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Sample records for necrotic ringspot virus

  1. Vertical transmission of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus: hitch-hiking from gametes to seedling.

    PubMed

    Amari, Khalid; Burgos, Lorenzo; Pallás, Vicente; Sánchez-Pina, Maria Amelia

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work was to follow Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) infection in apricot reproductive tissues and transmission of the virus to the next generation. For this, an analysis of viral distribution in apricot reproductive organs was carried out at different developmental stages. PNRSV was detected in reproductive tissues during gametogenesis. The virus was always present in the nucellus and, in some cases, in the embryo sac. Studies within infected seeds at the embryo globular stage revealed that PNRSV infects all parts of the seed, including embryo, endosperm and testa. In the torpedo and bent cotyledon developmental stages, high concentrations of the virus were detected in the testa and endosperm. At seed maturity, PNRSV accumulated slightly more in the embryo than in the cotyledons. In situ hybridization showed the presence of PNRSV RNA in embryos obtained following hand-pollination of virus-free pistils with infected pollen. Interestingly, tissue-printing from fruits obtained from these pistils showed viral RNA in the periphery of the fruits, whereas crosses between infected pistils and infected pollen resulted in a total invasion of the fruits. Taken together, these results shed light on the vertical transmission of PNRSV from gametes to seedlings.

  2. Oxidative stress induction by Prunus necrotic ringspot virus infection in apricot seeds.

    PubMed

    Amari, Khalid; Díaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Pallás, Vincente; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Hernández, José Antonio

    2007-10-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot rvirus (PNRSV) was able to invade the immature apricot seed including the embryo. The amount of virus was very high inside the embryo compared with that present in the cotyledons. PNRSV infection produced an oxidative stress in apricot seeds as indicated by the increase in lipid peroxidation, measured as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. This lipid peroxidation increase was parallelled with an imbalance in the seed antioxidant enzymes. A significant decrease in the ascorbate-GSH cycle enzymes as well as in peroxidase (POX) activity took place in infected seeds, suggesting a low capability to eliminate H2O2. No changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase activity were observed. A significant decrease in polyphenoloxidase (PPO) activity was also observed. Native PAGE revealed the presence of three different SOD activity bands in apricot seeds: a Mn-containing SOD and two CuZn-containing SODs. Only an isozyme with catalase, glutathione reductase (GR) or PPO activity was detected in both healthy and infected apricot seeds. Regarding POX staining, three bands with POX activity were detected in native gels in both healthy and infected seeds. The gel results emphasise that the drop detected in POX, GR and PPO activities in PNRSV-infected apricot seeds by kinetic analyses was also evident from the results obtained by native PAGE. The oxidative stress and the imbalance in the antioxidant systems from PNRSV-infected apricot seeds resemble the hypersensitive response observed in some virus-host interactions. This defence mechanism would inactivate PNRSV during seed formation and/or the storage period or even during seed germination. Those results can explain the decrease in seed germination and the low transmission of PNRSV by seeds in apricot trees.

  3. Papaya ringspot virus (Potyviridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, a member of the family Potyviridae, is single stranded RNA plant virus with a monocistronic genome of about 10,326 nucleotides that is expressed via a large polyprotein subsequently cleaved into functional proteins. It causes severe damage on cucurbit crops such as squash and...

  4. Papaya Ringspot Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The term papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was coined by Jensen in 1949, to describe a papaya disease in Hawaii. Later work showed that diseases such as papaya mosaic and watermelon mosaic virus-1 were caused by PRSV. The primary host range of PRSV is papaya and cucurbits, with Chenopium amaranticolor ...

  5. Groundnut Ringspot Virus in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tospoviruses in vegetable crops are difficult to manage due to a shortage of basic information about the viruses and their vectors. This is especially true for the recently detected Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). This publication presents all current knowledge of GRSV in Florida....

  6. Mutational analysis of the RNA-binding domain of the Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) movement protein reveals its requirement for cell-to-cell movement

    SciTech Connect

    Carmen Herranz, Ma; Mingarro, Ismael; Pallas, Vicente . E-mail: vpallas@ibmcp.upv.es

    2005-08-15

    The movement protein (MP) of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is required for cell-to-cell movement. MP subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein revealed highly punctate structures between neighboring cells, believed to represent plasmodesmata. Deletion of the RNA-binding domain (RBD) of PNRSV MP abolishes the cell-to-cell movement. A mutational analysis on this RBD was performed in order to identify in vivo the features that govern viral transport. Loss of positive charges prevented the cell-to-cell movement even though all mutants showed a similar accumulation level in protoplasts to those observed with the wild-type (wt) MP. Synthetic peptides representing the mutants and wild-type RBDs were used to study RNA-binding affinities by EMSA assays being approximately 20-fold lower in the mutants. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the secondary structure of the peptides was not significantly affected by mutations. The involvement of the affinity changes between the viral RNA and the MP in the viral cell-to-cell movement is discussed.

  7. A remarkable synergistic effect at the transcriptomic level in peach fruits doubly infected by prunus necrotic ringspot virus and peach latent mosaic viroid

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microarray profiling is a powerful technique to investigate expression changes of large amounts of genes in response to specific environmental conditions. The majority of the studies investigating gene expression changes in virus-infected plants are limited to interactions between a virus and a model host plant, which usually is Arabidopsis thaliana or Nicotiana benthamiana. In the present work, we performed microarray profiling to explore changes in the expression profile of field-grown Prunus persica (peach) originating from Chile upon single and double infection with Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd), worldwide natural pathogens of peach trees. Results Upon single PLMVd or PNRSV infection, the number of statistically significant gene expression changes was relatively low. By contrast, doubly-infected fruits presented a high number of differentially regulated genes. Among these, down-regulated genes were prevalent. Functional categorization of the gene expression changes upon double PLMVd and PNRSV infection revealed protein modification and degradation as the functional category with the highest percentage of repressed genes whereas induced genes encoded mainly proteins related to phosphate, C-compound and carbohydrate metabolism and also protein modification. Overrepresentation analysis upon double infection with PLMVd and PNRSV revealed specific functional categories over- and underrepresented among the repressed genes indicating active counter-defense mechanisms of the pathogens during infection. Conclusions Our results identify a novel synergistic effect of PLMVd and PNRSV on the transcriptome of peach fruits. We demonstrate that mixed infections, which occur frequently in field conditions, result in a more complex transcriptional response than that observed in single infections. Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that the simultaneous infection of a viroid and a plant virus synergistically

  8. Tomato ringspot virus and Tobacco ringspot virus in Highbush Blueberry in New York State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) cultivars Patriot and Bluecrop showing virus-like symptoms and decline in vigor in New York was conducted to assess the occurrence of viruses. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic bushes reacted positively to Tobacco ringspot virus ...

  9. Papaya Ringspot Virus: Characteristics, Pathogenicity, Sequence Variability and Control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taxonomy: Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is an aphid-transmitted plant virus belonging to the genus Potyvirus of the family Potyviridae with a positive sense RNA genome. PRSV isolates belong to either one of two major strains, P-type or W-type. The P-type infects both papaya and cucurbits whereas th...

  10. Diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates in Puerto Rico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) devastates papaya production worldwide. In Puerto Rico, papaya fields can be completely infected with PRSV within a year of planting. Information about the diversity of the Puerto Rican PRSV population is relevant in order to establish a control strategy in the island. T...

  11. Epitope mapping for monoclonal antibodies recognizing tuber necrotic isolates of Potato virus Y

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is an important viral pathogen of potato responsible for reducing tuber yield and quality across the globe. The PVYN and PVYNTN strains, the latter of which induces potato tuber necrotic ringspot disease (PTNRD), are regulated for international potato trade, and have been routin...

  12. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  13. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  14. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  15. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  16. 40 CFR 174.515 - Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus...-INCORPORATED PROTECTANTS Tolerances and Tolerance Exemptions § 174.515 Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Coat Protein of Papaya Ringspot Virus are...

  17. A Single Amino Acid Mutation in the Carnation Ringspot Virus Capsid Protein Allows Virion Formation but Prevents Systemic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Tim L.; Haikal, Patrick R.; Callaway, Anton S.; Lommel, Steven A.

    2001-01-01

    A Carnation ringspot virus (CRSV) variant (1.26) was identified that accumulates virions but is incapable of forming a systemic infection. The 1.26 capsid protein gene possesses a Ser→Pro mutation at amino acid 282. Conversion of 1.26 amino acid 282 to Ser restored systemic infection, while the reciprocal mutation in wild-type CRSV abolished systemic infection. Similar mutations introduced into the related Red clover necrotic mosaic virus capsid protein gene failed to induce the packaging but nonsystemic movement phenotype. These results provide additional support for the theory that virion formation is necessary but not sufficient for systemic movement with the dianthoviruses. PMID:11533217

  18. Emergence of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus in U.S. vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host and geographic ranges, genetic diversity and thrips transmission of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus isolates from the U.S. were characterized. This report provides an overview of these viruses for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory...

  19. Expansion of Groundnut ringspot virus host and geographic ranges in solanaceous vegetables in peninsular Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report provides a timely account of Groundnut ringspot virus infection of additional hosts (pepper, tomatillo and eggplant) and in additional locations to growers, Extension personnel, crop consultants, and state and Federal regulatory and research scientists....

  20. The complete S RNA and M RNA nucleotide sequences of a hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) isolate from Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Lou, Shi-gao; Li, Xiao-lin; Zheng, Yuan-xian; Wang, Wen-cheng; Liu, Ya-ting

    2013-12-01

    An isolate of hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) named HLS1-2, causing necrotic spots on leaves of spider lily, was obtained and characterized in China. The complete S RNA and M RNAs of the HLS1-2 isolate are 2724 nt and 4741 nt in length, respectively. The HLS1-2 S RNA sequence is most closely related to that of HCRV, with 99 % identity. Viral proteins encoded by the M RNA are closely related to those of tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV), polygonum ringspot virus (PolRSV) and iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Phylogenetic trees for the four viral proteins encoded by the S and M RNAs placed HCRV-HLS1-2 in a distinct cluster with IYSV, TYRV and PolRSV and provided further support for the subdivision of tospoviruses into American and Eurasian groups.

  1. Groundnut ringspot virus and tomato spotted wilt virus – Tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing number of solanaceous crop and weed species infected with groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) has been identified in Florida. Continuing geographic spread of GRSV into additional vegetable production areas of Florida has also been documented. Much has been learned about GRSV in Florida altho...

  2. The complete nucleotide sequence and genome organization of a novel carmovirus - Honeysuckle ringspot virus isolated from honeysuckle.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A virus associated with yellow to purple ringspot on honeysuckle plants has been detected and tentatively named as Honeysuckle ringspot virus (HnRSV). The complete nucleotide sequence of HnRSV has been determined from infected honeysuckle. The genomic RNA of HnRSV is 3,956 nucleotides in length and ...

  3. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-01-12

    In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK.

  4. First Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya ringspot virus-W Isolated from a Gourd in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the United States, the Papaya ringspot virus was first reported from papaya in Florida in 1949. Here, we determined the first complete genome sequence (10,302 nucleotides) of a Papaya ringspot virus-W isolate, which was collected from a commercial field of gourd in Tulsa, OK. PMID:28082489

  5. Gene Technology for Papaya Ringspot Virus Disease Management

    PubMed Central

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research. PMID:24757435

  6. Gene technology for papaya ringspot virus disease management.

    PubMed

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Amin, Latifah; Sidik, Nik Marzuki

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya) is severely damaged by the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). This review focuses on the development of PRSV resistant transgenic papaya through gene technology. The genetic diversity of PRSV depends upon geographical distribution and the influence of PRSV disease management on a sequence of PRSV isolates. The concept of pathogen-derived resistance has been employed for the development of transgenic papaya, using a coat protein-mediated, RNA-silencing mechanism and replicase gene-mediated transformation for effective PRSV disease management. The development of PRSV-resistant papaya via post-transcriptional gene silencing is a promising technology for PRSV disease management. PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya is environmentally safe and has no harmful effects on human health. Recent studies have revealed that the success of adoption of transgenic papaya depends upon the application, it being a commercially viable product, bio-safety regulatory issues, trade regulations, and the wider social acceptance of the technology. This review discusses the genome and the genetic diversity of PRSV, host range determinants, molecular diagnosis, disease management strategies, the development of transgenic papaya, environmental issues, issues in the adoption of transgenic papaya, and future directions for research.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Papaya Ringspot Virus Isolated from Genetically Modified Papaya in Hainan Island, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence (10,326 nucleotides) of a papaya ringspot virus isolate infecting genetically modified papaya in Hainan Island of China was determined through reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. The virus shares 92% nucleotide sequence identity with the isolate that is unable to infect PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. PMID:26358610

  8. Managing papaya ringspot virus: Impact of grass barriers on alate aphid immigration into papaya orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papaya ringspot virus, transmitted by alate aphids, is the most limiting factor of papaya production in the Caribbean region. Although there are transgenic papaya varieties that provide protection from this virus, these varieties are effective only in certain regions against certain strains of the v...

  9. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  10. Coffee ringspot virus vectored by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in coffee.

    PubMed

    Chagas, C M; Kitajima, E W; Rodrigues, J C V

    2003-01-01

    Coffee ringspot is characterized by conspicuous ringspot symptoms on leaves, berries, and less frequently on twigs. It is caused by coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV), a short, bacilliform virus (40 nm x 100-110 nm). The virus is not seed borne and is transmitted by Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes). Transovarial transmission within the mite does not occur. CoRSV has been mechanically transmitted to Chenopodium amaranticolor Coste and Reynaud, C. quinoa Wildenow, Beta vulgaris L., and Alternanthera tenella Colla resulting in local lesions. Systemic infection within both C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa occurs. Virions are found in the nucleus or cytoplasm of infected cells, commonly associated with membranes. Occasionally, membrane bounded particles are found within the cisternae of the endoplasmic reticulum. A characteristic electron lucent, nuclear inclusion is commonly found in many infected cells. These cytopathic effects place CoRSV among the nuclear type of Brevipalpus-borne viruses. The disease has been reported in several Brazilian states (São Paulo, Paraná, Minas Gerais, and Federal District) and recently found in Costa Rica. A similar disease is known in the Philippines, but no information exists about its relationship to CoRSV. Coffee ringspot had no economical significance until recently when a large scale infection was reported in Minas Gerais that resulted in yield loss.

  11. Reaction of mid-southern U.S. southern cultivars to Bean pod mottle virus and Tobacco ringspot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV) and Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) are two important viral pathogens causing reduction of seed yield and quality in soybean. There are various BPMV and TRSV isolates observed, but no host resistance reported so far. The objective of this study was to screen modern soybean...

  12. A novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting vegetables in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was recently identified using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida, which extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome s...

  13. Solanaceous vegetables in Florida infected with a novel M RNA reassortant of Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We recently identified Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) using serology and nucleocapsid gene sequence from tomato plants with severe tospovirus symptoms in south Florida. This extends the geographic range of this virus from South America and South Africa to now include North America. Full genome se...

  14. Arabidopsis TTR1 causes LRR-dependent lethal systemic necrosis, rather than systemic acquired resistance, to Tobacco ringspot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Arabidopsis ecotypes display tolerance to the Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), but a subset of Arabidopsis ecotypes, including Estland (Est), develop lethal systemic necrosis (LSN), which differs from the localized hypersensitive responses (HRs) or systemic acquired resistance (SAR) characteristi...

  15. Cymbidium ringspot virus harnesses RNA silencing to control the accumulation of virus parasite satellite RNA.

    PubMed

    Pantaleo, Vitantonio; Burgyán, József

    2008-12-01

    Cymbidium ringspot virus (CymRSV) satellite RNA (satRNA) is a parasitic subviral RNA replicon that replicates and accumulates at the cost of its helper virus. This 621-nucleotide (nt) satRNA species has no sequence similarity to the helper virus, except for a 51-nt-long region termed the helper-satellite homology (HSH) region, which is essential for satRNA replication. We show that the accumulation of satRNA strongly depends on temperature and on the presence of the helper virus p19 silencing suppressor protein, suggesting that RNA silencing plays a crucial role in satRNA accumulation. We also demonstrate that another member of the Tombusvirus genus, Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV), supports satRNA accumulation at a higher level than CymRSV. Our results suggest that short interfering RNA (siRNA) derived from CymRSV targets satRNA more efficiently than siRNA from CIRV, possibly because of the higher sequence similarity between the HSH regions of the helper and CIRV satRNAs. RNA silencing sensor RNA carrying the putative satRNA target site in the HSH region was efficiently cleaved when transiently expressed in CymRSV-infected plants but not in CIRV-infected plants. Strikingly, replacing the CymRSV HSH box2 sequence with that of CIRV restores satRNA accumulation both at 24 degrees C and in the absence of the p19 suppressor protein. These findings demonstrate the extraordinary adaptation of this virus to its host in terms of harnessing the antiviral silencing response of the plant to control the virus parasite satRNA.

  16. Actinidia chlorotic ringspot-associated virus: a novel emaravirus infecting kiwifruit plants.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yazhou; Navarro, Beatriz; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Yanxiang; Yang, Zuokun; Xu, Wenxing; Zhu, Chenxi; Wang, Liping; Serio, Francesco Di; Hong, Ni

    2017-05-01

    By integrating next-generation sequencing (NGS), bioinformatics, electron microscopy and conventional molecular biology tools, a new virus infecting kiwifruit vines has been identified and characterized. Being associated with double-membrane-bound bodies in infected tissues and having a genome composed of RNA segments, each one containing a single open reading frame in negative polarity, this virus shows the typical features of members of the genus Emaravirus. Five genomic RNA segments were identified. Additional molecular signatures in the viral RNAs and in the proteins they encode, together with data from phylogenetic analyses, support the proposal of creating a new species in the genus Emaravirus to classify the novel virus, which is tentatively named Actinidia chlorotic ringspot-associated virus (AcCRaV). Bioassays showed that AcCRaV is mechanically transmissible to Nicotiana benthamiana plants which, in turn, may develop chlorotic spots and ringspots. Field surveys disclosed the presence of AcCRaV in four different species of kiwifruit vines in five different provinces of central and western China, and support the association of the novel virus with symptoms of leaf chlorotic ringspots in Actinidia. Data on the molecular features of small RNAs of 21-24 nucleotides, derived from AcCRaV RNAs targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms, are also reported, and possible molecular pathways involved in their biogenesis are discussed.

  17. Sequence analysis and location of capsid proteins within RNA 2 of strawberry latent ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Kreiah, S; Strunk, G; Cooper, J I

    1994-09-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the RNA 2 of a strawberry isolate (H) of strawberry latent ringspot virus (SLRSV) comprised 3824 nucleotides and contained one long open reading frame with a theoretical coding capacity of 890 amino acids equivalent to a protein of 98.8K. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of virion-derived proteins were determined by Edman degradation allowing the capsid coding regions to be located and serine/glycine cleavage sites to be identified within the polyprotein. The amino acid sequence in the capsid coding region of an isolate of SLRSV from flowering cherry in New Zealand was 97% identical to that of SLRSV-H. Except in the 3' and 5' terminal non-coding sequences, computer-based alignment and comparison algorithms did not reveal any substantial homologies between RNA 2 of SLRSV-H and the equivalent genomic segments in the nepoviruses arabis mosaic, cherry leaf roll, grapevine fanleaf, raspberry ringspot, grapevine hungarian chrome mosaic, tomato blackring, tomato ringspot, tobacco ringspot, or in the comoviruses cowpea mosaic and red clover mottle. Despite the similarities in overall genome organization, data from RNA 2 remain insufficient for unambiguous positioning of SLRSV in relation to species/genera in the Comoviridae.

  18. Full-genome sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus from Israel.

    PubMed

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded; Dombrovsky, Aviv

    2013-12-12

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate.

  19. Full-Genome Sequence of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus from Israel

    PubMed Central

    Luria, Neta; Reingold, Victoria; Lachman, Oded

    2013-01-01

    Hibiscus rosa-sinensis is one of the most prevalent ornamental plants grown in private and public gardens. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the Carmovirus genus, with a positive single-strand RNA that putatively encodes seven proteins. The complete genome of the first Israeli isolate of HCRSV, HCRSV-IL, comprises 3,908 nucleotides and shows 93% nucleotide sequence identity to the Singapore isolate and 87% identity to the Taiwanese isolate. PMID:24336382

  20. Molecular characterization of the hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus L segment and its protein.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Lou, Shi-Gao; Li, Qiu-Fang; Hu, Qing; Sun, Li-Peng; Li, Zheng-Yue; Li, Yong-Zhong; Liu, Ya-Ting

    2014-10-01

    Hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) is a novel tospovirus that was identified in Yunnan Province, China, in 2013. We have sequenced the HCRV L gene, which is 8909 nt long and encodes the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (2873 amino acids, 330.8 kDa). The HCRV L protein shared highest similarity (89.4 %) with that of tomato yellow ring virus. The L protein contains a negative-sense RNA virus RNA-directed RNA polymerase motif and an endonuclease domain at the N-terminus. Combined with our previous reports of the S and M RNAs, the genome sequence of HCRV is now completed.

  1. Zucchini shoestring virus: a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster.

    PubMed

    Ibaba, J D; Laing, M D; Gubba, A

    2016-08-01

    Zucchini shoestring virus (ZSSV) has been proposed to be a putative potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster, based on the sequence similarity of its coat protein to those of related potyviruses. ZSSV has been associated with the outbreak of a damaging disease of baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.) that had been observed throughout the province of KwaZulu-Natal, in the Republic of South Africa (RSA). We report the genome sequence of ZSSV, determined by next-generation sequencing of total RNA extracted from an infected baby marrow (Cucurbita pepo L.). The ZSSV genome is 10,295 nucleotides long excluding the poly(A) tail and displays a typical potyvirus organization. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV; EU410442.1) was identified as the closest relative of ZSSV, sharing the highest nucleotide sequence identity of 65.68%. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity values for each protein support the differentiation of ZSSV as a member of a distinct species in the genus Potyvirus. This taxonomic position was also confirmed using the Pairwise Sequence Comparison online tool from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein coding sequence of ZSSV grouped ZSSV together with AWMV and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, but in different clusters. ZSSV is the second cucurbit-infecting virus in the PRSV cluster present in RSA.

  2. Genetic diversity of the nucleocapsid protein gene of hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus from Hymenocallis littoralis in southern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Xu, Y; Zhu, M; Dong, Y; Hu, J; Li, Y; Liu, Y

    2017-01-01

    Hymenocallis littoralis growing in southern China has been recently extensively damaged by virus-like symptoms of necrosis, chlorosis, and ringspot. Of 44 plant samples collected from Yunnan, Guangxi, Guangdong, and Fujian provinces in southern China, 32 were infected with hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV). Phylogenetic analysis based on the N gene divided the virus samples into two branches suggesting a geographic distribution attributed to the initial stage of a founder effect. The N gene was under purifying selection pressure and most of the deleterious mutants had been removed. Both the population dynamics and genetic analyses suggested that populations of HCRV in southern China are spreading.

  3. Generation of transgenic watermelon resistant to Zucchini yellow mosaic virus and Papaya ringspot virus type W.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tsong-Ann; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Wu, Hui-Wen; Li, Chin-Mei; Yang, Ching-Fu; Chen, Jun-Han; Chen, Yu-Wen; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV W) are major limiting factors for production of watermelon worldwide. For the effective control of these two viruses by transgenic resistance, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing truncated ZYMV coat protein (CP) and PRSV W CP genes was transferred to commercial watermelon cultivars by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Using our protocol, a total of 27 putative transgenic lines were obtained from three cultivars of 'Feeling' (23 lines), 'China baby' (3 lines), and 'Quality' (1 line). PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that the chimeric construct was incorporated into the genomic DNA of the transformants. Greenhouse evaluation of the selected ten transgenic lines of 'Feeling' cultivar revealed that two immune lines conferred complete resistance to ZYMV and PRSV W, from which virus accumulation were not detected by Western blotting 4 weeks after inoculation. The transgenic transcript was not detected, but small interfering RNA (siRNA) was readily detected from the two immune lines and T(1) progeny of line ZW 10 before inoculation, indicating that RNA-mediated post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) is the underlying mechanism for the double-virus resistance. The segregation ratio of T(1) progeny of the immune line ZW10 indicated that the single inserted transgene is nuclearly inherited and associated with the phenotype of double-virus resistance as a dominant trait. The transgenic lines derived from the commercial watermelon cultivars have great potential for control of the two important viruses and can be implemented directly without further breeding.

  4. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes.

  5. Characterization of the partial RNA1 and RNA2 3' untranslated region of tomato ringspot virus isolates from North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 3' non-translated regions (NTRs) of RNA1 and RNA2 of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) are long and virtually identical. In this study, sequences containing most of the 3’ NTRs (1168-1265 bp) were determined from 18 ToRSV isolates collected from fruit trees, small fruits, and grapevines in North Am...

  6. Resistance to papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) in the desert watermelon Citrullus colocynthis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bitter desert watermelon (Citrullus colocynthis) is a valuable source for improving disease or pest resistance in watermelon cultivars. The objective of this study was to identify C. colocynthis accessions displaying resistance to the papaya ringspot virus-watermelon strain (PRSV-W) that could ...

  7. Preliminary X-ray Data Analysis of Crystalline Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.; Speir, J; Yuan, Y; Johnson, J; Wong, S

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3Synchrotron .2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 . Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  8. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ao; Speir, Jeffrey A; Yuan, Y Adam; Johnson, John E; Wong, Sek Man

    2009-06-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 A resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 A. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV.

  9. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ao; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Yuan, Y. Adam; Johnson, John E.; Wong, Sek-Man

    2009-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 Å. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV. PMID:19478438

  10. Complete genome sequence of three tomato ringspot virus isolates: evidence for reassortment and recombination.

    PubMed

    Walker, Melanie; Chisholm, Joan; Wei, Ting; Ghoshal, Basudev; Saeed, Hanna; Rott, Michael; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2015-02-01

    The genome sequence of tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV, a subgroup C nepovirus) is currently available for one raspberry isolate. In this study, we describe the complete genome sequence of three additional isolates from raspberry (Rasp1-2014), grapevine (GYV-2014) and prunus (13C280). The degree of nucleotide sequence identity shared between RNA1 and RNA2 in the 5'-terminal 900 nucleotides and 3' untranslated region varied from 98-99 % (13C280, GYV-2014) to 80 % (Rasp1-2014). Phylogenetic studies revealed distinct origins for Rasp1-2014 RNA1 and RNA2, suggesting reassortment. Two recombination events were also identified in the 3' UTR and 5'-terminal region of RNA1.

  11. New isolates of carnation Italian ringspot virus differ from the original one by having replication-associated proteins with a typical tombusvirus-like N-terminus and by inducing peroxisome- rather than mitochondrion-derived multivesicular bodies.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Renate; Lesemann, Dietrich-Eckhardt; Pfeilstetter, Ernst

    2009-01-01

    Five new isolates of carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV) from cherry trees, Gypsophila and surface water differ from the original carnation isolate (CIRV-car) and also from Pelargonium necrotic spot virus (PelNSV) by having an ORF 1/ORF1-RT with a typical tombusvirus-like 5'end and by inducing the formation of peroxisome- rather than mitochondrion-derived multivesicular bodies (MVBs). This supports with natural isolates earlier conclusions reached by others with artificially produced hybrid viruses that the 5'end of ORF 1 determines from which organelle the MBVs will be derived. CIRV-car might have resulted from a natural recombination event with genome elements of a PelNSV-like virus.

  12. A novel emaravirus is associated with redbud yellow ringspot disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yellow ringspot is the only virus-like disease reported in redbud (Cercis spp.) with symptoms including vein clearing, chlorotic ringspots and oak-leaf pattern. A putative new emaravirus was present in 48 of 48l trees displaying typical yellow ringspot symptoms and the name redbud yellow ringspot as...

  13. Complete genome of Hainan papaya ringspot virus using small RNA deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuliang; Yu, Naitong; Huang, Qixing; Yin, Guohua; Guo, Anping; Wang, Xiangfeng; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhixin

    2014-06-01

    Small RNA deep sequencing allows for virus identification, virus genome assembly, and strain differentiation. In this study, papaya plants with virus-like symptoms collected in Hainan province were used for deep sequencing and small RNA library construction. After in silicon subtraction of the papaya sRNAs, small RNA reads were used to in the viral genome assembly using a reference-guided, iterative assembly approach. A nearly complete genome was assembled for a Hainan isolate of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-HN-2). The complete PRSV-HN-2 genome (accession no.: KF734962) was obtained after a 15-nucleotide gap was filled by direct sequencing of the amplified genomic region. Direct sequencing of several random genomic regions of the PRSV isolate did not find any sequence discrepancy with the sRNA-assembled genome. The newly sequenced PRSV-HN-2 genome shared a nucleotide identity of 96 and 94 % to that of the PRSV-HN (EF183499) and PRSV-HN-1 (HQ424465) isolates, and together with these two isolates formed a new PRSV clade. These data demonstrate that the small RNA deep sequencing technology provides a viable and rapid mean to assemble complete viral genomes in plants.

  14. Salicylic acid-dependent restriction of Tomato ringspot virus spread in tobacco is accompanied by a hypersensitive response, local RNA silencing, and moderate systemic resistance.

    PubMed

    Jovel, Juan; Walker, Melanie; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2011-06-01

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV, a Nepovirus sp.) systemically infects many herbaceous plants. Viral RNA accumulates in symptomatic leaves and in young, asymptomatic leaves that emerge late in infection. Here, we show that systemic infection by ToRSV is restricted in tobacco. After an initial hypersensitive response in inoculated leaves, only a few plants showed limited systemic symptoms. Viral RNA did not usually accumulate to detectable levels in asymptomatic leaves. ToRSV-derived small-interfering RNAs and PR1a transcripts were only detected in tissues that contained viral RNA, indicating local induction of RNA silencing and salicylic acid (SA)-dependent defense responses. Lesion size and viral systemic spread were reduced with SA pretreatment but enhanced in NahG transgenic lines deficient in SA accumulation, suggesting that SA-dependent mechanisms play a key role in limiting ToRSV spread in tobacco. Restriction of virus infection was enhanced in transgenic lines expressing the P1-HC-Pro suppressor of silencing. Knocking down the SA-inducible RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 1 exacerbated the necrotic reaction but did not affect viral systemic spread. ToRSV-infected tobacco plants were susceptible to reinoculation by ToRSV or Tobacco mosaic virus, although a small reduction in lesion size was observed. This moderate systemic resistance suggests inefficient induction or spread of RNA silencing and systemic acquired resistance signal molecules.

  15. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-08-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya.

  16. Genomic sequencing and analysis of Chilli ringspot virus, a novel potyvirus.

    PubMed

    Gong, Dian; Wang, Jian-Hua; Lin, Zhan-Song; Zhang, Shao-Yan; Zhang, Yu-Liang; Yu, Nai-Tong; Xiong, Zhongguo; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Chilli ringspot virus (ChiRSV), a novel potyvirus, was recently found in Hainan, China with high prevalence. The genomic sequence of the ChiRSV-HN/14 isolate was determined by sequencing overlapping cDNA segments generated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with degenerate and/or specific primers. ChiRSV genome (GenBank Acc. no. JN008909) comprised of 9,571 nucleotides (nt) excluding the 3'-terminal poly (A) tail and contained a large open reading frame of 9,240 nt encoding a large polyprotein of 3,079 amino acids with predicted Mr of 349.1 kDa. A small, overlapping PIPO coding region was also found to span from nt 2,913 to 3,095, with a capacity to encode a peptide of 60 amino acids. ChiRSV shares sequence identities of only 48.5-65.4 and 42.9-68.7% with closely related potyviruses at the nucleotide and the amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomic sequences provided further evidence that ChiRSV is a distinct species of the Potyvirus genus. ChiRSV-HN/14 is most closely related to Tobacco vein banding mosaic virus and two other pepper-infecting potyviruses.

  17. On the evolution and molecular epidemiology of the potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Marion F; Lines, Rosemarie E; Revill, Peter; Chaleeprom, Worawan; Ha, Cuong V; Gibbs, Adrian J; Dale, James L

    2002-10-01

    The potyvirus Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is found throughout the tropics and subtropics. Its P biotype is a devastating pathogen of papaya crops and its W biotype of cucurbits. PRSV-P is thought to arise by mutation from PRSV-W. However, the relative impact of mutation and movement on the structure of PRSV populations is not well characterized. To investigate this, we have determined the coat protein sequences of isolates of both biotypes of PRSV from Vietnam (50), Thailand (13), India (1) and the Philippines (1), and analysed them together with 28 PRSV sequences already published, so that we can better understand the molecular epidemiology and evolution of PRSV. In Thailand, variation was greater among PRSV-W isolates (mean nucleotide divergence 7.6%) than PRSV-P isolates (mean 2.6%), but in Vietnamese populations the P and W biotypes were more but similarly diverse. Phylogenetic analyses of PRSV also involving its closest known relative, Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus, indicate that PRSV may have originated in Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent, as PRSV populations there are most diverse and hence have probably been present longest. Our analyses show that mutation, together with local and long-distance movement, contributes to population variation, and also confirms an earlier conclusion that populations of the PRSV-P biotype have evolved on several occasions from PRSV-W populations.

  18. Molecular evidence that zucchini yellow fleck virus is a distinct and variable potyvirus related to papaya ringspot virus and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Desbiez, C; Justafre, I; Lecoq, H

    2007-02-01

    Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV, genus Potyvirus) infects cultivated or wild cucurbits in the Mediterranean basin and occasionally causes severe damage in crops. Biological and serological data tend to indicate that ZYFV is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, mainly papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV). In order to establish unambiguously the taxonomic status of ZYFV, the sequence of the 3' part of the genome - encompassing the CP coding region - of two ZYFV strains originating from Italy and France was obtained and compared with other potyviruses. The results obtained indicate that ZYFV belongs to a distinct potyvirus species, related to but different from PRSV and MWMV.

  19. Zucchini tigré mosaic virus is a distinct potyvirus in the papaya ringspot virus cluster: molecular and biological insights.

    PubMed

    Romay, G; Lecoq, H; Desbiez, C

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, three new potyviruses have been described in the papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) cluster. In addition, two types of PRSV are recognized, type W, infecting cucurbit plants, and type P, infecting papaya and also cucurbits. A third type, PRSV-T, was also partially described in Guadeloupe. Complete genome sequencing of four PRSV-T isolates showed that this virus is a related virus that is distinct from PRSV, and the name zucchini tigré mosaic virus (ZTMV) is proposed, in reference to the typical symptoms observed in zucchini squash. Eleven other viral isolates from different geographic origins were confirmed as ZTMV isolates using the complete sequence of the cylindrical inclusion (CI) coding region, whereas pairwise sequence similarities in the coat protein (CP) coding region did not unambiguously distinguish ZTMV isolates from PRSV isolates. The use of the CI coding region for species demarcation appears more suitable than the CP coding region for closely related viruses. Principal coordinates analysis based on the biological behavior of the viral isolates studied clustered PRSV-P, PRSV-W and ZTMV isolates into three different groups. Therefore, ZTMV is different from PRSV in its molecular and biological properties.

  20. Potential threat of a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus infecting transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Bau, H-J; Kung, Y-J; Raja, J A J; Chan, S-J; Chen, K-C; Chen, Y-K; Wu, H-W; Yeh, S-D

    2008-07-01

    A virus identified as a new pathotype of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV, P-TW-WF) was isolated from diseased papaya in an isolated test-field in central Taiwan, where transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were evaluated. The infected plants displayed severe mosaic, distortion and shoe-stringing on leaves; stunting in apex; and water-soaking on petioles and stems. This virus, which did not react in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the antiserum to the PRSV coat protein, infected only papaya, but not the other 18 plant species tested. Virions studied under electron microscope exhibited morphology and dimensions of potyvirus particles. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction conducted using potyvirus-specific primers generated a 1,927-nucleotide product corresponding to the 3' region of a potyvirus, showing high sequence identity to the CP gene and 3' noncoding region of PLDMV. Search for similar isolates with the antiserum against CP of P-TW-WF revealed scattered occurrence of PLDMV in Taiwan. Phylogenetic analysis of PLDMV isolates of Taiwan and Japan indicated that the Taiwan isolates belong to a separate genetic cluster. Since all the Taiwan isolates infected only papaya, unlike the cucurbit-infecting Japanese P type isolates, the Taiwan isolates are considered a new pathotype of PLDMV. Susceptibility of all our PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya lines to PLDMV indicates that the virus is an emerging threat for the application of PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  1. Role of genetic recombination in the molecular architecture of Papaya ringspot virus.

    PubMed

    Mangrauthia, Satendra K; Parameswari, B; Jain, R K; Praveen, Shelly

    2008-12-01

    Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) has a single-stranded RNA genome and causes severe economic losses both in cucurbits and papaya worldwide. The extent to which the genome of PRSV is shaped by recombination provides an understanding of the molecular evolution of PRSV and helps in studying features such as host specificity, geographic distribution, and its emergence as new epidemics. The PRSV-P-Indian isolate was completely sequenced and compared with 14 other isolates reported from the rest of the world for their phylogenetic survey of recombination events. Cistron-by-cistron sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on full-genome polyprotein showed two distinct groupings of Asian and American isolates, although PRSV-P and W-India clustered along with the American isolates. Recombination sites were found throughout the genomes, except in the small 6K1 protein gene. A significant proportion of recombination hotspots was found in the P1 gene, followed by P3, cylindrical inclusion (CI), and helper component proteinase (HcPro). Correlations between the presence of recombination sites, geographic distribution, and phylogenetic relationship provide an opportunity to establish the molecular evolution and geographic route of PRSV.

  2. Toxicity assessment of transgenic papaya ringspot virus of 823-2210 line papaya fruits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsin-Tang; Yen, Gow-Chin; Huang, Ting-Tzu; Chan, Lit-Fu; Cheng, Ying-Huey; Wu, Jhaol-Huei; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Sheng-Yang; Liao, Jiunn-Wang

    2013-02-20

    The transgenic papaya is a valuable strategy for creating plants resistant to papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) infection and increasing production. This study was further performed to evaluate the comparative toxicity effects of the newly developed transgenic line of the fruits of two backcross transgenic papaya lines (2210 and 823) and one hybrid line (823-2210) and compare to their parent non-transgenic (TN-2) counterparts. The stability analysis of coat protein (CP) of PRSV was investigated using the digestion stability assays in simulated gastric fluid (SGF), simulated intestinal fluid (SIF), and bile salts to detect the CP fragments. Results revealed that the CP fragments were rapidly hydrolyzed in SGF and were undetectable in organs and gastrointestinal contents in rats. For the genotoxicity, three in vitro assays were conducted and exhibited that non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits were negative. Moreover, a repeated animal feeding study was conducted by feeding 2 g/kg of body weight (bw) of non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits for 28 days in rats. There were no biological or toxicological significances between non-transgenic and backcross transgenic papaya fruits in rats. The results demonstrated that the backcross transgenic papaya fruit can be recognized as an equivalent substitution for traditional papaya in food safety.

  3. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein upregulates sulfur metabolism genes for enhanced pathogen defense.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruimin; Ng, Florence Kai Lin; Liu, Peng; Wong, Sek-Man

    2012-12-01

    In both Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV)-infected and HCRSV coat protein (CP) agroinfiltrated plant leaves, we showed that sulfur metabolism pathway related genes-namely, sulfite oxidase (SO), sulfite reductase, and adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase-were upregulated. It led us to examine a plausible relationship between sulfur-enhanced resistance (SED) and HCRSV infection. We broadened an established method to include different concentrations of sulfur (0S, 1S, 2S, and 3S) to correlate them to symptom development of HCRSV-infected plants. We treated plants with glutathione and its inhibitor to verify the SED effect. Disease resistance was induced through elevated glutathione contents during HCRSV infection. The upregulation of SO was related to suppression of symptom development induced by sulfur treatment. In this study, we established that HCRSV-CP interacts with SO which, in turn, triggers SED and leads to enhanced plant resistance. Thus, we have discovered a new function of SO in the SED pathway. This is the first report to demonstrate that the interaction of a viral protein and host protein trigger SED in plants. It will be interesting if such interaction applies generally to other host-pathogen interactions that will lead to enhanced pathogen defense.

  4. NIa-pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1.

    PubMed

    Gao, Le; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Tuo, Decai; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2012-12-05

    A chloroplast-localized papaya methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (PaMsrB1) interacting with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was identified using a Sos recruitment two-hybrid system (SRS). SRS analysis of several deletion mutants of PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1 demonstrated that the C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and residues 112-175 of PaMsrB1 were necessary for this interaction between PRSV NIa-Pro and PaMsrB1. MsrB1 can repair Met-oxidized proteins damaged by reactive oxygen species (ROS). We confirmed that PRSV infection leads to ROS accumulation and a slight upregulation of level PaMsrB1 mRNA in papaya. This interaction between PaMsrB1 with PRSV NIa-Pro may disturb the import of PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts. These results suggest that this specific interaction could interfere with PaMsrB1 into the chloroplasts to scavenge ROS caused by PRSV infection. This may be a novel mechanism of PRSV towards the host defense.

  5. Complete genomic sequence of a tobacco rattle virus isolate from Michigan-grown potatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) causes stem mottle on potato leaves and necrotic arcs and rings in potato tubers, known as corky ringspot disease. Recently, TRV was reported in Michigan potato tubers cv. FL1879 exhibiting corky ringspot disease. Sequence analysis of the RNA-1-encoded 16 kDa gene of the...

  6. Analysis of the coding-complete genomic sequence of groundnut ringspot virus suggests a common ancestor with tomato chlorotic spot virus.

    PubMed

    de Breuil, Soledad; Cañizares, Joaquín; Blanca, José Miguel; Bejerman, Nicolás; Trucco, Verónica; Giolitti, Fabián; Ziarsolo, Peio; Lenardon, Sergio

    2016-08-01

    Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) share biological and serological properties, so their identification is carried out by molecular methods. Their genomes consist of three segmented RNAs: L, M and S. The finding of a reassortant between these two viruses may complicate correct virus identification and requires the characterization of the complete genome. Therefore, we present for the first time the complete sequences of all the genes encoded by a GRSV isolate. The high level of sequence similarity between GRSV and TCSV (over 90 % identity) observed in the genes and proteins encoded in the M RNA support previous results indicating that these viruses probably have a common ancestor.

  7. Simultaneous detection of Cymbidium mosaic virus and Odontoglossum ringspot virus in orchids using multiplex RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Min; Choi, Sun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A system for simultaneous detection of two orchid-infecting viruses was developed and applied to several orchid species. The detection system involved multiplex reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and could simultaneously identify Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV) from the orchid species studied. Multiplex RT-PCR was conducted using two virus-specific primer pairs and an internal control pair of primers to amplify the CymMV and ORSV coat protein regions, and orchid 18S rDNA, respectively. For optimization of multiplex RT-PCR conditions, serial dilutions of total RNA and cDNA were performed and the detection limit of the system was evaluated. The optimized multiplex detection system for CymMV and ORSV was applied to various orchid species, including several cultivars of Doritaenopsis, Cymbidium, Dendrobium, and Phalaenopsis to test the efficacy of this method. Our results indicate that the multiplex RT-PCR detection system will be a rapid, simple, and precise diagnosis tool in a range of orchid species.

  8. Plant growth retardation and conserved miRNAs are correlated to Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus infection.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection.

  9. Plant Growth Retardation and Conserved miRNAs Are Correlated to Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruimin; Wan, Zi Yi; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    Virus infection may cause a multiplicity of symptoms in their host including discoloration, distortion and growth retardation. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) infection was studied using kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a non-wood fiber-producing crop in this study. Infection by HCRSV reduced the fiber yield and concomitant economic value of kenaf. We investigated kenaf growth retardation and fluctuations of four selected miRNAs after HCRSV infection. Vegetative growth (including plant height, leaf size and root development) was severely retarded. From the transverse and radial sections of the mock and HCRSV-infected kenaf stem, the vascular bundles of HCRSV-infected plants were severely disrupted. In addition, four conserved plant developmental and defence related microRNAs (miRNAs) (miR165, miR167, miR168 and miR171) and their respective target genes phabulosa (PHB), auxin response factor 8 (ARF8), argonaute 1 (AGO1) and scarecrow-like protein 1 (SCL1) displayed variation in expression levels after HCRSV infection. Compared with the mock inoculated kenaf plants, miR171 and miR168 and their targets SCL1 and AGO1 showed greater fluctuations after HCRSV infection. As HCRSV upregulates plant SO transcript in kenaf and upregulated AGO1 in HCRSV-infected plants, the expression level of AGO1 transcript was further investigated under sulfite oxidase (SO) overexpression or silencing condition. Interestingly, the four selected miRNAs were also up- or down-regulated upon overexpression or silencing of SO. Plant growth retardation and fluctuation of four conserved miRNAs are correlated to HCRSV infection. PMID:24386476

  10. Comparison of ELISA and RT-PCR for the detection of Prunus necrotic ring spot virus and prune dwarf virus in almond (Prunus dulcis).

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Genet; Ramesh, Sunita A; Alberts, Evita; Bertozzi, Terry; Wirthensohn, Michelle; Collins, Graham; Sedgley, Margaret

    2003-12-01

    A technique based on the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) has been developed to detect the presence of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) and prune dwarf virus (PDV) simultaneously in almond. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study comparing both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and RT-PCR for the detection of PNRSV and PDV using 175 almond leaf samples. Multiplex RT-PCR was found to be more sensitive than ELISA, especially when followed by nested PCR for the detection of PDV. The RT-PCR technique has the added advantage that plant material can be tested at any time throughout the growing season.

  11. Tomato necrotic streak virus, a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel plant virus has been identified infecting fresh market tomato plants in south and southeast Florida. The virus causes necrosis of tomato leaves, petioles and stems, and necrotic rings or spots on tomato fruits. Symptomatic tomato plant tissue was used to mechanically inoculate tomato plant...

  12. Generation of transgenic papaya with double resistance to Papaya ringspot virus and Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Kung, Yi-Jung; Bau, Huey-Jiunn; Wu, Yi-Ling; Huang, Chiung-Huei; Chen, Tsui-Miao; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2009-11-01

    During the field tests of coat protein (CP)-transgenic papaya lines resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), another Potyvirus sp., Papaya leaf-distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), appeared as an emerging threat to the transgenic papaya. In this investigation, an untranslatable chimeric construct containing the truncated CP coding region of the PLDMV P-TW-WF isolate and the truncated CP coding region with the complete 3' untranslated region of PRSV YK isolate was transferred into papaya (Carica papaya cv. Thailand) via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to generate transgenic plants with resistance to PLDMV and PRSV. Seventy-five transgenic lines were obtained and challenged with PRSV YK or PLDMV P-TW-WF by mechanical inoculation under greenhouse conditions. Thirty-eight transgenic lines showing no symptoms 1 month after inoculation were regarded as highly resistant lines. Southern and Northern analyses revealed that four weakly resistant lines have one or two inserts of the construct and accumulate detectable amounts of transgene transcript, whereas nine resistant lines contain two or three inserts without significant accumulation of transgene transcript. The results indicated that double virus resistance in transgenic lines resulted from double or more copies of the insert through the mechanism of RNA-mediated posttranscriptional gene silencing. Furthermore, three of nine resistant lines showed high levels of resistance to heterologous PRSV strains originating from Hawaii, Thailand, and Mexico. Our transgenic lines have great potential for controlling a number of PRSV strains and PLDMV in Taiwan and elsewhere.

  13. Characterization of Coffee ringspot virus-Lavras: A model for an emerging threat to coffee production and quality

    SciTech Connect

    Ramalho, T.O.; Figueira, A.R.; Sotero, A.J.; Wang, R.; Geraldino Duarte, P.S.; Farman, M.; Goodin, M.M.

    2014-09-15

    The emergence of viruses in Coffee (Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora), the most widely traded agricultural commodity in the world, is of critical concern. The RNA1 (6552 nt) of Coffee ringspot virus is organized into five open reading frames (ORFs) capable of encoding the viral nucleocapsid (ORF1p), phosphoprotein (ORF2p), putative cell-to-cell movement protein (ORF3p), matrix protein (ORF4p) and glycoprotein (ORF5p). Each ORF is separated by a conserved intergenic junction. RNA2 (5945 nt), which completes the bipartite genome, encodes a single protein (ORF6p) with homology to RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Phylogenetic analysis of L protein sequences firmly establishes CoRSV as a member of the recently proposed Dichorhavirus genus. Predictive algorithms, in planta protein expression, and a yeast-based nuclear import assay were used to determine the nucleophillic character of five CoRSV proteins. Finally, the temperature-dependent ability of CoRSV to establish systemic infections in an initially local lesion host was quantified. - Highlights: • We report genome sequence determination for Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV). • CoRSV should be considered a member of the proposed Dichorhavirus genus. • We report temperature-dependent systemic infection of an initially local lesion host. • We report in planta protein and localization data for five CoRSV proteins. • In silico predictions of the CoRSV proteins were validated using in vivo assays.

  14. Detection of tobacco rattle virus RNA in processed potato chips displaying symptoms of corky ringspot disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A portion of genomic RNA 1 of tobacco rattle tobravirus (TRV) was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction from each of eight processed potato chips from three different bags purchased at three locations. The positive chips all had symptoms typical of corky ringspot disease, cau...

  15. An update on sequence diversity of Impatiens necrotic spot virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV; genus Tospovirus, family Bunyaviridae) is an economically important viral pathogen for a wide range of plants, including greenhouse ornamental and vegetable crops. In many cases, symptoms induced by INSV are similar, though not identical, to those induced by Toma...

  16. A new tospovirus causing chlorotic ringspot on Hippeastrum sp. in China.

    PubMed

    Dong, J H; Yin, Y Y; Fang, Q; McBeath, J H; Zhang, Z K

    2013-06-01

    A new tospovirus, HCRV 2007-ZDH, was isolated from a Hippeastrum sp. plant displaying necrotic and chlorotic ringspot symptoms in Yunnan province. This virus isolate was characterized based on particle morphology and RNA sequences analyses. Quasi-spherical, enveloped particles measuring about 70-100 nm, typical of tospoviruses, were observed in sap and cells of the infected plants. Transmission studies by inoculating this isolate mechanically to Hippeastrum sp. confirmed that 2007-ZDH is the causal agent of the chlorotic ringspot disease of Hippeastrum sp. The complete sequence of S RNA of 2007-ZDH was 2,744 nucleotides in length, sharing 74.4 % nucleotide identity with Tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV) isolate tomato (AY686718). The S RNA encoded a non-structural protein (NSs) (444 aa, 50.4 kDa) and the nucleocapsid (N) protein (273 aa, 30.1 kDa).The deduced NSs protein shared amino acid identities of 78.6, 76.3, and 74.9 % with that of TYRV, IYSV, and PolRSV, respectively. The deduced N protein shared amino acid identities of 86.1, 84.7, and 70.0 % with that of PolRSV, TYRV, and IYSV, respectively. These results suggest that the chlorotic ringspot virus belongs to a new tospovirus species, for which the name Hippeastrum chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRV) is proposed.

  17. Varying genetic diversity of Papaya ringspot virus isolates from two time-separated outbreaks in Jamaica and Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Chin, M; Rojas, Y; Moret, J; Fermin, G; Tennant, P; Gonsalves, D

    2007-01-01

    Coat protein sequences of 22 Papaya ringspot virus isolates collected from different locations in Jamaica and Venezuela in 1999 and 2004, respectively, were determined and compared with sequences of isolates from earlier epidemics in 1990 and 1993. Jamaican isolates collected in 1999 exhibited nucleotide sequence identities between 98 and 100% but shared lower identities of 92.2% with an isolate collected in 1990. Isolates from the 2004 epidemic in Venezuela exhibited more heterogeneity, with identities between 88.7 and 98.8%. However, isolates collected in 1993 were more closely related (97.7%). The viral populations of the two countries are genetically different and appear to be changing at different rates; presumably driven by introductions, movement of plant materials, geographical isolation, and disease management practices.

  18. Characterization of two different apricot latent virus variants associated with peach asteroid spot and peach sooty ringspot diseases.

    PubMed

    Gentit, P; Foissac, X; Svanella-Dumas, L; Peypelut, M; Candresse, T

    2001-08-01

    Peach asteroid spot (PAS) and peach sooty ringspot (PSRS) are two diseases of stone fruit trees of unknown aetiology. The use of a cRNA probe of the newly described Apricot latent virus (ApLV), a tentative member of the Foveavirus genus, indicated the presence of cross-hybridizing agents in PAS isolate LA2 and in PSRS isolates Caserta 12 and Clava J4. Analysis of dsRNA patterns revealed in each case the presence of a major dsRNA band of about 9.6 kbp. The purified dsRNAs were used to obtain cDNA clones for isolates LA2 and Caserta 12. Sequence analysis of a 1.1 kbp cDNA clone from isolate LA2 showed very high homology with the known ApLV sequence, indicating that this isolate represents a closely related variant of ApLV. Sequence analysis of a 3.06 kbp Caserta 12 cDNA clone representing the 3' region of the genome revealed a genomic organization similar to that reported for other members of the Foveavirus genus, including the triple gene block and a large, 43.6 kDa coat protein. Sequence comparison with the CP gene of ApLV, the only sequenced region so far for this virus, showed an overall homology of 78%. These results indicate that the foveavirus represented by the Caserta 12 isolate of PSRS disease may be regarded as a distant variant of ApLV. The present results indicate that the viral agents associated with peach asteroid spot and peach sooty ringspot diseases might be variants of the recently described ApLV.

  19. A single amino acid of niapro of papaya ringspot virus determines host specificity for infection of papaya.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chun; Chiang, Chu-Hui; Raja, Joseph A J; Liu, Fang-Lin; Tai, Chun-Hsi; Yeh, Shyi-Dong

    2008-08-01

    Most strains of Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) belong to type W, causing severe loss on cucurbits worldwide, or type P, devastating papaya in tropical areas. While the host range of PRSV W is limited to plants of the families Chenopodiaceae and Cucuribitaceae, PRSV P, in addition, infects plants of the family Caricaceae (papaya family). To investigate one or more viral genetic determinants for papaya infection, recombinant viruses were constructed between PRSV P-YK and PRSV W-CI. Host reactions to recombinant viruses indicated that the viral genomic region covering the C-terminal region (142 residues) of NIaVPg, full NIaPro, and N-terminal region (18 residues) of NIb, is critical for papaya infection. Sequence analysis of this region revealed residue variations at position 176 of NIaVPg and positions 27 and 205 of NIaPro between type P and W viruses. Host reactions to the constructed mutants indicated that the amino acid Lys27 of NIaPro determines the host-specificity of PRSV for papaya infection. Predicted three-dimensional structures of NIaPros of parental viruses suggested that Lys27 does not affect the protease activity of NIaPro. Recovery of the infected plants from certain papaya-infecting mutants implied involvement of other viral factors for enhancing virulence and adaptation of PRSV on papaya.

  20. Raspberry (Rubus spp.)-Ringspot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), which is spread at a rate of about 6 ft a year in the row by dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum) and possibly related species. It is common in red raspberry in the northern Willamette valley in Oregon and in Clark County in southern Washington. Many weeds also are ...

  1. Distribution, cultivar susceptibility, and epidemiology of Apium virus Y on celery in coastal California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apium virus Y (ApVY) is a potyvirus that was recently found to cause crop loss to celery (Apium graveolens) in California. Symptoms on leaves vary greatly and consist of general chlorosis, chlorotic or necrotic line patterns, chlorotic blotches and mottling, necrotic lesions, ringspots, and distorte...

  2. Simultaneous detection of papaya ringspot virus, papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, and papaya mosaic virus by multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    PubMed

    Huo, P; Shen, W T; Yan, P; Tuo, D C; Li, X Y; Zhou, P

    2015-12-01

    Both the single infection of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) or papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) and double infection of PRSV and PLDMV or PapMV which cause indistinguishable symptoms, threaten the papaya industry in Hainan Island, China. In this study, a multiplex real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) was developed to detect simultaneously the three viruses based on their distinctive melting temperatures (Tms): 81.0±0.8°C for PRSV, 84.7±0.6°C for PLDMV, and 88.7±0.4°C for PapMV. The multiplex real-time RT-PCR method was specific and sensitive in detecting the three viruses, with a detection limit of 1.0×10(1), 1.0×10(2), and 1.0×10(2) copies for PRSV, PLDMV, and PapMV, respectively. Indeed, the reaction was 100 times more sensitive than the multiplex RT-PCR for PRSV, and 10 times more sensitive than multiplex RT-PCR for PLDMV. Field application of the multiplex real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that some non-symptomatic samples were positive for PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR but negative by multiplex RT-PCR, whereas some samples were positive for both PRSV and PLDMV by multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay but only positive for PLDMV by multiplex RT-PCR. Therefore, this multiplex real-time RT-PCR assay provides a more rapid, sensitive and reliable method for simultaneous detection of PRSV, PLDMV, PapMV and their mixed infections in papaya.

  3. Horizontal pollen transmission of Gentian ovary ring-spot virus is initiated during penetration of the stigma and style by infected pollen tubes.

    PubMed

    Isogai, Masamichi; Kamata, Yukie; Ando, Syunpei; Kamata, Misaki; Shirakawa, Asuka; Sekine, Ken-Taro; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2017-03-01

    Gentian ovary ring-spot virus (GORV) infected gentian plants by pollination with GORV-infected gentian pollen grains, but the virus was not horizontally transmitted to gentian plants by transfer of pollen from GORV-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. However, N. benthamiana plants were infected with the virus by pollination with infected gentian pollen as well as by pollination with infected N. benthamiana pollen. When infected gentian pollen grains were placed on N. benthamiana stigmas, germinating pollen tubes penetrated into the stigmas and the styles (stigma-style). Virus infection occurred during penetration of the stigma-style, and the virus subsequently spread systemically to the mother plant. On the other hand, most infected N. benthamiana pollen grains failed to germinate on gentian stigmas, and virus infections were not detected in the stigma-style.

  4. The genome sequence of an isolate of Indian citrus ringspot virus infecting the sweet orange in India.

    PubMed

    K, Prabha; Baranwal, V K

    2012-11-01

    Whole-genome sequencing of an isolate of Mandarivirus infecting the sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L) Blanco] in the western part of India (Pune) was done. The single-stranded positive-sense RNA genome of Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) Pune has 7,560 nucleotides (nt), excluding a poly(A) tail, comprised of 27.98% (2,115 nt) A, 32.12% (2,428 nt) C, 19.68% (1,488 nt) G, and 20.22% (1,529 nt) T residues. The genome, organized into six open reading frames (ORFs), shares 97.7% sequence identity with the complete genome of the ICRSV K1 isolate (AF406744.1) infecting the kinnow (Citrus reticulate Blanco, a hybrid between King and Willow mandarins) in north India. The ICRSV Pune genome formed a complex secondary structure with a large number of unpaired cytosine-rich regions, and recombination analysis highlighted potential recombination in the ICRSV genome.

  5. Encapsidation of nanoparticles by red clover necrotic mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Loo, LiNa; Guenther, Richard H; Lommel, Steven A; Franzen, Stefan

    2007-09-12

    Icosahedral virus capsids demonstrate a high degree of selectivity in packaging cognate nucleic acid genome components during virion assembly. The 36 nm icosahedral plant virus Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) packages its two genomic ssRNAs via a specific capsid protein (CP) genomic RNA interaction. A 20-nucleotide hairpin structure within the genomic RNA-2 hybridizes with RNA-1 to form a bimolecular complex, which is the origin of assembly (OAS) in RCNMV that selectively recruits and orients CP subunits initiating virion assembly. In this Article, an oligonucleotide mimic of the OAS sequence was attached to Au, CoFe2O4, and CdSe nanoparticles ranging from 3 to 15 nm, followed by addition of RNA-1 to form a synthetic OAS to direct the virion-like assembly by RCNMV CP. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements were consistent with the formation of virus-like particles (VLPs) comparable in size to native RCNMV. Attempts to encapsidate nanoparticles with diameters larger than 17 nm did not result in well-formed viral capsids. These results are consistent with the presence of a 17 nm cavity in native RCNMV. Covalent linkage of the OAS to nanoparticles directs RNA-dependent encapsidation and demonstrates that foreign cargo can be packaged into RCNMV virions. The flexibility of the RCNMV CP to encapsidate different materials, as long as it is within encapsidation constraint, is a critical factor to be considered as a drug delivery and diagnostic vehicle in biomedical applications.

  6. Antagonism or synergism between papaya ringspot virus and papaya mosaic virus in Carica papaya is determined by their order of infection.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Contreras-Paredes, Carlos A; Mora-Macias, Javier; Noa-Carrazana, Juan C; Serrano-Rubio, Angélica A; Dinkova, Tzvetanka D; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Antagonism between unrelated plant viruses has not been thoroughly described. Our studies show that two unrelated viruses, papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and papaya mosaic virus (PapMV) produce different symptomatic outcomes during mixed infection depending on the inoculation order. Synergism occurs in plants infected first with PRSV or in plants infected simultaneously with PRSV and PapMV, and antagonism occurs in plants infected first with PapMV and later inoculated with PRSV. During antagonism, elevated pathogenesis-related (PR-1) gene expression and increased reactive oxygen species production indicated the establishment of a host defense resulting in the reduction in PRSV titers. Polyribosomal fractioning showed that PRSV affects translation of cellular eEF1α, PR-1, β-tubulin, and PapMV RNAs in planta, suggesting that its infection could be related to an imbalance in the translation machinery. Our data suggest that primary PapMV infection activates a defense response against PRSV and establishes a protective relationship with the papaya host.

  7. The genome sequence of lettuce necrotic stunt virus indicates a close relationship to Moroccan pepper virus.

    PubMed

    Wintermantel, William M; Anchieta, Amy G

    2012-07-01

    Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV) causes severe losses to lettuce production in the western United States, which results in stunting, necrosis and death on all non-crisphead lettuces, as well as flower abortion and yield losses in greenhouse tomato production. The genome of LNSV was sequenced and has an organization typical of viruses of the genus Tombusvirus. Sequence comparisons indicated that much of the genome is relatively closely related to tomato bushy stunt virus; however, the coat protein is very closely related to that of isolates of Moroccan pepper virus (MPV).

  8. Basic amino acid mutations in the nuclear localization signal of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus p23 inhibit virus long distance movement.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement.

  9. Basic Amino Acid Mutations in the Nuclear Localization Signal of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus p23 Inhibit Virus Long Distance Movement

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruimin; Wong, Sek-Man

    2013-01-01

    The p23 is a unique protein in the Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus which belongs to Family Tombusviridae Genus Carmovirus. Our previous results showed that the p23 is indispensable for host-specific replication and is localized in the nucleus with a novel nuclear localization signal. To investigate additional function(s) of p23, mutations of basic amino acids lysine (K), arginine (R) and histidine (H) that abolish its nuclear localization, were introduced into a biologically active full-length cDNA clone p223 of HCRSV for testing its effects on virus replication and virus movement in vivo. Primer-specific reverse transcription-PCR was conducted to detect gene transcript level of p23 and viral coat protein separately. Virus replication and its coat protein expression were detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization and Western blot, respectively. The effect of p23 was further confirmed by using artificial microRNA inoculation-mediated silencing. Results showed that the two mutants were able to replicate in protoplasts but unable to move from inoculated leaves to newly emerged leaves. Both the p23 and the CP genes of HCRSV were detected in the newly emerged leaves of infected plants but CP was not detected by Western blot and no symptom was observed on those leaves at 19 days post inoculation. This study demonstrates that when p23 is prevented from entering the nucleus, it results in restriction of virus long distance movement which in turn abrogates symptom expression in the newly emerged leaves. We conclude that the p23 protein of HCRSV is required for virus long distance movement. PMID:24019944

  10. Allergenicity assessment of the Papaya ringspot virus coat protein expressed in transgenic Rainbow papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus-resistant, transgenic commercial papaya cultivars Rainbow and SunUp (Carica papaya L.) have been consumed locally in Hawaii and elsewhere in the mainland US and Canada since their release to planters in Hawaii in 1998. These cultivars are derived from transgenic papaya line 55-1 and carry ...

  11. Characterization of a Non-Canonical Signal Peptidase Cleavage Site in a Replication Protein from Tomato Ringspot Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ting; Chisholm, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The NTB-VPg polyprotein from tomato ringspot virus is an integral membrane replication protein associated with endoplasmic reticulum membranes. A signal peptidase (SPase) cleavage was previously detected in the C-terminal region of NTB-VPg downstream of a 14 amino acid (aa)-long hydrophobic region (termed TM2). However, the exact location of the cleavage site was not determined. Using in vitro translation assays, we show that the SPase cleavage site is conserved in the NTB-VPg protein from various ToRSV isolates, although the rate of cleavage varies from one isolate to another. Systematic site-directed mutagenesis of the NTB-VPg SPase cleavage sites of two ToRSV isolates allowed the identification of sequences that affect cleavage efficiency. We also present evidence that SPase cleavage in the ToRSV-Rasp2 isolate occurs within a GAAGG sequence likely after the AAG (GAAG/G). Mutation of a downstream MAAV sequence to AAAV resulted in SPase cleavage at both the natural GAAG/G and the mutated AAA/V sequences. Given that there is a distance of seven aa between the two cleavage sites, this indicates that there is flexibility in the positioning of the cleavage sites relative to the inner surface of the membrane and the SPase active site. SPase cleavage sites are typically located 3–7 aa downstream of the hydrophobic region. However, the NTB-VPg GAAG/G cleavage site is located 17 aa downstream of the TM2 hydrophobic region, highlighting unusual features of the NTB-VPg SPase cleavage site. A putative 11 aa-long amphipathic helix was identified immediately downstream of the TM2 region and five aa upstream of the GAAG/G cleavage site. Based on these results, we present an updated topology model in which the hydrophobic and amphipathic domains form a long tilted helix or a bent helix in the membrane lipid bilayer, with the downstream cleavage site(s) oriented parallel to the membrane inner surface. PMID:27589230

  12. Characterization and epidemiology of outbreaks of Impatiens necrotic spot virus on lettuce in coastal California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beginning in 2006, outbreaks of diseases caused by tospoviruses in lettuce have occurred in California with greater frequency. Lettuce in the coastal region has been affected primarily by Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), though Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) was also present. In contrast, TSW...

  13. Mutagenesis and self-ligation of the self-cleavage domain of the satellite RNA minus strand of tobacco ringspot virus and its binding to polyamines.

    PubMed Central

    Sekiguchi, A; Komatsu, Y; Koizumi, M; Ohtsuka, E

    1991-01-01

    Several mutants for the minus strands of the self-cleaving domain of the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus have been synthesized by joining chemically synthesized oligoribonucleotides with RNA ligase. Kinetic properties of the enzyme strands (50 nucleotides) against substrates (15-mer and 18-mer) were investigated. Structural properties of the unpaired part in the cleavage region were estimated from mutagenesis. The catalytic domain alone was proved to be responsible for the rejoining reaction of cleaved substrates. It was also found that the ribozyme could be divided into two strands without loss of activity. Effects of concentration of magnesium ion and polyamines on the cleavage reaction for the two-stranded ribozyme are also reported. Images PMID:1722305

  14. Red clover necrotic mosaic virus: Biophysics and Biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockney, Dustin M.

    Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a highly robust (Tm=60 °C), 36 nm icosahedral plant virus. The capsid of RCNMV is assembled from 180 chemically equivalent coat proteins (CPs). The CPs arrange in a T=3 symmetry, in 1 of 3 conformations forming the asymmetric subunit (ASU). There are two Ca(II) binding sites per CP; the removal of divalent cations causes the CP subunits of the ASU to rotate away from each other forming a ˜13 A channel. These channels lead to the highly organized bipartite genome of RCNMV and can be closed by adding back Ca(II). Titrimetric analysis and tryptophan fluorescence was used to determine the affinity of RCNMV for Ca(II) to be ˜Kd < 300 nM. It has been shown that doxorubicin (Dox) can be infused into the capsid at a mole ratio of ˜1000:1, Dox-to-virus, and unlike other nanoparticles, there is no detectable leakage. The high loading of Dox is most likely due to intercalation into the genome and significant intercalation or exposure to denaturants was observed to cause loss of capsid stability. To better understand the limitations of cargo loading, Dox and other intercalating molecules (rhodamine 800, ethidium bromide, and propidium iodide) were assayed to determine optimum infusion conditions. Dox was observed to have a propensity to aggregate. In order to manage the Dox aggregation, the infusion buffer was changed from 50 mM Tris-HCl/50 mM NaOAc/50 mM EDTA or 200 mM EDTA at pH 8.0 to 5 mM HEPES/5 mM Na4EDTA/10 mM NaCl pH 7.8. The Dox:RCNMV infusion mole ratio was also lowered from 5000:1 to 500:1 and the incubation temperature was changed from 4 °C to 22 °C for <12 hours, opposed to 24 hours. To impart targeting functionality to RCNMV, biomimetic peptides were conjugated to either the surface capsid lysines or cysteines using standard bioconjugation methods. For all of the biomimetic peptides screened, sulfosuccinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo-SMCC) was used to orthogonally attach the

  15. A necrotizing pneumonia in lambs caused by pseudorabies virus (Aujesky's disease virus).

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, S P; Pirtle, E C; Hagemoser, W A; Wages, D P

    1987-01-01

    An outbreak of pseudorabies occurred in sheep housed with swine in the same building. Although the sheep and swine were not in physical contact, the lambs and ewes were exposed to air from the sows' section. Three dead lambs were submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for necropsy. Grossly there were pulmonary congestion and multifocal pulmonary hemorrhages. Microscopic lesions were severe acute multifocal necrotizing bronchopneumonia with necrotizing vasculitis and intranuclear inclusion bodies within the neurons of the parabronchial ganglia. Bacterial cultures were negative for pathogenic agents; pseudorabies virus was isolated from ovine brain tissue. Viral antigen was demonstrated in the neurons of the parabronchial ganglia by immunoperoxidase staining. Electron microscopy revealed nucleocapsids in the parabronchial ganglionic neurons which contained basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Viral DNA prepared from the ovine pseudorabies virus isolate was found by restriction endonuclease analysis to be related to the Indiana Funkhauser strain of pseudorabies virus. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:3032388

  16. A genetic map of cucumber composed of RAPDs, RFLPs, AFLPs, and loci conditioning resistance to papaya ringspot and zucchini yellow mosaic viruses.

    PubMed

    Park, Y H; Sensoy, S; Wye, C; Antonise, R; Peleman, J; Havey, M J

    2000-12-01

    The watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W) and zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) are potyviruses that cause significant disease losses in cucumber. Resistances have been identified primarily in exotic germplasm that require transfer to elite cultivated backgrounds. To select more efficiently for virus resistances, we identified molecular markers tightly linked to PRSV-W and ZYMV resistances in cucumber. We generated F6 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross between Cucumis sativus L. 'Straight 8' and a line from 'Taichung Mou Gua', TMG1 (susceptible and resistant, respectively, to both viruses), and studied the segregations of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and resistances to PRSV-W and ZYMV. A 353-point map of cucumber was generated, delineating 12 linkage groups at LOD 3.5. Linkage arrangements among RFLPs were consistent with previously published maps; however linkages among RAPDs in our map did not agree with a previously published map. Resistances to PRSV-W and ZYMV were tightly linked (2.2 cM) and mapped to the end of one linkage group. One AFLP cosegregated with resistance to ZYMV.

  17. First report of tomato chlorotic spot virus infecting tomatoes in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An emerging disease, with virus-like symptoms of deformation, discoloration and necrotic ringspots on green and red fruits of tomato, were observed in a commercial high tunnel in Wayne Co., Ohio, in the summer of 2013. Incidence of affected fruit was estimated to be 15%. Four symptomatic fruits we...

  18. N-terminal of Papaya ringspot virus type-W (PRSV-W) helper component proteinase (HC-Pro) is essential for PRSV systemic infection in zucchini.

    PubMed

    Yap, Yun-Kiam; Duangjit, Janejira; Panyim, Sakol

    2009-06-01

    The Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) is one of the limiting factors affecting papaya and cucurbits production worldwide. PRSV belongs to the potyvirus genus which consists of 30% of known plant viruses. Two serological closely related strains, namely type-P and -W, have been reported. PRSV type-P infects both papaya and cucurbits, while type-W infects only cucurbits. The genome of PRSV Thailand isolate consists of a (+) RNA molecule of 10323 nucleotides, which is first translated into a single polypeptide and further cleaved by three viral encoded proteases into ten gene products. Helper-component proteinase (HC-Pro), which is encoded by the 2nd cistron of the potyviral genome, has been implicated in aphid transmission, viral movement, viral replication and suppression of host viral defense system. Studies of the Tobacco etch virus (TEV), Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) indicate that the N-terminal of HC-Pro is dispensable for systemic infection in their respective hosts. However, deletion analysis of the Tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV) indicates otherwise. In this study, we examined whether HC-Pro is essential for PRSV systemic infection in cucurbits and the role of its N-terminal in systemic infection. Our results indicated that HC-Pro is indispensable for PRSV infection in zucchini. Deletion analysis of PRSV HC-Pro showed that deletion of as few as 54 amino acids at the N-terminal of HC-Pro completely abolished the infectivity of the corresponding cDNA clone. Therefore, it is proposed that the N-terminal of HC-Pro is involved in systemic infection of PRSV, in addition to its conserved function in aphid transmission.

  19. Complete genome sequence of yacon necrotic mottle virus, a novel putative member of the genus Badnavirus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Young-Kee; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Seo, Jang-Kyun

    2015-04-01

    The complete genome sequence of a previously undescribed virus isolated from a yacon plant exhibiting necrotic mottle, chlorosis, stunting, and leaf malformation symptoms in Gyeongju, Korea, was determined. The genome of this virus consists of one circular double-stranded DNA of 7661 bp in size. The genome contained four open reading frames (ORFs 1 to 4) on the plus strand that potentially encode proteins of 26, 32, 234, and 25 kDa. Protein BLAST analysis showed that ORF3, which is the largest ORF, has 45 % amino acid sequence identity (with 89 % coverage) to the ORF3 of fig badnavirus 1 (FBV-1), a recently identified badnavirus. Phylogenetic analysis provided further evidence that the virus identified in this study is probably a member of a new species in the genus Badnavirus. The name yacon necrotic mottle virus (YNMoV) is proposed for this new virus.

  20. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  1. Genomic Characterization of Three Melon Necrotic Spot Viruses Detected in Human Stool Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Magaña, Laura; Aswath, Kshama; Collins, Nikail; Vinjé, Jan; Oberste, M. Steven

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The complete coding sequences of three melon necrotic spot viruses (MNSVs) were obtained from viral metagenomics of stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis. These genomes were most similar to Spanish strains sequenced in 2003 and a novel MNSV watermelon strain in 2014. PMID:28302791

  2. Differential Gene Expression in Response to Papaya ringspot virus Infection in Cucumis metuliferus Using cDNA- Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Wei; Chung, Chien-Hung; Chen, Jo-Chu; Yeh, Shy-Dong; Ku, Hsin-Mei

    2013-01-01

    A better understanding of virus resistance mechanisms can offer more effective strategies to control virus diseases. Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), Potyviridae, causes severe economical losses in papaya and cucurbit production worldwide. However, no resistance gene against PRSV has been identified to date. This study aimed to identify candidate PRSV resistance genes using cDNA-AFLP analysis and offered an open architecture and transcriptomic method to study those transcripts differentially expressed after virus inoculation. The whole genome expression profile of Cucumis metuliferus inoculated with PRSV was generated using cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) method. Transcript derived fragments (TDFs) identified from the resistant line PI 292190 may represent genes involved in the mechanism of PRSV resistance. C. metuliferus susceptible Acc. 2459 and resistant PI 292190 lines were inoculated with PRSV and subsequently total RNA was isolated for cDNA-AFLP analysis. More than 400 TDFs were expressed specifically in resistant line PI 292190. A total of 116 TDFs were cloned and their expression patterns and putative functions in the PRSV-resistance mechanism were further characterized. Subsequently, 28 out of 116 candidates which showed two-fold higher expression levels in resistant PI 292190 than those in susceptible Acc. 2459 after virus inoculation were selected from the reverse northern blot and bioinformatic analysis. Furthermore, the time point expression profiles of these candidates by northern blot analysis suggested that they might play roles in resistance against PRSV and could potentially provide valuable information for controlling PRSV disease in the future. PMID:23874746

  3. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shengniao; Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Samales, Ashwin Kuppusamy; Johnson, John; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Wong, Sek-Man

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP) functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G) in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G) in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G) were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G) was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G) inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  4. Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus Coat Protein Is Essential for Cell-to-Cell and Long-Distance Movement but Not for Viral RNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Shengniao; Gil-Salas, Francisco M.; Tewary, Sunil Kumar; Samales, Ashwin Kuppusamy; Johnson, John; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Wong, Sek-Man

    2014-01-01

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP) functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G) in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G) in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G) were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G) was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G) inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro. PMID:25402344

  5. Porcine circovirus type 2 protective epitope densely carried by chimeric papaya ringspot virus-like particles expressed in E. coli as a cost-effective vaccine manufacture alternative.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Brenda Eugenia; Chávez-Calvillo, Gabriela; Elizondo-Quiroga, Darwin; Jimenez-García, Mónica Noemí; Carrillo-Tripp, Mauricio; Silva-Rosales, Laura; Hernández-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Gutiérrez-Ortega, Abel

    2016-03-11

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) still represents a major problem to the swine industry worldwide, causing high mortality rates in infected animals. Virus-like particles (VLPs) have gained attention for vaccine development, serving both as scaffolds for epitope expression and immune response enhancers. The commercial subunit vaccines against PCV2 consist of VLPs formed by the self-assembly of PCV2 capsid protein (CP) expressed in the baculovirus vector system. In this work, a PCV2 protective epitope was inserted into three different regions of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) CP, namely, the N- and C-termini and a predicted antigenic region located near the N-terminus. Wild-type and chimeric CPs were modeled in silico, expressed in E. coli, purified and visualized by transmission electron microscopy. This is the first report that shows the formation of chimeric VLPs using PRSV as epitope-presentation scaffold. Moreover, it was found that PCV2 epitope localization strongly influences VLP length. Also, the estimated yields of the chimeric VLPs at a small-scale level ranged between 65 and 80 mg/l of culture medium. Finally, the three chimeric VLPs induced high levels of IgG against the PCV2 epitope in immunized BALB/c mice, suggesting that these chimeric VLPs can be used for swine immunoprophylaxis against PCV2. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. A distinct tospovirus causing necrotic streak on Alstroemeria sp. in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Hassani-Mehraban, Afshin; Botermans, Marleen; Verhoeven, J Th J; Meekes, Ellis; Saaijer, Janneke; Peters, Dick; Goldbach, Rob; Kormelink, Richard

    2010-03-01

    A tospovirus causing necrotic streaks on leaves was isolated from Alstroemeria sp. in Colombia. Infected samples reacted positively with tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) antiserum during preliminary serological tests. Further analysis revealed a close serological relationship to tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV). A major part of the S-RNA segment, encompassing the nucleocapsid (N) protein gene, the 5' untranslated region and a part of the intergenic region 3' of the N gene, was cloned and sequenced. The deduced N protein sequence showed highest amino acid identity (82%) to that of TCSV, indicating that the virus represents a new tospovirus species, for which the name Alstroemeria necrotic streak virus (ANSV) is coined. Phylogenetic analysis based on the N protein sequence revealed that this Alstroemeria-infecting tospovirus clustered with tospoviruses from the American continent. Frankliniella occidentalis was identified as potential vector species for ANSV.

  7. Unusual Necrotizing Encephalitis in Raccoons and Skunks Concurrently Infected With Canine Distemper Virus and Sarcocystis sp.

    PubMed

    Kubiski, S V; Sisó, S; Church, M E; Cartoceti, A N; Barr, B; Pesavento, P A

    2016-05-01

    Canine distemper virus commonly infects free-ranging, terrestrial mesopredators throughout the United States. Due to the immunosuppressive effects of the virus, concurrent opportunistic infections are also common. Among these, secondary systemic protozoal infections have been described in a number of species. We report an unusual presentation of necrotizing encephalitis associated withSarcocystissp in four raccoons and one skunk concurrently infected with canine distemper virus. Lesions were characterized by variably sized necrotizing cavitations composed of abundant mineral admixed with inflammatory cells and protozoa.Sarcocystissp was confirmed via immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody toSarcocystis neurona The pathologic changes are similar to lesions in human AIDS patients infected withToxoplasma gondii.

  8. Necrotic streak disease of tomato in Florida caused by a new ilarvirus species related to Tulare apple mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel ilarvirus for which the name Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is proposed was detected in Florida tomato plants beginning in October 2013. Symptoms including necrosis of leaves, petioles and stems, and necrotic rings or spots on fruits were observed. This report provides an overview o...

  9. pH-sensitive residues in the p19 RNA silencing suppressor protein from carnation Italian ringspot virus affect siRNA binding stability

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sean M; Zhang, Bin W; Brooks, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Tombusviruses, such as Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV), encode a protein homodimer called p19 that is capable of suppressing RNA silencing in their infected hosts by binding to and sequestering short-interfering RNA (siRNA) away from the RNA silencing pathway. P19 binding stability has been shown to be sensitive to changes in pH but the specific amino acid residues involved have remained unclear. Using constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified key pH-dependent residues that affect CIRV p19–siRNA binding stability at various pH ranges based on calculated changes in the free energy contribution from each titratable residue. At high pH, the deprotonation of Lys60, Lys67, Lys71, and Cys134 has the largest effect on the binding stability. Similarly, deprotonation of several acidic residues (Asp9, Glu12, Asp20, Glu35, and/or Glu41) at low pH results in a decrease in binding stability. At neutral pH, residues Glu17 and His132 provide a small increase in the binding stability and we find that the optimal pH range for siRNA binding is between 7.0 and 10.0. Overall, our findings further inform recent experiments and are in excellent agreement with data on the pH-dependent binding profile. PMID:23450521

  10. pH-sensitive residues in the p19 RNA silencing suppressor protein from carnation Italian ringspot virus affect siRNA binding stability.

    PubMed

    Law, Sean M; Zhang, Bin W; Brooks, Charles L

    2013-05-01

    Tombusviruses, such as Carnation Italian ringspot virus (CIRV), encode a protein homodimer called p19 that is capable of suppressing RNA silencing in their infected hosts by binding to and sequestering short-interfering RNA (siRNA) away from the RNA silencing pathway. P19 binding stability has been shown to be sensitive to changes in pH but the specific amino acid residues involved have remained unclear. Using constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, we have identified key pH-dependent residues that affect CIRV p19-siRNA binding stability at various pH ranges based on calculated changes in the free energy contribution from each titratable residue. At high pH, the deprotonation of Lys60, Lys67, Lys71, and Cys134 has the largest effect on the binding stability. Similarly, deprotonation of several acidic residues (Asp9, Glu12, Asp20, Glu35, and/or Glu41) at low pH results in a decrease in binding stability. At neutral pH, residues Glu17 and His132 provide a small increase in the binding stability and we find that the optimal pH range for siRNA binding is between 7.0 and 10.0. Overall, our findings further inform recent experiments and are in excellent agreement with data on the pH-dependent binding profile.

  11. Catalytically active geometry in the reversible circularization of 'mini-monomer' RNAs derived from the complementary strand of tobacco ringspot virus satellite RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein, P A; Bruening, G

    1993-01-01

    The less abundant polarity of the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus, designated sTobRV(-)RNA, contains a ribozyme and its substrate. We demonstrate that the ribozyme can catalyze the ligation of substrate cleavage products and that oligoribonucleotides, termed 'mini-monomers' and containing little more than covalently attached ribozyme and substrate cleavage products, circularized spontaneously, efficiently and reversibly. The kinetics of ligation and cleavage of one such mini-monomer was consistent with a simple unimolecular reaction at some temperatures. Evidence suggests that the circular ligation product includes a 5 bp stem that is connected to a 4 bp stem by a bulge loop. Reduction of the bulge loop to one nt is expected to place the 4 and 5 bp helices in a nearly coaxial, rather than an angled or parallel, orientation. Such molecules did not circularize in a unimolecular reaction but did when incubated with second, trans-acting oligoribonucleotides that had either the original or a substituted 4 bp helix. These results suggest that a bulge loop that is too small prevents formation of geometry essential for unimolecular ligation. We suggest the term 'paperclip' to represent the arrangement of RNA strands in the region of sTobRV(-)RNA that participates in the cleavage and ligation reactions. Images PMID:7684131

  12. NIa-Pro of Papaya ringspot virus interacts with Carica papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G).

    PubMed

    Gao, Le; Tuo, Decai; Shen, Wentao; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2015-02-01

    The interaction of papaya eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit G (CpeIF3G) with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) NIa-Pro was validated using a bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in papaya protoplasts based on the previous yeast two-hybrid assay results. The C-terminal (residues 133-239) fragment of PRSV NIa-Pro and the central domain (residues 59-167) of CpeIF3G were required for effective interaction between NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G as shown by a Sos recruitment yeast two-hybrid system with several deletion mutants of NIa-Pro and CpeIF3G. The central domain of CpeIF3G, which contains a C2HC-type zinc finger motif, is required to bind to other eIFs of the translational machinery. In addition, quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay confirmed that PRSV infection leads to a 2- to 4.5-fold up-regulation of CpeIF3G mRNA in papaya. Plant eIF3G is involved in various stress response by enhancing the translation of resistance-related proteins. It is proposed that the NIa-Pro-CpeIF3G interaction may impair translation preinitiation complex assembly of defense proteins and interfere with host defense.

  13. Inhibition of the host proteasome facilitates papaya ringspot virus accumulation and proteosomal catalytic activity is modulated by viral factor HcPro.

    PubMed

    Sahana, Nandita; Kaur, Harpreet; Basavaraj; Tena, Fatima; Jain, Rakesh Kumar; Palukaitis, Peter; Canto, Tomas; Praveen, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system plays an essential role not only in maintaining protein turnover, but also in regulating many other plant responses, including plant-pathogen interactions. Previous studies highlighted different roles of the 20S proteasome in plant defense during virus infection, either indirectly through viral suppressor-mediated degradation of Argonaute proteins, affecting the RNA interference pathway, or directly through modulation of the proteolytic and RNase activity of the 20S proteasome, a component of the 20S proteasome, by viral proteins, affecting the levels of viral proteins and RNAs. Here we show that MG132, a cell permeable proteasomal inhibitor, caused an increase in papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) accumulation in its natural host papaya (Carica papaya). We also show that the PRSV HcPro interacts with the papaya homologue of the Arabidopsis PAA (α1 subunit of the 20S proteasome), but not with the papaya homologue of Arabidopsis PAE (α5 subunit of the 20S proteasome), associated with the RNase activity, although the two 20S proteasome subunits interacted with each other. Mutated forms of PRSV HcPro showed that the conserved KITC54 motif in the N-terminal domain of HcPro was necessary for its binding to PAA. Co-agroinfiltration assays demonstrated that HcPro expression mimicked the action of MG132, and facilitated the accumulation of bothtotal ubiquitinated proteins and viral/non-viral exogenous RNA in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. These effects were not observed by using an HcPro mutant (KITS54), which impaired the HcPro - PAA interaction. Thus, the PRSV HcPro interacts with a proteasomal subunit, inhibiting the action of the 20S proteasome, suggesting that HcPro might be crucial for modulating its catalytic activities in support of virus accumulation.

  14. Influenza Virus-Associated Fatal Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy: Role of Nonpermissive Viral Infection?

    PubMed Central

    Mungaomklang, Anek; Chomcheoy, Jiraruj; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Joyjinda, Yutthana; Jittmittraphap, Akanitt; Rodpan, Apaporn; Ghai, Siriporn; Saraya, Abhinbhen; Hemachudha, Thiravat

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, two unusual peaks of H1N1 influenza outbreak occurred in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, in Thailand. Among 2,406 cases, one of the 22 deaths in the province included a 6-year-old boy, who initially presented with acute necrotizing encephalopathy. On the other hand, his sibling was mildly affected by the same influenza virus strain, confirmed by whole-genome sequencing, with one silent mutation. Absence of acute necrotizing encephalopathy and other neurological illnesses in the family and the whole province, with near identical whole viral genomic sequences from the two siblings, and an absence of concomitant severe lung infection (cytokine storm) at onset suggest nonpermissive infection as an alternative pathogenetic mechanism of influenza virus. PMID:27812294

  15. Sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus by real-time TaqMan RT-PCR targeting the highly conserved 3'-UTR region.

    PubMed

    Tang, Joe; Khan, Subuhi; Delmiglio, Catia; Ward, Lisa I

    2014-06-01

    A real-time TaqMan RT-PCR assay was developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), an important plant virus which infects a wide range of fruit and ornamental crops. Primers and a probe were designed based on the highly conserved 3'-untranslated region (UTR) sequences of ToRSV, to amplify a 182bp fragment of this region of RNA-1 and RNA-2. The assay was demonstrated to reliably amplify all ToRSV isolates tested. The detection limit was estimated to be about 12 copies of the ToRSV target region. No amplification was observed from the RNA of other nepoviruses or healthy host species. A comparison with a published conventional RT-PCR and a SYBR-based qRT-PCR indicated that both of the published assays lacked reliability and sensitivity, as neither were able to amplify all ToRSV isolates tested, and both were approximately 1000 times less sensitive than the novel TaqMan real-time assay. This TaqMan real-time assay was tested using four different reagent kits and was shown to be robust and stable, with no significant differences in sensitivity between kits. It is expected that the implementation of this TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay will facilitate efficient phytosanitary certification of nursery stock requiring testing for ToRSV by regulatory agencies, and will also have wider uses for the general detection of ToRSV in a range of hosts.

  16. Pepper necrotic spot virus, a new tospovirus infecting solanaceous crops in Peru.

    PubMed

    Torres, Roger; Larenas, Javiera; Fribourg, Cesar; Romero, Javier

    2012-04-01

    Two virus isolates, T1 and T2, causing necrotic spots on leaves and stems of pepper and tomato, respectively, were isolated in the La Joya valley, Arequipa, Peru, in 2010. These two isolates were inoculated to differential hosts for tospoviruses and showed differential fitness: T1 induced necrotic local lesions in Vigna unguiculata, whereas T2 produced only chlorotic spots. The complete nucleotide sequence of the small (S) RNA from T2 and 1863 bp of the S RNA from T1 were determined. The deduced N protein sequence showed high amino acid identity (97%) between the isolates, indicating that the T1 and T2 are isolates of the same virus. Sequence comparisons indicated that the amino acid sequence of the N protein shared 53.49-87.98% identity with known American tospoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of both the NSs and N proteins revealed that this new tospovirus belongs to the American group. We conclude that this tospovirus should be considered a member of a new species. The name Pepper necrotic spot virus (PNSV) is proposed.

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of red clover necrotic mosaic virus

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Stanton L.; Guenther, Richard H.; Sit, Tim L.; Swartz, Paul D.; Meilleur, Flora; Lommel, Steven A.; Rose, Robert B.

    2010-11-12

    Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV) is a species that belongs to the Tombusviridae family of plant viruses with a T = 3 icosahedral capsid. RCNMV virions were purified and were crystallized for X-ray analysis using the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method. Self-rotation functions and systematic absences identified the space group as I23, with two virions in the unit cell. The crystals diffracted to better than 4 {angstrom} resolution but were very radiation-sensitive, causing rapid decay of the high-resolution reflections. The data were processed to 6 {angstrom} in the analysis presented here.

  18. Establishing a Corky Ringspot Disease Plot for Research Purposes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method to establish two experimental corky ringspot disease (CRS) plots that had no prior CRS history is described. CRS is a serious disease of potato in the Pacific Northwest USA, caused by tobacco rattle virus (TRV) and transmitted primarily by Paratrichodorus allius. ‘Samsun NN’ tobacco seedli...

  19. Characterization of Melon necrotic spot virus Occurring on Watermelon in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Cho, Jeom-Deog; Lee, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Tae-sung; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was recently identified on watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) in Korea, displaying as large necrotic spots and vein necrosis on the leaves and stems. The average occurrence of MNSV on watermelon was found to be 30–65% in Hapcheon and Andong City, respectively. Four isolates of the virus (MNSV-HW, MNSV-AW, MNSV-YW, and MNSV-SW) obtained from watermelon plants in different areas were non-pathogenic on ten general indicator plants, including Chenopodium quinoa, while they infected systemically six varieties of Cucurbitaceae. The virus particles purified by 10–40% sucrose density gradient centrifugation had a typical ultraviolet spectrum, with a minimum at 245 nm and a maximum at 260 nm. The morphology of the virus was spherical with a diameter of 28–30 nm. Virus particles were observed scattered throughout the cytoplasm of watermelon cells, but no crystals were detected. An ELISA was conducted using antiserum against MNSV-HW; the optimum concentrations of IgG and conjugated IgG for the assay were 1 μl/ml and a 1:8,000–1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. Antiserum against MNSV-HW could capture specifically both MNSV-MN from melon and MNSV-HW from watermelon by IC/RT-PCR, and they were effectively detected with the same specific primer to produce product of 1,172 bp. The dsRNA of MNSV-HW had the same profile (4.5, 1.8, and 1.6 kb) as that of MNSV-MN from melon. The nucleotide sequence of the coat protein of MNSV-HW gave a different phylogenetic tree, having 17.2% difference in nucleotide sequence compared with MNSV isolates from melon. PMID:26673673

  20. Induction of necrosis via mitochondrial targeting of Melon necrotic spot virus replication protein p29 by its second transmembrane domain

    SciTech Connect

    Mochizuki, Tomofumi; Hirai, Katsuyuki; Kanda, Ayami; Ohnishi, Jun; Ohki, Takehiro; Tsuda, Shinya

    2009-08-01

    The virulence factor of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), a virus that induces systemic necrotic spot disease on melon plants, was investigated. When the replication protein p29 was expressed in N. benthamiana using a Cucumber mosaic virus vector, necrotic spots appeared on the leaf tissue. Transmission electron microscopy revealed abnormal mitochondrial aggregation in these tissues. Fractionation of tissues expressing p29 and confocal imaging using GFP-tagged p29 revealed that p29 associated with the mitochondrial membrane as an integral membrane protein. Expression analysis of p29 deletion fragments and prediction of hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TMDs) in p29 showed that deletion of the second putative TMD from p29 led to deficiencies in both the mitochondrial localization and virulence of p29. Taken together, these results indicated that MNSV p29 interacts with the mitochondrial membrane and that p29 may be a virulence factor causing the observed necrosis.

  1. First detection in the United States of Ligustrum necrotic ringspot virus in Mazus reptans with mild mosaic symptoms, in mixed infection with Cucumber mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mazus reptans N.E. Br (creeping mazus) is a perennial flowering groundcover plant in the family Scrophulariaceae. A plant of M. reptans ‘Alba’ with mild mosaic symptoms was obtained from a Maryland nursery in 2010. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of slightly flexuous particles of 595-674...

  2. Molecular simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus by real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melting analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, real-time RT-PCR assays were combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) infection in sweet cherry trees. Detection of CNRMV and CGRMV was performed using a...

  3. Diversity and evolutionary history of lettuce necrotic yellows virus in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Colleen M; Chang, Wee-Leong; Khan, Subuhi; Tang, Joe; Elliott, Carol; Dietzgen, Ralf G

    2016-02-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) is the type member of the genus Cytorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae, and causes a severe disease of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). This virus has been described as endemic to Australia and New Zealand, with sporadic reports of a similar virus in Europe. Genetic variability studies of plant-infecting rhabdoviruses are scarce. We have extended a previous study on the variability of the LNYV nucleocapsid gene, comparing sequences from isolates sampled from both Australia and New Zealand, as well as analysing symptom expression on Nicotiana glutinosa. Phylogenetic and BEAST analyses confirm separation of LNYV isolates into two subgroups (I and II) and suggest that subgroup I is slightly older than subgroup II. No correlation was observed between isolate subgroup and disease symptoms on N. glutinosa. The origin of LNYV remains unclear; LNYV may have moved between native and weed hosts within Australia or New Zealand before infecting lettuce or may have appeared as a result of at least two incursions, with the first coinciding with the beginning of European agriculture in the region. The apparent extinction of subgroup I in Australia may have been due to less-efficient dispersal than that which has occurred for subgroup II - possibly a consequence of suboptimal interactions with plant and/or insect hosts. Introduction of subgroup II to New Zealand appears to be more recent. More-detailed epidemiological studies using molecular tools are needed to fully understand how LNYV interacts with its hosts and to determine where the virus originated.

  4. Complete genome sequence of an emerging melon necrotic spot virus isolate infecting greenhouse cucumber in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome (4,267 nt) of an Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) isolate (ABCA13-01) infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada was determined through deep sequencing of small RNAs. Its genome sequence was most closely related to MNSV-N (97%), but lacking a 55-nt insertion at the 3’UTR for resista...

  5. Genomic and biological characterization of Tomato necrotic streak virus, a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus infecting tomato in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is a recently described ilarvirus that was detected in tomato in Florida. The full TomNSV genome sequence revealed it to be a novel subgroup 2 ilarvirus with little nucleotide identity to other previously reported tomato-infecting ilarviruses. Experimental hos...

  6. Dissecting the epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus and Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus; a study on population structure, transmission, and alternative hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease (BYVD), a disorder caused by virus complexes is the most important blackberry disease in the southern United States. Blackberry yellow vein associated virus (BYVaV) is the most prevalent virus in BYVD plants being detected in more than 50% of the samples exhibiting BYV...

  7. Structure of the C-Terminal Domain of Lettuce Necrotic Yellows Virus Phosphoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Nicolas; Ribeiro, Euripedes A.; Leyrat, Cédric; Tarbouriech, Nicolas; Ruigrok, Rob W. H.

    2013-01-01

    Lettuce necrotic yellows virus (LNYV) is a prototype of the plant-adapted cytorhabdoviruses. Through a meta-prediction of disorder, we localized a folded C-terminal domain in the amino acid sequence of its phosphoprotein. This domain consists of an autonomous folding unit that is monomeric in solution. Its structure, solved by X-ray crystallography, reveals a lollipop-shaped structure comprising five helices. The structure is different from that of the corresponding domains of other Rhabdoviridae, Filoviridae, and Paramyxovirinae; only the overall topology of the polypeptide chain seems to be conserved, suggesting that this domain evolved under weak selective pressure and varied in size by the acquisition or loss of functional modules. PMID:23785215

  8. Complete genome sequence and biological characterization of Moroccan pepper virus (MPV) and reclassification of Lettuce necrotic stunt virus as MPV.

    PubMed

    Wintermantel, William M; Hladky, Laura L

    2013-05-01

    Moroccan pepper virus (MPV) and Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV) have been steadily increasing in prevalence in central Asia and western North America, respectively, over the past decade. Recent sequence analysis of LNSV demonstrated a close relationship between the coat proteins of LNSV and MPV. To determine the full extent of the relationship between LNSV and MPV, the genomes of three MPV isolates were sequenced and compared with that of LNSV. Sequence analysis demonstrated that genomic nucleotide sequences as well as virus-encoded proteins of the three MPV isolates and LNSV shared 97% or greater identity. A full-length clone of a California LNSV isolate was developed and virus derived from infectious transcripts was used to evaluate host plant reactions under controlled conditions. Symptoms of LNSV matched those described previously for MPV on most of a select series of host plants, although some differences were observed. Collectively, these molecular and biological results demonstrate that LNSV should be classified as MPV within the family Tombusviridae, genus Tombusvirus, and confirm the presence of MPV in North America.

  9. Clinical efficacy of oral and topical acyclovir in herpes simplex virus stromal necrotizing keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, Surabhi; Acharya, Manisha; Gour, Abha; Sapra, Neelam; Chauhan, Lokesh; Mathur, Umang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of systemic and topical antiviral therapy in the treatment of active herpes simplex virus (HSV) necrotizing stromal keratitis (NSK). Design: Prospective interventional case series. Methodology: Patients with a diagnosis of HSV NSK based on history and clinical findings were enrolled in the study. A standard protocol was used for microbiologic investigations. Ten weeks regime of systemic acyclovir and 2 weeks of topical acyclovir was given. Complete ophthalmic examination was performed at every visit. Outcome measures were a reduction in the area of infiltration and improvement in visual acuity. Results: Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of presentation was 51.53 years. The duration of symptoms at presentation ranged from 2 to 8 weeks. HSV1 DNA polymerase chain reaction was positive in 70% cases of those tested. Area of infiltration at trial entry and at the end of 2 weeks of antiviral treatment reduced significantly (P = 0.007). All patients showed a complete resolution of keratitis at the end of study. Conclusion: Topical and systemic acyclovir for treatment of NSK facilitates healing of ulceration. Topical steroids after initial antiviral therapy are safe and decreases inflammation and improve visual recovery. Early initiation of therapy has better outcomes as compared to late presentations. PMID:27221681

  10. Cloning of the coat protein gene from beet necrotic yellow vein virus and its expression in sugar beet hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, U; Commandeur, U; Frank, R; Landsmann, J; Koenig, R; Burgermeister, W

    1991-06-01

    Expression of the beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) coat protein (CP) gene in transgenic sugar beet hairy roots was accomplished as a step towards CP-mediated virus resistance. A cDNA for the CP gene and its 5' terminal untranslated leader sequence was prepared from BNYVV RNA, using two oligodeoxynucleotides to prime the synthesis of both strands. Second-strand synthesis and amplification of the cDNA were done by Taq DNA polymerase chain reactions. Run-off transcripts of the cloned cDNA sequence were obtained and translated in vitro, yielding immunoreactive CP. A binary vector construction containing the CP gene under the control of the 35S promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus was prepared and used for Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of sugar beet tissue. Stable integration and expression of the CP gene in sugar beet hairy roots was demonstrated by Southern, Northern, and Western blot analysis, respectively.

  11. Aphid transmission of Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus, a member of a tentative new subgroup within the genus Torradovirus.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Martin; Dullemans, Annette M; van der Vlugt, René A A

    2017-02-20

    Lettuce necrotic leaf curl virus (LNLCV) was described as the first non-tomato-infecting member of the genus Torradovirus. Until today, the virus was found only in The Netherlands in two different areas in open field crops of lettuce. In 2015, LNLCV was accepted by the ICTV as a new member of the genus Torradovirus. The tomato-infecting (TI) torradoviruses Tomato torrado virus (ToTV), Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV) and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) are transmitted by at least three whitefly species in a semi-persistent and stylet-borne manner. As LNLCV was transmitted in open fields in The Netherlands, where whiteflies are present only in low incidence, transmission studies were set up to identify the natural vector of LNLCV. Whitefly species which survive Dutch open field conditions during summer, as well as lettuce colonizing aphid species, were tested for their ability to transmit LNLCV. Lengths of acquisition and inoculation periods were chosen in accordance with the conditions for TI torradoviruses. Transmission experiments involving whiteflies were never successful. Transmission with aphids was only successful in case of the lettuce-currant aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri. Localization of LNLCV virions in N. ribisnigri with a nested RT-PCR indicated the stylets as possible retention sites. The willow-carrot aphid Cavariella aegopodii did not transmit LNLCV in our transmission experiment but the virus could be detected in the stylets of this aphid, leaving C. aegopodii as a possible vector for LNLCV.

  12. Detection of Strawberry necrotic shock virus using conventional and TaqMan(®) quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Thekke Veetil, Thanuja; Ho, Thien; Moyer, Catalina; Whitaker, Vance M; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E

    2016-09-01

    Graft-indexing of an advanced selection from the University of Florida strawberry breeding program produced virus-like symptoms on Fragaria vesca. However; RT-PCR testing of the material did not detect the presence of any of 16 strawberry virus species or members of virus groups for which strawberries are routinely indexed. Large scale sequencing of the material revealed the presence of an isolate of Strawberry necrotic shock virus. The nucleotide sequence of this isolate from Florida shows a significant number of base changes in the annealing sites of the primers compared to the primers currently in use for the detection of SNSV thereby explaining the most probable reason for the inability to detect the virus in the original screening. RT-PCR and Taqman(®) qPCR assays were developed based on conserved virus sequences identified in this isolate from Florida and other sequences for SNSV currently present in GenBank. The two assays were applied successfully on multiple samples collected from several areas across the United States as well as isolates from around the world. Comparison between the RT-PCR and the qPCR assays revealed that the qPCR assay is at least 100 times more sensitive than conventional PCR.

  13. Efficient dsRNA-mediated transgenic resistance to Beet necrotic yellow vein virus in sugar beets is not affected by other soilborne and aphid-transmitted viruses.

    PubMed

    Lennefors, Britt-Louise; van Roggen, Petra M; Yndgaard, Flemming; Savenkov, Eugene I; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2008-04-01

    Rhizomania caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is one of the most devastating sugar beet diseases. Sugar beet plants engineered to express a 0.4 kb inverted repeat construct based on the BNYVV replicase gene accumulated the transgene mRNA to similar levels in leaves and roots, whereas accumulation of the transgene-homologous siRNA was more pronounced in roots. The roots expressed high levels of resistance to BNYVV transmitted by the vector, Polymyxa betae. Resistance to BNYVV was not decreased following co-infection of the plants with Beet soil borne virus and Beet virus Q that share the same vector with BNYVV. Similarly, co-infection with the aphid-transmitted Beet mild yellowing virus, Beet yellows virus (BYV), or with all of the aforementioned viruses did not affect the resistance to BNYVV, while they accumulated in roots. These viruses are common in most of the sugar beet growing areas in Europe and world wide. However, there was a competitive interaction between BYV and BMYV in sugar beet leaves, as infection with BYV decreased the titres of BMYV. Other interactions between the viruses studied were not observed. The results suggest that the engineered resistance to BNYVV expressed in the sugar beets of this study is efficient in roots and not readily compromised following infection of the plants with heterologous viruses.

  14. First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus infecting greenhouse-grown potatoes in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April and May 2010, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Atlantic) plants grown from pre-nuclear minitubers in three separate greenhouses located at the USDA-ARS facility in Prosser, WA exhibited necrotic spots on leaves similar to those produced by the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani (Sor.)...

  15. Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of an emerging potyvirus: tomato necrotic stunt virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato necrotic stunt virus (ToNStV) is an emerging potyvirus that causes severe stunting to the infected tomato plants. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for a sensitive detection of ToNStV. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to th...

  16. Simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus using real-time PCR and high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Komorowska, Beata; Fiore, Nicola; Zamorano, Alan; Li, Ruhui

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the real-time PCR assays were combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) infection in sweet cherry trees. Detection of CNRMV and CGRMV was performed in a real-time PCR using a primer set for both of them or duplex real-time PCR that included one specific primer set for each virus. These two strategies allowed us to confirmed virus infection in all tested samples. In 17 field samples the technique revealed samples positive for CNRMV or CGRMV as well as positive for both viruses. In addition, the HRM analysis made it possible to differentiate clearly between CNRMV and CGRMV. Sequence variations among CNRMV and CGRMV isolates observed from the HRM peaks were confirmed by sequencing. To test the capability to use this method in field, forty one sweet cherry samples were examined by HRM analysis. The HRM data showed that seven samples were positive for CNRMV and three were infected with CGRMV. The results presented in this study indicated that real-time PCR followed by HRM analysis provides sensitive, automated and rapid tool to detect and differentiate between CNRMV and CGRMV isolates.

  17. Complete nucleotide sequence and construction of an infectious clone of Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus suggest that macluraviruses have the smallest genome among members of the family Potyviridae.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Toru; Fujita, Takashi

    2012-12-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Chinese yam necrotic mosaic virus (CYNMV) was determined from cloned virus cDNA. The CYNMV genomic RNA is 8224 nucleotides in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains one long open reading frame encoding a large polyprotein of 2620 amino acids. CYNMV has no counterpart to the P1 cistron and a short HC-Pro cistron located at the 5' side of the potyvirus genome. A full-length cDNA clone, pCYNMV, was assembled under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and the nopaline synthase terminator. Biolistic inoculation of Nagaimo plants with cDNA resulted in systemic necrotic mosaic symptoms typical of CYNMV infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the complete nucleotide sequence and construction of an infectious cDNA clone of a member of the genus Macluravirus.

  18. Virus diseases of berry crops in the Soviet Far East I. Identification of some mechanically transmitted viruses, detected in Primorye Territory.

    PubMed

    Gordejchuk, O G; Krylov, A V; Krylova, N V; Samonina, I N

    1977-01-01

    In Primorye Territory, USSR, cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-I), arabis mosaic virus (AMV), raspberry, ringspot virus (RRSV), and tomato ringspot virus (TRSV) were identified on berry crops (currant, raspberry, honeysuckel). With respect to indicator plants and physico-chemical and serological properties, the isolates obtained do not differ from other isolates of these viruses, reported on berry crops in Europe and North America.

  19. Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Necrotizing ... For Parents > Necrotizing Enterocolitis Print A A A What's in ...

  20. Tracing of the molecular remnants of herpes virus infections in necrotic skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takenobu; Yamada, Akiko; Tsuji, Kazuhide; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2008-01-01

    We have established an assay system to detect herpesvirus-derived transcripts in lesional crusts. Fifteen patients with herpes simplex (HS), 21 with herpes zoster (HZ), 2 with varicella, and 20 with irrelevant diseases were enrolled in the present study. Total RNA was extracted from crusts or scales, and converted to cDNA. Virus-encoded transcripts were amplified using reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Housekeeping gene transcripts such as beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG) and beta-actin (beta-actin) mRNA were also examined, and an efficient preservative condition of the crusts was determined. With extracted RNAs, beta2-MG and beta-actin mRNA were successfully amplified in all crust samples. Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific, lytic cycle-related transcript, UL30 mRNA was detected in all 15 HS samples, including 13 samples of HSV-1- and 2 of HSV-2-encoded UL30 mRNA, respectively. Of 23 samples, including 21 HZ and 2 varicella cases, varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific, lytic cycle-related transcript, ORF40 mRNA was detected in 22 samples. In a control group, no UL30 and ORF40 mRNA were detected. Crust samples that had been stored without any pretreatment or preservative for 6 months at room temperature (RT) were available for the present assay. When compared with the freshly obtained materials, the amount of beta2-MG mRNA was reduced to 51% in the stored samples covered with adhesive tape, to 48% in a sample left at R.T. without any treatment, and to 1.2% in the samples stocked in saline for 5 days. Herpes virus- and host-derived transcripts contained in crusts can be detected by RT-PCR amplification. Crusts or dry epidermal necrosis with inflammatory cells may provide beneficial diagnostic information.

  1. Atypical necrotizing encephalitis associated with systemic canine distemper virus infection in pups.

    PubMed

    Amude, Alexandre Mendes; Headley, Selwyn Arlington; Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Beloni, Suely Nunes Esteves; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2011-12-01

    This report describes the naturally occurring atypical neuropathological manifestation of systemic canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in two 16-day-old Pit Bull pups. CDV-induced changes affected the gray and white matter of the forebrain while sparing the hindbrain. Histologically, there was necrosis with destruction of the nervous parenchyma due to an influx of inflammatory and reactive cells associated with eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies within glial cells. Positive immunoreactivity against CDV antigens was predominantly observed within astrocytes and neurons. RT-PCR was used to amplify CDV-specific amplicons from brain fragments. These findings suggest the participation of CDV in the etiopathogenesis of these lesions.

  2. Necrotizing Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Sadasivan, Jagdish; Maroju, Nanda Kishore; Balasubramaniam, Anandh

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is among the most challenging surgical infections faced by a surgeon. The difficulty in managing this entity is due to a combination of difficulty in diagnosis, and also of early as well as late management. For the patient, such a diagnosis means prolonged hospital stay, painful dressings, an extended recovery, and in some unfortunate cases even loss of limb or life. Necrotizing fasciitis is a fairly common condition in surgical practice in the Indian context resulting in a fairly large body of clinical experience. This article reviews literature on MEDLINE with the key words “necrotizing,” “fasciitis,” and “necrotizing infections” from 1970, as well as from articles cross referenced therein. The authors attempt to draw comparisons to their own experience in managing this condition to give an Indian perspective to the condition. PMID:24459334

  3. Identification of amino acids of the beet necrotic yellow vein virus p25 protein required for induction of the resistance response in leaves of Beta vulgaris plants.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Soutaro; Miyanishi, Masaki; Andika, Ida Bagus; Kondo, Hideki; Tamada, Tetsuo

    2008-05-01

    The RNA3-encoded p25 protein of beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) is responsible for the production of rhizomania symptoms of sugar beet roots (Beta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris). Here, it was found that the presence of the p25 protein is also associated with the resistance response in rub-inoculated leaves of sugar beet and wild beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima) plants. The resistance phenotype displayed a range of symptoms from no visible lesions to necrotic or greyish lesions at the inoculation site, and only very low levels of virus and viral RNA accumulated. The susceptible phenotype showed large, bright yellow lesions and developed high levels of virus accumulation. In roots after Polymyxa betae vector inoculation, however, no drastic differences in virus and viral RNA accumulation levels were found between plants with susceptible and resistant phenotypes, except at an early stage of infection. There was a genotype-specific interaction between BNYVV strains and two selected wild beet lines (MR1 and MR2) and sugar beet cultivars. Sequence analysis of natural BNYVV isolates and site-directed mutagenesis of the p25 protein revealed that 3 aa residues at positions 68, 70 and 179 are important in determining the resistance phenotype, and that host-genotype specificity is controlled by single amino acid changes at position 68. The mechanism of the occurrence of resistance-breaking BNYVV strains is discussed.

  4. Polypeptide synthesis induced in Nicotiana clevelandii protoplasts by infection with raspberry ringspot nepovirus.

    PubMed

    Acosta, O; Mayo, M A

    1993-01-01

    Infection of Nicotiana clevelandii protoplasts by raspberry ringspot nepovirus resulted in the accumulation of about 24 polypeptides that differed in M(r) and pI from polypeptides accumulating in mock-inoculated protoplasts. Similar polypeptides accumulated in protoplasts infected with the S and E strains of RRV but different infection-specific polypeptides were detected in protoplasts infected with tobacco ringspot nepovirus. The M(r) of RRV-specific polypeptides ranged from 210,000 to 18,000 and most are presumed to be derived from others by proteolytic cleavage. No evidence was found for marked changes in polypeptide abundance with time after inoculation or for any virus-specific polypeptide becoming disproportionately abundant in the medium during culture.

  5. Necrotizing Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Elitsa V; Bartlett, Allison H

    2017-02-01

    Necrotizing pneumonia refers to the development of necrosis, liquefication, and cavitation of the lung parenchyma from an infectious pathogen. Nearly 4% of all community-acquired pneumonias are necrotizing, although studies retrospectively evaluating the incidence have found it to be increasing during the past 20 years. Common presenting symptoms include fever, tachypnea, and cough, and most of those afflicted also develop complications such as parapneumonic effusions, empyemas, or bronchopleural fistulae. When compared to age-matched controls with parapneumonic effusions or severe pneumonias without a necrotizing component, those with necrotizing pneumonia have been shown to have more elevated white blood cell counts and inflammatory markers that take longer to normalize, a longer duration of symptoms despite initiation of therapy, and a longer hospital stay. Despite the high incidence of complications during the acute phase of illness, the overall prognosis of necrotizing pneumonia has been shown to be promising, with nearly all children surviving the illness. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e65-e68.].

  6. The Use of Collagenase to Improve the Detection of Plant Viruses in Vector Nematodes by RT/PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV) Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV) and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) are transmitted to healthy plants by viruliferous nematodes in the soil. We developed a method for extraction of genomic viral RNA from virus particles carried within nematodes and a sensitive nested RT/PCR ...

  7. Necrotizing fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Puvanendran, Rukshini; Huey, Jason Chan Meng; Pasupathy, Shanker

    2009-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To describe the defining characteristics and treatment of necrotizing fasciitis (NF), emphasizng early diagnostic indications. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE PubMed was searched using the terms necrotizing fasciitis and necrotizing soft tissue infections, paired with early diagnosis. Results were limited to human studies in English. Additional articles were obtained from references within articles. Evidence is levels II and III. MAIN MESSAGE Necrotizing fasciitis is classified according to its microbiology (polymicrobial or monomicrobial), anatomy, and depth of infection. Polymicrobial NF mostly occurs in immunocompromised individuals. Monomicrobial NF is less common and affects healthy individuals who often have a history of trauma (usually minor). Patients with NF can present with symptoms of sepsis, systemic toxicity, or evidence of skin inflammation, with pain that is disproportional to the degree of inflammation. However, these are also present in less serious conditions. Hyperacute cases present with sepsis and quickly progress to multiorgan failure, while subacute cases remain indolent, with festering soft-tissue infection. Because the condition is rare with minimal specific signs, it is often misdiagnosed. If NF is suspected, histology of tissue specimens is necessary. Laboratory and radiologic tests can be useful in deciding which patients require surgical consultation. Once NF is diagnosed, next steps include early wound debridement, excision of nonviable tissue, and wide spectrum cover with intravenous antibiotics. CONCLUSION Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon disease that results in gross morbidity and mortality if not treated in its early stages. At onset, however, it is difficult to differentiate from other superficial skin conditions such as cellulitis. Family physicians must have a high level of suspicion and low threshold for surgical referral when confronted with cases of pain, fever, and erythema. PMID:19826154

  8. Strawberry necrotic shock virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rubus strain of TSV, now considered to be SNSV, was first reported in California in 1966 in several blackberry and blackberry-raspberry cultivars. It was later commonly found in the Pacific Northwest in cultivated black raspberry and wild and cultivated R. ursinus. The name of Strawberry necroti...

  9. Occurrence and distribution of ten viruses infecting cucurbit plants in Guilan province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Gholamalizadeh, R; Vahdat, A; Keshavarz, T; Elahinia, A; Bananej, K

    2008-01-01

    During the 2006 and 2007 growing seasons, a systematic survey was conducted in open-field of melon (Cucumis melo L.), cucumber (C. sativus L.), squash (Cucurbita sp.), and watermelon (Citrulus lanatus L.) crops in 16 major cucurbit-growing areas of Guilan province in Iran. Symptomatic leaf samples were collected and screened by double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA) or RT-PCR to detect Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Squash mosaic virus (SqMV), Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W), Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV), Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV), Zucchini yellow fleck virus (ZYFV), and Ourmia melon virus (OuMV). The majority of tested samples (73.7%) were infected by at least one of the viruses considered. OuMV, ZYMV, WMV, and WmCSV were the most prevalent viruses and were detected in tested cucurbit plants. The incidence of multiple infections with 2 or more viruses was also relatively high, 63.3, 48.6, 42.7, and 26.7% of the infected samples of melon, cucumber, squash, and watermelon, respectively. The high incidence of OuMV and WmCSV suggested that these viruses might turn out to be an important threat for the melon and cucumber crops in the province.

  10. Putative recombination events and evolutionary history of five economically important viruses of fruit trees based on coat protein-encoding gene sequence analysis.

    PubMed

    Boulila, Moncef

    2010-06-01

    To enhance the knowledge of recombination as an evolutionary process, 267 accessions retrieved from GenBank were investigated, all belonging to five economically important viruses infecting fruit crops (Plum pox, Apple chlorotic leaf spot, Apple mosaic, Prune dwarf, and Prunus necrotic ringspot viruses). Putative recombinational events were detected in the coat protein (CP)-encoding gene using RECCO and RDP version 3.31beta algorithms. Based on RECCO results, all five viruses were shown to contain potential recombination signals in the CP gene. Reconstructed trees with modified topologies were proposed. Furthermore, RECCO performed better than the RDP package in detecting recombination events and exhibiting their evolution rate along the sequences of the five viruses. RDP, however, provided the possible major and minor parents of the recombinants. Thus, the two methods should be considered complementary.

  11. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related.

  12. Necrotizing soft tissue infection

    MedlinePlus

    Necrotizing fasciitis; Fasciitis - necrotizing; Flesh-eating bacteria; Soft tissue gangrene; Gangrene - soft tissue ... Many different types of bacteria can cause this infection. A very severe and usually deadly form of necrotizing soft tissue infection is due to the ...

  13. Virus movement within grafted watermelon plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon production in Florida is impacted by several viruses including whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus, and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W). While germplasm resistant to some...

  14. Expression of the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus p25 protein induces hormonal changes and a root branching phenotype in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Claire; Schmidlin, Laure; Klein, Elodie; Taconnat, Ludivine; Prinsen, Els; Erhardt, Mathieu; Heintz, Dimitri; Weyens, Guy; Lefebvre, Marc; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Gilmer, David

    2011-06-01

    The RNA-3-encoded p25 protein was previously characterized as one of the major symptom determinants of the Beet necrotic yellow vein virus. Previous analyses reported the influence of the p25 protein in root proliferation phenotype observed in rhizomania disease on infected sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). A transgenic approach was developed, in which the p25 protein was constitutively expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) ecotype in order to provide new clues as to how the p25 protein might promote alone disease development and symptom expression. Transgenic plants were characterized by Southern blot and independent lines carrying single and multiple copies of the transgene were selected. Mapping of the T-DNA insertion was performed on the monocopy homozygote lines. P25 protein was localized both in the nucleus and in the cytoplasm of epidermal and root cells of transgenic plants. Although A. thaliana was not described as a susceptible host for BNYVV infection, abnormal root branching was observed on p25 protein-expressing A. thaliana plants. Moreover, these transgenic plants were more susceptible than wild-type plants to auxin analog treatment (2,4-D) but more resistant to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), abscisic acid (ABA) and to lesser extend to salicylic acid (SA). Hormonal content assays measuring plant levels of auxin (IAA), jasmonate (JA) and ethylene precursor (ACC) revealed major hormonal changes. Global transcript profiling analyses on roots displayed differential gene expressions that could corroborate root branching phenotype and stress signaling modifications.

  15. Nutritional properties of tubers of conventionally bred and transgenic lines of potato resistant to necrotic strain of Potato virus Y (PVYN).

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Fornal, Józef

    2005-01-01

    The potential effect of genetic modification on nutritional properties of potatoes transformed to improve resistance to a necrotic strain of Potato virus Y was determined in a rat experiment. Autoclaved tubers from four transgenic lines were included to a diet in the amount of 40% and compared with the conventional cv. Irga. The experiment lasted 3 weeks and special attention was paid to nutritional properties of diets, caecal metabolism and serum indices. Genetic modification of potato had no negative effect on the chemical composition and nutritional properties of tubers, ecosystem of the caecum, activity of serum enzymes and non-specific defence mechanism of the rats. Obtained results indicate that transgenic potato with improved resistance to PVY(N): line R1F (truncated gene coding for PVY(N) polymerase in sense orientation), R2P (truncated gene coding for PVY(N) polymerase in antisense orientation), and NTR1.16 (non-translated regions of PVY(N) genome in sense orientation) are substantial and nutritional equivalence to the non-transgenic cultivar. Tubers of transgenic line NTR2.27 (non-translated regions of PVY(N) genome in antisense orientation) increased the bulk of caecal digesta and the production of SCFA as compared to tubers of the conventional cultivar and the other transgenic clones. Taking into account some deviations, it seems reasonable to undertake a long-term feeding study to confirm the nutritional properties of tubers of transgenic lines.

  16. Simultaneous detection of six stone fruit viruses by non-isotopic molecular hybridization using a unique riboprobe or 'polyprobe'.

    PubMed

    Herranz, M Carmen; Sanchez-Navarro, Jesus A; Aparicio, Frederic; Pallás, Vicente

    2005-03-01

    A new strategy for the simultaneous detection of plant viruses by molecular hybridization has been developed. Two, four or six viral sequences were fused in tandem and transcribed to render unique riboprobes and designated as 'polyprobes'. The 'polyprobe four' (poly 4) covered the four ilarviruses affecting stone fruit trees including apple mosaic virus (ApMV), prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), prune dwarf virus (PDV), and American plum line pattern virus (APLPV) whereas the 'polyprobe two' (poly 2) was designed to detect simultaneously, plum pox virus (PPV) and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), the two more important viruses affecting these trees. Finally, a 'polyprobe six' (poly 6) was generated to detect any of the six viruses. The three polyprobes were comparable to the individual riboprobes in terms of end-point dilution limit and specificity. The validation of the new simultaneous detection strategy was confirmed by the analysis of 46 field samples from up to seven different hosts collected from 10 different geographical areas.

  17. Analysis of the interacting partners eIF4F and 3'-CITE required for Melon necrotic spot virus cap-independent translation.

    PubMed

    Miras, Manuel; Truniger, Verónica; Querol-Audi, Jordi; Aranda, Miguel A

    2016-05-03

    We have shown previously that the translation of Melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV, family Tombusviridae, genus Carmovirus) RNAs is controlled by a 3'-cap-independent translation enhancer (CITE), which is genetically and functionally dependent on the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) 4E. Here, we describe structural and functional analyses of the MNSV-Mα5 3'-CITE and its translation initiation factor partner. We first mapped the minimal 3'-CITE (Ma5TE) to a 45-nucleotide sequence, which consists of a stem-loop structure with two internal loops, similar to other I-shaped 3'-CITEs. UV crosslinking, followed by gel retardation assays, indicated that Ma5TE interacts in vitro with the complex formed by eIF4E + eIF4G980-1159 (eIF4Fp20 ), but not with each subunit alone or with eIF4E + eIF4G1003-1092 , suggesting binding either through interaction with eIF4E following a conformational change induced by its binding to eIF4G980-1159 , or through a double interaction with eIF4E and eIF4G980-1159 . Critical residues for this interaction reside in an internal bulge of Ma5TE, so that their mutation abolished binding to eIF4E + eIF4G1003-1092 and cap-independent translation. We also developed an in vivo system to test the effect of mutations in eIF4E in Ma5TE-driven cap-independent translation, showing that conserved amino acids in a positively charged RNA-binding motif around amino acid position 228, implicated in eIF4E-eIF4G binding or belonging to the cap-recognition pocket, are essential for cap-independent translation controlled by Ma5TE, and thus for the multiplication of MNSV.

  18. Emerging tomato viruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) causes crop losses worldwide. This tospovirus is well-known for disease epidemics in vegetable, ornamental and peanut crops in the southeastern U.S. Two other tospoviruses have recently emerged in south Florida. Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) was first detected in ...

  19. Raspberry (Rubus spp.)-Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are several important virus diseases of raspberry and black raspberry in the Pacific Northwest. Pollen-borne viruses include Raspberry bushy dwarf virus and Strawberry necrotic shock virus (aka Tobacco streak virus –Rubus isolate or Black raspberry latent virus). Strawberry necrotic shock viru...

  20. A plant virus movement protein regulates the Gcn2p kinase in budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Frederic; Aparicio-Sanchis, Rafael; Gadea, José; Sánchez-Navarro, Jesús Ángel; Pallás, Vicente; Murguía, José Ramón

    2011-01-01

    Virus life cycle heavily depends on their ability to command the host machinery in order to translate their genomes. Animal viruses have been shown to interfere with host translation machinery by expressing viral proteins that either maintain or inhibit eIF2α function by phosphorylation. However, this interference mechanism has not been described for any plant virus yet. Prunnus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a serious pathogen of cultivated stone fruit trees. The movement protein (MP) of PNRSV is necessary for the cell-to-cell movement of the virus. By using a yeast-based approach we have found that over-expression of the PNRSV MP caused a severe growth defect in yeast cells. cDNA microarrays analysis carried out to characterise at the molecular level the growth interference phenotype reported the induction of genes related to amino acid deprivation suggesting that expression of MP activates the GCN pathway in yeast cells. Accordingly, PNRSV MP triggered activation of the Gcn2p kinase, as judged by increased eIF2α phosphorylation. Activation of Gcn2p by MP expression required a functional Tor1p kinase, since rapamycin treatment alleviated the yeast cell growth defect and blocked eIF2α phosphorylation triggered by MP expression. Overall, these findings uncover a previously uncharacterised function for PNRSV MP viral protein, and point out at Tor1p and Gcn2p kinases as candidate susceptibility factors for plant viral infections.

  1. Silicon delays tobacco Ringspot virus systemic symptoms in Nicotiana tabacum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soluble silicon (Si) provides protection to plants against a variety of abiotic and biotic stress. However, the role of Si in viral infections has been elusive. To investigate the role of Si in viral infections, hydroponic studies were conducted in Nicotiana tabacum with two pathogens: Tobacco rings...

  2. Serological Detection and Molecular Analysis of Tobacco Ringspot Virus and Strawberry Latent Ringspot Virus in Mint (Mentha sp.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mint (Mentha L.)is commercially cultivated around the world by the food, medicinal, and landscape industries. A mint germplasm collection of over 400 clonal accessions has been maintained by USDA, Agricultural Research Station in Corvallis, Oregon by the National Clonal Germplasm Respository sin...

  3. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  4. Vegetable viruses emerging in Florida and the Caribbean region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) and a natural Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) reassortant (LGMTSG) with GRSV S and L RNAs and a TCSV M RNA have recently emerged and joined previously established Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) as economically important vegetable pathogens in south Florida. TCSV...

  5. New thrips-transmitted plant viruses in Florida crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The thrips-transmitted tospoviruses Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus are present in south Florida. All three species cause economically significant disease in vegetable and ornamental crops, and may also be problematic in peanut. Control of both t...

  6. Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Hohlweg-Majert, Bettina; Weyer, Nils; Metzger, Marc C; Schön, Ralf

    2006-05-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is a fast spreading acute soft tissue inflammation. Death can occur within 12-24 h. Early identification and treatment is needed. We report the case of a 75 year old woman with diabetes and high cholesterol, adipositas who developed cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odotongenic origin with massive subcutaneous air collection and first sign of septicaemia. Surgical treatment with debridement and drainage in combination with intravenous broadbased antibiotics as well as daily irrigation of the wound with iodine solution (Betaisodona) and metronidazol (local antibiotic treatment) was performed. The patient recovered completely. Surgical debridement combined with broad-spectrum of antibiotics showed satisfying result for the management of cervical necrotizing fasciitis of dentogenous origin.

  7. Necrotizing fasciitis secondary to diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Piedra, Tatiana; Martín-Cuesta, Laura; Arnáiz, Javier; de Lucas, Enrique Marco; Pellón, Raúl; García-Bolado, Ana; González, Francisco

    2007-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare, rapidly progressive infectious process primarily involving the fascia and the subcutaneous tissue, with thrombosis of the cutaneous microcirculation. We present a case of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to diverticulitis in an immunosuppressed patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

  8. Further Insights Into The Epidemiology And Monitoring Practices Of Tomato Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of serious virus threats to tomato production in Florida. These include the whitefly-transmitted Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) and, more recently, Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) which are both vectored by thrips. GRSV and TCSV are cl...

  9. Epidemiology and Association of Four Insect-Vectored Viruses in Florida Watermelon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV), Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV) and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in the pa...

  10. Necrotizing Pneumonia Caused by H1N1 Virus in a Child with Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ramoğlu, Mehmet G.; Uçar, Tayfun; Kendirli, Tanıl; Eyileten, Zeynep; Atalay, Semra

    2016-01-01

    Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a rare form of congenital heart disease, occurring in only 1.5% of children with congenital heart disease. Although the mortality and morbidity of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection have decreased dramatically due to improvements in surgery, postoperative pulmonary venous obstruction is still a cause of late mortality in patients with corrected total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Influenza A H1N1, the most common cause of human influenza in 2009, may cause pneumonia presenting with increased disease severity. Herein we have presented a well-documented case of necrotizing H1N1 pneumonia mimicking postoperative pulmonary venous obstruction in a 4-month-old patient with surgically corrected total anomalous pulmonary venous connection. PMID:27899865

  11. Interactions between p27 and p88 replicase proteins of Red clover necrotic mosaic virus play an essential role in viral RNA replication and suppression of RNA silencing via the 480-kDa viral replicase complex assembly.

    PubMed

    Mine, Akira; Hyodo, Kiwamu; Takeda, Atsushi; Kaido, Masanori; Mise, Kazuyuki; Okuno, Tetsuro

    2010-11-25

    Red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a positive-sense RNA virus with a bipartite genome, encodes p27 and p88 replicase proteins that are required for viral RNA replication and suppression of RNA silencing. In this study, we identified domains in p27 and p88 responsible for their protein-protein interactions using in vitro pull-down assays with the purified recombinant proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis in combination with blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using mutated p27 proteins showed that both p27-p27 and p27-p88 interactions are essential for the formation of the 480-kDa complex, which has RCNMV-specific RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity. Furthermore, we found a good correlation between the accumulated levels of the 480-kDa complex and replication levels and the suppression of RNA silencing activity. Our results indicate that interactions between RCNMV replicase proteins play an essential role in viral RNA replication and in suppressing RNA silencing via the 480-kDa replicase complex assembly.

  12. Disseminated necrotizing myeloencephalitis: a herpes-associated neurological disease of horses.

    PubMed

    Little, P B; Thorsen, J

    1976-01-01

    Equine viral rhinopneumonitis type I virus was isolated from spinal cord and brain of a paraparetic horse with disseminated necrotizing myeloencephalitis. Necrotic arteriolitis,nonsuppurative necrotizing myeloencephalitis and Gasserian ganglioneuritis were present. On record were 12 more cases of horses with similar lesions. The horses had been ataxic or paretic for up to several weeks. A field survey indicated that 14 of 24 horses with acute myelitic signs developed them after recent exposure to respiratory disease.

  13. Patterns of Virus Distribution in Single and Mixed Infections of Florida Watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. To determine the distribution of vir...

  14. Patterns of Virus Distribution in Single and Mixed Infections of Florida Watermelons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  15. Distribution of Four Viruses in Single and Mixed Infections Within Infected Watermelon Plants in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV), and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in recent years. Tissue blot nucleic acid hybridizati...

  16. Pepino mosaic virus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase POL Domain Is a Hypersensitive Response-Like Elicitor Shared by Necrotic and Mild Isolates.

    PubMed

    Sempere, Raquel N; Gómez-Aix, Cristina; Ruíz-Ramón, Fabiola; Gómez, Pedro; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Sánchez-Pina, María Amelia; Aranda, Miguel A

    2016-04-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is an emerging pathogen that represents a serious threat to tomato production worldwide. PepMV-induced diseases manifest with a wide range of symptoms, including systemic necrosis. Our results showed that PepMV accumulation depends on the virus isolate, tomato cultivar, and environmental conditions, and associates with the development of necrosis. Substitution of lysine for glutamic acid at position 67 in the triple gene block 3 (TGB3) protein, previously described as a necrosis determinant, led to increased virus accumulation and was necessary but not sufficient to induce systemic necrosis. Systemic necrosis both in tomato and Nicotiana benthamiana shared hypersensitive response (HR) features, allowing the assessment of the role of different genomic regions on necrosis induction. Overexpression of both TGB3 and the polymerase domain (POL) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) resulted in necrosis, although only local expression of POL triggered HR-like symptoms. Our results also indicated that the necrosis-eliciting activity of POL resides in its highly conserved "palm" domain, and that necrosis was jasmonic acid-dependent but not salicylic acid-dependent. Altogether, our data suggest that the RdRp-POL domain plays an important role in PepMV necrosis induction, with necrosis development depending on the virus accumulation level, which can be modulated by the nature of TGB3, host genotype and environmental conditions.

  17. Severe necrotic dermatitis in the combs of line 6-3 chickens is associated with Marek's disease virus-induced immunosuppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Marek’s disease (MD), a lymphoproliferative disorder of domestic chickens is characterized by bursal–thymic atrophy and rapid onset of T-cell lymphomas that infiltrate lymphoid tissues, visceral organs, and peripheral nerves. Marek’s disease virus (MDV), the etiological agent of MD, is a highly cel...

  18. Necrotizing fasciitis due to appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Groth, D; Henderson, S O

    1999-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis, although rare, is one of the more serious, life-threatening complications of missed acute appendicitis. Patients who are predisposed to developing necrotizing fasciitis, regardless of the cause, are typically immunocompromised. We present a case of a 49-year-old immunocompetent female whose diagnosis of acute appendicitis was missed and who subsequently developed necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall and flank. She recovered 1 month after admission due to aggressive surgical and medical therapy.

  19. Rootstock-to-scion transfer of transgene-derived small interfering RNAs and their effect on virus resistance in nontransgenic sweet cherry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dongyan; Song, Guo-qing

    2014-12-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are silencing signals in plants. Virus-resistant transgenic rootstocks developed through siRNA-mediated gene silencing may enhance virus resistance of nontransgenic scions via siRNAs transported from the transgenic rootstocks. However, convincing evidence of rootstock-to-scion movement of siRNAs of exogenous genes in woody plants is still lacking. To determine whether exogenous siRNAs can be transferred, nontransgenic sweet cherry (scions) was grafted on transgenic cherry rootstocks (TRs), which was transformed with an RNA interference (RNAi) vector expressing short hairpin RNAs of the genomic RNA3 of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV-hpRNA). Small RNA sequencing was conducted using bud tissues of TRs and those of grafted (rootstock/scion) trees, locating at about 1.2 m above the graft unions. Comparison of the siRNA profiles revealed that the PNRSV-hpRNA was efficient in producing siRNAs and eliminating PNRSV in the TRs. Furthermore, our study confirmed, for the first time, the long-distance (1.2 m) transfer of PNRSV-hpRNA-derived siRNAs from the transgenic rootstock to the nontransgenic scion in woody plants. Inoculation of nontransgenic scions with PNRSV revealed that the transferred siRNAs enhanced PNRSV resistance of the scions grafted on the TRs. Collectively, these findings provide the foundation for 'using transgenic rootstocks to produce products of nontransgenic scions in fruit trees'.

  20. Pediatric Cervicofacial Necrotizing Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    King, Ericka; Chun, Robert; Sulman, Cecille

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present a case of a pediatric cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis (NF), a rapidly progressive infection, and a review of a 10-year pediatric inpatient database. Design Case report and review. Setting Pediatric intensive care unit. Patients A healthy 5-year-old male who developed NF of the lower lip 36 hours following minor trauma. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code 728.86 (NF), was the inclusion criteria for the Kids’ Inpatient Database (KID) in 1997 and 2006. Results A pediatric case is presented with a thorough photographic record demonstrating the need for rapid diagnosis and treatment. In a review of the KID from 1997 and 2006, the relative risk of being discharged with NF in 2006 vs 1997 was 1.4 (95% CI, 9.95-2.28). Age at diagnosis of NF was older in 2006 compared with 1997 (11.5 years vs 8.05 years; P<.001). Deaths with a diagnosis of NF increased from 1997 compared with 2006: from 3.9% to 5.4%. In 2006, the odds of death were 15.1 times higher in pediatric discharges with a diagnosis of NF compared with discharges without a diagnosis of NF (P<.001; 95% CI, 9.3-23.1). Conclusions Even with the advent of new treatments and antibiotics, the incidence and death rates of NF have changed little over the past 10 years. While it is still a rare diagnosis, knowledge and awareness of necrotizing fasciitis with aggressive medical and surgical treatment are still the foundation in disease survival. PMID:22508620

  1. Is it necrotizing fasciitis or necrotizing cellulitis after varicella zoster infection? Two case reports.

    PubMed

    Gundeslioglu, Ayse Ozlem; Selimoglu, Muhammed Nebil; Toy, Hatice

    2014-08-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis and necrotizing cellulitis are serious cutaneous complications in varicella patients. Differentiation of necrotizing cellulitis from necrotizing fasciitis can initially be challenging because of indistinct clinical course at the onset of infection and the lack of definitive diagnostic criteria. This paper reports 2 children with necrotizing cellulitis that developed after varicella infection to draw the attention of health care providers to necrotizing cellulitis that showed slower clinical course than necrotizing fasciitis and recovered with conservative treatment approaches without aggressive surgical intervention.

  2. Probiotics and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Paul; Hall, Nigel J; Eaton, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Probiotics for the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis have attracted a huge interest. Combined data from heterogeneous randomised controlled trials suggest that probiotics may decrease the incidence of NEC. However, the individual studies use a variety of probiotic products, and the group at greatest risk of NEC, i.e., those with a birth weight of less than 1000 g, is relatively under-represented in these trials so we do not have adequate evidence of either efficacy or safety to recommend universal prophylactic administration of probiotics to premature infants. These problems have polarized neonatologists, with some taking the view that it is unethical not to universally administer probiotics to premature infants, whereas others regard the meta-analyses as flawed and that there is insufficient evidence to recommend routine probiotic administration. Another problem is that the mechanism by which probiotics might act is not clear, although some experimental evidence is starting to accumulate. This may allow development of surrogate endpoints of effectiveness, refinement of probiotic regimes, or even development of pharmacological agents that may act through the same mechanism. Hence, although routine probiotic administration is controversial, studies of probiotic effects may ultimately lead us to effective means to prevent this devastating disease.

  3. Detection and characterization of tomato viruses: A case study of emerging tospoviruses in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique strain of Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), which has undergone genome reassortment with, and contains the medium RNA segment of, Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) emerged in solanaceous vegetables in south Florida in late 2009. A typical (non-reassorted) strain of TCSV was reported from t...

  4. Evaluation of virus resistant rootstocks to manage watermelon vine decline and diseases caused by other potyviruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon vine decline caused by Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) is an emerging disease that has caused severe losses to Florida watermelon growers in recent years. Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) is one of several watermelon-infecting potyviruses long present in the southeastern U.S. L...

  5. [Molecular identification of cymbidium mosaic Potexvirus and Odontoglossum ringspot Tobamovirus complex infected Phalaenopsis and its pathological ultrastructural alteration].

    PubMed

    Shi, Nong Nong; Xu, Ying; Wang, Hui Zhong; Xie, Li; Hong, Jian

    2007-04-01

    Filamentous and rod-shaped virions, and aggregated crystals were observed in infected leaves of by negative staining and ultramicrotomy. Histologic study synchronously showed typical crystal forms of the two virions: the crystals from filamentous particles congregated in strips, arrayed in multilayer and piled in certain angles or helix between layers; while the crystals from rod-shaped particles arrayed in parallel, angle-layer or helix. The two kinds of crystals both presented in parenchyma cells, plasmodesma, and vascular bundles; as an evidence that indicates the existence of short distance transport of viruses between cells, plasmodesmata were produced through piercing the membrane around the reproducing viral crystals; the chloroplasts in the infected cells were hypoplastic, and the filamentous virion were observed within the chloroplasts; the mitochondrions were over-developed, swelled or even cavitated; the nucleus were also swelled and cavitated. Further multiplex RT-PCR and sequencing that the coat protein genes simultaneously expanded to Cymbidium mosaic potexvirus (CymMV) and Odontoglossum ringspot tobamovirus (ORSV) showed homology with available abstracts from GenBank, and the respective percentages of identity are 98% and 99%-100%. The instant and direct identification evidences of CymMV and ORSV complex infection on phalaenopsis are revealed at both cellular and molecular levels, and the character of its pathological ultrastructural alteration as the gist in cellular pathology for pathogenesis are also presented.

  6. Blackberry Yellow Vein Disease is Caused by Multiple Virus Complexes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackberry yellow vein disease, with symptoms of vein clearing, yellow mottling, ringspots and plant decline has been observed in blackberry in the southeastern United States since about 2000. At least six viruses have been identified by cloning and sequencing of double-stranded RNA from diseased p...

  7. [Necrotizing fasciitis of the neck].

    PubMed

    Kovacić, Marijan; Kovacić, Ivan; Delalija, Boris

    2013-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and rapidly progressive infection characterized by necrosis of the superficial fascia and spread on the surrounding skin or muscles, which can be fatal. It usually occurs in the limbs, abdominal wall and perineum. In this retrospective review, the authors present 15 patients with cervical necrotizing fasciitis. The patient mean age was 54.7 years and they had one or more comorbid health problems. Five of them had descending necrotizing mediastinitis and three had progressive sepsis with toxic shock syndrome. Broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotic therapy was administered to all patients immediately, and in three of them we used five-day intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for the signs of toxic shock syndrome. After positive computed tomography imaging for necrotizing fasciitis, we used surgical exploration and debridement of necrotic tissue. In five patients, the initial surgery also included mediastinal transcervical drainage. Preoperative tracheotomy was performed in six patients and delayed tracheotomy in one patient. Histopathologically, all cases showed extensive necrosis of debrided fascia and vascular thrombosis of the neck soft tissue. The mortality rate was 6.7% (1/15). The authors point to the importance of early diagnosis and timely surgical management, broad-spectrum antibiotics and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy when patients are too unstable to undergo surgery.

  8. Infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Sarah A.; Wynn, James L.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency among premature infants. Although a large body of research has focused on understanding its pathogenesis, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. Of particular interest is the potential causative role of infectious culprits in the development of NEC. A variety of reports describe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections occurring in association with NEC; however, no organism has emerged as being definitively involved in NEC pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the body of research on infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:25678001

  9. Enzymatic Debridement in Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Murat; Tekin, Ahmet; Kucukkartallar, Tevfik; Vatansev, Husamettin; Kartal, Adil

    2015-01-01

    Multiple organ failure and pancreatic necrosis are the factors that determine prognosis in acute pancreatitis attacks. We investigated the effects of collagenase on the debridement of experimental pancreatic necrosis. The study covered 4 groups; each group had 10 rats. Group I was the necrotizing pancreatitis group. Group II was the collagenase group with pancreatic loge by isotonic irrigation following necrotizing pancreatitis. Group III was the collagenase group with pancreatic loge following necrotizing pancreatitis. Group IV was the intraperitoneal collagenase group following necrotizing pancreatitis. The progress of the groups was compared hematologically and histopathologically. There was no difference among the groups regarding the levels of leukocyte, hemogram, and urea. The differences in AST levels between Group I and II; and differences in glucose, calcium, LDH, AST, and amylase between Group II and III; between Group II and IV; between Group I and III; and between Group I and IV were statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were statistically significant differences between Group II and III, and Group II and IV regarding edema, acinar necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, hemorrhage, and fat necrosis (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the collagenase preparation used in this experimental pancreatitis model was found to be effective in the debridement of pancreatic necrosis. PMID:26011212

  10. Necrotizing fasciitis following gall-bladder perforation.

    PubMed

    Rehman, A; Walker, M; Kubba, H; Jayatunga, A P

    1998-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis continues to carry a very high mortality and prolonged morbidity. Gallstones have previously not been reported as a cause of this condition. We report a patient who presented with gallbladder perforation leading to necrotizing fasciitis of the anterior abdominal wall. The only organism isolated was Escherichia Coli, cultured from necrotic issue.

  11. Focal transmural necrotic tracheitis in commercial meat turkeys.

    PubMed

    Sentíes-Cué, Gabriel; Crespo, Rocio; Chin, R P

    2003-01-01

    This report describes an unusual presentation of severe focal necrotic tracheitis in a flock of 8-wk-old commercial turkeys. The flock was kept on a range that is located near a cotton field. The cotton field had been chemically defoliated 2 wk before the birds were submitted for necropsy. At necropsy, most of the birds had a 1-cm, yellow-white constricture in the upper third of the trachea at which the lumen was partially occluded by necrotic tissue. Microscopically, there was severe, transmural necrosis with an accumulation of inflammatory exudate in the tracheal lumen and numerous bacteria within the necrotic debris, mucosa, and lamina propria. Mixed bacteria were isolated from the trachea. No viruses were detected. Neither abnormal heavy metal concentrations in the liver nor paraquat in the respiratory tract were detected. The exact cause of this severe, necrotic tracheitis was not determined. Based on the clinical history and laboratory findings, it was concluded that a combination of a toxic irritant, possibly an aerosolized cotton defoliant, and bacterial infections were likely the cause of this lesion.

  12. An efficient viral vector for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees and its induced resistance to Plum pox virus via silencing of a host factor gene.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hongguang; Wang, Aiming

    2017-03-01

    RNA silencing is a powerful technology for molecular characterization of gene functions in plants. A commonly used approach to the induction of RNA silencing is through genetic transformation. A potent alternative is to use a modified viral vector for virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) to degrade RNA molecules sharing similar nucleotide sequence. Unfortunately, genomic studies in many allogamous woody perennials such as peach are severely hindered because they have a long juvenile period and are recalcitrant to genetic transformation. Here, we report the development of a viral vector derived from Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), a widespread fruit tree virus that is endemic in all Prunus fruit production countries and regions in the world. We show that the modified PNRSV vector, harbouring the sense-orientated target gene sequence of 100-200 bp in length in genomic RNA3, could efficiently trigger the silencing of a transgene or an endogenous gene in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. We further demonstrate that the PNRSV-based vector could be manipulated to silence endogenous genes in peach such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E isoform (eIF(iso)4E), a host factor of many potyviruses including Plum pox virus (PPV). Moreover, the eIF(iso)4E-knocked down peach plants were resistant to PPV. This work opens a potential avenue for the control of virus diseases in perennial trees via viral vector-mediated silencing of host factors, and the PNRSV vector may serve as a powerful molecular tool for functional genomic studies of Prunus fruit trees.

  13. Nonodontogenic Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Sialadenitis

    PubMed Central

    Veyseller, Bayram; Vural, Omer; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infectious disease of the soft tissue with high mortality and morbidity rates. Necrotizing fasciitis is occasionally located in the head and neck region and develops after odontogenic infections. Factors affecting treatment success rates are early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic treatment, and surgical debridement. We present a necrotizing fasciitis case located in the neck region that developed after sialoadenitis. It is important to emphasize that necrotizing fasciitis to be seen in the neck region is very rare. Nonodontogenic necrotizing fasciitis is even more rare. PMID:27822398

  14. Survival from Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Gausepohl, Jeniffer S.; Wagner, Jonathan G.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) is an uncommon, yet clinically significant infection that rapidly progresses to involve the deep neck spaces. Early recognition and aggressive surgical intervention and debridement are important, as this disease is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of CNF and descending mediastinitis from a non-odontogenic source in a patient presenting with neck swelling and odynophagia. PMID:25671035

  15. [Necrotizing Fasciitis: A comprehensive review].

    PubMed

    Carbonetti, F; Carusi, V; Guidi, M; David, V

    Even though necrotizing fasciitis is considered a rare disease, the spreading of the predisposing factors such as diabetes and chronic diseases, contribute to increase the incidence of this infection. Thus, how to diagnose and treat this clinical pathology, which represents an emerging need. This infection could be fatal for patients if not early diagnosed and treated and it represents a challenge both for the clinicians both for the surgeons. From this consideration was born the idea to write this review article in order to furnish to the readers a helpful tool in the management of this disease starting from its clinical and epidemiological features leading to the diagnosis, both clinical and radiological, and concluding with the treatment both medical both surgical .This article reviews literature on PubMed/MEDLINE with key words "necrotizing", "fasciitis" and "necrotizing fasciitis" from 1967 to 2014, considering all the aspects of the disease. The authors attempt to draw comparisons to their own experience managing this condition to give an Italian perspective to the condition.

  16. Thrips-transmitted Viruses Infect a Number of Florida Crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ilarviruses Tomato necrotic streak virus and Tobacco streak virus are present in south Florida. Both species cause economically significant disease in vegetable crop. Control of these viruses makes use of integrated pest management approaches....

  17. Virus Resistant Transgenic Papaya: Commercial Development and Regulatory and Environmental Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Hawaii, transgenic papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) was developed starting in the 1980s and released commercially in 1998 to combat the wide spread destruction of Hawaii’s papaya industry. This review describes the proactive development of the transgenic papaya and its impact on ...

  18. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extractions from papaya leaves infected with Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) revealed the presence of an unusual 4kb band, in addition to the presumed PRSV-associated 10kb band. Partial sequence of RT-PCR products from the 4kb dsRNA revealed homology to genomes of several me...

  19. New ilarvirus species in south Florida tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato necrotic streak virus (TomNSV) is a novel ilarvirus discovered infecting tomatoes in south Florida starting in fall 2013. It was found during surveys of vegetable fields for Tomato spotted wilt virus, Groundnut ringspot virus and Tomato chlorotic spot virus because all four viruses induce sim...

  20. Burn Center Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-06-01

    Burn Center Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis David J. Barillo, MD, FACS,*† Albert T. McManus, PhD,* Leopoldo C. Cancio, MD, FACS,* Alfred Sofer...MD,† Cleon W. Goodwin, MD, FACS* Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive soft-tissue infection associated with significant morbidity and...mortality. Necrotizing fasciitis is similar to invasive burn wound infection in that diagnosis requires histologic examination of affected tissue and

  1. Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections: Clinical Guidelines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    FOUNDATION The term NSTI is now commonly used to describe similar disease processes such as necrotizing fasciitis , Fournier’s gangrene, Meleney’s...synergistic gangrene, and clostridial myonecrosis. Necrotizing fasciitis typ- ically does not cause myonecrosis, but it can invade the deep fascia and muscle...studied invasive GAS infections over a 4-year period and found that the incidence was 3.5 cases per 100,000 persons. Mortality of necrotizing fasciitis

  2. MRI in necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities.

    PubMed

    Ali, S Z; Srinivasan, S; Peh, W C G

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening soft-tissue infection of bacterial origin, which involves mainly the deep fascia. Early recognition of this condition may be hampered by the uncommon nature of the disease and non-specificity of initial clinical signs and symptoms in less fulminant cases, making the role of imaging important. MRI is the most useful imaging modality in the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. The presence of thick (>3 mm) hyperintense signal in the deep fascia (particularly intermuscular fascia) on fat-suppressed T2 weighted or short tau inversion-recovery images is an important marker for necrotizing fasciitis. Contrast enhancement of the thickened necrotic fascia can be variable, with a mixed-pattern of enhancement being more commonly encountered. Involvement of multiple musculofascial compartments increases the likelihood of necrotizing fasciitis. It is important to remember that T2-hyperintense signal in the deep fascia is not specific to necrotizing fasciitis and can also be seen in cases such as non-infective inflammatory fasciitis or muscle tear. In this pictorial essay, we aim to review the MRI findings in necrotizing fasciitis, discuss its limitations and pitfalls and identify differentiating features from non-necrotizing soft-tissue infections, such as cellulitis and infective myositis/pyomyositis, conditions which may clinically mimic necrotizing fasciitis.

  3. Necrotizing pancreatitis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Victoria A; Mallipeddi, Mohan K; Perez, Alexander; Pappas, Theodore N

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a common disease that can progress to gland necrosis, which imposes significant risk of morbidity and mortality. In general, the treatment for pancreatitis is a supportive therapy. However, there are several reasons to escalate to surgery or another intervention. This review discusses the pathophysiology as well as medical and interventional management of necrotizing pancreatitis. Current evidence suggests that patients are best served by delaying interventions for at least 4 weeks, draining as a first resort, and debriding recalcitrant tissue using minimally invasive techniques to promote or enhance postoperative recovery while reducing wound-related complications. PMID:27826206

  4. Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy: An Underrecognized Clinicoradiologic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiujuan; Wu, Wei; Pan, Wei; Wu, Limin; Liu, Kangding; Zhang, Hong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) is a rare but distinctive type of acute encephalopathy with global distribution. Occurrence of ANE is usually preceded by a virus-associated febrile illness and ensued by rapid deterioration. However, the causal relationship between viral infections and ANE and the exact pathogenesis of ANE remain unclear; both environmental and host factors might be involved. Most cases of ANE are sporadic and nonrecurrent, namely, isolated or sporadic ANE; however, few cases are recurrent and with familial episodes. The recurrent and familial forms of ANE were found to be incompletely autosomal-dominant. Further the missense mutations in the gene encoding the nuclear pore protein Ran Binding Protein 2 (RANBP2) were identified. Although the clinical course and the prognosis of ANE are diverse, the hallmark of neuroradiologic manifestation of ANE is multifocal symmetric brain lesions which are demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The treatment of ANE is still under investigation. We summarize the up-to-date knowledge on ANE, with emphasis on prompt diagnosis and better treatment of this rare but fatal disease. PMID:25873770

  5. [Necrotizing periodontal disease: a manifestation of systemic disorders].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Escribano-Bermejo, Marta

    2005-11-19

    Necrotizing periodontal disease (NPD) is an infection characterized by gingival necrosis presenting as "punched-out" papillae, with gingival bleeding, and pain. Prevotella intermedia and spirochetes have been associated with the gingival lesions. Predisposing factors may include emotional stress, immunosuppression, especially secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cigarette smoking, poor diet and pre-existing gingivitis. During the last few years, diagnosis of NPD has became more important not only because of its contribution to the appearance of clinical attachment loss and gingival sequelae, but also because it has been revealed as a marker for immune deterioration in HIV-seropositive patients.

  6. Pyoderma Gangrenosum Simulating Necrotizing Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Erik Friedrich Alex; da Silva, Guilherme Almeida Rosa; dos Santos, Gustavo Randow; Motta, Heloisa Loureiro de Sá Neves; Cardoso, Pedro Afonso Nogueira Moisés; de Azevedo, Marcelo Costa Velho Mendes; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Motta, Rogerio Neves; Silva, Walter de Araujo Eyer; Ferry, Fernando Raphael de Almeida; Pinto, Jorge Francisco da Cunha

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum received this name due to the notion that this disease was related to infections caused by bacteria in the genus Streptococcus. In contrast to this initial assumption, today the disease is thought to have an autoimmune origin. Necrotizing fasciitis was first mentioned around the fifth century AD, being referred to as a complication of erysipelas. It is a disease characterized by severe, rapidly progressing soft tissue infection, which causes necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue and the fascia. On the third day of hospitalization after antecubital venipuncture, a 59-year-old woman presented an erythematous and painful pustular lesion that quickly evolved into extensive ulceration circumvented by an erythematous halo and accompanied by toxemia. One of the proposed etiologies was necrotizing fasciitis. The microbiological results were all negative, while the histopathological analysis showed epidermal necrosis and inflammatory infiltrate composed predominantly of dermal neutrophils. Pyoderma gangrenosum was considered as a diagnosis. After 30 days, the patient was discharged with oral prednisone (60 mg/day), and the patient had complete healing of the initial injury in less than two months. This case was an unexpected event in the course of the hospitalization which was diagnosed as pyoderma gangrenosum associated with myelodysplastic syndrome. PMID:26783395

  7. Left ventricular outflow obstruction and necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.A.; Haney, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Two neonates had unusually rapid development of necrotizing enterocolitis within 24 hours of birth. Both patients had decreased systemic perfusion secondary to aortic atresia. Onset of either clinical or radiographic manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis in the first day of life should alert one to the possible presence of severe left ventricular outflow obstruction.

  8. [Therapeutic attitude in acute necrotizing pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Leşe, Mihaela; Pop, C; Naghi, Ildiko; Mureşan, Lavinia

    2002-01-01

    The necrosectomy, celiostomy and pancreatic drainage represent the surgical treatment of choice in necrotizing pancreatitis. We present the clinical observation of a patient 59 years old operated in surgical service of Baia Mare for acute necrotizing pancreatitis, discussing the moment of operation, tips of operations, postoperative complications as well as our experience in acute grave pancreatitis treatment.

  9. Necrotizing fasciitis in a pediatric orthopedic population.

    PubMed

    Tancevski, Aleksandar; Bono, Kenneth; Willis, Leisel; Klingele, Kevin

    2013-06-01

    Few studies have analyzed necrotizing fasciitis in children, and all have relied on cases of necrotizing fasciitis in the abdomen, head, and neck region. The authors sought to correlate the preoperative values of several laboratory tests previously validated in the adult literature, such as the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis, with surgically confirmed necrotizing fasciitis in children to provide clinical guidance for the preoperative laboratory workup of necrotizing fasciitis. A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive patients younger than 18 years with a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis. A total of 13 patients with an average age of 7.9 years (range, 9 months-16 years) were included. Ten (76.9%) infections were found in the lower extremity and 3 (23.1%) in the upper extremity. Seven (53.8%) patients had ecchymosis on examination. All patients presented with an elevated white blood cell count. No amputations were performed, and no mortality occurred. All patients underwent surgery within 24 hours of presentation. Elevated temperature, white blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and C-reactive protein values are typically seen in pediatric patients with necrotizing fasciitis; however, no correlation existed between other the preoperative laboratory values with the previously described scoring systems, such as the Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis. Aggressive monitoring of signs and symptoms is suggested, even if a patient does not meet all conventional diagnostic criteria. The authors recommend prompt surgical debridement and early administration of antibiotics, which should include clindamycin.

  10. Virus resistance in orchids.

    PubMed

    Koh, Kah Wee; Lu, Hsiang-Chia; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2014-11-01

    Orchid plants, Phalaenopsis and Dendrobium in particular, are commercially valuable ornamental plants sold worldwide. Unfortunately, orchid plants are highly susceptible to viral infection by Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV) and Odotoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), posing a major threat and serious economic loss to the orchid industry worldwide. A major challenge is to generate an effective method to overcome plant viral infection. With the development of optimized orchid transformation biotechnological techniques and the establishment of concepts of pathogen-derived resistance (PDR), the generation of plants resistant to viral infection has been achieved. The PDR concept involves introducing genes that is(are) derived from the virus into the host plant to induce RNA- or protein-mediated resistance. We here review the fundamental mechanism of the PDR concept, and illustrate its application in protecting against viral infection of orchid plants.

  11. Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Study of 48 Cases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurjit; Bharpoda, Pragnesh; Reddy, Raghuveer

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis represents a group of highly lethal infections characterized by rapidly progressing inflammation and necrosis. The aim of the study was to analyze the clinical profile, microbial flora, and predisposing risk factors in patients with necrotizing fasciitis. Lastly, we aimed to formulate a protocol for management of necrotizing fasciitis. Forty-eight cases of necrotizing fasciitis patients who reported to our hospital between April 2007 and September 2009 were included in the study. The commonest predisposing factors were age greater than 50 years (58 % cases) and diabetes mellitus (52 % cases). The commonest site involved was extremity (70.8 %). Majority of infections were polymicrobial (87.5 %). Repeated aggressive debridement was the commonest surgical procedure performed. Early and aggressive surgical debridement, often in multiple sittings, supplemented by appropriate antibiotics and supportive therapy, forms the key to a successful outcome in necrotizing fasciitis.

  12. A survey of resistance to Tomato bushy stunt virus in the genus Nicotiana reveals that the hypersensitive response is triggered by one of three different viral proteins.

    PubMed

    Angel, Carlos A; Schoelz, James E

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we screened 22 Nicotiana spp. for resistance to the tombusviruses Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), Cucumber necrosis virus, and Cymbidium ringspot virus. Eighteen species were resistant, and resistance was manifested in at least two different categories. In all, 13 species responded with a hypersensitive response (HR)-type resistance, whereas another five were resistant but either had no visible response or responded with chlorotic lesions rather than necrotic lesions. Three different TBSV proteins were found to trigger HR in Nicotiana spp. in an agroinfiltration assay. The most common avirulence (avr) determinant was the TBSV coat protein P41, a protein that had not been previously recognized as an avr determinant. A mutational analysis confirmed that the coat protein rather than the viral RNA sequence was responsible for triggering HR, and it triggered HR in six species in the Alatae section. The TBSV P22 movement protein triggered HR in two species in section Undulatae (Nicotiana glutinosa and N. edwardsonii) and one species in section Alatae (N. forgetiana). The TBSV P19 RNA silencing suppressor protein triggered HR in sections Sylvestres (N. sylvestris), Nicotiana (N. tabacum), and Alatae (N. bonariensis). In general, Nicotiana spp. were capable of recognizing only one tombusvirus avirulence determinant, with the exceptions of N. bonariensis and N. forgetiana, which were each able to recognize P41, as well as P19 and P22, respectively. Agroinfiltration failed to detect the TBSV avr determinants responsible for triggering HR in N. arentsii, N. undulata, and N. rustica. This study illustrates the breadth and variety of resistance responses to tombusviruses that exists in the Nicotiana genus.

  13. Statin induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy.

    PubMed

    Babu, Suma; Li, Yuebing

    2015-04-15

    Statin induced necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (SINAM) is a recently characterized entity belonging to the spectrum of statin myotoxicity. It is a more severe form, and is usually associated with significant proximal muscle weakness, strikingly elevated creatine kinase levels and persistent symptoms despite statin discontinuation. The characteristic pathological finding is a marked muscle fiber necrosis with minimal or no inflammation on muscle biopsy. SINAM is an autoimmune disorder associated with an antibody against 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), and the antibody titer is a useful marker for assessing treatment response. However, anti-HMGCR positive myopathies are also caused by unknown etiologies other than statin exposure, especially in the younger population. SINAM should be promptly recognized as immunosuppressive therapy can improve its clinical outcome significantly. Further research is needed to elucidate its pathogenesis and provide evidence based guidelines for management.

  14. Necrotizing pancreatitis: diagnosis, imaging, and intervention.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Jeffrey Y; Sainani, Nisha I; Sahni, V Anik; Chick, Jeffrey F; Chauhan, Nikunj R; Conwell, Darwin L; Clancy, Thomas E; Banks, Peter A; Silverman, Stuart G

    2014-01-01

    Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe form of acute pancreatitis characterized by necrosis in and around the pancreas and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Although acute interstitial edematous pancreatitis is diagnosed primarily on the basis of signs, symptoms, and laboratory test findings, the diagnosis and severity assessment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis are based in large part on imaging findings. On the basis of the revised Atlanta classification system of 2012, necrotizing pancreatitis is subdivided anatomically into parenchymal, peripancreatic, and combined subtypes, and temporally into clinical early (within 1 week of onset) and late (>1 week after onset) phases. Associated collections are categorized as "acute necrotic" or "walled off" and can be sterile or infected. Imaging, primarily computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, plays an essential role in the diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis and the identification of complications, including infection, bowel and biliary obstruction, hemorrhage, pseudoaneurysm formation, and venous thrombosis. Imaging is also used to help triage patients and guide both temporizing and definitive management. A "step-up" method for the management of necrotizing pancreatitis that makes use of imaging-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of fluid collections prior to endoscopic or surgical necrosectomy has been shown to improve clinical outcomes. The authors present an algorithmic approach to the care of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and review the use of imaging and interventional techniques in the diagnosis and management of this pathologic condition.

  15. Mortality associated with cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Roberson, J B; Harper, J L; Jauch, E C

    1996-09-01

    Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection but still occurs and carries a mortality rate up to 60%. It is a polymicrobial infection that is characterized by diffuse necrosis of fascial planes and subcutaneous tissues. Diagnosing early stages of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis in relationship to other soft tissue infections of odontogenic origin is difficult and leads to less aggressive treatment with resulting increased morbidity and mortality. To prevent this significant mortality and morbidity associated with cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis early presentation, recognition and treatment by health care provider is essential.

  16. Necrotizing fasciitis: a case report of a premature infant with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Casey, Denise M; Stebbins, Karen; Howland, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe infection involving the superficial fascia, subcutaneous tissue, and, occasionally, deeper tissue layers. Usual treatment is with surgical debridement in combination with antibiotics. In review of the literature there is one neonatal report of NF associated with necrotizing enterocolitis. We present a case report of a 25 week gestation infant with necrotizing fasciitis and the complexity of wound and pain management presented for the nursing staff in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  17. Necrotizing Scleritis, Conjunctivitis, and Other Pathologic Findings in the Left Eye and Brain of an Ebola Virus-Infected Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta) With Apparent Recovery and a Delayed Time of Death.

    PubMed

    Alves, Derron A; Honko, Anna N; Kortepeter, Mark G; Sun, Mei; Johnson, Joshua C; Lugo-Roman, Luis A; Hensley, Lisa E

    2016-01-01

    A 3.5-year-old adult female rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) manifested swelling of the left upper eyelid and conjunctiva and a decline in clinical condition 18 days following intramuscular challenge with Ebola virus (EBOV; Kikwit-1995), after apparent clinical recovery. Histologic lesions with strong EBOV antigen staining were noted in the left eye (scleritis, conjunctivitis, and peri-optic neuritis), brain (choriomeningoencephalitis), stomach, proximal duodenum, and pancreas. Spleen, liver, and adrenal glands, common targets for acute infection, appeared histologically normal with no evidence of EBOV immunoreactivity. These findings may provide important insight for understanding sequelae seen in West African survivors of Ebola virus disease.

  18. Statin-associated necrotizing autoimmune myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Geórgea Hermogenes; Zanoteli, Edmar; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki

    2014-09-01

    Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM) is a severe adverse effect of statins. We report a 66-year-old Caucasian female who had progressive proximal muscle weakness after treatment with statins. Results of a muscle biopsy showed necrotizing myopathy with minimal inflammatory cell infiltrate and increased major histocompatibility class I antigen expression in muscle fibers. The clinical and laboratory parameters improved significantly with immunosuppressive treatment. Although it is a rare event, statin-induced NAM should be included as a differential diagnosis of myopathies.

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis--the hazards of delay.

    PubMed Central

    Burge, T S

    1995-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis was first described in a specific body region by Fournier in 1883 and as a more generalized condition by Meleney in 1924. The use of the term 'necrotizing fasciitis' can be attributed to Wilson in 1952. It is perceived as a rare condition, causing potentially devastating morbidity and frequent mortality. Prompt surgical management is generally accepted as the mainstay of treatment. This report illustrates the relationship between delay in definitive treatment and morbidity. Management options are also reviewed. PMID:7629767

  20. Community-acquired necrotizing fasciitis caused by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Yuko; Nagae, Masaaki; Omae, Takahito; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Horitani, Ryosuke; Maeda, Daigen; Yoshinaga, Takayuki

    2014-05-01

    A 61-year-old man presented with pain in the abdomen and right lower limb. He had a history of hepatitis B virus-induced liver cirrhosis, but had not been visiting the outpatient clinic and did not receive any medication. Cutaneous necrosis and bulla were observed on his abdomen and right lower limb. The necrotic skin was incised, and he was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis. A nonfermentative Gram-negative bacillus infection was confirmed from aspirated fluid and blood cultures. Therefore, meropenem and immunoglobulins were administered. Because necrosis was widespread, surgical debridement was performed. Thereafter, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus infection was confirmed by semi-quantitative PCR using the bullous fluid and blood cultures. Meropenem was administered for 3 weeks, followed by levofloxacin alone for 1 week. The patient's condition improved; therefore, skin grafting was performed as planned and yielded a favorable response. After rehabilitation, the patient could walk without support and infection did not recur. However, he had severe liver cirrhosis and large esophageal varices, and he eventually died from sudden varix rupture. Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon soft tissue infection, associated with high morbidity and mortality, and early recognition and treatment are crucial for survival. Acinetobacter is rarely associated with necrotizing fasciitis. Although this is a very rare case of the occurrence of necrotizing fasciitis due to A. calcoaceticus infection, we believe that this organism can be pathogenic in immunocompromised patients such as those with liver cirrhosis by reporting this case.

  1. Necrotizing fasciitis following varicella in a child.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Xia, Jie

    2012-03-01

    Varicella is a self-limited disease, but sometimes it may be associated with some serious life-threatening complications.Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare complication of varicella. This is a case of a 7-year-old girl with septic shock caused by necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of varicella. Swelling and pain in the left inguinal region and left axillary region were found five days after varicella. Then a high fever occurred followed by hypotension. Fluid infusion, vasopressor and antibiotics were administered. Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus was isolated from exudates from the wounds. The clinical symptoms markedly improved after surgical drainage and removal of the necrotic tissue. Both wounds were covered with skin grafts after healthy granulation tissue formed. Although there have been few reports of life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis following varicella in western countries, it is rare in China. Usually patients with varicella were admitted to pediatric or infectious disease department but not surgical departments; so that the clinicians should be aware that varicella may be complicated by life-threatening surgical infections. Necrotizing fasciitis should be suspected in patients of varicella who showed an increasing pain and swelling in any body areas associated with increasing fever and local erythema. Early identification, surgical drainage and debridement are essential for successful treatment of necrotizing fasciitis.

  2. MRI gadolinium enhancement precedes neuroradiological findings in acute necrotizing encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Tamura, Takuya; Nagai, Yuhki; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Awaya, Tomonari; Shibata, Minoru; Kato, Takeo; Heike, Toshio

    2013-11-01

    We report a 2-year-old Japanese boy with acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE) triggered by human herpes virus-6, who presented insightful magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. He was admitted due to impaired consciousness and a convulsion, 2 days after the onset of an upper respiratory infection. At admission, cranial MRI showed marked gadolinium enhancement at the bilateral thalami, brainstem and periventricular white matter without abnormal findings in noncontrast MRI sequences. On the following day, noncontrast computed tomography demonstrated homogeneous low-density lesions in the bilateral thalami and severe diffuse brain edema. The patient progressively deteriorated and died on the 18th day of admission. The pathogenesis of ANE remains mostly unknown, but it has been suggested that hypercytokinemia may play a major role. Overproduced cytokines cause vascular endothelial damage and alter the permeability of the vessel wall in the multiple organs, including the brain. The MRI findings in our case demonstrate that blood-brain barrier permeability was altered prior to the appearance of typical neuroradiological findings. This suggests that alteration of blood-brain barrier permeability is the first step in the development of the brain lesions in ANE, and supports the proposed mechanism whereby hypercytokinemia causes necrotic brain lesions. This is the first report demonstrating MRI gadolinium enhancement antecedent to typical neuroradiological findings in ANE.

  3. Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Dental Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Eugênia; Álvares, Pâmella; Silva, Luciano; Silva, Leorik; Caubi, Antônio; Silveira, Marcia; Sobral, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is an unusual infection characterized by necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue and fascial layers. Risk factors for the development of necrotizing fasciitis include diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, peripheral vascular disease, malnutrition, advanced age, obesity, alcohol abuse, intravenous drug use, surgery, and ischemic ulcers. This report presents a case of necrotizing fasciitis in the cervical area caused by dental extraction in a 73-year-old woman. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis in geriatric patient is rare, and even when establishing the diagnosis and having it timely treated, the patient can suffer irreversible damage or even death. Clinical manifestations in the head and neck usually have an acute onset characterized by severe pain, swelling, redness, erythema, presence of necrotic tissue, and in severe cases obstruction of the upper airways. Therefore, the presentation of this clinical case can serve as guidance to dentists as a precaution to maintain an aseptic chain and be aware of the clinical condition of older patients and the systemic conditions that may increase the risk of infections. PMID:27375905

  4. Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Dental Extraction.

    PubMed

    Arruda, José Alcides; Figueiredo, Eugênia; Álvares, Pâmella; Silva, Luciano; Silva, Leorik; Caubi, Antônio; Silveira, Marcia; Sobral, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is an unusual infection characterized by necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue and fascial layers. Risk factors for the development of necrotizing fasciitis include diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, peripheral vascular disease, malnutrition, advanced age, obesity, alcohol abuse, intravenous drug use, surgery, and ischemic ulcers. This report presents a case of necrotizing fasciitis in the cervical area caused by dental extraction in a 73-year-old woman. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis in geriatric patient is rare, and even when establishing the diagnosis and having it timely treated, the patient can suffer irreversible damage or even death. Clinical manifestations in the head and neck usually have an acute onset characterized by severe pain, swelling, redness, erythema, presence of necrotic tissue, and in severe cases obstruction of the upper airways. Therefore, the presentation of this clinical case can serve as guidance to dentists as a precaution to maintain an aseptic chain and be aware of the clinical condition of older patients and the systemic conditions that may increase the risk of infections.

  5. Novel Human Reovirus Isolated from Children with Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Louise A.; Barin, Francis; Barthez, Marie Anne; Bonnaud, Bertrand; Roingeard, Philippe; Goudeau, Alain; Castelnau, Pierre; Vernet, Guy; Komurian-Pradel, Florence

    2011-01-01

    For many encephalitis cases, the cause remains unidentified. After 2 children (from the same family) received a diagnosis of acute necrotizing encephalopathy at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (Tours, France), we attempted to identify the etiologic agent. Because clinical samples from the 2 patients were negative for all pathogens tested, urine and throat swab specimens were added to epithelial cells, and virus isolates detected were characterized by molecular analysis and electron microscopy. We identified a novel reovirus strain (serotype 2), MRV2Tou05, which seems to be closely related to porcine and human strains. A specific antibody response directed against this new reovirus strain was observed in convalescent-phase serum specimens from the patients, whereas no response was observed in 38 serum specimens from 38 healthy adults. This novel reovirus is a new etiologic agent of encephalitis. PMID:21801621

  6. Anesthetic implications of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Durrani, Mehmood A; Mansfield, John F

    2003-08-01

    Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis is a necrotizing soft tissue infection of face and neck spreading at the level of fascia. It has been described as a putrid ulcer, phagedaena, and hospital gangrene. It has a high mortality rate, and presents a challenge to anesthesiologists who must secure an airway to deliver anesthesia safely. We report a case of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis in which the patient underwent repeated radical surgical debridement of face and neck, including a mandibulectomy. These critically ill patients often present with sepsis and multiple system organ failure. Extensive preoperative evaluation, invasive monitoring, and possibly the use of vasopressors and inotropes are essential in treating these patients. The tracheas of these patients should remain intubated after initial debridement. Tracheostomy should be performed early. Antibiotic therapy, nutritional support, early debridement, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy all help to decrease mortality in these patients.

  7. Standardized RT-PCR conditions for detection and identification of eleven viruses of potato and Potato spindle tuber viroid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standardized RT-PCR procedures were developed and validated for detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Tobacco rattle virus (TRV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Potato leaf roll virus (PLRV), Potato mop top virus (PMTV), Potato virus A (PVA), Potato viru...

  8. Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV): a new potyvirus species in the PRSV cluster.

    PubMed

    Yakoubi, Soumaya; Lecoq, Hervé; Desbiez, Cécile

    2008-08-01

    A potyvirus was isolated from a naturally infected squash plant in Algeria in 1986. Biological and serological data have revealed that the virus, initially described as H4, is related to other cucurbit-infecting potyviruses, particularly Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). To establish unequivocally the taxonomic status of H4, its full-length genome sequence was established. H4 shared identities of 70% and 65% at the amino acid level with MWMV and PRSV, respectively, indicating that H4 is a distinct species of the PRSV cluster. The name Algerian watermelon mosaic virus (AWMV) is proposed for this new potyvirus species.

  9. Necrotizing soft-tissue infection: laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing soft tissue infections score.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri; Vijay Kumar, Gs; Sowmya, Gs; Madhu, Cp; Ramya, Sr

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) can be rapidly progressive and polymicrobial in etiology. Establishing the element of necrotizing infection poses a clinical challenge. A 64-year-old diabetic patient presented to our hospital with a gangrenous patch on anterior abdominal wall, which progressed to an extensive necrotizing lesion within 1 week. Successive laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing softtissue infections (LRINEC) scores confirmed the necrotizing element. Cultures yielded Enterococci, Acinetobacter species and Apophysomyces elegans and the latter being considered as an emerging agent of Zygomycosis in immunocompromised hosts. Patient was managed with antibiotics, antifungal treatment and surgical debridement despite which he succumbed to the infection. NSTI's require an early and aggressive management and LRINEC score can be applied to establish the element of necrotizing pathology. Isolation of multiple organisms becomes confusing to establish the etiological role. Apophysomyces elegans, which was isolated in our patient is being increasingly reported in cases of necrotizing infections and may be responsible for high morbidity and mortality. This scoring has been proposed as an adjunct tool to Microbiological diagnosis when NSTI's need to be diagnosed early and managed promptly to decrease mortality and morbidity, which however may not come in handy in an immunocompromised host with polymicrobial aggressive infection.

  10. [Necrotizing fasciitis in head and neck area].

    PubMed

    Sántha, Beáta; Sári, Katalin; Fülep, Zoltán; Patyi, Márta; Oberna, Ferenc

    2017-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a fulminant infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues characterized by progressive soft tissue necrosis and high mortality. It rarely occurs in the head and neck area. The clinical picture includes non-specific but typical local and systemic symptoms. The treatment is a complex, multidisciplinary task which includes radical surgical exploration, debridement and drainage, empirically started and then targeted intravenous antibiotics and supportive therapy. Authors report a case of necrotizing fasciitis localized on the right side of the face which caused multi-organ failure and phlegmone of the neck.

  11. Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis following periodontal abscess.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Rui; Catunda, Ivson de Sousa; Queiroz, Isaac Vieira; de Morais, Hecio Henrique Araujo; Leao, Jair Carneiro; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Soft tissue infections are characterized by acute inflammation, diffuse edema, and suppuration, and are often associated with symptoms such as malaise, fever, tachycardia, and chills. Necrotizing fasciitis is a destructive bacterial infection affecting subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia and is associated with high rates of mortality. It usually involves the abdomen and extremities, but it also can occur in the head and neck. Early diagnosis is critical and the most commonly accepted treatment includes radical surgical intervention and administration of broad-spectrum antibiotics. This article reports and discusses the case of a patient with odontogenic cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis, and emphasizes the importance of early and effective treatment.

  12. Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis Followed by Duodenal Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Del Hierro, Piedad Magdalena

    2011-12-01

    Acute Necrotizing Esophagitis is an uncommon pathology, characterized by endoscopic finding of diffuse black coloration in esophageal mucosa and histological presence of necrosis in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The first case of acute necrotizing esophagitis followed by duodenal necrosis, in 81 years old woman with a positive history of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension, and usual intake of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs, is reported. Although its etiology remains unknown, the duodenal necrosis suggests that ischemia could be the main cause given that the branches off the celiac axis provide common blood supply to the distal esophageal and duodenal tissue. The massive gastroesophagic reflux and NSAID intake could be involved.

  13. Emaravirus: a novel genus of multipartite, negative strand RNA plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Mielke-Ehret, Nicole; Mühlbach, Hans-Peter

    2012-09-01

    Ringspot symptoms in European mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia L.), fig mosaic, rose rosette, raspberry leaf blotch, pigeonpea sterility mosaic (Cajanus cajan) and High Plains disease of maize and wheat were found to be associated with viruses that share several characteristics. They all have single-stranded multipartite RNA genomes of negative orientation. In some cases, double membrane-bound virus-like particles of 80 to 200 nm in diameter were found in infected tissue. Furthermore, at least five of these viruses were shown to be vectored by eriophyid mites. Sequences of European mountain ash ringspot-associated virus (EMARaV), Fig mosaic virus (FMV), rose rosette virus (RRV), raspberry leaf blotch virus (RLBV), pigeonpea sterility mosaic virus and High Plains virus strongly support their potential phylogenetic relationship. Therefore, after characterization of EMARaV, the novel genus Emaravirus was established, and FMV was the second virus species assigned to this genus. The recently sequenced RRV and RLBV are supposed to be additional members of this new group of plant RNA viruses.

  14. Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Rare Disease, Especially for the Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Necrotizing Fasciitis: A Rare Disease, Especially for the Healthy Language: ... based hand rub if washing is not possible. Necrotizing Fasciitis Is Rarely Spread from Person to Person Most ...

  15. Necrotizing fasciitis: a rare complication of appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Mazza, J F; Augenstein, J S; Kreis, D J

    1987-09-01

    The mortality of acute appendicitis increases sixfold if perforation occurs. We have reported a case of perforated appendix complicated by necrotizing fasciitis of the abdominal wall and retroperitoneum. We believe this complication has not been previously described in the English literature.

  16. Herpes simplex induced necrotizing tonsillitis in an immunocompromised patient with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Laura; Vos, Xander G; Löwenberg, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We here present the case of a 22-year-old female of Suriname ethnicity with ulcerative colitis who received treatment with mercaptopurine and infliximab. She presented herself with a severe necrotizing tonsillitis due to herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1). Combination therapy consisting of immunomodulators and anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents is increasingly being used. Anti-TNF therapy is associated with an increased risk of developing serious infections, and especially patients receiving combination treatment with thiopurines are at an increased risk. We here show that HSV infections can cause a severe tonsillitis in immunocompromised patients. Early recognition is essential when there is no improvement with initial antibiotic therapy within the first 24 to 72 h. HSV infections should be in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients presenting with a necrotizing tonsillitis and can be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Early treatment with antiviral agents should be considered especially if antibiotic treatment fails in such patients. PMID:26881193

  17. Necrotizing Fasciitis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

    PubMed Central

    Galust, Henrik; Oliverio, Matthew H; Giorgio, Daniel J; Espinal, Alexis M

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rare and rapidly progressing life-threatening infectious process. By progressing through a simulation involving a patient with NF and participating in a post-scenario debriefing, learners will gain the necessary skills and knowledge to properly diagnose and manage patients with NF. Learners are taught to initiate appropriate and timely treatment and to advocate on behalf of their patient after inappropriate pushback from consultants to improve outcomes. PMID:27733963

  18. Identifying statin-associated autoimmune necrotizing myopathy.

    PubMed

    Albayda, Jemima; Christopher-Stine, Lisa

    2014-12-01

    Statins up-regulate expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis and the major target of autoantibodies in statin-associated immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. As muscle cells regenerate, they express high levels of HMGCR, which may sustain the immune response even after statin therapy is stopped. Awareness of this entity will help physicians who prescribe statins to take action to limit the associated morbidity.

  19. Necrotizing pancreatitis: a review of multidisciplinary management.

    PubMed

    Sabo, Anthony; Goussous, Naeem; Sardana, Neeraj; Patel, Shirali; Cunningham, Steven C

    2015-03-20

    The objective of this review is to summarize the current state of the art of the management of necrotizing pancreatitis, and to clarify some confusing points regarding the terminology and diagnosis of necrotizing pancreatitis, as these points are essential for management decisions and communication between providers and within the literature. Acute pancreatitis varies widely in its clinical presentation. Despite the publication of the Atlanta guidelines, misuse of pancreatitis terminology continues in the literature and in clinical practice, especially regarding the local complications associated with severe acute pancreatitis. Necrotizing pancreatitis is a manifestation of severe acute pancreatitis associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is aided by pancreas-protocol computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, ideally 72 h after onset of symptoms to achieve the most accurate characterization of pancreatic necrosis. The extent of necrosis correlates well with the incidence of infected necrosis, organ failure, need for debridement, and morbidity and mortality. Having established the diagnosis of pancreatic necrosis, goals of appropriately aggressive resuscitation should be established and adhered to in a multidisciplinary approach, ideally at a high-volume pancreatic center. The role of antibiotics is determined by the presence of infected necrosis. Early enteral feeds improve outcomes compared with parenteral nutrition. Pancreatic necrosis is associated with a multitude of complications which can lead to long-term morbidity or mortality. Interventional therapy should be guided by available resources and the principle of a minimally invasive approach. When open debridement is necessary, it should be delayed at least 3-6 weeks to allow demarcation of necrotic from viable tissue.

  20. Surgical management of necrotizing pancreatitis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kokosis, George; Perez, Alexander; Pappas, Theodore N

    2014-11-21

    Necrotizing pancreatitis is an uncommon yet serious complication of acute pancreatitis with mortality rates reported up to 15% that reach 30% in case of infection. Traditionally open surgical debridement was the only tool in our disposal to manage this serious clinical entity. This approach is however associated with poor outcomes. Management has now shifted away from open surgical debridement to a more conservative management and minimally invasive approaches. Contemporary approach to patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and/or infectious pancreatitis is summarized in the 3Ds: Delay, Drain and Debride. Patients can be managed in the intensive care unit and any intervention should be delayed. Percutaneous drainage can be utilized first and early in the course of the disease, followed by endoscopic drainage or video assisted retroperitoneoscopic drainage if necrosectomy is deemed necessary. Open surgery is now less frequently performed and should be reserved for cases refractory to any other approach. The management of necrotizing pancreatitis therefore requires a multidisciplinary dynamic model of approach rather than being a surgical disease.

  1. Surgical management of necrotizing pancreatitis: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Kokosis, George; Perez, Alexander; Pappas, Theodore N

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing pancreatitis is an uncommon yet serious complication of acute pancreatitis with mortality rates reported up to 15% that reach 30% in case of infection. Traditionally open surgical debridement was the only tool in our disposal to manage this serious clinical entity. This approach is however associated with poor outcomes. Management has now shifted away from open surgical debridement to a more conservative management and minimally invasive approaches. Contemporary approach to patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and/or infectious pancreatitis is summarized in the 3Ds: Delay, Drain and Debride. Patients can be managed in the intensive care unit and any intervention should be delayed. Percutaneous drainage can be utilized first and early in the course of the disease, followed by endoscopic drainage or video assisted retroperitoneoscopic drainage if necrosectomy is deemed necessary. Open surgery is now less frequently performed and should be reserved for cases refractory to any other approach. The management of necrotizing pancreatitis therefore requires a multidisciplinary dynamic model of approach rather than being a surgical disease. PMID:25473162

  2. Traumatic abdominal hernia complicated by necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pérez, Aleix; Garrigós-Ortega, Gonzalo; Gómez-Abril, Segundo Ángel; Martí-Martínez, Eva; Torres-Sánchez, Teresa

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a critical illness involving skin and soft tissues, which may develop after blunt abdominal trauma causing abdominal wall hernia and representing a great challenge for physicians. A 52-year-old man was brought to the emergency department after a road accident, presenting blunt abdominal trauma with a large non-reducible mass in the lower-right abdomen. A first, CT showed abdominal hernia without signs of complication. Three hours after ICU admission, he developed hemodynamic instability. Therefore, a new CT scan was requested, showing signs of hernia complication. He was moved to the operating room where a complete transversal section of an ileal loop was identified. Five hours after surgery, he presented a new episode of hemodynamic instability with signs of skin and soft tissue infection. Due to the high clinical suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis development, wide debridement was performed. Following traumatic abdominal wall hernia (TAWH), patients can present unsuspected injuries in abdominal organs. Helical CT can be falsely negative in the early moments, leading to misdiagnosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a potentially fatal infection and, consequently, resuscitation measures, wide-spectrum antibiotics, and early surgical debridement are required. This type of fasciitis can develop after blunt abdominal trauma following wall hernia without skin disruption.

  3. Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lytic bacteriophages, viruses which infect and lyse bacterial cells, can provide a natural method to reduce bacterial pathogens on produce commodities. The use of multi-phage cocktails is most likely to be effective against bacterial pathogens on produce commodities, and minimize the development of...

  4. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the palate. Ulcerative or necrotizing stage of leukokeratosis nicotina palati?

    PubMed

    Philipsen, H P; Petersen, J K; Simonsen, B H

    1976-12-01

    A typical case of the recently described tumor-suspect lesion, necrotizing sialometaplasia (NS) of the palate, in a 54-year old Caucasian male is presented. Results of complete blood- and urinanalysis including serum electrophoresis and labial salivary gland biopsy strongly pointed at a local etiologic factor. Previous statements that the disease represents a new entity are questioned. The present authors favor the idea that NS is the necrotizing (ulcerative) or terminal stage of leukokeratosis nicotina palati (nicotinic stomatitis). It is of particular importance that this lesion is not diagnosed as a malignancy, as it heals spontaneously and uneventfully.

  5. Scrotal Abscess: A Rare Presentation of Complicated Necrotizing Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mirhashemi, Seyyedhadi; Soori, Mohsen; Faghih, Gholamhossein; Peyvandi, Hassan; Shafagh, Omid

    2017-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis is characterized by activation of digestive enzymes inside the pancreas. In severe pancreatitis, necrosis of pancreas and surrounding tissues may occur. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis commonly presents as pancreatic abscess occasionally with systemic complications. Rarely, necrotic tissue may be drained from scrotum due to retroperitoneal extension of necrotic process. Here, we report a case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis in a 29-year-old man who presented with severe abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. A computerized tomography (CT) scan confirmed necrotizing pancreatitis with multiple abscesses spreading bilaterally in the pelvic cavity. Several surgical operations were performed, including necrosectomy and drainage. Subsequently, the patient developed a scrotal abscess, which was drained surgically. The patient's condition was complicated by pleural effusion, acute respiratory distress syndrome, colocutaneous and scrotal fistulas, and incisional hernia. It seems that the scrotal abscess is a very rare complication of necrotizing pancreatitis.

  6. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Park, So Young; Moon, Soo-Youn; Son, Jun Seong; Lee, Mi Suk

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is known to be a highly lethal infection of deep-seated subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia. Reports of necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae are exceedingly rare. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a 62-yr-old man with liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. He presented with painful swelling of left leg and right hand. On the day of admission, compartment syndrome was aggravated and the patient underwent surgical exploration. Intra-operative findings revealed necrotizing fasciitis and cultures of two blood samples and wound aspirates showed S. pneumoniae. The patient died despite debridement and proper antimicrobial treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of fatal necrotizing fasciitis with meningitis reported in Korea. We also review and discuss the literature on pneumococcal necrotizing fasciitis.

  7. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by a primary appendicocutaneous fistula.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Makoto; Higashi, Yukihiro; Shoji, Tuyoshi; Hiraide, Takanori; Maruo, Hirotoshi

    2012-08-01

    We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis in the loin of a 76-year old man with several coexisting or past health issues, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, alcohol-related liver cirrhosis, gastrectomy for gastric cancer, subarachnoid hemorrhage, normal pressure hydrocephalus, and cerebral infarction. Incision of the necrotizing fasciitis was successful, but it revealed an appendicocutaneous fistula; thus, we performed appendectomy and fistulectomy. We think that the necrotizing fasciitis was caused by appendicitis perforation involving the retroperitoneum, inducing the formation of an appendicocutaneous fistula. Necrotizing fasciitis and appendicocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of appendicitis. Moreover, to our knowledge, this is the first report of fluoroscopic examination demonstrating that a primary appendicocutaneous fistula had caused necrotizing fasciitis. Our search of the literature found 12 cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by preoperative appendicitis. We discuss the characteristics and findings of these cases.

  8. Differentiation and Distribution of Cordyline Viruses 1–4 in Hawaiian ti Plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Melzer, Michael; Ayin, Caleb; Sugano, Jari; Uchida, Janice; Kawate, Michael; Borth, Wayne; Hu, John

    2013-01-01

    Common green ti plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.) in Hawaii can be infected by four recently characterized closteroviruses that are tentative members of the proposed genus Velarivirus. In this study, a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay developed to detect and distinguish Cordyline virus 1 (CoV-1), CoV-2, CoV-3, and CoV-4 was used to determine: (i) the distribution of these viruses in Hawaii; and (ii) if they are involved in the etiology of ti ringspot disease. One hundred and thirty-seven common green ti plants with and without ti ringspot symptoms were sampled from 43 sites on five of the Hawaiian Islands and underwent the RT-PCR assay. Eleven ornamental ti varieties were also sampled and assayed. Based on this survey, it appears none of the CoVs are involved in the etiology of ti ringspot. The observation of a non-uniform geographic distribution of the CoVs in common green ti, combined with the presence of CoVs in seed-derived ornamental varieties, suggests active vector transmission. Eight herbarium specimens collected between 1903 and 2003 from plants on the island of Oahu also underwent the RT-PCR assay. Amplifiable RNA was isolated from accessions collected in 1985 or later, however only the 2003 accession was found to harbor CoVs. PMID:23881274

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Atlas, S.W.; Grossman, R.I.; Packer, R.J.; Goldberg, H.I.; Hackney, D.B.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Bilaniuk, L.T.

    1987-01-01

    Disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy is a rare syndrome of progressive neurologic deterioration seen most often in patients who have received central nervous system irradiation combined with intrathecal or systemic chemotherapy in the treatment or prophylaxis of various malignancies. Magnetic resonance imaging was more sensitive than computed tomography in detecting white matter abnormalities in the case of disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy reported here. Magnetic resonance imaging may be useful in diagnosing incipient white matter changes in disseminated necrotizing leukoencephalopathy, thus permitting early, appropriate therapeutic modifications.

  10. Postoperative Necrotizing Scleritis: A Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudipta; Saurabh, Kumar; Biswas, Jyotrimay

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative necrotizing scleritis should be considered in cases of persistent localized postoperative inflammation following all forms of surgical trauma. We present the history, clinical findings, and follow-up data of four patients with postoperative necrotizing scleritis. The clinical records of four patients who developed scleritis following ocular surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The first step in managing necrotizing scleritis is to rule out infectious etiology. Surgically induced necrotizing scleritis is an immune-mediated condition that can coexist with concomitant infectious condition, i.e. endophthalmitis, but response to immunosuppression leads to resolution of the disease and verifies the diagnosis. PMID:25371644

  11. Descending necrotizing mediastinitis in the elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Mazzella, Antonio; Santagata, Mario; Cecere, Atirge; La Mart, Ettore; Fiorelli, Alfonso; Tartaro, Gianpaolo; Tafuri, Domenico; Testa, Domenico; Grella, Edoardo; Perrotta, Fabio; Mazzarella, Gennaro; Santini, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Descending Necrotizing Mediastinitis (DNM) is a polymicrobic, dangerous and often fatal process, arising from head or neck infections and spreading along the deep fascial cervical planes, descending into the mediastinum. It can rapidly progress to sepsis and can frequently lead to death. It has a high mortality rate, up to 40% in the different series, as described in the literature. Surgical and therapeutic management has been discussed for long time especially in an elderly patient population. The literature has been reviewed in order to evaluate different pathogenesis and evolution and to recognise a correct therapeutic management. PMID:28352835

  12. Necrotizing fasciitis: strategies for diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Taviloglu, Korhan; Yanar, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is uncommon and difficult to diagnose, and it cause progressive morbidity until the infectious process is diagnosed and treated medically and surgically. The literature addressed NF contains confusing information, inaccurate bacteriologic data, and antiquated antibiotic therapy. A delay in diagnosis is associated with a grave prognosis and increased mortality. The main goal of the clinician must be to establish the diagnosis and initially treat the patient within the standard of care. This review is planned as a guide for the clinician in making an early diagnosis of NF and initiating effective medical and surgical therapy. PMID:17683625

  13. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jun-Xin; Wang, Lin-Nong; Zhou, Ru-Xia; Yu, Yang; Du, Tong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To design, optimize and validate a rapid, internally controlled real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis. METHODS Tears alone or together with corneal epithelium scrapings from 30 patients (30 eyes) suspected of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis were tested for HSV DNA by RT-PCR. The samples were collected during the first visit and then on the subsequent 7, 14, 28, 42, and 56d. The symptoms of the patients were scored before treatment to determine the correlation between HSV concentration in the corneal epithelium scrapings and clinical scores. RESULTS The positive rate (46.4%) in the corneal epithelium group before the therapy was significantly higher than that (13.3%) in the tears group (P=0.006). There were 13 positive HSV patients before the therapy, the concentration of HSV DNA in corneal epithelium scrapings group was significantly higher than that in the tears group (paired t-test, P=0.0397). Multilevel mixed-effects model analysis showed that the difference between the corneal epithelium scrapings group and the tears group was statistically significant (P=0.0049). The Spearman rank correlation analysis indicated a positive correlation between the HSV concentration in the corneal epithelium scrapings and clinical scores before the treatment (r=0.844, P<0.0001). CONCLUSION RT-PCR appears to be a powerful molecular tool for the diagnosis of necrotizing herpes stromal keratitis. PMID:27275421

  14. Necrobiotic xanthogranuloma associated with necrotizing scleritis.

    PubMed

    Peyman, Amir; Walsh, Noreen; Green, Peter; Dorey, Michael W; Seamone, Christopher; Pasternak, Sylvia

    2012-08-01

    A 57-year-old man presented to the ophthalmology clinic with a red right eye. He denied pain, diplopia, tearing, and blurred vision. His medical history included asymptomatic annular plaques on the trunk and extremities for at least a decade. Ophthalmological examination revealed a necrotizing scleritis of the right eye. Examination of the skin demonstrated variable sized annular plaques with central atrophy, some with prominent indurated border and yellow discoloration. No periorbital lesions were present. The ocular lesion rapidly progressed and areas of scleral melting developed in the right eye, which eventually required a scleral patch graft. The left eye also developed necrotizing scleritis with areas of scleral melting. Two sets of skin biopsies were performed a few weeks apart. An initial set of skin punch biopsies revealed extensive palisading granulomatous inflammation throughout the dermis, extending into the subcutis. The accompanying perivascular mononuclear infiltrate contained the collections of plasma cells. Scattered multinucleated giant cells were noted. The possibility of necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum was suggested. Subsequent skin biopsies showed more prominent and extensive necrobiosis, raising the possibility of necrobiotic xanthogranuloma. Protein electrophoresis was performed, which revealed an IgG λ monoclonal protein.

  15. Growth of Necrotic Cores in Vulnerable Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, Pak-Wing

    2011-03-01

    Plaques are fatty deposits that grow mainly in arteries and develop as a result of a chronic inflammatory response. Plaques are called vulnerable when they are prone to mechanical rupture. Vulnerable Plaques (VPs) are characterized by lipid-rich, necrotic cores that are heavily infiltrated with macrophages. The rupture of VPs releases thrombogenic agents into the bloodstream, usually resulting in myocardial infarctions. We propose a quantitative model to predict the development of a plaque's necrotic core. By solving coupled reaction-diffusion equations for macrophages and dead cells, we explore the joint effects of hypoxic cell death and chemo-attraction to Ox-LDL, a molecule that is strongly linked to atherosclerosis. Our model predicts cores that have approximately the right size and shape. Normal mode analysis and subsequent calculation of the smallest eigenvalues allow us to compute the times required for the system to reach its steady state. This study allows us to make quantitative predictions for how quickly vulnerable plaques develop and how their growth depends on system parameters such as chemotactic coefficients and cell death rates.

  16. [Dermo-hypodermitis and necrotizing fasciitis].

    PubMed

    Zahar, J R; Brun-Buisson, C

    2001-03-31

    Acute gangrenous dermo-hypodermitis and necrotizing fasciitis are potentially life-threatening infections of skin and soft tissues, which may be difficult to recognize at an early stage. A combination of local signs (erythema, mottling, bullous formation) and of symptoms suggestive of sepsis should prompt early suspicion and therapeutic intervention. Group A streptococci remain the major pathogen involved in necrotizing fasciitis involving extremities, following minor trauma or surgery, and sometimes apparently spontaneously. The most severe form is streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, where production of exotoxins (superantigens) is a major factor contributing to the severity of the syndrome. A number of other pathogens, often combined in mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections may be involved, especially in post-surgical and perineal gangrene. Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy, and should be considered as soon as the clinical suspicion arises. Antibiotic therapy is based on penicillins (penicillin G for streptococcal gangrene, or beta-lactamases penicillins in polymicrobial infections). New therapeutic approaches (clindamycin and immunoglobulins) may be useful in streptococcal toxic shock. The prognosis appears to have improved in recent years with early therapeutic intervention, but remains largely dependent on the severity of the septic response and underlying diseases.

  17. Mycobacterium tuberculosis replicates within necrotic human macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Thomas R.; Repnik, Urska; Herbst, Susanne; Collinson, Lucy M.; Griffiths, Gareth

    2017-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis modulation of macrophage cell death is a well-documented phenomenon, but its role during bacterial replication is less characterized. In this study, we investigate the impact of plasma membrane (PM) integrity on bacterial replication in different functional populations of human primary macrophages. We discovered that IFN-γ enhanced bacterial replication in macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages more than in granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor–differentiated macrophages. We show that permissiveness in the different populations of macrophages to bacterial growth is the result of a differential ability to preserve PM integrity. By combining live-cell imaging, correlative light electron microscopy, and single-cell analysis, we found that after infection, a population of macrophages became necrotic, providing a niche for M. tuberculosis replication before escaping into the extracellular milieu. Thus, in addition to bacterial dissemination, necrotic cells provide first a niche for bacterial replication. Our results are relevant to understanding the environment of M. tuberculosis replication in the host. PMID:28242744

  18. Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Haemophilus influenzae Serotype f

    PubMed Central

    Garrigues, Grant; St. Geme, Joseph W.; Sexton, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae is a rare cause of soft tissue infection. In this report, we present a case of multifocal necrotizing fasciitis in a healthy adult patient, secondary to Haemophilus influenzae serotype f infection, and we review literature on this rare cause of necrotizing fasciitis. PMID:24989609

  19. Urinary intestinal fatty acid binding protein predicts necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Katherine E; Winston, Abigail B; Yamamoto, Hidemi S; Dawood, Hassan Y; Fashemi, Titilayo; Fichorova, Raina N; Van Marter, Linda J

    2014-06-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis, characterized by sudden onset and rapid progression, remains the most significant gastrointestinal disorder among premature infants. In seeking a predictive biomarker, we found intestinal fatty acid binding protein, an indicator of enterocyte damage, was substantially increased within three and seven days before the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis.

  20. How are necrotic cells recognized by their predators?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zao; Zhou, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Necrosis is a type of cell death often caused by cell injury and is linked to human diseases including neuron degeneration, stroke, and cancer. Cells undergoing necrosis are engulfed and degraded by engulfing cells, their predators. The mechanisms by which necrotic cells are recognized and removed remain elusive. Here we comment on our recent findings that reveal new molecular mechanisms of necrotic-cell recognition. Through studying the C. elegans touch neurons undergoing excitotoxic necrosis, we identified a receptor/ligand pair that enables engulfing cells to recognize necrotic neurons. The phagocytic receptor CED-1 is activated through interaction with its ligand phosphatidylserine (PS), exposed on the surface of necrotic cells. Furthermore, against the common belief that necrotic cells have ruptured plasma membrane, we found that necrotic C. elegans touch neurons actively present PS on their outer surfaces while maintaining plasma membrane integrity. We further identified 2 mechanisms governing the presentation of PS, one of which is shared with cells undergoing apoptosis, a “cell suicide” event, whereas the other is unique to necrotic neurons. The influx of Ca2+, a key necrosis-triggering factor, is implicated in activating a neuronal PS-scramblase for PS exposure. We propose that the mechanisms controlling PS-exposure and necrotic-cell recognition by engulfing cells are likely conserved from worms to humans. PMID:27073733

  1. A case of fatal necrotizing fasciitis arising from chronic lymphedema.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young Joon; Kang, In Sook; Lee, Jung Ho; Kim, Sue Min; Kim, Young Jin

    2013-12-01

    Chronic lymphedema and lymphangitis are common adverse effects following treatment for gynecological cancer. Because the early symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis are similar to those of lymphangitis, fatal outcome can occur if patients or physicians underestimate this condition. Here, we present a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a patient with chronic lymphedema.

  2. Necrotizing fasciitis: contribution and limitations of diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Malghem, Jacques; Lecouvet, Frédéric E; Omoumi, Patrick; Maldague, Baudouin E; Vande Berg, Bruno C

    2013-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare, rapidly spreading, deep-seated infection causing thrombosis of the blood vessels located in the fascia. Necrotizing fasciitis is a surgical emergency. The diagnosis typically relies on clinical findings of severe sepsis and intense pain, although subacute forms may be difficult to recognize. Imaging studies can help to differentiate necrotizing fasciitis from infections located more superficially (dermohypodermitis). The presence of gas within the necrotized fasciae is characteristic but may be lacking. The main finding is thickening of the deep fasciae due to fluid accumulation and reactive hyperemia, which can be visualized using computed tomography and, above all, magnetic resonance imaging (high signal on contrast-enhanced T1 images and T2 images, best seen with fat saturation). These findings lack specificity, as they can be seen in non-necrotizing fasciitis and even in non-inflammatory conditions. Signs that support a diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis include extensive involvement of the deep intermuscular fascias (high sensitivity but low specificity), thickening to more than 3mm, and partial or complete absence on post-gadolinium images of signal enhancement of the thickened fasciae (fairly high sensitivity and specificity). Ultrasonography is not recommended in adults, as the infiltration of the hypodermis blocks ultrasound transmission. Thus, imaging studies in patients with necrotizing fasciitis may be challenging to interpret. Although imaging may help to confirm deep tissue involvement and to evaluate lesion spread, it should never delay emergency surgical treatment in patients with established necrotizing fasciitis.

  3. Necrotizing fasciitis in association with Ludwig's angina - A case report.

    PubMed

    Kavarodi, A M

    2011-07-01

    A 28 year old male diabetic patient developed Ludwig's angina which subsequently evolved into cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis. The differential characteristic of Ludwig's angina and cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis, as it relates to this rare presentation is discussed. The clinical and radiological features, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management that resulted in a successful outcome are presented.

  4. Necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the glans penis.

    PubMed

    Christodoulidou, Michelle; Bunker, Christopher B; Trevisan, Giorgia; Muneer, Asif

    2016-08-24

    We describe the case of a 73-year-old man who presented with a 10-month history of an ulcerating lesion on the glans penis. Initially this was thought to be an invasive squamous cell carcinoma but a biopsy showed histological features consistent with necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. Extensive serological, immunological and microbiological tests only showed a positive antinuclear and perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies indicating a possible autoimmune aetiology but an underlying systemic cause was not identified. Treatment with oral corticosteroids limited the inflammatory process but due to the gross destruction of the glans penis, he still required a glansectomy and split-skin graft reconstruction from which he recovered well. Although this patient ultimately required surgery for this rare presentation, this case highlights the differential diagnosis of penile ulceration (that transcends neoplasia) and the importance of performing and interpreting penile biopsies before undertaking potentially mutilating definitive surgery.

  5. Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis. Relation to systemic disease.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T M; Comacchi, C; Ghersetich, I

    1999-01-01

    Cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis (CNV) is a complex multisystem disease generally involving the skin and mucous membranes, often accompanied by renal, gastrointestinal, pericardial, neurological, and articular signs and symptoms. CNV may be idiopatical or occur in association with a drug, infection, or underlying disease. CNV has been shown in patients with chronic infections (viral, bacterial, protozoa, helminthic), serum sickness, a variety of collagen vascular diseases (systemic lupus erythematous, Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, Behçet's disease) hyperglobulinemic states, cryoglobulinemia, bowel bypass syndrome, ulcerative colitis, cystic fibrosis, primary biliary cirrhosis and HIV infection. Association with malignancies is not frequent. Lymphoproliferative disorders (Hodgkin's disease, mycosis fungoides, lymphosarcoma, adult T-cell leukemia, multiple mieloma) and solid tumors (lung cancer, colon carcinoma, renal, prostate, head and neck cancer and breast cancer) may be associated with CNV. Whenever possible, treatment is directed at the elimination of the cause. In other cases after adequate laboratory screening local and systemic therapy are recommended.

  6. Cervical Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Dental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi-Woong; Yoon, Hyun-Joong; Jung, Da-Woon; Lee, Sang-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is defined as rapidly progressive necrosis of subcutaneous fat and fascia. Although NF of the face is rare, its mortality rate is nearly 30%. It usually originates from dental infection and can lead to involvement of the neck, mediastinum, and chest wall. Complications resulting from pre-existing systemic diseases can increase the mortality rate. Known complication factors for NF include diabetes, malnutrition, advanced age, peripheral vascular disease, renal failure, and obesity. Here, we report a case of NF originating from dental infection in an 88-year-old woman already diagnosed with hypertension, thoracic aortic aneurysm, and renal diseases. Such conditions limited adequate surgical and antibiotic treatment. However, interdisciplinary treatment involving multiple departments was implemented with good results. PMID:27489813

  7. [Pathogenesis of chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis].

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Takayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis (CNPA) is a slowly progressive inflammatory destruction of lung tissue due to Aspergillus infection. The main radiographic features are chronic pulmonary infiltrates, progressive cavitation, and subsequent aspergilloma formation. Although pre-existing cavity is not seen, the presence of pre-existing airspaces such as emphysematous bullae, cannot be excluded. Chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis (CCPA), which is synonymous with complex aspergilloma, shows one or more pre-existing and / or newly formed pulmonary cavities that may or may not contain an aspergilloma, and cavity expansion and / or increasing pericavitary infiltrates. CNPA can be distinguished from CCPA by careful observation of progression of the cavitary lesion if a series of adequate radiography films are available. In some cases, however, it is difficult to distinguish the two subtypes if prior radiographs are not available Aiso, intermediate or overlapping types may exist. We therefore clinically and therapeutically proposed the syndrome including both CNPA and CCPA as chronic progressive pulmonary aspergillosis (CPPA).

  8. Necrotizing dermatitis in patients receiving cancer chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dreizen, S; McCredie, K B; Bodey, G P; Keating, M J

    1987-03-01

    Necrotizing dermatitis in patients being treated with cancer chemotherapeutic agents can be of several types. Microbial causes can include a variety of bacteria and fungi, the most common being Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Gangrene from occlusive causes is not uncommon among cancer patients with coexisting atheromatous, thromboembolic, or obliterative vascular disease. Toxic gangrene is most commonly caused by extravasation of intravenously administered cytotoxic antineoplastic drugs but has also been associated with the use of coumarin congeners and the bite of the brown recluse spider. Pyoderma gangrenosum is an idiopathic condition that has been reported in association with myeloproliferative disorders. Finally, necrosis can be caused by the neoplasm itself, when its growth is so great that blood vessels are compressed and ischemia of the surrounding tissue results.

  9. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in five Chihuahua dogs.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R J; Dickinson, P J; Kube, S A; Moore, P F; Couto, S S; Vernau, K M; Sturges, B K; Lecouteur, R A

    2008-05-01

    An acute to chronic idiopathic necrotizing meningoencephalitis was diagnosed in 5 Chihuahua dogs aged between 1.5 and 10 years. Presenting neurologic signs included seizures, blindness, mentation changes, and postural deficits occurring from 5 days to 5.5 months prior to presentation. Cerebrospinal fluid analyses from 2 of 3 dogs sampled were consistent with an inflammatory disease. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain of 2 dogs demonstrated multifocal loss or collapse of cortical gray/white matter demarcation hypointense on T1-weighted images, with T2-weighted hyperintensity and slight postcontrast enhancement. Multifocal asymmetrical areas of necrosis or collapse in both gray and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres was seen grossly in 4 brains. Microscopically in all dogs, there was a severe, asymmetrical, intensely cellular, nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis usually with cystic necrosis in subcortical white matter. There were no lesions in the mesencephalon or metencephalon except in 1 dog. Immunophenotyping defined populations of CD3, CD11d, CD18, CD20, CD45, CD45 RA, and CD79a immunoreactive inflammatory cells varying in density and location but common to acute and chronic lesions. In fresh frozen lesions, both CD1b,c and CD11c immunoreactive dendritic antigen-presenting cells were also identified. Immunoreactivity for canine distemper viral (CDV) antigen was negative in all dogs. The clinical signs, distribution pattern, and histologic type of lesions bear close similarities to necrotizing meningoencephalitis as described in series of both Pug and Maltese breed dogs and less commonly in other breeds.

  10. The first report of corky ringspot caused by tobacco rattle virus on potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) in Michigan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato is the most important agricultural commodity in Michigan and is grown for table stock, chip processing and for seed. Tubers are either processed or fresh packed immediately following harvest or sent to storage. When tubers (cv. FL1879) were removed from two storages representing two separate ...

  11. Retroperitoneal Necrotizing Fasciitis Masquerading as Perianal Abscess - Rare and Perilous.

    PubMed

    Amaranathan, Anandhi; Sahoo, Ashok Kumar; Barathi, Deepak; Shankar, Gomathi; Sistla, Sarath Chandra

    2017-01-17

    Necrotizing fasciitis is one of the uncommon presentations of a rapidly spreading subcutaneous tissue infection. Although the actual cause is unclear in many cases, most of them are due to the rapid proliferation of microorganisms. Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis is extremely rare. It is a potentially lethal infection that requires immediate and aggressive surgical care. Early diagnosis is the key to a better prognosis. The possibility of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis should be suspected in patients with symptoms of sepsis that are disproportionate to clinical findings. The rapid deterioration of the patient also gives a clue towards the diagnosis. We report a 35-year-old male with perianal abscess who had been progressed to retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis. The patient was managed successfully with aggressive debridement and drainage after laparotomy. Appropriate antibiotics were used to combat the sepsis. The patient recovered well at follow up, three months after discharge. Another patient, a 45-year-old male with a retroperitoneal abscess, progressed to retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis, and extra peritoneal drainage and debridement was done. Antibiotics depending upon the culture and sensitivity were used to control sepsis. But the patient succumbed to death 45 days after surgery due to uncontrolled sepsis. Necrotizing fasciitis of any anatomical site needs aggressive surgical care with early intervention. But retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis needs an extra effort for diagnosis. After diagnosis, it needs timely surgical intervention and appropriate antibiotic therapy for the recovery of the patients.

  12. [Cosmetic blepharoplasty complicated by necrotizing periorbital fasciitis: a case report].

    PubMed

    Laouar, K; Ruban, J-M; Baggio, E; Dupeyron, G

    2012-06-01

    Necrotizing periorbital or palpebro-orbital fasciitis represents a unique anatomical site for necrotizing fasciitis, which is an extremely rare and very severe, potentially devastating bacterial infection, rapidly leading to facial necrosis with loss of vision and even death of the patient from toxic shock. In this paper, we report a case of necrotizing periorbital fasciitis as a complication of cosmetic lower eyelid blepharoplasty. Necrotizing fasciitis most often affects the upper and lower limbs, the trunk and the perineal area. It is rarely observed in the facial region due to the rich blood supply in this area. The most commonly implicated pathogen is group A, β-hemolytic "pyogenic"Streptococcus, either alone or in combination with other bacteria, such as staphylococcus or pseudomonas. Mortality varies according to the series and anatomical site. The mortality rate for necrotizing fasciitis is approximately 28 %. It is slightly lower in the periorbital area (15 %). Risk factors for death include alcoholism, diabetes mellitus, immunocompromise, hematologic or pulmonary diseases, and the identity of the causative agent (group A Streptococcus), although approximately 50 % of patients have no predisposing conditions. Management of periorbital necrotizing fasciitis is based on early detection of initial symptoms and on aggressive multidisciplinary treatment including surgical debridement of necrotic areas and antibiotic coverage. The timeliness of treatment and the multidisciplinary approach are considered to be the two essential factors in influencing the mortality and morbidity of this condition.

  13. Fatal Systemic Necrotizing Infections Associated with a Novel Paramyxovirus, Anaconda Paramyxovirus, in Green Anaconda Juveniles

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Martelli, Paolo; Hui, Suk-Wai; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Groff, Joseph M.; Tam, Emily W. T.; Chan, Kwok-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in July 2011, 31 green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) juveniles from an oceanarium in Hong Kong died over a 12-month period. Necropsy revealed at least two of the following features in 23 necropsies: dermatitis, severe pan-nephritis, and/or severe systemic multiorgan necrotizing inflammation. Histopathological examination revealed severe necrotizing inflammation in various organs, most prominently the kidneys. Electron microscopic examination of primary tissues revealed intralesional accumulations of viral nucleocapsids with diameters of 10 to 14 nm, typical of paramyxoviruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results were positive for paramyxovirus (viral loads of 2.33 × 104 to 1.05 × 108 copies/mg tissue) in specimens from anaconda juveniles that died but negative in specimens from the two anaconda juveniles and anaconda mother that survived. None of the other snakes in the park was moribund, and RT-PCR results for surveillance samples collected from other snakes were negative. The virus was isolated from BHK21 cells, causing cytopathic effects with syncytial formation. The virus could also replicate in 25 of 27 cell lines of various origins, in line with its capability for infecting various organs. Electron microscopy with cell culture material revealed enveloped virus with the typical “herringbone” appearance of helical nucleocapsids in paramyxoviruses. Complete genome sequencing of five isolates confirmed that the infections originated from the same clone. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses and mRNA editing experiments revealed a novel paramyxovirus in the genus Ferlavirus, named anaconda paramyxovirus, with a typical Ferlavirus genomic organization of 3′-N-U-P/V/I-M-F-HN-L-5′. Epidemiological and genomic analyses suggested that the anaconda juveniles acquired the virus perinatally from the anaconda mother rather than from other reptiles in the park, with subsequent interanaconda juvenile transmission. PMID:25078906

  14. Fatal systemic necrotizing infections associated with a novel paramyxovirus, anaconda paramyxovirus, in green anaconda juveniles.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Martelli, Paolo; Hui, Suk-Wai; Lau, Candy C Y; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Groff, Joseph M; Tam, Emily W T; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-10-01

    Beginning in July 2011, 31 green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) juveniles from an oceanarium in Hong Kong died over a 12-month period. Necropsy revealed at least two of the following features in 23 necropsies: dermatitis, severe pan-nephritis, and/or severe systemic multiorgan necrotizing inflammation. Histopathological examination revealed severe necrotizing inflammation in various organs, most prominently the kidneys. Electron microscopic examination of primary tissues revealed intralesional accumulations of viral nucleocapsids with diameters of 10 to 14 nm, typical of paramyxoviruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results were positive for paramyxovirus (viral loads of 2.33 × 10(4) to 1.05 × 10(8) copies/mg tissue) in specimens from anaconda juveniles that died but negative in specimens from the two anaconda juveniles and anaconda mother that survived. None of the other snakes in the park was moribund, and RT-PCR results for surveillance samples collected from other snakes were negative. The virus was isolated from BHK21 cells, causing cytopathic effects with syncytial formation. The virus could also replicate in 25 of 27 cell lines of various origins, in line with its capability for infecting various organs. Electron microscopy with cell culture material revealed enveloped virus with the typical "herringbone" appearance of helical nucleocapsids in paramyxoviruses. Complete genome sequencing of five isolates confirmed that the infections originated from the same clone. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses and mRNA editing experiments revealed a novel paramyxovirus in the genus Ferlavirus, named anaconda paramyxovirus, with a typical Ferlavirus genomic organization of 3'-N-U-P/V/I-M-F-HN-L-5'. Epidemiological and genomic analyses suggested that the anaconda juveniles acquired the virus perinatally from the anaconda mother rather than from other reptiles in the park, with subsequent interanaconda juvenile transmission.

  15. [Necrotizing fasciitis caused by pseudomonas aeruginosa (an obervation)].

    PubMed

    Abada, A; Benhmidoune, L; Tahiri, H; Essalim, K; Chakib, A; Elbelhadji, M; Rachid, R; Zaghloul, K; Amraoui, A

    2007-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an exceptional and severe form of subcutaneous gangrene which requires early diagnosis and emergency treatment. We report the case of a 24 year old woman presenting with necrotizing fasciitis after pansinusitis resistant to treatment. The germ detected was pseudomonas aeruginosa. The infection was controled with intensive care, antibiotics and surgical resection of necrotic tissues. The aim of this observation is to highlight the clinical characteristics of this disease, and to insist on the necessity to recognize the early symptoms and to start treatment as soon as possible.

  16. A Case of Necrotizing Epiglottitis Due to Nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

    PubMed

    Lake, Jessica A; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Suchi, Mariko; Chun, Robert H; Willoughby, Rodney E

    2015-07-01

    Diphtheria is a rare cause of infection in highly vaccinated populations and may not be recognized by modern clinicians. Infections by nontoxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae are emerging. We report the first case of necrotizing epiglottitis secondary to nontoxigenic C diphtheriae. A fully vaccinated child developed fever, poor oral intake, and sore throat and was found to have necrotizing epiglottitis. Necrotizing epiglottitis predominantly occurs in the immunocompromised host. Laboratory evaluation revealed pancytopenia, and bone marrow biopsy was diagnostic for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clinicians should be aware of aggressive infections that identify immunocompromised patients. This case highlights the features of a reemerging pathogen, C diphtheriae.

  17. An atypical case of necrotizing fasciitis of the breast.

    PubMed

    Mufty, H; Smeets, A; Christiaens, M R

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and aggressive soft tissue infection involving the fascia and subcutaneous tissues. It carries a high mortality and morbidity rate. In literature, the few case reports on necrotizing fasciitis of the breast, describe the need for a mastectomy in 90% of the cases. We report on a case of a 72-year old Caucasian women with an atypical presentation of necrotizing fasciitis of the breast in combination with an acute abdomen, successfully treated with breast-conserving debridement and secondary wound closure.

  18. Streptococcus pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, A; Robaina, R; Pérez, G; Cairoli, E

    2016-04-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive destructive soft tissue infection with high mortality. Streptococcus pneumoniae as etiologic agent of necrotizing fasciitis is extremely unusual. The increased susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is probably a multifactorial phenomenon. We report a case of a patient, a 36-year-old Caucasian female with 8-year history of systemic lupus erythematosus who presented a fatal Streptococcus pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis. The role of computed tomography and the high performance of blood cultures for isolation of the causative microorganism are emphasized. Once diagnosis is suspected, empiric antibiotic treatment must be prescribed and prompt surgical exploration is mandatory.

  19. Necrotizing sialometaplasia of the lip simulating squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gad, A; Willén, H; Willén, R; Thorstensson, S; Ekman, L

    1980-01-01

    A case of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the lip in an 68-year-old pipe smoker is described. Necrotizing sialometaplasia is a self-healing non-neoplastic disease probably of ischaemic nature. Thirty-nine cases of sialometaplasia are described in the literature up to early 1979. These cases appeared in the palate, nasal cavity, gingiva, lip, hypopharynx and maxillary sinus. Six cases have also been reported from major salivary glands. Histologically there is necrosis of mucous cells with partial replacement by squamous epithelium. This entity has often been mistaken for squamous or mucoepidermoid carcinoma. One has to be familiar with the existence of necrotizing sialometaplasia in ordeg surgery.

  20. Simultaneous multiplex PCR detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ji Yeon; Hong, Jin Sung; Kim, Min Jea; Choi, Sun Hee; Min, Byeong Eun; Song, Eun Gyeong; Kim, Hyun Hee; Ryu, Ki Hyun

    2014-09-01

    Two multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems using dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO) primers were developed for the simultaneous detection of seven cucurbit-infecting viruses. One system allows for the detection of papaya ringspot virus, watermelon mosaic virus, and zucchini yellow mosaic virus, whereas the other permits the detection of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, cucumber fruit mottle mosaic virus, kyuri green mottle mosaic virus, and zucchini green mottle mosaic virus. Viral species-specific DPO primers developed in this study detected as little as 10 fg/μl of viral RNA under monoplex conditions and 10 pg/μl of viral RNA under multiplex conditions. Multiplex PCR using the DPO primer sets was capable of amplifying viral genes at annealing temperatures ranging from 53 °C to 63 °C. Whereas the use of conventional primers gave rise to non-specific bands, the DPO primers detected target viral genes in the absence of non-specific amplification. When these DPO multiplex primer sets were applied to virus-infected cucurbit samples obtained in the field, multiple infection as well as single infection was accurately identified. This novel approach could also detect multiple viruses in infected seeds. The reliability of multiplex PCR systems using DPO primers for plant virus detection is discussed.

  1. Emerging diversity in Potato virus Y poses new challenges for the U.S. potato industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Until recently tobacco and potato tuber necrotic strains of Potato virus Y (PVY) were considered to be absent from the U.S., and seed certification programs were able to limit PVY incidence in seed potatoes. PVY has become more problematic in recent years and beginning in 2002, necrotic strains of P...

  2. Atorvastatin-induced necrotizing autoimmune myositis

    PubMed Central

    Troyanov, Yves; Landon-Cardinal, Océane; Fritzler, Marvin J.; Ferreira, José; Targoff, Ira N.; Rich, Eric; Goulet, Michelle; Goulet, Jean-Richard; Bourré-Tessier, Josiane; Robitaille, Yves; Drouin, Julie; Albert, Alexandra; Senécal, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The general aim of this study was to evaluate the disease spectrum in patients presenting with a pure polymyositis (pPM) phenotype. Specific objectives were to characterize clinical features, autoantibodies (aAbs), and membrane attack complex (MAC) in muscle biopsies of patients with treatment-responsive, statin-exposed necrotizing autoimmune myositis (NAM). Patients from the Centre hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal autoimmune myositis (AIM) Cohort with a pPM phenotype, response to immunosuppression, and follow-up ≥3 years were included. Of 17 consecutive patients with pPM, 14 patients had a NAM, of whom 12 were previously exposed to atorvastatin (mean 38.8 months). These 12 patients were therefore suspected of atorvastatin-induced AIM (atorAIM) and selected for study. All had aAbs to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and none had overlap aAbs, aAbs to signal recognition particle, or cancer. Three stages of myopathy were recognized: stage 1 (isolated serum creatine kinase [CK] elevation), stage 2 (CK elevation, normal strength, and abnormal electromyogram [EMG]), and stage 3 (CK elevation, proximal weakness, and abnormal EMG). At diagnosis, 10/12 (83%) patients had stage 3 myopathy (mean CK elevation: 7247 U/L). The presenting mode was stage 1 in 6 patients (50%) (mean CK elevation: 1540 U/L), all of whom progressed to stage 3 (mean delay: 37 months) despite atorvastatin discontinuation. MAC deposition was observed in all muscle biopsies (isolated sarcolemmal deposition on non-necrotic fibers, isolated granular deposition on endomysial capillaries, or mixed pattern). Oral corticosteroids alone failed to normalize CKs and induce remission. Ten patients (83%) received intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) as part of an induction regimen. Of 10 patients with ≥1 year remission on stable maintenance therapy, IVIG was needed in 50%, either with methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy or combination immunosuppression. In the remaining

  3. Pulp revascularization in an immature necrotic tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gelman, Richard; Park, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Immature permanent teeth damaged by caries or trauma can present a challenge to dentistry. Currently, triple antibiotic paste (TAP) containing ciprofloxacin, metronidazole, and minocycline is used to attempt revascularization in necrotic immature teeth. Therefore, the purpose of this report was to present a case of pulp revascularization in an immature necrotic tooth. An 8-year-old male presented with trauma to the permanent maxillary left and right central incisors. Upon clinical and radiographic examination, the left central incisor was deemed necrotic. Revascularization therapy was performed over multiple visits. At 11 months follow-up, healing of the periapical area and apexogenesis were found to be complete. With an increasing breadth of clinical evidence and practitioner acceptance, regenerative techniques may become a standard technique in treating immature necrotic permanent teeth.

  4. Metabolomic determinants of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies in premature infants and animals show that carbohydrate malabsorption and gut microbiota colonisation are key elements for triggering necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Our aim was to determine how dietary carbohydrate composition affects the metabolomic profile and whether unique metabolite s...

  5. Klebsiella pneumoniae necrotizing fasciitis in a Latin American male.

    PubMed

    Persichino, Jon; Tran, Richard; Sutjita, Made; Kim, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis, caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae, is a rare and life-threatening bacterial infection. Most documented cases have been reported from Asia, particularly associated with diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of this infection in the USA is rare, especially among persons of non-Asian descent and those without travel to Asia. We report a case of disseminated necrotizing fasciitis, caused by K. pneumoniae, in a Latin American male with diabetes mellitus. Given our review of the literature, this is the only case report, to our knowledge, of a Latin American patient with Klebsiella necrotizing fasciitis in the USA. This case may reflect the geographical spread and emergence of K. pneumoniae infection in the USA. Clinicians need to be aware of the possible relationship between this organism and necrotizing fasciitis in persons of Latin American descent with diabetes mellitus.

  6. Avian necrotic enteritis: Experimental models, climate change, and vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review summarizes recent developments in disease models, pathogenesis, host immunity, risk factors, and vaccine development for Clostridium perfringens infection of poultry and necrotic enteritis (NE). The increasing trends of legislative restrictions and voluntary removal of antibiotic growth...

  7. Necrotizing gastritis due to Bacillus cereus in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Le Scanff, J; Mohammedi, I; Thiebaut, A; Martin, O; Argaud, L; Robert, D

    2006-04-01

    Bacillus cereus is increasingly being acknowledged as a serious bacterial pathogen in immunocompromised patients. We present a case of acute necrotizing gastritis caused by B. cereus in a 37-year-old woman with acute myeloblastic leukemia, who recovered following total parenteral nutrition and treatment with imipenem and vancomycin. B. cereus was isolated from gastric mucosa and blood cultures. Up to now, no case of acute necrotizing gastritis due to this organism has been reported.

  8. Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis: a rarity in childhood.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, D; Gordjani, N; Trusen, A; Marx, A; Hebestreit, H

    2003-05-01

    Necrotizing sarcoid granulomatosis (NSG) is characterized by pulmonary nodular infiltrates, a typical histology, and a benign clinical course. The etiology and pathogenesis of the disease are still unknown. In childhood, it is extremely rare, with only three reported cases so far. Here we report on an 8-year-old girl, who to our knowledge is the youngest reported patient with NSG. The girl presented with shortness of breath and a sore throat. Chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed multiple nodular opacities of the lung. The symptoms and radiological findings disappeared within 6 months without any treatment. The diagnosis was based on the typical signs and symptoms of NSG and on the exclusion of other diseases. As abnormal immunological findings such as the lack of specific diphtheria antibodies in spite of vaccination against diphtheria were present, we suggest that immunologic mechanisms could play an etiologic role in the pathogenesis of NSG. In addition, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ T-cells in the peripheral blood was significantly reduced, whereas the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio in the immunohistochemical staining of the lung tissue was elevated. Since this compartmentalization is a typical finding in sarcoidosis, it supports the theory that NSG may represent a variant of sarcoidosis. However, because some characteristics of NSG are uncommon in typical sarcoidosis, NSG may also be an entity in its own right.

  9. Necrotizing pancreatitis: A review of the interventions.

    PubMed

    Bugiantella, Walter; Rondelli, Fabio; Boni, Marcello; Stella, Paolo; Polistena, Andrea; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Avenia, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    Acute pancreatitis may have a wide range of severity, from a clinically self-limiting to a quickly fatal course. Necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) is the most dreadful evolution associated to a poor prognosis: mortality is approximately 15% and up to 30-39% in case of infected necrosis, which is the major cause of death. Intervention is generally required for infected pancreatic necrosis and less commonly in patients with sterile necrosis who are symptomatic (gastric or duodenal outlet or biliary obstruction). Traditionally the most widely used approach to infected necrosis has been open surgical necrosectomy, but it is burdened by high morbidity (34-95%) and mortality (11-39%) rates. In the last two decades the treatment of NP has significantly evolved from open surgery towards minimally invasive techniques (percutaneous catheter drainage, per-oral endoscopic, laparoscopy and rigid retroperitoneal videoscopy). The objective of this review is to summarize the current state of the art of the management of NP and to clarify some aspects about its diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Cruz, L; Navarro, S; Valderrama, R; Sáenz, A; Guarner, L; Aparisi, L; Espi, A; Jaurietta, E; Marruecos, L; Gener, J

    1994-04-01

    A multicenter study of acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) classified in accordance with the Balthazar criteria (grades D and E), has been performed in 12 teaching hospitals. A total of 233 patients were reviewed, and the mortality rate was 26.6%. The most common etiology was biliary pancreatitis (45.5%). Among the complications, shock, renal insufficiency, pulmonary insufficiency and hemorrhagic gastritis were associated with a mortality rate of 51-66%. Diffuse fluid collections were associated with a higher mortality rate (26.8%) than localized fluid collections (14.5%). In 106 patients with gallstone pancreatitis, early surgery was performed in 17, and 5 patients (29.4%) died. No mortality was observed in 32 patients with delayed surgery. Sphincterotomy was performed in 13 patients, and 4 (30.7%) died. Early surgery (necrosectomy and closed peritoneal lavage) was undertaken in 75 patients, with a mortality rate of 39%. In conclusion, the morbidity and mortality rates of ANP can be improved with proper monitoring, adequate supportive care and the judicious use of surgery based on clinical and morphological findings.

  11. Maternal Risk Factors for Neonatal Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    March, Melissa I.; Gupta, Munish; Modest, Anna M.; Wu, Lily; Hacker, Michele R.; Martin, Camilia R.; Rana, Sarosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the relationship between maternal hypertensive disease and other risk factors and the neonatal development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Methods This was a retrospective case control study of infants with NEC from 2008 to 2012. The primary exposure of interest was maternal hypertensive disease, which has been hypothesized to put infants at risk for NEC. Other variables collected included demographics, pregnancy complications, medications, and neonatal hospital course. Data was abstracted from medical records. Results 28 cases of singleton neonates with NEC and 81 matched controls were identified and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the primary outcome. Fetuses with an antenatal diagnosis of growth restriction were more likely to develop NEC (p=0.008). Infants with NEC had lower median birth weight than infants without NEC (p=0.009). Infants with NEC had more late-onset sepsis (p=0.01) and mortality before discharge (p=0.001). Conclusions The factors identified by this case-control study that increased the risk of neonatal NEC included intrauterine growth restriction and lower neonatal birth weight. The primary exposure, hypertensive disease, did not show a significantly increased risk of neonatal NEC, however there was a nearly two-fold difference observed. Our study was underpowered to detect the observed difference. PMID:25162307

  12. Necrotizing Fasciitis and The Diabetic Foot.

    PubMed

    Iacopi, Elisabetta; Coppelli, Alberto; Goretti, Chiara; Piaggesi, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) represents a rapidly progressive, life-threatening infection involving skin, soft tissue, and deep fascia. An early diagnosis is crucial to treat NF effectively. The disease is generally due to an external trauma that occurs in predisposed patients: the most important risk factor is represented by diabetes mellitus. NF is classified into 3 different subtypes according to bacterial strains responsible: type 1 associated to polymicrobial infection, type 2 NF, generally associated to Streptococcus species, often associated to Staphylococcus aureus and, eventually, Type 3, due to Gram-negative strains, such as Clostridium difficile or Vibrio. NF is usually characterized by the presence of the classic triad of symptoms: local pain, swelling, and erythema. In daily clinical practice immune-compromised or neuropathic diabetic patients present with atypical symptomatology. This explains the high percentage of misdiagnosed cases in the emergency department and, consequently, the worse outcome presented by these patients. Prompt aggressive surgical debridement and antibiotic systemic therapy are the cornerstone of its treatment. These must be associated with an accurate systemic management, consisting in nutritional support, glycemic compensation, and hemodynamic stabilization. Innovative methods, such as negative pressure therapy, once the acute conditions have resolved, can help fasten the surgical wound closure. Prompt management can improve prognosis of patients affected from NF reducing limb loss and saving lives.

  13. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Chest Wall: Report of Pediatric Cases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Monica; Meeks, Andrew; Kearl, Liza

    2015-09-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a soft tissue infection uncommonly described in children and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality if not treated early and aggressively. Reports of cases involving the upper torso are rare in general. In adults, necrotizing fasciitis is most commonly described in the abdomen, perineum, and extremities. For children, particularly neonates, necrotizing fasciitis most commonly involves the trunk presenting as omphalitis. In this report, we describe 2 pediatric cases of necrotizing fasciitis of the chest wall that presented within 6 months from each other at Los Angeles County Hospital/University of Southern California Pediatric Emergency Department. Both cases involved previously healthy children with above normal body mass indices of 36 and 25.6, respectively. These cases are noteworthy because of the rarity of necrotizing fasciitis among children especially in the chest wall, atypical presentation with nonspecific symptoms which made the diagnosis challenging, and suggestion that obesity may be a potential risk factor. Despite the rarity of this disease, the information presented in these cases may aid in raising the index of suspicion for diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis.

  14. Necrotizing fasciitis: a six-year experience.

    PubMed

    Tunovic, Edin; Gawaziuk, Justin; Bzura, Tom; Embil, John; Esmail, Ali; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a life-threatening infectious disease whose incidence has been on the rise. Commonly a consequence of group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus infection, it results in high levels of morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis is difficult and treatment involves emergent surgical intervention and antibiotic therapy. The aim of this study is to examine the incidence of NF in Manitoba with the goal of observing whether there is a geographic variation in incidence and outcomes based on Regional Health Authorities (RHAs). This is a 6-year retrospective chart review of all NF patients who presented to the Health Sciences Center from 2004 to 2009. A total of 130 patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 47 ± 16 years. The most common comorbidities were diabetes (33.8%) and hypertension (33.1%). The overall mortality was 13.1% with advanced age being an independent risk factor (P < .05). Lower extremity was the most common location of infection (44.6%) and the most common causative organism was group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (63.9%). The type of infection (mono- vs. polymicrobial) was not found to affect length of stay, amputation rate, or mortality. There was no statistical difference in rate of amputations, length of stay, or mortality based on RHA. Incidence within the province, however, varied significantly based on RHA and ethnicity (P < .05). We determined that regardless of origin before admission, all our patients have equivalent prognosis. Burntwood RHA was found to have substantially higher incidence than the rest of the province, and higher incidence was established among the Aboriginal population.

  15. Necrotizing cellulitis with multiple abscesses on the leg caused by Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Hau, Estelle; Bouaziz, Jean-David; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Saussine, Anne; Masson, Vincent; Rausky, Jonathan; Bagot, Martine; Guibal, Fabien

    2016-03-01

    Serratia marcescens is an unusual cause of severe skin infection initially described in immunocompromised patients. We report a case of necrotizing cellulitis of the leg caused by S marcescens in a 68-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus and a history of chronic lymphoedema of the leg. We reviewed the literature and found 49 cases of severe skin infections from S marcescens that included 20 cases of necrotizing fasciitis (NF) as well as 29 cases of severe skin infections without NF (non-NF cases). Patients were immunocompromised in 59% to 70% of cases. The mortality rate was high in NF cases (60%) versus non-NF cases (3%). Surgery was required in 95% of NF cases and in 24% of non-NF cases. The other clinical manifestations of S marcescens skin infection reported in the literature included disseminated papular eruptions in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus with folliculitis on the trunk. Serratia marcescens is naturally resistant to amoxicillin alone and amoxicillin associated with clavulanic acid. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are indicated to treat S marcescens skin infections, and surgery should be promptly considered in cases of severe skin infections if appropriate antibiotic therapy does not lead to rapid improvement.

  16. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Abdominal Wall Caused by Serratia Marcescens.

    PubMed

    Lakhani, Naheed A; Narsinghani, Umesh; Kumar, Ritu

    2015-04-15

    In this article, we present the first case of necrotizing fasciitis affecting the abdominal wall caused by Serratia marcescens and share results of a focused review of S. marcescens induced necrotizing fasciitis. Our patient underwent aorto-femoral bypass grafting for advanced peripheral vascular disease and presented 3 weeks postoperatively with pain, erythema and discharge from the incision site in the left lower abdominal wall and underwent multiple debridement of the affected area. Pathology of debrided tissue indicated extensive necrosis involving the adipose tissue, fascia and skeletal muscle. Wound cultures were positive for Serratia marcescens. She was successfully treated with antibiotics and multiple surgical debridements. Since necrotizing fasciitis is a medical and surgical emergency, it is critical to examine infectivity trends, clinical characteristics in its causative spectrum. Using PubMed we found 17 published cases of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Serratia marcescens, and then analyzed patterns among those cases. Serratia marcescens is prominent in the community and hospital settings, and information on infection presentations, risk factors, characteristics, treatment, course, and complications as provided through this study can help identify cases earlier and mitigate poor outcomes. Patients with positive blood cultures and those patients where surgical intervention was not provided or delayed had a higher mortality. Surgical intervention is a definite way to establish the diagnosis of necrotizing infection and differentiate it from other entities.

  17. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of three common viruses infecting orchids.

    PubMed

    Ali, Raymond N; Dann, Alison L; Cross, Peter A; Wilson, Calum R

    2014-11-01

    A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for simultaneous detection of three orchid viruses: cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV), odontoglossum ringspot virus (ORSV), and orchid fleck virus (OFV). Primers were used to amplify nucleocapsid protein gene fragments of 845 bp (ORSV), 505 bp (CymMV) and 160 bp (OFV). A 60-bp amplicon of plant glyceraldehyde-3-phophate dehydrogenase mRNA was included as an internal control against false negatives. The assay was validated against 31 collected plants from six orchid genera and compared with results obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RT-PCR assay proved more sensitive than TEM for detection of OFV.

  18. Sample-based assessment of the microbial etiology of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Blum, S; Mazuz, M; Brenner, J; Friedgut, O; Stram, Y; Koren, O; Goshen, T; Elad, D

    2007-07-15

    A semiquantitative evaluation of potential bacterial pathogens was correlated to the severity of lesions during an outbreak of bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) on an Israeli dairy herd. Bacteriologic examination of 287 vaginal swabs from 104 post-calving heifers showed a highly significant correlation between Porphyromonas levii colony forming unit numbers and the clinical scores of the lesions, when assessed by an ordinal regression statistical model. No such correlation was found for the other bacteria included in the study. Nineteen samples taken for virological examinations resulted negative for bovine herpes viruses 1, 2, 4 and 5. Thus the results of this study substantiate the essential role of P. levii in the etiology of BNVV and indicate that BHV4 is not required as a predisposing factor to the syndrome.

  19. Necrotizing Retinitis Secondary to Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Associated with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Hasan Tolga; Sonmez, Kenan; Celik, Melda

    2016-01-01

    A 20-day-old male infant who was born at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In retinal examination, peripheric retinal white-black color areas that correspond to necrotizing retinitis, moderate vitritis, macular and optic nerve head involvement, vascular leakage, and sheathing indicating perivasculitis were revealed. Despite the fact that CMV specific IgM was undetectable, CMV DNA with high viral load was found in his blood sample by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Serologic examination (IgM) for rubella, toxoplasma, herpes simplex type 2, and human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) was negative. During the further evaluation for systemic immune dysfunction, decreased immunoglobulin and lymphocyte levels that confirm the diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency have been reached. Although given systemic intravenous ganciclovir and antibiotics treatment, the patient died at the 4th month of life due to respiratory insufficiency. PMID:27999698

  20. Necrotizing acute pancreatitis following therapeutic plasmapheresis in HCV-related cryoglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Desideri, F; Van Vlierberghe, H

    2011-06-01

    Mixed cryoglobulinemia and hepatitis C virus infection are strongly connected and the therapeutic approach is standardized according to the severity of the symptoms. We report the difficult management of 59 year old female HCV patient presenting cutaneous lesions and arthralgia due to mixed cryoglobulinemia. No therapy was able to achieve a complete remission and during the six years of active disease we observed several clinical recurrences. The intensive plasmapheresis regimen led to a complete remission of the symptoms but it was associated with severe complications. In this case report we describe an episode of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to intravascular haemolysis following therapeutic plasmapheresis. To the best of our knowledge the association between plasmapheresis and acute pancreatitis has not been previously described.

  1. Necrotizing fasciitis secondary to carcinoma of the gallbladder with perforation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Ken-ichi; Shatari, Tomoo; Yamamoto, Tatsuma; Sasaki, Takahiro; Suwa, Tatsushi; Furuuchi, Takayuki; Takenaka, Yoshifumi; Hori, Masao; Sakuma, Masayoshi

    2007-01-01

    We present an unusual case of necrotizing fasciitis in the upper abdominal wall caused by penetrating perforation of the gallbladder. It was manifested as an elastic and reddish abdominal swelling with severe tenderness, but no peritoneal irritation. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated water density with a slightly elevated CT value and air bubbles in the subcutaneous space. The preoperative diagnosis was subcutaneous abscess with fasciitis. At surgery, necrotizing fasciitis and subcutaneous abscess secondary to penetrating perforation of the gallbladder were revealed. Cholecystectomy and peritoneal irrigation were performed. Although no tumor was evident during surgery, a tumor located close to the perforation site was found just after the operation. Pathological examination revealed gallbladder carcinoma without stones. There have been very few previous reports of necrotizing fasciitis following gallbladder perforation. The presentation, diagnosis, and management of fasciitis, as well as carcinoma of the gallbladder with perforation, are discussed.

  2. Immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy associated with statins.

    PubMed

    Grable-Esposito, Phyllis; Katzberg, Hans D; Greenberg, Steven A; Srinivasan, Jayashri; Katz, Jonathan; Amato, Anthony A

    2010-02-01

    We report patients from two neuromuscular centers who were evaluated between the years 2000 and 2008 and met the following criteria: (1) proximal muscle weakness occurring during or after treatment with statins; (2) elevated serum creatine kinase (CK); (3) persistence of weakness and elevated CK despite discontinuation of the statin; (4) improvement with immunosuppressive agents; and (5) muscle biopsy showing necrotizing myopathy without significant inflammation. Twenty-five patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Twenty-four patients required multiple immunosuppressive agents. Fifteen patients relapsed after being tapered off immunosuppressive therapy. Exposure to statins prior to onset was significantly higher in patients with necrotizing myopathy (82%) as compared to those with dermatomyositis (18%), polymyositis (24%), and inclusion-body myositis (38%) seen in the same time period. The lack of improvement following discontinuation of statins, the need for immunosuppressive therapy, and frequent relapse when treatment was tapered suggest an immune-mediated etiology for this rare, statin-associated necrotizing myopathy.

  3. Bilateral renal artery thrombosis secondary to acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Thajudeen, Bijin; Budhiraja, Pooja; Bracamonte, Erika R.

    2013-01-01

    Renal artery thrombosis is a rare, but serious and often under-diagnosed condition. We report a case of bilateral renal artery thrombosis secondary to acute necrotizing pancreatitis. A 66-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and acute kidney injury (AKI). A renal biopsy showed organized intraluminal thrombi and a computer tomography scan of the abdomen showed bilateral renal artery thrombosis. Emergent laprotomy showed necrosed pancreas. Doppler studies showed deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities and internal jugular vein thrombosis. Workup for hypercoagulability was unremarkable. The final diagnosis was AKI secondary to bilateral renal artery thrombosis probably due to hypercoagulability of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:26064514

  4. Effects of exchange transfusion on cytokine profiles in necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Tokio; Kouwaki, Masanori; Goto, Kenji; Endo, Takeshi; Ito, Koichi; Koyama, Norihisa; Togari, Hajime

    2012-12-01

    To study the effect of exchange transfusion on cytokine profiles in a patient with necrotizing enterocolitis, the levels of 12 cytokines and serum calprotectin were measured among exchange transfusion. A male extremely low birth weight infant was in non-compensated shock and diagnosed stage 3 necrotizing enterocolitis. Exchange transfusion was performed for critical condition, refractory hypotension and disseminated intravascular coagulation. After exchange transfusion, the patient's blood pressure increased and stabilized. Then an enterostomy was performed and revealed necrosis of the ascending colon. Of the cytokines examined, interleukin-8 and serum calprotectin were high before exchange transfusion and decreased after exchange transfusion.

  5. Neonatal necrotizing fasciitis of the scrotum caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Junpei; Inoue, Nobuaki; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Fukuzawa, Ryuji; Terakawa, Toshiro; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2015-04-01

    We herein describe the case of a 27-day-old male infant who was brought to the emergency room for intermittent crying, and swelling of the left scrotum. Based on the clinical findings, necrotizing fasciitis was suspected, and surgical intervention was successfully completed within a few hours of admission. Streptococcus agalactiae type Ia was cultured from the drained abscess, and was considered the causative pathogen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal necrotizing fasciitis caused by S. agalactiae. Prompt diagnosis and immediate surgical debridement are crucial in the initial management of this disease.

  6. Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis: report of three cases and literature review.

    PubMed

    Balcerak, R J; Sisto, J M; Bosack, R C

    1988-06-01

    Three cases of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis have been reported, two of dental etiology, and one the result of blunt and abrasive facial trauma. All cases responded well to aggressive surgical intervention in combination with broad spectrum antibiotic coverage and supportive medical therapy. The presence of increased vascularity in the head and neck region probably minimizes the amount of overlying soft tissue that must be excised during surgical management (in comparison to extremity and trunk necrotizing fasciitis cases). The key to successful management of such infections is early diagnosis of the disease process with prompt surgical and medical intervention.

  7. Mechanical transmission of Potato leafroll virus.

    PubMed

    Mayo, M; Ryabov, E; Fraser, G; Taliansky, M

    2000-11-01

    Like typical luteoviruses, Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) cannot be transmitted mechanically by rubbing plants with solutions containing virus particles. However, PLRV was found to be mechanically transmissible from extracts of plants that had been inoculated by viruliferous aphids and then post-inoculated with Pea enation mosaic virus-2 (PEMV-2). Unlike the asymptomatic infections induced by either virus alone, double infections in Nicotiana benthamiana induced necrotic symptoms with some line patterning and vein yellowing. Infective PLRV was recovered from a purified virus preparation by inoculating plants mechanically with purified virus particles mixed with PEMV-2. Similarly, Beet mild yellowing virus was readily transmitted mechanically from mixtures containing PEMV-2. PLRV was also transmissible from mixtures made with extracts of plants infected with Groundnut rosette virus, although less efficiently than from mixtures containing PEMV-2. This novel means of transmitting PLRV, and perhaps other poleroviruses, should prove very useful in a number of fields of luteovirus research.

  8. Two cases of an atypical presentation of necrotizing stomatitis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this report was to describe the clinical and microbiological characteristics of two rare cases of necrotizing stomatitis, and the outcomes of a non-invasive treatment protocol applied in both cases. Methods We report two cases of necrotizing stomatitis in a rare location in the hard palate of a 40-year-old woman and a 28-year-old man. Neither had a relevant medical history and both presented with highly painful ulceration in the palate and gingival margin that was accompanied by suppuration and necrosis. 3% hydrogen peroxide was applied to the lesions using sterile swabs, and antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatment was prescribed to both patients in addition to two daily oral rinses of 0.2% chlorhexidine. Results In both cases, radiological examination ruled out bone involvement, and exfoliative cytology revealed a large inflammatory component and the presence of forms compatible with fusobacteria and spirochetes. There was a rapid response to treatment and a major improvement was observed after 48 hours, with almost complete resolution of the ulcerated lesions and detachment of necrotic areas with partial decapitation of gingival papillae. Conclusions Necrotizing periodontal lesions can hinder periodontal probing and the mechanical removal of plaque in some cases due to the extreme pain suffered by the patients. We present a non-invasive treatment approach that can manage these situations effectively. PMID:26734496

  9. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. lactose ...

  10. Necrotizing fasciitis – a diagnostic dilemma: two case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Necrotizing soft tissue infections can affect various tissue planes. Although predisposing etiologies are many, they mostly center on impaired immunity occurring directly or indirectly and loss of integrity of protective barriers which predispose to infection. The nonspecific presentation may delay diagnosis and favor high mortality. Case presentation Two case vignettes are presented. The first patient, a 44-year-old healthy South Asian man with a history of repeated minor traumatic injury presented to a primary health care center with a swollen left lower limb. He was treated with antibiotics with an initial diagnosis of cellulitis. Because he deteriorated rapidly and additionally developed intestinal obstruction, he was transferred to our hospital which is a tertiary health care center for further evaluation and management. Prompt clinical diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection was made and confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging as necrotizing fasciitis. Urgent debridement was done, but the already spread infection resulted in rapid clinical deterioration with resultant mortality. The second patient was a 35-year-old South Asian woman with systemic lupus erythematous receiving immunosuppressive therapy who developed left lower limb pain and fever. Medical attention was sought late as she came to the hospital after 4 days. Her condition deteriorated rapidly as she developed septic shock and died within 2 days. Conclusions Necrotizing fasciitis can be fatal when not recognized and without early intervention. Clinicians and surgeons alike should have a greater level of suspicion and appreciation for this uncommon yet lethal infection. PMID:24965382

  11. Allelism and Molecular Mapping of Soybean Necrotic Root Mutants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutability of the w4 flower color locus in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is conditioned by an allele designated w4-m. Germinal revertants recovered among self-pollinated progeny of mutable plants have been associated with the generation of necrotic root mutations, chlorophyll-deficiency mutation...

  12. [Dentogene Focus as a Rare Cause of Necrotizing Fasciitis].

    PubMed

    Kloth, Christopher; Hoefert, Sebastian; Fischborn, Till; Schraml, Christina

    2017-02-01

    History and clinical findings We elaborate the case of a 72-year-old patient who presented with a painful swelling of the lower jaw in the emergency unit. Investigations and diagnosis In the clinical examination and the CT scan, a widespread cervical emphysema was found which raised suspicion for the presence of a necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck due to aerogenic infection. Close spatial vicinity to the teeth of the left upper and lower jaw was present, so that the necrotizing fasciitis was assumed to be odontogenic. Treatment and course Based on the clinical presentation and the imaging findings the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis in the sense of a possible infection with gas building bacteria accompanying with an infection of the mediastinum was made. Immediately performed therapy included sternotomy and extended surgical debridement of necrosis. Conclusion The presented case emphasizes that necrotizing fasciitis due to gas-producing infections should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cervical soft tissue emphysema for which an odontogenic focus is the most common cause. Rapid diagnosis is essential for successful treatment consisting of immediate surgical debridement and intravenous antibiotics.

  13. Temporary feed restriction partially protects broilers from necrotic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, V; Georgopoulou, I; Batzios, Chr; Pappaioannou, N; Ducatelle, R; Fortomaris, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of feed restriction on the intestinal ecosystem and on the pathogenesis of experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chicks. To induce subclinical necrotic enteritis, an experimental challenge model using a specific diet formulation, Gumboro vaccination, oral inoculation of broilers with a 10-fold dose of attenuated anticoccidial vaccine and multiple oral inoculations with a specific strain of Clostridium perfringens was adopted. Two hundred and forty 1-day-old Cobb 500 broilers were randomly allocated to four groups: feed restricted, challenged, both feed restricted and challenged, and negative control. At 21, 22, 23 and 24 days of age, the intestines, gizzard and liver were collected from 15 birds in each group and scored for gross lesions. The intestinal digesta was collected for pH and viscosity determination. One caecum from each bird was taken for microbiological analysis. The application of feed restriction in birds challenged with C. perfringens reduced the necrotic enteritis lesion score significantly (P ≤ 0.05) and feed restriction significantly reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pH in the small intestine, the viscosity of the jejunum digesta as well as the C. perfringens counts in the caeca compared with the controls. In conclusion, feed restriction of broilers has a positive effect on the intestinal ecosystem and a significant protective effect against necrotic enteritis in the subclinical experimental model.

  14. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. Key risk factors for NEC are enteral feeding and microbial colonization. Maldigestion of carbohydrate secondary to immature digestive function has been suspected to cause bacterial overgrowth and NEC. We investi...

  15. [Method and procedures in bacteriological study of necrotic teeth].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ponce, A; López Campos, A; López Paz, J; Pazos Sierra, R

    1991-01-01

    Research was conducted of 160 radicular canals with necrotic pulp. Results of different bacteriological analyses are presented. Culture analyses in aerobic and anaerobic media, resulted in the isolation of Staphylococcus Epidermidis, Streptococcus Viridans and Corynebacterium sp in the group studied, as the most frequent bacteria. There was no evidence of a specific germ linked with the pulp necrosis.

  16. Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens II. Pathology and Proposed Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Long, J. R.; Barnum, D. A.; Pettit, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The intestines from 124 dead, sick and normal broiler chickens from 24 cases of necrotic enteritis were subjected to histological examination. Tissue sections from the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and ceca from each broiler were examined histologically for lesions of necrotic enteritis and the presence of coccidia. Lesions of necrotic enteritis were present in one or more areas of the intestine in all but six of 94 dead or sick birds and they were most common and severe in the jejunum. Coccidia were found in only small numbers in both diseased and normal birds. Brown and Brenn stained sections showed Gram-positive bacilli intimately associated with early necrotic lesions on the tips of villi. Tissue sections from the intestines of sick birds permitted a proposed pathogenesis for this disease with the lesion starting at the tips of villi. The similarity in pathogenesis and pathological lesions in this disease of broilers and Clostridium perfringens type C enteritis in baby pigs is discussed. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4373152

  17. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Filipino female in North America.

    PubMed

    Ng, Daniel; Frazee, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae has been described in Southeast Asia, but has only recently begun to emerge in North America. The hypermucoviscous strain of K. pneumoniae is a particularly virulent strain known to cause devastatingly invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Here we present the first known case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae in North America.

  18. Tanay virus, a new species of virus isolated from mosquitoes in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Nabeshima, Takeshi; Inoue, Shingo; Okamoto, Kenta; Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Yu, Fuxun; Uchida, Leo; Ichinose, Akitoyo; Sakaguchi, Miako; Sunahara, Toshihiko; Buerano, Corazon C; Tadena, Florencio P; Orbita, Ildefonso B; Natividad, Filipinas F; Morita, Kouichi

    2014-06-01

    In 2005, we isolated a new species of virus from mosquitoes in the Philippines. The virion was elliptical in shape and had a short single projection. The virus was named Tanay virus (TANAV) after the locality in which it was found. TANAV genomic RNA was a 9562 nt+poly-A positive strand, and polycistronic. The longest ORF contained putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP); however, conserved short motifs in the RdRP were permuted. TANAV was phylogenetically close to Negevirus, a recently proposed taxon of viruses isolated from haemophagic insects, and to some plant viruses, such as citrus leprosis virus C, hibiscus green spot virus and blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus. In this paper, we describe TANAV and the permuted structure of its RdRP, and discuss its phylogeny together with those of plant viruses and negevirus.

  19. Daphne mosaic virus (DapMV), a new potyvirus from Daphne mezereum in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Fránová, J; Petrzik, K; Lesemann, D-E; Navrátil, M

    2006-04-01

    Daphne shrubs with light green rings and mosaic on leaves contained flexuous filamentous virions (696 x 13 nm) and cylindrical inclusions typical of the subdivision III of Edwardson's classification for inclusions induced by members of the family Potyviridae. Decoration tests using antisera to 67 potyviruses revealed distant serological relations among chilli veinal mottle virus, Colombian datura virus, papaya ringspot virus, tobacco vein mottling virus and yam mosaic virus. The 3' terminal region of the virus genome was amplified by RT-PCR using primers specific for cloned and sequenced members of the family Potyviridae. The most similar sequences in the GenBank were those of isolates of wild potato mosaic virus (WPMV) and yam mild mosaic virus (YMMV), originating from Peru and Guadeloupe, respectively. The new sequence had 63.2% and 61.9% nucleotide identity to WPMV and YMMV in the coat protein gene. The results suggest that the Czech isolate from daphne should be regarded as a new member of the genus Potyvirus. The name daphne mosaic virus (DapMV) is suggested for this virus.

  20. Necrotizing fasciitis: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Smeets, L; Bous, A; Heymans, O

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis of the lower limb. This medico-surgical emergency is a life-threatening invasive soft-tissue infection which primarily involves the fascia superficialis and rapidly extends along subcutaneous tissue with relative sparing of skin and underlying muscles. Clinical presentation includes fever, signs of systemic toxicity and pain out of proportion to clinical findings. Paucity of cutaneous findings early in the course of the disease makes diagnosis challenging. The confirmation of the diagnosis is often made after surgical debridement. Delay in diagnosis and/or treatment correlates with poor outcome, leading to sepsis and/or multiple organ failure. Radiologic studies including plain radiographs, CT-scan or MRI may help to diagnose necrotizing fasciitis. Prompt surgical debridement, intravenous antibiotics, fluids and electrolytes management and analgesia are mainstays of the therapy. Adjuvant treatments like clindamycin, hyperbaric oxygen therapy and intravenous immunoglobulins are discussed.

  1. [Postoperative necrotizing fasciitis: a rare and fatal complication].

    PubMed

    Ghezala, Hassen Ben; Feriani, Najla

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative parietal complications can be exceptionally severe and serious threatening vital prognosis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection of the skin and deep subcutaneous tissues, spreading along fascia and adipose tissue. It is mainly caused by group A streptococcus (streptococcus pyogenes) but also by other bacteria such as Vibrio vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens or Bacteroides fragilis. Necrotizing fasciitis is a real surgical and medical emergency. We report, in this study, a very rare case of abdominal parietal gangrene occurring in a 75-year-old woman on the fifth day after surgery for an ovarian cyst. Evolution was marked by occurrence of a refractory septic shock with a rapidly fatal course on the third day of management.

  2. Review of the literature on necrotizing sialometaplasia and case presentation.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Montes, Constantino; Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela; Salcido-García, Juan Francisco; Hernández-Flores, Florentino

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to report a case of necrotizing sialometaplasia with long-term follow-up. A case of necrotizing sialometaplasia in a 37-year-old man with clinical documentation on the progress during a 2-year follow-up is presented. Data from an extensive review of the literature including clinical, imagenologic, and microscopic features are provided. Information on diagnostic and prognostic factors is offered and comprehensibly discussed. The importance of identification and diagnosis of this entity during the review of the slides from the first biopsy is stressed and the exclusive performance of an incisional biopsy is debated. The presented clinical photographs reveal the clinical changes of the lesion from the beginning of the lesions up to 2 years follow-up, documenting the complete long-term clinical course and the healing process of this entity.

  3. Necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis: the early lesion of acne necrotica (varioliformis).

    PubMed

    Kossard, S; Collins, A; McCrossin, I

    1987-05-01

    Skin biopsy specimens from four patients who had recurrent bouts of lesions conforming to the clinical description of acne necrotica were studied. The pathologic findings were dominated by lymphocytic inflammation around centrally placed follicles evolving to follicular necrosis that extended to the perifollicular epidermis and dermis. Early lesions showed the development of multiple individual necrotic keratinocytes within the follicular sheath and adjacent epidermis with lymphocytic exocytosis. Later lesions showed more intense necrosis and scale crust obscuring the central target but were still dominated by a peripheral lymphocytic infiltrate. The early pathologic findings of acne necrotica (varioliformis) are represented by a necrotizing lymphocytic folliculitis and differ from the pattern seen in association with nonspecific excoriations, acute bacterial folliculitis, classic comedogenic acne, or acnitis.

  4. Necrotizing hepatitis in a domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Himmel, L; O'Connor, M; Premanandan, C

    2014-11-01

    An adult male domestic pigeon (Columba livia) was presented for necropsy following natural death after a period of chronic weight loss and severe intestinal ascariasis. Histopathologic examination of the liver found moderate to marked, multifocal necrotizing hepatitis with large, basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies. Transmission electron microscopy of affected hepatocytes demonstrated numerous intra- and perinuclear icosahedral virions arranged in a lattice structure, consistent with adenoviral infection.

  5. Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of Childhood (ANEC): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HASSANZADEH RAD, Afagh; AMINZADEH, Vahid

    2017-01-01

    Acute Necrotizing Encephalopathy of childhood (ANEC) is a specific type of encephalopathy. After viral infection, it can be diagnosed by bilateral symmetrical lesions predominantly observed in thalami & brainstem of infants & children. Although, it is commonly occurred in Japanese and Taiwanese population. The goal of this article is to report a rare case of ANEC in a 15 months old girl infant from Thaleghani Hospital, Ramian, Gorgan, northern Iran. PMID:28277560

  6. Necrotizing fasciitis of the extremities: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Espandar, Ramin; Sibdari, Siamak Yousef; Rafiee, Elham; Yazdanian, Shideh

    2011-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rapidly progressive infection and is a necrosis of the fascia and surrounding tissues. Despite recent advances in its management, outcomes have not improved and mortality rate is still high. Between September 2007 and August 2009, we prospectively studied twenty-four histopathologically proven necrotizing fasciitis patients to assess the prognostic factors that indicate the outcome. Mortality rate was 20.8%. Twelve patients (50%) improved, while seven patients (29.2%) were complicated by limb loss. Mortality rates related to upper and lower limb involvement were similar (20% vs. 22.2%). The rates of gangrene and amputation in patients with diabetes mellitus were significantly higher than other comorbidities. Patients with gram-positive infections had significantly lower rates of amputation (15.4% vs. 54.5%, P = 0.04). Mean band cell count and serum potassium level were significantly higher in the nonsurvivors same as leukocyte count in the patients with gangrene, while serum sodium level was significantly lower in nonsurvivors. We conclude that hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and increased band cells in the peripheral blood of patients may be useful parameters in distinguishing life-threatening necrotizing fasciitis; hence, we recommended lower threshold to amputation during surgery for this group of patients.

  7. NetB and necrotic enteritis: the hole movable story.

    PubMed

    Rood, Julian I; Keyburn, Anthony L; Moore, Robert J

    2016-06-01

    Clostridium perfringens is the primary causative agent of avian necrotic enteritis. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of this economically important disease has been enhanced by the discovery of C. perfringens NetB toxin, which belongs to the α-haemolysin family of β-pore-forming toxins. In a chicken disease model, the analysis of an isogenic set of strains comprising the wild type, a netB mutant, and its complemented derivative, fulfilled molecular Koch's postulates and revealed that NetB was essential for disease. These results were consistent with epidemiological surveys, which generally found that there was a higher prevalence of netB carriage in C. perfringens isolates from diseased poultry compared to healthy birds. The netB gene has been shown to be located on large conjugative plasmids that are closely related to other toxin plasmids from C. perfringens, which has potential implications for the epidemiology of necrotic enteritis infections. The crystal structures of both monomeric NetB and the heptameric NetB pore have been determined, the latter revealed a central pore diameter of approximately 26 Å. Finally, it has been shown that vaccine preparations that include NetB can protect chickens against disease and a series of single amino acid substitution derivatives of NetB that have potential value for vaccine formulations have been isolated and analysed. It is likely that NetB will be an important antigen to include in an effective, commercially viable, necrotic enteritis vaccine.

  8. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by perforated appendicitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hua, Jie; Yao, Le; He, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Bin; Song, Zhen-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdominal pain. Accurate diagnosis is often hindered due to various presentations that differ from the typical signs of appendicitis, especially the position of the appendix. A delay in diagnosis or treatment may result in increased risks of complications, such as perforation, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by perforated appendicitis is extremely rare. We herein report a case of 50-year-old man presenting with an appendiceal abscess in local hospital. After ten days of conservative treatment with intravenous antibiotics, the patient complained about pain and swelling of the right lower limb and computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a perforated appendix and gas and fluid collection extending from his retroperitoneal cavity to the subcutaneous layer of his right loin and right lower limb. He was transferred to our hospital and was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis caused by perforated appendicitis. Emergency surgery including surgical debridement and appendectomy was performed. However, the patient died of severe sepsis and multiple organ failure two days after the operation. This case represents an unusual complication of a common disease and we should bear in mind that retroperitoneal inflammation and/or abscesses may cause necrotizing fasciitis through lumbar triangles.

  9. Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis: can we expect a favourable outcome?

    PubMed

    Panda, Naresh K; Simhadri, Sridhar; Sridhara, Suryanarayana Rao

    2004-10-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck is an uncommon, progressive, destructive soft tissue infection of mixed aerobic and anaerobic organisms, having high mortality if left untreated (22 to 100 per cent). This study makes an attempt to analyse various factors and management methods determining the overall prognosis. A retrospective analysis of all cases of necrotizing fasciitis involving the head and neck, with exclusion of those involving the eyelid and the scalp, was undertaken. Various parameters such as demography, aetiology, complications, management and outcome were studied. Males outnumbered the females with the latter having a greater risk of involvement after 60 years. Odontogenic infection was the primary source of infection. Anaerobes were cultured in seven out of 17 cases, with six others showing mixed Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. Anaemia was the most commonly associated illness, with diabetes affecting four out of 17 cases. Aggressive surgical debridement with triple antibiotic therapy was used in the management of necrotizing fasciitis with an overall mortality of 11.8 per cent. Patients having late referral, anaemia and one or other complication had increased duration of total hospital stay. Better results can be obtained with proper control of infection by early diagnosis, aggressive surgical debridement and triple antibiotic therapy, along with timely control of complications and associated illnesses.

  10. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: an unusual sequel of odontogenic infection.

    PubMed

    Subhashraj, Krishnaraj; Jayakumar, Naveen; Ravindran, Chinnasamy

    2008-12-01

    Cervical necrotizing fasciitis is a rare infection of the fascial planes, which is less common in head and neck, because of the rarity and higher vascularity in the region. We reviewed five patients with cervical necrotizing fasciitis of odontogenic infection managed at a teaching hospital at Chennai, India. There were four men and one woman, of whom four patients were diabetic and hypertensive, with a mean age of 53 years. Mandibular molars (periapical or pericoronal abscess) were found to be the source of infection in all of the cases. The treatment involved incision and drainage and debridement. Anti-microbial drugs were given for all the patients, which included cephalosporins, metronidazole and gentamycin. In four patients the wound healed by contracture and one patient required split skin grafting. Due to the smaller extent of the necrosis, better control of the systemic disease and small size of the sample, there was neither a major complication nor death. This paper reminds us that cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis (CNF) remains one of the potential complications of long standing odontogenic infections in patients with immune-compromised status, particularly in lower dentition.

  11. Disseminated necrotic mediastinitis spread from odontogenic abscess: our experience

    PubMed Central

    Filiaci, Fabio; Riccardi, Emiliano; Mitro, Valeria; Piombino, Pasquale; Rinna, Claudio; Agrillo, Alessandro; Ungari, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Summary Aims Deep neck infections are rare but potentially fatal complication of pulpal abscess of the teeth. If an infection can progress rapidly from a toothache to a life threatening infection, then it is critical that dentists be able to recognize the danger signs and identify the patients who are at risk. Mediastinitis is a severe inflammatory process involving the connective tissues that fills the intracellular spaces and surrounds the organs in the middle of the chest. This pathology has both an acute and a chronic form and, in most cases, it has an infectious etiology. This study want to expose the experience acquired in the Oral and Maxillo-facial Sciences Department, Policlinico Umberto I, “Sapienza” University of Rome, regarding two clinical cases of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis starting from an odontogenic abscess. Methods We report two clinical cases of disseminated necrotic mediastinitis with two different medical and surgical approaches. The radiographic and photographic documentation of the patients was collected in the pre-and post-operatively. All patients underwent a CT scan and MRI. Results Mediastinitis can result from a serious odontogenic abscess, and the extent of its inflammation process must be never underestimated. Dental surgeons play a key role as a correct diagnosis can prevent further increasing of the inflammation process. Conclusions A late diagnosis and an inadequate draining represent the major causes of the elevated mortality rate of disseminated necrotizing mediastinitis. PMID:26330907

  12. Perforating oesophageal carcinoma presenting as necrotizing fasciitis of the neck.

    PubMed

    Francque, S M; Van Laer, C; Struyf, N; Vermeulen, P; Corthouts, B; Jorens, P G

    2001-10-01

    A patient with a history of schizophrenia was admitted to our hospital in an already severe stage of necrotizing fasciitis of the neck, complicated with mediastinitis and gangrene. Later on, he also developed a vena cava superior syndrome and sepsis. In the few cases and small series described in the literature, necrotizing fasciitis of the neck is usually associated with surgery or trauma. Less frequently, an orodental or pharyngeal infection, often innocuous, is the underlying cause. None of these causes could be identified in our patient. Initially, on computer-assisted tomography (CT) scan, a tracheal rupture was suspected, but this diagnosis could not be confirmed on bronchoscopic examination. On gastroscopy, a stenotic oesophageal segment was discovered. Biopsy of this segment showed a poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. The patient died in sepsis. Autopsy confirmed the presence of a large proximal oesophageal tumour with perforation. As far as we know, no case of a necrotizing fasciitis of the neck caused by perforation of a formerly unknown oesophageal carcinoma has been reported. Even mediastinitis, with or without gangrene, is rarely associated with oesophageal cancer, and in the few cases reported it is always due to fistulization after surgery.

  13. Necrotic Enteritis in Chickens Associated with Clostridium sordellii.

    PubMed

    Rimoldi, Guillermo; Uzal, Francisco; Chin, R P; Palombo, Enzo A; Awad, Milena; Lyras, Dena; Shivaprasad, H L

    2015-09-01

    Three outbreaks of necrotic enteritis-like disease associated with Clostridium sordelii were diagnosed in commercial broiler chicken flocks with 18,000 to 31,000 birds between 18 and 26 days old. Clinical signs in the affected flocks included high mortality up to 2% a day, depression, and diarrhea. The main gross changes included segmental dilation of the small intestine with watery contents, gas, mucoid exudate, and roughened and uneven mucosa, occasionally covered with a pseudomembrane. Microscopic lesions in the small intestine were characterized by extensive areas of coagulative necrosis of the villi, fibrinous exudate in the lumen, and high numbers of large, Gram-positive rods, occasionally containing subterminal spores, seen in the necrotic tissue and lumen. These rods were identified as C. sordellii by immunohistochemistry. Clostridium sordellii was isolated in an almost pure culture from the intestine of affected birds. A retrospective study of commercial broiler chicken and turkey submissions to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System revealed that C. sordellii had been isolated from intestinal lesions in outbreaks of necrotic enteritis-like disease in 8 of 39 cases, 5 times together with Clostridium perfringens and 3 times alone. The latter three cases are reported here.

  14. High sensitive method detection of plant RNA viruses by electrochemiluminescence reverse transcription PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ya-bing; Xing, Da; Zhu, De-bin; Zhou, Xiao-ming

    2007-05-01

    It is well known that plant and animal viruses had widely spread the whole of world, and made a big loss in farming and husbandry. It is necessary that a highly efficient and accurate virus's detection method was developed. This research combines reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique with electrochemiluminescence method, to detect plant RNA viruses for the first time. Biotin-probe hybridizes with PCR product to specific select the target for detection, thus can avoid pseudo-positive result. TBR-probe hybridizes with PCR product to emit light for ECL detection. Specific nucleic acid sequences (20bp) were added to 5' terminal all of the primers, which can improve the chance of hybridization between TBR-probe and PCR product. At the same time, one of the PCR product chain can hybridize two Ru-probes, the ECL signal is intensified. The method was used to detect Odntoglossum ringspot virus ORSV, Sugarcane mosaic virus ScMV, Sorghum mosaic virus SrMV, and Maize dwarf mosaic virus MDMV, the experiment results show that this method could reliably identity virus infected plant samples. In a word, this method has higher sensitivity and lower cost than others. It can effectively detect the plant viruses with simplicity, stability, and high sensitivity.

  15. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia without evidence of antecedent viral upper respiratory infection

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Cristina Moran; Janvier, Jack; Zhang, Kunyan; Fonseca, Kevin; Gregson, Dan; Church, Deirdre; Laupland, Kevin; Rabin, Harvey; Elsayed, Sameer; Conly, John

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: USA300 community-associated (CA) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains causing necrotizing pneumonia have been reported in association with antecedent viral upper respiratory tract infections (URI). METHODS: A case series of necrotizing pneumonia presenting as a primary or coprimary infection, secondary to CA-MRSA without evidence of antecedent viral URI, is presented. Cases were identified through the infectious diseases consultation service records. Clinical and radiographic data were collected by chart review and electronic records. MRSA strains were isolated from sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, pleural fluid or blood cultures and confirmed using standard laboratory procedures. MRSA strains were characterized by susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, spa typing, agr typing and multilocus sequence typing. Testing for respiratory viruses was performed by appropriate serological testing of banked sera, or nucleic acid testing of nasopharyngeal or bronchoalveloar lavage specimens. RESULTS: Ten patients who presented or copresented with CA necrotizing pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA from April 2004 to October 2011 were identified. The median length of stay was 22.5 days. Mortality was 20.0%. Classical risk factors for CA-MRSA were identified in seven of 10 (70.0%) cases. Chest tube placement occurred in seven of 10 patients with empyema. None of the patients had historical evidence of antecedent URI. In eight of 10 patients, serological or nucleic acid testing testing revealed no evidence of acute viral coinfection. Eight strains were CMRSA-10 (USA300). The remaining two strains were a USA300 genetically related strain and a USA1100 strain. CONCLUSION: Pneumonia secondary to CA-MRSA can occur in the absence of an antecedent URI. Infections due to CA-MRSA are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Clinicians need to have an awareness of this clinical entity, particularly in patients who are in risk

  16. A Fatal Case of Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by a Highly Virulent Escherichia coli Strain

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, André; Lin, Alex; Harel, Josée; Côté, Jean-Charles; Tremblay, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious disease characterized by the necrosis of the subcutaneous tissues and fascia. E. coli as the etiologic agent of necrotizing fasciitis is a rare occurrence. A 66-year-old woman underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. She rapidly developed necrotizing fasciitis which led to her death 68 hours following surgery. An E. coli strain was isolated from blood and fascia cultures. DNA microarray revealed the presence of 20 virulence genes. PMID:27366162

  17. Concurrent emphysematous pyelonephritis and thigh necrotizing fasciitis after intramuscular administration of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Fateme Shamekhi; Foroughi, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening soft tissue infection. NF may result from any injury to the skin or from hematogenous spread. However, con-current emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh has not been reported. We report a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh after intramuscular administration of diclofenac that improved with aggressive management including broad-spectrum antibiotics, nephrectomy and surgical intervention.

  18. Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis: an unusual complication of chronic suppurative otitis media.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Ashwani; Sabherwal, Anup; Puri, Rajeev; Jain, Pooja

    2006-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare microbial soft tissue infection characterized by rapidly spreading areas of necrosis and a high mortality rate. It may be of odontogenic or traumatic origin or may arise from insect bites, burns or surgical infections. We present a clinical case of an eight-year-old child with facial and cervical necrotizing fasciitis as a complication of chronic suppurative otitis media. The causes, diagnosis and management of necrotizing fasciitis are reviewed.

  19. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Lower Extremity Caused by Serratia marcescens A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Heigh, Evelyn G; Maletta-Bailey, April; Haight, John; Landis, Gregg S

    2016-03-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare and potentially fatal infection, with mortality of up to 30%. This case report describes a patient recovering from a laryngectomy for laryngeal squamous cell cancer who developed nosocomial necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity due to Serratia marcescens . Only eight cases of necrotizing fasciitis exclusive to the lower extremity due to S marcescens have been previously reported. Patients with S marcescens necrotizing fasciitis of the lower extremity often have multiple comorbidities, are frequently immunosuppressed, and have a strikingly high mortality rate.

  20. [Diagnosis and treatment approach for necrotizing scleritis (NS): A clinical case].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Camarena, Julio C; Rodríguez-García, Alejandro; Valdez-García, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing scleritis is an immune-mediated ocular inflammatory process, characterized by an area of avascular necrosis and a profound inflammation of the sclera and episclera. Necrotizing scleritis and its association with peripheral ulcerative keratitis--necrotizing sclerokeratitis (NS)--represents a serious threat for vision and eye integrity, evolves very fast if untreated, and its finding suggests the presence of a potentially lethal systemic vasculitic process. The following case is an example of the diagnostic approach and therapeutic scale in a 63-year-old women with necrotizing sclerokeratitis.

  1. [Bacterial dermohypodermitis and necrotizing fascitis: 104-case series from Togo].

    PubMed

    Saka, B; Kombaté, K; Mouhari-Toure, A; Akakpo, S; Boukari, T; Pitché, P; Tchangaï-Walla, K

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to obtain data on the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcome of bacterial dermohypodermitis (BDH) observed in a hospital setting hospital in Lomé, Togo. Cases of BDH treated in dermatology and internal medicine of the Lomé university hospital center from January 1999 to December 2009 were reviewed. A total of 104 patients were hospitalized for BDH during the study period. Mean patient age was 42.9 +/- 16.1 years and sex ratio (M/F) was 0.89. Infection by HIV was detected in 10 of 37 patients in whom serology was performed. The site of erysipelas was located on the legs and feet in 93 cases (89.4%), entire lower limb in 4 (3.9%), upper limbs in 4 (3.9%), thighs in 2 (1.9%), and buttock in 1 (0.9%). The main local and systemic risk factors were existence of an entry site in 89 cases, use of depigmenting drugs in 11, HIV infection in 10, previous history of erysipelas in 9 cases, and lymphoedema in 8. First-line treatment used penicillin G in 90 cases. Seven patients presented necrotizing fasciitis. Necrotizing fasciitis was associated with HIV infection in 2 cases, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) in 2, and use of depigmenting drugs in one. Two deaths were recorded in the necrotizing fasciitis group including one HIV-infected patient. Recurrence was observed in 8 patients and secondary complications such as lower limb elephantiasis occurred in 7 patients.

  2. [Necrotizing gastritis in a patient in severe neutropenia].

    PubMed

    Pielaciński, Konrad; Lech-Marańda, Ewa; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Dedecjus, Marek; Prochorec-Sobieszek, Monika; Szczepanik, Andrzej B

    2014-12-01

    One extremely rare complication of chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies that is burdened with a high mortality rate (50%-80%) is necrotizing gastritis and gastric gangrene as result of poor clinical outcome of neutropenic gastritis (NG). We present a unique case of a neutropenic patient with necrotizing full thickness gastritis due to bacterial and fungal infection. Up to date only few such cases have been reported in world literature. A 28-year-old patient was subjected to dose-escalated BEACOPP (bleomycin, etoposide, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, prednisone), (chemotherapy regimen) for Hodgkin lymphoma. In neutropenic patient abdominal pain, bleeding from the alimentary tract was observed. Hemorrhagic gastritis was recognized at endoscopy and CT demonstrated marked gastric wall thickness. Following NG diagnosis intensive treatment was initiated. On day 2 the patient's condition deteriorated (septic shock, multiple organ failure). Repeat endoscopy revealed gastric necrosis and laparotomy was performed. As consequence of cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation the surgical procedure was limited to total gastrectomy, feeding jejustomy and esophageal drainage through nasoesophageal catherization. Roux-loop esophagojejunostomy was performed on day 22 and supplemented 4 days later by endoscopic placement of covered self-expandable stent due to anastomosis leak. The procedure proved successful and oral feeding was well-tolerated. The patient was discharged in 32 days following recognition of gastric necrosis. Chemotherapy complications in neutropenic patients are life-threatening conditions. Immediate pharmacological treatment usually leads to improvement. Surgical management usually the resection of necrotic zones is restricted to cases of poor prognosis or deterioration of patient's condition and complications.

  3. Nuclear scanning in necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis

    SciTech Connect

    Parisier, S.C.; Lucente, F.E.; Som, P.M.; Hirschman, S.Z.; Arnold, L.M.; Roffman, J.D.

    1982-09-01

    The usefulness of radionuclear scanning in the treatment of 18 patients with necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis is discussed. A Tc 99-m bone scan, a valuable test since results are positive in early cases of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone and base of skull, showed increased uptake in all 18 patients. In 6 patients, Ga-67 citrate scans were obtained at the start of therapy and at 5-6 week intervals thereafter. The serial gallium scans were useful in evaluating the effectiveness of therapy since the uptake decrease with control of infection.

  4. Olanzapine-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia Resulting in Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Roy-Chaudhury, Prabir; Yadlapalli, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent that was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1996 for treatment of psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Since that time, numerous case reports have been published that describe the association of olanzapine and the development of pancreatitis. Furthermore, 3 reports suggest the mechanism of olanzapine-induced hypertriglyceridemia as the etiology of this progression. We report a case of a 36-year-old man who developed necrotizing pancreatitis secondary to olanzapine-induced hypertriglyceridemia. This case, to our knowledge, is the most severe case of this progression and the first case requiring plasmapheresis for acute management. PMID:27807566

  5. [Necrotizing fasciitis in an immunocompetent patient caused by Apophysomyces elegans].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Carmen Elena; Arango, Myrtha; Correa, Ana Lucía; López, Luz Saider; Restrepo, Angela

    2004-09-01

    A case study is presented of a 7-year-old boy, seriously injured in a car accident, who developed a fatal infection due to Aphophysomyces elegans--a mold of the Mucoracea family. Fungal invasion was initially manifested by a spotted wound in the left lumbar region which developed into a necrotizing fasciitis. Later this progressed to the right lumbar area, including the gluteus and the corresponding flank. Antimycotic treatment proved ineffective, and the child died 8 weeks after the accident. Other cases due to this fungus are reviewed.

  6. [CONSERVATIVE THERAPY IN THE COMPLEX TREATMENT OF ACUTE NECROTIZING PANCREATITIS].

    PubMed

    Khomyak, I V

    2015-07-01

    Developed and implemented a phased differentiated treatment tactics in acute necrotizing pancreatitis, based on the theory of phase course of acute pancreatitis. Treatment started with conservative measures. Applications developed set of measures allowed us to achieve recovery of 39.53% patients without any instrumental interventions performans, including diapevtycal. Laparotomy reduced frequency performance of 57.14%--in the control group to 33.07%--in the main. Mortality in the main group was 6.72%; complication rate decreased 2.26 times; postoperative mortality was 9.83%.

  7. Necrotizing Craniocervical Soft Tissue Infections: Clinical Experience and Personal Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lenzi, Riccardo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Dallan, Iacopo

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing cervical soft tissue infections (NCSTIs) are devastating uncommon clinical entities that are often life threatening. We report two patients suffering from NCSTI and treated at our institution. Diagnosis of NCSTI has been confirmed histologically and surgically. Both patients were managed with very aggressive treatment (medical and surgical) and survived with minimal morbidity. Early diagnosis and aggressive, multimodality treatment can reduce mortality and morbidity rates. Thoracic and mediastinal involvement requires appropriate management. A strong clinical suspicion remains one of the most important aspects of the management of such shattering conditions. PMID:23304596

  8. Medicolegal aspects of necrotizing fasciitis of the neck.

    PubMed

    Sperry, K; McFeeley, P J

    1987-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the neck (NFN) is a relatively rare, fulminating infectious process of the cervicofacial tissues which may cause sudden and unexpected death. Although often the result of a dental infection, injuries of the soft tissues of the neck may also initiate rampant cellulitis, and recognition of the underlying etiology of such cases is necessary to determine properly the manner of death. Five cases of NFN are presented with a review of the causative factors and usual bacteriology, and specific factors of medicolegal interest are addressed.

  9. [Necrotizing systemic sarcoidosis with pulmonary and central nervous system involvement].

    PubMed

    Ríos Fernández, R; Callejas-Rubio, J L; Guerrero Fernández, M; Serrano Falcón, M M; Ortego-Centeno, N

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease which diagnosis depends on the presence of nonnecrotizing granulomas in the biopsy. However there are variants such as necrotizing sarcoidal granulomas or nodular sarcoidosis which have atypical findings and make difficult the differential diagnosis with other infectious processes. We describe a case of a man who develops granulomas with extensive necrosis in a systemic sarcoidosis that affected the lung and the central nervous system. This finding made us to make the diagnosis of tuberculosis and delay the specific treatment.

  10. Group B streptococcal necrotizing pneumonia in a diabetic adult patient.

    PubMed

    Pacha, Andrea; Luna Cian, Ramiro; Bonofiglio, Laura; Solari, Melisa; Strada, Virginia; Suárez, Mariana; Vigliarolo, Laura; Tersigni, Carina; Mollerach, Marta; Lopardo, Horacio

    2017-03-18

    The aim of this report is to describe a rare case of necrotizing pneumonia due to group B Streptococcus serotype III in a relatively young male adult (48 years old) suffering from diabetes. The organism was isolated from his pleural fluid and was only resistant to tetracycline. The patient first received ceftazidime (2g/8h i.v.)+clindamycin (300mg/8h) for 18 days and then he was discharged home and orally treated with amoxicillin clavulanic acid (1g/12h) for 23 days with an uneventful evolution. As in the cases of invasive infection by Streptococcus pyogenes, clindamycin could prevent streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.

  11. Update in Pathogenesis and Prospective in Treatment of Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Terrin, Gianluca; Scipione, Antonella; De Curtis, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is among the most common and devastating diseases in neonates and, despite the significant advances in neonatal clinical and basic science investigations, its etiology is largely understood, specific treatment strategies are lacking, and morbidity and mortality remain high. Improvements in the understanding of pathogenesis of NEC may have therapeutic consequences. Pharmacologic inhibition of toll-like receptor signaling, the use of novel nutritional strategies, and microflora modulation may represent novel promising approaches to the prevention and treatment of NEC. This review, starting from the recent acquisitions in the pathogenic mechanisms of NEC, focuses on current and possible therapeutic perspectives. PMID:25147804

  12. Identification of Potato virus Y Strains Associated with Tuber Damage During a Recent Virus Outbreak in Potato in Idaho

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato virus Y causes yield and quality loss due to the presence of necrotic strains (PVYN, PVYNTN, PVYN:O). During June and July, 2007, thirty-eight random samples from different commercial fields with disease symptoms were collected from fields near Idaho Falls, Idaho. Plants from cvs. Russet Burb...

  13. Severe necrotizing encephalitis in a Yorkshire terrier: topographic and immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Lezmi, S; Toussaint, Y; Prata, D; Lejeune, T; Ferreira-Neves, P; Rakotovao, F; Fontaine, J J; Marchal, T; Cordonnier, N

    2007-05-01

    Necrotizing encephalitis of the Yorkshire terrier is a chronic non-suppurative encephalitis that was reported in approximately 15 cases worldwide. We report the case of a 10-year-old female Yorkshire terrier with gross evidence of severe cortical degeneration and necrosis. Microscopically, affected areas were mainly located in the cortical white matter and in the mesencephalon without implication of the cerebellum. Cavitation necrosis, demyelination, gemistocytic astrocytosis, marked perivascular lymphocytic cuffing with a diffuse lymphocytic/histiocytic/gitter cell infiltration characterized the lesions. Immunohistochemical analysis identified the major infiltration of T lymphocytes and macrophages with implication of some cytotoxic lymphocytes and IgG-producing plasma cells; depositions of IgG in the affected white matter were also observed. Specific stains did not reveal fungal, protozoal or bacterial organisms and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis for distemper virus was also negative. The lympho-histiocytic inflammation suggests a T-cell-mediated and a delayed-type immune reaction as a possible pathogenic mechanism for this brain disorder.

  14. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  15. Characterization and identification of microbial communities in bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Shpigel, N Y; Adler-Ashkenazy, L; Scheinin, S; Goshen, T; Arazi, A; Pasternak, Z; Gottlieb, Y

    2017-01-01

    Bovine necrotic vulvovaginitis (BNVV) is a severe and potentially fatal disease of post-partum cows that emerged in Israel after large dairy herds were merged. While post-partum cows are commonly affected by mild vulvovaginitis (BVV), in BNVV these benign mucosal abrasions develop into progressive deep necrotic lesions leading to sepsis and death if untreated. The etiology of BNVV is still unknown and a single pathogenic agent has not been found. We hypothesized that BNVV is a polymicrobial disease where the normally benign vaginal microbiome is remodeled and affects the local immune response. To this end, we compared the histopathological changes and the microbial communities using 16S rDNA metagenetic technique in biopsies taken from vaginal lesions in post-partum cows affected by BVV and BNVV. The hallmark of BNVV was the formation of complex polymicrobial communities in the submucosal fascia and abrogation of neutrophil recruitment in these lesions. Additionally, there was a marked difference in the composition of bacterial communities in the BNVV lesions in comparison to the benign BVV lesions. This difference was characterized by the abundance of Bacteroidetes and lower total community membership in BNVV. Indicator taxa for BNVV were Parvimonas, Porphyromonas, unclassified Veillonellaceae, Mycoplasma and Bacteroidetes, whereas unclassified Clostridiales was an indicator for BVV. The results support a polymicrobial etiology for BNVV.

  16. Incidence of necrotizing pancreatitis and factors related to mortality.

    PubMed

    Allardyce, D B

    1987-09-01

    Of 348 cases of acute pancreatitis presenting between 1980 and 1985, extensive retroperitoneal necrosis with bacterial or fungal superinfection developed in only 17 (4.8 percent). However, in 14 of the 17 patients (80 percent), multiple surgical interventions and intensive supportive therapy failed to control the process, and they died from complications. Deaths occurred after a prolonged in-hospital course characterized by sequential failure of organ systems. If the salvage of these patients is to be optimized, as in some reports, the timing of the first surgical procedure has to be very carefully made based on the clinical and laboratory findings, and most importantly, the results of computerized tomography. Exploration is probably best carried out through an extended subcostal incision, and a determined attempt must be made to remove all of the necrotic tissue. Little reliance can be placed on the possibility that significant amounts of residual necrotic tissue can be aspirated through sump catheters or evacuated by irrigations. We believe that the poor results in this series lend strong support to those who have already advocated much more universal application of the open abdomen technique in the management of these patients with widespread anterior pararenal space necrosis.

  17. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis: management challenges in poor resource environment.

    PubMed

    Adekanye, Abiola Grace; Umana, A N; Offiong, M E; Mgbe, R B; Owughalu, B C; Inyama, M; Omang, H M

    2016-09-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck is a rare and potentially fatal disease. It is a bacterial infection characterized by spreading along fascia planes and subcutaneous tissue resulting in tissue necrosis and likely death. It is commonly of dental or pharyngeal origin. Factors affecting the success of the treatment are early diagnosis, appropriate antibiotics and surgical debridement. Our study showed eight patients, five males and three females with mean age of 49.25 years (range 20-71 years). Clinical presentations were a rapidly progressing painful neck swelling, fever, dysphagia and trismus. The aetiology varied from idiopathic, pharyngeal/tonsillar infection, trauma and nasal malignancy. There were associated variable comorbidities (diabetes mellitus, HIV infection, hypertension and congestive cardiac failure). All the patients received early and aggressive medical treatment. The earliest time of surgery was 12 h after admission because of the poor financial status of patients. Three cases came in with complications of the disease and were not fit for extensive debridement under general anaesthesia. For them limited and reasonable bed side debridement was done. Mortality was 50 % from multiple organ failure, HIV encephalopathy, aspiration pneumonitis and septicemia. The duration of hospital stay for the patients that died ranged from 1 to 16 days and 4 to 34 days for the survivor. Our study heightens awareness and outlines the management challenges of necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck in a poor resource setting.

  18. Computed tomography of necrotizing meningoencephalitis in 3 Yorkshire Terriers.

    PubMed

    Ducoté, J M; Johnson, K E; Dewey, C W; Walker, M A; Coates, J R; Berridge, B R

    1999-01-01

    A necrotizing meningoencephalitis of Yorkshire terriers has recently been reported in 6 dogs in Switzerland, 1 dog in Japan and 1 dog in the United States. The purpose of this report is to describe the computed tomographic (CT) findings in 3 dogs with this disease, and to correlate the CT abnormalities with the clinical and pathologic findings in each case. Three Yorkshire Terriers between 2 and 10 years old were evaluated. Physical and neurologic examinations, complete blood count (CBC), serum biochemistry profile, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and CT scan were performed on all 3 dogs. Brainstem auditory evoked responses (BAER) were evaluated for 2 dogs. Two dogs were euthanized at the owners' request and necropsies were performed. Neurologic examination findings were consistent with a multifocal/diffuse encephalitis involving the cerebrum and brainstem in all 3 dogs. Complete blood count and biochemistry profiles were normal. Elevated protein concentration and a mononuclear pleocytosis were demonstrated in 2 of 3 dogs on cerebrospinal fluid evaluation. Multifocal, extensive areas of decreased opacity throughout the cerebral hemispheres, asymmetric ventriculomegaly, and lack of contrast enhancement were appreciated on CT images of all three dogs. No mass effect was seen. These findings correlated well with pathologic findings at necropsy, which included multiple malacic cavitations within the brain, representing areas of locally extensive necrosis. CT abnormalities in combination with signalment, clinical findings and cerebrospinal fluid analysis should facilitate a presumptive diagnosis of Yorkshire Terrier necrotizing meningoencephalitis.

  19. Biofilm in group A streptococcal necrotizing soft tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Siemens, Nikolai; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Shambat, Srikanth Mairpady; Morgan, Marina; Bergsten, Helena; Hyldegaard, Ole; Skrede, Steinar; Arnell, Per; Madsen, Martin B; Johansson, Linda; Juarez, Julius; Bosnjak, Lidija; Mörgelin, Matthias; Svensson, Mattias; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2016-07-07

    Necrotizing fasciitis caused by group A streptococcus (GAS) is a life-threatening, rapidly progressing infection. At present, biofilm is not recognized as a potential problem in GAS necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI), as it is typically linked to chronic infections or associated with foreign devices. Here, we present a case of a previously healthy male presenting with NSTI caused by GAS. The infection persisted over 24 days, and the surgeon documented the presence of a "thick layer biofilm" in the fascia. Subsequent analysis of NSTI patient tissue biopsies prospectively included in a multicenter study revealed multiple areas of biofilm in 32% of the patients studied. Biopsies associated with biofilm formation were characterized by massive bacterial load, a pronounced inflammatory response, and clinical signs of more severe tissue involvement. In vitro infections of a human skin tissue model with GAS NSTI isolates also revealed multilayered fibrous biofilm structures, which were found to be under the control of the global Nra gene regulator. The finding of GAS biofilm formation in NSTIs emphasizes the urgent need for biofilm to be considered as a potential complicating microbiological feature of GAS NSTI and, consequently, emphasizes reconsideration of antibiotic treatment protocols.

  20. Combined action of influenza virus and Staphylococcus aureus panton-valentine leukocidin provokes severe lung epithelium damage.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Silke; Ehrhardt, Christina; Medina, Eva; Warnking, Kathrin; Tuchscherr, Lorena; Heitmann, Vanessa; Ludwig, Stephan; Peters, Georg; Löffler, Bettina

    2012-10-01

    Staphylococcus aureus necrotizing pneumonia is a life-threatening disease that is frequently preceded by influenza infection. The S. aureus toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is most likely causative for necrotizing diseases, but the precise pathogenic mechanisms of PVL and a possible contribution of influenza virus remain to be elucidated. In this study, we present a model that explains how influenza virus and PVL act together to cause necrotizing pneumonia: an influenza infection activates the lung epithelium to produce chemoattractants for neutrophils. Upon superinfection with PVL-expressing S. aureus, the recruited neutrophils are rapidly killed by PVL, resulting in uncontrolled release of neutrophil proteases that damage the airway epithelium. The host counteracts this pathogen strategy by generating PVL-neutralizing antibodies and by neutralizing the released proteases via protease inhibitors present in the serum. These findings explain why necrotizing infections mainly develop in serum-free spaces (eg, pulmonary alveoli) and open options for new therapeutic approaches.

  1. Effect of bismuth citrate, lactose, and organic acid on necrotic enteritis in broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clostridium perfringens – associated necrotic enteritis causes significant losses and increased morbidity in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bismuth citrate and acidifiers on the development of necrotic enteritis in broilers. The first study was a dose response t...

  2. The use of negative pressure in critical necrotizing fasciitis treatment: a case presentation.

    PubMed

    Ge, Kui; Xu, Bing; Wu, Jia-Jun; Wu, Minjie; Lu, Shuliang; Xie, Ting

    2014-09-01

    Surgery complemented by antibiotics forms the backbone of the successful management of necrotizing fasciitis. But it will be very difficult to clear away extensive necrotizing tissue thoroughly in critically ill patients when their vital signs are unstable. The authors report the case of a 33-year-old woman who had extensive necrotizing fasciitis of the right lower limb with septic shock. The patient was severely anemic and malnutrition and had been given conservative debridement at bedside, that is, only detached necrotizing tissues was taken away while some other necrotizing tissue still remained, so that the skin tissue within the same area could be saved as much as possible. After debridement, negative pressure was applied at 125 mm Hg. Broad-spectrum antibiotics and effective supplementation were also complemented, thus controlling the septic shock. All necrotizing tissues were detached, and the sparing vital skin on necrotizing fascia was preserved successfully after negative pressure treatment. The patient was finally saved. In conclusion, negative pressure treatment may help diminish toxin absorbance, detach gangrene tissue, and preserve sparing vital tissue. This case suggests the value of combined use of negative pressure therapy and conservative debridement in critically ill patients with extensive necrotizing fasciitis.

  3. Tigecycline salvage therapy for necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus: Case report in a child.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-San; Hung, Min-Hsiang; Chen, Chi-Chung; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Ko, Wen-Chien; Tang, Hung-Jen

    2016-02-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Vibrio vulnificus is rarely reported in children. We describe a 12-year-old immunocompetent boy with necrotizing fasciitis caused by V. vulnificus. He was cured by radical and serial debridement and salvage therapy with intravenous cefpirome plus tigecycline. The in vitro antibacterial activity of combination regimens and a literature review of pediatric V. vulnificus infection are described.

  4. Necrotizing fasciitis in association with Ludwig’s angina – A case report

    PubMed Central

    Kavarodi, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    A 28 year old male diabetic patient developed Ludwig’s angina which subsequently evolved into cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis. The differential characteristic of Ludwig’s angina and cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis, as it relates to this rare presentation is discussed. The clinical and radiological features, pathophysiology, diagnosis and the management that resulted in a successful outcome are presented. PMID:24151421

  5. Paediatric necrotizing fasciitis complicating third molar extraction: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ricalde, P; Engroff, S L; Jansisyanont, P; Ord, R A

    2004-06-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon but well-described entity. In the paediatric population compromising risk factors are frequently absent. We describe the successful treatment of a case of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis in a healthy 14-year-old male following routine extraction of an uninfected wisdom tooth for orthodontic purposes.

  6. Extensive portal venous gas without obvious pneumatosis intestinalis in a preterm infant with necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Tooke, Lloyd; Alexander, Angus; Horn, Alan

    2012-07-01

    Portal venous gas is one of the classic radiologic features of necrotizing enterocolitis and is an uncommon isolated finding because it is most commonly seen in conjunction with pneumatosis intestinalis. In this case study, we present a preterm neonate with necrotizing enterocolitis who had extensive portal venous gas without obvious pneumatosis intestinalis.

  7. Chromobacterium violaceum necrotizing fasciitis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Seigel, Jonathan K; Stadler, Michael E; Lombrano, Jennifer L; Almony, Jeffrey S; Couch, Marion E; Belhorn, Thomas H

    2012-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a severe, rapidly progressive infection of the subcutaneous tissue that causes significant destruction. It is rarely encountered in the pediatric population. We describe the case of a 14-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Chromobacterium violaceum necrotizing fasciitis and subsequently found to have autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease.

  8. Bilateral Necrotizing Fasciitis around the Hips Differentiated from Fournier Gangrene: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo Kyu; Yi, Seung Rim; Lee, Ye Hyun; Kim, Hyun See; Nam, Seok Woo; Ahn, Young Joon; Kim, Seong Wan; Yang, Sung Wook; Im, Se Hyuk

    2014-12-01

    As an emergency encountered in orthopedic practice requiring prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment, necrotizing fasciitis around the hip must be discriminated from Fournier gangrene. The current case report describes a patient who suffered from bilateral type I necrotizing fasciitis around the hips, which was alleviated by prompt surgical debridement and intensive postoperative care.

  9. Production of cocktail of polyclonal antibodies using bacterial expressed recombinant protein for multiple virus detection.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Reetika; Mandal, Bikash; Paul, Prabir Kumar; Chigurupati, Phaneendra; Jain, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Cocktail of polyclonal antibodies (PAb) were produced that will help in multiple virus detection and overcome the limitation of individual virus purification, protein expression and purification as well as immunization in multiple rabbits. A dual fusion construct was developed using conserved coat protein (CP) sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in an expression vector, pET-28a(+). The fusion protein (∼40kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Likewise, a triple fusion construct was developed by fusing conserved CP sequences of CMV and PRSV with conserved nucleocapsid protein (N) sequence of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) and expressed as a fusion protein (∼50kDa) in pET-28a(+). PAb made separately to each of these three viruses recognized the double and triple fusion proteins in Western blot indicating retention of desired epitopes for binding with target antibodies. The fusion proteins (∼40kDa and ∼50kDa) were used to produce cocktail of PAb by immunizing rabbits, which simultaneously detected natural infection of CMV and PRSV or CMV, PRSV and GBNV in Cucurbitaceous, Solanaceous and other hosts in DAC-ELISA. This is the first report on production of a cocktail of PAb to recombinant fusion protein of two or three distinct viruses.

  10. Orbital necrotizing fasciitis and osteomyelitis caused by arcanobacterium haemolyticum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stone, Lindsay A; Harshbarger, Raymond J

    2015-01-01

    The facial region is infrequently affected by necrotizing infections. Orbital necrotizing infections are even rarer, seen following trauma, local skin infection, and sinusitis. The authors report a unique case of orbital necrotizing fasciitis and osteomyelitis resulting from Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum ethmoid sinusitis. No prior occurrences of Arcanobacterial species orbital necrotizing fasciitis/osteomyelitis have been reported.A 16-year-old boy presented to the ER with a 3-day history of fever, chills, headache, and sinus pressure. CT scan revealed soft tissue swelling of the right orbit, forehead, and ethmoid sinusitis. Within 24 hours of admission, he suffered rapidly progressive swelling and erythema of the right orbit and forehead with diminished visual acuity, despite broad-spectrum antibiotics. Orbital exploration revealed frankly necrotic fascia and periosteum along the superior aspect. Lateral canthotomy, cantholysis, decompression of the optic nerve, and soft tissue debridement with bone biopsy was performed. Operative specimens isolated Arcanobacterium Haemolyticum. Pathologic examination revealed right orbital osteomyelitis.

  11. Complete genome sequence of an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus from commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China.

    PubMed

    Tuo, D; Shen, W; Yan, P; Li, Ch; Gao, L; Li, X; Li, H; Zhou, P

    2013-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus is highly destructive to commercial papaya production. Here, the complete genome sequence was determined for an isolate of papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus, designated PLDMV-DF, infecting the commercialized papaya ringspot virus (PRSV)-resistant transgenic papaya from China. Excluding the 3'-poly (A) tail, the sequence shares high sequence identity to several PLDMV isolates from Taiwan and Japan and is phylogenetically most closely related to the isolate from Japan. Infection of PLDMV-DF in transgenic PRSV-resistant papaya may indicate emergence of this disease in genetically engineered plants. The reported sequence for this isolate may help generate bi-transgenic papaya resistant to PRSV and PLDMV.

  12. Clinical complications in the revascularization of immature necrotic permanent teeth.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh, Basma; Alvaro, Emanuel; Vu, Duy-Dat; Rizkallah, Jean; Schwartz, Stephane

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case series was to report on the use of a technique of revascularization for necrotic immature permanent teeth, several problems encountered, and solutions to those problems. Eighteen pulp revascularizations were performed in 2009 using the original protocol of revascularization (adapted from the AAE/AAPD joint meeting in 2007 in Chicago). The protocol consisted of opening the canal and disinfecting it with sodium hypochlorite, sealing in a triple antibiotic paste for 2-6 weeks, re-opening, re-irrigating, creating a blood clot in the canal, and sealing with an MTA barrier over the clot. Three problems were encountered during the treatment: (1) bluish discoloration of the crown; (2) failure to produce bleeding; and (3) collapse of the mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) material into the canal. Modifications to solve these problems included: changing one of the antibiotics, using a local anesthesia without epinephrine, and adding collagen matrix to the blood clot.

  13. Subacute necrotizing encephalopathy (Leigh's disease): two unusual cases.

    PubMed

    Carleton, C C; Collins, C H; Schimpff, R D

    1976-10-01

    Two unusual cases of subacute necrotizing encephalopathy are described. In one, a marked hirsutism led to a suspicion of adrenal tumor or other endocrinopathy. In the other case, there was an agenesis of the corpus callosum, the second instance in which a malformation of the corpus callosum was associated with this condition. Electron micrographs from a case of Leigh's disease showed examples of marked axonal swelling and occasional splitting of the lamellae of the myelin sheath, probably responsible for the spongy state seen under light microscopy. That such marked changes were not seen in the "internal control" tended to exclude postmortem changes. The ultrastructure and histologic structure of striated muscle appeared normal in the one case examined.

  14. Intestinal Microbiota and Its Relationship with Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ravi Mangal; Denning, Patricia W.

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants born prematurely. After birth, the neonatal gut must acquire a healthy complement of commensal bacteria. Disruption or delay of this critical process, leading to deficient or abnormal microbial colonization of the gut, has been implicated as key risk factor in the pathogenesis of NEC. Conversely, a beneficial complement of commensal intestinal microbiota may protect the immature gut from inflammation and injury. Interventions aimed at providing or restoring a healthy complement of commensal bacteria, such as probiotic therapy, are currently the most promising treatment to prevent NEC. Shifting the balance of intestinal microbiota from a pathogenic to protective complement of bacteria can protect the gut from inflammation and subsequent injury that leads to NEC. Herein, we review the relationship of intestinal microbiota and NEC in preterm infants. PMID:25992911

  15. [Postoperative necrotizing fasciitis of the anterior abdominal wall].

    PubMed

    Fichev, G; Poromanski, I; Marina, M

    1995-01-01

    Postoperative necrotizing fasciitis of the anterior abdominal wall is a serious and life-endangering complication of an acute progressive synergistic infective process. There is an absolute increase in its incidence rate attributable to a number of situations in modern life. Morphological and clinical studies are carried out on personal case material of 28 patients, followed up over a 3-year period. The presence of aerobic-anaerobic mixed polyinfection, consisting of average 3.75 bacterial species of which 1.43 aerobes and 2.32 anaerobes, is demonstrated microbiologically. Of the latter non-spore-bearing obligate anaerobes predominate among which B fragillis is the most common. As shown by the study, the process is characterized by slow initial course with ensuring rapid spreading by neighbourhood. The process reveals all signs of a mixed aerobic-anaerobic polyinfection, thereby necessitating subordination of both antibiotic therapy and surgical tactics to the latter.

  16. Neuronal degeneration in subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy (Leigh's disease). Case report.

    PubMed

    Lindboe, C F; Lie, A K; Aase, S T; Schjetne, O B; Haave, I

    1995-01-01

    We report clinical, radiological and pathological findings in a 5-year-old girl who died of subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy (SNE) after 4 weeks of illness. Autopsy revealed endothelial swelling and vacuolar degeneration of the neuropil in the brain, brain stem and cerebellum. In addition, the affected areas showed degeneration of the neurons which was different from anoxic nerve cell damage both with regard to morphological picture and topographical distribution. This neuronal degeneration was probably due to the underlying metabolic defect in SNE per se and resembled in several aspects the nerve cell changes seen in the thalami and inferior olives in active Wernicke's encephalopathy. It is our opinion that more attention should be paid to the nerve cell degeneration in SNE rather than focusing on the relative preservation of these cells.

  17. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and the orthodontic patient: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sangani, Indiya; Watt, Eileen; Cross, David

    2013-03-01

    Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) can be a painful periodontal disease that can lead to loss of the interdental papillae. It is usually accompanied by systemic signs of fever, malaise and cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy. It is caused by the profileration of anaerobic bacteria and has been linked to smoking and immunosuppression. This case series reports the occurrence of NUG in orthodontic patients and demonstrates that there is a varying scale of severity of the condition. Orthodontists should be aware of the clinical signs of NUG to ensure early detection and treatment of their patients in order to prevent irreversible loss of the interdental papillae and reduce the likelihood of recurrence. A treatment regime is suggested.

  18. Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis and Its Surgical Aspects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofang; Xie, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe and rapidly progressive infectious disease that attacks superficial an as well as deep fascia, subcutaneous fat tissue, and muscle. Although the incidence is of relatively low frequency, the median mortality is high. NF is a great burden to patients and hospitals. The most common cause of NF is trauma injuries, followed by other conditions with comorbidity. A classification for NF was presented concerning microbial cause, depth of infection, and anatomy. But the value of classification is not convincing. Early diagnosis of NF is essential and still to be realized by far. Information from clinic or laboratory might contribute to the purpose. Surgery is used in exploration debridement and tissue reconstruction as the main method with NF. Negative pressure wound therapy has proved to be useful in improving wound bed preparation and healing.

  19. Necrotizing fasciitis secondary to enterocutaneous fistula: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Gu, Guo-Li; Wang, Lin; Wei, Xue-Ming; Li, Ming; Zhang, Jie

    2014-06-28

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an uncommon, rapidly progressive, and potentially fatal infection of the superficial fascia and subcutaneous tissue. NF caused by an enterocutaneous fistula has special clinical characters compared with other types of NF. NF caused by enterocutaneous fistula may have more rapid progress and more severe consequences because of multiple germs infection and corrosion by digestive juices. We treated three cases of NF caused by postoperative enterocutaneous fistula since Jan 2007. We followed empirically the principle of eliminating anaerobic conditions of infection, bypassing or draining digestive juice from the fistula and changing dressings with moist exposed burn therapy impregnated with zinc/silver acetate. These three cases were eventually cured by debridement, antibiotics and wound management.

  20. Cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis. A devastating complication of blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Ray, A M; Bressler, K; Davis, R E; Gallo, J F; Patete, M L

    1997-06-01

    We report a case of cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis that developed after blepharoplasty, an occurrence that, to our knowledge, has not previously been reported in the medical literature. A patient who presented to our institution 3 days after undergoing blepharoplasty of the upper eyelid was diagnosed as having fulminant fasciitis involving extensive areas of the face, scalp, and neck. We review the case in detail and discuss clinical and radiological clues to diagnosis, surgical and medical management, wound care, and subsequent scar contracture. This case emphasizes the need for individualized, appropriate postoperative care and for an awareness of this rare, potentially fatal complication. Early recognition and aggressive treatment of cervicofacial fasciitis can arrest its rapid progression and prevent devastating sequelae.

  1. Minor trauma triggering cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis from odontogenic abscess.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shraddha; Nagpure, Prakash S; Singh, Roohie; Garg, Deepika

    2008-07-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the face and neck is a very rare complication of dental infection. Otolaryngologists and dentists should be familiar with this condition because of its similarity to odontogenic deep neck space infection in the initial stages, its rapid spread, and its life-threatening potential. Trauma has been reported to be an important predisposing factor for NF of the face. In this paper, we describe the presentation and treatment of a 62-year-old man who developed NF of the face and neck following bilateral odontogenic deep neck space abscesses. The disease progressed rapidly, with necrosis of the skin, after the patient inflicted minor trauma in the form of application of heated medicinal leaves. The organism isolated in culture from pus was Acinetobacter sp. The comorbid conditions in our patient were anemia and chronic alcoholism. The patient was managed by immediate and repeated extensive debridements and split-skin grafting.

  2. Minor trauma triggering cervicofacial necrotizing fasciitis from odontogenic abscess

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Shraddha; Nagpure, Prakash S; Singh, Roohie; Garg, Deepika

    2008-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) of the face and neck is a very rare complication of dental infection. Otolaryngologists and dentists should be familiar with this condition because of its similarity to odontogenic deep neck space infection in the initial stages, its rapid spread, and its life-threatening potential. Trauma has been reported to be an important predisposing factor for NF of the face. In this paper, we describe the presentation and treatment of a 62-year-old man who developed NF of the face and neck following bilateral odontogenic deep neck space abscesses. The disease progressed rapidly, with necrosis of the skin, after the patient inflicted minor trauma in the form of application of heated medicinal leaves. The organism isolated in culture from pus was Acinetobacter sp. The comorbid conditions in our patient were anemia and chronic alcoholism. The patient was managed by immediate and repeated extensive debridements and split-skin grafting. PMID:19561990

  3. Necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is an infection that spreads along the fascial planes, causing subcutaneous tissue death characterized by rapid progression, systemic toxicity, and even death. NF often appears as a red, hot, painful, and swollen wound with an ill-defined border. As the infective process continues, local pain is replaced by numbness or analgesia. As the disease process continues, the skin initially becomes pale, then mottled and purple, and finally, gangrenous. The ability of NF to move rapidly along fascial planes and cause tissue necrosis is secondary to its polymicrobial composition and the synergistic effect of the enzymes produced by the bacteria. Treatment involves securing the airway, broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy, intensive care support, and prompt surgical debridement, repeated as needed. Reducing mortality rests on early diagnosis and prompt aggressive treatment. PMID:25922821

  4. Necrotizing gastritis associated with Clostridium septicum in a rabbit.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Jorge P; Moore, Janet; Loukopoulos, Panayiotis; Diab, Santiago S; Uzal, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    Clostridium septicum is the causative agent of histotoxic infections, including malignant edema and braxy (necrotizing abomasitis) in several animal species. The carcass of a 2-year-old, female New Zealand white rabbit with a history of acute depression and obtundation followed by death was received at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System (San Bernardino, California) for necropsy and diagnostic workup. No gross lesions were detected at necropsy. Microscopically, there was moderate to severe, multifocal fibrinonecrotizing, transmural gastritis with numerous intralesional Gram-positive, sporulated rods, and disseminated thrombosis of the brain, lungs, heart, and liver, with occasional intravascular rods. The rods observed within the gastric wall and thrombi in the stomach and lung were positive for C. septicum by immunohistochemical staining. However, this microorganism was not isolated from stomach content. Clostridium septicum should be included in the list of possible etiologies of gastritis in rabbits.

  5. Emergence of a unique group of necrotizing mycobacterial diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, K. M.; Quinn, F. D.; Ashford, D. A.; Horsburgh, C. R.; King, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Although most diseases due to pathogenic mycobacteria are caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, several other mycobacterial diseases-caused by M. ulcerans (Buruli ulcer), M. marinum, and M. haemophilum-have begun to emerge. We review the emergence of diseases caused by these three pathogens in the United States and around the world in the last decade. We examine the pathophysiologic similarities of the diseases (all three cause necrotizing skin lesions) and common reservoirs of infection (stagnant or slow-flowing water). Examination of the histologic and pathogenic characteristics of these mycobacteria suggests differences in the modes of transmission and pathogenesis, though no singular mechanism for either characteristic has been definitively described for any of these mycobacteria. PMID:10341173

  6. The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 triggers necrotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Forveille, Sabrina; Zhou, Heng; Sauvat, Allan; Bezu, Lucillia; Müller, Kevin; Liu, Peng; Zitvogel, Laurence; Pierron, Gérard; Rekdal, Øystein; Kepp, Oliver; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-01-01

    The oncolytic peptide LTX-315 has been designed for killing human cancer cells and turned out to stimulate anti-cancer immune responses when locally injected into tumors established in immunocompetent mice. Here, we investigated the question whether LTX-315 induces apoptosis or necrosis. Transmission electron microscopy or morphometric analysis of chromatin-stained tumor cells revealed that LTX-315 failed to induce apoptotic nuclear condensation and rather induced a necrotic phenotype. Accordingly, LTX-315 failed to stimulate the activation of caspase-3, and inhibition of caspases by means of Z-VAD-fmk was unable to reduce cell killing by LTX-315. In addition, 2 prominent inhibitors of regulated necrosis (necroptosis), namely, necrostatin-1 and cycosporin A, failed to reduce LTX-315-induced cell death. In conclusion, it appears that LTX-315 triggers unregulated necrosis, which may contribute to its pro-inflammatory and pro-immune effects. PMID:26566869

  7. Gray matter heterotopia and acute necrotizing encephalopathy in trichothiodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wetzburger, C L; Van Regemorter, N; Szliwowski, H B; Abramowicz, M J; Van Bogaert, P

    1998-11-01

    Trichothiodystrophy was diagnosed in a 3-year-old male presenting with speech delay, brittle hair, chronic neutropenia, and a history of febrile convulsions. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed a focal subcortical and periventricular gray matter heterotopia. An acute encephalopathy with status epilepticus and coma occurred when he was 4 years of age during an upper respiratory tract infection. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multifocal T2-weighted hypersignal lesions involving mainly the thalami, hippocampi, midbrain, and pons. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed hyperproteinorachia without pleocytosis. Results of an extensive metabolic evaluation of this acute brain injury, resembling the syndrome of acute necrotizing encephalopathy of childhood described in Japan, were negative. Focal neuronal migration disorder and acute encephalopathy with symmetric thalamic involvement are newly described neurologic manifestations of syndromes with trichothiodystrophy, which suggests that these conditions may have a common genetic background.

  8. Non-necrotizing colonic granuloma induced by schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Thein; Baqui, AAMA; Naing, Akari Thein; Baqui, Tajruba; Sherigar, Jagannath; Mansour, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease with various clinical presentations caused by trematode blood flukes. It can present with asymptomatic, chronic colonic ulcerations, strictures, or inflammatory mass causing bowel obstruction. Intestinal polyps are uncommon and induced by antigens released from the schistosome eggs that trigger a cell-mediated inflammatory response with granuloma formation involving T cells, macrophages, and necrosis. This is very relevant while evaluating chronic intermittent gastrointestinal symptoms and eosinophilia in an immigrant patient from endemic areas of schistosomiasis. Here, we describe a case of chronic intestinal schistosomiasis which was found to have schistosomiasis-induced colonic polyp with non-necrotizing granuloma. With increase in immigrant population from the endemic areas of schistosomiasis in the United States, physicians should be aware of this disease and its various manifestations. Gastroenterologist should keep this as one of the differentials for colonic polyps. Diagnosis and treatment in time prevents further progression of the disease and its complications. PMID:27987283

  9. Operative vs Non-Operative Management in Sterile Necrotizing Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    Background: The clinical management of sterile pancreatic necrosis is still a matter of debate. In this study we analyzed the clinical course and outcome of patients with sterile necrotizing pancreatitis treated surgically versus nonsurgically. Study Design: Between May 1982 and December 1993, 249 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis (NP) entered this study, of which 172 (69 percent) had intraoperatively or fine needle aspiration-proven sterile NP. One hundred seven of 172 patients underwent surgery (S group) with necrosectomy and continuous postoperative closed lavage and 65 of 172 were treated by nonsurgical means (NS group). Results: Median Ranson and admission APACHE II scores were 4.7 (range, 1 to 10) and 11 (range, 1 to 29) in the S group, significantly higher than those in the NS group with 3.0 (range, 0 to 6) (p=0.022) and 8 (range, 1 to 23) (p=0.036). After 48 hours of intensive care treatment, APACHE II scores persisted at 10.5 (range, 1 to 29) in the S group and decreased to 6 (range, 0 to 15) (p=0.013) in the NS patients. Median Creactive protein (CRP) levels on admission were 179 mg/L and 68.5 mg/L (p=0.023), respectively. Within 72 hours, 61 (94 percent) of 65 NS-managed patients responded to intensive care therapy, whereas organ complications persisted or increased and thus led to surgery in the S group. Mortality rates were 13.1 percent in the surgically treated patients and 6.2 percent in the nonsurgically treated patients (p=NS). Conclusions: Most patients with limited and sterile pancreatic necrosis respond to intensive care treatment. Indication for surgery in sterile NP should be based on persisting or advancing organ complications despite intensive care therapy. APACHE II scores and adraission CRP levels represent a helpful tool in decision making for surgical or nonsurgical management of NP. PMID:9174870

  10. Current Concepts in the Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Misiakos, Evangelos P.; Bagias, George; Patapis, Paul; Sotiropoulos, Dimitrios; Kanavidis, Prodromos; Machairas, Anastasios

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe, rare, potentially lethal soft tissue infection that develops in the scrotum and perineum, the abdominal wall, or the extremities. The infection progresses rapidly, and septic shock may ensue; hence, the mortality rate is high (median mortality 32.2%). Prognosis becomes poorer in the presence of co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus, immunosuppression, chronic alcohol disease, chronic renal failure, and liver cirrhosis. NF is classified into four types, depending on microbiological findings. Most cases are polymicrobial, classed as type I. The clinical status of the patient varies from erythema, swelling, and tenderness in the early stage to skin ischemia with blisters and bullae in the advanced stage of infection. In its fulminant form, the patient is critically ill with signs and symptoms of severe septic shock and multiple organ dysfunction. The clinical condition is the most important clue for diagnosis. However, in equivocal cases, the diagnosis and severity of the infection can be secured with laboratory-based scoring systems, such as the laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis score or Fournier’s gangrene severity index score, especially in regard to Fournier’s gangrene. Computed tomography or ultrasonography can be helpful, but definitive diagnosis is attained by exploratory surgery at the infected sites. Management of the infection begins with broad-spectrum antibiotics, but early and aggressive drainage and meticulous debridement constitute the mainstay of treatment. Postoperative management of the surgical wound is also important for the patient’s survival, along with proper nutrition. The vacuum-assisted closure system has proved to be helpful in wound management, with its combined benefits of continuous cleansing of the wound and the formation of granulation tissue. PMID:25593960

  11. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction identifies associated loci and predicts the sensitivity of Tobacco ringspot virus in soybean plant introduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome-wide association study (GWAS) is a useful tool for detecting and characterizing traits of interest including those associated with disease resistance in soybean. The availability of 50,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers (SoySNP50K iSelect BeadChip; www.soybase.org) on 19,652...

  12. Heartland Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  13. Retroperitoneal Necrotizing Fasciitis Masquerading as Perianal Abscess – Rare and Perilous

    PubMed Central

    Amaranathan, Anandhi; Barathi, Deepak; Shankar, Gomathi; Sistla, Sarath Chandra

    2017-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is one of the uncommon presentations of a rapidly spreading subcutaneous tissue infection. Although the actual cause is unclear in many cases, most of them are due to the rapid proliferation of microorganisms. Retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis is extremely rare. It is a potentially lethal infection that requires immediate and aggressive surgical care. Early diagnosis is the key to a better prognosis. The possibility of retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis should be suspected in patients with symptoms of sepsis that are disproportionate to clinical findings. The rapid deterioration of the patient also gives a clue towards the diagnosis. We report a 35-year-old male with perianal abscess who had been progressed to retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis. The patient was managed successfully with aggressive debridement and drainage after laparotomy. Appropriate antibiotics were used to combat the sepsis. The patient recovered well at follow up, three months after discharge. Another patient, a 45-year-old male with a retroperitoneal abscess, progressed to retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis, and extra peritoneal drainage and debridement was done. Antibiotics depending upon the culture and sensitivity were used to control sepsis. But the patient succumbed to death 45 days after surgery due to uncontrolled sepsis. Necrotizing fasciitis of any anatomical site needs aggressive surgical care with early intervention. But retroperitoneal necrotizing fasciitis needs an extra effort for diagnosis. After diagnosis, it needs timely surgical intervention and appropriate antibiotic therapy for the recovery of the patients. PMID:28229030

  14. Necrotizing fasciitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus: the emergence of methicillin-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Nai-Chen; Wang, Jann-Tay; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Tai, Hao-Chih; Tang, Yueh-Bih

    2011-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is an uncommon causative agent of monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis, but we have noted several cases over the years. The patients treated for necrotizing fasciitis between January 1998 and December 2008 in our institution were identified, and their medical records were reviewed. Of 105 necrotizing fasciitis cases during the study period, 18 were caused by monomicrobial S. aureus infection (17%). The median age was 62 years (range, 12-81 years). Among this cohort, 10 patients had coexisting medical conditions or risk factors, including diabetes and hypertension. Lower limbs and upper limbs are the most commonly involved sites. Among the bacterial isolates from these cases, 8 were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 10 were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). One patient died in the MSSA group, and 5 patients died in the MRSA group. The mortality rate and other clinical characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, all MRSA necrotizing fasciitis developed after the year 2000, and it was significantly different from MSSA necrotizing fasciitis that predominantly took place before the year 2000. In conclusion, S. aureus is an important pathogen of monomicrobial necrotizing fasciitis, and MRSA has emerged as the predominant causative agent in recent years. Therefore, MRSA-directed antibiotic therapy should be considered when treating patients suspected with necrotizing fasciitis in endemic areas.

  15. Hepatitis C viral infection as an associated risk factor for necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Scher, Danielle; Kanlic, Enes; Bader, Julia; Ortiz, Melchor; Abdelgawad, Amr

    2012-04-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare soft tissue infection associated with a high mortality rate. Several risk factors for the development of necrotizing fasciitis have been studied, which has given surgeons insight into the types of patients who are more likely to present with this rapidly progressive infection. The concomitant diagnosis of hepatitis C viral infection has not been reported in the literature previously. In this retrospective study covering a 12-year period in 1 Level I trauma center, 10 (34%) of 29 patients presenting with necrotizing fasciitis had an underlying diagnosis of hepatitis C viral infection. The mortality rate in patients with hepatitis C viral infection was 30% compared with 21% for those without hepatitis C viral infection (P=.59). The proportion of patients presenting with the concomitant diagnosis of hepatitis C viral infection and necrotizing fasciitis was statistically greater than that expected from the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infection in the general population (1.8%; P<.001).Our study showed that hepatitis C viral infection is a risk factor for developing necrotizing fasciitis. Although our sample size was too small to show a statistical significance, we believe that a clinically significant increase in mortality of necrotizing fasciitis occurred in patients with concomitant hepatitis C viral infection. Therefore, the presence of hepatitis C viral infection in patients presenting with symptoms of necrotizing fasciitis should raise the clinical suspicion for this diagnosis, with the potential for a worse prognosis.

  16. Necrotic enteritis-producing strains of Clostridium perfringens displace non-necrotic enteritis strains from the gut of chicks.

    PubMed

    Barbara, Angelique J; Trinh, Hien T; Glock, Robert D; Glenn Songer, J

    2008-01-25

    We inoculated broiler chicks with mixtures of Clostridium perfringens strains to investigate the single strain dominance observed in natural cases of necrotic enteritis (NE) [Nauerby, B., Pedersen, K., Madsen, M., 2003. Analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the genetic diversity among Clostridium perfringens isolates from chickens. Vet. Microbiol. 94, 257-266]. Pre-inoculation bacteriologic culture of chick intestines yielded up to six pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types of C. perfringens. Birds developed typical NE lesions in response to administration (2x per day for 4 days) of a combined inoculum comprising one NE strain (JGS4143, PFGE pattern 8) and four non-NE strains (from piglet necrotizing enteritis, chicken normal flora, human gas gangrene, and bovine neonatal enteritis). After inoculation commenced, only the NE strain was recovered through the first post-inoculation day, in spite of intense efforts to recover pre-challenge flora strains and the other challenge strains. Thereafter, pre-inoculation and previously undetected PFGE types were found, and JGS4143 became undetectable. Birds inoculated simultaneously with five NE strains (from disease in chickens or turkeys, and including JGS4143) also developed lesions, but again only JGS4143 was recovered through the 1st day post-challenge. At that time, birds began to be repopulated with pre-challenge PFGE types. Two NE strains (JGS4143 and JGS4064) produced bacteriocins, which inhibited each other and normal flora strains (n=17), while normal flora strains inhibited neither NE strains nor each other. Thus, it appears that naturally occurring dominance of the gut by NE strains can be reproduced experimentally. Bacteriocins directed against normal flora could possibly provide the necessary advantage, although inhibition of one NE strain by another suggests that other factors may be partially or completely responsible for the dominance.

  17. Necrotic Cells Actively Attract Phagocytes through the Collaborative Action of Two Distinct PS-Exposure Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zao; Venegas, Victor; Nagaoka, Yuji; Morino, Eri; Raghavan, Prashant; Audhya, Anjon; Nakanishi, Yoshinobu; Zhou, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Necrosis, a kind of cell death closely associated with pathogenesis and genetic programs, is distinct from apoptosis in both morphology and mechanism. Like apoptotic cells, necrotic cells are swiftly removed from animal bodies to prevent harmful inflammatory and autoimmune responses. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, gain-of-function mutations in certain ion channel subunits result in the excitotoxic necrosis of six touch neurons and their subsequent engulfment and degradation inside engulfing cells. How necrotic cells are recognized by engulfing cells is unclear. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is an important apoptotic-cell surface signal that attracts engulfing cells. Here we observed PS exposure on the surface of necrotic touch neurons. In addition, the phagocytic receptor CED-1 clusters around necrotic cells and promotes their engulfment. The extracellular domain of CED-1 associates with PS in vitro. We further identified a necrotic cell-specific function of CED-7, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, in promoting PS exposure. In addition to CED-7, anoctamin homolog-1 (ANOH-1), the C. elegans homolog of the mammalian Ca2+-dependent phospholipid scramblase TMEM16F, plays an independent role in promoting PS exposure on necrotic cells. The combined activities from CED-7 and ANOH-1 ensure efficient exposure of PS on necrotic cells to attract their phagocytes. In addition, CED-8, the C. elegans homolog of mammalian Xk-related protein 8 also makes a contribution to necrotic cell-removal at the first larval stage. Our work indicates that cells killed by different mechanisms (necrosis or apoptosis) expose a common “eat me” signal to attract their phagocytic receptor(s); furthermore, unlike what was previously believed, necrotic cells actively present PS on their outer surfaces through at least two distinct molecular mechanisms rather than leaking out PS passively. PMID:26061275

  18. Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants with Spontaneous Intestinal Perforation or Surgical Necrotizing Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Rajan; Oh, William; Hintz, Susan R; Blakely, Martin L; Das, Abhik; Bell, Edward F.; Saha, Shampa; Laptook, Abbot R.; Shankaran, Seetha; Stoll, Barbara J.; Walsh, Michele C.; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if extremely low birth weight infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis have a higher risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (secondary outcome) at 18–22 months corrected age compared to infants with spontaneous intestinal perforation and infants without necrotizing enterocolitis or spontaneous intestinal perforation. Study Design Retrospective analysis of the Neonatal Research Network very low birth weight registry, evaluating extremely low birth weight infants born between 2000–2005. The study infants were designated into 3 groups: 1) Spontaneous intestinal perforation without necrotizing enterocolitis; 2) Surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (Bell's stage III); and 3) Neither spontaneous intestinal perforation nor necrotizing enterocolitis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the clinical group and death or neurodevelopmental impairment, controlling for multiple confounding factors including center. Results Infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis had the highest rate of death prior to hospital discharge (53.5%) and death or neurodevelopmental impairment (82.3%) compared to infants in the spontaneous intestinal perforation group (39.1% and 79.3%) and no necrotizing enterocolitis/no spontaneous intestinal perforation group (22.1% and 53.3%; p<0.001). Similar results were observed for neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors. On logistic regression analysis, both spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing enterocolitis were associated with increased risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (adjusted OR 2.21, 95% CI: 1.5, 3.2 and adjusted OR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.5, 2.9 respectively) and neurodevelopmental impairment among survivors (adjusted OR 2.17, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.2 and adjusted OR 1.70, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.4 respectively). Conclusions Spontaneous intestinal perforation and surgical necrotizing

  19. Statin-induced necrotizing myositis - a discrete autoimmune entity within the "statin-induced myopathy spectrum".

    PubMed

    Hamann, Philip D H; Cooper, Robert G; McHugh, Neil J; Chinoy, Hector

    2013-10-01

    Statin-induced necrotizing myositis is increasingly being recognised as part of the "statin-induced myopathy spectrum". As in other immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies, statin-induced myositis is characterised by proximal muscle weakness with marked serum creatinine kinase elevations and histological evidence of myonecrosis, with little or no inflammatory cell infiltration. Unlike other necrotizing myopathies, statin-induced myopathy is associated with the presence of autoantibodies directed against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl- coenzyme A reductase (the enzyme target of statin therapies), and with Human Leukocyte Antigen-DRB1*11. This article summarises the clinical presentation, investigations and management of this rare, but serious complication of statin therapy.

  20. Orchid fleck virus: an unclassified bipartite, negative-sense RNA plant virus.

    PubMed

    Peng, De Wei; Zheng, Guo Hua; Zheng, Zhi Zhong; Tong, Qing Xuan; Ming, Yan Lin

    2013-02-01

    Orchid fleck virus (OFV) causes chlorotic or necrotic spots in many orchid species. Its particle morphology and cytopathic effects are similar to those of nucleorhabdoviruses. Although OFV shares clear sequence similarities with rhabdoviruses, its taxonomic status is undetermined because its negative-sense RNA genome is bipartite. This review presents a general overview of classical and contemporary findings about etiology, serology, epidemiology, pathology, molecular biology, detection and prevention methods of orchid fleck virus. Because of the characteristics of OFV and viruses of the Rhabdoviridae and Mononegavirales, it is proposed that a new genus of negative-sense RNA plant viruses outside of the Mononegavirales be established with orchid fleck virus as the type species.

  1. Morphology of certain viruses of Salmonid fishes. II. In vivo studies of infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amend, Donald F.; Chambers, Velma C.

    1970-01-01

    Juvenile sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were injected with the infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus, and tissue samples from the anterior kidney, spleen, liver, intestine, and pyloric caeca of moribund fish were prepared for electron microscopy. Bullet-shaped virus particles measuring 158 × 90 mμ were observed in the hematopoietic tissues of the anterior kidney and spleen. Virus particles were also observed in the outer connective tissues of the pancreas or pyloric caeca, or both. No virus was found in the intestine or liver. The healthy appearance of erythrocytes, reticular cells, and endothelial cells in necrotic areas of the spleen and anterior kidney, and the absence of lymphocytes in these areas, suggested that lymphocytes might be one source of the virus.

  2. Differential Life History Trait Associations of Aphids with Nonpersistent Viruses in Cucurbits.

    PubMed

    Angelella, G M; Egel, D S; Holland, J D; Nemacheck, J A; Williams, C E; Kaplan, I

    2015-06-01

    The diversity of vectors and fleeting nature of virus acquisition and transmission renders nonpersistent viruses a challenge to manage. We assessed the importance of noncolonizing versus colonizing vectors with a 2-yr survey of aphids and nonpersistent viruses on commercial pumpkin farms. We quantified aphid alightment using pan traps, while testing leaf samples with multiplex RT-PCR targeting cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and papaya ringspot virus (PRSV). Overall, we identified 53 aphid species (3,899 individuals), from which the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover, a pumpkin-colonizing species, predominated (76 and 37% of samples in 2010 and 2011, respectively). CMV and ZYMV were not detected, but WMV and PRSV were prevalent, both regionally (WMV: 28/29 fields, PRSV: 21/29 fields) and within fields (infection rates = 69 and 55% for WMV in 2010 and 2011; 28 and 25% for PRSV in 2010 and 2011). However, early-season samples showed extremely low infection levels, suggesting cucurbit viruses are not seed-transmitted and implicating aphid activity as a causal factor driving virus spread. Interestingly, neither noncolonizer and colonizer alightment nor total aphid alightment were good predictors of virus presence, but community analyses revealed species-specific relationships. For example, cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora Koch) and spotted alfalfa aphid (Therioaphis trifolii Monell f. maculata) were associated with PRSV infection, whereas the oleander aphid (Aphis nerii Bover de Fonscolombe) was associated with WMV spread within fields. These outcomes highlight the need for tailored management plans targeting key vectors of nonpersistent viruses in agricultural systems.

  3. Complete genome analysis of jasmine virus T from Jasminum sambac in China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yajun; Gao, Fangluan; Yang, Zhen; Wu, Zujian; Yang, Liang

    2016-07-01

    The genome of a potyvirus (isolate JaVT_FZ) recovered from jasmine (Jasminum sambac L.) showing yellow ringspot symptoms in Fuzhou, China, was sequenced. JaVT_FZ is closely related to seven other potyviruses with completely sequenced genomes, with which it shares 66-70 % nucleotide and 52-56 % amino acid sequence identity. However, the coat protein (CP) gene shares 82-92 % nucleotide and 90-97 % amino acid sequence identity with those of two partially sequenced potyviruses, named jasmine potyvirus T (JaVT-jasmine) and jasmine yellow mosaic potyvirus (JaYMV-India), respectively. This suggests that JaVT_FZ, JaVT-jasmine and JaYMV-India should be regarded as members of a single potyvirus species, for which the name "Jasmine virus T" has priority.

  4. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Thigh Secondary to Radiation Colitis in a Rectal Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Hyun; Choi, Jung Ran; Song, Ji Young; Kang, Kyu Keun; Yoo, Woong Sun; Han, Sung Wan

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis usually occurs after dermal injury or through hematogenous spread. To date, few cases have been reported as necrotizing fasciitis of the thigh secondary to rectal perforation in rectal cancer patients. A 66-year-old male complained of pelvic and thigh pain and subsequently developed necrotizing fasciitis in his right thigh. Four years earlier, he had undergone a low anterior resection and radiotherapy due to of rectal cancer. An ulcerative lesion had been observed around the anastomosis site during the colonoscopy that had been performed two months earlier. Pelvic computed tomography and sigmoidoscopy showed rectal perforation and presacral abscess extending to buttock and the right posterior thigh fascia. Thus, the necrotizing fasciitis was believed to have occurred because of ulcer perforation, one of the complications of chronic radiation colitis, at the anastomosis site. When a rectal-cancer patient complains of pelvic and thigh pain, the possibility of a rectal perforation should be considered. PMID:23346513

  5. Fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome in a child with varicella and necrotizing fasciitis of the face.

    PubMed

    Minodier, Philippe; Chaumoitre, Kathia; Vialet, Renaud; Imbert, Guenièvre; Bidet, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    The report described here presents a fatal streptococcal toxic shock syndrome secondary to a necrotizing fasciitis of the face in a 3-year-old girl with varicella. Pathogenesis and treatment of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome are discussed below.

  6. Necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus mitis caused by accidental human bite.

    PubMed

    Bastug, Aliye; Kislak, Sumeyye; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Koksal, Asude; Sertcelik, Ahmet; Ünlü, Ramazan Erkin; Akinci, Esragul; Bodur, Hurrem

    2016-01-31

    Human bite wounds are more prone to infection than animal bites, which may cause necrotizing soft tissue infections such as myositis, fasciitis. Both aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms may be responsible, including Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Peptostreptococcus spp. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by serious tissue destruction and systemic toxicity with high morbidity and mortality. We report a patient with Streptococcus mitis associated necrotizing fasciitis on the upper extremity resulting from an accidental human bite, which caused nearly fatal infection. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment should be given after a human bite to prevent infection. If the infection signs and symptoms develop, rapid diagnosis, appropriate antibiotic and surgical therapy should be administered immediately. Streptococcus mitis is a viridans streptococcus, usually known as a relatively benign oral streptococcus. To our knowledge, this is the first necrotizing fasciitis case due to Streptococcus mitis after human bite.

  7. Fulminant cerebral infarction of anterior and posterior cerebral circulation after ascending type of facial necrotizing fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho; Choi, Hui-Chul; Kim, Chulho; Sohn, Jong Hee; Kim, Heung Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a soft tissue infection that is characterized by extensive necrosis of the subcutaneous fat, neurovascular structures, and fascia. Cerebral infarction after facial necrotizing fasciitis has been rarely reported. A 61-year-old woman with diabetes was admitted with painful swelling of her right cheek. One day later, she was stuporous and quadriplegic. A computed tomographic scan of her face revealed right facial infection in the periorbital soft tissue, parotid, buccal muscle, and maxillary sinusitis. A computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed cerebral infarction in the right hemisphere, left frontal area, and both cerebellum. Four days later, she died from cerebral edema and septic shock. Involvement of the cerebral vasculature, such as the carotid or vertebral artery by necrotizing fasciitis, can cause cerebral infarction. Facial necrotizing fasciitis should be treated early with surgical treatment and the appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  8. Facial necrotizing fasciitis secondary to accidental bite of the upper lip.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jui-Tien; Hsiao, Hung-Tao; Tzeng, Shyang-Guang

    2011-07-01

    We describe a case with facial wounds over the left upper lip that became contaminated with saliva. A facial necrotizing fasciitis developed 2 days after injury. This produced a serious and almost fatal infection.

  9. Protection against avian necrotic enteritis after immunisation with NetB genetic or formaldehyde toxoids.

    PubMed

    Fernandes da Costa, Sérgio P; Mot, Dorien; Bokori-Brown, Monika; Savva, Christos G; Basak, Ajit K; Van Immerseel, Filip; Titball, Richard W

    2013-08-20

    NetB (necrotic enteritis toxin B) is a recently identified β-pore-forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens. This toxin has been shown to play a major role in avian necrotic enteritis. In recent years, a dramatic increase in necrotic enteritis has been observed, especially in countries where the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in animal feedstuffs has been banned. The aim of this work was to determine whether immunisation with a NetB toxoid would provide protection against necrotic enteritis. The immunisation of poultry with a formaldehyde NetB toxoid or with a NetB genetic toxoid (W262A) resulted in the induction of antibody responses against NetB and provided partial protection against disease.

  10. Skin grafting for necrotizing fasciitis in a child with nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Narendra; Saha, Abhijeet; Dubey, Nandkishore K; Rai, Ashish; Bhattacharya, Sameek

    2013-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a rare complication of nephrotic syndrome in children, with a high mortality rate. We report a case with successful outcome with judicious intravenous antibiotics and skin grafting of the bilateral lower thighs.

  11. Tobacco streak virus isolated from lettuce.

    PubMed

    Abtahi, F S; Khodai Motlagh, M

    2009-05-01

    Tobacco streak virus (TSV) is an ilarvirus with a worldwide distribution. This virus infects many plants and causes significant yield losses. In this study, 300 samples of lettuce were collected from lettuce fields in Tehran Province. Infected plants show symptoms such as: mosaic, vein clearing, vein necrosis, yellowing and leaf distortion. DAS-ELISA (Double Antibody Sandwich-ELISA) was used with a polyclonal antiserum against TSV. Five isolates (T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5), which are collected, respectively from Mohammad Abad (Karaj), Malek Abad (Karaj), Hashtgerd (Karaj), Tarand Balla (Varamin) and Deh mah sin (Pishva) were inoculated on 29 species of Cucurbitaceae, Amaranthaceae, Solanacea, Compositae, Leguminosae and Chenopodiacea. Chenopodium quinoa 6 days after inoculation showed necrotic local lesions. Gomphrena globosa 10 days after inoculation developed chlorotic local lesions. Systemic symptoms were produced in Datura stramonium. Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Red Kidney 5 days after inoculation developed necrotic local lesions. Nicotiana tabacum 7 days after inoculation showed necrotic and chlorotic local lesions. Nicotiana clevelandii 15 days after inoculation developed leaf distortion and vein necrosis. Lactuca sativa 10-15 days after inoculation developed leaf istortion and mosaic. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was performed using one primer pairs designed by DSMZ. An approximately 710 bp fragment was amplified with a specific primer.

  12. NetB, a pore-forming toxin from necrotic enteritis strains of Clostridium perfringens.

    PubMed

    Keyburn, Anthony L; Bannam, Trudi L; Moore, Robert J; Rood, Julian I

    2010-07-01

    The Clostridium perfringens necrotic enteritis B-like toxin (NetB) is a recently discovered member of the β-barrel pore-forming toxin family and is produced by a subset of avian C. perfringens type A strains. NetB is cytotoxic for avian cells and is associated with avian necrotic enteritis. This review examines the current state of knowledge of NetB: its role in pathogenesis, its distribution and expression in C. perfringens and its vaccine potential.

  13. Cervical necrotizing fasciitis and myositis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    PubMed

    Allender, M C; McCain, S L; Ramsay, E C; Schumacher, J; Ilha, M R S

    2009-06-01

    A 39-yr-old wild-caught, female western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) died during an immobilization to assess swelling and apparent pain of the cervical region. Necropsy revealed a fistulous tract containing plant material in the oropharynx, above the soft palate, communicating with a left-sided cervical necrotizing fasciitis and myositis. Alpha-hemolytic Streptococcus and Prevotella sp. were isolated from the cervical lesion. This is a report of cervical necrotizing fasciitis in a western lowland gorilla.

  14. Responses of macrophages to the danger signals released from necrotic cells.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshifumi; Kobayashi, Shuhei; Hanihara-Tatsuzawa, Fumito; Sayama, Aoi; MaruYama, Takashi; Muta, Tatsushi

    2014-12-01

    The immune system maintains homeostasis by recognizing and responding to cell death caused by various stresses. The immune response is considered to be elicited by 'danger signals' released from necrotic cells. However, the identity of the danger signals remains elusive. In this study, we focused on the expression of chemokines by macrophages stimulated with necrotic cells. In mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages, the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-3 was induced at both the mRNA and protein levels in response to heat-killed murine cells. The induction of MCP-3 was also observed in MyD88-deficient macrophages, indicating that Toll-like receptors and the IL-1 receptor are not involved in this response. Consistent with this observation, the activation of NF-κB was not detected in RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with necrotic cells. Treatments with proteinase K, DNaseI or RNaseA did not affect the ' STIMULATING ACTIVITY': of necrotic cells. In contrast, treatment with apyrase, which removes phosphates from nucleoside tri- and di-phosphates, abolished the inducing activity. Purified UDP at 30 µM concentration elicited similar induction of MCP-3 in RAW264.7 macrophages. Small interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of the UDP receptor P2Y6 in RAW264.7 cells significantly reduced the induction of MCP-3 in response to necrotic cells, but not its induction by lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, ectopic expression of the P2Y6 receptor in HEK293 cells conferred responsiveness to necrotic cells. These results suggest that UDP released by necrotic cells plays a critical role as an endogenous danger signal and that P2Y6 is required for the induction of MCP-3 in response to necrotic cells.

  15. [Pyoderma gangrenosum after intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fracture: A differential diagnosis to necrotizing fasciitis].

    PubMed

    Hackl, S; Merkel, P; Hungerer, S; Friederichs, J; Müller, N; Militz, M; Bühren, V

    2015-12-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare non-infectious neutrophilic dermatitis, whereas necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening bacterial soft tissue infection of the fascia and adjacent skin. As in the case described here after intramedullary nailing, the clinical appearance of both diseases can be similar. Because of the completely different therapeutic approach and a worse outcome in the case of false diagnosis, pyoderma gangrenosum should always be taken into consideration before treating necrotizing fasciitis.

  16. Diagnosing necrotic meningioma: a distinctive imaging pattern in diffusion MRI and MR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ben-Arie, Gal; Serlin, Yonatan; Ivens, Sebastian; Benifla, Mony; Cagnano, Emanuela; Melamed, Israel; Merkin, Vladimir; Shelef, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of necrotic meningiomas includes brain abscess and malignant neoplasms. We report and discuss hereby the work-up of two patients diagnosed with necrotic meningioma using diffusion-weighted imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, resective surgery, and histopathology. The purpose of the present article is to add to the scant literature on the use of advanced imaging modalities in the routine investigation of brain lesions and their utility in arriving at the final diagnosis.

  17. Necrotizing Fasciitis and Toxic Shock Syndrome from Clostridium septicum following a Term Cesarean Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Rimawi, B. H.; Graybill, W.; Pierce, J. Y.; Kohler, M.; Eriksson, E. A.; Shary, M. T.; Crookes, B.; Soper, D. E.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome are life-threatening conditions that can be seen after any surgical procedure. With only 4 previous published case reports in the obstetrics and gynecology literature of these two conditions occurring secondary to Clostridium septicum, we describe a case of necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome occurring after a term cesarean delivery caused by this microorganism, requiring aggressive medical and surgical intervention. PMID:24822140

  18. Molecular mimicry in pauci-immune focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kain, Renate; Exner, Markus; Brandes, Ricarda; Ziebermayr, Reinhard; Cunningham, Dawn; Alderson, Carol A; Davidovits, Agnes; Raab, Ingrid; Jahn, Renate; Ashour, Oliver; Spitzauer, Susanne; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere; Fukuda, Minoru; Klemm, Per; Rees, Andrew J; Kerjaschki, Dontscho

    2009-01-01

    Pauci-immune focal necrotizing glomerulonephritis (FNGN) is a severe inflammatory disease associated with autoantibodies to neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens (ANCA). Here we characterize autoantibodies to lysosomal membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) and show that they are a new ANCA subtype present in almost all individuals with FNGN. Consequently, its prevalence is nearly twice that of the classical ANCAs that recognize myeloperoxidase or proteinase-3. Furthermore, antibodies to LAMP-2 cause pauci-immune FNGN when injected into rats, and a monoclonal antibody to human LAMP-2 (H4B4) induces apoptosis of human microvascular endothelium in vitro. The autoantibodies in individuals with pauci-immune FNGN commonly recognize a human LAMP-2 epitope (designated P41–49) with 100% homology to the bacterial adhesin FimH, with which they cross-react. Rats immunized with FimH develop pauci-immune FNGN and also develop antibodies to rat and human LAMP-2. Finally, we show that infections with fimbriated pathogens are common before the onset of FNGN. Thus, FimH-triggered autoimmunity to LAMP-2 provides a previously undescribed clinically relevant molecular mechanism for the development of pauci-immune FNGN. PMID:18836458

  19. Necrotic platelets provide a procoagulant surface during thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Vu Minh; Abeynaike, Latasha; Glaros, Elias; Campbell, Heather; Pasalic, Leonardo; Hogg, Philip J; Chen, Vivien M Y

    2015-12-24

    A subpopulation of platelets fulfills a procoagulant role in hemostasis and thrombosis by enabling the thrombin burst required for fibrin formation and clot stability at the site of vascular injury. Excess procoagulant activity is linked with pathological thrombosis. The identity of the procoagulant platelet has been elusive. The cell death marker 4-[N-(S-glutathionylacetyl)amino]phenylarsonous acid (GSAO) rapidly enters a subpopulation of agonist-stimulated platelets via an organic anion-transporting polypeptide and is retained in the cytosol through covalent reaction with protein dithiols. Labeling with GSAO, together with exposure of P-selectin, distinguishes necrotic from apoptotic platelets and correlates with procoagulant potential. GSAO(+) platelets form in occluding murine thrombi after ferric chloride injury and are attenuated with megakaryocyte-directed deletion of the cyclophilin D gene. These platelets form a procoagulant surface, supporting fibrin formation, and reduction in GSAO(+) platelets is associated with reduction in platelet thrombus size and fibrin formation. Analysis of platelets from human subjects receiving aspirin therapy indicates that these procoagulant platelets form despite aspirin therapy, but are attenuated by inhibition of the necrosis pathway. These findings indicate that the major subpopulation of platelets involved in fibrin formation are formed via regulated necrosis involving cyclophilin D, and that they may be targeted independent of platelet activation.

  20. Necrotizing enterocolitis: new insights into pathogenesis and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Niño, Diego F; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Hackam, David J

    2016-10-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most frequent and lethal disease of the gastrointestinal tract of preterm infants. At present, NEC is thought to develop in the premature host in the setting of bacterial colonization, often after administration of non-breast milk feeds, and disease onset is thought to be due in part to a baseline increased reactivity of the premature intestinal mucosa to microbial ligands as compared with the full-term intestinal mucosa. The increased reactivity leads to mucosal destruction and impaired mesenteric perfusion and partly reflects an increased expression of the bacterial receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the premature gut, as well as other factors that predispose the intestine to a hyper-reactive state in response to colonizing microorganisms. The increased expression of TLR4 in the premature gut reflects a surprising role for this molecule in the regulation of normal intestinal development through its effects on the Notch signalling pathway. This Review will examine the current approach to the diagnosis and treatment of NEC, provide an overview of our current knowledge regarding its molecular underpinnings and highlight advances made within the past decade towards the development of specific preventive and treatment strategies for this devastating disease.

  1. Necrotizing fasciitis: Diagnosis and management of an occult infective focus

    PubMed Central

    Chandawarkar, Rajiv Y; Jessie, Timothy A; Pennington, Gary A; Wells, Mark D; Cervino, A Lawrence

    2004-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening, fulminant disease that is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Presenting with a triad of findings including progressive erythema, severe dermatological edema and severe pain disproportionate to the physical findings, this disease is a surgical emergency. Delayed diagnosis and surgical debridement lead to higher mortality. Early extensive surgical debridement, aggressive antibiotic therapy, invasive monitoring and intensive care management determine the outcome in most cases. In patients who fail to demonstrate clinical improvement, profound sepsis and its sequela –systemic inflammatory response – have frequently been implicated. It is these patients that need to be carefully re-evaluated for ‘hidden’ foci of infection that may be the real cause of the patient’s decline. Once detected, these occult foci can be surgically debrided, resulting in dramatic improvement. Two illustrative cases, one with occult endo- and panophthalmitis and the other with an unusual involvement of deeper muscle planes and the nodal basin, demonstrate this point. This consumptive process gathers momentum at an alarming speed, hence, the treatment must be aggressive and prompt. PMID:24115889

  2. Effects of clotrimazol on the acute necrotizing pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Arif Burak; Alhan, Etem; Usta, Arif; Türkyılmaz, Serdar; Kural, Birgül Vanizor; Erçin, Cengiz

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the influence of clotrimazol (CLTZ) on acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) induced by glycodeoxycholic acid in rats. Rats were divided into five groups as sham + saline, sham + CLTZ, sham + polyethylene glycol, ANP + saline, and ANP + CLTZ. ANP in rats was induced by glycodeoxycholic acid. The extent of acinar cell injury, mortality, systemic cardiorespiratory variables, functional capillary density (FCD), renal/hepatic functions, and changes in some enzyme markers for pancreatic and lung tissue were investigated during ANP in rats. The use of CLTZ after the induction of ANP resulted in a significant decrease in the mortality rate, pancreatic necrosis, and serum activity of amylase, alanine aminotransferase, interleukin-6, lactate dehydrogenase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, serum concentration of urea, and tissue activity of myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde in the pancreas and lung and a significant increase in concentrations of calcium, blood pressure, urine output, pO2, and FCD. This study showed that CLTZ demonstrated beneficial effect on the course of ANP in rats. Therefore, it may be used in the treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  3. The phylum Synergistetes in gingivitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Angelica; Thurnheer, Thomas; Lüthi-Schaller, Helga; Gmür, Rudolf; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2012-11-01

    The clinical manifestation of necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (NUG) is distinct from that of common gingivitis in that it is characterized by local necrosis of the gingival tissues, rapid onset, pain and extensive bleeding. The phylum Synergistetes is a novel bacterial phylum consisting of Gram-negative anaerobes, with evidence of presence in biofilms associated with periodontal and endodontic infections. To date, the involvement of members of this phylum in NUG has not been investigated. This study aimed to evaluate the presence and levels of known human oral Synergistetes bacterial clusters in dental plaque from patients with NUG and compare them with those found in gingivitis. Marginal dental plaque samples from 21 NUG and 21 gingivitis patients were analysed quantitatively by fluorescent in situ hybridization and microscopy for members of two oral Synergistetes clusters (A and B) and for Jonquetella anthropi. Synergistetes cluster A bacteria were detected in all samples but at higher levels (9.4-fold) and proportions (2.5-fold) in NUG patients than in gingivitis patients. However, with regard to Synergistetes cluster B bacteria, there were no differences between NUG and gingivitis patients. J. anthropi was detected in only half of the samples and at lower levels than the other taxa. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that Synergistetes cluster A bacteria, but not cluster B bacteria or J. anthropi, are more strongly associated with NUG than with gingivitis.

  4. Human milk is the feeding strategy to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis!

    PubMed

    Maffei, Diana; Schanler, Richard J

    2017-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred diet for preterm infants as it protects against a multitude of NICU challenges, specifically necrotizing enterocolitis. Infants who receive greater than 50% of mother's own milk (MOM) in the 2 weeks after birth have a significantly decreased risk of NEC. An additional factor in the recent declining rates of NEC is the increased utilization of donor human milk (DHM). This creates a bridge until MOM is readily available, thus decreasing the exposure to cow milk protein. Preterm infants are susceptible to NEC due to the immaturity of their gastrointestinal and immune systems. An exclusive human milk diet compensates for these immature systems in many ways such as lowering gastric pH, enhancing intestinal motility, decreasing epithelial permeability, and altering the composition of bacterial flora. Ideally, preterm infants should be fed human milk and avoid bovine protein. A diet consisting of human milk-based human milk fortifier is one way to provide the additional nutritional supplements necessary for adequate growth while receiving the protective benefits of a human milk diet.

  5. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection or Sweet Syndrome: Surgery Versus No Surgery?: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Otero, Tiffany M N; Barber, Samuel R; Yeh, D Dante; Quraishi, Sadeq A

    2017-02-01

    The authors report a case of necrotizing Sweet syndrome in a 24-year-old transsexual male who presented with recurrent myonecrosis of the neck/upper chest. On index admission, computer tomography revealed gas and fat stranding of the sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis major muscle-findings suggestive of a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Despite debridement procedures and intravenous antibiotic therapy, myonecrosis of the affected areas persisted. Evaluation of tissue samples by dermatopathology revealed neutrophilic infiltration extending into the dermis and muscle necrosis, findings consistent with necrotizing Sweet syndrome. The initiation of IV corticosteroids, the gold-standard treatment for necrotizing Sweet syndrome, lead to significant clinical improvement. When soft tissue infections do not respond to debridement and broad-spectrum antimicrobial coverage, perioperative care providers should consider necrotizing Sweet syndrome as an underlying cause. By facilitating the early diagnosis and appropriate management of unique conditions such as necrotizing Sweet syndrome, anesthesiologists can not only play a more visible role as leaders in the emerging perioperative surgical home model, but they may also prevent significant patient morbidity and reduce unnecessary utilization of health care resources.

  6. Detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus by PCR without DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Ieamkhang, Supaporn; Riangwong, Lumpueng; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan

    2005-11-01

    We report the simple and rapid method for detection of tomato yellow leaf curl Thailand virus (TYLCTHV) based on the direct capture of virus particles to the surface of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tube. This method allowed PCR without the time-consuming procedures of DNA extraction from infected plant tissue. A small amount of tomato tissue (approximately 10 mg) was ground in extraction buffer to release viruses from plant tissues. The constituents of the plant extract that might inhibit PCR activity were discarded by washing the tube with PBST buffer before adding the PCR mixture to the tube. This method was used for detection of TYLCTHV with plant sap solution diluted up to 1:20,000 and was more sensitive than an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. In addition, this method can be used for detection of TYLCTHV in viruliferous whiteflies. The PCR tubes with captured TYLCTHV could be used for PCR, after storage at 4 degrees C for 4 wk. The method presented here was used for detection of begomoviruses in cucurbit and pepper. In addition, this method was effectively used to detect papaya ringspot virus in papaya and zucchini yellow mosaic virus in cucumber by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR.

  7. Isolation and serological comparison of virus-coded proteins of three potyviruses infecting cucurbitaceous plants.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, N; Shirako, Y; Ehara, Y

    1990-01-01

    Cylindrical inclusion proteins (CIPs), amorphous inclusion proteins (AIPs), and virus particles were partially purified from Cucurbita maxima leaves infected with zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus 2 (WMV2), and the watermelon mosaic virus 1 strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). Antisera to these individual antigens, except AIPs of ZYMV and WMV2, were prepared and used to determine with electroblot-ELISA the serological differentiation indices (SDIs) between homologous and heterologous antigens. The average SDIs between ZYMV and WMV2 CIPs, between ZYMV and PRSV-W CIPs, and between WMV2 and PRSV-W CIPs were 1.5, 3.5, and 2.5, respectively. The SDIs between ZYMV and PRSV-W AIPs and between WMV2 and PRSV-W AIPs were 5 and 3, respectively. The average SDIs between ZYMV and WMV2 capsid proteins (CPs), between ZYMV and PRSV-W CPs, and between WMV2 and PRSV-W CPs were 3, 7, and 8, respectively. These data suggest that the serological relationship between ZYMV and WMV2 is much closer than that between PRSV-W and ZYMV or between PRSV-W and WMV2 and that antigenic determinants of CIP and AIP were conserved more than those of CP among the three potyviruses.

  8. Influenza A virus infections in swine: pathogenesis and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Janke, B H

    2014-03-01

    Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 "Spanish flu" human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Influenza viruses infect epithelial cells lining the surface of the respiratory tract, inducing prominent necrotizing bronchitis and bronchiolitis and variable interstitial pneumonia. Cell death is due to direct virus infection and to insult directed by leukocytes and cytokines of the innate immune system. The most virulent viruses consistently express the following characteristics of infection: (1) higher or more prolonged virus replication, (2) excessive cytokine induction, and (3) replication in the lower respiratory tract. Nearly all the viral proteins contribute to virulence. Pigs are susceptible to infection with both human and avian viruses, which often results in gene reassortment between these viruses and endemic swine viruses. The receptors on the epithelial cells lining the respiratory tract are major determinants of infection by influenza viruses from other hosts. The polymerases, especially PB2, also influence cross-species infection. Methods of diagnosis and characterization of influenza viruses that infect swine have improved over the years, driven both by the availability of new technologies and by the necessity of keeping up with changes in the virus. Testing of oral fluids from pigs for virus and antibody is a recent development that allows efficient sampling of large numbers of animals.

  9. Influence of harvest timing, fungicides, and Beet Necrotic Yellow Vein Virus on sugar beet storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rots in sugar beet storage can lead to million dollar losses because of reduced sucrose recovery. Thus, studies were conducted to establish better chemical control options and a better understanding of the fungi involved in the rot complex. A water check and three fungicides (Mertect, Propuls...

  10. Characterization and detection of Tomato necrotic stunt virus, a novel potyvirus infecting greenhouse tomatoes in Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse tomato production has increased significantly in recent years in North America. Nearly 40% of fresh tomato supplies in the U.S. are produced in greenhouses. The highly intensive and hydroponic production system has created some unique ecological conditions for disease epidemic, especial...

  11. Blueberry necrotic ring blotch, a new blueberry disease caused by a virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel symptoms have been observed on southern highbush blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum interspecific hybrids) in several southeastern states. Affected plants show irregularly shaped circular spots or blotches with green centers on the top and bottoms of leaves. Diagnostic tests failed to isolate a...

  12. Metagenomic detection of viral pathogens in Spanish honeybees: co-infection by Aphid Lethal Paralysis, Israel Acute Paralysis and Lake Sinai Viruses.

    PubMed

    Granberg, Fredrik; Vicente-Rubiano, Marina; Rubio-Guerri, Consuelo; Karlsson, Oskar E; Kukielka, Deborah; Belák, Sándor; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The situation in Europe concerning honeybees has in recent years become increasingly aggravated with steady decline in populations and/or catastrophic winter losses. This has largely been attributed to the occurrence of a variety of known and "unknown", emerging novel diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that colonies often can harbour more than one pathogen, making identification of etiological agents with classical methods difficult. By employing an unbiased metagenomic approach, which allows the detection of both unexpected and previously unknown infectious agents, the detection of three viruses, Aphid Lethal Paralysis Virus (ALPV), Israel Acute Paralysis Virus (IAPV), and Lake Sinai Virus (LSV), in honeybees from Spain is reported in this article. The existence of a subgroup of ALPV with the ability to infect bees was only recently reported and this is the first identification of such a strain in Europe. Similarly, LSV appear to be a still unclassified group of viruses with unclear impact on colony health and these viruses have not previously been identified outside of the United States. Furthermore, our study also reveals that these bees carried a plant virus, Turnip Ringspot Virus (TuRSV), potentially serving as important vector organisms. Taken together, these results demonstrate the new possibilities opened up by high-throughput sequencing and metagenomic analysis to study emerging new diseases in domestic and wild animal populations, including honeybees.

  13. What is new with rhizomania and curly top management and effects of these viruses on storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizomania is a serious yield limiting viral disease in sugarbeet first identified in California, USA in 1984. The disease has since spread to all major production areas in the United States. Rhizomania is caused by Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) and vectored by the plasmodiophorid (a fun...

  14. Anaerobic Antimicrobial Therapy After Necrotizing Enterocolitis in VLBW Infants

    PubMed Central

    Autmizguine, Julie; Hornik, Christoph P.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Laughon, Matthew M.; Clark, Reese H.; Cotten, C. Michael; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Benjamin, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of anaerobic antimicrobial therapy for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) on clinical outcomes in very low birth weight (≤1500 g) infants. METHODS: We identified very low birth weight infants with NEC from 348 US NICUs from 1997 to 2012. Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy was defined by antibiotic exposure on the first day of NEC. We matched (1:1) infants exposed to anaerobic antimicrobial therapy with infants who were not exposed by using a propensity score stratified by NEC severity (medical and surgical). The primary composite outcome was in-hospital death or intestinal stricture. We assessed the relationship between anaerobic antimicrobial therapy and outcome by using a conditional logistic regression on the matched cohort. RESULTS: A total of 1390 infants exposed to anaerobic antimicrobial therapy were matched with 1390 infants not exposed. Mean gestational age and birth weight were 27 weeks and 946 g, respectively, and were similar in both groups. We found no significant difference in the combined outcome of death or strictures, but strictures as a single outcome were more common in the anaerobic antimicrobial therapy group (odds ratio 1.73; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.72). Among infants with surgical NEC, mortality was less common with anaerobic antimicrobial therapy (odds ratio 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.52–0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Anaerobic antimicrobial therapy was not associated with the composite outcome of death or strictures but was associated with an increase in intestinal strictures. This higher incidence of intestinal strictures may be explained by the fact that death is a competing outcome for intestinal strictures, and mortality was slightly lower in the anaerobic cohort. Infants with surgical NEC who received anaerobic antimicrobial therapy had lower mortality. PMID:25511117

  15. Carbohydrate maldigestion induces necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs.

    PubMed

    Thymann, Thomas; Møller, Hanne K; Stoll, Barbara; Støy, Ann Cathrine F; Buddington, Randal K; Bering, Stine B; Jensen, Bent B; Olutoye, Oluyinka O; Siggers, Richard H; Mølbak, Lars; Sangild, Per T; Burrin, Douglas G

    2009-12-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains the most severe gastrointestinal disorder in preterm infants. It is associated with the initiation of enteral nutrition and may be related to immature carbohydrate digestive capacity. We tested the hypothesis that a formula containing maltodextrin vs. a formula containing lactose as the principal source of carbohydrate would predispose preterm pigs to a higher NEC incidence. Cesarean-derived preterm pigs were given total parenteral nutrition for 48 h followed by total enteral nutrition with a lactose-based (n = 11) or maltodextrin-based (n = 11) formula for 36 h. A higher incidence (91% vs. 27%) and severity (score of 3.3 vs. 1.8) of NEC were observed in the maltodextrin than in the lactose group. This higher incidence of NEC in the maltodextrin group was associated with significantly lower activities of lactase, maltase, and aminopeptidase; reduced villus height; transiently reduced in vivo aldohexose uptake; and reduced ex vivo aldohexose uptake capacity in the middle region of the small intestine. Bacterial diversity was low for both diets, but alterations in bacterial composition and luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids were observed in the maltodextrin group. In a second study, we quantified net portal absorption of aldohexoses (glucose and galactose) during acute jejunal infusion of a maltodextrin- or a lactose-based formula (n = 8) into preterm pigs. We found lower net portal aldohexose absorption (4% vs. 42%) and greater intestinal recovery of undigested carbohydrate (68% vs. 27%) in pigs acutely perfused with the maltodextrin-based formula than those perfused with the lactose-based formula. The higher digestibility of the lactose than the maltodextrin in the formulas can be attributed to a 5- to 20-fold higher hydrolytic activity of tissue-specific lactase than maltases. We conclude that carbohydrate maldigestion is sufficient to increase the incidence and severity of NEC in preterm pigs.

  16. Humanin Derivatives Inhibit Necrotic Cell Death in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Aviv; Lerner-Yardeni, Jenny; Meridor, David; Kasher, Roni; Nathan, Ilana; Parola, Abraham H

    2015-01-01

    Humanin and its derivatives are peptides known for their protective antiapoptotic effects against Alzheimer’s disease. Herein, we identify a novel function of the humanin-derivative AGA(C8R)-HNG17 (namely, protection against cellular necrosis). Necrosis is one of the main modes of cell death, which was until recently considered an unmoderated process. However, recent findings suggest the opposite. We have found that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 confers protection against necrosis in the neuronal cell lines PC-12 and NSC-34, where necrosis is induced in a glucose-free medium by either chemohypoxia or by a shift from apoptosis to necrosis. Our studies in traumatic brain injury models in mice, where necrosis is the main mode of neuronal cell death, have shown that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has a protective effect. This result is demonstrated by a decrease in a neuronal severity score and by a reduction in brain edema, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An insight into the peptide’s antinecrotic mechanism was attained through measurements of cellular ATP levels in PC-12 cells under necrotic conditions, showing that the peptide mitigates a necrosis-associated decrease in ATP levels. Further, we demonstrate the peptide’s direct enhancement of the activity of ATP synthase activity, isolated from rat-liver mitochondria, suggesting that AGA(C8R)-HNG17 targets the mitochondria and regulates cellular ATP levels. Thus, AGA(C8R)-HNG17 has potential use for the development of drug therapies for necrosis-related diseases, for example, traumatic brain injury, stroke, myocardial infarction, and other conditions for which no efficient drug-based treatment is currently available. Finally, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms underlying the antinecrotic mode of action of AGA(C8R)-HNG17. PMID:26062019

  17. The Prediction Predicament: Rethinking Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infections Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Samantha A.; Levy, Brandon H.; Prematilake, Chalani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Our study sought to identify independent risk factors predisposing patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTIs) to mortality from among laboratory values, demographic data, and microbiologic findings in a small population. To this end, a retrospective review was conducted of the medical records of all patients with NSTI who had been treated at our institution from 2003 to 2012 (n=134). Methods: Baseline demographics and comorbidities, clinical and laboratory values, hospital course, and the microbiologic characteristics of surgical incision cultures were recorded. Each variable was tested for association with survival status and all associated variables with p<0.15 were included in a logistic regression model to seek factors associated independently with mortality. Results: Surprisingly, no demographic or pre-existing condition proved to be a predictor of mortality. Two laboratory values had an inverse correlation to mortality: High C-reactive protein (CRP) and highest recorded CRP. Of surgical incisions that grew bacteria in culture, 33.6% were polymicrobial. Mortality rates were highest with Enterococcus-containing polymicrobial infections (50%), followed by those containing Pseudomonas (40%), and Streptococcus spp. (27%). Understanding why so many studies across the literature, now including our own, find such disparate results for correlation of NSTI mortality with patient data may lie in the fundamentally dynamic nature of the organisms involved. Conclusions: This study suggests that no single factor present on admission is a robust predictor of outcome; it is likely that survival in NSTI is predicated upon a complex interaction of multiple host and microbial factors that do not lend themselves to reduction into a simple formula. It is also abundantly clear that the well-established principles of NSTI surgery should continue to be followed in all cases, with an emphasis on early debridement, irrespective of apparent severity of

  18. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Form a Barrier between Necrotic and Viable Areas in Acute Abdominal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bilyy, Rostyslav; Fedorov, Volodymyr; Vovk, Volodymyr; Leppkes, Moritz; Dumych, Tetiana; Chopyak, Valentyna; Schett, Georg; Herrmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) of decondensed DNA and histones that trap and immobilize particulate matter and microbial pathogens like bacteria. NET aggregates reportedly surround and isolate large objects like monosodium urate crystals, which cannot be sufficiently cleared from tissues. In the setting of acute necrotizing pancreatitis, massive tissue necrosis occurs, which is organized as pancreatic pseudocysts (1). In contrast to regular cysts, these pseudocysts are not surrounded by epithelial layers. We hypothesize that, instead, the necrotic areas observed in necrotizing pancreatitis are isolated from the surrounding healthy tissues by aggregated NETs. These may form an alternative, putatively transient barrier, separating necrotic areas from viable tissue. To test this hypothesis, we investigated histological samples from the necropsy material of internal organs of two patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and peritonitis accompanied by multiple organ failure. Tissues including the inflammatory zone were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and evaluated for signs of inflammation. Infiltrating neutrophils and NETs were detected by immunohistochemistry for DNA, neutrophil elastase (NE), and citrullinated histone H3. Interestingly, in severely affected areas of pancreatic necrosis or peritonitis, chromatin stained positive for NE and citrullinated histone H3, and may, therefore, be considered NET-derived. These NET structures formed a layer, which separated the necrotic core from the areas of viable tissue remains. A condensed layer of aggregated NETs, thus, spatially shields and isolates the site of necrosis, thereby limiting the spread of necrosis-associated proinflammatory mediators. We propose that necrotic debris may initiate and/or facilitate the formation of the NET-based surrogate barrier. PMID:27777576

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi Necrotizing Meningoencephalitis in a Venezuelan HIV+-AIDS Patient: Pathological Diagnosis Confirmed by PCR Using Formalin-Fixed- and Paraffin-Embedded-Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Céspedes, Ghislaine; Romero, Sandra; Fuentes, Isabel; Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A.; Cañavate, Carmen; Flores-Chávez, María

    2014-01-01

    Coinfections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and infectious agents have been recognized since the early 90s. In the central nervous system (CNS) of HIV+ patients, parasitic protozoans like Toxoplasma gondii have been described as responsible for the space occupying lesions (SOL) developed. However, the involvement of Trypanosoma cruzi is also described but appears to be less frequent in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and transplant recipients, associated with necrotizing myocarditis and neurological symptoms related to the occurrence of necrotizing pseudotumoral encephalitis (NPE) and meningoencephalitis (NME). The present work aims to present a Venezuelan case of NME associated with the coinfection of HIV and a T. cruzi-like trypanosomatid as well as its evolution and diagnosis by histopathological techniques, electron microscopy, and PCR methods using formalin-fixed- (FF-) and paraffin-embedded- (PE-) tissues. Postmortem cytological studies of leptomeninges imprints reveal the presence of trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma sp. Histopathological and electron microscopy studies allowed us to identify an amastigote stage and to reject the involvement of other opportunistic microorganisms as the etiological agent of the SOL. The definitive confirmation of T. cruzi as the etiological agent was achieved by PCR suggesting that the NME by T. cruzi was due to a reactivation of Chagas' disease. PMID:25763312

  20. Highly Specific Detection of Five Exotic Quarantine Plant Viruses using RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoseong; Cho, Won Kyong; Yu, Jisuk; Lee, Jong-Seung; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2013-01-01

    To detect five plant viruses (Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Eggplant mottled dwarf virus, Pelargonium zonate spot virus, and Rice yellow mottle virus) for quarantine purposes, we designed 15 RT-PCR primer sets. Primer design was based on the nucleotide sequence of the coat protein gene, which is highly conserved within species. All but one primer set successfully amplified the targets, and gradient PCRs indicated that the optimal temperature for the 14 useful primer sets was 51.9°C. Some primer sets worked well regardless of annealing temperature while others required a very specific annealing temperature. A primer specificity test using plant total RNAs and cDNAs of other plant virus-infected samples demonstrated that the designed primer sets were highly specific and generated reproducible results. The newly developed RT-PCR primer sets would be useful for quarantine inspections aimed at preventing the entry of exotic plant viruses into Korea. PMID:25288934

  1. Contralateral recurrence of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate after five months: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Chan-Woo; Youn, Taegyun; Kim, Hyun Sil; Park, Kwang-Ho; Huh, Jong-Ki

    2015-12-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia usually heals within 4 to 10 weeks with conservative treatment, and rarely recurs. When necrotizing sialometaplasia is present on the hard palate it may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. In this case, necrotizing ulceration occurred on the left hard palate of a 36-year-old woman after root canal treatment of the upper left first premolar under local anesthesia. After only saline irrigation the defect of the lesion completely healed and filled with soft tissue. After 5 months, however, a similar focal necrosis was found on the contralateral hard palate without any dental treatment having been performed on that side and progressed in similar fashion as the former lesion. We conducted an incisional biopsy and obtained a final pathological diagnosis for the palatal mass of necrotizing sialometaplasia. At the 3-year follow-up, the patient's oral mucosa of the hard palate was normal, without any signs and symptoms of the condition. We report a case of a second occurrence of necrotizing sialometaplasia on the contralateral side from the first, with a time lapse between the first and second occurrence.

  2. Necrotizing arteritis occurring in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration of a patient without systemic vasculitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hirotsugu; Hara, Kei; Matsumoto, Jun; Nashiro, Tamaki; Nagano, Masaaki; Kusakabe, Masashi; Kurata, Atsushi; Kuroda, Masahiko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Horiuchi, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing arteritis is a complex lesion of pulmonary hypertension, as are plexiform lesions, and is classically recognized as grade 6 in the Heath and Edwards grading scheme for hypertensive pulmonary vascular disease. The vascular changes observed in intralobar pulmonary sequestration have been reported to be similar to those observed in pulmonary hypertension, such as plexiform lesions. However, necrotizing arteritis occurring in an intralobar sequestration of a patient without systemic vasculitis syndrome has never been reported to our knowledge. Here, we report a case of a 38-year-old woman with pulmonary sequestration detected on a medical checkup. She was treated with surgery, and subsequent pathological analyses revealed necrotizing vasculitis in her sequestrated lung. We suspected systemic vasculitis syndromes, such as Takayasu arteritis, polyarteritis nodosa, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. However, physical and blood examination did not show any other abnormalities, and hence, she did not have systemic vasculitis syndrome. Immunohistochemical analyses of the resected specimen showed that inflammatory cells of the arteries were mainly composed of T lymphocytes. T-lymphocytic inflammation with little neutrophil and histiocyte infiltration may be a pathological feature of necrotizing arteritis observed in pulmonary sequestration. This is the first case to our knowledge of necrotizing arteritis in an intralobar pulmonary sequestration of a patient without systemic vasculitis syndrome.

  3. Contralateral recurrence of necrotizing sialometaplasia of the hard palate after five months: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing sialometaplasia usually heals within 4 to 10 weeks with conservative treatment, and rarely recurs. When necrotizing sialometaplasia is present on the hard palate it may occur unilaterally or bilaterally. In this case, necrotizing ulceration occurred on the left hard palate of a 36-year-old woman after root canal treatment of the upper left first premolar under local anesthesia. After only saline irrigation the defect of the lesion completely healed and filled with soft tissue. After 5 months, however, a similar focal necrosis was found on the contralateral hard palate without any dental treatment having been performed on that side and progressed in similar fashion as the former lesion. We conducted an incisional biopsy and obtained a final pathological diagnosis for the palatal mass of necrotizing sialometaplasia. At the 3-year follow-up, the patient's oral mucosa of the hard palate was normal, without any signs and symptoms of the condition. We report a case of a second occurrence of necrotizing sialometaplasia on the contralateral side from the first, with a time lapse between the first and second occurrence. PMID:26734562

  4. Day-of-hatch vaccination is not protective against necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Delezie, Evelyne; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2013-04-01

    Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude supernatant containing active toxin or formaldehyde-inactivated supernatant (toxoid) of a netB-positive C. perfringens strain in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Double vaccination with crude supernatant resulted in a significant decrease in the number of chickens with necrotic enteritis lesions. The efficacy of vaccination using toxoid was lower compared with crude supernatant. Single vaccination with crude supernatant at day 3 resulted in significant protection, while vaccination of 1-day-old chickens with crude supernatant or toxoid, as envisaged for practical field application, did not induce protection.

  5. Biological characterization and complete nucleotide sequence of a Tunisian isolate of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Yakoubi, S; Desbiez, C; Fakhfakh, H; Wipf-Scheibel, C; Marrakchi, M; Lecoq, H

    2008-01-01

    During a survey conducted in October 2005, cucurbit leaf samples showing virus-like symptoms were collected from the major cucurbit-growing areas in Tunisia. DAS-ELISA showed the presence of Moroccan watermelon mosaic virus (MWMV, Potyvirus), detected for the first time in Tunisia, in samples from the region of Cap Bon (Northern Tunisia). MWMV isolate TN05-76 (MWMV-Tn) was characterized biologically and its full-length genome sequence was established. MWMV-Tn was found to have biological properties similar to those reported for the MWMV type strain from Morocco. Phylogenetic analysis including the comparison of complete amino-acid sequences of 42 potyviruses confirmed that MWMV-Tn is related (65% amino-acid sequence identity) to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) isolates but is a member of a distinct virus species. Sequence analysis on parts of the CP gene of MWMV isolates from different geographical origins revealed some geographic structure of MWMV variability, with three different clusters: one cluster including isolates from the Mediterranean region, a second including isolates from western and central Africa, and a third one including isolates from the southern part of Africa. A significant correlation was observed between geographic and genetic distances between isolates. Isolates from countries in the Mediterranean region where MWMV has recently emerged (France, Spain, Portugal) have highly conserved sequences, suggesting that they may have a common and recent origin. MWMV from Sudan, a highly divergent variant, may be considered an evolutionary intermediate between MWMV and PRSV.

  6. Acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Monov, Simeon; Hristova, Ruska; Dacheva, Rositza; Toncheva, Reni; Shumnalieva, Russka; Shoumnalieva-Ivanova, Viara; Monova, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation, and deposition of immune complexes in tissues and organs. SLE can involve any region of the visual system. Although ocular manifestations are not part of the classification criteria for SLE, they can be observed in up to one-third of the patients with SLE. They are rarely reported at the time of disease onset. Retinal vasculitis is usually associated with active generalized disease. Due to its low frequency, we report a case of acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of SLE. Patient concerns and diagnosis: A 25-year-old white female was referred to the rheumatology clinic with gradually and rapid deterioration of the vision due to abnormal vessel permeability in the right fundus with edema along the vessels, occlusion of arterial branches in the middle periphery with leakage of the dye in these areas and indentical but less prominent changes with cotton wool spots in the papillomacular area and extensive hemorrhages in the left eye. The onset of malar rash, arthralgias and positive antinuclear, anti-double stranded DNA, anti-ribosomal P and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies with decreased C4 complement levels, as well as the positive lupus-band test confirmed the diagnosis of SLE. Interventions: Aggressive immunomodulating therapy with high-dose methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and cyclophosphamide was used for suppression of the disease activity followed by azathioprine as maintaince therapy. Outcomes: Substantial improvement and partial resorption of the vasculitic changes, including central retinal artery and vein, was achieved prominently in the left eye. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and written informed consent was obtained from the patient. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary

  7. Up-regulation of antioxidants in tobacco by low concentrations of H₂O₂ suppresses necrotic disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Yaser Mohamed; Bacsó, Renáta; Király, Zoltán; Künstler, András; Király, Lóránt

    2012-09-01

    Pretreatment of tobacco leaves with low concentrations (5 to 10 mM) of H₂O₂ suppressed hypersensitive-type necrosis associated with resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) or Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. The same pretreatment resulted in suppression of normosensitive necrosis associated with susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. This type of H₂O₂-mediated, induced disease symptom resistance correlated with enhanced host antioxidant capacity, i.e., elevated enzymatic activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and guaiacol peroxidase (POX) after viral and bacterial infections. Induction of genes that encode the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), CAT, and APX was also enhanced early after TMV infection. Artificial application of SOD and CAT suppressed necroses caused by viral, bacterial, or fungal pathogens similarly as H₂O₂ pretreatment, implying that H₂O₂-mediated symptom resistance operates through enhancement of plant antioxidant capacity. Pathogen multiplication was not significantly affected in H₂O₂-pretreated plants. Salicylic acid (SA), a central component of plant defense, does not seem to function in this type of H₂O₂-mediated symptom resistance, indicated by unchanged levels of free and bound SA and a lack of early up-regulation of an SA glucosyltransferase gene in TMV-infected H₂O₂-pretreated tobacco. Taken together, H₂O₂-mediated, induced resistance to necrotic symptoms in tobacco seems to depend on enhanced antioxidant capacity.

  8. Cleavage of DFNA5 by caspase-3 during apoptosis mediates progression to secondary necrotic/pyroptotic cell death

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Corey; Fernandes-Alnemri, Teresa; Mayes, Lindsey; Alnemri, Diana; Cingolani, Gino; Alnemri, Emad S.

    2017-01-01

    Apoptosis is a genetically regulated cell suicide programme mediated by activation of the effector caspases 3, 6 and 7. If apoptotic cells are not scavenged, they progress to a lytic and inflammatory phase called secondary necrosis. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Here we show that caspase-3 cleaves the GSDMD-related protein DFNA5 after Asp270 to generate a necrotic DFNA5-N fragment that targets the plasma membrane to induce secondary necrosis/pyroptosis. Cells that express DFNA5 progress to secondary necrosis, when stimulated with apoptotic triggers such as etoposide or vesicular stomatitis virus infection, but disassemble into small apoptotic bodies when DFNA5 is deleted. Our findings identify DFNA5 as a central molecule that regulates apoptotic cell disassembly and progression to secondary necrosis, and provide a molecular mechanism for secondary necrosis. Because DFNA5-induced secondary necrosis and GSDMD-induced pyroptosis are dependent on caspase activation, we propose that they are forms of programmed necrosis. PMID:28045099

  9. Gut bacteria are rarely shared by co-hospitalized premature infants, regardless of necrotizing enterocolitis development.

    PubMed

    Raveh-Sadka, Tali; Thomas, Brian C; Singh, Andrea; Firek, Brian; Brooks, Brandon; Castelle, Cindy J; Sharon, Itai; Baker, Robyn; Good, Misty; Morowitz, Michael J; Banfield, Jillian F

    2015-03-03

    Premature infants are highly vulnerable to aberrant gastrointestinal tract colonization, a process that may lead to diseases like necrotizing enterocolitis. Thus, spread of potential pathogens among hospitalized infants is of great concern. Here, we reconstructed hundreds of high-quality genomes of microorganisms that colonized co-hospitalized premature infants, assessed their metabolic potential, and tracked them over time to evaluate bacterial strain dispersal among infants. We compared microbial communities in infants who did and did not develop necrotizing enterocolitis. Surprisingly, while potentially pathogenic bacteria of the same species colonized many infants, our genome-resolved analysis revealed that strains colonizing each baby were typically distinct. In particular, no strain was common to all infants who developed necrotizing enterocolitis. The paucity of shared gut colonizers suggests the existence of significant barriers to the spread of bacteria among infants. Importantly, we demonstrate that strain-resolved comprehensive community analysis can be accomplished on potentially medically relevant time scales.

  10. [Staphylococcus lugdunensis necrotizing fasciitis after abdominal dermolipectomy: report of two cases and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Delaunay, F; Pegot, A; Coquerel-Beghin, D; Aktouf, A; Auquit-Auckbur, I

    2014-04-01

    Necrotizing dermohypodermitis is a severe and potential fatal infection of soft tissues. We report two cases of 39- and 41-year-old patients operated of abdominal dermolipectomy and liposculpture after bariatric surgery. Because of a body mass index (BMI) less than 35kg/m(2), and trouble of interpretation of the SFAR recommendations, we have not achieved antibiotics. These patients presented an abdominal necrotizing dermohypodermitis at Staphylococcus lugdunensis, requiring wide excision of necrosis in emergency. The suites have been favorable after surgical and medical care. Perineal proximity, skin and subcutaneous peeling appear to be significant risk factors for this pathology. We suggest if case of abdominal dermolipectomy preventive measures in skin preparation and systematic antibiotics regardless of BMI. Indeed, the risk of a necrotizing dermohypodermitis recalls the importance of rigorous prevention and early diagnosis.

  11. Successful Treatment of Necrotizing Fasciitis and Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndrome with the Addition of Linezolid

    PubMed Central

    Bojikian, Karine D.; Lucar, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is a deep-seated subcutaneous tissue infection that is commonly associated with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (TSS). Surgical debridement plus penicillin and clindamycin are the current standard of care. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal TSS where linezolid was added after a failure to improve with standard therapy. Briefly after isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes from tissue cultures, the patient underwent two surgical debridement procedures and was changed to standard of care therapy. While the patient was hemodynamically stable, the patient's wounds, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia all progressively worsened. After initiation of linezolid, the patient slowly improved clinically. The present report is the first to highlight the role of linezolid in streptococcal necrotizing fasciitis and TSS not improving with standard therapy. PMID:28299216

  12. The craniofacial necrotizing fasciitis after a minor trauma in an elderly white woman

    PubMed Central

    Osowicka, Magdalena; Buss, Tomasz; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The term necrotizing fasciitis /NF/ was probably first described by Jones in 1871 as “hospital gangrene”. NF, with its fast spreading from the local infection to massive necrosis of the underlying tissues, ie. superficial fascia and subcutaneous layers, is a potentially fatal disease, unless diagnosed early and properly treated. NF is more frequent in frail patients with chronic debilitating illnesses, immune deficiencies or from a poor social background. Sixty percent of NF cases occur in females. Here we present a case of necrotizing fasciitis of the head and neck region after a minor trauma (phenol blocks due to severe neuropathic pain) in an 82-year-old female with the history of trigeminal neuralgia. Key words:Necrotizing fasciitis, craniofacial infection, tissue necrosis. PMID:25136437

  13. A Report of Peritonitis from Aeromonas sobria in a Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) Patient with Necrotizing Fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Janma, Jirayut; Linasmita, Patcharasarn; Changsirikulchai, Siribha

    2015-11-01

    A 70-years of age, male patient with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and ischemic heart disease had undergone continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)for 3 years without any episodes of peritonitis. He was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis and later developed peritonitis after receiving a laceration from an aquatic injury suffered during the flood disaster of 2011. The blood culture, necrotic tissue and the clear dialysate collected upon admission had shown Aeromonas sobria. The route of peritonitis may be from the hematogenous spread of A. sobria resulting in necrotizing fasciitis. A. sobria should be considered as the pathogen of peritonitis in PD patients who have history of wounds from contaminated water. We suggest that the PD patients who present with septicemia and did not meet the criteria for peritonitis, the initial dialysate effluent should be sent for culture. The benefit of this is to allow early recognition and treatment of peritonitis.

  14. Use of drotrecogin alfa in necrotizing fasciitis: a case report and pharmacologic review.

    PubMed

    Bland, Christopher M; Frizzi, James D; Reyes, Angel

    2008-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a devastating subset of necrotizing soft tissue infections that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment. Although often occurring in patients with impaired host defense mechanisms (diabetes mellitus, systemic immunosuppression, malignancy, etc.), NF may also present in the immunocompetent following a cutaneous lesion or break. Patients with NF often progress to a systemic inflammatory response syndrome or multiorgan system failure that demands advanced critical care practices. We present a case of NF in an immunocompetent patient and the subsequent use of drotrecogin alfa (Xigris). A review of the pharmacologic treatment of streptococcal NF is included. The addition of drotrecogin alfa to operative debridement and penicillin G/clindamycin therapy may be a useful adjunct in the treatment of necrotizing fasciitis due to group A streptococcus.

  15. Binding of Clostridium perfringens to collagen correlates with the ability to cause necrotic enteritis in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wade, B; Keyburn, A L; Seemann, T; Rood, J I; Moore, R J

    2015-11-18

    This study investigated the ability of Clostridium perfringens isolates derived from chickens to bind to collagen types I-V and gelatin. In total 21 strains from three distinct backgrounds were studied: (i) virulent strains isolated from birds suffering from necrotic enteritis, (ii) avirulent strains isolated from birds suffering from necrotic enteritis and (iii) strains isolated from healthy birds. All strains isolated from diseased birds had been assessed for virulence in a disease induction model. The virulent isolates all displayed collagen binding ability. However, most strains in the other two classes showed negligible binding to collagen. The prevalence of a previously described C. perfringens putative collagen adhesin-encoding gene was investigated by PCR screening. It was found that five of the strains carried the putative collagen adhesin-encoding gene and that all of these strains were virulent isolates. Based on these studies it is postulated that collagen adhesion may play a role in the pathogenesis of necrotic enteritis.

  16. Fusobacteremia in a Calf with Necrotic Stomatitis, Enteritis and Granulocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Nimmo-Wilkie, Judith S.; Radostits, O. M.

    1981-01-01

    This case of fusobacteremia appears to be identical to an interesting and unusual syndrome previously reported. We wish to bring the syndrome to the attention of others who may be able to elucidate the etiology further. Because hematological examinations are frequently not done on calves, this condition may be more common than reports suggest. Perhaps others who observe this syndrome in calves may be able to investigate the role of other agents such as viruses or mycotoxins. Experimental work may be able to establish whether or not the exotoxins of Fusobacterium necrophorum can suppress granulopoiesis. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6. PMID:7248893

  17. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis and unusual retinitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Liu, J J; Li, M T

    2013-11-01

    In this report we discuss a case of a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1) infection presenting with encephalitis as well as necrotic and non-necrotic retinitis. The patient presented with typical clinical symptoms and radiologic abnormalities consistent with HSV-1 encephalitis and HSV-1 retinitis in patients with HIV infection, but lacked cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and had bilateral retinitis with poor visual acuity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case reported in the literature.

  18. Toward a quarter century of pathogen-derived resistance and practical approaches to plant virus disease control.

    PubMed

    Gottula, J; Fuchs, M

    2009-01-01

    The concept of pathogen-derived resistance (PDR) describes the use of genetic elements from a pathogen's own genome to confer resistance in an otherwise susceptible host via genetic engineering [J. Theor. Biol. 113 (1985) 395]. Illustrated with the bacteriophage Qbeta in Escherichia coli, this strategy was conceived as a broadly applicable approach to engineer resistance against pathogens. For plant viruses, the concept of PDR was validated with the creation of tobacco plants expressing the coat protein gene of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and exhibiting resistance to infection by TMV [Science 232 (1986) 738]. Subsequently, virus-resistant horticultural crops were developed through the expression of viral gene constructs. Among the numerous transgenic crops produced and evaluated in the field, papaya resistant to Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) [Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 36 (1998) 415] and summer squash resistant to Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, and/or Watermelon mosaic virus [Biotechnology 13 (1995) 1458] were released for commercial use in the USA. Although cultivated on limited areas, the adoption rate of cultivars derived from these two crops is increasing steadily. Tomato and sweet pepper resistant to CMV and papaya resistant to PRSV were also released in the People's Republic of China. Applying the concept of PDR provides unique opportunities for developing virus-resistant crops and implementing efficient and environmentally sound management approaches to mitigate the impact of virus diseases. Based on the tremendous progress made during the past quarter century, the prospects of further advancing this innovative technology for practical control of virus diseases are very promising.

  19. Inheritance of resistance to watermelon mosaic virus in the cucumber line TMG-1: tissue-specific expression and relationship to zucchini yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Wai, T; Grumet, R

    1995-09-01

    The inbred cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) line TMG-1 is resistant to three potyviruses:zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV), watermelon mosaic virus (WMV), and the watermelon strain of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV-W). The genetics of resistance to WMV and the relationship of WMV resistance to ZYMV resistance were examined. TMG-1 was crossed with WI-2757, a susceptible inbred line. F1, F2 and backcross progeny populations were screened for resistance to WMV and/or ZYMV. Two independently assorting factors conferred resistance to WMV. One resistance was conferred by a single recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-2). The second resistance was conferred by an epistatic interaction between a second recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-3) and either a dominant gene from WI-2757 (Wmv-4) or a third recessive gene from TMG-1 (wmv-4) located 20-30 cM from wmv-3. The two resistances exhibited tissue-specific expression. Resistance conferred by wmv-2 was expressed in the cotyledons and throughout the plant. Resistance conferred by wmv-3 + Wmv-4 (or wmv-4) was expressed only in true leaves. The gene conferring resistance to ZYMV appeared to be the same as, or tightly linked to one of the WMV resistance genes, wmv-3.

  20. Rethinking of photodynamic therapy on cerebral glioma: the difficult of necrotic tissue exclusion and its sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yongming; Lu, Zhaofeng; Liu, Zhe; Luo, Qi-Zhong

    2005-07-01

    The photodynamic therapy of cerebral gliomas is one kind of adjunctive therapy after operative tumor removal. But it is not widely accepted until now. We report two cases of failure treatment in our totally consecutive ten patients treated with this method and analyse the cause of the poor outcome. Unlike the uninary system and digest system, the difficult of necrotic tumor or brain tissue exclusion in the brain is marked and resulted in poor result. Our view is that the problem of massive necrotic tumor tissue exclusion which is the wish of therapist and the key of achieving good result might limit the further application of photodynamic therapy on cerebral gliomas.

  1. Alternatives to Antibiotics to Prevent Necrotic Enteritis in Broiler Chickens: A Microbiologist's Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Caly, Delphine L.; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920

  2. Necrotizing Fasciitis - Report of ten cases and review of recent literature

    PubMed Central

    Al Shukry, S; Ommen, J

    2013-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is an uncommon disease that results in gross morbidity and mortality if not diagnosed and treated in its early stages. At onset, however, it is difficult to differentiate from other superficial skin conditions such as cellulitis. Family physicians must have a high level of suspicion and low threshold for surgical referral when confronted with cases of pain, fever, and erythema. We present ten cases of necrotizing fasciitis managed in a provincial secondary hospital in Oman over 3 years ago. A review of recent literature is also presented. PMID:23904882

  3. Hemorrhagic and necrotizing hepatitis associated with administration of a modified live canine adenovirus-2 vaccine in a maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Swenson, Julie; Orr, Kathryn; Bradley, Gregory A

    2012-06-01

    A 15-yr-old, female, maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus) was euthanized after presenting semicomatose with severe, uncontrolled frank hemorrhage from her rectum 6 days following a routine physical examination and vaccination. Histopathology indicated severe hemorrhagic and necrotizing hepatitis with intranuclear basophilic inclusion bodies in the liver that were thought to be consistent with adenoviral infection. Further classification by polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemical staining, virus isolation, and electron microscopy confirmed the etiologic agent to be canine adenovirus-2. A representative sample of the vaccine that had been used was submitted and sequenced along with the virus isolated from the maned wolf. The sequencing of the etiologic agent that had been isolated from the maned wolf was determined to be the same as the strain of virus used in the production of the modified live vaccine that had been administered 6 days prior to death. From this information, the diagnosis of vaccine-induced adenoviral hepatitis was made. This is the first confirmed case of vaccine-induced canine adenoviral hepatitis in a maned wolf.

  4. ECHO virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  5. Resistance breaking tomato spotted wilt virus isolates on resistant pepper varieties in Italy.

    PubMed

    Crescenzi, A; Viggiano, A; Fanigliulo, A

    2013-01-01

    In spring 2012, resistance breaking (RB) isolates of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) that overcome the resistance conferred by the Tsw gene in different pepper hybrids have been recovered in different locations in southern Italy (Campania and Apulia regions) in protected cultivation, about one month after transplant. The percentage of symptomatic plants was 5-10% and, only in particular cases of advanced stage of cultivation, it reached 30-50% at the end of cycle. All TSWV isolates induced similar systemic symptoms in all resistant infected pepper hybrids: yellowing or browning of apical leaves, which later become necrotic, long necrotic streakson stems, extending to the terminal shoots, complete necrosis of younger fruits and large necrotic streaks and spots on fruits formed after infection. On ripe fruits, yellow spots with concentric rings or necrotic streaks could be observed. Leaf extracts of these samples were tested in ELISA for the detection of TSWV, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and Pepper Mottle Virus (PepMoV). Only TSWV was detected in all the field samples tested. The correspondent virus isolates were inoculated mechanically and by Frankliniella occidentalis on to a set of different pepper and tomato hybrids, as well as on some herbaceous test plants, in order to investigate for their ability to overcome the resistance genes Tsw and Sw5, respectively. Tomato hybrids carrying the Sw5 gene were uninfected by all RB isolates, whereas all resistant pepper hybrids became systemically infected. RB isolates did not differ noticeably in transmission efficiency when they were tested with the thrips F. occidentalis. Obtained results demonstrate that evolved strains of TSWV have emerged, that they are able to overcome the Tsw resistance gene in pepper plants experimentally inoculated both

  6. Microbial and metabolic signatures of necrotizing enterocolitis in formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major risk factors for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) include premature birth, formula feeding, and microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. We previously showed that feeding formula composed of lactose vs corn syrup solids protects against NEC in preterm pigs, however the microbial an...

  7. Genetically disparate Fayoumi chicken lines show different response to avian Necrotic Enteritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) has reemerged as a significant problem as a result of growing restrictions of antibiotics in agricultural animal production and increasing concerns over antibiotic resistance in human pathogens. To enhance our understanding of host-pathogen immunobiology in NE, transcriptomi...

  8. Oral lactoferrin for the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolotis in preterm infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum, milk, tears and saliva can enhance host defence and may be effective in the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. To assess the safety and effectiveness of oral lactoferrin in the prevention of sepsis and NEC...

  9. Oral lactoferrin for the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum, milk, tears, and saliva can enhance host defence and may be effective in the prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. To assess the safety and effectiveness of oral lactoferrin in the prevention of sepsis and NE...

  10. Abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy measurements are lower in preterm infants at risk for necrotizing enterocolitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive method of measuring local tissue oxygenation (StO[2]). Abdominal StO[2] measurements in preterm piglets are directly correlated with changes in intestinal blood flow and markedly reduced by necrotizing enterocolitis. The objectives of this study were to us...

  11. Peptidases released by necrotic cells control CD8+ T cell cross-priming

    PubMed Central

    Gamrekelashvili, Jaba; Kapanadze, Tamar; Han, Miaojun; Wissing, Josef; Ma, Chi; Jaensch, Lothar; Manns, Michael P.; Armstrong, Todd; Jaffee, Elizabeth; White, Ayla O.; Citrin, Deborah E.; Korangy, Firouzeh; Greten, Tim F.

    2013-01-01

    Cross-priming of CD8+ T cells and generation of effector immune responses is pivotal for tumor immunity as well as for successful anticancer vaccination and therapy. Dead and dying cells produce signals that can influence Ag processing and presentation; however, there is conflicting evidence regarding the immunogenicity of necrotic cell death. We used a mouse model of sterile necrosis, in which mice were injected with sterile primary necrotic cells, to investigate a role of these cells in priming of CD8+ T cells. We discovered a molecular mechanism operating in Ag donor cells that regulates cross-priming of CD8+ T cells during primary sterile necrosis and thereby controls adaptive immune responses. We found that the cellular peptidases dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP-3) and thimet oligopeptidase 1 (TOP-1), both of which are present in nonimmunogenic necrotic cells, eliminated proteasomal degradation products and blocked Ag cross-presentation. While sterile necrotic tumor cells failed to induce CD8+ T cell responses, their nonimmunogenicity could be reversed in vitro and in vivo by inactivation of DPP-3 and TOP-1. These results indicate that control of cross-priming and thereby immunogenicity of primary sterile necrosis relies on proteasome-dependent oligopeptide generation and functional status of peptidases in Ag donor cells. PMID:24216478

  12. Necrotic pharyngitis associated with Mycoplasma bovis infections in American bison (Bison bison)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma bovis (M. bovis) has recently emerged as a significant and costly infectious disease problem in bison, generally presenting as severe, caseonecrotic pneumonia. Here we describe three diagnostic cases in which M. bovis is strongly implicated as a causative agent of necrotic pharyngitis. ...

  13. Endodontic treatment including apexification in a chow chow with a necrotic immature mandibular canine tooth.

    PubMed

    Hennet, P

    1998-03-01

    A necrotic immature mandibular, canine tooth in a two year-old, male, intact Chow Chow was endodontically treated. This tooth had an open apex, wide root canal, thin dentinal walls, and there was periapical bone resorption. An apexification procedure was used to induce apical closure by calcified tissue formation, with resolution of the periapical inflammation.

  14. Necrotizing fasciitis in a patient receiving tocilizumab for rheumatoid arthritis - Case report.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Gonçalves, Diana; Bernardes, Miguel; Costa, Lúcia

    2016-12-29

    We present a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a 66-year-old Caucasian woman with rheumatoid arthritis receiving tocilizumab, and provide a review of published cases. The patient exhibited no systemic symptoms and discreet cutaneous inflammatory signals at presentation. She was successfully treated with broad-spectrum empiric antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement.

  15. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis: can tigecycline be included in a therapeutic strategy?

    PubMed Central

    OCCHIONORELLI, S.; MORGANTI, L.; CULTRERA, R.; ANDREOTTI, D.; MACCATROZZO, S.; CAPPELLARI, L.; STANO, R.; VASQUEZ, G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe and life-threatening disease. Infection, which occurs in about 30% of cases, is the most feared complication. Antibiotic therapy is still discussed and there are no clear recommendation in literature. These clinical series underline the importance of having a clear antibiotic protocol, including tigecycline, in the management of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Clinical series Six patients with clinical and radiological diagnosis of necrotizing acute pancreatitis are treated in Emergency Surgery Department, following a conservative management, which includes fluid resuscitation, intensive care unit and radiological monitoring, ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage and an antibiotic treatment protocol, that includes tigecycline. No one of the six patient undergo surgery (mean hospital stay: 44 days). In a six months follow-up all patients are alive and in good clinical conditions. Discussion Infection is the most important factor which determinate prognosis and outcome of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Antibiotic prophylaxis is still discussed and there are no clear antibiotic treatment guidelines in literature. Despite its side effects on pancreatic gland, tigecycline is successful in resolution of sepsis, caused by infected pancreatic necrosis. Conclusions Collaboration with infectivologist and a clear antibiotic protocol is fundamental to solve infected necrosis. Antibiotic treatment, set up as soon as possible, is successful in our six patients, as they recover without undergoing surgical procedures. Tigecycline offers broad coverage and efficacy against resistant pathogens for the treatment of documented pancreatic necrosis infection. However, further studies are necessary to fully understand the safety profile and efficacy of tigecycline. PMID:25827664

  16. Cryptococcal necrotizing fasciitis in a patient after renal transplantation--a case report.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, T; Itami, Y; Hirayama, A; Saka, T; Yoshida, K; Fujimoto, K

    2014-01-01

    A 50-year-old man, who had received an ABO-incompatible living related preemptive renal transplantation 1 year before, presented with painful lesions on both lower extremities and fever. At first, bacterial cellulitis was suspected and antibiotic therapy was initiated, but it was not effective. The serum cryptococcal antigen titer was 1:4,098, and pathologic examination of debrided tissue and wound pus culture revealed cryptococcal necrotizing fasciitis. Liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole were started, and repeated debridement and skin grafting were performed. Because his graft function deteriorated because of antibody-mediated rejection and polyoma viral nephropathy, hemodialysis was induced on day 9 of hospitalization. During the treatment, he suffered repeated urinary tract infections, which were treated with antibiotics, and cytomegalovirus retinopathy, which was treated with ganciclovir. His cryptococcal necrotizing fasciitis was successfully cured by the combination of antimicrobial treatment and surgical procedures. He could walk with a cane and was discharged on day 298 of hospitalization. Cryptococcal necrotizing fasciitis in renal transplant recipients is so rare that only 14 cases have been reported. The mortality is not very high, but the prognosis of the patient is complicated by worsening of the cryptococcal infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Early detection and treatment to prevent spreading to other sites, especially the CNS or disseminated disease, is very important in cases of cryptococcal necrotizing fasciitis.

  17. Pediatric Necrotizing Fasciitis: Restitutio Ad Integrum after Early Diagnosis and Aggressive Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lemaréchal, Angela; Zundel, Sabine; Szavay, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a severe, life-threatening infectious condition. Diagnosis is difficult due to unspecific symptoms yet crucial for favorable outcomes. We report a case of a 1 year old, previously healthy boy, where early suspicion of NF led to prompt aggressive therapy and consecutive restitutio ad integrum. PMID:28035291

  18. Oral lactoferrin for the treatment of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in neonates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) cause significant neonatal mortality and morbidity in spite of appropriate antibiotic therapy. Enhancing host defence and modulating inflammation by using lactoferrin as an adjunct to antibiotics in the treatment of sepsis and/or NEC may improve cl...

  19. Modulation of microrna in two genetically disparate chicken lines showing different necrotic enteritis disease susceptibility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotic enteritis (NE) is a re-emerging disease as a result of an increased restriction on the use of antibiotics in poultry. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology of NE are unclear. Therefore, we carried out small RNA transcriptome analysis in an experimentally induced NE m...

  20. A histomorphometric study of necrotic femoral head in rabbits treated with extracorporeal shock waves

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huan-Zhi; Zhou, Dong-Sheng; Li, Dong; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Bing-Fang

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to determine the effectiveness and mechanisms of extracorporeal shock wave therapy in the treatment of femoral head osteonecrosis. [Subjects and Methods] Histomorphometric analysis of necrotic femoral head in rabbits treated with shock waves was performed. Bilateral osteonecrosis of femoral heads was induced with methylprednisolone and lipopolysaccharide in eight rabbits. The left limb (study side) received shock waves to the femoral head. The right limb (control side) received no shock waves. Biopsies of the femoral heads were performed at 12 weeks after shock wave therapy. [Results] Necrotic femoral heads treated with shock waves, compared with controls, had higher bone volume per tissue volume, trabecular thickness, trabecular number, osteoblast surface/bone surface, osteoid surface/bone surface, osteoid thickness, mineralizing surface/bone surface, mineralizing apposition rate, and bone formation rate. However, trabecular separation was lower in shock wave-treated femoral heads than in controls. Eroded surface/bone surface and osteoclast surface/bone surface did not differ significantly between groups. [Conclusion] The bone mass of necrotic femoral heads treated with shock waves increases. Extracorporeal shock wave may promote bone repair in necrotic femoral heads through the proliferation and activation of osteoblasts. PMID:28210032

  1. Attenuation of cadmium-induced necrotic cell death by necrostatin-1: Potential necrostatin-1 acting sites

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, T.-S.; Yang, P.-M.; Tsai, J.-S.; Lin, L.-Y.

    2009-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) induces necrotic death in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells and we have established the responsible signaling pathway. Reportedly, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) rescues cells from necrotic death by mediating through the death domain receptor (DR) signaling pathway. We show here that Nec-1 also effectively attenuates necrotic death triggered by Cd. Two other treatments that cause necrotic cell death, one can (z-VAD-fmk/TNF-{alpha} on U937 cells) and the other cannot (etherynic acid (EA) on DLD-1 cells) be rescued by Nec-1, were also studied in parallel for comparison. Results show that Nec-1 is ineffectual in modulating intracellular calcium contents, calpain activity (a downstream protease), or reactive oxygen species production. It can counteract the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) caused by treating CHO K1 or U937 cells with necrosis-inducing agent. However, this effect was not found in EA-treated DLD-1 cells. Notably, Nec-1 elevates NF-{kappa}B activity in the presence or absence of necrosis-inducing agents. Our study shows that, in addition to DR-mediated necrosis, Nec-1 is effective in attenuating Cd-induced necrosis. It rescues cells with reduced MMP implying that mitochondrion is its major acting site.

  2. Dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with Capsicum and turmeric oleoresins increases resistance to necrotic enteritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Clostridium-related poultry disease, necrotic enteritis (NE), causes substantial economic losses on a global scale. In this study, a mixture of two plant-derived phytonutrients, Capsicum oleoresin and turmeric oleoresin (XT), was evaluated for its effects on local and systemic immune responses ...

  3. Role of Wheat Based Diet on the Pathology of Necrotic Enteritis in Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Umar, Sajid; Younus, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad; Aqil, Kiran; Qayyum, Rizwan; Mushtaq, Aqsa; Shah, Muhammad Ali Abdullah; Munir, Muhammad Tanveer

    2016-01-01

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of wheat based diet on the pathology of necrotic enteritis in turkeys. Turkeys were divided into four groups. Groups A and B were kept as noninoculated and fed normal commercial diet while groups C and D were challenged orally with C. perfringens and fed wheat based diet to promote the development of experimental disease. Infected turkeys showed clinical signs of depression, ruffled feathers, and dark yellowish faeces showing the most prominent disease signs in turkeys of group D with 30% mortality. Similarly, turkeys of group D showed more striking gross and histopathologic lesions as compared to turkeys of group C. The most severe gross lesions comprised intestinal distension, small necrotic spots and haemorrhages on intestine, fragile intestinal wall, and gas bubble formation in the small intestine. Histologically, inoculated turkeys showed patchy necrosis, desquamation of intestinal epithelium, and intense leukocyte infiltration in the intestine. Microscopic examination showed significant decrease in the height of intestinal villi of inoculated birds. Haematological studies showed significant influence of necrotic enteritis on the blood profile of turkeys in group D. The findings revealed that simultaneous feeding of wheat enhanced the pathology of necrotic enteritis in turkeys. PMID:27239373

  4. Genomic regions associated with necrotic enteritis resistance in Fayoumi and White Leghorn chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we used two breeds of chicken to identify genomic regions corresponding to necrotic enteritis (NE) resistance. We scanned the genomes of a resistant and susceptible line of Fayoumi and White Leghorn chicken using a chicken 60K Illumina SNP panel. A total of 235 loci with divergently ...

  5. GLP-2 delays but does not prevent the onset of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a complex disease thought to occur due to an immaturity of gastrointestinal tract of preterm infants. Intestinal dysfunction induced by total parental nutrition (TPN) may increase the risk for NEC upon introduction of enteral feeding. We hypothesized that the intes...

  6. Antibiotics modulate intestinal immunity and prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonatal piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preterm birth, bacterial colonization, and formula feeding predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Antibiotics are commonly administered to prevent sepsis in preterm infants, but it is not known whether this affects intestinal immunity and NEC resistance. We hypothesized that broad-spectrum a...

  7. Delayed initiation of enteral formula feeding reduces the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a major complication of enteral feeding in premature infants with a high morbidity and mortality. Early enteral feeding of fortified human milk is considered optimal nutrition for the preterm infant. However, human milk is not always available, and commercial formu...

  8. Avian necrotic enteritis: experimental models, host immunity, pathogenesis, risk factors, and vaccine development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing trends of legislative restrictions and voluntary removal of antibiotic growth promoters worldwide has already impacted, and will continue to affect, poultry production and animal health. Necrotic enteritis (NE) is being considered among the most important infectious diseases in the c...

  9. Effects of dietary selenium on host response to necrotic enteritis in young broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with a new organic selenium (Se) formulation, B-Traxim Se, on the host response to experimental necrotic enteritis (NE) were studied. Broiler chickens treated with three Se doses (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 mg/kg) from hatch were orally challeng...

  10. Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) μg of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV.

  11. Foodborne viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Testing for human pathogenic viruses in foods represents a formidable task requiring the extraction, concentration, and assay of a host of viruses from a wide range of food matrices. The enteric viruses, particularly genogroup I and II (GI and GII) noroviruses and hepatitis A virus, are the princip...

  12. Inventing Viruses.

    PubMed

    Summers, William C

    2014-11-01

    In the nineteenth century, "virus" commonly meant an agent (usually unknown) that caused disease in inoculation experiments. By the 1890s, however, some disease-causing agents were found to pass through filters that retained the common bacteria. Such an agent was called "filterable virus," the best known being the virus that caused tobacco mosaic disease. By the 1920s there were many examples of filterable viruses, but no clear understanding of their nature. However, by the 1930s, the term "filterable virus" was being abandoned in favor of simply "virus," meaning an agent other than bacteria. Visualization of viruses by the electron microscope in the late 1930s finally settled their particulate nature. This article describes the ever-changing concept of "virus" and how virologists talked about viruses. These changes reflected their invention and reinvention of the concept of a virus as it was revised in light of new knowledge, new scientific values and interests, and new hegemonic technologies.

  13. Identification and characterization of citrus yellow vein clearing virus, a putative new member of the genus Mandarivirus.

    PubMed

    Loconsole, G; Onelge, N; Potere, O; Giampetruzzi, A; Bozan, O; Satar, S; De Stradis, A; Savino, V; Yokomi, R K; Saponari, M

    2012-12-01

    Molecular features and genomic organization were determined for Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), the putative viral causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease of lemon trees, reported in Pakistan, India, and more recently in Turkey and China. CYVCV isolate Y1 from Adana, Turkey, was used for deep sequencing analysis of the virus-induced small RNA fractions and for mechanical and graft inoculation of herbaceous and citrus indicator plants. A polyclonal antiserum was developed from CYVCV-Y1 purified from Phaseolus vulgaris and used in western blot assays to characterize the coat protein of CYVCV-Y1 and determine its serological relationship with related viruses. Contigs assembled from the Illumina sequenced short reads were used to construct the whole genome of Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV), consisting in a positive-sense RNA of 7,529 nucleotides and containing six predicted open reading frames. The CYVCV genome organization and size resembled that of flexiviruses, and search for sequence homologies revealed that Indian citrus ringspot virus (ICRSV) (Mandarivirus, Alphaflexiviridae) is the most closely related virus. However, CYVCV had an overall nucleotide sequence identity of ≈74% with ICRSV. Although the two viruses were similar with regard to genome organization, viral particles, and herbaceous host range, CYVCV caused different symptoms in citrus and was serologically distinct from ICRSV. Primer pairs were designed and used to detect the virus by conventional and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on yellow vein clearing symptomatic field trees as well as graft- and mechanically inoculated host plants. Collectively, these data suggest that CYVCV is the causal agent of yellow vein clearing disease and represents a new species in the genus Mandarivirus.

  14. Continuous Regional Arterial Infusion Therapy for Acute Necrotizing Pancreatitis Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in a Child

    SciTech Connect

    Nakagawa, Motoo Ogino, Hiroyuki; Shimohira, Masashi; Hara, Masaki; Shibamoto, Yuta

    2009-05-15

    A case of acute necrotizing pancreatitis due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was treated in an 8-year-old girl. She experienced acute pancreatitis during treatment for M. pneumoniae. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan revealed necrotizing pancreatitis. The computed tomographic severity index was 8 points (grade E). A protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, was provided via intravenous infusion but was ineffective. Continuous regional arterial infusion therapy was provided with gabexate mesilate (FOY-007, a protease inhibitor) and meropenem trihydrate, and the pancreatitis improved. This case suggests that infusion therapy is safe and useful in treating necrotizing pancreatitis in children.

  15. [Effect of apparatus plasmapheresis on the bowel barrier and motility function in patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Dronov, O I; Koval's'ka, I O; Uvarov, V Iu; Horlach, A I; Fedoruk, V I; Burmich, K S; Lykhodeĭ, K O; Shvets', Iu P

    2013-04-01

    Influence of therapeutic plasmapheresis on bowel barrier function and evacuation was investigated in 83 patients with severe acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Except standard therapy patient obtained therapeutic plasmapheresis using "Haemonetics" PCS 2 system. Complex treatment of patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis and dynamic ileus using plasmapheresis increases contractive and propulsive function of stomach and duodenum and prolongs period of activity of these organs on 32%. Intestinal barrier function associates with restoration of bowel evacuation. Addition of plasmapheresis to standard therapy of necrotizing pancreatitis can be effective prevention of dynamic ileus.

  16. The effects of necrotic enteritis, aflatoxin B1, and virginiamycin on growth performance, necrotic enteritis lesion scores, and mortality in young broilers.

    PubMed

    Cravens, R L; Goss, G R; Chi, F; De Boer, E D; Davis, S W; Hendrix, S M; Richardson, J A; Johnston, S L

    2013-08-01

    The effects of increasing aflatoxin B1 concentration (0, 0.75, 1.5 mg/kg) on broilers with or without necrotic enteritis or virginiamycin were determined. In the 23-d study, 22 male Cobb 500 chicks per pen were allotted to 12 treatments (3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) with 8 replications. Intestines of 5 birds per pen were examined for lesions on d 21. Birds were allowed to consume feed and water ad libitum. Aflatoxin was included in the diets from d 0. All birds received a 10× dose of coccidiosis vaccine on d 10. Pens of birds where necrotic enteritis was being induced were on Clostridium perfringens pathogen (CPP) contaminated litter from d 0. Aflatoxin decreased gain and feed intake and resulted in poorer feed:gain, increased mortality, and higher lesion scores. Inducing necrotic enteritis increased lesion scores and decreased feed intake and gain. Adding virginiamycin to the diets improved gain, feed intake, feed conversion, and decreased mortality. There was a 3-way interaction (aflatoxin × virginiamycin × CPP) on gain; increasing aflatoxin decreased gain and the effects of CPP and virginiamycin were dependent on aflatoxin concentration. In the absence of aflatoxin virginiamycin increased gain but was unable to prevent the growth suppression caused by CPP. At 0.75 mg/kg of aflatoxin virginiamycin no longer increased growth in non-CPP challenged birds but was able to increase growth in CPP-challenged birds. At the 1.5 mg/kg of aflatoxin concentration, virginiamycin increased gain in non-CPP-challenged birds but challenging birds with CPP had no effect on gain. Virginiamycin improved overall feed conversion with the greatest improvement at 1.5 mg/kg (aflatoxin × virginiamycin, P < 0.05). Aflatoxin increased lesion scores in unchallenged birds but not in challenged birds (aflatoxin × CPP, P < 0.001). Aflatoxin and necrotic enteritis decrease broiler performance and interact to decrease weight gain, virginiamycin helps improve gain in challenged birds at

  17. Enrichment of Phosphatidylethanolamine in Viral Replication Compartments via Co-opting the Endosomal Rab5 Small GTPase by a Positive-Strand RNA Virus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kai; Nagy, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses build extensive membranous replication compartments to support replication and protect the virus from antiviral responses by the host. These viruses require host factors and various lipids to form viral replication complexes (VRCs). The VRCs built by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) are enriched with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) through a previously unknown pathway. To unravel the mechanism of PE enrichment within the TBSV replication compartment, in this paper, the authors demonstrate that TBSV co-opts the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound active form of the endosomal Rab5 small GTPase via direct interaction with the viral replication protein. Deletion of Rab5 orthologs in a yeast model host or expression of dominant negative mutants of plant Rab5 greatly decreases TBSV replication and prevents the redistribution of PE to the sites of viral replication. We also show that enrichment of PE in the viral replication compartment is assisted by actin filaments. Interestingly, the closely related Carnation Italian ringspot virus, which replicates on the boundary membrane of mitochondria, uses a similar strategy to the peroxisomal TBSV to hijack the Rab5-positive endosomes into the viral replication compartments. Altogether, usurping the GTP-Rab5–positive endosomes allows TBSV to build a PE-enriched viral replication compartment, which is needed to support peak-level replication. Thus, the Rab family of small GTPases includes critical host factors assisting VRC assembly and genesis of the viral replication compartment. PMID:27760128

  18. Role Bending: Complex Relationships Between Viruses, Hosts, and Vectors Related to Citrus Leprosis, an Emerging Disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Avijit; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Shao, Jonathan; Leon, Guillermo; Melzer, Michael J; Beard, Jennifer J; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Bauchan, Gary R; Ochoa, Ronald; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-07-01

    Citrus leprosis complex is an emerging disease in the Americas, associated with two unrelated taxa of viruses distributed in South, Central, and North America. The cytoplasmic viruses are Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), Citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2), and Hibiscus green spot virus 2, and the nuclear viruses are Citrus leprosis virus N (CiLV-N) and Citrus necrotic spot virus. These viruses cause local lesion infections in all known hosts, with no natural systemic host identified to date. All leprosis viruses were believed to be transmitted by one species of mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis. However, mites collected from CiLV-C and CiLV-N infected citrus groves in Mexico were identified as B. yothersi and B. californicus sensu lato, respectively, and only B. yothersi was detected from CiLV-C2 and CiLV-N mixed infections in the Orinoco regions of Colombia. Phylogenetic analysis of the helicase, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 2 domains and p24 gene amino acid sequences of cytoplasmic leprosis viruses showed a close relationship with recently deposited mosquito-borne negevirus sequences. Here, we present evidence that both cytoplasmic and nuclear viruses seem to replicate in viruliferous Brevipalpus species. The possible replication in the mite vector and the close relationship with mosquito borne negeviruses are consistent with the concept that members of the genus Cilevirus and Higrevirus originated in mites and citrus may play the role of mite virus vector.

  19. Isolation and characterization of an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase from Nicotiana clevelandii plants infected with red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus.

    PubMed

    Bates, H J; Farjah, M; Osman, T A; Buck, K W

    1995-06-01

    A template-bound RNA polymerase was isolated from Nicotiana clevelandii plants infected with red clover necrotic mosaic dianthovirus (RCNMV) by differential centrifugation, solubilization with dodecyl beta-D-maltopyranoside, and chromatography on columns of Sephacryl S-400 and Q-Sepharose. Analysis of the purified polymerase by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, followed by silver staining or immunoblotting, showed that it contained virus-encoded proteins of molecular masses 27 kDa and 88 kDa together with several minor proteins possibly of host origin. After removal of endogenous RNA with micrococcal nuclease, the polymerase became template-dependent. It was also template-specific, being able to utilize as templates RNA of two strains of RCNMV, but not RNAs of three viruses in different taxonomic groups, namely cucumber mosaic cucumovirus, tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus and tomato mosaic tobamovirus. The products of RNA polymerase reactions were double-stranded RNAs corresponding to RCNMV RNAs 1 and 2. The ability of the template-dependent RNA polymerase to synthesize RNA was completely inhibited by antibodies to a peptide containing the GDD motif, whereas the activity of the template-bound enzyme was unaffected by these antibodies.

  20. Mechanisms for virus-induced liver disease: tumor necrosis factor-mediated pathology independent of natural killer and T cells during murine cytomegalovirus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Orange, J S; Salazar-Mather, T P; Opal, S M; Biron, C A

    1997-01-01

    The contribution of endogenous NK cells and cytokines to virus-induced liver pathology was evaluated during murine cytomegalovirus infections of mice. In immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice, the virus induced a self-limited liver disease characterized by hepatitis, with focal inflammation, and large grossly visible subcapsular necrotic foci. The inflammatory foci were most numerous and contained the greatest number of cells 3 days after infection; they colocalized with areas of viral antigen expression. The largest number of necrotic foci was found 2 days after infection. Overall hepatic damage, assessed as increased expression of liver enzymes in serum, accompanied the development of inflammatory and necrotic foci. Experiments with neutralizing antibodies demonstrated that although virus-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can have antiviral effects, it also mediated significant liver pathology. TNF was required for development of hepatic necrotic foci and increased levels of liver enzymes in serum but not for increased numbers of inflammatory foci. The necrotic foci and liver enzyme indications of pathology occurred independently of NK and T cells, because mice rendered NK-cell deficient by treatment with antibodies, T- and B-cell-deficient Rag-/- mice, and NK- and T-cell-deficient E26 mice all manifested both parameters of disease. Development of necrotic foci and maximally increased levels of liver enzymes in serum also were TNF dependent in NK-cell-deficient mice. Moreover, in the immunodeficient E26 mice, virus-induced liver disease was progressive, with eventual death of the host, and neutralization of TNF significantly increased longevity. These results establish conditions separating hepatitis from significant liver damage and demonstrate a cytokine-mediated component to viral pathogenesis. PMID:9371583