levels and reduced severity of arthritis. To further explore this correlation, we compared the TNFα secretion profile of the AA-resistant Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats with that of LEW rats, determined the effect of exogenous TNFα on the course of AA in LEW rats, and examined various mechanisms involved in TNFα-induced disease modulation. Methods A cohort each of LEW and WKY rats was immunised subcutaneously with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb). At different time points thereafter, subgroups of rats were killed and their draining lymph node cells were tested for cytokine production. Another group of LEW rats was injected with TNFα intraperitoneally daily for a total of 10 injections, 3 before and 6 after Mtb challenge, and then observed for signs of AA. In parallel, TNFα-treated rats were examined for changes in other cytokines, in CD4+CD25+ T cell frequency, and in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) mRNA expression levels. Results LEW rats displayed a TNFα secretion profile that was opposite to that of the WKY rats. Furthermore, TNFα treatment significantly downmodulated the severity of AA in LEW rats, and decreased the interferon (IFN)-γ secretion in response to the pathogenic determinant of the disease-related antigen. No significant alterations were observed in other parameters tested. Conclusion The role of endogenous TNFα in the induction and propagation of arthritis is well established. However, exogenous TNFα can downmodulate the course of AA, displaying an immunoregulatory functional attribute of this cytokine. PMID:18380898

  19. Tumor necrosis factor-inducing activities of Cryptococcus neoformans components.

    PubMed Central

    Delfino, D; Cianci, L; Migliardo, M; Mancuso, G; Cusumano, V; Corradini, C; Teti, G

    1996-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production may lead to increased human immunodeficiency virus replication in patients with AIDS. In order to identify cryptococcal components that are predominantly responsible for stimulating TNF production, various concentrations of glucuronoxylomannan (GXM), galactoxylomannan (GalXM), mannoproteins (MP), and alpha(1-3) [corrected] glucan were added to whole-blood cultures. All of the cryptococcal components tested, as well as whole heat-killed cryptococci, were capable of inducing TNF-alpha release in a dose-dependent manner. MP were significantly more potent than any of the other cryptococcal components tested or heat-killed cryptococci in stimulating TNF-alpha production (P < 0.05). GXM, in contrast, was significantly less potent in this activity than either GalXM or MP (P < 0.05). As little as 0.5 microg of MP per ml was sufficient to produce moderate but significant elevations of TNF-alpha release. Maximal MP-induced TNF-alpha levels were similar to those induced by Salmonella enteritidis lipopolysaccharide, our positive control. Further experiments using isolated leukocytes suggested that monocytes were the cell population mainly responsible for TNF-alpha production, although the participation of other cell types could not be excluded. The presence of complement-sufficient plasma was a necessary requirement for TNF-alpha induction by GXM, GalXM, and low doses of MP. High MP concentrations (100 microg/ml) were also capable of stimulating TNF-alpha production in the absence of plasma. These data indicate that soluble products released by C. neoformans are capable of inducing TNF-alpha secretion in human leukocytes. This may be clinically relevant, since high concentrations of such products are frequently found in the body fluids of AIDS patients infected with C. neoformans. PMID:8945566

  20. Pathogenesis of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Chiao; Ng, Tze Hann; Ando, Masahiro; Lee, Chung-Te; Chen, I-Tung; Chuang, Jie-Cheng; Mavichak, Rapeepat; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Yeh, Mi-De; Chiang, Yi-An; Takeyama, Haruko; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o; Lo, Chu-Fang; Aoki, Takashi; Wang, Han-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also called early mortality syndrome (EMS), is a recently emergent shrimp bacterial disease that has resulted in substantial economic losses since 2009. AHPND is known to be caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that contain a unique virulence plasmid, but the pathology of the disease is still unclear. In this study, we show that AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus secrete the plasmid-encoded binary toxin PirAB(vp) into the culture medium. We further determined that, after shrimp were challenged with AHPND-causing bacteria, the bacteria initially colonized the stomach, where they started to produce PirAB(vp) toxin. At the same early time point (6 hpi), PirB(vp) toxin, but not PirA(vp) toxin, was detected in the hepatopancreas, and the characteristic histopathological signs of AHPND, including sloughing of the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreatic tubules, were also seen. Although some previous studies have found that both components of the binary PirAB(vp) toxin are necessary to induce a toxic effect, our present results are consistent with other studies which have suggested that PirB(vp) alone may be sufficient to cause cellular damage. At later time points, the bacteria and PirA(vp) and PirB(vp) toxins were all detected in the hepatopancreas. We also show that Raman spectroscopy "Whole organism fingerprints" were unable to distinguish between AHPND-causing and non-AHPND causing strains. Lastly, by using minimum inhibitory concentrations, we found that both virulent and non-virulent V. parahaemolyticus strains were resistant to several antibiotics, suggesting that the use of antibiotics in shrimp culture should be more strictly regulated. PMID:26549178

  1. Plasma waves downstream of weak collisionless shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.

    1993-01-01

    In September 1983 the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft made a long traversal of the distant dawnside flank region of the Earth's magnetosphere and had many encounters with the low Mach number bow shock. These weak shocks excite plasma wave electric field turbulence with amplitudes comparable to those detected in the much stronger bow shock near the nose region. Downstream of quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shocks, the E field spectra exhibit a strong peak (plateau) at midfrequencies (1 - 3 kHz); the plateau shape is produced by a low-frequency (100 - 300 Hz) emission which is more intense behind downstream of two quasi-perpendicular shocks show that the low frequency signals are polarized parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the midfrequency emissions are unpolarized or only weakly polarized. A new high frequency (10 - 30 kHz) emission which is above the maximum Doppler shift exhibit a distinct peak at high frequencies; this peak is often blurred by the large amplitude fluctuations of the midfrequency waves. The high-frequency component is strongly polarized along the magnetic field and varies independently of the lower-frequency waves.

  2. Conformational transitions of a weak polyampholyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan Nair, Arun Kumar; Uyaver, Sahin; Sun, Shuyu

    2014-10-01

    Using grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations of a flexible polyelectrolyte where the charges are in contact with a reservoir of constant chemical potential given by the solution pH, we study the behavior of weak polyelectrolytes in poor and good solvent conditions for polymer backbone. We address the titration behavior and conformational properties of a flexible diblock polyampholyte chain formed of two oppositely charged weak polyelectrolyte blocks, each containing equal number of identical monomers. The change of solution pH induces charge asymmetry in a diblock polyampholyte. For diblock polyampholyte chains in poor solvents, we demonstrate that a discontinuous transition between extended (tadpole) and collapsed (globular) conformational states is attainable by varying the solution pH. The double-minima structure in the probability distribution of the free energy provides direct evidence for the first-order like nature of this transition. At the isoelectric point electrostatically driven coil-globule transition of diblock polyampholytes in good solvents is found to consist of different regimes identified with increasing electrostatic interaction strength. At pH values above or below the isoelectric point diblock chains are found to have polyelectrolyte-like behavior due to repulsion between uncompensated charges along the chain.

  3. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Paul A; Haupert, Sylvain; Renaud, Guillaume; Riviere, Jacques; Talmant, Maryline; Laugier, Pascal

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  4. Weak Decays of Excited B Mesons.

    PubMed

    Grinstein, B; Martin Camalich, J

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the decays of the excited (bq[over ¯]) mesons as probes of the short-distance structure of the weak ΔB=1 transitions. These states are unstable under the electromagnetic or strong interactions, although their widths are typically suppressed by phase space. Compared to the pseudoscalar B meson, the purely leptonic decays of the vector B^{*} are not chirally suppressed and are sensitive to different combinations of the underlying weak effective operators. An interesting example is B_{s}^{*}→ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-}, which has a rate that can be accurately predicted in the standard model. The branching fraction is B∼10^{-11}, irrespective of the lepton flavor and where the main uncertainty stems from the unmeasured and theoretically not well known B_{s}^{*} width. We discuss the prospects for producing this decay mode at the LHC and explore the possibility of measuring the B_{s}^{*}→ℓℓ amplitude, instead, through scattering experiments at the B_{s}^{*} resonance peak. PMID:27104698

  5. Auroral weak double layers: A critical assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Mälkki, Anssi M.

    Weak double layers (WDLs) were first observed in the mid-altitude auroral magnetosphere in 1976 by the S3-3 satellite. The observations were confirmed by Viking in 1986, when more detailed information of these small-scale plasma structures became available. WDLs are upward moving rarefactive solitary structures with negative electric potential. The potential drop over a WDL is typically 0-1 V with electric field pointing predominantly upward. The structures are usually found in relatively weak (≤2 kV) auroral acceleration regions where the field-aligned current is upward, but sometimes very small. The observations suggest that WDLs exist in regions of cool electron and ion background. Most likely the potential structures are embedded in the background ion population that may drift slowly upward. There have been several attempts for plasma physical explanation of WDLs but so far the success has not been very good. Computer simulations have been able to produce similar structures, but usually for somewhat unrealistic plasma parameters. A satisfactory understanding of the phenomenon requires consideration of the role of WDLs in the magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) coupling, including the large-scale electric fields, both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field, and the Alfvén waves mediating the coupling. In this report we give a critical review of our present understanding of WDLs. We try to find out what can be safely deduced from the observations, what are just educated guesses, and where we may go wrong.

  6. Weak scale from the maximum entropy principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2015-03-01

    The theory of the multiverse and wormholes suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model (SM) are fixed in such a way that the radiation of the S3 universe at the final stage S_rad becomes maximum, which we call the maximum entropy principle. Although it is difficult to confirm this principle generally, for a few parameters of the SM, we can check whether S_rad actually becomes maximum at the observed values. In this paper, we regard S_rad at the final stage as a function of the weak scale (the Higgs expectation value) vh, and show that it becomes maximum around vh = {{O}} (300 GeV) when the dimensionless couplings in the SM, i.e., the Higgs self-coupling, the gauge couplings, and the Yukawa couplings are fixed. Roughly speaking, we find that the weak scale is given by vh ˜ T_{BBN}2 / (M_{pl}ye5), where ye is the Yukawa coupling of electron, T_BBN is the temperature at which the Big Bang nucleosynthesis starts, and M_pl is the Planck mass.

  7. Weak Decays of Excited B Mesons.

    PubMed

    Grinstein, B; Martin Camalich, J

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the decays of the excited (bq[over ¯]) mesons as probes of the short-distance structure of the weak ΔB=1 transitions. These states are unstable under the electromagnetic or strong interactions, although their widths are typically suppressed by phase space. Compared to the pseudoscalar B meson, the purely leptonic decays of the vector B^{*} are not chirally suppressed and are sensitive to different combinations of the underlying weak effective operators. An interesting example is B_{s}^{*}→ℓ^{+}ℓ^{-}, which has a rate that can be accurately predicted in the standard model. The branching fraction is B∼10^{-11}, irrespective of the lepton flavor and where the main uncertainty stems from the unmeasured and theoretically not well known B_{s}^{*} width. We discuss the prospects for producing this decay mode at the LHC and explore the possibility of measuring the B_{s}^{*}→ℓℓ amplitude, instead, through scattering experiments at the B_{s}^{*} resonance peak.

  8. Oxygen consumption in weakly electric Neotropical fishes.

    PubMed

    Julian, David; Crampton, William G R; Wohlgemuth, Stephanie E; Albert, James S

    2003-12-01

    Weakly electric gymnotiform fishes with wave-type electric organ discharge (EOD) are less hypoxia-tolerant and are less likely to be found in hypoxic habitats than weakly electric gymnotiforms with pulse-type EOD, suggesting that differences in metabolism resulting from EOD type affects habitat choice. Although gymnotiform fishes are common in most Neotropical freshwaters and represent the dominant vertebrates in some habitats, the metabolic rates of these unique fishes have never been determined. In this study, O(2) consumption rates during EOD generation are reported for 34 gymnotiforms representing 23 species, all five families and 17 (59%) of the 28 genera. Over the size range sampled (0.4 g to 125 g), O(2) consumption of gymnotiform fishes was dependent on body mass, as expected, fitting a power function with a scaling exponent of 0.74, but the O(2) consumption rate was generally about 50% of that expected by extrapolation of temperate teleost metabolic rates to a similar ambient temperature (26 degrees C). O(2) consumption rate was not dependent on EOD type, but maintenance of "scan swimming" (continuous forwards and backwards swimming), which is characteristic only of gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs, increased O(2) consumption 2.83+/-0.49-fold (mean+/-SD). This suggests that the increased metabolic cost of scan swimming could restrict gymnotiforms with wave-type EODs from hypoxic habitats.

  9. Optimal Weak-Lensing Skewness Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John

    2003-12-01

    Weak-lensing measurements are starting to provide statistical maps of the distribution of matter in the universe that are increasingly precise and complementary to cosmic microwave background maps. The most common measurement is the correlation in alignments of background galaxies, which can be used to infer the variance of the projected surface density of matter. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content and is analogous to using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. However, when the depth is shallow, as happens near a beach, waves become skewed. Similarly, a measurement of skewness in the projected matter distribution directly measures the total matter content of the universe. While skewness has already been convincingly detected, its constraint on cosmology is still weak. We address optimal analyses for the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in the presence of noise. We show that a compensated Gaussian filter with a width of 2.5‧ optimizes the cosmological constraint, yielding ΔΩm/Ωm~10%. This is significantly better than other filters that have been considered in the literature. This can be further improved with tomography and other sophisticated analyses.

  10. Crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization in a magnetically doped topological insulator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Minhao; Zhang, Jinsong; Chang, Cui-Zu; Zhang, Zuocheng; Feng, Xiao; Li, Kang; He, Ke; Wang, Li-li; Chen, Xi; Dai, Xi; Fang, Zhong; Xue, Qi-Kun; Ma, Xucun; Wang, Yayu

    2012-01-20

    We report transport studies on magnetically doped Bi(2)Se(3) topological insulator ultrathin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The magnetotransport behavior exhibits a systematic crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization with the change of magnetic impurity concentration, temperature, and magnetic field. We show that the localization property is closely related to the magnetization of the sample, and the complex crossover is due to the transformation of Bi(2)Se(3) from a topological insulator to a topologically trivial dilute magnetic semiconductor driven by magnetic impurities. This work demonstrates an effective way to manipulate the quantum transport properties of the topological insulators by breaking time-reversal symmetry.

  11. Baryons, neutrinos, feedback and weak gravitational lensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Viola, Massimo; Heymans, Catherine

    2015-06-01

    The effect of baryonic feedback on the dark matter mass distribution is generally considered to be a nuisance to weak gravitational lensing. Measurements of cosmological parameters are affected as feedback alters the cosmic shear signal on angular scales smaller than a few arcminutes. Recent progress on the numerical modelling of baryon physics has shown that this effect could be so large that, rather than being a nuisance, the effect can be constrained with current weak lensing surveys, hence providing an alternative astrophysical insight on one of the most challenging questions of galaxy formation. In order to perform our analysis, we construct an analytic fitting formula that describes the effect of the baryons on the mass power spectrum. This fitting formula is based on three scenarios of the OverWhelmingly Large hydrodynamical simulations. It is specifically calibrated for z < 1.5, where it models the simulations to an accuracy that is better than 2 per cent for scales k < 10 h Mpc-1 and better than 5 per cent for 10 < k < 100 h Mpc-1. Equipped with this precise tool, this paper presents the first constraint on baryonic feedback models using gravitational lensing data, from the Canada France Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). In this analysis, we show that the effect of neutrino mass on the mass power spectrum is degenerate with the baryonic feedback at small angular scales and cannot be ignored. Assuming a cosmology precision fixed by WMAP9, we find that a universe with massless neutrinos is rejected by the CFHTLenS lensing data with 85-98 per cent confidence, depending on the baryon feedback model. Some combinations of feedback and non-zero neutrino masses are also disfavoured by the data, although it is not yet possible to isolate a unique neutrino mass and feedback model. Our study shows that ongoing weak gravitational lensing surveys (KiDS, HSC and DES) will offer a unique opportunity to probe the physics of baryons at galactic scales, in

  12. Upregulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-1 beta in Q fever endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Capo, C; Zugun, F; Stein, A; Tardei, G; Lepidi, H; Raoult, D; Mege, J L

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of Q fever endocarditis likely involves some alterations in the responses of monocytes, the in vivo targets of Coxiella burnetii. To test this hypothesis, the production of the inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-6 was assessed in monocytes from patients with Q fever endocarditis. Spontaneous transcription and secretion of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 were significantly higher in patient monocytes than in healthy controls. The interleukin-6 transcripts were also upregulated in patient cells. Moreover, in patients with recent endocarditis exhibiting high titers of immunoglobulin G directed to C. burnetii in phase I, monocytes released significantly higher levels of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 than in patients with stabilized endocarditis. Immunoglobulin G titers and the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 were significantly correlated. Hence, the overproduction of inflammatory cytokines might be a marker of disease activity. PMID:8613372

  13. Herpesviral Hematopoietic Necrosis in Goldfish in Switzerland: Early Lesions in Clinically Normal Goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Giovannini, S; Bergmann, S M; Keeling, C; Lany, C; Schütze, H; Schmidt-Posthaus, H

    2016-07-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 2 is a pathogen of goldfish, inducing a disease referred to as herpesviral hematopoietic necrosis. The disease is described so far in Japan, North America, Taiwan, Australia, the United Kingdom, and recently also Italy. Here the authors describe histologic lesions in clinically affected fish in comparison with clinically normal but virus DNA-positive goldfish in Switzerland. While necrosis or enhanced single-cell necrosis in the hematopoietic tissue in the pronephros or mesonephros was evident in dead and sick animals, in clinically normal goldfish, only single-cell necrosis was observed. Virus DNA was demonstrated in dead as well as clinically affected and subclinically infected goldfish by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. This study identifies the presence of goldfish herpesvirus in Switzerland and highlights the fact that the virus might be more widespread than assumed, as clinically normal goldfish can also carry cyprinid herpesvirus 2, showing histologically similar lesions but of lesser extent and severity. PMID:26553521

  14. Acute esophageal necrosis occurring in a patient undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyung-Jin; Park, Sang-Ho; Ahn, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Chang-Kyun

    2014-05-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis is uncommon in the literature. Its etiology is unknown, although cardiovascular disease, hemodynamic compromise, gastric outlet obstruction, alcohol ingestion, hypoxemia, hypercoagulable state, infection, and trauma have all been suggested as possible causes. A 67-year-old female underwent a coronary angiography (CAG) for evaluation of chest pain. CAG findings showed coronary three-vessel disease. We planned percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Coronary arterial dissection during the PCI led to sudden hypotension. Six hours after the index procedure, the patient experienced a large amount of hematemesis. Emergency gastrofibroscopy was performed and showed mucosal necrosis with a huge adherent blood clot in the esophagus. After conservative treatment for 3 months, the esophageal lesion was completely improved. She was diagnosed with acute esophageal necrosis. We report herein a case of acute esophageal necrosis occurring in a patient undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. PMID:24851074

  15. Necrosis in benign salivary gland neoplasms. Not necessarily a sign of malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Allen, C M; Damm, D; Neville, B; Rodu, B; Page, D; Weathers, D R

    1994-10-01

    Necrosis that occurs in a salivary gland neoplasm is usually considered to be an ominous sign, suggesting malignant transformation, particularly in lesions that have had no prior manipulation such as fine-needle aspiration. We describe five pleomorphic adenomas and two canalicular adenomas of salivary gland origin that exhibited necrosis, yet were otherwise benign. All lesions displayed a distinctive histopathologic pattern characterized by a narrow rim of viable tumor tissue at the periphery of the neoplasm combined with a diffuse central region that demonstrated apparent ischemic necrosis. No invasion of adjacent normal tissue was identified, and no recurrence or metastasis has been seen with these lesions. Caution should be exercised in the evaluation of salivary gland neoplasms with central necrosis to avoid misdiagnosis of all such lesions as malignant.

  16. [Brain radiation necrosis after stereotactic radiotherapy of the resection cavity for intracranial metastases: analysis of the literature from four cases].

    PubMed

    Doré, M; Lefebvre, L; Delpon, G; Thillays, F

    2015-04-01

    Stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy after resection of brain metastasis is an alternative to whole brain radiotherapy. A high dose per fraction is associated with a risk of radiation necrosis. We present four cases of confirmed histological radiation necrosis. Differentiating recurrent tumour from radiation necrosis in this scenario is challenging. An enhancing area in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a "cut bell pepper" appearance may suggest radiation necrosis. Advanced imaging modalities such as perfusion MR imaging and positron emission tomography can be useful. Dosimetric predictors of the occurrence of radiation necrosis after stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy are poorly understood and require prospective studies on larger cohorts.

  17. [Brain radiation necrosis after stereotactic radiotherapy of the resection cavity for intracranial metastases: analysis of the literature from four cases].

    PubMed

    Doré, M; Lefebvre, L; Delpon, G; Thillays, F

    2015-04-01

    Stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy after resection of brain metastasis is an alternative to whole brain radiotherapy. A high dose per fraction is associated with a risk of radiation necrosis. We present four cases of confirmed histological radiation necrosis. Differentiating recurrent tumour from radiation necrosis in this scenario is challenging. An enhancing area in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a "cut bell pepper" appearance may suggest radiation necrosis. Advanced imaging modalities such as perfusion MR imaging and positron emission tomography can be useful. Dosimetric predictors of the occurrence of radiation necrosis after stereotactic hypofractionated radiotherapy are poorly understood and require prospective studies on larger cohorts. PMID:25573799

  18. WEAK LENSING MASS RECONSTRUCTION: FLEXION VERSUS SHEAR

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, S.

    2010-11-10

    Weak gravitational lensing has proven to be a powerful tool to map directly the distribution of dark matter in the universe. The technique, currently used, relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational shear that corresponds to the first-order distortion of the background galaxy images. More recently, a new technique has been introduced that relies on the accurate measurement of the gravitational flexion that corresponds to the second-order distortion of the background galaxy images. This technique should probe structures on smaller scales than that of shear analysis. The goal of this paper is to compare the ability of shear and flexion to reconstruct the dark matter distribution by taking into account the dispersion in shear and flexion measurements. Our results show that the flexion is less sensitive than shear for constructing the convergence maps on scales that are physically feasible for mapping, meaning that flexion alone should not be used to do convergence map reconstruction, even on small scales.

  19. Is Fusion Inhibited for Weakly Bound Nuclei?

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, J.; Munhoz, M.; Szanto, E.M.; Carlin, N.; Added, N.; Suaide, A.A.; de Moura, M.M.; Liguori Neto, R.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Canto, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    Complete fusion of light radioactive nuclei is predicted to be hindered at near-barrier energies. This feature is investigated in the case of the least bound stable nuclei. Evaporation residues resulting from the {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 9}Be and {sup 6,7}Li+{sup 12}C fusion reactions have been measured in order to study common features in reactions involving light weakly bound nuclei. The experimental excitation functions revealed that the fusion cross section is significantly smaller than the total reaction cross section and also smaller than the fusion cross section expected from the available systematics. A clear correlation between the fusion probability and nucleon (cluster) separation energy has been established.The results suggest that the breakup process has a strong influence on the hindrance of the fusion cross section. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Weak kaon production off the nucleon

    SciTech Connect

    Rafi Alam, M.; Sajjad Athar, M.; Ruiz Simo, I.; Vicente Vacas, M. J.

    2010-08-01

    The weak kaon production off the nucleon induced by neutrinos is studied at the low and intermediate energies of interest for some ongoing and future neutrino oscillation experiments. This process is also potentially important for the analysis of proton decay experiments. We develop a microscopical model based on the SU(3) chiral Lagrangians. The basic parameters of the model are f{sub {pi},} the pion decay constant, Cabibbo's angle, the proton and neutron magnetic moments, and the axial vector coupling constants for the baryons octet, D and F, that are obtained from the analysis of the semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons. The studied mechanisms are the main source of kaon production for neutrino energies up to 1.2 to 1.5 GeV for the various channels and the cross sections are large enough to be amenable to be measured by experiments such as Minerva and T2K.

  1. Dynamics of weakly coupled parametrically forced oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salgado Sánchez, P.; Porter, J.; Tinao, I.; Laverón-Simavilla, A.

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of two weakly coupled parametric oscillators are studied in the neighborhood of the primary subharmonic instability. The nature of both primary and secondary instabilities depends in a critical way on the permutation symmetries, if any, that remain after coupling is considered, and this depends on the relative phases of the parametric forcing terms. Detailed bifurcation sets, revealing a complex series of transitions organized in part by Bogdanov-Takens points, are calculated for representative sets of parameters. In the particular case of out-of-phase forcing the predictions of the coupled oscillator model are compared with direct numerical simulations and with recent experiments on modulated cross waves. Both the initial Hopf bifurcation and the subsequent saddle-node heteroclinic bifurcation are confirmed.

  2. Localized chaotic patterns in weakly dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urzagasti, D.; Laroze, D.; Pleiner, H.

    2014-01-01

    A generalized parametrically driven damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to describe, close to the resonance, the dynamics of weakly dissipative systems, like a harmonically coupled pendula chain or an easy-plane magnetic wire. The combined effects of parametric forcing, spatial coupling, and dissipation allows for the existence of stable non-trivial uniform states as well as homogeneous pattern states. The latter can be regular or chaotic. A new family of localized states that connect asymptotically a non-trivial uniform state with a spatio-temporal chaotic pattern is numerically found. We discuss the parameter range, where these localized structures exist. This article is dedicated to Prof. Helmut R. Brand on the occasion of his 60th birthday.

  3. Weakly bound atomic trimers in ultracold traps

    SciTech Connect

    Yamashita, M. T.; Frederico, T.; Tomio, Lauro; Delfino, A.

    2003-09-01

    The experimental three-atom recombination coefficients of the atomic states {sup 23}Na|F=1,m{sub F}=-1>, {sup 87}Rb|F=1,m{sub F}=-1>, and {sup 85}Rb|F=2,m{sub F}=-2>, together with the corresponding two-body scattering lengths, allow predictions of the trimer bound-state energies for such systems in a trap. The recombination parameter is given as a function of the weakly bound trimer energies, which are in the interval 1, for a particular trap, is shown to be relatively small.

  4. Adaptive antenna arrays for weak interfering signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, I. J.

    1985-01-01

    The interference protection provided by adaptive antenna arrays to an Earth station or satellite receive antenna system is studied. The case where the interference is caused by the transmission from adjacent satellites or Earth stations whose signals inadverently enter the receiving system and interfere with the communication link is considered. Thus, the interfering signals are very weak. To increase the interference suppression, one can either decrease the thermal noise in the feedback loops or increase the gain of the auxiliary antennas in the interfering signal direction. Both methods are examined. It is shown that one may have to reduce the noise correlation to impractically low values and if directive auxiliary antennas are used, the auxiliary antenna size may have to be too large. One can, however, combine the two methods to achieve the specified interference suppression with reasonable requirements of noise decorrelation and auxiliary antenna size. Effects of the errors in the steering vector on the adaptive array performance are studied.

  5. Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-naim, Eli; Krapivsky, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

  6. Heterodyne detection with a weak local oscillator.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Leaf A; Luu, Jane X

    2008-04-01

    Heterodyne detection in the limit of weak (a few photons) local oscillator and signal power levels has been largely neglected in the past, as authors almost always assumed that the noise was dominated by the shot noise from a strong local oscillator. We present the theory for heterodyne detection of diffuse and specular targets at arbitrary power levels, including the case where the local oscillator power is only a few photons per coherent integration period. The theory was tested with experimental results, and was found to show good agreement. We show how to interpret the power spectral density of the heterodyne signal and how to determine the optimal number of signal and local oscillator photons per coherent integration.

  7. Meson exchange and neutral weak currents

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.H.

    1994-04-01

    Measurements of parity-violating electron scattering asymmetries to determine weak neutral currents in nuclei will be effected by the presence of meson exchange currents. Present low momentum transfer calculations, based on a flavor independent framework, show these effects to be small. In general, however, as the momentum transfer increases to values typical of deep-inelastic scattering, fragmentation functions show a clear flavor dependence. It is suggested that a good experimental starting point for understanding the flavor dependence of meson production and exchange currents is the Q{sup 2} dependence of parity-violating asymmetry in inclusive single pion electroproduction. A CEBAF facility with doubled energy is necessary to approach momentum transfers where this process begins to scale.

  8. Dynamics of weakly coupled parametrically forced oscillators.

    PubMed

    Salgado Sánchez, P; Porter, J; Tinao, I; Laverón-Simavilla, A

    2016-08-01

    The dynamics of two weakly coupled parametric oscillators are studied in the neighborhood of the primary subharmonic instability. The nature of both primary and secondary instabilities depends in a critical way on the permutation symmetries, if any, that remain after coupling is considered, and this depends on the relative phases of the parametric forcing terms. Detailed bifurcation sets, revealing a complex series of transitions organized in part by Bogdanov-Takens points, are calculated for representative sets of parameters. In the particular case of out-of-phase forcing the predictions of the coupled oscillator model are compared with direct numerical simulations and with recent experiments on modulated cross waves. Both the initial Hopf bifurcation and the subsequent saddle-node heteroclinic bifurcation are confirmed.

  9. Universal quantum computation with weakly integral anyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shawn X.; Hong, Seung-Moon; Wang, Zhenghan

    2015-08-01

    Harnessing non-abelian statistics of anyons to perform quantum computational tasks is getting closer to reality. While the existence of universal anyons by braiding alone such as the Fibonacci anyon is theoretically a possibility, accessible anyons with current technology all belong to a class that is called weakly integral—anyons whose squared quantum dimensions are integers. We analyze the computational power of the first non-abelian anyon system with only integral quantum dimensions—, the quantum double of . Since all anyons in have finite images of braid group representations, they cannot be universal for quantum computation by braiding alone. Based on our knowledge of the images of the braid group representations, we set up three qutrit computational models. Supplementing braidings with some measurements and ancillary states, we find a universal gate set for each model.

  10. Constraining weak annihilation using semileptonic D decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2010-08-01

    The recently measured semileptonic D{sub s} decay rate can be used to constrain weak annihilation (WA) effects in semileptonic D and B decays. We revisit the theoretical predictions for inclusive semileptonic D{sub (s)} decays using a variety of quark mass schemes. The most reliable results are obtained if the fits to B decay distributions are used to eliminate the charm quark mass dependence, without using any specific charm mass scheme. Our fit to the available data shows that WA is smaller than commonly assumed. There is no indication that the WA octet contribution (which is better constrained than the singlet contribution) dominates. The results constrain an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of |V{sub ub}| from inclusive semileptonic B decays.

  11. A case series of skin necrosis following use of non invasive ventilation pressure masks.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Z; Venus, M; Kisku, W; Rayatt, S S

    2013-02-01

    Two cases of nasal skin necrosis secondary to pressure from the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) face masks are presented. Both developed skin necrosis as a result of wearing these masks over the nasal bridge. These cases highlight the need for clinical vigilance in application of CPAP masks, the need for monitoring the skin of the nose during CPAP use and the possible need for modifications in design to help prevent this serious complication. PMID:22432901

  12. Analysis of risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Jun-Ying; Zha, Guo-Chun; Jiang, Tao; You, Zhen-Jun; Yuan, De-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Femoral head necrosis is a rare but devastating complication following femoral neck fracture. The reported incidence of avascular necrosis after femoral neck fracture fixation varies widely, and there is no consensus regarding its risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fracture. This retrospective study included 166 patients with femoral neck fractures treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation at the authors' institution from January 2004 to December 2008. Eight patients died for reasons unrelated to the surgery, and 12 patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 146 patients (146 fractures) were followed until union or until conversion to total hip arthroplasty. The patients included 61 males and 85 females with an average age of 47.5 years (range, 18-68 years). The authors analyzed the following factors: age, sex, Garden classification, reduction quality, surgical methods, injury-to-surgery interval, preoperative traction, weight-bearing time, and implant removal. All patients were followed for a mean of 52 months (range, 6-90 months). The incidence of femoral head necrosis was 14.4% (21/146). Garden classification (P=.012), reduction quality (P=.008), implant removal (P=.020), and preoperative traction (P=.003) were significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. Patient age (P=.990), sex (P=.287), injury-to-surgery interval (P=.360), weight-bearing time (P=.868), and surgical methods (P=.987) were not significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, implant removal was not a significant risk factor for femoral head necrosis development (P=.498). Garden classification, reduction quality, and preoperative traction had a significant effect on femoral head necrosis development. PMID:25437087

  13. [Intracardiac mass: Why not a liquefaction necrosis of a mitral annulus calcification?].

    PubMed

    Leddet, P; Couppié, P; De Poli, F; Uhry, S; Hanssen, M

    2015-11-01

    We report the case of an asymptomatic 70-year-old woman with a liquefaction necrosis of mitral annulus calcification. This mass was discovered incidentally during an echocardiographic examination. Additional treatment was not performed because liquefaction necrosis of mitral calcification usually has a benign prognosic. A scheduled clinical review with an echocardiographic examination and cardiac MRI was planified. The patient is actually healthy without any complication.

  14. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.

  15. Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, R.L. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10{sup {minus}11}. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Weakly nonlinear instability of planar viscoelastic sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Yang, Li-jun; Xie, Luo; Chen, Pi-min

    2015-01-01

    A second-order weakly nonlinear analysis has been made of the temporal instability for the linear sinuous mode of two-dimensional planar viscoelastic liquid sheets moving in an inviscid gas. The convected Jeffreys models including the corotational Jeffreys model, Oldroyd A model, and the Oldroyd B model are considered as the rheology model of the viscoelastic fluid of the sheet. The solution for the second-order gas-to-liquid interface displacement has been derived, and the temporal evolution leading to the breakup has been shown. The second-order interface displacement of the linear sinuous mode is varicose, which causes the sheet to fragment into ligaments. First-order constitutive relations of the three rheology models become identical after linearization, so the linear instability results are also the same. For the second-order weakly nonlinear instability, the second-order constitutive relation varies among the corotational Jeffreys model, Oldroyd A model, and the Oldroyd B model, but although they have different disturbance pressures, their disturbance velocities and interface displacements are the same, and therefore, the sheets of the corotational Jeffreys fluid, Oldroyd A fluid, and the Oldroyd B fluid have the same instability behavior characterized by the wave profile and breakup time. The reason for the identical instability behavior is that the effect of different codeformations of the corotational frame, covariant frame, and the contravariant frame is counteracted by the corresponding change in the second-order disturbance pressure, leaving no influence on the second-order velocity. At wavenumbers with maximum instabilities, an increase in the elasticity, or a reduction of the deformation retardation time, leads to a larger linear temporal growth rate, greater second-order disturbance amplitude, and shorter breakup time, thereby enhancing instability. The mechanism of linear instability has been examined using an energy approach, which shows that the

  17. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    DOE PAGES

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed themore » statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.« less

  18. Magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, James E.; Lukin, Vyacheslav S.; Linton, Mark G.

    2013-06-15

    Magnetic reconnection in partially ionized plasmas is a ubiquitous phenomenon spanning the range from laboratory to intergalactic scales, yet it remains poorly understood and relatively little studied. Here, we present results from a self-consistent multi-fluid simulation of magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized reacting plasma with a particular focus on the parameter regime of the solar chromosphere. The numerical model includes collisional transport, interaction and reactions between the species, and optically thin radiative losses. This model improves upon our previous work in Leake et al.[“Multi-fluid simulations of chromospheric magnetic reconnection in a weakly ionized reacting plasma,” Astrophys. J. 760, 109 (2012)] by considering realistic chromospheric transport coefficients, and by solving a generalized Ohm's law that accounts for finite ion-inertia and electron-neutral drag. We find that during the two dimensional reconnection of a Harris current sheet with an initial width larger than the neutral-ion collisional coupling scale, the current sheet thins until its width becomes less than this coupling scale, and the neutral and ion fluids decouple upstream from the reconnection site. During this process of decoupling, we observe reconnection faster than the single-fluid Sweet-Parker prediction, with recombination and plasma outflow both playing a role in determining the reconnection rate. As the current sheet thins further and elongates, it becomes unstable to the secondary tearing instability, and plasmoids are seen. The reconnection rate, outflows, and plasmoids observed in this simulation provide evidence that magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere could be responsible for jet-like transient phenomena such as spicules and chromospheric jets.

  19. Acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled premixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Lieuwen, Tim; Mohan, Sripathi; Rajaram, Rajesh; Preetham,

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a theoretical analysis of acoustic radiation from weakly wrinkled (i.e., u'/S{sub L}<1) premixed flames. Specifically, it determines the transfer function relating the spectrum of the acoustic pressure oscillations, P'({omega}), to that of the turbulent velocity fluctuations in the approach flow, U'({omega}). In the weakly wrinkled limit, this transfer function is local in frequency space; i.e., velocity fluctuations at a frequency {omega} distort the flame and generate sound at the same frequency. This transfer function primarily depends upon the flame Strouhal number St (based on mean flow velocity and flame length) and the correlation length, {lambda}, of the flow fluctuations. For cases where the ratio of the correlation length and duct radius {lambda}/a>>1, the acoustic pressure and turbulent velocity power spectra are related by P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively. For cases where {lambda}/a<<1, the transfer functions take the form P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}U'({omega}) and P'({omega})-{omega}{sup 2}({lambda}/a){sup 2}({psi}-{delta}ln({lambda}/a))U'({omega}) for St<<1 and St>>1, respectively, where (PS) and {delta} are constants. The latter result demonstrates that this transfer function does not exhibit a simple power law relationship in the high frequency region of the spectra. The simultaneous dependence of this pressure-velocity transfer function upon the Strouhal number and correlation length suggests a mechanism for the experimentally observed maximum in acoustic spectra and provides some insight into the controversy in the literature over how this peak should scale with the flame Strouhal number.

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and ceramides in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Brindley, D N; Wang, C N; Mei, J; Xu, J; Hanna, A N

    1999-01-01

    The present studies tested the hypothesis that some effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are mediated by activation of sphingomyelinases and the production of ceramides. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated with short-chain ceramide analogs, (C2- and C6-ceramides: N-acetyl- and N-hexanoyl-sphingosines, respectively), and this treatment increased 2-deoxyglucose uptake in the absence of insulin progressively from 2-24 h. This effect was inhibited by blocking the activations of mitogen-activated protein kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase), and ribosomal S6 kinase which mediated an increase in GLUT1 concentrations. Long-term increases in PI 3-kinase activity associated with insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) increased the proportion of GLUT1 and GLUT4 in plasma membranes. These events explain the increases in noninsulin-dependent glucose uptake and incorporation of this glucose into the fatty acid and glycerol moieties of triacylglycerol. The mechanisms by which TNF-alpha and ceramides increase PI 3-kinase activity were investigated further by using rat2 fibroblasts. Incubation for 20 min with TNF-alpha, bacterial sphingomyelinase, or C2-ceramides increased PI 3-kinase activity by about fivefold, and this effect depended upon a stimulation of tyrosine kinase activity and an increase in Ras-GTP. This demonstrates the existence of a novel signaling pathway for TNF-alpha that could contribute to the effects of this cytokine in stimulating basal glucose uptake. By contrast, treating the 3T3-L1 adipocytes for 2-24 h with C2-ceramide diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by decreasing the insulin-induced translocation of GLUT1 and GLUT4 to plasma membranes. This inhibition was observed when there was no increase in basal glucose uptake, and it occurred downstream of PI 3-kinase. Our work provides further mechanisms whereby TNF-alpha and ceramides produce insulin resistance and decrease the effectiveness of insulin in

  1. Characterization of tumor necrosis factor-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Marino, M W; Dunn, A; Grail, D; Inglese, M; Noguchi, Y; Richards, E; Jungbluth, A; Wada, H; Moore, M; Williamson, B; Basu, S; Old, L J

    1997-07-22

    Although tumor necrosis factor (TNF) initially came to prominence because of its anti-tumor activity, most attention is now focused on its proinflammatory actions. TNF appears to play a critical role in both early and late events involved in inflammation, from localizing the noxious agent and amplifying the cellular and mediator responses at the local site and systemically, to editing (e.g., apoptosis) injured cells or effete immune cells and repairing inflammatory damage. We have generated mice deficient in TNF (TNF-/- mice) and have begun to examine the multiple functions attributed to TNF. TNF-/- mice develop normally and have no gross structural or morphological abnormalities. As predicted, they are highly susceptible to challenge with an infectious agent (Candida albicans), are resistant to the lethality of minute doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) following D-galactosamine treatment, have a deficiency in granuloma development, and do not form germinal centers after immunization. Phagocytic activity of macrophages appears relatively normal, as do T cell functions, as measured by proliferation, cytokine release, and cytotoxicity. B cell response to thymus-independent antigens is normal, but the Ig response to thymus-dependent antigen is reduced. Surprisingly, cytokine production induced by LPS appears essentially intact, with the exception of reduced colony-stimulating factor activity. Other unexpected findings coming from our initial analysis are as follows. (i) TNF has low toxicity in TNF-/- mice. (ii) TNF-/- mice show an anomalous late response to heat-killed Corynebacterium parvum. In contrast to the prompt response (granuloma formation, hepatosplenomegaly) and subsequent resolution phase in C. parvum-injected TNF+/+ mice, similarly treated TNF-/- mice show little or no initial response, but then develop a vigorous, disorganized inflammatory response leading to death. These results suggest that TNF has an essential homeostatic role in limiting the extent and

  2. Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.

    2010-11-30

    This project carried out a weak lensing tomography (WLT) measurement around rich clusters of galaxies. This project used ground based photometric redshift data combined with HST archived cluster images that provide the WLT and cluster mass modeling. The technique has already produced interesting results (Guennou et al, 2010,Astronomy & Astrophysics Vol 523, page 21, and Clowe et al, 2011 to be submitted). Guennou et al have validated that the necessary accuracy can be achieved with photometric redshifts for our purposes. Clowe et al titled "The DAFT/FADA survey. II. Tomographic weak lensing signal from 10 high redshift clusters," have shown that for the **first time** via this purely geometrical technique, which does not assume a standard rod or candle, that a cosmological constant is **required** for flat cosmologies. The intent of this project is not to produce the best constraint on the value of the dark energy equation of state, w. Rather, this project is to carry out a sustained effort of weak lensing tomography that will naturally feed into the near term Dark Energy Survey (DES) and to provide invaluable mass calibration for that project. These results will greatly advance a key cosmological method which will be applied to the top-rated ground-based project in the Astro2020 decadal survey, LSST. Weak lensing tomography is one of the key science drivers behind LSST. CO-I Clowe is on the weak lensing LSST committee, and senior scientist on this project, at FNAL James Annis, plays a leading role in the DES. This project has built on successful proposals to obtain ground-based imaging for the cluster sample. By 1 Jan, it is anticipated the project will have accumulated complete 5-color photometry on 30 (or about 1/3) of the targeted cluster sample (public webpage for the survey is available at http://cencos.oamp.fr/DAFT/ and has a current summary of the observational status of various clusters). In all, the project has now been awarded the equivalent of over 60

  3. X-Ray Weak Broad-Line Quasars: Absorption or Intrinsic X-Ray Weakness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risaliti, Guido; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    XMM observations of X-ray weak quasars have been performed during 2003. The data for all but the last observation are now available (there has been a delay of several months on the initial schedule, due to high background flares which contaminated the observations: as a consequence, most of them had to be rescheduled). We have reduced and analyzed these data, and obtained interesting preliminary scientific results. Out of the eight sources, 4 are confirmed to be extrimely X-ray weak, in agreement with the results of previous Chandra observations. 3 sources are confirmed to be highly variable both in flux (by factors 20-50) and in spectral properties (dramatic changes in spectral index). For both these groups of objects, an article is in preparation. Preliminary results have been presented at an international workshop on AGN surveys in December 2003, in Cozumel (Mexico). In order to further understand the nature of these X-ray weak quasars, we submitted proposals for spectroscopy at optical and infrared telescopes. We obtained time at the TNG 4 meter telescope for near-IR observations, and at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope for optical high-resolution spectroscopy. These observations will be performed in early 2004, and will complement the XMM data, in order to understand whether the X-ray weakness of these sources is an intrinsic property or is due to absorption by circumnuclear material.

  4. Crossover between weak antilocalization and weak localization of bulk states in ultrathin Bi₂Se₃ films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huichao; Liu, Haiwen; Chang, Cui-Zu; Zuo, Huakun; Zhao, Yanfei; Sun, Yi; Xia, Zhengcai; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xie, X C; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Jian

    2014-07-24

    We report transport studies on the 5 nm thick Bi₂Se₃ topological insulator films which are grown via molecular beam epitaxy technique. The angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data show that the Fermi level of the system lies in the bulk conduction band above the Dirac point, suggesting important contribution of bulk states to the transport results. In particular, the crossover from weak antilocalization to weak localization in the bulk states is observed in the parallel magnetic field measurements up to 50 Tesla. The measured magneto-resistance exhibits interesting anisotropy with respect to the orientation of parallel magnetic field B// and the current I, signifying intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the Bi₂Se₃ films. Our work directly shows the crossover of quantum interference effect in the bulk states from weak antilocalization to weak localization. It presents an important step toward a better understanding of the existing three-dimensional topological insulators and the potential applications of nano-scale topological insulator devices.

  5. Response-driven imaging biomarkers for predicting radiation necrosis of the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazem Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H.; Chenevert, Thomas; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2014-05-01

    Radiation necrosis is an uncommon but severe adverse effect of brain radiation therapy (RT). Current predictive models based on radiation dose have limited accuracy. We aimed to identify early individual response biomarkers based upon diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and incorporated them into a response model for prediction of radiation necrosis. Twenty-nine patients with glioblastoma received six weeks of intensity modulated RT and concurrent temozolomide. Patients underwent DT-MRI scans before treatment, at three weeks during RT, and one, three, and six months after RT. Cases with radiation necrosis were classified based on generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) of whole brain and DT index early changes in the corpus callosum and its substructures. Significant covariates were used to develop normal tissue complication probability models using binary logistic regression. Seven patients developed radiation necrosis. Percentage changes of radial diffusivity (RD) in the splenium at three weeks during RT and at six months after RT differed significantly between the patients with and without necrosis (p = 0.05 and p = 0.01). Percentage change of RD at three weeks during RT in the 30 Gy dose-volume of the splenium and brain gEUD combined yielded the best-fit logistic regression model. Our findings indicate that early individual response during the course of RT, assessed by radial diffusivity, has the potential to aid the prediction of delayed radiation necrosis, which could provide guidance in dose-escalation trials.

  6. Fast Neutron Induced Autophagy Leads To Necrosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Linda; Gladden, Samantha; Andorf, Christine; Kroc, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Fast neutrons are highly effective at killing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), U87 and U251 cells. The mode of cell death was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the fraction of irradiated U87 or U251 cells having morphological features of autophagy and/or necrosis. U87 or U251 cells were irradiated with 2 Gy fast neturons or 10 Gy γ rays. A majority of U87 and U251 cells exhibit features of cell death with autophagy after irradiation with either 10 Gy γ rays or 2 Gy fast neutrons. Very few γ irradiated cells had features of necrosis (U87 or U251 cell samples processed for TEM 1 day after 10 Gy γ irradiation). In contrast, a significant increase was observed in necrotic U87 and U251 cells irradiated with fast neutrons. These results show a greater percentage of cells exhibit morphological evidence of necrosis induced by a lower dose of fast neutron irradiation compared to γ irradiation. Also, the evidence of necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells occurs in a background of autophagy. Since autophagy is observed before necrosis, autophagy may play a role in signaling programmed necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells.

  7. Fast Neutron Induced Autophagy Leads To Necrosis In Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yasui, Linda; Gladden, Samantha; Andorf, Christine; Kroc, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Fast neutrons are highly effective at killing glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), U87 and U251 cells. The mode of cell death was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to identify the fraction of irradiated U87 or U251 cells having morphological features of autophagy and/or necrosis. U87 or U251 cells were irradiated with 2 Gy fast neturons or 10 Gy {gamma} rays. A majority of U87 and U251 cells exhibit features of cell death with autophagy after irradiation with either 10 Gy {gamma} rays or 2 Gy fast neutrons. Very few {gamma} irradiated cells had features of necrosis (U87 or U251 cell samples processed for TEM 1 day after 10 Gy {gamma} irradiation). In contrast, a significant increase was observed in necrotic U87 and U251 cells irradiated with fast neutrons. These results show a greater percentage of cells exhibit morphological evidence of necrosis induced by a lower dose of fast neutron irradiation compared to {gamma} irradiation. Also, the evidence of necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells occurs in a background of autophagy. Since autophagy is observed before necrosis, autophagy may play a role in signaling programmed necrosis in fast neutron irradiated U87 and U251 cells.

  8. Dependency of tissue necrosis on gelatin sponge particle size after canine hepatic artery embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Sonomura, Tetsuo; Yamada, Ryusaku; Kishi, Kazushi; Nishida, Norifumi; Yang, Ren J.; Sato, Morio

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. To determine the optimal size of gelatin sponge particles (GSPs) to produce maximum tumor necrosis with minimum side effects after canine hepatic artery embolization (HAE). Methods. GSPs were separated into four size ranges: A, up to 200 {mu}m (mean 152) as Gelfoam powder; B, 200-500 {mu}m (mean 336) as Gelfoam powder; C, 500-1000 {mu}m (mean 649) as Spongel; and D, 1000-2000 {mu}m (mean 1382) as Spongel. Three mongrel dogs were assigned randomly to HAE with each particle size. On day 7 after HAE, the livers were removed and subjected to pathological examination. Results. The mean volume of liver necrosis was 11% after embolization, with particle size A, 36.3% with B, 0% with C, and 1% with D. Coagulation necrosis was found in all livers with particles of sizes A and B, and in 1 of 6 with sizes C and D. Bile duct injury was found in five of six dogs with sizes A and B and in none with sizes C and D. Gallbladder necrosis was found in one dog with size B and pancreas necrosis in one with size A. Conclusion. GSPs of 500 {mu}m are considered optimally effective for tissue necrosis according to this model.

  9. Rapid Detection of Necrosis in Breast Cancer with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tata, Alessandra; Woolman, Michael; Ventura, Manuela; Bernards, Nicholas; Ganguly, Milan; Gribble, Adam; Shrestha, Bindesh; Bluemke, Emma; Ginsberg, Howard J.; Vitkin, Alex; Zheng, Jinzi; Zarrine-Afsar, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Identification of necrosis in tumors is of prognostic value in treatment planning, as necrosis is associated with aggressive forms of cancer and unfavourable outcomes. To facilitate rapid detection of necrosis with Mass Spectrometry (MS), we report the lipid MS profile of necrotic breast cancer with Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) imaging validated with statistical analysis and correlating pathology. This MS profile is characterized by (1) the presence of the ion of m/z 572.48 [Cer(d34:1) + Cl]− which is a ceramide absent from the viable cancer subregions; (2) the absence of the ion of m/z 391.25 which is present in small abundance only in viable cancer subregions; and (3) a slight increase in the relative intensity of known breast cancer biomarker ions of m/z 281.25 [FA(18:1)-H]− and 303.23 [FA(20:4)-H]−. Necrosis is accompanied by alterations in the tissue optical depolarization rate, allowing tissue polarimetry to guide DESI-MS analysis for rapid MS profiling or targeted MS imaging. This workflow, in combination with the MS profile of necrosis, may permit rapid characterization of necrotic tumors from tissue slices. Further, necrosis-specific biomarker ions are detected in seconds with single MS scans of necrotic tumor tissue smears, which further accelerates the identification workflow by avoiding tissue sectioning and slide preparation. PMID:27734938

  10. Effects of skeleton structure on necrosis targeting and clearance properties of radioiodinated dianthrones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongjian; Jiang, Cuihua; Yang, Shengwei; Gao, Meng; Huang, Dejian; Wang, Xiaoning; Shao, Haibo; Feng, Yuanbo; Sun, Ziping; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Yin, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    Necrosis avid agents (NAAs) can be used for diagnose of necrosis-related diseases, evaluation of therapeutic responses and targeted therapeutics of tumor. In order to probe into the effects of molecular skeleton structure on necrosis targeting and clearance properties of radioiodinated dianthrones, four dianthrone compounds with the same substituents but different skeletal structures, namely Hypericin (Hyp), protohypericin (ProHyp), emodin dianthrone mesomer (ED-1) and emodin dianthrone raceme (ED-2) were synthesized and radioiodinated. Then radioiodinated dianthrones were evaluated in vitro for their necrosis avidity in A549 lung cancer cells untreated and treated with H2O2. Their biodistribution and pharmacokinetic properties were determined in rat models of induced necrosis. In vitro cell assay revealed that destruction of rigid skeleton structure dramatically reduced their necrosis targeting ability. Animal studies demonstrated that destruction of rigid skeleton structure dramatically reduced the necrotic tissue uptake and speed up the clearance from the most normal tissues for the studied compounds. Among these (131)I-dianthrones, (131)I-Hyp exhibited the highest uptake and persistent retention in necrotic tissues. Hepatic infarction could be clearly visualized by SPECT/CT using (131)I-Hyp as an imaging probe. The results suggest that the skeleton structure of Hyp is the lead structure for further structure optimization of this class of NAAs.

  11. Response-driven Imaging Biomarkers for Predicting Radiation Necrosis of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad-Reza; Chapman, Christopher H.; Chenevert, Thomas; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Tsien, Christina I.; Cao, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Radiation necrosis is an uncommon but severe adverse effect of brain radiation therapy. Current predictive models based on radiation dose have limited accuracy. We aimed to identify early individual response biomarkers based upon diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and incorporated them into a response model for prediction of radiation necrosis. Methods and Materials Twenty-nine patients with glioblastoma received six weeks of intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) and concurrent temozolamide. Patients underwent DT-MRI scans before treatment, at three weeks during RT, and one, three, and six months after RT. Cases with radiation necrosis were classified based on generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) of whole brain and DT index early changes in the corpus callosum and its substructures. Significant covariates were used to develop normal tissue complication probability models using binary logistic regression. Results Seven patients developed radiation necrosis. Percentage changes of radial diffusivity (RD) in the splenium at three weeks during RT and at six months after RT differed significantly between the patients with and without necrosis (p=0.05 and p=0.01). Percentage change of RD at three weeks during RT in the 30 Gy dose-volume of the splenium and brain gEUD combined yielded the best-fit logistic regression model. Conclusions Our findings indicate that early individual response during the course of RT, assessed by radial diffusivity, has the potential to aid in predicting delayed radiation necrosis, which could provide guidance in dose-escalation trials. PMID:24778364

  12. Induction of inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis in normal mouse skin by the combined treatment of tumor necrosis factor and lithium chloride.

    PubMed Central

    Beyaert, R.; De Potter, C.; Vanhaesebroeck, B.; Van Roy, F.; Fiers, W.

    1991-01-01

    Previously we reported that lithium chloride (LiCl) potentiates tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Here, using a murine normal skin model, it is shown that a subcutaneous injection of TNF plus LiCl induces acute dermal and subcutaneous inflammation and necrosis. Histology showed a marked initial dermal and subcutaneous neutrophil infiltrate by approximately 2 hours, followed by a predominantly mononuclear infiltrate by 24 hours, which remained present for several days. Tumor necrosis factor or LiCl alone induced negligible inflammation, disappearing after 6 hours; furthermore there was never necrosis or ulceration of the overlying skin in case of single-agent application. In vitro studies showed that the combination of TNF and LiCl, but not either agent alone, was directly cytotoxic to fibroblastic cells of murine skin. No inflammatory infiltration was visible in tumors treated intratumorally or perilesionally with TNF plus LiCl, although the latter treatment resulted in a perilesional leukocyte infiltration. Furthermore the combination of TNF and LiCl had no effect on macrophage cytotoxicity to L929 tumors. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:1848044

  13. Dose–Volume Relationships Associated With Temporal Lobe Radiation Necrosis After Skull Base Proton Beam Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Mark W.; Linton, Okechukwu R.; Calley, Cynthia S.J.

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: We evaluated patient and treatment parameters correlated with development of temporal lobe radiation necrosis. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 66 patients treated for skull base chordoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, or sinonasal malignancies between 2005 and 2012, who had at least 6 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The median radiation dose was 75.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]). Analyzed factors included gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, use of chemotherapy, and the absolute dose:volume data for both the right and left temporal lobes, considered separately. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis evaluated potential predictors of radiation necrosis, and the median effective concentration (EC50) model estimated dose–volume parameters associated with radiation necrosis. Results: Median follow-up time was 31 months (range 6-96 months) and was 34 months in patients who were alive. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 3 years was 84.9%. The 3-year estimate of any grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis was 12.4%, and for grade 2 or higher radiation necrosis was 5.7%. On multivariate GEE, only dose–volume relationships were associated with the risk of radiation necrosis. In the EC50 model, all dose levels from 10 to 70 Gy (RBE) were highly correlated with radiation necrosis, with a 15% 3-year risk of any-grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis when the absolute volume of a temporal lobe receiving 60 Gy (RBE) (aV60) exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3}, or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Dose–volume parameters are highly correlated with the risk of developing temporal lobe radiation necrosis. In this study the risk of radiation necrosis increased sharply when the temporal lobe aV60 exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3} or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Treatment planning goals should include constraints on the volume of temporal lobes receiving

  14. Coupling-deformed pointer observables and weak values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiang; Wu, Shengjun; Chen, Zeng-Bing

    2016-03-01

    While the novel applications of weak values have recently attracted wide attention, weak measurement, the usual way to extract weak values, suffers from risky approximations and severe quantum noises. In this paper, we show that the weak-value information can be obtained exactly in strong measurement with postselections, via measuring the coupling-deformed pointer observables, i.e., the observables selected according to the coupling strength. With this approach, we keep all the advantages claimed by weak-measurement schemes and at the same time solve some widely criticized problems thereof, such as the questionable universality, systematical bias, and drastic inefficiency.

  15. An in vivo and in vitro H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of mdx mouse brain: abnormal development or neural necrosis?

    PubMed

    Tracey, I; Dunn, J F; Parkes, H G; Radda, G K

    1996-09-15

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder primarily affecting young boys, often causing mental retardation in addition to the well-known progressive muscular weakness. Normal dystrophin expression is lacking in skeletal muscle and the central nervous system (CNS) of both DMD children and the mdx mouse model. The underlying biochemical lesion causing mental impairment in DMD is unknown. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) detects choline-containing compounds, creatine and N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) in vivo. NAA is commonly used as a chemical marker for neurons, and a decline in NAA is thought to correlate with neuronal loss. Control mice were compared to mdx using a combination of in vivo and in vitro 1H-MRS methods to determine whether neural necrosis or developmental abnormalities occur in dystrophic brain. NAA levels were normal in mdx brain compared to controls suggesting minor, if any, neuronal necrosis in dystrophic brain. In contrast, choline compounds and myo-inositol levels were increased, indicative of gliosis or developmental abnormalities in dystrophic brain. PMID:8880686

  16. Atomic Inference from Weak Gravitational Lensing Data

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Phil; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-12-14

    We present a novel approach to reconstructing the projected mass distribution from the sparse and noisy weak gravitational lensing shear data. The reconstructions are regularized via the knowledge gained from numerical simulations of clusters, with trial mass distributions constructed from n NFW profile ellipsoidal components. The parameters of these ''atoms'' are distributed a priori as in the simulated clusters. Sampling the mass distributions from the atom parameter probability density function allows estimates of the properties of the mass distribution to be generated, with error bars. The appropriate number of atoms is inferred from the data itself via the Bayesian evidence, and is typically found to be small, reecting the quality of the data. Ensemble average mass maps are found to be robust to the details of the noise realization, and succeed in recovering the demonstration input mass distribution (from a realistic simulated cluster) over a wide range of scales. As an application of such a reliable mapping algorithm, we comment on the residuals of the reconstruction and the implications for predicting convergence and shear at specific points on the sky.

  17. Charged Vaidya solution satisfies weak energy condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Soumyabrata; Ganguli, Suman; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-07-01

    The external matter stress-tensor supporting charged Vaidya solution appears to violate weak energy condition in certain region of the spacetime. Motivated by this, a new interpretation of charged Vaidya solution was proposed by Ori (Class Quant Grav 8:1559, 1991) in which the energy condition continues to be satisfied. In this construction, one glues an outgoing Vaidya solution to the original ingoing Vaidya solution provided the surface where the external stress-tensor vanishes is spacelike. We revisit this study and extend it to higher-dimensions, to AdS settings, and to higher-derivative f( R) theories. In asymptotically flat space context, we explore in detail the case when the mass function m( v) is proportional to the charge function q( v). When the proportionality constant ν = q(v)/m(v) lies in between zero and one, we show that the surface where the external stress-tensor vanishes is spacelike and lies in between the inner and outer apparent horizons.

  18. Autoresonance versus localization in weakly coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, Agnessa; Manevitch, Leonid I.

    2016-04-01

    We study formation of autoresonance (AR) in a two-degree of freedom oscillator array including a nonlinear (Duffing) oscillator (the actuator) weakly coupled to a linear attachment. Two classes of systems are studied. In the first class of systems, a periodic force with constant (resonance) frequency is applied to a nonlinear oscillator (actuator) with slowly time-decreasing stiffness. In the systems of the second class a nonlinear time-invariant oscillator is subjected to an excitation with slowly increasing frequency. In both cases, the attached linear oscillator and linear coupling are time-invariant, and the system is initially engaged in resonance. This paper demonstrates that in the systems of the first type AR in the nonlinear actuator entails oscillations with growing amplitudes in the linear attachment while in the system of the second type energy transfer from the nonlinear actuator is insufficient to excite high-energy oscillations of the attachment. It is also shown that a slow change of stiffness may enhance the response of the actuator and make it sufficient to support oscillations with growing energy in the attachment even beyond the linear resonance. Explicit asymptotic approximations of the solutions are obtained. Close proximity of the derived approximations to exact (numerical) results is demonstrated.

  19. The Hidden Strengths of Weak Theories

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Frank

    2012-01-01

    There has been a strong tradition of assuming that concepts, and their patterns of formation might be best understood in terms of how they are embedded in theory-like sets of beliefs. Although such views of concepts as embedded in theories have been criticized on five distinct grounds, there are reasonable responses to each of these usual objections. There is, however, a newly emerging concern that is much more challenging to address – people’s intuitive theories seem to be remarkably impoverished. In fact, they are so impoverished it is difficult to see how they could provide the necessary structure to explain differences between concepts and how they might form in development. One response to this recent challenge is to abandon all views of concept structure as being related to people’s intuitive theories and see concepts as essentially structure-free atoms. The alternative proposed here argues that our very weak theories might in fact do a great deal of work in explaining how we form concepts and are able to use them to successfully refer. PMID:25309684

  20. Structure of weakly 2-dependent siphons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Daniel Yuh; Chen, Jiun-Ting

    2013-09-01

    Deadlocks arising from insufficiently marked siphons in flexible manufacturing systems can be controlled by adding monitors to each siphon - too many for large systems. Li and Zhou add monitors to elementary siphons only while controlling the rest of (called dependent) siphons by adjusting control depth variables of elementary siphons. Only a linear number of monitors are required. The control of weakly dependent siphons (WDSs) is rather conservative since only positive terms were considered. The structure for strongly dependent siphons (SDSs) has been studied earlier. Based on this structure, the optimal sequence of adding monitors has been discovered earlier. Better controllability has been discovered to achieve faster and more permissive control. The results have been extended earlier to S3PGR2 (systems of simple sequential processes with general resource requirements). This paper explores the structures for WDSs, which, as found in this paper, involve elementary resource circuits interconnecting at more than (for SDSs, exactly) one resource place. This saves the time to compute compound siphons, their complementary sets and T-characteristic vectors. Also it allows us (1) to improve the controllability of WDSs and control siphons and (2) to avoid the time to find independent vectors for elementary siphons. We propose a sufficient and necessary test for adjusting control depth variables in S3PR (systems of simple sequential processes with resources) to avoid the sufficient-only time-consuming linear integer programming test (LIP) (Nondeterministic Polynomial (NP) time complete problem) required previously for some cases.

  1. Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao

    2016-03-01

    Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.

  2. Further Evidence for Weak Field Critical Adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, Carl; Peach, Sarah; Polak, Robert D.

    1997-03-01

    Following our unexpected discovery of weak short-range surface field effects on the critical mixing transition of a binary liquid,(N.S. Desai, S. Peach, and C. Franck, Phys. Rev. E52), 4129 (1995) we have directly addressed our concern that these results might have been affected by surface heterogeneity. We have used octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) to cover borosilicate glass surfaces with partial monolayers. Reference substrates with identical treatment had OTS patches no larger than the bulk correlation length within 40 mK of the critical transition. The present reflectivity experiment employs uncovered reference surfaces for comparison in a single sample cell. We confirm our earlier discovery of a persistent (down to 3 mK above the critical point) deviation of the degree of critical adsorption from the maximum value expected. We have also improved our earlier analysis in order to examine the scaling behavior. Supported by the NSF under DMR-9320910, and through central facilities of the Materials Science Center at Cornell Univ.

  3. Fast Reconnection of Weak Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1998-01-01

    Fast magnetic reconnection refers to annihilation or topological rearrangement of magnetic fields on a timescale that is independent (or nearly independent) of the plasma resistivity. The resistivity of astrophysical plasmas is so low that reconnection is of little practical interest unless it is fast. Yet, the theory of fast magnetic reconnection is on uncertain ground, as models must avoid the tendency of magnetic fields to pile up at the reconnection layer, slowing down the flow. In this paper it is shown that these problems can be avoided to some extent if the flow is three dimensional. On the other hand, it is shown that in the limited but important case of incompressible stagnation point flows, every flow will amplify most magnetic fields. Although examples of fast magnetic reconnection abound, a weak, disordered magnetic field embedded in stagnation point flow will in general be amplified, and should eventually modify the flow. These results support recent arguments against the operation of turbulent resistivity in highly conducting fluids.

  4. Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, Agnessa

    2016-08-01

    Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated.

  5. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    PubMed

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  6. Energy localization in weakly dissipative resonant chains.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, Agnessa

    2016-08-01

    Localization of energy in oscillator arrays has been of interest for a number of years, with special attention paid to the role of nonlinearity and discreteness in the formation of localized structures. This work examines a different type of energy localization arising due to the presence of dissipation in nonlinear resonance arrays. As a basic model, we consider a Klein-Gordon chain of finite length subjected to a harmonic excitation applied at an edge of the chain. It is shown that weak dissipation may be a key factor preventing the emergence of resonance in the entire chain, even if its nondissipative analog is entirely captured into resonance. The resulting process in the dissipative oscillator array represents large-amplitude resonant oscillations in a part of the chain adjacent to the actuator and small-amplitude oscillations in the distant part of the chain. The conditions of the emergence of resonance as well as the conditions of energy localization are derived. An agreement between the obtained analytical results and numerical simulations is demonstrated. PMID:27627299

  7. A Macroscopic Realization of the Weak Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishimori, Arito

    2003-01-01

    A.J.Leggett suggested in 1977 that a permanent electric dipole moment due to the parity-nonconserving electron-nucleon interaction, even though it is extremely small, could be measured in the superfluid He-3 B because the moment should be proportional to the size of the sample in this system. If this moment is observed, it will be the first example of a macroscopic realization of the weak interaction. In our planned experiments, a high electric field of up to 6 kV/cm is applied between two parallel electrodes in the He-3 sample. We expect to observe the NMR frequency of the lowest-lying spin-wave mode trapped by the liquid crystal-like texture of the B phase rotation axis in our geometry. The interaction of the electric field and the macroscopic permanent electric dipole moment, which is oriented along the rotation axis, will cause a small change in the texture and hence a small increase in the frequency of the spin wave mode. Besides the basic ideas, we present the purpose and the design of our first cell that is under construction.

  8. Weak turbulence theory for collisional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, P. H.; Ziebell, L. F.; Kontar, E. P.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2016-03-01

    Plasma is an ionized gas in which the collective behavior dominates over the individual particle interactions. For this reason, plasma is often treated as collisionless or collision-free. However, the discrete nature of the particles can be important, and often, the description of plasmas is incomplete without properly taking the discrete particle effects into account. The weak turbulence theory is a perturbative nonlinear theory, whose essential formalism was developed in the late 1950s and 1960s and continued on through the early 1980s. However, the standard material found in the literature does not treat the discrete particle effects and the associated fluctuations emitted spontaneously by thermal particles completely. Plasma particles emit electromagnetic fluctuations in all frequencies and wave vectors, but in the standard literature, the fluctuations are approximately treated by considering only those frequency-wave number regimes corresponding to the eigenmodes (or normal modes) satisfying the dispersion relations, while ignoring contributions from noneigenmodes. The present paper shows that the noneigenmode fluctuations modify the particle kinetic equation so that the generalized equation includes the Balescu-Lénard-Landau collision integral and also modify the wave kinetic equation to include not only the collisional damping term but also a term that depicts the bremsstrahlung emission of plasma normal modes.

  9. Numerical Modeling of Weakly Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, S.; Downes, T. P.

    2006-12-01

    Numerical investigations of astrophysical plasma flows often rely on the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approximation. In the case of weakly ionized plasmas the most questionable assumption of this is that the gas may be adequately approximated as a perfectly conducting single fluid. In direct consequence, the field lines are frozen into the bulk flow and may exert unrealistic forces on the gas in situations where magnetic diffusion should be important. A more appropriate treatment under these conditions is to discard the flux-freezing approximation by allowing charged species (i.e. electrons, ions, charge carrying dust grains) to have relative motions and compete in their interactions with the neutral gas component and the magnetic field. Taking such a multifluid approach admits ambipolar and Hall diffusion effects which can have a significant influence on the dynamics of the plasma. Conventional explicit numerical schemes have been shown to have a vanishing stable time step limit as the Hall effect becomes large and implicit schemes are, by nature, difficult to implement on distributed architectures, particularly when adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) is used. We present a novel explicit numerical scheme which allows a very significant claw-back of the deficit in efficiency when compared with implicit techniques. In addition, given that the scheme is explicit, it is straightforward to plug into existing AMR packages.

  10. Origin of weak lensing convergence peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Haiman, Zoltán

    2016-08-01

    Weak lensing convergence peaks are a promising tool to probe nonlinear structure evolution at late times, providing additional cosmological information beyond second-order statistics. Previous theoretical and observational studies have shown that the cosmological constraints on Ωm and σ8 are improved by a factor of up to ≈2 when peak counts and second-order statistics are combined, compared to using the latter alone. We study the origin of lensing peaks using observational data from the 154 deg2 Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey. We found that while high peaks (with height κ >3.5 σκ , where σκ is the rms of the convergence κ ) are typically due to one single massive halo of ≈1 015M⊙ , low peaks (κ ≲σκ ) are associated with constellations of 2-8 smaller halos (≲1 013M⊙ ). In addition, halos responsible for forming low peaks are found to be significantly offset from the line of sight towards the peak center (impact parameter ≳ their virial radii), compared with ≈0.25 virial radii for halos linked with high peaks, hinting that low peaks are more immune to baryonic processes whose impact is confined to the inner regions of the dark matter halos. Our findings are in good agreement with results from the simulation work by Yang et al. [Phys. Rev. D 84, 043529 (2011)].

  11. Spin excitations of weakly coupled magnetic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, E. C.; Flores, F.

    2015-04-01

    A theoretical description of the measured differential conductance through magnetic atoms on a C u2N /Cu ( 100 ) substrate is presented [Otte et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 107203 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.107203]. In particular, we analyze the case of a weakly coupled Co/ Fe dimer. The starting point of our model is an ionic Hamiltonian which describes the inelastic electron tunneling excitations and the Kondo resonances as due to atomic spin fluctuations associated with electron cotunneling processes in the tip-atom-surface system. The interaction terms of this Hamiltonian are written in the basis set of the eigenstates of the atomic part, which in the present case includes the crystalline and Zeeman fields and also, a Heisenberg exchange coupling between the two spins. The appropriate Green's functions that define the differential conductance spectra are calculated by means of the equation-of-motion method. We obtain, in this form, a very satisfactory description of the overall experimental findings related to the behavior of the spin state excitations and Kondo resonance structures in the presence of an applied magnetic field.

  12. Activation of coagulation after administration of tumor necrosis factor to normal subjects.

    PubMed

    van der Poll, T; Büller, H R; ten Cate, H; Wortel, C H; Bauer, K A; van Deventer, S J; Hack, C E; Sauerwein, H P; Rosenberg, R D; ten Cate, J W

    1990-06-01

    Tumor necrosis factor has been implicated in the activation of blood coagulation in septicemia, a condition commonly associated with intravascular coagulation and disturbances of hemostasis. To evaluate the early dynamics and the route of the in vivo coagulative response to tumor necrosis factor, we performed a controlled study in six healthy men, monitoring the activation of the common and intrinsic pathways of coagulation with highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassays. Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor, administered as an intravenous bolus injection (50 micrograms per square meter of body-surface area), induced an early and short-lived rise in circulating levels of the activation peptide of factor X, reaching maximal values after 30 to 45 minutes (mean +/- SEM increase after 45 minutes, 34.2 +/- 18.2 percent; tumor necrosis factor vs. saline, P = 0.015). This was followed by a gradual and prolonged increase in the plasma concentration of the prothrombin fragment F1+2, peaking after four to five hours (mean increase after five hours, 348.0 +/- 144.8 percent; tumor necrosis factor vs. saline, P less than 0.0001). These findings signify the formation of factor Xa (activated factor X) and the activation of prothrombin. Activation of the intrinsic pathway could not be detected by a series of measurements of the plasma levels of factor XII, prekallikrein, factor XIIa-C1 inhibitor complexes, kallikrein-C1 inhibitor complexes, and the activation peptide of factor IX. The delay between the maximal activation of factor X and that of prothrombin amounted to several hours, indicating that neutralization of factor Xa activity was slow. We conclude that a single injection of tumor necrosis factor elicits a rapid and sustained activation of the common pathway of coagulation, probably induced through the extrinsic route. Our results suggest that tumor necrosis factor could play an important part in the early activation of the hemostatic mechanism in septicemia.

  13. Predisposing Factors of Liver Necrosis after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization in Liver Metastases from Neuroendocrine Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Joskin, Julien Baere, Thierry de; Auperin, Anne; Tselikas, Lambros Guiu, Boris Farouil, Geoffroy; Boige, Valérie Malka, David; Leboulleux, Sophie; Ducreux, Michel; Baudin, Eric; Deschamps, Frédéric

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo investigate predictive factors for liver necrosis after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) of neuroendocrine liver metastases.MethodsA total of 164 patients receiving 374 TACE were reviewed retrospectively to analyze predictive factors of liver necrosis. We analyzed patient age and sex; metastasis number and location; percentage of liver involvement; baseline liver function test; and pretreatment imaging abnormalities such as bile duct dilatation (BDD), portal vein narrowing (PVN), and portal vein thrombosis (PVT). We analyzed TACE technique such as Lipiodol or drug-eluting beads (DEB) as the drug’s vector; dose of chemotherapy; diameter of DEB; and number, frequency, and selectivity of TACE.ResultsLiver necrosis developed after 23 (6.1 %) of 374 TACE. In multivariate analysis, DEB > 300 μm in size induced more liver necrosis compared to Lipiodol (odds ratio [OR] 35.20; p < 0.0001) or with DEB < 300 μm in size (OR 19.95; p < 0.010). Pretreatment BDD (OR 119.64; p < 0.0001) and PVT (OR 9.83; p = 0.030) were predictive of liver necrosis. BDD or PVT responsible for liver necrosis were present before TACE in 59 % (13 of 22) and were induced by a previous TACE in 41 % (9 of 22) of cases.ConclusionDEB > 300 μm in size, BDD, and PVT are responsible for increased rate of liver necrosis after TACE. Careful analysis of BDD or PVT on pretreatment images as well as images taken between two courses can help avoid TACE complications.

  14. Reducing quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty by weak measurement and weak measurement reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Fang, Maofa; Kang, Guodong; Zhou, Qingping

    2015-08-01

    We have investigated the dynamic features of the quantum-memory-assisted entropic uncertainty relation (QMA EUR) in the amplitude damping (AD) channel. The initial state of qubit system and quantum memory system shared between Alice and Bob is assumed as extended by Werner-like (EWL) state. To reduce the amount of entropic uncertainty of Pauli observables in this noisy channel, we presented a reduction scheme by means of weak measurements (WMs) and weak measurement reversals (WMRs) before and after the entangled system subjecting to the noisy channel. It is shown that the prior WM and poster WMR can effectively reduce quantity of entropic uncertainty, but the poster WM operation cannot played a positive role on reduction of quantity of entropic uncertainty. We hope that our proposal could be verified experimentally and might possibly have future applications in quantum information processing.

  15. Multifluid magnetohydrodynamics of weakly ionized plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Raymond

    The process of star formation is an integral part of the new field of astrobiology, which studies the origins of life. Since the gas that collapses to form stars and their resulting protoplanetary disks is known to be weakly ionized and contain magnetic fields, star formation is governed by multifluid magnetohydrodynamics. In this thesis we consider two important problems involved in the process of star formation that may have strongly affected the origins of life, with the goal of determining the thermal effects of these flows and modeling the physical conditions of these environments. We first considered the outstanding problem of how primitive bodies, specifically asteroids, were heated in protoplanetary disks early in their lifetime. Reexamining asteroid heating due to the classic unipolar induction heating mechanism described by Sonett et al. (1970), we find that this mechanism contains a subtle conceptual error. As original conceived, heating due to this mechanism is driven by a uniform, supersonic, fully-ionized, magnetized, T Tauri solar wind, which sweeps past an asteroid and causes the asteroid to experience a motional electric field in its rest frame. We point out that this mechanism ignores the interaction between the body surface and the flow, and thus only correctly describes the electric field far away from the asteroid where the plasma streams freely. In a realistic protoplanetary disk environment, we show that the interaction due to friction between the asteroid surface and the flow causes a shear layer to form close to the body, wherein the motional electric field predicted by Sonett et al. decreases and tends to zero at the asteroid surface. We correct this error by using the equations of multifluid magnetohydrodynamics to explicitly treat the shear layer. We calculate the velocity field in the plasma, and the magnetic and electric fields everywhere for two flows over an idealized infinite asteroid with varying magnetic field orientations. We

  16. Tests of the weak equivalence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speake, C. C.; Will, C. M.

    2012-09-01

    The Einstein equivalence principle is the foundation for general relativity and all metric theories of gravity. Of its three tenets—the equality of acceleration of test bodies, or weak equivalence principle; the validity of Lorentz invariance in local freely falling frames; and the position invariance of local physical laws—the weak equivalence principle has played the most important role historically, and continues to be a focus of intense theoretical and experimental investigation. From the probably apocryphal 16th century demonstrations by Galileo at Pisa's leaning tower to the sensitive torsion-balance measurements of today (both pictured on the cover of this issue), this principle, dubbed WEP, has been crucial to the development of gravitation theory. The universality of the rate of acceleration of all types of matter in a gravitational field can be taken as evidence that gravitation is fundamentally determined by the geometry, or metric, of spacetime. Newton began his magnum opus 'The Principia' with a discussion of WEP and his experiments to verify it, while Einstein took WEP for granted in his construction of general relativity, never once referring to the epochal experiments by Baron Eötvös. The classic 1964 experiment of Roll, Krotkov and Dicke ushered in the modern era of high-precision tests, and the search for a 'fifth force' during the late 1980s (instigated, ironically, by purported anomalies in Eötvös's old data) caused the enterprise to pivot from pure tests of the foundation of GR to searches for new physics beyond the standard model of the non-gravitational interactions. Today, the next generation of experimental tests of WEP are being prepared for launch or are being developed, with the goal of reaching unprecedented levels of sensitivity, in search of signatures of interactions inspired by string theory, extra dimensions and other concepts from the world of high-energy physics. At the same time observations continue using lunar laser

  17. Fast Learning with Weak Synaptic Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Yger, Pierre; Stimberg, Marcel; Brette, Romain

    2015-09-30

    New sensory stimuli can be learned with a single or a few presentations. Similarly, the responses of cortical neurons to a stimulus have been shown to increase reliably after just a few repetitions. Long-term memory is thought to be mediated by synaptic plasticity, but in vitro experiments in cortical cells typically show very small changes in synaptic strength after a pair of presynaptic and postsynaptic spikes. Thus, it is traditionally thought that fast learning requires stronger synaptic changes, possibly because of neuromodulation. Here we show theoretically that weak synaptic plasticity can, in fact, support fast learning, because of the large number of synapses N onto a cortical neuron. In the fluctuation-driven regime characteristic of cortical neurons in vivo, the size of membrane potential fluctuations grows only as √N, whereas a single output spike leads to potentiation of a number of synapses proportional to N. Therefore, the relative effect of a single spike on synaptic potentiation grows as √N. This leverage effect requires precise spike timing. Thus, the large number of synapses onto cortical neurons allows fast learning with very small synaptic changes. Significance statement: Long-term memory is thought to rely on the strengthening of coactive synapses. This physiological mechanism is generally considered to be very gradual, and yet new sensory stimuli can be learned with just a few presentations. Here we show theoretically that this apparent paradox can be solved when there is a tight balance between excitatory and inhibitory input. In this case, small synaptic modifications applied to the many synapses onto a given neuron disrupt that balance and produce a large effect even for modifications induced by a single stimulus. This effect makes fast learning possible with small synaptic changes and reconciles physiological and behavioral observations.

  18. Weakly nonlinear simulation of planar stratified flows

    SciTech Connect

    King, Michael R.; McCready, Mark J.

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial behavior of two-fluid, planar flows is studied by numerical integration of weakly-nonlinear amplitude equations derived via eigenfunction expansion of the governing equations. This study extends the range of classic Stuart-Landau theories by the inclusion of a spectrum of modes allowing all possible quadratic and cubic interactions. Results are obtained for four cases where linear and Stuart-Landau theories do not give a complete description; gas-liquid and oil-water pressure driven flow, matched-density liquid-liquid Couette flow, and the region of gas-liquid flow near resonance that switches from supercritical to subcritical. It is found that integration of amplitude equations gives better qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments than Stuart-Landau theory. Further, the distinctively different behaviors of these systems can be understood in terms of the spectrum of nonlinear coefficients. In gas-liquid channel flow a low wave number wave is destabilized through quadratic interaction with the mean flow mode. For liquid-liquid Poiseuille flow, a low wave number wave is destabilized through cubic interactions with higher modes. For depth and viscosity ratios where liquid-liquid Couette flow is unstable to long waves and for which the growth rates are not too large, simulation results predict that the waves grow to a statistically steady state where there is no preferred wave number. Stabilization is provided by an apparently self-similar cascade of energy to higher modes that are linearly stable, explaining why no visible waves occur in experiments done in this region. While Stuart-Landau theory provides no prediction of wave amplitude above criticality for subcritical cases, simulations show that wave saturation at small amplitude is possible and suggests that subcritical predictions may not mean that steady waves do not exist. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  19. The weak decay of helium hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Athanas, M.J.

    1992-08-01

    A {Lambda} hyperon replaces a neutron in a nucleus to form a hypernucleus via the {sup A}X(K{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}) {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}X reaction at 750 MeV/c (Brookhaven Experiment 788). The free {Lambda} decay rates {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} p{pi}{sup {minus}}) and {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} n{pi}{sup 0}) are diminished due to Pauli blocking; but a non-mesonic decay mode, nucleon stimulated decay N{Lambda} {yields} Nn, is present and is detected via the energetic decay nucleon(s) ({approx} 400MeV/c). Measurements of the various hypernuclear decay rates {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} p{pi}{sup {minus}}), {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} n{pi}{sup 0}) and {Gamma}({Lambda}n {yields} nn) provides insight into the strong modification of the weak interaction such as the baryon-baryon {Delta}I ={1/2} rule. The hypernuclear state is isolated by momentum analysis of (K{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}) target reaction. Out-of-beam large volume scintillation detectors and tracking chambers axe used to make particle identification of the hypernuclear decay products by time-of-flight, dE/dx, and range. The kinetic energy of the decay neutrons are measured by time of flight using the large volume 100 element neutron detector system. The hypernuclear lifetime is directly measured using precision scintillator counters and tracking chambers. Measurements of the various decay rates as well as the total lifetime are discussed for {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}He.

  20. Apoptosis and necrosis during the circadian cycle in the centipede midgut.

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Chajec, Ł; Vilimova, J; Tajovský, K

    2016-07-01

    Three types of cells have been distinguished in the midgut epithelium of two centipedes, Lithobius forficatus and Scolopendra cingulata: digestive, secretory, and regenerative cells. According to the results of our previous studies, we decided to analyze the relationship between apoptosis and necrosis in their midgut epithelium and circadian rhythms. Ultrastructural analysis showed that these processes proceed in a continuous manner that is independent of the circadian rhythm in L. forficatus, while in S. cingulata necrosis is activated at midnight. Additionally, the description of apoptosis and necrosis showed no differences between males and females of both species analyzed. At the beginning of apoptosis, the cell cytoplasm becomes electron-dense, apparently in response to shrinkage of the cell. Organelles such as the mitochondria, cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum transform and degenerate. Nuclei gradually assume lobular shapes before the apoptotic cell is discharged into the midgut lumen. During necrosis, however, the cytoplasm of the cell becomes electron-lucent, and the number of organelles decreases. While the digestive cells of about 10 % of L. forficatus contain rickettsia-like pathogens, the corresponding cells in S. cingulata are free of rickettsia. As a result, we can state that apoptosis in L. forficatus is presumably responsible for protecting the organism against infections, while in S. cingulata apoptosis is not associated with the elimination of pathogens. Necrosis is attributed to mechanical damage, and the activation of this process coincides with proliferation of the midgut regenerative cells at midnight in S. cingulata.

  1. Beethoven's renal disease based on his autopsy: a case of papillary necrosis.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, A

    1993-06-01

    The autopsy report of Ludwig van Beethoven written by Dr Johann Wagner in 1827 reveals that he had renal calculi that had not been diagnosed during his lifetime, together with perirenal fibrosis. The most comprehensive interpretation of this autopsy finding is that the regular calcareous deposits in every one of his renal calices represented calcified necrotic papillae. Severe urinary obstruction or diabetes as possible causes of papillary necrosis were not present. Analgesic abuse because of headaches, back pain, and attacks of rheumatism or gout may be presumed on the basis of Beethoven's uncontrolled way of taking medication. Salicin, a commonly used analgesic substance of that time (dried and powdered willow bark), is able to cause papillary necrosis. Perirenal fibrosis may be due to chronic infection or drug intake. Beethoven's other well-known diseases are deafness caused by otosclerosis of the inner ear, relapsing attacks of diarrhea as the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, and liver cirrhosis following viral hepatitis and chronic alcohol consumption. Liver cirrhosis also may cause papillary necrosis. In Beethoven's case, renal papillary necrosis was most probably the consequence of analgesic abuse together with decompensated liver cirrhosis. The autopsy report of Beethoven is the first case of papillary necrosis recorded in the literature.

  2. Prognostic Relevance of Histomolecular Classification of Diffuse Adult High-Grade Gliomas with Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Mokhtari, Karima; Colin, Carole; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Jouvet, Anne; Dehais, Caroline; Carpentier, Catherine; Villa, Chiara; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Eimer, Sandrine; Polivka, Marc; Vignaud, Jean-Michel; Laquerriere, Annie; Sevestre, Henri; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Quintin-Roué, Isabelle; Aubriot-Lorton, Marie-Hélène; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Viennet, Gabriel; Adam, Clovis; Loussouarn, Delphine; Michalak, Sophie; Rigau, Valérie; Heitzmann, Anne; Vandenbos, Fanny; Forest, Fabien; Chiforeanu, Danchristian; Tortel, Marie-Claire; Labrousse, François; Chenard, Marie-Pierre; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Varlet, Pascale; Kemeny, Jean Louis; Levillain, Pierre-Marie; Cazals-Hatem, Dominique; Richard, Pomone; Delattre, Jean-Yves

    2015-07-01

    Diffuse adult high-grade gliomas (HGGs) with necrosis encompass anaplastic oligodendrogliomas (AOs) with necrosis (grade III), glioblastomas (GBM, grade IV) and glioblastomas with an oligodendroglial component (GBMO, grade IV). Here, we aimed to search for prognostic relevance of histological classification and molecular alterations of these tumors. About 210 patients were included (63 AO, 56 GBM and 91 GBMO). GBMO group was split into "anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) with necrosis grade IV/GBMO," restricted to tumors showing intermingled astrocytic and oligodendroglial component, and "GBM/GBMO" based on tumors presenting oligodendroglial foci and features of GBM. Genomic arrays, IDH1 R132H expression analyses and IDH direct sequencing were performed. 1p/19q co-deletion characterized AO, whereas no IDH1 R132H expression and intact 1p/19q characterized both GBM and GBM/GBMO. AOA with necrosis/GBMO mainly demonstrated IDH1 R132H expression and intact 1p/19q. Other IDH1 or IDH2 mutations were extremely rare. Both histological and molecular classifications were predictive of progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 10(-4) ). Diffuse adult HGGs with necrosis can be split into three histomolecular groups of prognostic relevance: 1p/19q co-deleted AO, IDH1 R132H-GBM and 1p/19q intact IDH1 R132H+ gliomas that might be classified as IDH1 R132H+ GBM. Because of histomolecular heterogeneity, we suggest to remove the name GBMO.

  3. Beethoven's renal disease based on his autopsy: a case of papillary necrosis.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, A

    1993-06-01

    The autopsy report of Ludwig van Beethoven written by Dr Johann Wagner in 1827 reveals that he had renal calculi that had not been diagnosed during his lifetime, together with perirenal fibrosis. The most comprehensive interpretation of this autopsy finding is that the regular calcareous deposits in every one of his renal calices represented calcified necrotic papillae. Severe urinary obstruction or diabetes as possible causes of papillary necrosis were not present. Analgesic abuse because of headaches, back pain, and attacks of rheumatism or gout may be presumed on the basis of Beethoven's uncontrolled way of taking medication. Salicin, a commonly used analgesic substance of that time (dried and powdered willow bark), is able to cause papillary necrosis. Perirenal fibrosis may be due to chronic infection or drug intake. Beethoven's other well-known diseases are deafness caused by otosclerosis of the inner ear, relapsing attacks of diarrhea as the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome, and liver cirrhosis following viral hepatitis and chronic alcohol consumption. Liver cirrhosis also may cause papillary necrosis. In Beethoven's case, renal papillary necrosis was most probably the consequence of analgesic abuse together with decompensated liver cirrhosis. The autopsy report of Beethoven is the first case of papillary necrosis recorded in the literature. PMID:8503419

  4. A Novel Murine Model for Localized Radiation Necrosis and its Characterization Using Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Jost, Sarah C.; Hope, Andrew; Kiehl, Erich; Perry, Arie; Travers, Sarah; Garbow, Joel R.

    2009-10-01

    Purpose: To develop a murine model of radiation necrosis using fractionated, subtotal cranial irradiation; and to investigate the imaging signature of radiation-induced tissue damage using advanced magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four mice each received 60 Gy of hemispheric (left) irradiation in 10 equal fractions. Magnetic resonance images at 4.7 T were subsequently collected using T1-, T2-, and diffusion sequences at selected time points after irradiation. After imaging, animals were killed and their brains fixed for correlative histologic analysis. Results: Contrast-enhanced T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance images at months 2, 3, and 4 showed changes consistent with progressive radiation necrosis. Quantitatively, mean diffusivity was significantly higher (mean = 0.86, 1.13, and 1.24 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms at 2, 3, and 4 months, respectively) in radiated brain, compared with contralateral untreated brain tissue (mean = 0.78, 0.82, and 0.83 {mu}m{sup 2}/ms) (p < 0.0001). Histology reflected changes typically seen in radiation necrosis. Conclusions: This murine model of radiation necrosis will facilitate investigation of imaging biomarkers that distinguish between radiation necrosis and tumor recurrence. In addition, this preclinical study supports clinical data suggesting that diffusion-weighted imaging may be helpful in answering this diagnostic question in clinical settings.

  5. Apoptosis and necrosis during the circadian cycle in the centipede midgut.

    PubMed

    Rost-Roszkowska, M M; Chajec, Ł; Vilimova, J; Tajovský, K

    2016-07-01

    Three types of cells have been distinguished in the midgut epithelium of two centipedes, Lithobius forficatus and Scolopendra cingulata: digestive, secretory, and regenerative cells. According to the results of our previous studies, we decided to analyze the relationship between apoptosis and necrosis in their midgut epithelium and circadian rhythms. Ultrastructural analysis showed that these processes proceed in a continuous manner that is independent of the circadian rhythm in L. forficatus, while in S. cingulata necrosis is activated at midnight. Additionally, the description of apoptosis and necrosis showed no differences between males and females of both species analyzed. At the beginning of apoptosis, the cell cytoplasm becomes electron-dense, apparently in response to shrinkage of the cell. Organelles such as the mitochondria, cisterns of endoplasmic reticulum transform and degenerate. Nuclei gradually assume lobular shapes before the apoptotic cell is discharged into the midgut lumen. During necrosis, however, the cytoplasm of the cell becomes electron-lucent, and the number of organelles decreases. While the digestive cells of about 10 % of L. forficatus contain rickettsia-like pathogens, the corresponding cells in S. cingulata are free of rickettsia. As a result, we can state that apoptosis in L. forficatus is presumably responsible for protecting the organism against infections, while in S. cingulata apoptosis is not associated with the elimination of pathogens. Necrosis is attributed to mechanical damage, and the activation of this process coincides with proliferation of the midgut regenerative cells at midnight in S. cingulata. PMID:26277351

  6. [Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a patient with severe aplastic anaemia].

    PubMed

    Plichta, Piotr; Pawelec, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Avascular necrosis (AVN) is a pathological condition associated with numerous processes. Most frequent causes of ischaemia of the femoral head include trauma, corticosteroid therapy, radiation therapy, alcoholism, Gaucher's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis. Corticosteroid therapy is considered the most frequent risk factor for developing avascular necrosis. In this paper we report a case of a 19-year old female patient who developed avascular necrosis of the right femoral head following treatment of severe aplastic anaemia. Clinical symptoms included groin pain and fever, painful abduction and internal rotation, tenderness over the right hip joint. The plain X-ray was not specific. However magnetic resonance imaging of the hip revealed changes characteristic for avascular necrosis. Conservative treatment was administrated. Two years after the onset of first clinical symptoms the patient is able to walk without pain, although the range of motion of the right hip joint is partially diminished. We evaluated the possible risk factors of AVN, diagnostic methods and prognosis. The onset of avascular necrosis should be considered as one of the relevant complications in patients with severe aplastic anaemia following immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:21786520

  7. Weak interference in the high-signal regime.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juan P; Puentes, Graciana; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose

    2012-08-13

    Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on: a) the existence of a weak interaction which couples a property of a system (the system) with a separate degree of freedom (the pointer), and b) the measurement of an anomalously large mean value of the pointer state (weak mean value), after appropriate pre-and post-selection of the state of the system. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits its applicability. However, we will show here that since weak amplification is essentially the result of an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference (weak interference) to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime).

  8. Weak interference in the high-signal regime.

    PubMed

    Torres, Juan P; Puentes, Graciana; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose

    2012-08-13

    Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on: a) the existence of a weak interaction which couples a property of a system (the system) with a separate degree of freedom (the pointer), and b) the measurement of an anomalously large mean value of the pointer state (weak mean value), after appropriate pre-and post-selection of the state of the system. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits its applicability. However, we will show here that since weak amplification is essentially the result of an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference (weak interference) to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime). PMID:23038526

  9. Weak value amplification is suboptimal for estimation and detection.

    PubMed

    Ferrie, Christopher; Combes, Joshua

    2014-01-31

    We show by using statistically rigorous arguments that the technique of weak value amplification does not perform better than standard statistical techniques for the tasks of single parameter estimation and signal detection. Specifically, we prove that postselection, a necessary ingredient for weak value amplification, decreases estimation accuracy and, moreover, arranging for anomalously large weak values is a suboptimal strategy. In doing so, we explicitly provide the optimal estimator, which in turn allows us to identify the optimal experimental arrangement to be the one in which all outcomes have equal weak values (all as small as possible) and the initial state of the meter is the maximal eigenvalue of the square of the system observable. Finally, we give precise quantitative conditions for when weak measurement (measurements without postselection or anomalously large weak values) can mitigate the effect of uncharacterized technical noise in estimation.

  10. Segmental myofiber necrosis in myotonic dystrophy - An immunoperoxidase study of immunoglobulins in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, M. M.; Banerjee, D.; Hudson, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    Because serum immunoglobulin G levels are low in patients with myotonic dystrophy, it was hypothesized that it might be catabolized within abnormal muscle fibers. Accordingly, immunohistochemical stains for immunoglobulins were performed on muscle sections derived at biopsy or autopsy from patients with myotonic dystrophy, other forms of muscular dystrophy, nondystrophic muscle disease, or normal muscle. Positive staining for immunoglobulins was found only in necrotic segments of myofibers (in 7 of 19 dystrophic and 6 of 27 nondystrophic subjects), and it is believed that the staining was due to nonspecific diffusion. However, staining reactions distinguished between incipient necrosis and artifactual contraction bands and allowed us to study segmental myofiber necrosis, comparing its frequency in the various muscle diseases. Segmental myofiber necrosis was present in 4 of 16 cases of myotonic dystrophy. The relevance of this finding to the clinical and morphologic features of myotonic dystrophy is discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:6351629

  11. Delayed-type Necrosis after Soft-tissue Augmentation with Hyaluronic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Klotz De Almeida Balassiano, Laila; Roos Mariano Da Rocha, Camila; Barbosa De Sousa Padilha, Carolina; Martinezt Torrado, Carolina; Teixeira Da Silva, Roberta; Carlos Regazzi Avelleira, João

    2015-01-01

    The growing use of dermal fillers, specifically the use of hyaluronic acid, can be explained by their effectiveness and versatility as well as their favorable safety profiles. Nevertheless, early and late complications with varying levels of severity may occur. The incidence of complications is low and the majority of adverse events are mild (edema, erythema, and local ecchymosis) and of limited duration. However, more severe events, such as ischemia and necrosis, may occur. The symptoms of ischemia can occur immediately after the injection or several hours after the procedure. Here, the authors report three cases of necrosis after hyaluronic acid injection with the first symptoms presenting only several hours after the procedure. The patients were treated immediately after the diagnosis. The aim of this review is to communicate the possibility of the delayed-type presentation of necrosis, present the signs and symptoms that lead to early diagnosis, and review the treatment possibilities of this severe complication. PMID:26705447

  12. Recombinant tumour necrosis factor inhibits malaria parasites in vivo but not in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Taverne, J; Tavernier, J; Fiers, W; Playfair, J H

    1987-01-01

    As tumour necrosis serum kills malarial parasites in vitro and inhibits the multiplication of some species of Plasmodium in mice, we examined the effect of recombinant mouse tumour necrosis factor (rTNF) on P. yoelii both in vitro and in vivo. Parasites incubated overnight with rTNF showed no loss of viability, but repeated injection of rTNF into infected mice reduced parasitaemia and significantly prolonged survival of mice infected with a lethal variant of the parasite. We conclude that TNF acts on blood-stage malaria in vivo via a host cell and that another molecule in tumour necrosis serum is involved in killing the parasite in vitro. PMID:3621669

  13. Mobile encapsulated bodies comprising fat necrosis and fibrous tissue in the abdominal cavity of cows.

    PubMed

    Herzog, K; Burgdorf, W; Hewicker-Trautwein, M

    2010-11-01

    The microscopical features of 18 samples of fat necrosis and/or fibrous tissue removed from the abdominal cavity during laparotomy from 15 cows were studied. The nodular, ivory-coloured mobile structures were free-floating in the abdominal cavity, were not attached to any abdominal tissues or organs, and were completely surrounded by a fibrous capsule. Abdominal fat necrosis (bovine lipomatosis) was not observed in any animal. The structures comprised either necrotic fat, fibrous tissue or varying proportions of both. Focal calcification and mild inflammatory cell infiltration and accumulations of haemosiderin were also present. Microscopically, the lesions resembled encapsulated fat necrosis occurring in human subcutaneous tissue. The mechanisms of development of these mobile encapsulated bodies in cows is unknown and it is not clear how, in the absence of a blood supply, there can be inflammatory cell infiltration, calcification and proliferation of fibroblasts.

  14. Differential modulation of apoptosis and necrosis by antioxidants in immunosuppressed human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Mauricio; Rugeles, María Teresa; Gil, Diana Patricia; Patiño, Pablo

    2002-04-15

    In the present study, we explored whether mitogenic stimulation of dexamethasone (DXM)- and cyclosporine A (CsA)-immunosuppressed peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBML) induced apoptosis or necrosis and their relation with the production of reactive oxygen intermediates. Our results indicate that both phenomena can occur in these cells and that antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and ascorbic acid (AA) can modulate them. However, DXM-induced apoptosis was only partially inhibited by NAC and AA, suggesting that DXM-treated PBMC had an additional apoptotic pathway independent of ROIs. Furthermore, we observed that the inhibition of apoptosis by antioxidants correlated with an increased cell proliferation, suggesting that the immunomodulation of both DXM and CsA may be related to induction of apoptosis. The ability to differentially modulate apoptosis and necrosis by antioxidants opens new possibilities in the management of immunosuppressive therapy, since the inhibition of necrosis may avoid inflammation and the tissue damage associated with immunosuppressors.

  15. Freestyle Perforator-Based Fasciocutaneous Flap Reconstruction in Nicolau Syndrome-Related Tissue Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Kocman, Emre A; Yaşar, Fatih N; Kose, Aydan A; Cil, Yakup; Karabagli, Yakup; Çetin, Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    The actual pathology of the Nicolau syndrome (NS) is still unknown. It is thought to involve direct vascular damage and vasospasm. Many NS cases were reported in the literature but a treatment protocol is still not established. However, after demarcation of the necrotic tissue, surgical intervention is mandatory. Five NS cases with extensive tissue necrosis on the upper lateral gluteal region were analyzed retrospectively. Operative technique was described in details for freestyle perforator-based fasciocutaneous flaps from the gluteal region to reconstruct defects of NS-related tissue necrosis. Freestyle perforator-based fasciocutaneous flaps were used for defect closure in all patients. All flaps survived totally. No complications occurred during the follow-up period. Although rare, NS is a serious complication of inadvertent intramuscular injections. Prevention is the best treatment. However, in case of large-tissue necrosis, freestyle perforator-based fasciocutaneous flaps harvested from the gluteal region is a satisfactory option for reconstruction. PMID:27011533

  16. Muscle necrosis in the extremities: evaluation with Tc-99m pyrophosphate scanning--a retrospective review

    SciTech Connect

    Timmons, J.H.; Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.J.; Cawthon, M.A.; Bauman, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    A retrospective review was done of 34 extremities studied between 1981 and 1985 with technetium-99m pyrophosphate scanning; 22 were subsequently amputated. Results of detailed pathologic examination or immediate postoperative examination of the resected extremity were available in 16 cases. In these cases, scanning had allowed correct prediction of the level of amputation and of the specific areas of muscle infarction in 13 cases. In the one case in which amputation was performed for infection rather than muscle necrosis, the lack of necrosis was correctly predicted with the scan. The limited results of this study indicate that the Tc-99m pyrophosphate scan allows the location of necrotic muscle to be predicted accurately and may therefore be a useful adjunct in determining the best level for ultimate amputation. Special caution is required in those cases in which muscle necrosis is due to acute causes (e.g., traumatic thrombosis) rather than chronic vascular disease.

  17. [Maternal adrenal necrosis in the third trimester of pregnancy: a rare complication of antiphospholipid syndrome].

    PubMed

    Legendre, G; Vauthier-Brouzes, D; Cornet, A; Al Hawari, M; Renard-Penna, R; Piette, J-C; Dommergues, M

    2008-04-01

    Adrenal necrosis, a rare life threatening complication of antiphospholipid syndrome, is difficult to diagnose during pregnancy. We report the case of a 33-year-old woman with bilateral adrenal necrosis which started during the third trimester of her second pregnancy. Antiphospholipid syndrome had been diagnosed few years ago, after a thrombotic event. The pregnancy was uneventful until 36 weeks plus five days, when the patient was admitted for bilateral back ache, initially considered as uterine contractions. Labour was induced because pain persisted and was associated with major thrombocytopenia. A healthy infant was delivered vaginally on the second day, adrenal failure was diagnosed based on intense asthenia, persistent severe lumbar pain, low blood sodium and cortisol. Bilateral adrenal oedema was documented by CT scan and MRI. Symptoms resolved following administration of hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone. This case illustrates the difficulty to diagnose adrenal necrosis in the third trimester of pregnancy.

  18. Chronic respiratory failure due to toxic epidermal necrosis in a 10 year old girl.

    PubMed

    Thimmesch, M; Gilbert, A; Tuerlinckx, D; Bodart, E

    2015-02-01

    Toxic epidermal necrosis is a severe mucocutaneous disease with a high mortality rate. A third of the patients surviving the acute phase will develop pulmonary complications. The most frequent complication is bronchiolitis obliterans. Despite well-conducted treatment, in most cases, lung injury often leads to chronic respiratory failure. We describe here the case of a young patient that presented a toxic epidermal necrosis at the age of 3 years. Poor therapeutic compliance result in chronic respiratory failure and after 7 years of follow-up, pulmonary transplant remains the only long-term alternative. Close monitoring of respiratory symptoms in the course of toxic epidermal necrosis, intense treatment as soon as they appear and a long-term follow-up are essential to postpone chronic respiratory failure. PMID:25324191

  19. Spontaneous, isolated caecal necrosis: report of a case, review of the literature, and updated classification.

    PubMed

    Hunter, J P; Saratzis, A; Zayyan, K

    2013-01-01

    Isolated necrosis of the caecum is a rare cause of abdominal pain. In the absence of occlusive vascular disease it has a number of well documented associations, the commonest of which is patients' receiving haemodialysis for endstage renal failure. It has also been associated with shock states, cardiac failure, ischaemic heart disease, diabetes and drugs such as cocaine, thiopentone and cytotoxic agents. However, there are few reported cases in the literature without the aforementioned associations and the majority of cases, regardless of aetiology, were treated with either hemicolectomy or wedge resection and ileocolic anastamosis. This report describes a case of isolated caecal necrosis, mimicking acute appendicitis, successfully treated by local excision of the necrotic segment. It also provides a systematic review of the literature and proposes an updated classification of associations in isolated caecal necrosis.

  20. Adrenocortical hemorrhagic necrosis: the role of catecholamines and retrograde medullary-cell embolism

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; McComb, D.J.; Kovacs, K.; Huettner, I.

    1981-10-01

    We investigated the pathogenesis of adrenal necrosis using animal models of the disease (induced by administration of acrylonitrile, cysteamine, or pyrazole) and human cases. Results of electron-microscopic and histochemical time-response studies with rat models revealed an early, retrograde embolization of medullary cells and cell fragments in the cortical capillaries that showed prominent endothelial injury. The experimental adrenal lesions were prevented by surgical removal of the medulla one month before administration of adrenocorticolytic chemicals, or by the administration of the alpha-adrenergic antagonist phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride. Histochemical staining for medullary (argyrophil) granules in human cases of adrenal necrosis demonstrated tissue fragments that stained positively for silver in vascular cortical spaces in nine of ten autopsy specimens and in all four surgical cases we reviewed. Thus, catecholamines released from the adrenal medulla and from the retrograde medullary emboli in the cortex may have a role in the pathogenesis of adrenocortical necrosis.